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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-254063

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(to Prospectus dated March 17, 2021)

 

Up to $50,000,000 of Shares of

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a common stock sales agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, or HCW, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the commons stock sales agreement, from time to time we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50,000,000 through HCW, acting as sales agent.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the trading symbol “RGLS.” On August 6, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $0.724 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. While there is no requirement that HCW sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, it will act as sales agent and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between HCW and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

HCW will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold.

In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, HCW may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of HCW may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contributions to HCW against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, please read the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

 

 

August 10, 2021.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement    Page  

About This Prospectus Supplement

     S-1  

Prospectus Supplement Summary

     S-3  

Risk Factors

     S-6  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     S-8  

Use of Proceeds

     S-10  

Dilution

     S-11  

Plan of Distribution

     S-13  

Legal Matters

     S-14  

Experts

     S-14  

Where You Can Find More Information

     S-14  

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

     S-15  

 

Prospectus    Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     7  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     8  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     19  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     26  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     29  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     33  

LEGAL MATTERS

     35  

EXPERTS

     35  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     35  

INCORPORATION BY CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     35  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to an offering of our common stock and are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in our base prospectus included in the shelf registration statement in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $150,000,000. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus supplement is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement. For the avoidance of doubt, the $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus supplement is separate from the $30,000,000 of common stock offered pursuant to the sales agreement prospectus included within our shelf registration statement on Form S-3. As of August 10, 2021, we have sold $16.45 million of common stock under the sales agreement prospectus, and no further offers or sales will be made pursuant to the sales agreement prospectus.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

Unless otherwise specified or required by context, references in this prospectus supplement to “Regulus,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “the Company” refer to Regulus Therapeutics Inc.

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to, updates and changes information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information. To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs from or conflicts with the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference, the information in this prospectus supplement will control. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference into the accompanying prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that which is contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. No one is making offers to sell or seeking offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus supplement only and that any information we have incorporated by reference or included in the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date given in the document incorporated by reference or as of the date of the prospectus, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of

 

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the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part. Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to “Regulus,” “we,” “us,” “the Company” and “our” refer to Regulus Therapeutics Inc.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing first-in-class drugs targeting microRNAs to treat diseases with significant unmet medical need. We were formed in 2007 when Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. contributed significant intellectual property, know-how and financial and human capital to pursue the development of drugs targeting microRNAs pursuant to a license and collaboration agreement. Our most advanced product candidates are RG-012 and RGLS4326. RG-012 is an anti-miR targeting miR-21 for the treatment of Alport syndrome, a life-threatening kidney disease with no approved therapy available. In November 2018, we and Sanofi agreed to transition further development activities of our miR-21 programs, including our RG-012 program, to Sanofi. As a result, Sanofi became responsible for all costs incurred in the development of RG-012 and any other miR-21 programs. The transition activities were completed in the second quarter of 2019. RGLS4326, an anti-miR targeting miR-17, is in Phase 1 development for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In addition to these clinical programs, we continue to develop a pipeline of preclinical drug product candidates.

microRNAs are naturally occurring ribonucleic acid, or RNA, molecules that play a critical role in regulating key biological pathways. Scientific research has shown that an imbalance, or dysregulation, of microRNAs is directly linked to many diseases. Furthermore, many different infectious pathogens interact and bind to host microRNA to survive. To date, over 500 microRNAs have been identified in humans, each of which can bind to multiple messenger RNAs that control key aspects of cell biology. Since many diseases are multi-factorial, involving multiple targets and pathways, the ability to modulate multiple pathways by targeting a single microRNA provides a new therapeutic approach for treating complex diseases.

RNA plays an essential role in the process used by cells to encode and translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, to proteins. RNA is comprised of subunits called nucleotides and is synthesized from a DNA template by a process known as transcription. Transcription generates different types of RNA, including messenger RNAs that carry the information for proteins in the sequence of their nucleotides. In contrast, microRNAs are RNAs that do not code for proteins but rather are responsible for regulating gene expression by modulating the translation and decay of target messenger RNAs. By interacting with many messenger RNAs, a single microRNA can regulate the expression of multiple genes involved in the normal function of a biological pathway. Many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, also use host microRNAs to regulate the cellular environment for survival. In some instances, the host microRNAs are essential for the replication and/or survival of the pathogen. For example, miR-122 is a microRNA expressed in human hepatocytes and is a key factor for the replication of the hepatitis C virus.


