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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year endedMarch 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period fromto

Commission file number001-35476
Air T, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware52-1206400
State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organizationIdentification No.)

5930 Balsom Ridge Road, Denver, North Carolina 28037
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(828) 464 – 8741
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockAIRTNASDAQ Stock Market
Alpha Income Preferred Securities (also referred to as 8% Cumulative Capital Securities) ("AIP")*AIRTPNASDAQ Stock Market
Warrant to Purchase AIP*AIRTWNASDAQ Stock Market
*Issued by Air T Funding
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ☒ No ☐



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer              
Non-accelerated FilerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the
effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of September 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) based upon the closing price of the common stock on September 30, 2020 was approximately $11,799,796.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

Common StockCommon Shares, par value of $.25 per share
Outstanding Shares at May 31, 2021
2,881,853

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Company’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed within 120 days of the registrant's fiscal year end are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
2



AIR T, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
2021 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Item 1B.
[Reserved]
Item 7A.
Item 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
Interactive Data Files

3


PART I
Item 1.    Business
Air T, Inc. (the “Company,” “Air T,” “we” or “us” or “our”) is a holding company with a portfolio of operating businesses and financial assets. Our goal is to prudently and strategically diversify Air T’s earnings power and compound the growth in its free cash flow per share over time.
We currently operate in four industry segments:
Overnight air cargo, which operates in the air express delivery services industry;
Ground equipment sales, which manufactures and provides mobile deicers and other specialized equipment products to passenger and cargo airlines, airports, the military and industrial customers;
Commercial aircraft, engines and parts, which manages and leases aviation assets; supplies surplus and aftermarket commercial jet engine components; provides commercial aircraft disassembly/part-out services; commercial aircraft parts sales; procurement services and overhaul and repair services to airlines and;
Corporate and other, which acts as the capital allocator and resource for other consolidated businesses. Further, Corporate and other is also comprised of insignificant businesses that do not pertain to other reportable segments.
The Company also has ownership interests in Insignia Systems, Inc. ("Insignia") and Cadillac Casting, Inc. ("CCI"). The operations of these companies are not consolidated into the operations of the Company. See Note 10 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.
On September 30, 2019, we completed the sale of 100% of the equity ownership in the Company's wholly-owned subsidiary, Global Aviation Services, LLC ("GAS"), which previously constituted the ground support services segment. See Note 2, Discontinued Operations, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Each business segment has separate management teams and infrastructures that offer different products and services. We evaluate the performance of our business segments based on operating income and Adjusted EBITDA.
Certain financial data with respect to the Company’s geographic areas and segments is set forth in Notes 20 and 21 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Air T was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in 1980. The principal place of business of Air T and Mountain Air Cargo, Inc. (“MAC”) is 5930 Balsom Ridge Road, Denver, North Carolina. The principal place of business of CSA Air, Inc. (“CSA”) is Iron Mountain, Michigan. The principal place of business for Global Ground Support, LLC (“GGS”) is Olathe, Kansas. The principal place of business of Delphax Technologies, Inc (“Delphax”) is Minneapolis, Minnesota. The principal place of business for Delphax Solutions, Inc. (“DSI”) is Mississauga, Canada. The principal place of business of Contrail Aviation Support, LLC (“Contrail”) is Verona, Wisconsin. The principal place of business of AirCo, LLC, AirCo 1, LLC, AirCo 2, LLC and AirCo Services, LLC (Collectively, "AirCo”) and Worthington Aviation, LLC (“Worthington”) is Eagan, Minnesota. The principal place of business of Jet Yard, LLC (“Jet Yard”) and Jet Yard Solutions, LLC ("Jet Yard Solutions") is Marana, Arizona.
We maintain an Internet website at http://www.airt.net and our SEC filings may be accessed through links on our website. The information on our website is available for information purposes only and is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Acquisitions.
Cadillac Casting, Inc. On November 8, 2019, the Company made an investment of $2.8 million to purchase a 19.9% ownership stake in CCI. The Company determined that CCI is a variable interest entity and that the Company is not the primary beneficiary. This is primarily the result of the Company's conclusion that it does not have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of CCI. Accordingly, the Company does not consolidate CCI and has determined to account for this investment using equity method accounting. See Notes 10 and 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.

4


Overnight Air Cargo.
The Company’s Overnight Air Cargo segment is operated through MAC and CSA. MAC and CSA have a relationship with FedEx spanning over 40 years and represent two of seven companies in the U.S. that have North American feeder airlines under contract with FedEx. MAC and CSA operate and maintain Cessna Caravan, ATR-42 and ATR-72 aircraft that fly daily small-package cargo routes throughout the eastern United States and upper Midwest, and in the Caribbean. MAC and CSA’s revenues are derived principally pursuant to “dry-lease” service contracts with FedEx. In these “dry- lease" contracts, FedEx provides the aircraft while MAC and CSA provide their own crew and exercise operational control of their flights.
On June 1, 2015, MAC and CSA entered into new dry-lease agreements with FedEx which together cover all of the aircraft operated by MAC and CSA and replaced all prior dry-lease service contracts.  These dry-lease agreements provide for the lease of specified aircraft by MAC and CSA in return for the payment of monthly rent with respect to each aircraft leased, which monthly rent was increased from the prior dry-lease service contracts to reflect an estimate of a fair market rental rate.  These dry-lease agreements provide that FedEx determines the type of aircraft and schedule of routes to be flown by MAC and CSA, with all other operational decisions made by MAC and CSA, respectively.  The current dry-lease agreements provide for the reimbursement of MAC and CSA’s costs by FedEx, without mark up, incurred in connection with the operation of the leased aircraft for the following: fuel, landing fees, third-party maintenance, parts and certain other direct operating costs. The current dry-lease agreement was most recently renewed on June 1, 2021 and is set to expire on August 31, 2026. The dry-lease agreements may be terminated by FedEx or MAC and CSA, respectively, at any time upon 90 days’ written notice and FedEx may at any time terminate the lease of any particular aircraft thereunder upon 10 days’ written notice. In addition, each of the dry-lease agreements provides that FedEx may terminate the agreement upon written notice if 60% or more of MAC or CSA’s revenue (excluding revenues arising from reimbursement payments under the dry-lease agreement) is derived from the services performed by it pursuant to the respective dry-lease agreement, FedEx becomes MAC or CSA’s only customer, or MAC or CSA employs fewer than six employees. As of the date of this report, FedEx would be permitted to terminate each of the dry-lease agreements under this provision. The Company believes that the short-term nature of its agreements with FedEx is standard within the airfreight contract delivery service industry, where performance is measured on a daily basis.
As of March 31, 2021, MAC and CSA had an aggregate of 66 aircraft under its dry-lease agreements with FedEx.  Included within the 66 aircraft, 2 Cessna Caravan aircraft are considered soft-parked. Soft-parked aircraft remain covered under our agreements with FedEx although at a reduced administrative fee compared to aircraft that are in operation.  MAC and CSA continue to perform maintenance on soft-parked aircraft, but they are not crewed and do not operate on scheduled routes.
Revenues from MAC and CSA’s contracts with FedEx accounted for approximately 37% and 30% of the Company’s consolidated revenue for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The loss of FedEx as a customer would have a material adverse effect on the Company. FedEx has been a customer of the Company since 1980. MAC and CSA are not contractually precluded from providing services to other parties and MAC occasionally provides third-party maintenance services to other airline customers and the U.S. military.
MAC and CSA operate under separate aviation certifications. MAC is certified to operate under Part 121, Part 135 and Part 145 of the regulations of the FAA. These certifications permit MAC to operate and maintain aircraft that can carry a maximum cargo capacity of 7,500 pounds on the Cessna Caravan 208B under Part 135 and a maximum cargo capacity of 14,000 pounds for the ATR-42 and 17,800 pounds for the ATR-72 aircraft under Part 121. CSA is certified to operate and maintain aircraft under Part 135 of the FAA regulations. This certification permits CSA to operate aircraft with a maximum cargo capacity of 7,500 pounds.
MAC and CSA, together, operated the following FedEx-owned cargo aircraft as of March 31, 2021:
Type of AircraftModel YearForm of OwnershipNumber
of
Aircraft
Cessna Caravan 208B (single turbo prop)1985-1996Dry lease49
ATR-42 (twin turbo prop)1992Dry lease8
ATR-72 (twin turbo prop)1992Dry lease9
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The Cessna Caravan 208B aircraft are maintained under an FAA Approved Aircraft Inspection Program (“AAIP”). The inspection intervals range from 100 to 200 hours. The current engine overhaul period on the Cessna aircraft is 8,000 hours.
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The ATR-42 and ATR-72 aircraft are maintained under a FAA Part 121 continuous airworthiness maintenance program. The program consists of A and C service checks as well as calendar checks ranging from weekly to 12 years in duration. The engine overhaul period is 6,000 hours.
MAC and CSA operate in a niche market within a highly competitive contract cargo carrier market. MAC and CSA are two of seven carriers that operate within the United States as FedEx feeder carriers. MAC and CSA are benchmarked against the other five FedEx feeders based on safety, reliability, compliance with federal, state and applicable foreign regulations, price and other service-related measurements. The Company believes accurate industry data is not available to indicate the Company’s position within its marketplace (in large measure because all of the Company’s direct competitors are privately held), but management believes that MAC and CSA, combined, constitute the largest contract carrier of the type described.
FedEx conducts periodic audits of MAC and CSA, and these audits are an integral part of the relationship between the carrier and FedEx. The audits test adherence to the dry-lease agreements and assess the carrier’s overall internal control environment, particularly as related to the processing of invoices of FedEx-reimbursable costs. The scope of these audits typically extends beyond simple validation of invoice data against the third-party supporting documentation. The audit teams generally investigate the operator’s processes and internal control procedures. The Company believes satisfactory audit results are critical to maintaining its relationship with FedEx. The audits conducted by FedEx are not designed to provide any assurance with respect to the Company’s consolidated financial statements, and investors, in evaluating the Company’s consolidated financial statements, should not rely in any way on any such examination of the Company or any of its subsidiaries.
The Company’s overnight air cargo operations are not materially seasonal.
Ground Equipment Sales.
GGS is located in Olathe, Kansas and manufactures, sells and services aircraft deicers and other specialized equipment sold to domestic and international passenger and cargo airlines, ground handling companies, the United States Air Force (“USAF”), airports and industrial customers. GGS’s product line includes aircraft deicers, scissor-type lifts, military and civilian decontamination units, flight-line tow tractors, glycol recovery vehicles and other specialized equipment. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, sales of deicing equipment accounted for approximately 94% of GGS’s revenues, compared to 89% in the prior fiscal year.
GGS designs and engineers its products. Components acquired from third-party suppliers are used in the assembly of its finished products. Components are sourced from a diverse supply chain. The primary components for mobile deicing equipment are the chassis (which is a commercial medium or heavy-duty truck), the fluid storage tank, a boom system, the fluid delivery system and heating equipment. The price of these components is influenced by raw material costs, principally high-strength carbon steels and stainless steel. GGS utilizes continuous improvements and other techniques to improve efficiencies and designs to minimize product price increases to its customers, to respond to regulatory changes, such as emission standards, and to incorporate technological improvements to enhance the efficiency of GGS’s products. Improvements have included the development of single operator mobile deicing units to replace units requiring two operators, a patented premium deicing blend system and a more efficient forced-air deicing system.

GGS manufactures five basic models of mobile deicing equipment with capacities ranging from 700 to 2,800 gallons. GGS also offers fixed-pedestal-mounted deicers. Each model can be customized as requested by the customer, including single operator configuration, fire suppressant equipment, open basket or enclosed cab design, a patented forced-air deicing nozzle, on-board glycol blending system to substantially reduce glycol usage, and color and style of the exterior finish. GGS also manufactures five models of scissor-lift equipment, for catering, cabin service and maintenance service of aircraft, and has developed a line of decontamination equipment, flight-line tow tractors, glycol recovery vehicles and other special purpose mobile equipment.
 
GGS competes primarily on the basis of the quality and reliability of its products, prompt delivery, service and price. The market for aviation ground service equipment is highly competitive. Certain of GGS' competitors may have substantially greater financial resources than we do. These entities or investors may be able to accept more risk than the Company believes is in our best interest. In addition, the market for aviation ground services in the past has typically been directly related to the financial health of the aviation industry, weather patterns and changes in technology.

GGS’s mobile deicing equipment business has historically been seasonal, with revenues typically being lower in the fourth and first fiscal quarters as commercial deicers are typically delivered prior to the winter season. The Company has continued its efforts to reduce GGS’s seasonal fluctuation in revenues and earnings by broadening its international and domestic customer base and its product line.

