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TABLE OF CONTENTS

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 000-23354
FLEX LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
SingaporeNot Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2 Changi South Lane,
Singapore486123
(Address of registrant's principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
(65) 6876-9899
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares, No Par ValueFLEXThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act—NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No 
As of September 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of the Company's ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $5.3 billion based upon the closing sale price as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
ClassOutstanding at May 14, 2021
Ordinary Shares, No Par Value490,742,161
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
DocumentParts into Which Incorporated
Proxy Statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Registrant's 2021 Annual General Meeting of ShareholdersPart III



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PART I

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Unless otherwise specifically stated, references in this report to "Flex," "the Company," "we," "us," "our" and similar terms mean Flex Ltd. and its subsidiaries.
Except for historical information contained herein, certain matters included in this annual report on Form 10-K are, or may be deemed to be forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933. The words "will," "may," "designed to," "believe," "should," "anticipate," "plan," "expect," "intend," "estimate" and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this annual report. These forward-looking statements are contained principally under Item 1, "Business," and under Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Because these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, actual results could differ materially from the expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements include those described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors" and Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." In addition, new risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors or to assess the impact of such risk factors on our business. Given these risks and uncertainties, the reader should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
OVERVIEW
Flex is the manufacturing partner of choice that helps a diverse customer base design and build products that improve the world. Through the collective strength of a global workforce across approximately 30 countries and responsible, sustainable operations, Flex delivers technology innovation, supply chain, and manufacturing solutions to diverse industries and end markets.
In the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, Flex made certain changes in its organization structure as part of its strategy to further drive growth, efficiency and productivity with two focused and complementary delivery models, Flex Agility Solutions and Flex Reliability Solutions, Flex now reports its financial performance based on these two reportable segments:
Flex Agility Solutions ("FAS"), which is comprised of the following end markets:
Communications, Enterprise and Cloud ("CEC"), including data infrastructure, edge infrastructure and communications infrastructure;
Lifestyle, including appliances, consumer packaging, floorcare, micro mobility and audio; and
Consumer Devices, including mobile and high velocity consumer devices.
Flex Reliability Solutions ("FRS"), which is comprised of the following end markets:
Automotive, including autonomous, connectivity, electrification, and smart technologies;
Health Solutions, including medical devices, medical equipment and drug delivery; and
Industrial, including capital equipment, industrial devices, renewable including our Nextracker business, grid edge, and power systems.
The FAS segment is optimized for speed to market based on a highly flexible supply and manufacturing system. The FRS segment is optimized for longer product lifecycles requiring complex ramps with specialized production models and critical environments.
Our customers include many of the world's leading technology, healthcare, automotive, and industrial companies. We are focused on establishing long-term relationships with our customers and have been successful in expanding relationships to incorporate additional product lines and services.
In fiscal year 2021, our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 36% of net sales. No customer accounted for greater than 10% of the Company's net sales in fiscal year 2021.
Flex believes that growth in the contract manufacturing services industry will be largely driven by the need for OEMs to respond to rapidly changing industries, markets and technologies, as well as the increasing complexity of supply chains and the continued pressure to be innovative and cost competitive. Additionally, we believe there are significant opportunities for global
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manufacturing services providers to win additional business from OEMs in markets or industry segments that have yet to substantially outsource manufacturing. Finally, we believe the COVID-19 pandemic may drive further growth opportunities as it highlights numerous new vulnerabilities and challenges for OEMs, which will require OEMs from all markets and industries to evaluate their supply chain resiliency.
STRATEGY
Flex helps its customers responsibly design and build products that create value and improve people’s lives. We do this by providing our customers with product development lifecycle services, from innovation, design, and engineering, to manufacturing, supply chain solutions, logistics, and circularity offerings. Flex’s strategy is to continue investing in areas where we can differentiate and add value, whether through engineering and design services, product technologies or developing differentiated processes and business methods. We are strengthening our abilities in software, robotics, AI, factory automation, and other disruptive technologies. We select ethical partners and integrate the supply chain so that our customers can operate efficiently and responsibly. We are committed to investing in our employees and communities, which includes addressing critical environmental issues.
People. To maintain competitiveness and world-class capabilities, we focus on hiring and retaining the world's best talent. We have focused on attracting the best engineering, functional and operational leaders and have accelerated efforts to develop the future leaders of the Company.
Customer Focus. We believe that building strong partnerships with our customers and delivering on our commitments strengthens trust and customer retention. For Flex, customers come first, and we have a relentless focus on delivering distinctive products and services in a cost-effective manner with fast time to market. We are highly collaborative and leverage our global system and processes to operate with speed and responsiveness to provide customers a reliant and resilient supply chain and manufacturing technology solutions and services.
Markets. We focus on companies that are leaders in their industry and value our superior capabilities in design, manufacturing, and supply chain services. Flex focuses on high-growth industries and markets where we have distinctive competence and a compelling value proposition. Examples include investments in specific technologies and industries such as healthcare, automotive, industrial, and energy. Our market-focused approach to managing our business increases customers' competitiveness by leveraging our deep vertical industry and cross-industry expertise, as well as global scale, regional presence and agility to respond to changes in market dynamics.
Operations. We continue to invest in maintaining leadership position in our world-class manufacturing and services capabilities including automation, simulation tools, digitizing our factories and implementing leading edge Industry 4.0 methodologies. We leverage our broad set of capabilities globally to provide a competitive advantage by minimizing logistics, manufacturing costs, and cycle times while increasing flexibility and responsiveness.
SERVICE OFFERINGS
Flex provides design, manufacturing and supply chain services through a network of over 100 locations in approximately 30 countries across four continents. We have established global scale through an extensive network of innovation labs, design centers, and manufacturing and services sites in the world's major consumer and enterprise products markets (Asia, the Americas, and Europe) in order to serve the supply chain needs of both multinational and regional companies. Our services provide customers with a competitive advantage by delivering leading-edge manufacturing technology, supply chain expertise, improved product quality, increased flexibility, faster time to market, and overall value. Our customers leverage our services to meet their requirements throughout their products' entire life cycles.
We believe we have the broadest worldwide product development lifecycle capabilities in the industry, from concept design to manufacturing to aftermarket and end of life services. We believe our key competitive advantages are our people, processes, and capabilities for making products, systems and solutions for customers:
Time to market advantage: Our sophisticated supply chain management tools and expertise allow us to provide customers with access to real-time information that increases visibility and reduces risk throughout the entire product lifecycle. Our experience with new product introductions and manufacturing ramps provides customers with a time to market advantage.
Broad range of services: Our full range of services include innovation and design, engineering, manufacturing, forward and reverse logistics, and circular economy supply chain management. Our deep cross-industry knowledge and multi-domain expertise accelerate the production of increasingly complex products for increasingly interconnected industries.
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Global scale: Flex’s physical infrastructure includes over 100 facilities in approximately 30 countries, staffed by approximately 160,000 employees, providing customers with truly global scale and strategic geographic distribution capabilities.
We offer global economies of scale in advanced materials and technology sourcing, manufacturing and after-market services, as well as market-focused expertise and capabilities in design and engineering. As a result of extensive experience in specific markets, we have developed a deep understanding of complex market dynamics, giving us the ability to anticipate trends that impact customers' businesses. Our expertise can help improve customers' market positioning by effectively adjusting product plans and roadmaps to efficiently and cost-effectively deliver high quality products that meet their geographic and time to market requirements.
Our services include all processes necessary to design, build, ship, and service a wide range of products for customers. These services include:
Design and Engineering Services. In addition to innovation and design centers, the Company offers a comprehensive range of value-added design, engineering and systems integration services, tailored to specific industries and markets, the needs of customers, and cover a broad range of technical competencies:
System architecture;
User interface and industrial design;
Cross-industry technologies;
Hardware design;
Software design; and
Design for excellence.
Flex is exposed to different or greater potential liabilities from the various design services than those the Company typically face in its core assembly and manufacturing services. See "Risk Factors—The success of certain of our activities depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights; claims of infringement or misuse of intellectual property and/or breach of license agreement provisions against our customers or us could harm our business."
Systems Assembly and Manufacturing. Our systems assembly and manufacturing operations generate the majority of our revenues and includes printed circuit board assembly and assembly of systems and subsystems that incorporate printed circuit boards and complex electromechanical components. We assemble electronic products with custom electronic enclosures on either a build-to-order or configure-to-order basis. As customers seek to provide greater functionality in physically smaller products, they increasingly require more sophisticated manufacturing technologies and processes. Our investment in advanced manufacturing equipment and our expertise in innovative miniaturization, packaging and interconnect technologies, enables us to offer a variety of leading-edge manufacturing solutions. We support a wide range of product demand profiles, from low-volume, high-complexity programs, to high-volume production. Our systems assembly and manufacturing capabilities includes enclosures, testing services, and materials procurement and inventory management.
Power Modules. We offer a full-service power supply business that provides a range of solutions from custom to highly scalable system solutions. We have expertise in high efficiency and high-density switching power supplies ranging from 1 to 3,000 watts. Our product portfolio includes chargers for smartphones and tablets, adapters for notebooks and gaming systems, and power supplies for the server, storage, and networking markets.
Logistics. The Flex Global Services business provides after-market and forward supply chain logistics services. Our suite of services is tailored to customers operating in the computing, consumer digital, infrastructure, industrial, mobile, automotive and medical industries.
Reverse Logistics and Repair Services. We offer a suite of integrated reverse logistics and repair solutions that use globally consistent processes, which help increase our customers' brand loyalty by improving turnaround times and raising end-customer satisfaction levels. Our reverse logistics and repair solutions include returns management, exchange programs, complex repair, asset recovery, recycling and e-waste management. We provide repair expertise to multiple product lines such as consumer and midrange products, printers, smart phones, consumer medical devices, notebook personal computers, set-top boxes, game consoles and highly complex infrastructure products.