 

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We believe that microRNA therapeutics have the potential to become a new and major class of drugs with broad therapeutic application for the following reasons:

 

   

microRNAs play a critical role in regulating biological pathways by controlling the translation of many target genes;

 

   

microRNA therapeutics regulate disease pathways which may result in more effective treatment of complex multi-factorial diseases;

 

   

many human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, use microRNAs (host and pathogen encoded) to enable their replication and suppression of host immune responses; and

 

   

microRNA therapeutics may be synergistic with other therapies because of their different mechanism of action.

We have assembled significant expertise in the microRNA field, including expertise in microRNA biology and oligonucleotide chemistry, a broad intellectual property estate, relationships with key opinion leaders and a disciplined drug discovery and development process. We are using our microRNA expertise to develop chemically modified, single-stranded oligonucleotides that we call anti-miRs to modulate microRNAs and address underlying disease. We believe microRNAs may play a critical role in complex disease and that targeting them with anti-miRs may become a source of a new and major class of drugs with broad therapeutic application, much like small molecules, biologics and monoclonal antibodies.

We believe that microRNA biomarkers may be used to select optimal patient segments in clinical trials and to monitor disease progression or relapse. We believe these microRNA biomarkers can be applied toward drugs that we develop and drugs developed by other companies with which we partner or collaborate.

Corporate Information

We were originally formed as a limited liability company under the name Regulus Therapeutics LLC in the State of Delaware in September 2007. In January 2009, we converted Regulus Therapeutics LLC to a Delaware corporation and changed our name to Regulus Therapeutics Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 4224 Campus Point Court, Suite 210, San Diego, California 92121 and our telephone number is (858) 202-6300. Our corporate website address is www.regulusrx.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus supplement is an inactive textual reference only.

The Regulus Therapeutics logo is a trademark of Regulus Therapeutics Inc. We use “Regulus Therapeutics” as a trademark in the United States and other countries. We have registered this trademark in the United States, the European Union and Switzerland. We use “microMarkers” as a servicemark in the United States and other countries. We have registered this servicemark in the United States. This prospectus supplement contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.


 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us:    Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million.
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering:    Up to 143,749,905 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 69,060,773 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $0.724 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on August 6, 2021, for aggregate proceeds of up to $50.0 million. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Manner of offering:    “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, HCW. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Use of Proceeds:    We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenses, clinical trial expenses, capital expenditures and working capital. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors:    You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC:    “RGLS”

The number of our shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 74,689,132 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021, and excludes the following:

 

   

9,185,976 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of $ 1.23 per share;

 

   

16,849 shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted stock units, or RSUs;

 

   

2,107,878 additional shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plan and employee stock purchase plan;

 

   

62,118,152 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants at a weighted average exercise price of $0.7751 per share; and

 

   

18,538,240 shares issuable upon the conversion of outstanding shares of preferred stock


 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as updated by our quarterly, annual and other reports and documents that we have filed or subsequently file that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any common stock in this offering. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to This Offering

If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to you.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 69,060,773 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $0.724 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on August 6, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of 0.20 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2021 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants would result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing stockholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering.

Our management might apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may impair the value of your investment.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, invest in or acquire businesses, assets or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions. Pending the use of net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest bearing instruments. Our management has broad discretion as to the use of these proceeds and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. We might apply these proceeds in ways with which you do not agree, or in ways that do not yield a favorable return. If our management applies these proceeds in a manner that does not yield a significant return, if any, on our investment of these net proceeds, it could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to HCW at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of

 

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shares that are sold by HCW after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the shares of common stock during the sales period and limits we set with HCW. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so they may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold in this offering. In addition, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference herein and therein, that are not strictly historical in nature are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to the “safe harbor” created by Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act and may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the initiation, cost, timing, progress and results of, and our expected ability to undertake certain activities and accomplish certain goals with respect to our research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