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In July 2009, GGS was awarded a new contract to supply deicing trucks to the USAF. Per the contract, GGS has to provide pricing that will be contractual for each one-year period within the years that the contract is awarded. Further, based upon volume of commercial items purchased during that year, there may be discounts calculated into the pricing and are reflective of the submitted pricing. This contract expired on July 13, 2020, and GGS has submitted its bid for contract renewal. As of March 31, 2021, the USAF has not yet responded to the bid.
GGS sold a total of 47 and 26 deicers under this contract with the USAF including both GL 1800 and ER 2875 models during fiscal years ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, respectively and all of the units were accepted by the USAF. GGS also completed and delivered an additional USAF delivery order for both GL 1800 and ER 2875 models during the first quarter of fiscal year 2022.

Commercial Jet Engines and Parts.
Contrail Aviation Support and Jet Yard (acquired during fiscal year 2017), AirCo (formed in May 2017), Worthington (acquired in May 2018), and Jet Yard Solutions (formed in January 2021) comprise the commercial jet engines and parts segment of the Company’s operations. Contrail Aviation Support is a commercial aircraft trading, leasing and parts solutions provider. Its primary focus revolves around the CFM International CFM56-3/-5/-7 engines and the International Aero Engines V2500A5 engine, which power the two most prevalent narrow body, single aisle aircraft that are currently flown commercially—the Boeing 737 Classic / 737 NG and the Airbus A320 family. Contrail Aviation Support acquires commercial aircraft, jet engines and components for the purposes of sale, trading, leasing and disassembly/overhaul. Contrail Aviation holds an ASA-100 accreditation from the Aviation Suppliers Association. As of March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, Contrail contributed approximately 18% and 31% of the Company's total consolidated revenue for the years then ended, respectively.
Jet Yard and Jet Yard Solutions offer commercial aircraft storage, storage maintenance and aircraft disassembly/part-out services at facilities leased at the Pinal Air Park in Marana, Arizona. The prevailing climate in this area of Arizona provides conditions conducive to long-term storage of aircraft. Jet Yard Solutions is registered to operate a repair station under Part 145 of the regulations of the FAA. Jet Yard leases approximately 48.5 acres of land under a lease agreement with Pinal County, Arizona. Jet Yard was organized in 2014, entered into the lease in June 2016 and had maintained de minimus operations from formation through the date it was acquired by the Company. Effective January 1, 2021, Jet Yard subleased the aforementioned lease with Pinal County to Jet Yard Solutions.
AirCo operates an established business offering commercial aircraft parts sales, exchanges, procurement services, consignment programs and overhaul and repair services. AirCo Services, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AirCo ("AirCo Services"), holds FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency certifications covering aircraft instrumentation, avionics and a range of electrical accessories for civilian, military transport, regional/commuter and business/commercial jet and turboprop aircraft. Customers of AirCo include airlines and commercial aircraft leasing companies.
 
Worthington Aviation, like AirCo, operates an established business which supplies spare parts, repair programs and aircraft maintenance services to the global aviation community of regional and business aircraft fleets. Worthington offers a globally networked infrastructure and 24/7 support, ensuring fast delivery of spare parts and service, with four locations strategically located in the United States, United Kingdom & Australia. In addition, Worthington operates two FAA and EASA Certificated Repair Stations. The Tulsa maintenance, repair and overhaul ("MRO") facility provides composite aircraft structures, repair and support services. As a strategic resource for flight control, exhaust system and line replacement components, Worthington offers a wide array of services for complex operations. At the Eagan, Minnesota-based Repair Station, Worthington Repair Services offers a wide range of capabilities for repair and overhaul of airframe, accessories and power plant components in support of external as well as internal sales.

The Company’s commercial jet engines and parts operations are not materially seasonal.
Backlog.
GGS’s backlog consists of “firm” orders supported by customer purchase orders for the equipment sold by GGS. At March 31, 2021, GGS’s backlog of orders was $10.3 million, all of which GGS expects to be filled in the fiscal year ending March 31, 2022. At March 31, 2020, GGS’s backlog of orders was $51.5 million. Backlog is not meaningful for the Company’s other business segments.
Governmental Regulation.
The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to regulation by various governmental agencies.
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The Department of Transportation (“DOT”) has the authority to regulate air service. The DOT has authority to investigate and institute proceedings to enforce its economic regulations, and may, in certain circumstances, assess civil penalties, revoke operating authority and seek criminal sanctions.
Under the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001, as amended, the Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”), an agency within the Department of Homeland Security, has responsibility for aviation security. The TSA requires MAC and CSA to comply with a Full All-Cargo Aircraft Operator Standard Security Plan, which contains evolving and strict security requirements. These requirements are not static but change periodically as the result of regulatory and legislative requirements, imposing additional security costs and creating a level of uncertainty for our operations. It is reasonably possible that these rules or other future security requirements could impose material costs on us.
The FAA has safety jurisdiction over flight operations generally, including flight equipment, flight and ground personnel training, examination and certification, certain ground facilities, flight equipment maintenance programs and procedures, examination and certification of mechanics, flight routes, air traffic control and communications and other matters. The FAA is concerned with safety and the regulation of flight operations generally, including equipment used, ground facilities, maintenance, communications and other matters. The FAA can suspend or revoke the authority of air carriers or their licensed personnel for failure to comply with its regulations and can ground aircraft if questions arise concerning airworthiness. The FAA also has power to suspend or revoke for cause the certificates it issues and to institute proceedings for imposition and collection of fines for violation of federal aviation regulations. The Company, through its subsidiaries, holds all operating airworthiness and other FAA certificates that are currently required for the conduct of its business, although these certificates may be suspended or revoked for cause. The FAA periodically conducts routine reviews of MAC and CSA’s operating procedures and flight and maintenance records.
The FAA has authority under the Noise Control Act of 1972, as amended, to monitor and regulate aircraft engine noise. The aircraft operated by the Company are in compliance with all such regulations promulgated by the FAA. Moreover, because the Company does not operate jet aircraft, noncompliance is not likely. Aircraft operated by us also comply with standards for aircraft exhaust emissions promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) pursuant to the Clean Air Act of 1970, as amended.
Jet Yard, Jet Yard Solutions and AirCo, like Worthington, operate repair stations licensed under Part 145 of the regulations of the FAA. These certifications must be renewed annually, or in certain circumstances within 24 months. Certified repair stations are subject to periodic FAA inspection and audit. The repair station may not be relocated without written approval from the FAA.
Because of the extensive use of radio and other communication facilities in its aircraft operations, the Company is also subject to the Federal Communications Act of 1934, as amended.
Maintenance and Insurance.
The Company, through its subsidiaries, is required to maintain the aircraft it operates under the appropriate FAA and manufacturer standards and regulations.
The Company has secured public liability and property damage insurance in excess of minimum amounts required by the United States Department of Transportation.
The Company maintains cargo liability insurance, workers’ compensation insurance and fire and extended coverage insurance for owned and leased facilities and equipment. In addition, the Company maintains product liability insurance with respect to injuries and loss arising from use of products sold and services provided.
In March 2014, the Company formed SAIC, a captive insurance company licensed in Utah. SAIC insures risks of the Company and its subsidiaries that were not previously insured by the various Company insurance programs (including the risk of loss of key customers and contacts, administrative actions and regulatory changes); and may from time to time underwrite third-party risk through certain reinsurance arrangements. SAIC is included within the Company's Corporate and other segment.
Employees.
As of March 31, 2021, the Company and its subsidiaries had 452 full-time and full-time-equivalent employees. None of the employees of the Company or any of its consolidated subsidiaries are represented by labor unions. The Company believes its relations with its employees are good.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
General Business Risks
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and other possible pandemics and similar outbreaks could result in material adverse effects on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus in the United States and elsewhere created considerable instability and disruption in the U.S. and world economies. Substantial uncertainty still surrounds COVID-19 and its potential effects, as well as the extent and effectiveness of any responses taken on a national and local level. Measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, including shelter-in-place orders, social distancing measures and other restrictions on travel, congregation and business operations resulted in significant negative impacts in the United States and world economies and in relation to our business. The long-term impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. and world economies remains uncertain and the duration and scope of the world-wide economic downturn cannot currently be predicted. The extent to which our financial condition, results of operations and overall value will continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic, containment and the effectiveness of vaccine measures, among others.

As a result of measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, self-quarantines or actual viral health issues, we initially experienced a substantial number of disruptions, and experienced a reduction in demand for commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts which negatively affected our sales and materially and adversely affected the financial performance and value of our inventory. All of the markets in which our businesses are located were subject to some level of restrictions on business operations. Even as travel advisories and restrictions are modified or lifted, demand for air travel could remain weak or not recover to pre-pandemic levels for a significant length of time, which may be a function of continued concerns over safety, unwillingness to travel, and decreased consumer spending due to economic conditions, including job losses. We cannot predict if and when the demand for our commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts will return to pre-outbreak levels of volume and pricing. The market and economic challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, and measures implemented to prevent its spread, adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect our returns and profitability. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic presents material uncertainty and risk with respect to our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if in the future there is an outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease or other health concern, our company may be subject to similar risks as posed by COVID-19.

Market fluctuations may affect our operations.

Market fluctuations may affect our ability to obtain necessary funds for the operation of our businesses from current lenders or new borrowings. In addition, we may be unable to obtain financing on satisfactory terms, or at all. Third-party reports relating to market studies or demographics we obtained prior to the COVID-19 virus outbreak may no longer be accurate or complete. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events or any other related matters could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and the overall value of our assets.

Labor inflation could impact our profitability.

The Company operates in industries that are heavily impacted by the workforce’s labor rates. Significant examples include mechanics and pilots, both of which expose the Company to the possibility of material increases in labor costs.

We could experience significant increases in operating costs and reduced profitability due to competition for skilled management and staff employees in our operating businesses.

We compete with many other organizations for skilled management and staff employees, including organizations that operate in different market sectors than us. Costs to recruit and retain adequate personnel could adversely affect results of operations.

Legacy technology systems require a unique technical skillset which is becoming scarcer.

The Company deploys legacy technology systems in several significant business units. As technology continues to rapidly change, the available pool of individuals technically trained in and able to repair or perform maintenance on these legacy systems shrinks. As this scarcity increases, the Company’s ability to efficiently and quickly repair its legacy systems becomes increasingly difficult, which could have a significant impact on the Company’s day-to-day operations.

Our business may be adversely affected by information technology disruptions.

Our business may be impacted by information technology disruptions, including information technology attacks. Cybersecurity attacks, in particular, are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data (our own or that of third parties). Although we have adopted certain measures to mitigate potential risks to our systems from information technology-related disruptions, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the
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compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information, misappropriation, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability, and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The failure of our information technology systems could adversely impact our reputation and financial performance.

We operate in businesses that are dependent on information systems and technology. Our information systems and technology may not continue to be able to accommodate our growth, and/or the cost of maintaining such systems may increase from its current level. Either scenario could have a material adverse effect on us. We rely on third-party service providers to manage certain aspects of our business, including for certain information systems and technology, data processing systems, and the secure processing, storage and transmission of information. Any interruption or deterioration in the performance of these third parties or failures of their information systems and technology could impair the quality of our operations and could adversely affect our business and reputation.

We may not be able to insure certain risks adequately or economically.

We cannot be certain that we will be able to insure all risks that we desire to insure economically or that all of our insurers or reinsurers will be financially viable if we make a claim. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits should occur, or if we are required to pay a deductible for an insured loss, results of operations could be adversely affected.

Legal liability may harm our business.

Many aspects of our businesses involve substantial risks of liability, and, in the normal course of business, we have been named as a defendant or co-defendant in lawsuits involving primarily claims for damages. The risks associated with potential legal liabilities often may be difficult to assess or quantify and their existence and magnitude often remain unknown for substantial periods of time. The expansion of our businesses, including expansions into new products or markets, impose greater risks of liability. In addition, unauthorized or illegal acts of our employees could result in substantial liability. Substantial legal liability could have a material adverse financial effect or cause us significant reputational harm, which in turn could seriously harm our businesses and our prospects. Although our current assessment is that there is no pending litigation that could have a significant adverse impact, if our assessment proves to be in error, then the outcome of such litigation could have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Our business might suffer if we were to lose the services of certain key employees.

Our business operations depend upon our key employees, including our executive officers. Loss of any of these employees, particularly our Chief Executive Officer, could have a material adverse effect on our business as our key employees have knowledge of our industry and customers that would be difficult to replace.

Risks Related to Our Segment Operations

The operating results of our four segments may fluctuate, particularly our commercial jet engine and parts segment.

The operating results of our four segments have varied from period to period and comparisons to results for preceding periods may not be meaningful. Due to a number of factors, including the risks described in this section, our operating results may fluctuate. These fluctuations may also be caused by, among other things:
a.the economic health of the economy and the aviation industry in general;
b.the timing and number of purchases and sales of engines or aircraft;
c.the timing and amount of maintenance reserve revenues recorded resulting from the termination of long term leases, for which significant amounts of maintenance reserves may have accumulated;
d.the termination or announced termination of production of particular aircraft and engine types;
e.the retirement or announced retirement of particular aircraft models by aircraft operators;
f.the operating history of any particular engine, aircraft or engine or aircraft model;
g.the length of our operating leases; and
h.the timing of necessary overhauls of engines and aircraft.