COMPETITION
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Flex’s market is extremely competitive. We compete against numerous domestic and foreign manufacturing service providers, as well as current and prospective customers, who evaluate our capabilities in light of their own capabilities and cost structures.
In recent years, we have seen an increased level of diversification by many companies in the technology, automotive and healthcare industries along with the convergence of many industries being transformed by technology advances. Increasingly complex products require highly customized solutions, in turn resulting in significant changes to the overall manufacturing and supply chain landscape.
We believe the principal competitive factors in the contract manufacturing services market are quality and range of services; design and technological capabilities; cost; location of sites; and responsiveness and flexibility. We believe we are extremely competitive with regard to all of these factors.
COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS
We continuously enhance our business through the development and expansion of our product and service offerings. We strive to maintain the efficiency and flexibility of the organization, with repeatable execution that adapts to macro-economic changes to provide clear value to customers, while increasing their competitiveness. We have a focused strategy on delivering value to customers through manufacturing technology, a trusted supply chain, innovation and design services, and domain expertise.
Significant Scope and Global Scale. We believe our global scale and regional capability are a significant competitive advantage, as customers increasingly require a broad range of manufacturing and supply chain services and solutions globally. Increasingly, customers are exploring transitioning to regional based supply chains to take advantage of time to market and specific customization required to win in those markets. Our global expertise, footprint and diverse supply chain network provides customers the ability to quickly adjust to changing regional, trade and manufacturing dynamics.
Trusted Supply Chain. We offer one of the most trusted and resilient global supply chain through a combination of deep expertise, technology, collaboration and disciplined execution to help customers build and deliver products that improve the world.
Long-Standing Customer Relationships. We believe our long-term relationships with key customers are the result of our track record of meeting commitments and delivering value that increases customers' competitiveness.
Extensive Design and Engineering Capabilities. We have an industry-leading global design service offering, with extensive product design engineering resources that provides design services, product development, and solutions to satisfy a wide array of customer requirements across all of the key industries and markets in which we do business.
Geographic, Customer and End Market Diversification. We believe we are operating one of the most well-balanced and diversified portfolios from a product, geographical and customer diversification perspective. No customer accounts for more than 10% of our annual revenue and the ten largest accounted for 36% of the Company’s net sales in fiscal year 2021. We believe we are well-positioned to grow faster than the industry average.
Customer and Product Innovation Hubs. We have established state-of-the art innovation hubs in the Americas, Asia and Europe, with differentiated offerings and specialized services for specific industries and markets. These innovation hubs offer customers geographically focused centers of design services, taking their product from concept to volume production and go-to-market in a rapid, cost effective and low risk manner.
Industrial Parks; Cost-Efficient Manufacturing Services. We have developed self-contained industrial parks that co-locate manufacturing and logistics operations with our suppliers in various cost-efficient locations. These sites enhance supply chain management efficiency, while providing multi-technology solution value for customers.
We have deployed manufacturing operations in regions around the world to provide customers with a wide array of solutions where the customers and/or their customers are located. As of March 31, 2021, approximately 80% of the Company’s manufacturing capacity was located in emerging markets, including Brazil, China, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine.
HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
We believe that the performance of our Company is impacted by our human capital management, and as a result we consistently work to attract, select, develop, engage and retain strong, diverse talent. Our policies, philosophy and strategies support the inclusion of all people in our working environment. Further, we’re committed to respecting the human rights of our employees and improving their quality of life.
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In 2020, the Company introduced new vision, mission, purpose, and value statements in support of cultivating an inclusive, high-performing culture where employees are empowered and given opportunities to reach their full potential. We are committed to providing a positive and safe workplace for Flex employees, respecting their dignity, creating an inclusive environment, and ensuring access to opportunity. We recognize that we have an opportunity to promote and support a culture of inclusion and diversity, wellness, and health and safety among our employees.
Employees. As of March 31, 2021, our global workforce totaled approximately 167,201 employees including our contractor workforce. In certain international locations, our employees are represented by labor unions and by work councils.
Region:Number of Employees
Asia59,252
Americas76,503
Europe31,446
Total167,201
Well-being, Health, and Safety. Flex is committed to providing a safe and injury-free workplace. We provide programs and tools to improve physical, mental, financial, and social well-being, with increased focus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our programs give access to a variety of innovative, flexible, and convenient health and wellness programs for our global employees, including on-site health centers in some of our major factories, which were increasingly critical this year for our essential workers who have worked on site since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We promote a “zero-injury” culture through health and safety management systems, some of which are certified ISO 45001:2018, that implement a data-driven and risk-based approach in monitoring and reporting performance regularly. Some of the specific goals for which we measure our performance include increasing employee development, social and environmental management system audits, human rights policy training completion, Responsible Business Alliance ("RBA") compliance for rest day requirements, and decreasing safety incident rates.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we deployed our contingency and resiliency plans that are encompassed in our business continuity programs. Our resiliency advisory and crisis management teams defined work streams and activated site teams with hundreds of employees, organizing across our global footprint, and coordinating and communicating with our suppliers and customers. Our leadership teams initiated enhanced health and safety measures across all facilities, as our foremost focus has been the health and safety of our employees. For those employees who could work from home, we provided them with the tools and support to do so. This allowed us to focus resources and additional investment on our manufacturing facilities. We modified practices at our manufacturing locations and offices to require personal protective equipment, sanitization measures, temperature checks, and social distancing. Our protocols to protect employees and safely operate our facilities have been in partnership with several governments, including those in China, Mexico, Malaysia, Brazil, and Europe. These measures enabled us to continue to conduct operations throughout the pandemic and have been recognized by several governments as a role model for employee safety.
Inclusion and Diversity. Inclusion and diversity are key priorities and strengths at Flex and are embedded in the fabric of our culture. Our commitment to diversity is exemplified by the composition of our Board of which three of eleven directors are female and six of eleven directors are ethnically diverse.
In 2020, we continued our progress on improving inclusion and diversity through employee programs. We launched or re-launched our employee resources groups (ERGs) which work to create a community that fosters freedom of self, build cultural awareness and develop a new generation of diverse leaders at Flex by establishing a sustainable structure with executive support that challenges bias and promotes unity. The Company maintains ERG chapters worldwide across five categories: Black, LatinX, Disabilities, Women and Veterans. These groups help to create a sense of belonging and support retention and attraction. Each ERG has an executive sponsor and is supported by senior leaders across the Company. The Company also held cultural awareness activities throughout the year to highlight specific groups including People with disabilities, Black History Month, LatinX Heritage Month, and Women’s History Month.
Additionally, we launched our cross-functional Global Inclusion Counsel, led by our CEO, of 12 members that represent diverse viewpoints. In partnership with McKinsey, we offered leadership development opportunities through their Management Accelerator and Executive Leadership Program to 56 Black employees. We also enhanced SheLeads, our leadership development program for women employees, and implemented a new unconscious bias training for all people managers to, among other things, provide tools to help managers lead more inclusively and improve diversity in recruiting. Furthermore, we leveraged external community partnerships with organizations such as the Business Roundtable, The Valuable 500, and INROADS to amplify our impact in recruiting and retaining diverse talent.
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Our commitment to diversity starts at the top with our highly skilled and diverse Board of Directors and female CEO. Our board of directors includes three female directors (representing approximately 27% of directors) and six underrepresented minority directors (representing approximately 54% of directors).
As of March 31, 2021, women represent 44% of our global employees, and underrepresented minorities (those who identify as Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx, Native American, Pacific Islander and/or two or more races) represent 59% of our U.S. employees. Approximately 17% of our executive team and approximately 21% percent of our leadership team (director level and above) are female. Approximately 11% of our executive team and approximately 33% percent of our U.S. leadership team (director level and above) are comprised of underrepresented minorities.
We established corporate goals to increase the number of employees and leaders from underrepresented groups and will continue to evolve these over time to improve representation. In developing these goals, we focused on hiring, retaining and promoting diversity across the organization. Additionally, we remain committed to parity in pay and opportunity in the U.S. by 2022.
Talent Attraction, Development, and Retention. Talent attraction, development, and retention are critical to our success and core to our mission as a company. To support the advancement of our employees, we provide training and development programs and opportunities encouraging advancement from within as well as continue to fill our team with strong and experienced external talent. We leverage both formal and informal programs, including in-person (as health and safety allows), virtual, social and self-directed learning, mentoring, coaching, and external development to identify, foster, and retain top talent. Employees have access to courses through our learning and development platform, Flex Learn. In 2020, 31,996 of our employees completed 397,408 hours of training programs. Flex has undertaken initiatives to keep employees who are working from home engaged during COVID-19, including virtual learning programs and check-in sessions.
We are also focused on completing talent and performance reviews. Our in-depth talent reviews serve to identify high potential talent to advance in roles with greater responsibility, assess learning and development needs, and establish and refresh succession plans for critical leadership roles across the enterprise. Our performance review process promotes transparent communication of team member performance, which we believe is a key factor in our success. The performance and the talent reviews enable ongoing assessments, reviews, and mentoring to identify career development and learning opportunities for our employees.
As a part of our efforts to improve employee experiences at Flex, we conduct the annual enterprise-wide employee engagement Flex Voice survey. Our leadership uses the results of the survey to continue developing our strengths and measure opportunities for improvement. This year 94% of employees completed the Flex Voice survey and the results reflected increased enthusiasm and engagement.