 

   

our ability to obtain funding for our operations;

 

   

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;

 

   

the potential election of any strategic collaboration partner to pursue development and commercialization of any programs or product candidates that are subject to a collaboration with such partner;

 

   

our ability to attract collaborators with relevant development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

   

future activities to be undertaken by our strategic collaboration partners, collaborators and other third parties;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;

 

   

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;

 

   

our ability to successfully commercialize, and our expectations regarding future therapeutic and commercial potential with respect to our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities, whether alone or with potential future collaborators;

 

   

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

   

the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;

 

   

the loss of key scientific or management personnel;

 

   

our ability to successfully secure and deploy capital;

 

   

our ability to satisfy our debt obligations;

 

   

the accuracy of our estimates regarding future expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and need for additional financing;

 

   

the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business; and

 

   

our use of cash and other resources, including our expected use of the proceeds from our initial public offering and from this offering.

 

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In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “goal,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would,” the negative of these words and words or similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our views as of the date on which they were made with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. The underlying information and expectations are likely to change over time. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date the statement is made, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements as actual events or results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements due to various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein or any free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering. These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein by these cautionary statements. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. Before deciding to purchase our common stock in this offering, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed in this prospectus supplement, the accompany prospectus or incorporated by reference, in addition to the other information set forth in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus supplement, any free writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with this offering and in the documents incorporated by reference.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50.0 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the common stock sales agreement with HCW as a source of financing.

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenses, clinical trial expenses, capital expenditures and working capital. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, invest in or acquire businesses, assets or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds, if any, in short- and intermediate-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. We will retain broad discretion in determining how we will allocate the net proceeds from the sale of common stock under this prospectus supplement.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price and the adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

Our net tangible book value on March 31, 2021, was approximately $27.0 million, or $0.361 per share. “Net tangible book value” is total assets minus the sum of liabilities and intangible assets. “Net tangible book value per share” is net tangible book value divided by the total number of shares outstanding.

After giving effect to the sale of 69,060,773 of common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $0.724 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on August 6, 2021, and after deducting estimated offering commissions and expenses payable by us, our pro forma net tangible book value as of March 31, 2021, would have been approximately $75.3 million, or $0.524 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.163 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $0.200 per share to investors participating in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution per share to investors participating in this offering:

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 0.724  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2021

   $ 0.361     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in offering

   $ 0.163     
  

 

 

    

Pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering

      $ 0.524  

Dilution per share to new investors

      $ 0.200  

The above illustration of dilution per share to investors participating in this offering assumes no exercise of outstanding options to purchase our common stock, no exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase shares of our common stock and no conversion of our outstanding preferred stock into shares of our common stock.

The number of our shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 74,689,132 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and excludes the following:

 

   

9,185,976 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of $1.23 per share;

 

   

16,849 shares issuable upon vesting of outstanding restricted stock units, or RSUs;

 

   

2,107,878 additional shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plan and employee stock purchase plan;

 

   

62,118,152 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants at a weighted average exercise price of $0.7751 per share; and

 

   

18,538,240 shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of outstanding shares of preferred stock.

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 69,060,773 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the common stock sales agreement with HCW at a price of $0.724 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on August 6, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50.0 million. The shares subject to the sales agreement with HCW are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $0.724 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate

 

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amount of $50.0 million during the term of the common stock sales agreement with HCW is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.597 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.377 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $0.724 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million during the term of the common stock sales agreement with HCW is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.418 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.056 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only and assumes no exercise of the options, no exercise of warrants and no conversion of preferred stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021.

To the extent that options, warrants or preferred stock outstanding as of March 31, 2021 have been or may be exercised or converted or other shares issued, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a common stock sales agreement with HCW, under which from time to time we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50.0 million under this prospectus supplement through HCW, acting as agent. Sales of the shares of common stock, if any, may be made on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC at market prices and such other sales as agreed upon by us and HCW.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the common stock sales agreement, HCW may offer and sell shares of our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct HCW not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or HCW may suspend or terminate the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay HCW commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as sales agent in the sale of our common stock. HCW will be entitled to a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the common stock sales agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also reimbursed $50,000 of HCW’s expenses, including legal fees, in connection with the common stock sales agreement. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding commissions and expense reimbursement payable to HCW under the terms of the common stock sales agreement, will be approximately $225,000.