These risks may reduce our commercial jet engines and parts segment's engine utilization rates, lease margins, maintenance reserve revenues and proceeds from engine sales, and result in higher legal, technical, maintenance, storage and insurance costs related to repossession and the cost of engines being off-lease. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the availability of engines for lease or sale periodically experiences cycles of oversupply and undersupply of given engine models and generally. The incidence of an oversupply of engines may produce substantial decreases in engine lease rates and the appraised and resale value of engines and may increase the time and costs incurred to lease or sell engines. We anticipate that supply fluctuations from period to period will continue in the future. As a result, comparisons to results from preceding periods may not be meaningful and results of prior periods should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

Our Air Cargo Segment is dependent on a significant customer.

Our Air Cargo business is significantly dependent on a contractual relationship with FedEx Corporation (“FedEx”), the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. In the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, 37% of our consolidated operating revenues, and 99% of the operating revenues for our overnight air cargo segment, arose from services we provided to FedEx. While FedEx has been our customer since 1980 under similar terms, our current agreements may be terminated by FedEx upon 90 days’ written notice and FedEx may at any time terminate the lease of
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any particular aircraft thereunder upon 10 days’ written notice. In addition, FedEx may terminate the dry-lease agreement with MAC or CSA upon written notice if 60% or more of MAC or CSA’s revenue (excluding revenues arising from reimbursement payments under the dry-lease agreement) is derived from the services performed by it pursuant to the respective dry-lease agreement, FedEx becomes its only customer, or either MAC or CSA employs less than six employees. As of the date of issuance of this report, FedEx would be permitted to terminate each of the dry-lease agreements under this provision. The loss of these contracts with FedEx would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.

Our dry-lease agreements with FedEx subject us to operating risks.

Our dry-lease agreements with FedEx provide for the lease of specified aircraft by us in return for the payment of monthly rent with respect to each aircraft leased. The dry-lease agreements provide for the reimbursement by FedEx of our costs, without mark up, incurred in connection with the operation of the leased aircraft for the following: fuel, landing fees, third-party maintenance, parts and certain other direct operating costs. Under the dry-lease agreements, certain operational costs incurred by us in operating the aircraft are not reimbursed by FedEx at cost, and such operational costs are borne solely by us.

Because of our dependence on FedEx, we are subject to the risks that may affect FedEx’s operations.

Because of our dependence on FedEx, we are subject to the risks that may affect FedEx’s operations. These risks are discussed in FedEx’s periodic reports filed with the SEC including its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2020. These risks include but are not limited to the following:

a.The negative effect of the COVID-19 pandemic;
b.Economic conditions and anti-trade measures/trade policies and relations in the global markets in which it operates;
c.Dependence on its strong reputation and value of its brand;
d.Potential disruption to operations resulting from a significant data breach or other disruption to FedEx’s technology infrastructure;
e.The failure to efficiently integrate the business and operations of FedEx Express and TNT Express;
f.The price and availability of fuel;
g.FedEx's ability to manage capital and its assets, including aircraft, to match shifting and future shipping volumes;
h.Changes in international trade policies and relations could significantly reduce the volume of goods transported globally;
i.Intense competition from other providers of transportation and business services;
j.Changes in governmental regulations that may affect its business;
k.FedEx's ability to operate, integrate, leverage and grow acquired businesses;
l.Adverse changes in regulations and interpretations and challenges to its tax positions;
m.Failure to attract and maintain employee talent or maintain company culture and its ability to maintain good relationships with its employees and prevent attempts by labor organizations to organize groups of its employees;
n.Disruptions or modifications in service by the United States Postal Service, a significant customer and vendor of FedEx;
o.The continued classification of owner-operators in its ground delivery business as independent contractors rather than as employees;
p.The impact of proposed pilot flight and duty time regulations;
q.The impact of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union;
r.The impact of terrorist activities including the imposition of stricter governmental security requirements;
s.Regulatory actions affecting global aviation rights or a failure to obtain or maintain aviation rights in important international markets;
t.Global climate change or legal, regulatory or market responses to such change;
u.Adverse weather or localized natural or man-made disasters in key locations, including its Memphis, Tennessee super-hub;
v.Constraints, volatility or disruption in the capital markets and any failure to maintain credit ratings and to meet credit agreement covenants; and
w.Widespread outbreak of an illness or other communicable disease or any other public health crisis.

A material reduction in the aircraft we fly for FedEx could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Under our agreements with FedEx, we are not guaranteed a number of aircraft or routes we are to fly and FedEx may reduce the number of aircraft we lease and operate upon 10 days’ written notice. Our compensation under these agreements, including our administrative fees, depends on the number of aircraft leased to us by FedEx. Any material permanent reduction in the aircraft we operate could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations. A temporary reduction in any period could materially adversely affect our results of operations for that period.

Sales of deicing equipment can be affected by weather conditions.

Our deicing equipment is used to deice commercial and military aircraft. The extent of deicing activity depends on the severity of winter weather. Mild winter weather conditions permit airports to use fewer deicing units, since less time is required to deice aircraft in mild weather conditions. As a result, airports may be able to extend the useful lives of their existing units, reducing the demand for new units.

We are affected by the risks faced by commercial aircraft operators and MRO companies because they are our customers.

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Commercial aircraft operators are engaged in economically sensitive, highly cyclical and competitive businesses. We are a supplier to commercial aircraft operators and MROs. As a result, we are indirectly affected by all of the risks facing commercial aircraft operators and MROs, with such risks being largely beyond our control. Our results of operations depend, in part, on the financial strength of our customers and our customers’ ability to compete effectively in the marketplace and manage their risks.

Our engine values and lease rates, which are dependent on the status of the types of aircraft on which engines are installed, and other factors, could decline.

The value of a particular model of engine depends heavily on the types of aircraft on which it may be installed and the available supply of such engines. Values of engines generally tend to be relatively stable so long as there is sufficient demand for the host aircraft. However, the value of an engine may begin to decline rapidly once the host aircraft begins to be retired from service and/or used for spare parts in significant numbers. Certain types of engines may be used in significant numbers by commercial aircraft operators that are currently experiencing financial difficulties. If such operators were to go into liquidation or similar proceedings, the resulting over-supply of engines from these operators could have an adverse effect on the demand for the affected engine types and the values of such engines.

Upon termination of a lease, we may be unable to enter into new leases or sell the airframe, engine or its parts on acceptable terms.

We directly or indirectly own the engines or aircraft that we lease to customers and bear the risk of not recovering our entire investment through leasing and selling the engines or aircraft. Upon termination of a lease, we seek to enter a new lease or to sell or part-out the engine or aircraft. We also selectively sell engines on an opportunistic basis. We cannot give assurance that we will be able to find, in a timely manner, a lessee or a buyer for our engines or aircraft coming off-lease or for their associated parts. If we do find a lessee, we may not be able to obtain satisfactory lease rates and terms (including maintenance and redelivery conditions), and we cannot guarantee that the creditworthiness of any future lessee will be equal to or better than that of the existing lessees of our engines. Because the terms of engine leases may be less than 12 months, we may frequently need to remarket engines. We face the risk that we may not be able to keep our engines on lease consistently.

Failures by lessees to meet their maintenance and recordkeeping obligations under our leases could adversely affect the value of our leased engines and aircraft which could affect our ability to re-lease the engines and aircraft in a timely manner following termination of the leases.

The value and income producing potential of an engine or aircraft depends heavily on it being maintained in accordance with an approved maintenance system and complying with all applicable governmental directives and manufacturer requirements. In addition, for an engine or aircraft to be available for service, all records, logs, licenses and documentation relating to maintenance and operations of the engine or aircraft must be maintained in accordance with governmental and manufacturer specifications. Under our leases, our lessees are primarily responsible for maintaining our aircraft and engines and complying with all governmental requirements applicable to the lessee and the aircraft and engines, including operational, maintenance, government agency oversight, registration requirements and airworthiness directives. However, over time, certain lessees have experienced, and may experience in the future, difficulties in meeting their maintenance and recordkeeping obligations as specified by the terms of our leases. Failure by our lessees to maintain our assets in accordance with requirements could negatively affect the value and desirability of our assets and expose us to increased maintenance costs that may not be sufficiently covered by supplemental maintenance rents paid by such lessees.

Our ability to determine the condition of the engines or aircraft and whether the lessees are properly maintaining our assets is generally limited to the lessees’ reporting of monthly usage and any maintenance performed, confirmed by periodic inspections performed by us and third-parties. A lessee’s failure to meet its maintenance or recordkeeping obligations under a lease could result in:
a.a grounding of the related engine or aircraft;
b.a repossession that would likely cause us to incur additional and potentially substantial expenditures in restoring the engine or aircraft to an acceptable maintenance condition;
c.a need to incur additional costs and devote resources to recreate the records prior to the sale or lease of the engine or aircraft;
d.a decline in the market value of the aircraft or engine resulting in lower revenues upon a subsequent lease or sale;
e.loss of lease revenue while we perform refurbishments or repairs and recreate records; and
f.a lower lease rate and/or shorter lease term under a new lease entered into by us following repossession of the engine or aircraft.
Any of these events may adversely affect the value of the engine, unless and until remedied, and reduce our revenues and increase our expenses. If an engine is damaged during a lease and we are unable to recover from the lessee or though insurance, we may incur a loss.

We may experience losses and delays in connection with repossession of engines or aircraft when a lessee defaults.

We may not be able to repossess an engine or aircraft when the lessee defaults, and even if we are able to repossess the engine or aircraft, we may have to expend significant funds in the repossession, remarketing and leasing of the asset. When a lessee defaults and such default is not cured in a timely manner, we typically seek to terminate the lease and repossess the engine or aircraft. If a defaulting lessee contests the termination and repossession or is under court protection, enforcement of our rights under the lease may be difficult, expensive and time-consuming. We may not realize any practical benefits from our legal rights and we may need to obtain consents to export the engine or aircraft. As a result, the relevant asset may be off-lease or not producing revenue for a prolonged period of time. In addition, we will incur direct costs associated with repossessing our engine or aircraft, including, but not limited to, legal and similar costs, the direct costs of transporting, storing and insuring the engine or aircraft, and costs associated with necessary maintenance and recordkeeping to make the asset available for lease or
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sale. During this time, we will realize no revenue from the leased engine or aircraft, and we will continue to be obligated to pay any debt financing associated with the asset. If an engine is installed on an airframe, the airframe may be owned by an aircraft lessor or other third party. Our ability to recover engines installed on airframes may depend on the cooperation of the airframe owner.

Our commercial jet engine and parts segment and its customers operate in a highly regulated industry and changes in laws or regulations may adversely affect our ability to lease or sell our engines or aircraft.

Certain of the laws and regulations applicable to our business, include:

Licenses and consents. A number of our leases require specific governmental or regulatory licenses, consents or approvals. These include consents for certain payments under the leases and for the export, import or re-export of our engines or aircraft. Consents needed in connection with future leasing or sale of our engines or aircraft may not be received timely or have economically feasible terms. Any of these events could adversely affect our ability to lease or sell engines or aircraft.

Export/import regulations. The U.S. Department of Commerce (the “Commerce Department”) regulates exports. We are subject to the Commerce Department’s and the U.S. Department of State’s regulations with respect to the lease and sale of engines and aircraft to foreign entities and the export of related parts. These Departments may, in some cases, require us to obtain export licenses for engines exported to foreign countries. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, through the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, enforces regulations related to the import of engines and aircraft into the United States for maintenance or lease and imports of parts for installation on our engines and aircraft.

Restriction Lists. We are prohibited from doing business with persons designated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) on its “Specially Designated Nationals List,” and must monitor our operations and existing and potential lessees and other counterparties for compliance with OFAC’s rules. Similarly, sanctions issued by the United Nations, the U.S. government, the European Union or other foreign governments could prohibit or restrict us from doing business in certain countries or with certain persons. As a result, we must monitor our operations and existing and potential lessees and other counterparties for compliance with such sanctions.

Anti-corruption Laws. As a U.S. corporation with international operations, we are required to comply with a number of U.S. and international laws and regulations which combat corruption. For example, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and similar world-wide anti-bribery laws generally prohibit improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of influencing any official act or decision or securing any improper advantage. The scope and enforcement of such anti-corruption laws and regulations may vary. Although our policies expressly mandate compliance with the FCPA and similarly applicable laws, there can be no assurance that none of our employees or agents will take any action in violation of our policies. Violations of such laws or regulations could result in substantial civil or criminal fines or penalties. Actual or alleged violations could also damage our reputation, be expensive to defend, and impair our ability to do business.

Civil aviation regulation. Users of engines and aircraft are subject to general civil aviation authorities, including the FAA and the EASA, who regulate the maintenance of engines and issue airworthiness directives. Airworthiness directives typically set forth special maintenance actions or modifications to certain engine and aircraft types or a series of specific engines that must be implemented for the engine or aircraft to remain in service. Also, airworthiness directives may require the lessee to make more frequent inspections of an engine, aircraft or particular engine parts. Each lessee of an engine or aircraft generally is responsible for complying with all airworthiness directives. However, if the engine or aircraft is off lease, we may be forced to bear the cost of compliance with such airworthiness directives. Additionally, even if the engine or aircraft is leased, subject to the terms of the lease, if any, we may still be forced to share the cost of compliance.