Compensation and Benefits. Our total rewards are designed to attract, motivate and retain employees. Our compensation philosophy is driven by the desire to attract and retain top talent, while ensuring that compensation aligns with our corporate financial objectives and the long-term interests of our shareholders. Our pay structures offer competitive salaries, bonuses and equity awards in the countries where we operate.
In each of the countries where we have operations, our comprehensive benefit plans offer a locally competitive mix of some or all of the following: medical, dental and vision insurance, short and long-term disability, flexible spending accounts, various types of voluntary coverage, and other benefit programs. We routinely benchmark our salaries and benefits against market peers to ensure our total rewards package remains competitive.
Board Oversight of Human Capital Management. The Compensation and People Committee of our Board of Directors is responsible for assisting the Board in oversight of our human capital management, including among other aspects, receiving periodic updates (not less than twice annually) regarding, and overseeing any significant change to, our human capital management strategy including corporate culture, inclusion, pay and opportunity equity, diversity, social initiatives and results, and talent, training, development, and retention programs.
Additional Human Capital Management Information. Additional information regarding human capital management will be included in our proxy statement filed in connection with our 2021 Annual General Meeting and our upcoming sustainability report. The information in the proxy statement and the sustainability report is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference.
SUSTAINABILITY
At Flex, our sustainability journey began in 2002 with the creation of the Flex Foundation. For nearly 20 years, sustainability has been integrated into the fabric of our company, a key area of differentiation for Flex. Our focus has been to
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reduce our environmental impact, ensure the safety and well-being of our workforce, and commit to external reporting transparency on our progress.
Our strategy and global efforts, through our sustainability programs and multi-year objectives, are aligned with the principles set forth in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals ("SDGs"). For the last two years, we were named an Advanced member of the United Nations Global Compact ("UNGC"), the world's largest corporate sustainability initiative, showcasing our commitment to integrate sustainability throughout our company and across our entire supply chain. We recently updated our sustainability strategy for 2030, including goals across the environmental, social, and governance pillars. Several goals of note include cutting operational emissions in half, providing access to mental health and well-being services to all employees, and maintaining top quartile performance for governance and transparency. The Flex Social and Environmental framework is based upon the principles, policies, and standards prescribed by the RBA, a worldwide association of electronics companies committed to promoting an industry code of conduct to improve working and environmental, health and safety conditions, as well as other relevant international standards (e.g., ISO 14001, United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights).
During our calendar year 2020, we received several awards and accolades for our sustainability programs including the Manufacturing Leadership award for our sustainability efforts from the National Association of Manufacturers. In addition, we received Cisco’s annual supplier award for our sustainability performance for 2020. Sustainalytics named us #1 in the contract manufacturing sub-industry category and we were ranked in the top 50 out of approximately 13,000 companies overall.
Through the Flex Foundation, we work with nonprofits, community leaders and governments to promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment, and decent work for all. We help protect the environment, support resource conservation and provide disaster relief. We accomplish this through grants, corporate and employee donations, and volunteerism. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Flex Foundation made financial contributions to leading organizations, like the World Health Organization and Red Cross to help support efforts in combating COVID-19 in the countries in which we operate. The company also donated masks to local communities, front-line workers, as well as to Flex employees and their families.
Flex is committed to transparency in sustainability reporting. The company has adhered to the Global Reporting Initiative since 2013 and has published an annual sustainability report each year since 2016. In 2020, we improved our ratings receiving an A for water from CDP and an A- for climate change. The company also aligned its last sustainability report to the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board framework.
More detailed information can be found in the Flex annual sustainability report located at https://flex.com/company/our-sustainability. The information in the sustainability report and on our sustainability webpage is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference.
ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Our operations are subject to various federal, state, local and international environmental regulations, including laws governing the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, and the cleanup of contaminated sites. We have implemented processes and procedures to ensure that our operations comply with all applicable environmental regulations.
We also comply with an increasing number of product environmental compliance regulations focused upon the restriction of certain hazardous substances, including:
Restrictions on Hazardous Substances ("RoHS") 2011/65/EU
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ("WEEE") 2012/19/EU directives
The regulation EC 1907/2006 EU Directive REACH ("Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals")
China RoHS entitled, Management Methods for Controlling Pollution for Electronic Information Products ("EIPs")
We do not believe that costs of compliance with these environmental laws and regulations will have a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, operating results, or competitive position. In addition, we are responsible for cleanup of contamination at some of our current and former manufacturing facilities and at some third-party sites. We engage environmental consulting firms to assist us in the evaluation of environmental liabilities associated with our ongoing operations, historical disposal activities, and closed sites in order to establish appropriate accruals in our financial statements. We determine the amount of our accruals for environmental matters by analyzing and estimating the probability of occurrence and the reasonable possibility of incurring costs in light of information currently available.
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The imposition of more stringent standards or requirements under environmental laws or regulations, the results of future testing and analysis undertaken by us at our operating facilities, or a determination that we are potentially responsible for the release of hazardous substances at other sites could result in expenditures in excess of amounts currently estimated to be required for such matters. Additionally, we could be required to alter our operations in order to comply with any new standards or requirements under environmental laws or regulations. There can be no assurance that additional environmental matters will not arise in the future or that costs will not be incurred with respect to sites as to which no issue is currently known.
Similar legislation has been or may be enacted in other jurisdictions, including the United States. Our business requires close collaboration with our customers and suppliers to mitigate risks of non-compliance. We have developed rigorous compliance programs designed to meet the needs and specifications of our customers as well as the regulations. These programs vary from collecting compliance or material data from our Flex controlled or managed suppliers to full laboratory testing. We include compliance requirements in our standard supplier contracts. Non-compliance could result in significant costs and/or penalties.
RoHS and other similar legislation ban or restrict the use of lead, mercury and certain other specified substances in electronics products and WEEE requires EU importers and/or producers to assume responsibility for the collection, recycling and management of waste electronic products and components. In the case of WEEE, although the compliance responsibility rests primarily with the EU importers and/or producers rather than with EMS companies, OEMs may turn to EMS companies for assistance in meeting their WEEE obligations. Flex continues to monitor developments related to product environmental compliance and is working with our customers and other technical organizations to anticipate and minimize any impacts to our operations.
Refer to the discussion in "Risk Factors" for further details of the legal and regulatory initiatives related to climate change that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We own or license various United States and foreign patents relating to a variety of technologies. For certain of our proprietary processes, inventions, and works of authorship, we rely on trade secret or copyright protection. We also maintain trademark rights (including registrations) for our corporate name and several other trademarks and service marks that we use in our business in the United States and other countries throughout the world. We have implemented appropriate policies and procedures (including both technological means and training programs for our employees) to identify and protect our intellectual property, as well as that of our customers and suppliers. As of March 31, 2021, and 2020, the carrying value of our intellectual property was not material.
Although we believe that our intellectual property assets and licenses are sufficient for the operation of our business as we currently conduct it, from time to time third parties assert patent infringement claims against us or our customers. In addition, we provide design and engineering services to our customers and also design and make our own products. As a consequence of these activities, our customers are sometimes requiring us to take responsibility for intellectual property to a greater extent than in our manufacturing and assembly businesses. If and when third parties make assertions regarding the ownership or right to use intellectual property, we could be required to either enter into licensing arrangements or to resolve the issue through litigation. Such license rights might not be available to us on commercially acceptable terms, if at all, and any such litigation might not be resolved in our favor. Additionally, litigation could be lengthy and costly and could materially harm our financial condition regardless of the outcome. We also could be required to incur substantial costs to redesign a product or re-perform design services. See "Risk Factors - The success of certain of our activities depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights; claims of infringement or misuse of intellectual property and/or breach of license agreement provisions against our customers or us could harm our business."
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Our Internet address is https://www.flex.com. We make available through our Internet website the Company's annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.
We were incorporated in the Republic of Singapore in May 1990. Our principal corporate office is located at 2 Changi South Lane, Singapore 486123. Our U.S. corporate headquarters is located at 6201 America Center Drive, San Jose, CA 95002.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Summary of Risk Factors
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These statements reflect management’s current beliefs, assumptions and expectations and are subject to a number of factors that may cause actual results to differ materially. Such factors include but are not limited to:
The COVID-19 pandemic has materially and adversely affected our business and results of operations. The duration and extent to which it will continue to adversely impact our business and results of operations remains uncertain and could be material.
Weak global economic conditions, geopolitical uncertainty and instability in financial markets may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and access to capital markets.
We depend on industries that continually produce technologically advanced products with short product life cycles and our business would be adversely affected if our customers' products are not successful or if our customers lose market share.
Our customers may cancel their orders, change production quantities or locations, or delay production, and our current and potential customers may decide to manufacture some or all of their products internally, which could harm our business.
Our industry is extremely competitive; if we are not able to continue to provide competitive services, we may lose business.
A significant percentage of our sales come from a small number of customers and a decline in sales to any of these customers could adversely affect our business.
Our components business is dependent on our ability to quickly launch world-class component products, and our investment in the development of our component capabilities, together with the start-up and integration costs necessary to achieve quick launches of world-class component products, may adversely affect our margins and profitability.
Our exposure to financially troubled customers or suppliers may adversely affect our financial results.
We may be adversely affected by supply chain issues, including shortages of required electronic components.
Our margins and profitability may be adversely affected due to substantial investments, start-up and production ramp costs in our design services.
We conduct operations in a number of countries and are subject to the risks inherent in international operations.
The success of certain of our activities depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights; claims of infringement or misuse of intellectual property and/or breach of license agreement provisions against our customers or us could harm our business.
We are subject to risks relating to litigation and regulatory investigations and proceedings, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.
If we do not effectively manage changes in our operations, our business may be harmed; we have taken substantial restructuring charges in the past and we may need to take material restructuring charges in the future.