Settlement for sales of shares of our common stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading), or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and HCW in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and HCW may agree upon.

HCW will act as our sales agent and use commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Capital Market. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, HCW will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of HCW will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to HCW against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

This offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the common stock sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all shares of our common stock subject to the common stock sales agreement, or (2) termination of the common stock sales agreement as permitted therein. We and HCW may each terminate the common stock sales agreement at any time, upon five days’ prior notice with respect to a termination by us or ten days’ prior notice with respect to a termination by HCW.

HCW and its affiliates have in the past and may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, HCW will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by HCW and HCW may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP, San Diego, California. HCW is being represented in connection with this offering by Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements), which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus supplement, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus supplement, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Regulus. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.regulusrx.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-35670. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement until the termination of the offering of the shares covered by this prospectus supplement (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items, and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on March 9, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on May 14, 2021;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January  28, 2021, February 17, 2021, May  3, 2021, May 21, 2021 and June  16, 2021; and

 

   

the description of our common stock, which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 27, 2012, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompany prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at Regulus Therapeutics Inc., 4224 Campus Point Court, Suite 210, San Diego, CA 92121 Attn: Secretary or telephoning us at (858) 202-6300.

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

$150,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate amount of $150,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the trading symbol “RGLS.” On March 5, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $1.30 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The securities may be sold directly by us to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is March 17, 2021.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

This prospectus contains and incorporates by reference market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Regulus,” “we,” “us,” “the Company” and “our” refer to Regulus Therapeutics Inc.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing first-in-class drugs targeting microRNAs to treat diseases with significant unmet medical need. We were formed in 2007 when Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. contributed significant intellectual property, know-how and financial and human capital to pursue the development of drugs targeting microRNAs pursuant to a license and collaboration agreement. Our most advanced product candidates are RG-012 and RGLS4326. RG-012 is an anti-miR targeting miR-21 for the treatment of Alport syndrome, a life-threatening kidney disease with no approved therapy available. In November 2018, we and Sanofi agreed to transition further development activities of our miR-21 programs, including our RG-012 program, to Sanofi. As a result, Sanofi became responsible for all costs incurred in the development of RG-012 and any other miR-21 programs. The transition activities were completed in the second quarter of 2019. RGLS4326, an anti-miR targeting miR-17, is in Phase 1 development for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In addition to these clinical programs, we continue to develop a pipeline of preclinical drug product candidates.

microRNAs are naturally occurring ribonucleic acid (“RNA”), molecules that play a critical role in regulating key biological pathways. Scientific research has shown that an imbalance, or dysregulation, of microRNAs is directly linked to many diseases. Furthermore, many different infectious pathogens interact and bind to host microRNA to survive. To date, over 500 microRNAs have been identified in humans, each of which can bind to multiple messenger RNAs that control key aspects of cell biology. Since many diseases are multi-factorial, involving multiple targets and pathways, the ability to modulate multiple pathways by targeting a single microRNA provides a new therapeutic approach for treating complex diseases.

RNA plays an essential role in the process used by cells to encode and translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (“DNA”) to proteins. RNA is comprised of subunits called nucleotides and is synthesized from a DNA template by a process known as transcription. Transcription generates different types of RNA, including messenger RNAs that carry the information for proteins in the sequence of their nucleotides. In contrast, microRNAs are RNAs that do not code for proteins but rather are responsible for regulating gene expression by modulating the translation and decay of target messenger RNAs. By interacting with many messenger RNAs, a single microRNA can regulate the expression of multiple genes involved in the normal function of a biological pathway. Many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, also use host microRNAs to regulate the cellular environment for survival. In some instances, the host microRNAs are essential for the replication and/or survival of the pathogen. For example, miR-122 is a microRNA expressed in human hepatocytes and is a key factor for the replication of the hepatitis C virus.