Our aircraft, engines and parts could cause damage resulting in liability claims.

Our aircraft, engines or parts could cause bodily injury or property damage, exposing us to liability claims. Our leases require our lessees to indemnify us against these claims and to carry insurance customary in the air transportation industry, including general liability and property insurance at agreed upon levels. However, we cannot guarantee that one or more catastrophic events will not exceed insurance coverage limits or that lessees’ insurance will cover all claims that may be asserted against us. Any insurance coverage deficiency or default by lessees under their indemnification or insurance obligations may reduce our recovery of losses upon an event of loss.

We have risks in managing our portfolio of aircraft and engines to meet customer needs.

The relatively long life cycles of aircraft and jet engines can be shortened by world events, government regulation or customer preferences. We seek to manage these risks by trying to anticipate demand for particular engine and aircraft types, maintaining a portfolio mix of engines that we believe is diversified, has long-term value and will be sought by lessees in the global market for jet engines, and by selling engines and aircraft that we expect will not experience obsolescence or declining usefulness in the foreseeable future. There is no assurance that the engine and aircraft types owned or acquired by us will meet customer demand.

Liens on our engines or aircraft could exceed the value of such assets, which could negatively affect our ability to repossess, lease or sell a particular engine or aircraft.

Liens that secure the payment of repairers’ charges or other liens may, depending on the jurisdiction, attach to engines and aircraft. Engines also may be installed on airframes to which liens unrelated to the engines have attached. These liens may secure substantial sums that may, in certain jurisdictions or for certain types of liens, exceed the value of the particular engine or aircraft to which the liens have attached. In some jurisdictions, a lien may give the holder the right to detain or, in limited
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cases, sell or cause the forfeiture of the engine or aircraft. Such liens may have priority over our interest as well as our creditors’ interest in the engines or aircraft. These liens and lien holders could impair our ability to repossess and lease or sell the engines or aircraft. We cannot give assurance that our lessees will comply with their obligations to discharge third-party liens on our assets. If they do not, we may, in the future, find it necessary to pay the claims secured by such liens to repossess such assets.

In certain countries, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an addition to the aircraft and we may not be able to exercise our ownership rights over the engine.

In certain jurisdictions, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an addition to the aircraft such that the ownership rights of the owner of the aircraft supersede the ownership rights of the owner of the engine. If an aircraft is security for the owner’s obligations to a third-party, the security interest in the aircraft may supersede our rights as owner of the engine. Such a security interest could limit our ability to repossess an engine located in such a jurisdiction in the event of a lessee bankruptcy or lease default. We may suffer a loss if we are not able to repossess engines leased to lessees in these jurisdictions.

Higher or volatile fuel prices could affect the profitability of the aviation industry and our lessees’ ability to meet their lease payment obligations to us.

Historically, fuel prices have fluctuated widely depending primarily on international market conditions, geopolitical and environmental factors and events and currency exchange rates. Natural and other disasters can also significantly affect fuel availability and prices. The cost of fuel represents a major expense to airlines that is not within their control, and significant increases in fuel costs or hedges that inaccurately assess the direction of fuel costs can materially and adversely affect their operating results. Due to the competitive nature of the aviation industry, operators may be unable to pass on increases in fuel prices to their customers by increasing fares in a manner that fully offsets the increased fuel costs they may incur. In addition, they may not be able to manage this risk by appropriately hedging their exposure to fuel price fluctuations. The profitability and liquidity of those airlines that do hedge their fuel costs can also be adversely affected by swift movements in fuel prices if such airlines are required to post cash collateral under hedge agreements. Therefore, if for any reason fuel prices return to historically high levels or show significant volatility, our lessees are likely to incur higher costs or generate lower revenues, which may affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.

Interruptions in the capital markets could impair our lessees’ ability to finance their operations, which could prevent the lessees from complying with payment obligations to us.

The global financial markets can be highly volatile and the availability of credit from financial markets and financial institutions can vary substantially depending on developments in the global financial markets. Our lessees depend on banks and the capital markets to provide working capital and to refinance existing indebtedness. To the extent such funding is unavailable, or available only on unfavorable terms, and to the extent financial markets do not provide equity financing as an alternative, our lessees’ operations and operating results may be materially and adversely affected and they may not comply with their respective payment obligations to us.

Our lessees may fail to adequately insure our aircraft or engines which could subject us to additional costs.

While an aircraft or engine is on lease, we do not directly control its operation. Nevertheless, because we hold title to the aircraft or engine, we could, in certain jurisdictions, be held liable for losses resulting from its operation. At a minimum, we may be required to expend resources in our defense. We require our lessees to obtain specified levels of insurance and indemnify us for, and insure against, such operational liabilities. However, some lessees may fail to maintain adequate insurance coverage during a lease term, which, although constituting a breach of the lease, would require us to take some corrective action, such as terminating the lease or securing insurance for the aircraft or engines. Therefore, our lessees’ insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all claims that could be asserted against us arising from the operation of our aircraft or engines. Inadequate insurance coverage or default by lessees in fulfilling their indemnification or insurance obligations to us will reduce the insurance proceeds that we would otherwise be entitled to receive in the event we are sued and are required to make payments to claimants. Moreover, our lessees’ insurance coverage is dependent on the financial condition of insurance companies and their ability to pay claims. A reduction in insurance proceeds otherwise payable to us as a result of any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

If our lessees fail to cooperate in returning our aircraft or engines following lease terminations, we may encounter obstacles and are likely to incur significant costs and expenses conducting repossessions.

Our legal rights and the relative difficulty of repossession vary significantly depending on the jurisdiction in which an aircraft or engines are located. We may need to obtain a court order or consents for de-registration or re-export, a process that can differ substantially from county to country. When a defaulting lessee is in bankruptcy, protective administration, insolvency or similar proceedings, additional limitations may also apply. For example, certain jurisdictions give rights to the trustee in bankruptcy or a similar officer to assume or reject the lease, to assign it to a third party, or to entitle the lessee or another third party to retain possession of the aircraft or engines without paying lease rentals or performing all or some of the obligations under the relevant lease. Certain of our lessees are partially or wholly owned by government-related entities, which can further complicate our efforts to repossess our aircraft or engines in that government’s jurisdiction. If we encounter any of these difficulties, we may be delayed in, or prevented from, enforcing certain of our rights under a lease and in re-leasing the affected aircraft or engines.
When conducting a repossession, we are likely to incur significant costs and expenses that are unlikely to be recouped. These include legal and other expenses related to legal proceedings, including the cost of posting security bonds or letters of credit necessary to effect repossession of the aircraft or engines, particularly if the lessee is contesting the proceedings or is in bankruptcy. We must absorb the cost of lost revenue for the time the aircraft or engines are off-lease. We may incur substantial maintenance, refurbishment or repair costs that a defaulting lessee has failed to pay and are necessary to put the aircraft or engines in suitable condition for re-lease or sale. We may also incur significant costs in retrieving or recreating aircraft records
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required for registration of the aircraft and in obtaining the certificate of airworthiness for an aircraft. It may be necessary to pay to discharge liens or pay taxes and other governmental charges on the aircraft to obtain clear possession and to remarket the aircraft effectively, including, in some cases, liens that the lessee may have incurred in connection with the operation of its other aircraft. We may also incur other costs in connection with the physical possession of the aircraft or engines.

If our lessees fail to discharge aircraft liens for which they are responsible, we may be obligated to pay to discharge the liens.

In the normal course of their businesses, our lessees are likely to incur aircraft and engine liens that secure the payment of airport fees and taxes, custom duties, Eurocontrol and other air navigation charges, landing charges, crew wages, and other liens that may attach to our aircraft. Aircraft may also be subject to mechanic’s liens as a result of routine maintenance performed by third parties on behalf of our customers. Some of these liens can secure substantial sums, and if they attach to entire fleets of aircraft, as permitted for certain kinds of liens, they may exceed the value of the aircraft itself. Although the financial obligations relating to these liens are the contractual responsibility of our lessees, if they fail to fulfill their obligations, the liens may ultimately become our financial responsibility. Until they are discharged, these liens could impair our ability to repossess, re-lease or sell our aircraft or engines. In some jurisdictions, aircraft and engine liens may give the holder thereof the right to detain or, in limited cases, sell or cause the forfeiture of the aircraft. If we are obliged to pay a large amount to discharge a lien, or if we are unable take possession of our aircraft subject to a lien in a timely and cost-effective manner, it could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

If our lessees encounter financial difficulties and we restructure or terminate our leases, we are likely to obtain less favorable lease terms.

If a lessee delays, reduces, or fails to make rental payments when due, or has advised us that it will do so in the future, we may elect or be required to restructure or terminate the lease. A restructured lease will likely contain terms that are less favorable to us. If we are unable to agree on a restructuring and we terminate the lease, we may not receive all or any payments still outstanding, and we may be unable to re-lease the aircraft or engines promptly and at favorable rates, if at all.

Withdrawal, suspension or revocation of governmental authorizations or approvals could negatively affect our business.

We are subject to governmental regulation and our failure to comply with these regulations could cause the government to withdraw or revoke our authorizations and approvals to do business and could subject us to penalties and sanctions that could harm our business. Governmental agencies throughout the world, including the FAA, highly regulate the manufacture, repair and operation of aircraft operated in the United States and equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries, such as the EASA in Europe, regulate aircraft operated in those countries. With the aircraft, engines and related parts that we purchase, lease and sell to our customers, we include documentation certifying that each part complies with applicable regulatory requirements and meets applicable standards of airworthiness established by the FAA or the equivalent regulatory agencies in other countries. Specific regulations vary from country to country, although regulatory requirements in other countries are generally satisfied by compliance with FAA requirements. With respect to a particular engine or engine component, we utilize FAA and/or EASA certified repair stations to repair and certify engines and components to ensure marketability. The revocation or suspension of any of our material authorizations or approvals would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. New and more stringent government regulations, if enacted, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, certain product sales to foreign countries require approval or licensing from the U.S. government. Denial of export licenses could reduce our sales to those countries and could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Our Structure and Financing/Liquidity Risks

Our holding company structure may increase risks related to our operations.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon those of our individual businesses, and our aggregate investment in particular industries. We are a holding company with investments in businesses and assets in a number of industries. Our business, financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon our various businesses and investments and their management teams. Each of our businesses generally operate independently and in a decentralized manner. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business we guarantee the obligations of entities that we manage and/or invest in. Any material adverse change in one of our businesses, investments or management teams, or in a particular industry in which we operate or invest, may cause material adverse changes to our business, financial condition and results of operations. The more capital we devote to a particular investment or industry may increase the risk that such investment could significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations, possibly in a material adverse way.

A small number of stockholders has the ability to control the Company.

We have a very concentrated stockholder base. As of March 31, 2021, our three largest stockholders beneficially owned or had the ability to direct the voting of shares of our common stock representing approximately 62% of the outstanding shares. As a result, these stockholders have the power to determine the outcome of substantially all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of our board of directors. In addition, future sales by these stockholders of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the potential for such sales, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our securities.

An increase in interest rates or in our borrowing margin would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could reduce our cash flow and negatively affect the results of our business operations.
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A portion of our outstanding debt bears interest at floating rates. As a result, to the extent we have not hedged against rising interest rates, an increase in the applicable benchmark interest rates would increase the cost of servicing our debt and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. In addition, if we refinance our indebtedness and interest rates or our borrowing margins increase between the time an existing financing arrangement was consummated and the time such financing arrangement is refinanced, the cost of servicing our debt would increase and our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

Our inability to maintain sufficient liquidity could limit our operational flexibility and also impact our ability to make payments on our obligations as they come due.

In addition to being capital intensive and highly leveraged, our aircraft and engine business requires that we maintain sufficient liquidity to enable us to contribute the non-financed portion of engine and aircraft purchases as well as to service our payment obligations to our creditors as they become due, despite the fact that the timing and amounts of our revenues do not match the timing under our debt service obligations. Our restricted cash is unavailable for general corporate purposes. Accordingly, our ability to successfully execute our business strategy and maintain our operations depends on our ability to continue to maintain sufficient liquidity, cash and available credit under our credit facilities. Our liquidity could be adversely impacted if we are subjected to one or more of the following:
a significant decline in revenues,
a material increase in interest expense that is not matched by a corresponding increase in revenues,
a significant increase in operating expenses,
a reduction in our available credit under our credit facilities, or
general economic or national events.
If we do not maintain sufficient liquidity, our ability to meet our payment obligations to creditors or to borrow additional funds could become impaired.

Future cash flows from operations or through financings may not be sufficient to enable the Company to meet its obligations.