A breach of our IT or physical security systems, or violation of data privacy laws, may cause us to incur significant legal and financial exposure.
Our strategic relationships with major customers create risks.
We may not meet regulatory quality standards applicable to our manufacturing and quality processes for medical devices, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If our products or components contain defects, demand for our services may decline and we may be exposed to product liability and product warranty liability.
Business and Operational Risks
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has materially and adversely affected our business and results of operations. The duration and extent to which it will continue to adversely impact our business and results of operations remains uncertain and could be material.
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The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread public health crisis and numerous disease control measures being taken to limit its spread, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, and shutdowns. These measures have materially impacted and are continuing to impact our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers, and those of our respective vendors and suppliers. We have significant operations worldwide, including in China, Mexico, the United States, Brazil, India, Malaysia and Europe, and each of these geographies has been affected by the outbreak and has taken measures to try to contain it. This has resulted in disruptions at many of our manufacturing operations and facilities, and further disruptions could occur in the future. Any such disruptions could materially adversely affect our business. Most recently, with the second wave of the pandemic, we have been experiencing plant closures and/or restrictions at certain manufacturing facilities in Brazil and Malaysia. In addition, India is experiencing a severe COVID-19 resurgence, which has resulted in renewed disease control measures being taken to limit its spread including movement bans and shelter-in-place orders. We have a workforce and operations in India and are closely monitoring the situation. The impact of the pandemic on our business has included and could in the future include:
disruptions to or restrictions on our ability to ensure the continuous provision of our manufacturing services and solutions;
temporary closures or reductions in operational capacity of our manufacturing facilities;
temporary closures of our direct and indirect suppliers, resulting in adverse effects to our supply chain, and other supply chain disruptions, which adversely affect our ability to procure sufficient inventory to support customer orders;
temporary shortages of skilled employees available to staff manufacturing facilities due to shelter-in-place orders and travel restrictions within as well as into and out of countries;
restrictions or disruptions of transportation, such as reduced availability of air transport, port closures, and increased border controls or closures;
increases in operational expenses and other costs related to requirements implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic;
delays or limitations on the ability of our customers to perform or make timely payments;
reductions in short- and long-term demand for our manufacturing services and solutions, or other disruptions in technology buying patterns;
workforce disruptions due to illness, quarantines, governmental actions, other restrictions, and/or the social distancing measures we have taken to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 at our locations around the world in an effort to protect the health and well-being of our employees, customers, suppliers and of the communities in which we operate (including working from home, restricting the number of employees attending events or meetings in person, limiting the number of people in our buildings and factories at any one time, further restricting access to our facilities and suspending employee travel); and
our management team continuing to commit significant time, attention and resources to monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and seeking to mitigate its effects on our business and workforce.
The global spread of COVID-19 also has created significant macroeconomic uncertainty, volatility and disruption, which may continue to adversely affect our and our customers’ and suppliers’ liquidity, cost of capital and ability to access the capital markets. As a result, the continued spread of COVID-19 could cause further disruptions in our supply chain and customer demand, and could adversely affect the ability of our customers to perform, including in making timely payments to us, which could further adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The COVID-19 pandemic has, in the short-term, adversely impacted, and may, in the long-term, adversely impact the global economy, potentially leading to an economic downturn. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of the pandemic’s global economic impact, including any recession, economic downturn, government spending cuts, tightening of credit markets or increased unemployment that has occurred or may occur in the future, which could cause our customers and potential customers to postpone or reduce spending on our manufacturing services and solutions.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to impact our business and financial results going forward will be dependent on future developments such as the length and severity of the crisis, the potential resurgence of COVID-19 in the future including variants of the virus, the availability and distribution of effective treatments and vaccines, and public health measures and actions taken throughout the world to contain COVID-19, and the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and capital markets, among many other factors, all of which remain highly uncertain and unpredictable. We cannot at this time quantify or forecast the business impact of COVID-19, and there can be no assurance that the COVID-19
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pandemic will not have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial results and financial condition. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic increases the likelihood and potential severity of other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
Our customers may cancel their orders, change production quantities or locations, or delay production, any of which could harm our business; the short-term nature of our customers’ commitments and rapid changes in demand may cause supply chain and other issues which adversely affect our operating results.
Cancellations, reductions, or delays by a significant customer or by a group of customers have harmed, and may in the future harm, our results of operations by reducing the volumes of products we manufacture and deliver for those customers, by causing a delay in the repayment of our expenditures for inventory in preparation for customer orders and/or an impairment loss for inventory, and by lowering our asset utilization and overhead absorption resulting in lower gross margins and earnings.
As a provider of design and manufacturing services and components for electronics, we must provide increasingly rapid product turnaround times for our customers. We generally do not obtain firm, long-term purchase commitments from our customers, and we often experience reduced lead times in customer orders which may be less than the lead time we require to procure necessary components and materials.
The short-term nature of our customers' commitments and the rapid changes in demand for their products reduces our ability to accurately estimate the future requirements of our customers. This makes it difficult to schedule production and maximize utilization of our manufacturing capacity. In that regard, we must make significant decisions, including determining the levels of business that we will seek and accept, setting production schedules, making component procurement commitments, and allocating personnel and other resources based on our estimates of our customers' requirements.
On occasion, customers require rapid increases in production or require that manufacturing of their products be transitioned from one facility to another to reduce costs or achieve other objectives. These demands may stress our resources, cause supply chain management issues, and reduce our margins. We may not have sufficient capacity at any given time to meet our customers' demands, and transfers from one facility to another can result in inefficiencies and costs due to excess capacity in one facility and corresponding capacity constraints at another. Many of our costs and operating expenses are relatively fixed, and thus customer order fluctuations, deferrals, and transfers of demand from one facility to another, as described above, have had a material adverse effect on our operating results in the past and we may experience such effects in the future.
A significant percentage of our sales come from a small number of customers and a decline in sales to any of these customers could adversely affect our business.
Sales to our ten largest customers represent a significant percentage of our net sales. Our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 36%, 39% and 43% of net sales in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. No customer accounted for more than 10% of net sales in fiscal year 2021, 2020 and 2019. Our principal customers have varied from year to year. These customers may experience dramatic declines in their market shares or competitive position, due to economic or other forces, that may cause them to reduce their purchases from us or, in some cases, result in the termination of their relationship with us. Significant reductions in sales to any of these customers, or the loss of major customers, would materially harm our business. If we are not able to timely replace expired, canceled or reduced contracts with new business, our revenues and profitability could be harmed. Additionally, mergers, acquisitions, consolidations or other significant transactions involving our key customers generally entail risks to our business. If a significant transaction involving any of our key customers results in the loss of or reduction in purchases by any of our largest customers, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We may be adversely affected by supply chain issues, including shortages of required electronic components.
From time to time, we have experienced shortages of some of the electronic components that we use. These shortages can result from strong demand for those components or from problems experienced by suppliers, such as shortages of raw materials. We have also experienced, and may continue to experience, such shortages due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most recently, we have experienced shortages of semiconductor components which has impacted our end markets including Lifestyle. These unanticipated component shortages have resulted and could continue to result in curtailed production or delays in production, which may prevent us from making scheduled shipments to customers. Our inability to make scheduled shipments could cause us to experience a reduction in sales, increase in inventory levels and costs, and could adversely affect relationships with existing and prospective customers. Component shortages may also increase our cost of goods sold because we may be required to pay higher prices for components in short supply and redesign or reconfigure products to accommodate substitute components. As a result, component shortages have adversely affected and, could in the future adversely affect, our operating results. Our customers also may experience component shortages which may adversely affect customer demand for our products and services.
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Our supply chain has also been and may continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be impacted by other events outside our control, including macro-economic events, trade restrictions, political crises, other public health emergencies, or natural or environmental occurrences.
Our components business is dependent on our ability to quickly launch world-class component products, and our investment in the development of our component capabilities, together with start-up and integration costs, may adversely affect our margins and profitability.
Our components business, which includes power supply manufacturing, is part of our strategy to improve our competitive position and to grow our future margins, profitability and shareholder returns by expanding our capabilities. The success of our components business is dependent on our ability to design and introduce world-class components that have performance characteristics which are suitable for a broad market and that offer significant price and/or performance advantages over competitive products.
To create these world class components offerings, we must continue to make substantial investments in the development of our components capabilities, in resources such as research and development, technology licensing, test and tooling equipment, facility expansions, and personnel requirements. We may not be able to achieve or maintain market acceptance for any of our components offerings in any of our current or target markets. The success of our components business will also depend upon the level of market acceptance of our customers' end products, which incorporate our components, and over which we have no control.
Our margins and profitability may be adversely affected due to substantial investments, start-up and production ramp costs in our design services.
As part of our strategy to enhance our end-to-end service offerings, we continue to expand our design and engineering capabilities. Providing these services can expose us to different or greater potential risks than those we face when providing our manufacturing services.
Although we enter into contracts with our design services customers, we may design and develop products for these customers prior to receiving a purchase order or other firm commitment from them. We are required to make substantial investments in the resources necessary to design and develop these products, and no revenue may be generated from these efforts if our customers do not approve the designs in a timely manner or at all. In addition, we may make investments in designing products and not be able to design viable manufacturable products, in which cases we may not be able to recover our investments. Even if we are successful in designing manufacturable products and our customers accept our designs, if our customers do not then purchase anticipated levels of products, we may not realize any profits. Our design activities often require that we purchase inventory for initial production runs before we have a purchase commitment from a customer. Even after we have a contract with a customer with respect to a product, these contracts may allow the customer to delay or cancel deliveries and may not obligate the customer to any particular volume of purchases. These contracts can generally be terminated on short notice. In addition, some of the products we design and develop must satisfy safety and regulatory standards and some must receive government certifications. If we fail to obtain these approvals or certifications on a timely basis, we would be unable to sell these products, which would harm our sales, profitability and reputation.