We believe that microRNA therapeutics have the potential to become a new and major class of drugs with broad therapeutic application for the following reasons:

 

   

microRNAs play a critical role in regulating biological pathways by controlling the translation of many target genes;

 

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microRNA therapeutics regulate disease pathways which may result in more effective treatment of complex multi-factorial diseases;

 

   

many human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, use microRNAs (host and pathogen encoded) to enable their replication and suppression of host immune responses; and

 

   

microRNA therapeutics may be synergistic with other therapies because of their different mechanism of action.

We have assembled significant expertise in the microRNA field, including expertise in microRNA biology and oligonucleotide chemistry, a broad intellectual property estate, relationships with key opinion leaders and a disciplined drug discovery and development process. We are using our microRNA expertise to develop chemically modified, single-stranded oligonucleotides that we call anti-miRs to modulate microRNAs and address underlying disease. We believe microRNAs may play a critical role in complex disease and that targeting them with anti-miRs may become a source of a new and major class of drugs with broad therapeutic application, much like small molecules, biologics and monoclonal antibodies.

We believe that microRNA biomarkers may be used to select optimal patient segments in clinical trials and to monitor disease progression or relapse. We believe these microRNA biomarkers can be applied toward drugs that we develop and drugs developed by other companies with which we partner or collaborate.

Corporate Information

We were originally formed as a limited liability company under the name Regulus Therapeutics LLC in the State of Delaware in September 2007. In January 2009, we converted Regulus Therapeutics LLC to a Delaware corporation and changed our name to Regulus Therapeutics Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 10628 Science Center Drive, Suite 225, San Diego, California 92121 and our telephone number is (858) 202-6300. Our corporate website address is www.regulusrx.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

The Regulus Therapeutics logo is a trademark of Regulus Therapeutics Inc. We use “Regulus Therapeutics” as a trademark in the United States and other countries. We have registered this trademark in the United States, the European Union and Switzerland. We use “microMarkers” as a servicemark in the United States and other countries. We have registered this servicemark in the United States. This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination, up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000, from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type

or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

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aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity date, if applicable;

 

   

original issue discount, if any;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

   

ranking;

 

   

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

   

material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We and our agents or underwriters reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

   

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

   

the net proceeds to us.

Common Stock. We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the common stock under “Description of Capital Stock - Common stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common stock being offered.

Preferred Stock. We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive

 

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rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock - Preferred stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities. We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

Warrants. We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

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Use of Proceeds

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenses, clinical trial expenses, capital expenditures and working capital. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.

Nasdaq Stock Market LLC Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the symbol “RGLS.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the initiation, cost, timing, progress and results of, and our expected ability to undertake certain activities and accomplish certain goals with respect to our research and development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

 

   

our ability to obtain funding for our operations;

 

   

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;

 

   

the potential election of any strategic collaboration partner to pursue development and commercialization of any programs or product candidates that are subject to a collaboration with such partner;

 

   

our ability to attract collaborators with relevant development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

   

future activities to be undertaken by our strategic collaboration partners, collaborators and other third parties;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;

 

   

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;

 

   

our ability to successfully commercialize, and our expectations regarding future therapeutic and commercial potential with respect to our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities, whether alone or with potential future collaborators;

 

   

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

   

the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;

 

   

the loss of key scientific or management personnel;

 

   

our ability to successfully secure and deploy capital;

 

   

our ability to satisfy our debt obligations;

 

   

the accuracy of our estimates regarding future expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and need for additional financing; and

 

   

the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with

 

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respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development expenses, clinical trial expenses, capital expenditures and working capital. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, invest in or acquire businesses, assets or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds of any offering under this prospectus in short- and intermediate-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. We will retain broad discretion in determining how we will allocate the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.

The following summary description of our capital stock is based on the material provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and the applicable provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL. This information may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and the DGCL. For information on how to obtain copies of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and such agreements, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Common stock

Voting Rights. Our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors, and does not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election.

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we have designated and issued or that we may designate and issue in the future.

Fully Paid and Nonassessable. All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and any shares of common stock to be issued by us in an offering under this prospectus will be, fully paid and nonassessable.