Future cash flow of the Company’s operations can fluctuate significantly. If future cash flows are not sufficient to permit the Company to meet its obligations, this would likely have a material adverse effect on the Company, its businesses, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, credit market volatility may affect our ability to refinance our existing debt, borrow funds under our existing lines of credit or incur additional debt - certain of which mature in the next twelve months. There can be no assurance that the Company or its subsidiaries will continue to have access to their lines of credit if their financial performance does not satisfy the financial covenants set forth in the applicable financing agreements. If the Company or its subsidiaries do not meet certain of its financial covenants, and if they are unable to secure necessary waivers or other amendments from the respective lenders on terms acceptable to management and to renew or replace financing arrangements that mature during the current fiscal year, their ability to access available lines of credit could be limited, their debt obligations could be accelerated by the respective lenders and liquidity could be adversely affected.

The Company and/or its subsidiaries may be required to seek additional or alternative financing sources if the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ cash needs are significantly greater than anticipated or they do not materially meet their business plans, or there are unanticipated downturns in the markets for the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ products and services. Future disruption and volatility in credit market conditions could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s ability, or that of its subsidiaries, to refinance debt when it comes due on terms similar to our current credit facilities, to draw upon existing lines of credit or to incur additional debt if needed. There can be no assurance therefore that such financing will be available or available on acceptable terms. The inability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations or through financings or disruptions in the credit markets could impair the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ liquidity and would likely have a material adverse effect on their businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

A large proportion of our capital is invested in physical assets and securities that can be hard to sell, especially if market conditions are poor.

Because our investment strategy can involve public company securities, we may be restricted in our ability to effect sales during certain time periods. A lack of liquidity could limit our ability to vary our portfolio or assets promptly in response to changing economic or investment conditions. Additionally, if financial or operating difficulties of other competitors result in distress sales, such sales could depress asset values in the markets in which we operate. The restrictions inherent in owning physical assets could reduce our ability to respond to changes in market conditions and could adversely affect the performance of our investments, our financial condition and results of operations. Because there is significant uncertainty in the valuation of, or in the stability of the value of illiquid or non-public investments, the fair values of such investments do not necessarily reflect the prices that would actually be obtained when such investments are realized.

To service our debt and meet our other cash needs, we will require a significant amount of cash, which may not be available.

Our ability to make payments on, or repay or refinance, our debt, will depend largely upon our future operating performance. Our future performance, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In addition, our ability to borrow funds in the future to make payments on our debt will depend on our maintaining specified financial ratios and satisfying financial condition tests and other covenants in the agreements governing our debt. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and future borrowings may not be available in amounts sufficient to pay our debt and to satisfy our other liquidity needs.

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If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to seek alternatives.

If we cannot meet our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and aircraft or engine purchases, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and might require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of our debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or to meet our aircraft or engine purchase commitments as they come due.

The transition away from LIBOR may adversely affect our cost to obtain financing and may potentially negatively impact our interest rate swap agreements.

It is expected that a transition away from the widespread use of London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR") to alternative rates will occur over the course of the next few years. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York and various other authorities have commenced the publication of reforms and actions relating to alternatives to U.S. dollar LIBOR. The full impact of such reforms and actions, together with any transition away from LIBOR remains unclear. These changes may have a material adverse impact on the availability and cost of our financing, including LIBOR-based loans, as well as our interest rate swap agreements.

Despite our substantial indebtedness, we might incur significantly more debt, and cash may not be available to meet our financial obligations when due or enable us to capitalize on investment opportunities when they arise.

We employ debt and other forms of leverage in the ordinary course of business to enhance returns to our investors and finance our operations, and despite our current indebtedness levels, we expect to incur additional debt in the future to finance our operations, including purchasing aircraft and engines and meeting our contractual obligations as the agreements relating to our debt, including our indentures, term loan facilities, revolving credit facilities, and other financings do not entirely prohibit us from incurring additional debt. We also enter into financing commitments in the normal course of business, which we may be required to fund. If we are required to fund these commitments and are unable to do so, we could be liable for damages pursued against us or a loss of opportunity through default under contracts that are otherwise to our benefit could occur. We are therefore subject to the risks associated with debt financing and refinancing, including but not limited to the following: (i) our cash flow may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; (ii) payments of principal and interest on borrowings may leave us with insufficient cash resources to pay operating expenses and dividends; (iii) if we are unable to obtain committed debt financing for potential acquisitions or can only obtain debt at high interest rates or on other unfavorable terms, we may have difficulty completing acquisitions or may generate profits that are lower than would otherwise be the case; (iv) we may not be able to refinance indebtedness at maturity due to company and market factors such as the estimated cash flow produced by our assets, the value of our assets, liquidity in the debt markets, and/or financial, competitive, business and other factors; and (v) if we are able to refinance our indebtedness, the terms of a refinancing may not be as favorable as the original terms for such indebtedness. If we are unable to refinance our indebtedness on acceptable terms, or at all, we may need to utilize available liquidity, which would reduce our ability to pursue new investment opportunities, dispose of one or more of our assets on disadvantageous terms, or raise equity, causing dilution to existing stockholders.

The terms of our various credit agreements and other financing documents also require us to comply with a number of customary financial and other covenants, such as maintaining debt service coverage and leverage ratios, adequate insurance coverage and certain credit ratings. These covenants may limit our flexibility in conducting our operations and breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under the instruments governing the applicable indebtedness, even if we have satisfied and continue to satisfy our payment obligations. Regulatory changes may also result in higher borrowing costs and reduced access to credit.

Future acquisitions and dispositions of businesses and investments are possible, changing the components of our assets and liabilities, and if unsuccessful or unfavorable, could reduce the value of the Company and its securities.

Any future acquisitions or dispositions may result in significant changes in the composition of our assets and liabilities, as well as our business mix and prospects. Consequently, our financial condition, results of operations and the trading price of our securities may be affected by factors different from those affecting our financial condition, results of operations and trading price at the present time.

We face numerous risks and uncertainties as we expand our business.

We expect the growth and development of our business to come primarily from internal expansion and through acquisitions, investments, and strategic partnering. As we expand our business, there can be no assurance that financial controls, the level and knowledge of personnel, operational abilities, legal and compliance controls and other corporate support systems will be adequate to manage our business and growth. The ineffectiveness of any of these controls or systems could adversely affect our business and prospects. In addition, if we acquire new businesses and/or introduce new products, we face numerous risks and uncertainties concerning the integration of their controls and systems, including financial controls, accounting and data processing systems, management controls and other operations. A failure to integrate these systems and controls, and even an inefficient integration of these systems and controls, could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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Our business strategy includes acquisitions, and acquisitions entail numerous risks, including the risk of management diversion and increased costs and expenses, all of which could negatively affect the Company’s ability to operate profitably.

Our business strategy includes, among other things, strategic and opportunistic acquisitions. This element of our strategy entails several risks, including, but not limited to the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns and the need to finance such acquisitions with additional equity and/or debt. In addition, once completed, acquisitions entail further risks, including: unanticipated costs and liabilities of the acquired businesses, including environmental liabilities, that could materially adversely affect our results of operations; difficulties in assimilating acquired businesses, preventing the expected benefits from the transaction from being realized or achieved within the anticipated time frame; negative effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers; and losing key employees of the acquired businesses. If our acquisition strategy is not successful or if acquisitions are not well integrated into our existing operations, the Company’s operations and business results could be negatively affected.

Strategic ventures may increase risks applicable to our operations.

We may enter into strategic ventures that pose risks, including a lack of complete control over the enterprise, and other potential unforeseen risks, any of which could adversely impact our financial results. We may occasionally enter into strategic ventures or investments with third parties in order to take advantage of favorable financing opportunities, to share capital or operating risk, or to earn aircraft management fees. These strategic ventures and investments may subject us to various risks, including those arising from our possessing limited decision-making rights in the enterprise or over the related aircraft. If we were unable to resolve a dispute with a strategic partner in such a venture that retains material managerial veto rights, we might reach an impasse which may lead to operational difficulties in the venture and increases costs or the liquidation of our investment at a time and in a manner that would result in our losing some or all of our original investment and/or the occurrence of other losses, which could adversely impact our financial results.

Rapid business expansions or new business initiatives may increase risk.

Certain business initiatives, including expansions of existing businesses such as the relatively recent substantial expansion at our commercial jet engines and parts segment and the establishment of a large aircraft asset management business and a new aircraft capital joint venture, may bring us into contact, directly or indirectly, with individuals and entities that are not within our traditional client and counterparty base and may expose us to new asset classes, new business plans and new markets. These business activities expose us to new and enhanced risks, greater regulatory scrutiny of these activities, increased credit-related, sovereign and operational risks, and reputational concerns regarding the manner in which these assets are being operated or held. There is no assurance that prior year activity and results will occur in future periods.

Our policies and procedures may not be effective in ensuring compliance with applicable law.

Our policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws may not be effective in all instances to prevent violations. We could become subject to various governmental investigations, audits and inquiries, both formal and informal. Such investigations, regardless of their outcome, could be costly, divert management attention, and damage our reputation. The unfavorable resolution of such investigations could result in criminal liability, fines, penalties or other monetary or non-monetary sanctions and could materially affect our business or results of operations.

Compliance with the regulatory requirements imposed on us as a public company results in significant costs that may have an adverse effect on our results.

As a public company, we are subject to various regulatory requirements including, but not limited to, compliance with the rules
and regulations of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. Compliance with these rules and regulations results in significant additional costs to us both directly, through increased audit and consulting fees, and indirectly, through the time required by our limited resources to address such regulations.

Deficiencies in our public company financial reporting and disclosures could adversely impact our reputation.

As we expand the size and scope of our business, there is a greater susceptibility that our financial reporting and other public disclosure documents may contain material misstatements and that the controls we maintain to attempt to ensure the complete accuracy of our public disclosures may fail to operate as intended. The occurrence of such events could adversely impact our reputation and financial condition. Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting to give our stakeholders assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). However, the process for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error. Our internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements in our financial disclosures on a timely basis, or at all. Some of these processes may be new for certain subsidiaries in our structure, and in the case of acquisitions, may take time to be fully implemented. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to provide assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in reports filed or submitted under U.S. securities laws is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the required time periods. Our policies and procedures governing disclosures may not ensure that all material information regarding us is disclosed in a proper and timely fashion or that we will be successful in preventing the disclosure of material information to a single person or a limited group of people before such information is generally disseminated.


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Risks Related to Our Investments in Securities

Our results of operations may be affected by the value of securities we hold for investment and we may be unable to liquidate our investments in a timely manner or at full value.

We invest a significant portion of our capital not needed for operations in marketable securities, including equity securities of publicly-traded companies. At March 31, 2021, the fair value of these marketable securities was approximately $2.9 million. The value of our investment portfolio fluctuates and we have sustained losses in our investment portfolio in the past and could in the future. Such declines in value of available-for-sale securities will be recognized as losses upon the sale of such securities or if such declines are deemed to be other than temporary. Our results of operations may be affected by gains or losses recognized upon such a decline in value of our investments or the sale of these investments and the Company may not be able to realize the fair value of such investments under then-market conditions if liquidation is necessary in a short period of time.


Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Properties.
The Company owns approximately 4.626 acres in Denver, North Carolina, which houses the operations of Air T and MAC.
The Company leases approximately 1,950 square feet of office space and approximately 4,800 square feet of hangar space at the Ford Airport in Iron Mountain, Michigan. CSA’s operations are headquartered at these facilities which are leased from a third party under an annually renewable agreement.
The Company leases approximately 53,000 square feet of a 66,000 square foot aircraft maintenance facility located in Kinston, North Carolina under an agreement that extends through January 2023, with the option to extend the lease for four additional five-year periods thereafter. The rental rate under the lease increases by increments for each of the five-year renewal periods.
GGS leases an 112,500 square foot production facility in Olathe, Kansas. The facility is leased from a third party under a lease agreement, which expires in August 2024.
As of March 31, 2021, the Company leased hangar, maintenance and office space from third parties at a variety of other locations, at prevailing market terms.
Contrail Aviation leases a 21,000 square foot facility in Verona, Wisconsin. This is a lease from a related party. See Note 14 “Related Party Matters” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report. As of March 31, 2021, Contrail has executed the option to extend this lease for an additional period of five years on the same terms and conditions. The new lease expires on July 17, 2026. Contrail also leases a 1,453 square foot office space in Denver, Colorado. The lease is a 37 month lease that commenced on January 1, 2019.
Jet Yard leases approximately 48.5 acres of land from Pinal County at the Pinal Air Park in Marana, Arizona. The lease expires in May 2046, though Jet Yard has an option to renew the lease for an additional 30-year period (though the lease to a 2.6-acre parcel of the leased premises may be terminated by Pinal County upon 90 days’ notice). The lease agreement permits Pinal County to terminate the lease if Jet Yard fails to make substantial progress toward the construction of facilities on the leased premises in phases in accordance with a specified timetable. On May 27, 2020, Pinal County and Jet Yard entered into the first amendment to the lease agreement in which Pinal County agreed to the terms of Jet Yard's ground hardening civil improvement project ("ground hardening improvements") on areas under lease to improve its aircraft parking facilities. As of March 31, 2021, Jet Yard has subleased the aforementioned lease along with the ground hardening improvements to Jet Yard Solutions.
DSI leases 12,206 square feet of space in a building located in Mississauga, Canada. The lease expires on July 31, 2023. The lease required Air T to deposit six months' rent as a cash deposit.