Our design services offerings require significant investments in research and development, technology licensing, test and tooling equipment, patent applications, facility building and expansion, and recruitment. We may not be able to achieve a high enough level of sales for this business to be profitable. The costs of investing in the resources necessary to expand our design and engineering capabilities, and in particular to support our design services offerings, have historically adversely affected our profitability, and may continue to do so as we continue to make investments to grow these capabilities.
In addition, we often agree to certain product price limitations and cost reduction targets in connection with these services. Inflationary and other increases in the costs of the raw materials and labor required to produce the products have occurred and may recur from time to time. Also, the production ramps for these programs are typically significant and negatively impact our margin in early stages as the manufacturing volumes are lower and result in inefficiencies and unabsorbed manufacturing overhead costs. We may not be able to reduce costs, incorporate changes in costs into the selling prices of our products, or increase operating efficiencies as we ramp production of our products, which would adversely affect our margins and our results of operations.
If we do not effectively manage changes in our operations, our business may be harmed; we have taken substantial restructuring charges in the past and we may need to take material restructuring charges in the future.
The expansion of our business, as well as business contractions and other changes in our customers' requirements, including as a result of COVID-19, have in the past, and may in the future, require that we adjust our business and cost structures by incurring restructuring charges. Restructuring activities involve reductions in our workforce at some locations and
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closure of certain facilities. All of these changes have in the past placed, and may in the future place, considerable strain on our financial and management control systems and resources, including decision support, accounting management, information systems and facilities. If we do not properly manage our financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures to manage our employees, our business could be harmed.
In recent years, including fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019, we initiated targeted restructuring activities focused on optimizing our portfolio, in particular customers and products in our consumer devices business, optimizing our cost structure in lower growth areas and, more importantly, streamlining certain corporate and segment functions. Restructuring charges are recorded based upon employee termination dates, site closure and consolidation plans generally in conjunction with an overall corporate initiative to drive cost reduction and realign the Company's global footprint.
We may be required to take additional charges in the future to align our operations and cost structures with global economic conditions, market demands, cost competitiveness, and our geographic footprint as it relates to our customers' production requirements and in response to the economic challenges in light of recent events with COVID-19. We may consolidate certain manufacturing facilities or transfer certain of our operations to lower cost geographies. If we are required to take additional restructuring charges in the future, our operating results, financial condition, and cash flows could be adversely impacted. Additionally, there are other potential risks associated with our restructurings that could adversely affect us, such as delays encountered with the finalization and implementation of the restructuring activities, work stoppages, and the failure to achieve targeted cost savings.
A breach of our IT or physical security systems, or violation of data privacy laws, may cause us to incur significant legal and financial exposure.
We are increasingly reliant on our information systems to process, transmit and store electronic information (including sensitive data such as confidential business information and personally identifiable data relating to employees, customers, and other business partners), and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused us to modify our business practices, including requiring many of our office-based employees to work from home. As a result, we are increasingly dependent upon our information systems to operate our business and our ability to effectively manage our business depends on the security, reliability and adequacy of our such information systems. We regularly face attempts by others to gain unauthorized access through the Internet or to introduce malicious software to our information systems. We are also a target of malicious attackers who attempt to gain access to our network or data centers or those of our customers or end users, steal proprietary information related to our business, products, employees, and customers; or interrupt our systems and services or those of our customers or others. We believe such attempts are increasing in number and in technical sophistication. In some instances, we, our customers, and the users of our products and services might be unaware of an incident or its magnitude and effects. We have implemented security systems with the intent of maintaining the physical security of our facilities and inventory and protecting our customers’ and our suppliers’ confidential information. In addition, while we seek to detect and investigate all unauthorized attempts and attacks against our network, products, and services, and to prevent their recurrence where practicable through changes to our internal processes and tools, we are subject to, and at times have suffered from, breach of these security systems which have in the past and may in the future result in unauthorized access to our facilities and/or unauthorized use or theft of the inventory or information we are trying to protect. If unauthorized parties gain physical access to our inventory or if they gain electronic access to our information systems or if such information or inventory is used in an unauthorized manner, misdirected, or lost or stolen during transmission or transport, any theft or misuse of such information or inventory could result in, among other things, unfavorable publicity, governmental inquiry and oversight, difficulty in marketing our services, allegations by our customers that we have not performed our contractual obligations, litigation by affected parties including our customers and possible financial obligations for damages related to the theft or misuse of such information or inventory, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and cash flow.
In addition, data privacy laws and regulations, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) effective May 2018, pose increasingly complex compliance challenges, which may increase compliance costs, and any failure to comply with data privacy laws and regulations could result in significant penalties. Additionally, California recently enacted legislation, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which became effective January 1, 2020 and was further amended by the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, on November 3, 2020. The CCPA, among other requirements, require covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, and allow such consumers new abilities to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA was amended in September 2018, November 2019, and June 2020. It is unclear whether further modifications will be made to this law. Additionally, new privacy laws and regulations are under development at the U.S. Federal and state level and many international jurisdictions.
The effects of the GDPR, the CCPA and other data privacy laws and regulations may be significant, and may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Any actual or perceived failures to comply with the GDPR, the CCPA or other data privacy laws or regulations, or related
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contractual or other obligations, or any perceived privacy rights violation, could lead to investigations, claims, and proceedings by governmental entities and private parties, damages for contract breach, and other significant costs, penalties, and other liabilities, as well as harm to our reputation and market position. The GDPR, CCPA and other laws and self-regulatory codes may affect our ability to reach current and prospective customers, to understand how our solutions and services are being used, to respond to customer requests allowed under the laws, and to implement our business strategy effectively. These new laws and regulations could similarly affect our customers.
Our strategic relationships with major customers create risks.
In the past, we have completed numerous strategic transactions with customers. Under these arrangements, we generally acquire inventory, equipment and other assets from the customers, and lease or acquire their manufacturing facilities, while simultaneously entering into multi-year manufacturing and supply agreements for the production of their products. We may pursue these customer divestiture transactions in the future. These arrangements entered into with divesting customers typically involve many risks, including the following:
we may need to pay a purchase price to the divesting customers that exceeds the value we ultimately may realize from the future business of the customer;
the integration of the acquired assets and facilities into our business may be time-consuming and costly, including the incurrence of restructuring charges;
we, rather than the divesting customer, bear the risk of excess capacity at the facility;
we may not achieve anticipated cost reductions and efficiencies at the facility;
we may be unable to meet the expectations of the customer as to volume, product quality, timeliness and cost reductions;
our supply agreements with the customers generally do not require any minimum volumes of purchase by the customers, and the actual volume of purchases may be less than anticipated; and
if demand for the customers' products declines, the customer may reduce its volume of purchases, and we may not be able to sufficiently reduce the expenses of operating the facility or use the facility to provide services to other customers.
As a result of these and other risks, we have been, and in the future may be, unable to achieve anticipated levels of profitability under these arrangements. In addition, these strategic arrangements have not, and in the future may not, result in any material revenues or contribute positively to our earnings per share.
We may encounter difficulties with acquisitions and divestitures, which could harm our business.
We have completed numerous acquisitions of businesses and we may acquire additional businesses in the future. Any future acquisitions may require additional equity financing, which could be dilutive to our existing shareholders, or additional debt financing, which could increase our leverage and potentially affect our credit ratings. Any downgrades in our credit ratings associated with an acquisition could adversely affect our ability to borrow by resulting in more restrictive borrowing terms. As a result of the foregoing, we also may not be able to complete acquisitions or strategic customer transactions in the future to the same extent as in the past, or at all.
To integrate acquired businesses, we must implement our management information systems, operating systems and internal controls, and assimilate and manage the personnel of the acquired operations. The difficulties of this integration may be further complicated by geographic distances. The integration of acquired businesses may not be successful and could result in disruption to other parts of our business. In addition, the integration of acquired businesses may require that we incur significant restructuring charges.
In addition, acquisitions involve numerous risks and challenges, including:
diversion of management's attention from the normal operation of our business;
potential loss of key employees and customers of the acquired companies;
difficulties managing and integrating operations in geographically dispersed locations;
the potential for deficiencies in internal controls at acquired companies;
increases in our expenses and working capital requirements, which reduce our return on invested capital;
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lack of experience operating in the geographic market or industry sector of the acquired business;
cybersecurity and compliance related issues;
initial dependence on unfamiliar supply chain or relatively small supply chain partners; and
exposure to unanticipated liabilities of acquired companies.
In addition, divestitures involve significant risks, including without limitation, difficulty finding financially sufficient buyers or selling on acceptable terms in a timely manner, and the agreed-upon terms could be renegotiated due to changes in business or market conditions. Divestitures could adversely affect our profitability and, under certain circumstances, require us to record impairment charges or a loss as a result of the transaction. In addition, completing divestitures requires expenses and management attention and could leave us with certain continuing liabilities.
These and other factors have harmed, and in the future could harm, our ability to achieve anticipated levels of profitability at acquired operations or realize other anticipated benefits of an acquisition or divestiture, and could adversely affect our business and operating results.
We are pursuing alternatives for our Nextracker business, including a full or partial separation of the business, through an initial public offering of Nextracker or otherwise, which may not be consummated as or when planned or at all, and may not achieve the intended benefits.