Preferred stock

General Description

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any series, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring, discouraging or preventing a change in control of us and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock.

 

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We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we may issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price;

 

   

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if applicable;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if applicable;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

   

preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

Class A-1 Preferred Stock

On May 6, 2019, in connection with a private placement, we filed a Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Class A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock, or the Class A-1 Certificate of Designation, pursuant to which we designated 2,499,319 shares of our authorized and unissued preferred stock as Class A-1 convertible preferred stock, or the Class A-1 Preferred Stock. On December 4, 2020, we filed Certificate of

 

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Amendment to the Class A-1 Certificate of Designation, or the Class A-1 Amendment to Certificate of Designation. The Class A-1 Certificate of Designation, as amendment by the Class A-1 Amendment to Certificate of Designation, establishes the rights, preferences and privileges of the Class A-1 Preferred Stock, which are summarized below.

Conversion. The Class A-1 Preferred Stock is convertible at the option of the holder thereof into a number of registered shares of common stock determined by dividing the aggregate stated value of the Class A-1 Preferred Stock being converted by the conversion price then in effect. No holder may request a conversion of its Class A-1 Preferred Stock to the extent such conversion would result in the holder and its affiliates beneficially owning more than a pre-set conversion blocker threshold, which was initially set at 19.99% of our common stock then outstanding. The amount of beneficial ownership of a holder and its affiliates will be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of that section.

Conversion Price Adjustment—Stock Dividends and Stock Splits. If we pay a stock dividend or otherwise make a distribution payable in common stock on our common stock or any common stock equivalents, subdivide or combine our outstanding common stock, or reclassify our common stock in such a way that we issue additional shares of our capital stock, the conversion price of the Class A-1 Preferred Stock will be adjusted by multiplying the then-existing conversion price by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately before the distribution, dividend, adjustment or recapitalization and the denominator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately after such action.

Fundamental Transaction. If we effect a “fundamental transaction” (as defined below), then upon any future conversion of the Class A-1 Preferred Stock, a holder of our Class A-1 Preferred Stock will have the right to receive, for each common share such holder would have received upon such conversion, the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property as such holder would have been entitled to receive in the fundamental transaction had such holder been a holder of common stock immediately prior to the fundamental transaction. The term “fundamental transaction” means any of the following:

 

   

a merger or consolidation of us with or into another entity or any stock sale to, or other business combination in which we are not the surviving entity;

 

   

the sale of all or substantially all of our assets in one transaction or a series of related transactions;

 

   

any completed tender offer or exchange offer involving holders of common stock in which more than 50% of our common stock is converted or exchanged into other securities, cash or property, regardless of who makes such offer; or

 

   

any reclassification of our common stock or any compulsory share exchange by which our common stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property (but not a reverse stock split).

If the holders of our common stock are given a choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a fundamental transaction, the holders of Class A-1 Preferred Stock will be given the same choice on conversion of such holders’ shares.

Voting Rights. The Class A-1 Preferred Stock has no voting rights, except to the extent expressly provided in our certificate of incorporation or as otherwise required by law. However, so long as at least 50% of the authorized shares of Class A-1 Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not take any of the following actions without the affirmative consent of holders of a majority of the outstanding Class A-1 Preferred Stock:

 

   

amend the Class A-1 Certificate of Designation or our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or other charter documents so as to adversely affect the preferences, rights, privileges or powers of the Class A-1 Preferred Stock; or

 

   

increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of Class A-1 Preferred Stock.

 

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The Certificate of Designation and our certificate of incorporation do not provide for the repurchase or redemption of shares by us.

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our Class A-1 Preferred Stock will be entitled to share ratably with the holders of the shares of our common stock, Class A-2 Preferred Stock (as defined below), Class A-3 Preferred Stock (as defined below) and the holders of any series of class of our preferred stock or other capital stock thereafter created ranking on its terms on parity with the Class A-1 convertible preferred stock or common stock in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities.