AirCo and Worthington began work in mid-2019 to consolidate back office operations. This process began with the move of AirCo’s inventory from Wichita to Eagan MN. In parallel to this, Worthington worked with the landlord and property manager on a tenant expansion project to add an additional 2,546 square feet of office space and 11,214 square feet of warehouse to the Eagan MN facility to consolidate inventory and support operations into one facility. AirCo Services occupied the Wichita facility through the end of the lease on April 30, 2020 at which time the Repair Station moved to Eagan, MN.
 
Worthington and AirCo lease a 41,280 square-foot facility in Eagan, Minnesota. The lease for this facility expires in December 2027. In addition, Worthington also leases a 12,000 square-foot storage facility in Hastings, Minnesota. The lease for this facility expires in July 2022. Worthington has two leases in Tulsa, Oklahoma. One lease is 22,582 square feet and expires in January 2022. The other lease is 10,000 square feet and expires in September 2020. Additionally, Worthington also has two facility leases in Australia: Unit E3 is 1,195 square feet and Unit B5 is 1,442 square feet, both of which expire in January 2025.

19


Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.
The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of their business. We believe that our current proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. We record a liability when a loss is considered probable, and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
The Company’s common stock is publicly traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “AIRT.”
As of March 31, 2021, the approximate number of holders of record of the Company’s Common Stock was 160.
The Company has not paid any cash dividends since 2014.
On May 14, 2014, the Company announced that its Board of Directors had authorized a program to repurchase up to 750,000 shares (adjusted to 1,125,000 shares after the stock split on June 10, 2019) of the Company’s common stock from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, in compliance with SEC Rule 10b-18, over an indefinite period. The Company did not repurchase any shares pursuant to this authorization during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
The equity compensation plan information called for by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K is set forth in Item 12 “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” of Part III of this report under the heading “Equity Compensation Plan Information”.
As of March 31, 2021, the Company did not sell any securities within the past three years that were not registered under the Securities Act.
Item 6.    [Reserved]
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Overview
Air T, Inc. (the “Company,” “Air T,” “we” or “us” or “our”) is a holding company with a portfolio of operating businesses and financial assets. Our goal is to prudently and strategically diversify Air T’s earnings power and compound the growth in its free cash flow per share over time.
We currently operate in four industry segments:
Overnight air cargo, which operates in the air express delivery services industry;
Ground equipment sales, which manufactures and provides mobile deicers and other specialized equipment products to passenger and cargo airlines, airports, the military and industrial customers;
Commercial aircraft, engines and parts, which manages and leases aviation assets; supplies surplus and aftermarket commercial jet engine components; provides commercial aircraft disassembly/part-out services; commercial aircraft parts sales; procurement services and overhaul and repair services to airlines and;
Corporate and other, which acts as the capital allocator and resource for other consolidated businesses. Further, Corporate and other is also comprised of insignificant businesses that do not pertain to other reportable segments.
On September 30, 2019, we completed the sale of 100% of the equity ownership in GAS, which previously constituted the ground support services segment. See Note 2, Discontinued Operations of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Each business segment has separate management teams and infrastructures that offer different products and services. We evaluate the performance of our business segments based on operating income and Adjusted EBITDA.
20


Forward Looking Statements
Certain statements in this Report, including those contained in “Overview,” are “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 with respect to the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business. Forward-looking statements include those preceded by, followed by or that include the words “believes”, “pending”, “future”, “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “depends” or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements, because of, among other things, potential risks and uncertainties, such as:
Economic conditions in the Company’s markets;
The risk that contracts with FedEx could be terminated or adversely modified;
The risk that the number of aircraft operated for FedEx will be reduced;
The risk that GGS customers will defer or reduce significant orders for deicing equipment;
The impact of any terrorist activities on United States soil or abroad;
The Company’s ability to manage its cost structure for operating expenses, or unanticipated capital requirements, and match them to shifting customer service requirements and production volume levels;
The Company's ability to meet debt service covenants and to refinance existing debt obligations;
The risk of injury or other damage arising from accidents involving the Company’s overnight air cargo operations, equipment or parts sold and/or services provided;
Market acceptance of the Company’s commercial and military equipment and services;
Competition from other providers of similar equipment and services;
Changes in government regulation and technology;
Changes in the value of marketable securities held as investments;
Mild winter weather conditions reducing the demand for deicing equipment;
Market acceptance and operational success of the Company’s new aircraft asset management business and related new aircraft capital joint venture; and
The length and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic.
A forward-looking statement is neither a prediction nor a guarantee of future events or circumstances, and those future events or circumstances may not occur. We are under no obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
21


Results of Operations
Due to insignificance, the Company combined the previous printing and equipment segment into corporate and other. We have presented prior periods based on the current presentation.
Outlook
COVID-19 and its impact on the current financial, economic and capital markets environment, and future developments in these and other areas present uncertainty and risk with respect to our financial condition and results of operations. Each of our businesses implemented measures to attempt to limit the impact of COVID-19 but we still experienced a substantial number of disruptions, and we experienced and continue to experience a reduction in demand for commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts compared to historical periods. Many of our businesses may continue to generate reduced operating cash flow and may operate at a loss during at least the first half of fiscal 2022. We expect that the impact of COVID-19 will continue to some extent. The fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact of COVID-19 on economic and market conditions and our business in particular, and, as a result, present material uncertainty and risk with respect to us and our results of operations.
Fiscal 2021 vs. 2020
Consolidated revenue decreased by $61.7 million (26%) to $175.1 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. Following is a table detailing revenue (after elimination of intercompany transactions), in thousands:

Year ended March 31,Change
20212020
Overnight Air Cargo$66,251 $75,275 $(9,024)(12)%
Ground Equipment Sales60,679 59,156 1,523 %
Commercial Jet Engines and Parts46,793 101,284 (54,491)(54)%
Corporate and Other1,398 1,070 328 31 %
Total$175,121 $236,785 $(61,664)(26)%
Revenues from the air cargo segment decreased by $9.0 million (12%) compared to the prior fiscal year, principally attributable to lower sales to maintenance customers outside of FedEx as a result of COVID-19 and lower admin fees from FedEx due to fewer operating aircraft (66 aircraft in fiscal 2021 compared to 69 aircraft in fiscal 2020). Pass-through costs under the dry-lease agreements with FedEx totaled $19.9 million and $23.7 million for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
The ground equipment sales segment contributed approximately $60.7 million and $59.2 million to the Company’s revenues for the fiscal periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing a $1.5 million (3%) increase in the current year. The increase was primarily driven by a higher volume of truck sales to the USAF. At March 31, 2021, the ground equipment sales segment’s order backlog was $10.3 million compared to $51.5 million at March 31, 2020.
The commercial jet engines and parts segment contributed $46.8 million of revenues in fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 compared to $101.3 million in the prior fiscal year which is a decrease of $54.5 million (54%). The decrease is primarily attributable to the fact that all the companies within this segment had lower engine and component sales and lease income due to the impact of COVID-19 on the aviation industry as a whole.
Following is a table detailing operating (loss) income by segment, net of intercompany during Fiscal 2021 and Fiscal 2020 (in thousands):

Year ended March 31,Change
20212020
Overnight Air Cargo$2,178 $749 $1,429 
Ground Equipment Sales8,948 7,302 1,646 
Commercial Jet Engines and Parts(10,882)8,322 (19,204)
Corporate and Other(9,419)(9,082)(337)
Total$(9,175)$7,291 $(16,466)
Consolidated operating loss for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 was $9.2 million compared to consolidated operating income of $7.3 million in the prior fiscal year.
Operating income for the air cargo segment increased by $1.4 million in the current fiscal year, due primarily to having lower pilot and staff salaries as well as contract labor.
The ground equipment sales segment operating income increased by $1.6 million from $7.3 million in the prior year to $8.9 million in the current year. This increase was primarily attributable to the increased sales noted in the segment revenue discussion above as well as better operating margin as a result of having a more profitable mix of products sold.
Operating loss of the commercial jet engines and parts segment was $10.9 million compared to operating income of $8.3 million in the prior year. The change was primarily attributable to the decreased aircraft engines and component sales as well as reduced lease income due to COVID-19 at the companies within this segment as explained in the segment revenue discussion above. This segment's current year operating loss was also further increased due to inventory write-down of $6.4 million.
Following is a table detailing consolidated non-operating expenses, net of intercompany during Fiscal 2021 and Fiscal 2020 (in thousands):

Year Ended March 31,Change
20212020
Other-than-temporary impairment loss on investments$— $(2,305)$2,305 
Interest expense, net(4,624)(4,692)68 
Gain on settlement of bankruptcy— 4,527 (4,527)
Loss from equity method investments(723)(910)187 
Other2,741 (1,287)4,028 
$(2,606)$(4,667)$2,061 

The Company had net non-operating expenses of $2.6 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of $2.1 million from $4.7 million in the prior year. The decrease was primarily due to the prior-year's impairment loss on the investment of Insignia of $2.3 million that did not recur in the current-year as well as an increase of $4.0 million in other income, driven by $2.1 million of investment income and realized gain on sale of securities in the current-year. The decrease was partially offset by the prior-year's gain on settlement of bankruptcy proceedings related to Dephax Canada and UK of $4.5 million that did not recur in the current-year.

During the year ended March 31, 2021, the Company recorded $3.4 million of income tax benefit related to continuing operations, which yielded an effective rate of 28.8%. The primary factors contributing to the difference between the federal statutory rate of 21% and the Company’s effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 were the estimated benefit for the exclusion of income for the Company’s captive insurance company subsidiary under §831(b), the exclusion of the minority owned portion of pretax income of Contrail Aviation Support, LLC, state income tax expense, the rate differential for the NOL carryback claim and changes in the valuation allowance. The change in the valuation allowance is primarily due to unrealized losses on investments and the generation of foreign tax credits through the NOL carryback claim that the Company expects to expire before they are fully utilized.

During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, the Company recorded $0.5 million of income tax benefit related to continuing operations at an effective tax rate of -20.7%. The primary factors contributing to the difference between the federal statutory rate of 21% and the Company’s effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 were the estimated benefit for the exclusion of income for the Company’s captive insurance company subsidiary under §831(b), the exclusion of the minority owned portion of pretax income of Contrail Aviation Support, LLC as well as state income tax expense, and changes in the valuation allowance. The change in the valuation allowance is primarily due to unrealized losses on investments, utilization of capital loss carryforwards, and attribute reduction incurred by Delphax related to cancellation of debt income and dissolution of its Canadian and UK subsidiaries.

22



Market Outlook

COVID-19 and its impact on the financial, economic and capital markets environment, and future developments in these and other areas present uncertainty and risk with respect to our financial condition and results of operations. Each of our businesses implemented measures to attempt to limit the impact of COVID-19 but we still experienced a substantial number of disruptions, and a reduction in demand for commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts compared to historical periods. We currently expect that many of our businesses may continue to generate reduced operating cash flow and may operate at a loss during at least the first half of fiscal 2022. We expect that these impacts will continue to some extent. The fluidity of this situation precludes any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact of COVID-19 on economic and market conditions, and, as a result, present material uncertainty and risk with respect to us and our results of operations.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus in the United States and elsewhere created considerable instability and disruption in the U.S. and world economies. Uncertainty still surrounds COVID-19 and its potential effects, as well as the extent and effectiveness of any responses taken on a national and local level. Measures taken to limit the impact of COVID-19, including shelter-in-place orders, social distancing measures and other restrictions on travel, congregation and business operations resulted in significant negative impacts in the United States and world economies and in relation to our business. The long-term impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. and world economies remains uncertain and the duration and scope of the world-wide economic downturn cannot currently be predicted. The extent to which our financial condition, results of operations and overall value will continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic, containment and the effectiveness of vaccine measures, among others.
23


Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of March 31, 2021, the Company held approximately $15.9 million in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, $4.7 million of which related to restricted cash collateralized for three Opportunity Zone fund investments. The Company also held $1.5 million in restricted investments held as statutory reserve of SAIC. The Company also has approximately $1.4 million of marketable securities.
As of March 31, 2021, the Company’s working capital amounted to $77.6 million, an increase of $46.9 million compared to March 31, 2020, primarily driven by a decrease in short-term borrowings of $37.0 million. See Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report for a summary of “Financing Arrangements” as of March 31, 2021.
The Company’s Credit Agreement with Minnesota Bank & Trust, a Minnesota state banking corporation (“MBT”) (the Air T debt in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report) includes several covenants that are measured once a year at March 31, including but not limited to, a negative covenant requiring a debt service coverage ratio of 1.25. The AirCo 1 Credit Agreement (the AirCo 1 debt in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report) contains an affirmative covenant relating to collateral valuation. As of March 31, 2021, the Company and AirCo 1 were in compliance with all financial covenants.