We are pursuing alternatives for our Nextracker business, including a full or partial separation of the business, through an initial public offering of Nextracker or otherwise. The proposed separation of our Nextracker business may not be consummated as currently contemplated or at all, or may encounter unanticipated delays. If we are unable to consummate a transaction on favorable terms or at all, we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets and from our shareholders and employees. Planning a separation requires significant time, effort, and expense, may divert the attention of our management and employees from other aspects of our business operations and could adversely affect the business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of us and our Nextracker business. In addition, if we complete the proposed separation, there can be no assurance that we will be able to realize the intended benefits. Following a potential separation, the combined value of the two publicly-traded companies may not be equal to or greater than what the value of our ordinary shares would have been had the potential separation not occurred.
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly due to seasonal demand.
Two of our significant end markets are the lifestyle market and the consumer devices market. These markets exhibit particular strength generally in the two quarters leading up to the end of the calendar year in connection with the holiday season. As a result, we have historically experienced stronger revenues in our second and third fiscal quarters as compared to our other fiscal quarters. Economic or other factors leading to diminished orders in the end of the calendar year could harm our business.
We depend on our executive officers and skilled personnel.
Our success depends to a large extent upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key employees. Generally, our employees are not bound by employment or non-competition agreements, and we cannot assure you that we will retain our executive officers and other key employees. We could be seriously harmed by the loss of any of our executive officers or other key employees. In addition, in connection with expanding our design services offerings, we must attract and retain experienced design engineers. There is substantial competition in our industry for highly skilled employees. Additionally, hiring, training and retaining skilled employees may be adversely impacted by global economic uncertainty and office closures caused by COVID-19. Our failure to recruit and retain experienced design engineers, or if they are unable to work effectively or at all due to the COVID-19 pandemic, could limit the growth of our design services offerings, which could adversely affect our business. There also is the risk that we will be unable to achieve our diversity, equity and inclusion objectives and goals or meet the related requirements of our shareholders and other stakeholders.
Catastrophic events could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial results.
Our operations or systems could be disrupted by natural disasters, terrorist activity, public health issues (including the COVID-19 pandemic), cyber security incidents, interruptions of service from utilities, transportation or telecommunications providers, or other catastrophic events. Such events could make it difficult or impossible to manufacture or deliver products to our customers, receive production materials from our suppliers, or perform critical functions, which could adversely affect our revenue and require significant recovery time and expenditures to resume operations. While we maintain business recovery plans that are intended to allow us to recover from natural disasters or other events that can be disruptive to our business, some of our systems are not fully redundant and we cannot be sure that our plans will fully protect us from all such disruptions.
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We maintain a program of insurance coverage for a variety of property, casualty, and other risks. We place our insurance coverage with multiple carriers in numerous jurisdictions. However, one or more of our insurance providers may be unable or unwilling to pay a claim. The types and amounts of insurance we obtain vary depending on availability, cost, and decisions with respect to risk retention. The policies have deductibles and exclusions that result in us retaining a level of self-insurance. Losses not covered by insurance may be large, which could harm our results of operations and financial condition.
Our business could be adversely affected by any delays, or increased costs, resulting from issues that our common carriers are dealing with in transporting our materials, our products, or both.
Given the complexity of our supply chain and our geographically dispersed operations, we depend on a variety of common carriers to transport our materials from our suppliers to us, and to transport our products from us to our customers. Problems suffered by any of these common carriers, whether due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a natural disaster, labor problems, increased energy prices, criminal activity or some other issue, could result in shipping delays, increased costs, or other supply chain disruptions, and could therefore have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Industry Risks
We depend on industries that continually produce technologically advanced products with short product life cycles and our business would be adversely affected if our customers' products are not successful or if our customers lose market share.
We derive our revenue from customers in a number of end markets and factors affecting any of these industries in general or our customers in particular, could adversely impact us. These factors include:
A negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our customers or on the demand for our customers’ products;
rapid changes in technology, evolving industry standards, and requirements for continuous improvement in products and services that result in short product life cycles;
demand for our customers' products may be seasonal;
our customers may fail to successfully market their products, and our customers' products may fail to gain widespread commercial acceptance; and
our customers' products may have supply chain issues, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic
our customers may experience dramatic market share shifts in demand which may cause them to lose market share or exit businesses.
Our industry is extremely competitive; if we are not able to continue to provide competitive services, we may lose business.
We compete with a number of different companies, depending on the type of service we provide or the location of our operations. For example, we compete with major global EMS providers, other smaller EMS companies that have a regional or product-specific focus and Original Design Manufacturer ("ODM") with respect to some of the services that we provide. We also compete with our current and prospective customers, who evaluate our capabilities in light of their own capabilities and cost structures. In the past, some of our customers moved a portion of their manufacturing from us in order to more fully utilize their excess internal manufacturing capacity. Any of these developments could cause a decline in our sales, loss of market acceptance of our products or services, decreases of our profits or loss of our market share. Our industry is extremely competitive, many of our competitors have achieved substantial market share, and some may have lower cost structures or greater design, manufacturing, financial or other resources than we do. We face particular competition from Asian-based competitors, including Taiwanese ODM suppliers who compete in a variety of our end markets and have a substantial share of global information technology hardware production. If we are unable to provide comparable manufacturing services and improved products at lower cost than the other companies in our market, our net sales could decline.
Financial Risks
Our goodwill and identifiable intangible assets could become impaired, which could reduce the value of our assets and reduce our net income in the year in which the write-off occurs.
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired. We also ascribe value to certain identifiable intangible assets, which consist primarily of customer relationships, developed technology and trade names, among others, as a result of acquisitions. We may incur impairment charges on goodwill or identifiable intangible assets if we determine that the fair values of goodwill or identifiable intangible assets are less than their current carrying values. We evaluate, on a regular basis, whether events or circumstances have occurred that indicate all, or a portion, of the carrying amount of goodwill may no longer be recoverable, in which case an impairment charge to earnings would become necessary.
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If the financial performance of our businesses were to decline significantly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we could incur a material non-cash charge to our income statement for the impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets.
Refer to note 2 to the consolidated financial statements and "Critical Accounting Policies" in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for further discussion of the impairment testing of goodwill and identifiable intangible assets.
A decline in general economic conditions or global equity valuations could impact the judgments and assumptions about the fair value of our businesses and we could be required to record impairment charges on our goodwill or other identifiable intangible assets in the future, which could impact our consolidated balance sheet, as well as our consolidated statement of operations. If we are required to recognize an impairment charge in the future, the charge would not impact our consolidated cash flows, liquidity, capital resources, and covenants under our existing credit facilities, asset securitization program, and other outstanding borrowings.
Our debt level may create limitations.
As of March 31, 2021, our total debt was approximately $3.8 billion. This level of indebtedness could limit our flexibility as a result of debt service requirements and restrictive covenants, and may limit our ability to access additional capital or execute our business strategy.
Our exposure to financially troubled customers or suppliers may adversely affect our financial results.
We provide manufacturing services to companies and industries that have in the past, and may in the future, experience financial difficulty. If some of our customers experience financial difficulty, we could have difficulty recovering amounts owed to us by these customers, or demand for our products from these customers could decline. Additionally, if our suppliers experience financial difficulty, we could have difficulty sourcing supplies necessary to fulfill production requirements and meet scheduled shipments. If one or more of our customers were to become insolvent or otherwise were unable to pay for the services provided by us on a timely basis, or at all, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected. Such adverse effects could include one or more of the following: an increase in our provision for doubtful accounts, a charge for inventory write-offs, a reduction in revenue, and an increase in our working capital requirements due to higher inventory levels and increases in days our accounts receivables are outstanding. Any of these risks may be heightened by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
On April 21, 2016, SunEdison, Inc. (together with certain of its subsidiaries, “SunEdison”) filed for protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we recognized a bad debt reserve charge of $61.0 million associated with our outstanding SunEdison receivables and accepted return of previously shipped inventory of approximately $90.0 million. SunEdison stated in schedules filed with the Bankruptcy Court that, within the 90 days preceding SunEdison's bankruptcy filing, the Company received approximately $98.6 million of inventory and cash transfers of $69.2 million, which in aggregate represents the Company's estimate of the maximum reasonably possible contingent loss. On April 15, 2018, a subsidiary of the Company together with its subsidiaries and affiliates, entered into a tolling agreement with the trustee of the SunEdison Litigation Trust to toll any applicable statute of limitations or other time-related defense that might exist in regards to any potential claims that either party might be able to assert against the other for a period that will end at the earlier to occur of: (a) 60 days after a party provides written notice of termination; (b) six years from the effective date of April 15, 2018; or (c) such other date as the parties may agree in writing. No preference claims have been asserted against the Company and consideration has been given to the related contingencies based on the facts currently known. An unfavorable resolution of this matter could be material to our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows
The market price of our ordinary shares is volatile.
The stock market in recent years has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market prices of companies, including technology companies. These fluctuations have often been unrelated to or disproportionately impacted by the operating performance of these companies. The market for our ordinary shares has been and may in the future be subject to similar volatility. Factors such as fluctuations in our operating results, announcements of technological innovations or events affecting other companies in the electronics industry, currency fluctuations, general market fluctuations, and macro-economic conditions may cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline. Stock price fluctuations could impact the value of our equity compensation, which could affect our ability to recruit and retain employees.
Changes in our credit rating may make it more expensive for us to raise additional capital or to borrow additional funds. We are also exposed to interest rate fluctuations on our outstanding borrowings and investments.