Class A-2 Preferred Stock

On December 23, 2019, in connection with a private placement, we filed a Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Class A-2 Convertible Preferred Stock, or the Class A-2 Certificate of Designation, pursuant to which we designated 3,288,390 shares of our authorized and unissued preferred stock as Class A-2 convertible preferred stock, or the Class A-2 Preferred Stock. On December 4, 2020, we filed Certificate of Amendment to the Class A-2 Certificate of Designation, or the Class A-2 Amendment to Certificate of Designation. The Class A-2 Certificate of Designation, as amendment by the Class A-2 Amendment to Certificate of Designation, establishes the rights, preferences and privileges of the Class A-2 Preferred Stock, which are summarized below.

Conversion. The Class A-2 Preferred Stock is convertible at the option of the holder thereof into a number of registered shares of common stock determined by dividing the aggregate stated value of the Class A-2 Preferred Stock being converted by the conversion price then in effect. No holder may request a conversion of its Class A-2 Preferred Stock to the extent such conversion would result in the holder and its affiliates beneficially owning more than a pre-set conversion blocker threshold, which was initially set at 19.99% of our common stock then outstanding. The amount of beneficial ownership of a holder and its affiliates will be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of that section.

Conversion Price Adjustment—Stock Dividends and Stock Splits. If we pay a stock dividend or otherwise make a distribution payable in common stock on our common stock or any common stock equivalents, subdivide or combine our outstanding common stock, or reclassify our common stock in such a way that we issue additional shares of our capital stock, the conversion price of the Class A-2 Preferred Stock will be adjusted by multiplying the then-existing conversion price by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately before the distribution, dividend, adjustment or recapitalization and the denominator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately after such action.

Fundamental Transaction. If we effect a fundamental transaction, then upon any future conversion of the Class A-2 Preferred Stock, a holder of our Class A-2 Preferred Stock will have the right to receive, for each common share such holder would have received upon such conversion, the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property as such holder would have been entitled to receive in the fundamental transaction had such holder been a holder of common stock immediately prior to the fundamental transaction.

If the holders of our common stock are given a choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a fundamental transaction, the holders of Class A-2 Preferred Stock will be given the same choice on conversion of such holders’ shares.

Voting Rights. The Class A-2 Preferred Stock has no voting rights, except to the extent expressly provided in our certificate of incorporation or as otherwise required by law. However, so long as at least 50% of the authorized shares of Class A-2 Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not take any of the following actions without the affirmative consent of holders of a majority of the outstanding Class A-2 Preferred Stock:

 

   

amend the Class A-2 Certificate of Designation or our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or other

 

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charter documents so as to adversely affect the preferences, rights, privileges or powers of the Class A-2 Preferred Stock; or

 

   

increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of Class A-2 Preferred Stock.

The Certificate of Designation and our certificate of incorporation do not provide for the repurchase or redemption of shares by us.

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our Class A-2 Preferred Stock will be entitled to share ratably with the holders of the shares of our Common Stock, Class A-1 Preferred Stock, Class A-3 Preferred Stock and the holders of any series of class of the Company’s preferred stock or other capital stock thereafter created ranking on its terms on parity with the Class A-2 convertible preferred stock or the common stock in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities.

Class A-3 Preferred Stock

On December 2, 2020, in connection with a private placement, we filed a Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Class A-3 Convertible Preferred Stock, or the Class A-3 Certificate of Designation, pursuant to which we designated 272,970 shares of our authorized and unissued preferred stock as Class A-3 convertible preferred stock, or the Class A-3 Preferred Stock, and established the rights, preferences and privileges of the Class A-3 Preferred Stock, which are summarized below.

Conversion. The Class A-3 Preferred Stock is convertible at the option of the holder thereof into a number of registered shares of common stock determined by dividing the aggregate stated value of the Class A-3 Preferred Stock being converted by the conversion price then in effect. No holder may request a conversion of its Class A-3 Preferred Stock to the extent such conversion would result in the holder and its affiliates beneficially owning more than a pre-set conversion blocker threshold, which was initially set at 19.99% of our common stock then outstanding. The amount of beneficial ownership of a holder and its affiliates will be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of that section.