The Contrail Credit Agreement (the Contrail debt in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report) contains affirmative and negative covenants, including covenants that restrict the ability of Contrail and its subsidiaries to, among other things, incur or guarantee indebtedness, incur liens, dispose of assets, engage in mergers and consolidations, make acquisitions or other investments, make changes in the nature of its business, and engage in transactions with affiliates. The Contrail Credit Agreement also contains quarterly financial covenants applicable to Contrail and its subsidiaries, including a minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.25 to 1.0 and a minimum tangible net worth ("TNW") of $15 million.

On September 25, 2020, Contrail entered into a Third Amendment to Supplement #2 to Master Loan Agreement dated June 24, 2019 with Old National Bank ("ONB"). The material changes within the Third Amendment were: (a) to extend the date for compliance with the provision where Contrail is required to pay down the total outstanding principal balance of its revolver to zero for at least thirty consecutive days to September 5, 2021; and (b) to extend the date for compliance with the required quarterly debt service coverage ratio covenant such that Contrail shall commence compliance with the covenant commencing on March 31, 2022 and on the last day of each fiscal quarter thereafter.

Due primarily to the impact of COVID-19 on its business, as of March 31, 2021, Contrail was not in compliance with maintaining the minimum TNW of $15 million. As of the issuance date of this report, pursuant to the existing terms of the Contrail Credit Agreement, the Company and the non-controlling interest owner of Contrail made total capital contributions to Contrail in the amount of $1.4 million, which had the effect of curing this financial covenant non-compliance. Contrail and ONB are also in discussions to reduce the minimum TNW to $8 million, in exchange for certain amendments to its credit agreement, including renewing its revolving line of credit at a lower amount than the current agreement. However, there is no assurance that Contrail will be successful in reducing the minimum TNW financial covenant.

The obligations of Contrail under the Contrail Credit Agreement are guaranteed by the Company, up to a maximum of $1.6 million, plus costs of collection. The Company is not liable for any other assets or liabilities of Contrail and there are no cross-default provisions with respect to Contrail’s debt in any of the Company’s debt agreements with other lenders. In the possible absence of Contrail’s operation as a going concern, the Company believes it, along with the rest of its businesses, will continue to operate as a going concern, given the maximum guarantee of Contrail’s obligations of $1.6 million.

On November 24, 2020, Contrail and ONB entered into Supplement #8 to Master Loan Agreement and related documentation for a loan in the aggregate amount of $43.6 million for which ONB served as lender pursuant to the Main Street Priority Loan Facility as established by the U.S. Federal Reserve ("the Fed"). The Contrail Main Street Loan was approved by the Fed and completed by December 8, 2020. The proceeds were used to pay down the Contrail Revolver. The loan proceeds are also to be used as working capital to support the operations of Contrail in the ordinary course of business, which includes the acquisition from time to time of aircraft and engines. The indebtedness incurred is subject to the terms and provisions of the Master Loan Agreement. The principal terms of the Contrail Main Street Loan are detailed in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.

On December 11, 2020, AirCo 1 and Park State Bank ("PSB") entered into a loan in the aggregate amount of $6.2 million for which PSB served as lender pursuant to the Main Street Priority Loan Facility as established by the Fed. The AirCo 1 Main Street Loan was approved by the Fed and completed by December 22, 2020. The loan proceeds were used to pay off the AirCo 1 revolving line of credit with MBT. The principal terms of the Term Loan - PSB are detailed in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report.

The revolving line of credit at Air T with MBT has a due date or expires within the next twelve months. We are currently seeking to refinance this obligation prior to August 31, 2021; however, there is no assurance that we will be able to execute this refinancing or, if we are able to refinance this obligation, that the terms of such refinancing would be as favorable as the terms of our existing credit facility.

In April 2020, the Company obtained loans under the Payroll Protection Program ("PPP loan"), as authorized by the CARES Act, of $8.2 million to help pay for payroll costs, mortgage interest, rent and utility costs. The Company has applied to MBT for forgiveness of the PPP Loan; however, forgiveness is not fully assured.

As mentioned in Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report, in 2016, Contrail Aviation entered into an Operating Agreement with the Seller providing for the put and call options with regard to the 21% non-controlling interest retained by the Seller. The Seller is the founder of Contrail Aviation and its current Chief Executive Officer. The Put/Call Option permits the Seller to require Contrail Aviation to purchase all of the Seller’s equity membership interests in Contrail Aviation commencing on the fifth anniversary of the acquisition, which is on July 18, 2021. As of the date of issuance, neither the Seller nor Air T has indicated the intent to exercise its put and call options on July 18, 2021. If either side were to exercise its option, the Company anticipates that the price would approximate the fair value of the Redeemable Non-Controlling Interest, as determined on the transaction date, based on the methodology in Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report. The Company currently expects that it would fund any required payment from cash provided by operations.

The Company believes it is probable that the cash on hand (including that obtained from the PPP and other current financings), net cash provided by operations from its remaining operating segments, together with its current revolving lines of credit, as amended or replaced, will be sufficient to meet its obligations as they become due in the ordinary course of business for at least 12 months following the date these financial statements are issued.


24


Cash Flows
Following is a table of changes in cash flow from continuing operations for the respective years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

Year Ended March 31,
20212020Change
Net Cash Used in Operating Activities$(1,823)$(26,231)$24,408 
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities2,516 (11,568)14,084 
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities71 19,240 (19,169)
Effect of foreign currency exchange rates(412)260 (672)
Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash$352 $(18,299)$18,651 

Cash used in operating activities was $1.8 million in fiscal year 2021 compared to cash used in operating activities of $26.2 million in fiscal year 2020. During fiscal year 2020, the Company's purchase of engines and components received into inventory exceeded amounts spent in fiscal year 2021 by $23.7 million. Further, more cash was collected this year compared to the prior year as accounts receivable decreased by $6.6 million. The decrease in cash usage was offset by a decrease in net income of $11.6 million due to reduced operations as a result of COVID-19.
Cash provided by investing activities for fiscal year 2021 was $2.5 million compared to cash used in investing activities for the prior fiscal year of $11.6 million. This difference was primarily driven by a net decrease of $32.7 million in capital expenditures, partially offset by $22.5 million less proceeds from sale of assets on lease in fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020.
Cash provided by financing activities for fiscal year 2021 was $19.2 million less compared to the prior fiscal year. This was primarily due to decreased net proceeds from lines of credit of $65.9 million, offset by increased net proceeds from term loans of $51.7 million.
25


Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company defines an off-balance sheet arrangement as any transaction, agreement or other contractual arrangement involving an unconsolidated entity under which a Company has (1) made guarantees, (2) a retained or a contingent interest in transferred assets, (3) an obligation under derivative instruments classified as equity, or (4) any obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to the Company, or that engages in leasing, hedging, or research and development arrangements with the Company. The Company is not currently engaged in the use of any of these arrangements.
Impact of Inflation
The Company believes that inflation has not had a material effect on its manufacturing and commercial jet engine and parts operations, because increased costs to date have been passed on to customers. Under the terms of its overnight air cargo business contracts the major cost components of that segment's operations, consisting principally of fuel, crew and other direct operating costs, and certain maintenance costs are reimbursed by its customer. Significant increases in inflation rates could, however, have a material impact on future revenue and operating income.
26


Non-GAAP Financial Measures

The Company uses adjusted earnings before taxes, interest, and depreciation and amortization ("Adjusted EBITDA"), a non-GAAP financial measure as defined by the SEC, to evaluate the Company's financial performance. This performance measure is not defined by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and should be considered in addition to, and not in lieu of, GAAP financial measures.

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings before taxes, interest, and depreciation and amortization, adjusted for specified items. The Company calculates Adjusted EBITDA by removing the impact of specific items and adding back the amounts of interest expense and depreciation and amortization to earnings before income taxes. When calculating Adjusted EBITDA, the Company does not add back depreciation expense for aircraft engines that are on lease, as the Company believes this expense matches with the corresponding revenue earned on engine leases. Depreciation expense for leased engines totaled $1.9 million and $4.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

Management believes that Adjusted EBITDA is a useful measure of the Company's performance because it provides investors additional information about the Company's operations allowing better evaluation of underlying business performance and better period-to-period comparability. Adjusted EBITDA is not intended to replace or be an alternative to operating income from continuing operations, the most directly comparable amounts reported under GAAP.

The table below provides a reconciliation of operating income from continuing operations to Adjusted EBITDA for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

Twelve Months Ended
March 31, 2021March 31, 2020
Operating (loss) income from continuing operations$(9,175)$7,291 
Depreciation and amortization (excluding leased engines depreciation)1,231 1,329 
Asset impairment, restructuring or impairment charges6,592 18 
Gain on sale of property and equipment(10)(37)
Security issuance expenses32 363 
Adjusted EBITDA$(1,330)$8,964 

Included in the asset impairment, restructuring or impairment charges for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 was a write-down of $6.4 million on the commercial jet engines and parts segment's inventory. Of the total write-down, $0.5 million was driven by a management decision to monetize two engines by sale to a third party, in which the net carrying values exceeded the estimated proceeds during the quarter ended September 30, 2020. The remaining write-down was attributable to our evaluation of the carrying value of inventory as of March 31, 2021, where we compared its cost to its net realizable value and considered factors such as physical condition, sales patterns and expected future demand to estimate the amount necessary to write down any slow moving, obsolete or damaged inventory.

The table below provides Adjusted EBITDA by segment for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

Twelve Months Ended
March 31, 2021March 31, 2020
Overnight Air Cargo$2,248 $821 
Ground Equipment Sales9,132 7,588 
Commercial Jet Engines and Parts(3,933)8,718 
Corporate and Other(8,777)(8,163)
Adjusted EBITDA$(1,330)$8,964 

27


Seasonality
The ground equipment sales segment business has historically been seasonal, with the revenues and operating income typically being higher in the second and third fiscal quarters as commercial deicers are typically delivered prior to the winter season. Other segments are typically not susceptible to material seasonal trends.
28


Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.
The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included under Part II, Item 8 of this report. The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires the use of estimates and assumptions to determine certain assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Management bases these estimates and assumptions upon the best information available at the time of the estimates or assumptions. The Company’s estimates and assumptions could change materially as conditions within and beyond our control change. Accordingly, actual results could differ materially from estimates. The Company believes that the following are its most critical accounting policies:
Inventories – Inventories are carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Within the Company’s commercial jet engines and parts segment, there are various estimates and judgments made in relief of inventory as parts are sold from established groups of parts from one engine or airframe purchase. The estimates and judgments made in relief of inventory are based on assumptions that are consistent with a market participant’s future expectations for the commercial aircraft, jet engines and parts industry and the economy in general and our expected intent for the inventory. These assumptions and estimates are complex and subjective in nature. Changes in economic and operating conditions, including those occurring as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic could impact the assumptions and result in future losses to our inventory.

The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of inventory. In these evaluations, the Company is required to make estimates regarding the net realizable value, which includes the consideration of sales patterns and expected future demand. Any slow moving, obsolete or damaged inventory and inventory with costs exceeding net realizable value are evaluated for write-downs. These estimates could vary significantly from actual amounts based upon future economic conditions, customer inventory levels, or competitive factors that were not foreseen or did not exist when the estimated write-downs were made.

Valuation of Assets on Lease or Held for Lease - Engine assets on lease or held for lease are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. On a quarterly basis, we monitor the portfolio for events which may indicate that a particular asset may need to be evaluated for potential impairment. These events may include a decision to part-out or sell an asset, knowledge of specific damage to an asset, or supply/demand events which may impact the Company’s ability to lease an asset in the future. On an annual basis, even absent any such ‘triggering event’, we evaluate the assets in our portfolio to determine if their carrying amount may not be recoverable. If an asset is determined to be unrecoverable, the asset is written down to fair value. When evaluating for impairment, we test at the individual asset level (e.g., engine, airframe or aircraft), as each asset generates its own stream of cash flows, including lease rents and maintenance reserves.

The Company must make significant and subjective estimates in determining whether any impairment exists. Those estimates are as follows:

Fair value – we determine fair value by reference to independent appraisals, quoted market prices (e.g., an offer to purchase) and other factors such as current data from airlines, engine manufacturers and MRO providers as well as specific market sales and repair cost data.

Future cash flows – when evaluating the future cash flows that an asset will generate, we make assumptions regarding the lease market for specific engine models, including estimates of market lease rates and future demand. These assumptions are based upon lease rates that we are obtaining in the current market as well as our expectation of future demand for the specific engine/aircraft model.