Our credit is rated by credit rating agencies. Our 5.000% Notes due 2023, our 4.750% Notes due 2025, our 3.750% Notes due 2026, our 4.875% Notes due 2029 and our 4.875% Notes due 2030 are currently rated BBB- by Standard and Poor's
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("S&P") which is considered to be “investment grade” by S&P, rated Baa3 by Moody’s which is considered to be “investment grade” by Moody's, and rated BBB- by Fitch which is considered to be "investment grade" by Fitch. Any decline in our credit rating may make it more expensive for us to raise additional capital in the future on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all, negatively impact the price of our ordinary shares, increase our interest payments under some of our existing debt agreements, and have other negative implications on our business, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, the interest rate payable on some of our credit facilities is subject to adjustment from time to time if our credit ratings change. Thus, any potential future negative change in our credit rating may increase the interest rate payable on these credit facilities.
In addition, we are exposed to interest rate risk under our variable rate terms loans, bilateral facilities and revolving credit facility for indebtedness we have incurred or may incur under such facilities. The interest rates under these borrowings are based on either (i) a margin over LIBOR or (ii) the base rate (the greatest of the agent's prime rate, the federal funds rate plus 0.50% and LIBOR for a one-month interest period plus 1.00%) plus an applicable margin, in each case depending on our credit rating. Refer to the discussion in note 8 to the consolidated financial statements, "Bank Borrowings and Long-Term Debt" for further details of our debt obligations. We are also exposed to interest rate risk on our invested cash balances, our securitization facilities and our factoring activities.
In addition, the U.K.’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021, though the ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, announced that it would consider ceasing the publication of the one week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings at the end of 2021 and phase out the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR settings by June 30, 2023. The transition from LIBOR to a new replacement benchmark is uncertain at this time and the consequences of such developments cannot be entirely predicted but could result in an increase in the cost of our borrowings on our variable rate debt, which could adversely impact our interest expense, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to risks associated with investments.
We invest in private funds and companies for strategic reasons and may not realize a return on our investments. We make investments in private funds and companies to further our strategic objectives, support key business initiatives, and develop business relationships with related portfolio companies. Many of the instruments in which we invest are non-marketable at the time of our initial investment. If any of the funds or companies in which we invest fail, we could lose all or part of our investment. From time-to-time we have identified observable price changes, or impairments in investments, and we have written down certain investments fair values and recognized a loss.
Changes in financial accounting standards or policies have affected, and in the future may affect, our reported financial condition or results of operations.
We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP. These principles are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the SEC and various bodies formed to interpret and create accounting policies. For example, significant changes to lease accounting rules have been enacted and applied to us in fiscal year 2020 per Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") 2016-02 "Leases." Changes to accounting rules or challenges to our interpretation or application of the rules by regulators may have a material adverse effect on our reported financial results or on the way we conduct business. Refer to "Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements" within note 2 of Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
International Risks
Weak global economic conditions, geopolitical uncertainty and instability in financial markets may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and access to capital markets.
Our revenue and gross margin depend significantly on general economic conditions and the demand for products in the markets in which our customers compete. Adverse worldwide economic conditions and geopolitical uncertainty may create challenging conditions in the electronics industry, which has occurred and may continue to occur as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Additionally, the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU ("Brexit") may also adversely impact worldwide economic conditions. The political and economic effects of Brexit are still uncertain and will depend, in part, on the Trade and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, of the one part, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, signed on December 30, 2020. Additionally, conditions may be adversely impacted by the actions that the U.S. or other countries have taken or may take with respect to certain treaty and trade relationships with other countries. The U.S. has thus far signaled a desire to reach a broad trade deal with a post-Brexit U.K. , but demands for concessions on issues like tariffs, non-tariff barriers, tax policies, and market access could present obstacles to achieving an agreement. Disagreements over similar issues, including market access, non-tariff barriers, and digital service
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taxes continue to raise the possibility of the U.S. imposing more tariffs on EU goods, even as the U.S. government signals a desire to reach a trade deal with the EU. The COVID-19 pandemic has served to further delay any potential progress on any U.S.-U.K. and U.S.-EU trade deal.
These conditions may result in reduced consumer and business confidence and spending in many countries, a tightening in the credit markets, a reduced level of liquidity in many financial markets, high volatility in credit, fixed income and equity markets, currency exchange rate fluctuations, and global economic uncertainty. In addition, longer term disruptions in the capital and credit markets could adversely affect our access to liquidity needed for our business. If financial institutions that have extended credit commitments to us are adversely affected by the conditions of the U.S. and international capital markets, they may become unable to fund borrowings under their credit commitments to us, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and our ability to borrow additional funds, if needed, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, research and development and other corporate purposes.
We conduct operations in a number of countries and are subject to the risks inherent in international operations.
The geographic distances between the Americas, Asia and Europe create a number of logistical and communications challenges for us. These challenges include managing operations across multiple time zones, directing the manufacture and delivery of products across long distances, coordinating procurement of components and raw materials and their delivery to multiple locations, and coordinating the activities and decisions of the core management team, which is based in a number of different countries.
Facilities in several different locations may be involved at different stages of the production process of a single product, leading to additional logistical difficulties.
Because our manufacturing operations are located in a number of countries throughout the Americas, Asia and Europe, we are subject to risks of changes in economic, social and political conditions in those countries, including:
fluctuations in the value of local currencies;
labor unrest, difficulties in staffing and geographic labor shortages;
longer payment cycles;
cultural differences;
increases in duties, tariffs, and taxation levied on our products including anti-dumping and countervailing duties;
trade restrictions including limitations on imports or exports of components or assembled products, unilaterally or bilaterally;
trade sanctions and related regulatory enforcement actions and other proceedings;
potential trade wars;
increased scrutiny by the media and other third parties of labor practices within our industry (including but not limited to working conditions) which may result in allegations of violations, more stringent and burdensome labor laws and regulations and inconsistency in the enforcement and interpretation of such laws and regulations, higher labor costs, and/or loss of revenues if our customers become dissatisfied with our labor practices and diminish or terminate their relationship with us;
imposition of restrictions on currency conversion or the transfer of funds;
expropriation of private enterprises;
ineffective legal protection of our intellectual property rights in certain countries;
natural disasters;
exposure to infectious disease, epidemics and pandemics, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, on our business operations in geographic locations impacted by the outbreak and on the business operations of our customers and suppliers;
inability of international customers and suppliers to obtain financing resulting from tightening of credit in international financial markets;
political unrest; and
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a potential reversal of current favorable policies encouraging foreign investment or foreign trade by our host countries.
We operate in a number of different countries and jurisdictions, and we cannot anticipate the potential impact that new or current restrictions in each of these countries or jurisdictions due to COVID-19 may have on our manufacturing operations and facilities, our supply chain, and our business more generally.
The attractiveness of our services to customers and our ability to conduct business with certain customers can be affected by changes in U.S. and other countries' trade policies. In 2018, the U.S. imposed tariffs on a large variety of products of Chinese origin. The U.S. government also, effective May 10, 2019, increased tariffs on $200 billion of Chinese goods to 25%. Further, on May 15, 2019, President Trump issued an executive order designed to secure the information and communications technology and services supply chain, which would restrict the acquisition or use in the United States of information and communications technology or services designed, developed, manufactured, or supplied by persons owned by, controlled by, or subject to the jurisdiction or direction of foreign adversaries. The executive order is subject to implementation by the Secretary of Commerce and applies to contracts entered into prior to the effective date of the order. In addition, the U.S. Commerce Department has implemented additional restrictions and may implement further restrictions that would affect the conduct of business with certain Chinese companies. A “phase one” trade deal signed between the U.S. and China on January 15, 2020 accompanied a U.S. decision to cancel a plan to increase tariffs on an additional list of Chinese products and to reduce the tariffs imposed on May 13, 2019 from 15% to 7.5% effective February 14, 2020. At present, the majority of tariff exclusions granted have expired and many of the additional tariffs on Chinese origin goods remain, as do concerns over the stability of bilateral trade relations, particularly given the limited scope of the phase one agreement. In addition, the economic disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic could make it harder for China to meet its obligations under the deal and increases the potential for China to invoke the deal’s “disaster clause,” which could further challenge US-China bilateral trade relations. Depending upon their duration and implementation as well as our ability to mitigate their impact, these tariffs, the executive order and its implementation and other regulatory actions could materially affect our business, including in the form of increased cost of goods sold, decreased margins, increased pricing for customers, and reduced sales. In addition, the 2020 U.S. presidential election and subsequent transition in the administration has resulted in additional uncertainty regarding the future of U.S. trade relations. At this time, there is no assurance that a broader trade agreement will be successfully negotiated between the United States and China to reduce or eliminate the existing tariffs. Further, one of our former customers, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., and some of its affiliates have been added to the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Entity List, and were recently made subject to enhanced restrictions designed to prevent them from having access to foreign-produced items using U.S.-origin semiconductor technology and equipment; we could be subject to reputational harm based on its business activities, including activities with sanctioned countries. In addition, some countries in which we operate, such as Brazil, Hungary, India, Mexico, Malaysia and Poland, have experienced periods of slow or negative growth, high inflation, significant currency devaluations or limited availability of foreign exchange. Furthermore, in countries such as China, Brazil, India and Mexico, governmental authorities exercise significant influence over many aspects of the economy, and their actions could have a significant effect on us. We could be seriously harmed by inadequate infrastructure, including lack of adequate power and water supplies, transportation, raw materials and parts in countries in which we operate. In addition, we may encounter labor disruptions and rising labor costs, in particular within the lower-cost regions in which we operate. Any increase in labor costs that we are unable to recover in our pricing to our customers could adversely impact our operating results.
Operations in foreign countries also present risks associated with currency exchange and convertibility, inflation and repatriation of earnings. In some countries, economic and monetary conditions and other factors could affect our ability to convert our cash distributions to U.S. dollars or other freely convertible currencies, or to move funds from our accounts in these countries. Furthermore, the central bank of any of these countries may have the authority to suspend, restrict or otherwise impose conditions on foreign exchange transactions or to approve distributions to foreign investors.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could increase our operating costs.