Conversion Price Adjustment—Stock Dividends and Stock Splits. If we pay a stock dividend or otherwise make a distribution payable in common stock on our common stock or any common stock equivalents, subdivide or combine our outstanding common stock, or reclassify our common stock in such a way that we issue additional shares of our capital stock, the conversion price of the Class A-3 Preferred Stock will be adjusted by multiplying the then-existing conversion price by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately before the distribution, dividend, adjustment or recapitalization and the denominator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately after such action.

Fundamental Transaction. If we effect a fundamental transaction, then upon any future conversion of the Class A-3 Preferred Stock, a holder of our Class A-3 Preferred Stock will have the right to receive, for each common share such holder would have received upon such conversion, the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property as such holder would have been entitled to receive in the fundamental transaction had such holder been a holder of common stock immediately prior to the fundamental transaction.

If the holders of our common stock are given a choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a fundamental transaction, the holders of Class A-3 Preferred Stock will be given the same choice on conversion of such holders’ shares.

Voting Rights. The Class A-3 Preferred Stock has no voting rights, except to the extent expressly provided in our certificate of incorporation or as otherwise required by law. However, so long as at least 50% of the authorized shares of Class A-3 Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not take any of the following actions without the

 

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affirmative consent of holders of a majority of the outstanding Class A-3 Preferred Stock:

 

   

amend the Class A-3 Certificate of Designation or our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or other charter documents so as to adversely affect the preferences, rights, privileges or powers of the Class A-3 Preferred Stock; or

 

   

increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of Class A-3 Preferred Stock.

The Certificate of Designation and our certificate of incorporation do not provide for the repurchase or redemption of shares by us.

Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our Class A-3 Preferred Stock will be entitled to share ratably with the holders of the shares of our Common Stock, Class A-1 Preferred Stock, Class A-2 Preferred Stock and the holders of any series of class of the Company’s preferred stock or other capital stock thereafter created ranking on its terms on parity with the Class A-3 convertible preferred stock or the common stock in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities.

Anti-takeover effects of provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:

 

   

permit our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate (including the right to approve an acquisition or other change in our control);

 

   

provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution adopted by a majority of the board of directors;

 

   

provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

   

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent;

 

   

provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide notice in writing in a timely manner and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;

 

   

do not provide for cumulative voting rights (therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose);

 

   

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairman of the board, our Chief Executive Officer or by the board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and

 

   

provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another state court located within the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall, to the fullest

 

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extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ bylaws has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. This choice of forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

The amendment of any of these provisions, with the exception of the ability of our board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock and designate any rights, preferences and privileges thereto, would require approval by the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our then outstanding common stock.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or Section 203. Section 203 generally prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding upon consummation of the transaction, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (a) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (b) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

on or subsequent to the consummation of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder; and

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

 

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In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement related to that series.

Listing on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the symbol “RGLS”. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC or any securities market or other exchange of the preferred stock covered by such prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

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whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

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to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

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compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including:

 

   

the title of such securities;

 

   

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

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the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

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Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

A global security may be terminated in certain situations as described under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated,” or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in

global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

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if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities covered hereby from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. A distribution of these securities offered by this prospectus may also be effected through the issuance of derivative securities, including without limitation, warrants. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

   

on or through the facilities of the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

 

   

to or through a market maker other than on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

Such at-the-market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any options pursuant to which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any option to purchase additional securities. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

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We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions and other compensation we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any agents or underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities. There is currently no market for any of the offered securities, other than our common stock which is listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC. We have no current plans for listing of the debt securities, preferred stock or warrants on any securities exchange or quotation system; any such listing with respect to any particular debt securities, preferred stock or warrants will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be.

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Any agents and underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements), which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Regulus. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.regulusrx.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-35670. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this document:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on March 9, 2021;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January  28, 2021 and February 17, 2021; and

 

   

the description of our common stock, which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 27, 2012, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

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We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering of all offerings covered by this prospectus. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at Regulus Therapeutics Inc., 10628 Science Center Drive, Suite 225, San Diego, CA 92121 Attn: Secretary or telephoning us at (858) 202-6300.

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

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Up to $50,000,000 of Shares of

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

 

 

August 10, 2021