If the forecasted undiscounted cash flows and fair value of our long-lived assets decrease in the future, we may incur impairment charges.
Accounting for Redeemable Non-Controlling Interest. Policies related to redeemable non-controlling interest involve judgment and complexity, specifically on the classification of the non-controlling interest in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. Further, there is significant judgment in determining whether an equity instrument is currently redeemable or not currently redeemable but probable that the equity instrument will become redeemable. Additionally, there are also significant estimates made in the valuation of the redeemable non-controlling interest. The fair value of the non-controlling interest is determined using a combination of the income approach, utilizing a discounted cash flow analysis, and the market approach, utilizing the guideline public company method. Contrail's discounted cash flow analysis requires significant management judgment with respect to forecasts of revenue, operating margins, capital expenditures, and the selection and use of an appropriate discount rate. Contrail’s market approach requires management to make significant assumptions related to market multiples of earnings derived from comparable publicly-traded companies with similar operating characteristics as Contrail.
29


Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.

Not Applicable.
30


Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Page

31


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Air T, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Air T, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of March 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, equity, and cash flows, for each of the two years in the period ended March 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended March 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Redeemable non-controlling interest – valuation of Contrail Aviation Support, LLC — Refer to Notes 1 and 5 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company has a 79% controlling interest in Contrail Aviation Support, LLC and is party to an operating agreement with the owner of the remaining 21% ownership interest in Contrail Aviation Support, LLC, that contains certain future redemption features that are outside the control of the Company.

This arrangement is recorded and disclosed as a redeemable non-controlling interest at fair value of $6.6 million as of March 31, 2021. The Company adjusts the redeemable non-controlling interest each reporting period to the higher of the redemption value or carrying value, using a combination of the income approach, utilizing a discounted cash flow analysis, and the market approach, utilizing the guideline public company method. The determination of fair value includes estimation uncertainty under both approaches.

The income approach requires significant management judgment with respect to forecasts of future revenue, operating margins, and capital expenditures, and the selection and use of an appropriate discount rate. The market approach requires management to make significant assumptions related to market multiples of earnings derived from comparable publicly-traded companies with similar operating characteristics as Contrail Aviation Support, LLC. We identified the valuation of redeemable non-controlling interest in Contrail Aviation Support, LLC as a critical audit matter given the significant judgments and assumptions required by management to estimate the fair value of the redeemable non-controlling interest, as well as the fact that performing audit procedures required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our fair value specialists.

32


How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the significant judgments and assumptions utilized in the valuation of the redeemable non-controlling interest in Contrail Aviation Support, LLC, included the following, among others:

We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s forecasts of future revenue and operating margins by comparing the forecasts to:
Historical results of Contrail Aviation Support, LLC, and
Forecasted information included in industry reports.
We considered the impact of industry and market conditions on management’s forecasts for Contrail Aviation Support, LLC.
We involved our fair value specialists to assist in the evaluation of:
The valuation methodologies used by the Company to determine whether they were consistent with generally accepted valuation practices, and reasonably weighted.
The discount rates, including testing the underlying source information and the mathematical accuracy of the calculations, and developing a range of independent estimates and comparing those to the discount rates selected by management.
Earnings multiples, including testing the underlying source information and mathematical accuracy of the calculations, and evaluating the appropriateness of the Company’s selection of companies in its industry comparable groups.
We performed sensitivity analyses with regard to forecasted revenue and the discount rate to evaluate the changes in the fair value of the redeemable non-controlling interest in Contrail Aviation Support, LLC, that would result from changes in those significant assumptions.
We evaluated whether the business and valuation assumptions used were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit.

Inventories, net – valuation of inventories– Refer to Notes 1 and 6 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

Inventories are carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value. In its periodic evaluation of the carrying value of these inventories, the Company is required to make estimates regarding the net realizable value, which includes the consideration of sales patterns and expected future demand. Changes in these assumptions could have a significant impact on the valuation of certain inventory held by the Company’s Commercial Jet Engines and Parts operating segment.

We identified the valuation of certain inventory held by the Company’s Commercial Jet Engines and Parts operating segment as a critical audit matter. Given the magnitude of the inventories at certain business units, coupled with the significant judgments necessary to project sales patterns and expected future demand, as well as changes in economic and market conditions brought on by COVID-19, auditing such estimates required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our fair value specialists, when performing audit procedures and evaluating the results of those procedures.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the sales patterns and expected future demand, used by management to determine the valuation of inventories, included the following, among others:

We evaluated the reasonableness of the sales patterns and expected future demand, and related inputs used by management, by comparing the information to:
Historical results of those business units.
Forecasted sales based on recent quote and sales information for similar parts within the Company’s inventory.
Market data and forecasts with regard to the recovery of the airline industry from the impacts of COVID-19.
We involved our fair value specialists to assist in the evaluation of:
The methodology used by, and the qualifications of, the Company’s third-party specialist.
The key assumptions underlying the valuation of a representative sample of inventories including recent quotes, number of vendors, number of components, and component condition.
We held discussions with various members of management to understand the status of any plans to monetize certain inventories at less than carrying value to meet cash flow demands and evaluated whether the determination of net realizable value for those inventories reflects the status of management’s plans.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Minneapolis, Minnesota
June 25, 2021

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2018.
33


AIR T, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
Year Ended March 31,
(In thousands, except per share data) 20212020
Operating Revenues:
Overnight air cargo$66,251 $75,275 
Ground equipment sales60,679 59,156 
Commercial jet engines and parts46,793 101,284 
Corporate and other1,398 1,070 
175,121 236,785 
Operating Expenses:
Overnight air cargo58,351 67,391 
Ground equipment sales45,282 46,472 
Commercial jet engines and parts36,710 70,188 
General and administrative34,264 39,781 
Depreciation and amortization3,107 5,681 
Write-down of inventory6,405  
Impairment of property and equipment187 18 
Gain on sale of property and equipment(10)(37)
184,296 229,494 
Operating (Loss) Income from continuing operations(9,175)7,291 
Non-operating Income (Expense):
Other-than-temporary impairment loss on investments (2,305)
Interest expense, net(4,624)(4,692)
Gain on settlement of bankruptcy 4,527 
Loss from equity method investments(723)(910)
Other2,741 (1,287)
(2,606)(4,667)
(Loss) Income from continuing operations before income taxes(11,781)2,624 
Income Tax Benefit(3,387)(544)
Net (Loss) Income from continuing operations(8,394)3,168 
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax (114)
Gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax4 8,179 
Net (Loss) Income(8,390)11,233 
Net Loss (Income) Attributable to Non-controlling Interests1,113 (3,577)
Net (Loss) Income Attributable to Air T, Inc. Stockholders$(7,277)$7,656 
Loss from continuing operations per share (Note 22)
Basic$(2.53)$(0.15)
Diluted$(2.53)$(0.15)
Income from discontinued operations per share (Note 22)
Basic$ $2.89 
Diluted$ $2.88 
(Loss) Income per share (Note 22)
Basic$(2.53)$2.74 
Diluted$(2.53)$2.73 
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding:
Basic2,882 2,791 
Diluted2,882 2,798 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
34


AIR T, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Year Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20212020
Net (Loss) Income$(8,390)$11,233 
Other Comprehensive Income:
Foreign currency translation (loss) gain(409)212 
Unrealized gain/(loss) on interest rate swaps, net of tax of $78 and $157
262 (529)
Reclassification of interest rate swaps into earnings(18) 
Total Other Comprehensive Loss(165)(317)
Total Comprehensive (Loss) Income(8,555)10,916 
Comprehensive Loss (Income) Attributable to Non-controlling Interests1,113 (3,592)
Comprehensive (Loss) Income Attributable to Air T, Inc. Stockholders$(7,442)$7,324 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
35


AIR T, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands)March 31, 2021March 31, 2020
ASSETS
Current Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$10,996 $5,952 
Marketable securities1,407 1,677 
Restricted cash4,931 9,619 
Restricted investments1,507 1,085 
Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $1,177 and $680
6,505 13,077 
Income tax receivable4,389 1,174 
Inventories, net71,971 60,623 
Other current assets4,068 5,279 
Total Current Assets105,774 98,486 
Assets on lease or held for lease, net of accumulated depreciation of $436 and $6,526
2,131 27,945 
Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $4,510 and $4,319
8,519 5,272 
Right-of-use assets7,757 8,116 
Equity method investments4,475 5,208 
Goodwill4,227 4,227 
Other assets7,867 2,173 
Total Assets$140,750 $151,427 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities:
Accounts payable$8,344 10,864 
Income tax payable39  
Accrued expenses and other (Note 11)12,787 13,024 
Current portion of long-term debt 5,639 42,684 
Short-term lease liability1,370 1,174 
Total Current Liabilities28,179 67,746 
Long-term debt 81,857 43,136 
Long-term lease liability 7,075 7,473 
Deferred income tax liabilities, net595 579 
Other non-current liabilities1,732 1,402 
Total Liabilities119,438 $120,336 
Redeemable non-controlling interest6,598 6,080 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 23)
Equity:
Air T, Inc. Stockholders' Equity:
Preferred stock, $1.00 par value, 50,000 shares authorized
  
Common stock, $0.25 par value; 4,000,000 shares authorized, 3,022,745 shares issued and 2,881,853 shares outstanding
756 756 
Treasury stock, 140,892 shares at $18.58
(2,617)(2,617)
Additional paid-in capital 2,636 
Retained earnings16,270 23,768 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(684)(537)
Total Air T, Inc. Stockholders' Equity13,725 24,006 
Non-controlling Interests989 1,005 
Total Equity14,714 25,011 
Total Liabilities and Equity$140,750 $151,427 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.

36


AIR T, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Year Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20212020
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net (loss) income$(8,390)$11,233 
Loss from discontinued operations, net of income tax 114 
Gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of income tax(4)(8,179)
Net (loss) income from continuing operations(8,394)3,168 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and  amortization3,107 5,712 
Impairment of investment 2,305 
Profit from sale of assets on lease and held for lease(1,473)(5,277)
Gain on settlement of bankruptcy (4,509)
Write-down of inventory6,405  
Other1,019 1,112 
Change in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable6,074 (2,242)
Inventories(129)(29,614)
Accounts payable(2,521)1,512 
Accrued expenses(341)2,145 
Other(5,570)(543)
Total adjustments(2,487)(28,742)
Net cash used in operating activities - continuing operations(1,823)(26,231)
Net cash provided by operating activities - discontinued operations4 1,157 
Net cash used in operating activities(1,819)(25,074)
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Purchases of marketable securities(659)(626)
Sale of marketable securities2,452 239 
Proceeds from sale of assets on lease and held for lease8,183 30,688 
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired(536)(500)
Investment in unconsolidated entities (2,812)
Capital expenditures related to property & equipment(3,899)(2,439)
Capital expenditures related to assets on lease or held for lease(2,106)(36,253)
Other(919)135 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities - continuing operations2,516 (11,568)
Net cash provided by investing activities - discontinued operations 20,173 
Net cash provided by investing activities2,516 8,605 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Proceeds from lines of credit66,383 174,647 
Payments on lines of credit(105,552)(147,881)
Proceeds from term loan59,278 35,949 
Payments on term loan(27,275)(47,438)
Proceeds from PPP loan8,215  
Proceeds received from issuance of Trust Preferred Securities ("TruPs")1,341 8,522 
Other(2,319)(4,559)
Net cash provided by financing activities - continuing operations71 19,240 
Effect of foreign currency exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents(412)260 
NET INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH356 3,031 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AT BEGINNING OF PERIOD15,571 12,540 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AT END OF PERIOD15,927 15,571 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF NON-CASH ACTIVITIES:
Non-cash capital expenditures related to property & equipment31  
Equipment leased or held for lease to customers transferred to Inventory19,623 4,932 
Equipment in Inventory transferred to Assets on Lease 501 
Issuance of Debt - Trust Preferred Securities 4,000 
Issuance of warrant liability 840 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
Operating cash payments for operating leases1,683 1,485 
Cash paid during the year for interest2,732 3,310 
Cash paid during the year for income taxes477 1,485 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.
37


AIR T, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY


(In thousands)Common StockTreasury Stock
ShareAmountShareAmount
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Non-controlling
Interests*
Total
Equity
Balance, March 31, 20192,023 $506 — $— $2,867 $21,191 $(205)$(1,001)$23,358 
Net income*7,6561,9919,647
Stock Split1,010252(252) 
Repurchase of common stock(10)(2)141(2,617)(198)(2,817)
Issuance of Debt - Trust Preferred Securities(4,000)(4,000)
Issuance of Warrants(840)(840)
Adoption of ASC 842 - Leasing(41)(41)
Foreign currency translation gain197 15 212 
Adjustment to fair value of redeemable non-controlling interest21 21 
Unrealized loss of interest rate swaps, net of tax(529)(529)
Balance, March 31, 20203,023 $756 141 $(2,617)$2,636 $23,768 $(537)$1,005 $25,011 



(In thousands)Common StockTreasury Stock
ShareAmountShareAmount
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Non-controlling
Interests*
Total
Equity
Balance, March 31, 20203,023 $756 141 $(2,617)$2,636 $23,768 $(537)$1,005 $25,011 
Net loss*(7,277)(16)(