We have manufacturing operations and industrial parks that are located in various part of the world, including Asia, Eastern Europe, Mexico and Brazil. A portion of our purchases and our sale transactions are denominated in currencies other than the United States dollar. As a result, we are exposed to fluctuations in these currencies impacting our fixed cost overhead or our supply base relative to the currencies in which we conduct transactions.
Currency exchange rates fluctuate on a daily basis as a result of a number of factors, including changes in a country's political and economic policies. The primary impact of currency exchange fluctuations is on the cash, receivables, payables and expenses of our operating entities. As part of our currency hedging strategy, we use financial instruments such as forward exchange, swap contracts, and options to hedge our foreign currency exposure in order to reduce the short-term impact of foreign currency rate fluctuations on our operating results. If our hedging activities are not successful or if we change or reduce these hedging activities in the future, we may experience significant unexpected fluctuations in our operating results as a result of changes in exchange rates.
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We are also exposed to risks related to the valuation of the Chinese currency relative to the U.S. dollar. The Chinese currency is the renminbi ("RMB"). A significant increase in the value of the RMB could adversely affect our financial results and cash flows by increasing both our manufacturing costs and the costs of our local supply base. Additionally, the recent COVID-19 pandemic could contribute to foreign currency volatility. Volatility in the functional and non-functional currencies of our entities and the United States dollar could seriously harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We are subject to risks relating to litigation and regulatory investigations and proceedings, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.
From time to time, we are involved in various claims, suits, investigations and legal proceedings. Additional legal claims or regulatory matters may arise in the future and could involve matters relating to commercial disputes, government regulatory and compliance, intellectual property, antitrust, tax, employment or shareholder issues, product liability claims and other issues on a global basis. If we receive an adverse judgment in any such matter, we could be required to pay substantial damages and cease certain practices or activities. Regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation and other proceedings may be both time-consuming and disruptive to our business. The defense and ultimate outcome of any lawsuits or other legal proceedings may result in higher operating expenses and a decrease in operating margin, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
On May 8, 2018, a putative class action was filed in the Northern District of California against the Company and certain officers alleging violations of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and Rule 10b-5, promulgated thereunder, alleging misstatements and/or omissions in certain of the Company’s financial results, press releases and SEC filings made during the putative class period of January 26, 2017 through April 26, 2018. On October 1, 2018, the Court appointed lead plaintiff and lead plaintiff’s counsel in the case. On November 28, 2018, lead plaintiff filed an amended complaint alleging misstatements and/or omissions in certain of the Company’s SEC filings, press releases, earnings calls, and analyst and investor conferences and expanding the putative class period through October 25, 2018. On April 3, 2019, the Court vacated its prior order appointing lead plaintiff and lead plaintiff’s counsel and reopened the lead plaintiff appointment process. On September 26, 2019, the Court appointed a new lead plaintiff and lead plaintiff’s counsel in the case. On November 8, 2019, lead plaintiff filed a further amended complaint. On December 4, 2019, Defendants filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint. On May 29, 2020, the Court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss without prejudice and gave lead plaintiff 30 days to amend. On June 29, 2020, lead plaintiff filed a further amended complaint. On July 27, 2020, defendants filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint. On December 10, 2020, the Court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss with prejudice and entered judgment in favor of defendants. On January 7, 2021, lead plaintiff filed a notice of appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. Lead plaintiff’s opening appeal brief is due May 19, 2021, and defendants’ answering brief is due June 18, 2021. Any existing or future lawsuits could be time-consuming, result in significant expense and divert the attention and resources of our management and other key employees, as well as harm our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations.
On February 14, 2019, we submitted an initial notification of voluntary disclosure to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC") regarding possible noncompliance with U.S. economic sanctions requirements among certain non-U.S. Flex-affiliated operations. On September 28, 2020, we made a submission to OFAC that completed the Company’s voluntary disclosure based on the results of an internal investigation regarding the matter. We intend to continue to cooperate fully with OFAC in this matter going forward. Nonetheless, it is reasonably possible that we could be subject to penalties that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
If our compliance policies are breached, we may incur significant legal and financial exposure.
We have implemented local and global compliance policies to ensure compliance with our legal obligations across our operations. A significant legal risk resulting from our international operations is compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or similar local laws of the countries in which we do business, including the UK Anti-Bribery Act, which prohibits covered companies from making payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business. Our Code of Business Conduct prohibits corrupt payments on a global basis and precludes us from offering or giving anything of value to a government official for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, to win a business advantage or to improperly influence a decision regarding Flex. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that all of our employees and agents will refrain from taking actions in violation of this and our related anti-corruption policies and procedures. Any such violation could have a material adverse effect on our business.
If our products or components contain defects, demand for our services may decline and we may be exposed to product liability and product warranty liability.
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Defects in the products we manufacture or design, whether caused by a design, engineering, manufacturing or component failure or deficiencies in our manufacturing processes, could result in product or component failures, which may damage our business reputation and expose us to product liability or product warranty claims.
Product liability claims may include liability for personal injury or property damage. Product warranty claims may include liability to pay for the recall, repair or replacement of a product or component. Although we generally allocate liability for these claims in our contracts with our customers, increasingly we are unsuccessful in allocating such liability, and even where we have allocated liability to our customers, our customers may not have the resources to satisfy claims for costs or liabilities arising from a defective product or component for which they have assumed responsibility.
If we design, engineer or manufacture a product or component that is found to cause any personal injury or property damage or is otherwise found to be defective, we could spend a significant amount of money to resolve the claim. In addition, product liability and product recall insurance coverage are expensive and may not be available for some or all of our services offerings on acceptable terms, in sufficient amounts, or at all. A successful product liability or product warranty claim in excess of our insurance coverage or any material claim for which insurance coverage is denied, limited or is not available could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to the risk of increased income taxes.
We are subject to taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory rates and changes in tax laws or their interpretation including changes related to tax holidays or tax incentives. The international tax environment continues to change as a result of both coordinated efforts by governments and unilateral measures designed by individual countries, both intended to tackle concerns over perceived international tax avoidance techniques, which could ultimately have an adverse effect on the taxation of international businesses. In addition, legislative changes may result from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project. Any such changes, if adopted, could adversely impact our effective tax rate and may have a material impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial position.
Our taxes could also increase if certain tax holidays or incentives are not renewed upon expiration, or if tax rates applicable to us in such jurisdictions are otherwise increased. Our continued ability to qualify for specific tax holiday extensions will depend on, among other things, our anticipated investment and expansion in these countries and the manner in which the local governments interpret the requirements for modifications, extensions or new incentives.
In addition, the Company and its subsidiaries are regularly subject to tax return audits and examinations by various taxing jurisdictions around the world. In determining the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, we regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from tax examinations. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of the resolution of a tax examination, we believe that our reserves for uncertain tax benefits reflect the outcome of tax positions that are more likely than not to occur. However, we cannot assure you that the final determination of any tax examinations will not be materially different than that which is reflected in our income tax provisions and accruals. Should additional taxes be assessed as a result of a current or future examination, there could be a material adverse effect on our tax provision, operating results, financial position and cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made.
We may not meet regulatory quality standards applicable to our manufacturing and quality processes for medical devices, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
As a medical device manufacturer, we have additional compliance requirements. We are required to register with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") and are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA for compliance with the FDA's Quality System Regulation ("QSR") requirements, which require manufacturers of medical devices to adhere to certain regulations, including testing, quality control and documentation procedures. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements is subject to continual review and is rigorously monitored through periodic inspections and product field monitoring by the FDA. If any FDA inspection reveals noncompliance with QSR or other FDA regulations, and the Company does not address the observation adequately to the satisfaction of the FDA, the FDA may take action against us. FDA actions may include issuing a letter of inspectional observations, issuing a warning letter, imposing fines, bringing an action against the Company and its officers, requiring a recall of the products we manufactured for our customers, refusing requests for clearance or approval of new products or withdrawal of clearance or approval previously granted, issuing an import detention on products entering the U.S. from an offshore facility, or shutting down a manufacturing facility. If any of these actions were to occur, it would harm our reputation and cause our business to suffer.
In the European Union ("EU"), we are required to maintain certain standardized certifications in order to sell our products and must undergo periodic inspections to obtain and maintain these certifications. Continued noncompliance to the EU regulations could stop the flow of products into the EU from us or from our customers. In China, the Safe Food and Drug Administration controls and regulates the manufacture and commerce of healthcare products. We must comply with the
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regulatory laws applicable to medical device manufacturers, or our ability to manufacture products in China could be impacted. In Japan, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Laws regulate the manufacture and commerce of healthcare products. These regulations also require that subcontractors manufacturing products intended for sale in Japan register with authorities and submit to regulatory audits. Other Asian countries and Latin America where we operate have similar laws regarding the regulation of medical device manufacturing.
Our failure to comply with environmental laws could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including regulations governing the use, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous substances used in our manufacturing processes. We are also subject to laws and regulations governing the recyclability of products, the materials that may be included in products, and our obligations to dispose of these products after end users have finished with them. Additionally, we may be exposed to liability to our customers relating to the materials that may be included in the components that we procure for our customers' products. Any violation or alleged violation by us of environmental laws could subject us to significant costs, fines or other penalties.
We are also required to comply with an increasing number of global and local product environmental compliance regulations focused on the restriction of certain hazardous substances. We are subject to the EU directives, including the Restrictions on RoHS, the WEEE as well as the EU's REACH regulation. In addition, new technical classifications of e-Waste being discussed in the Basel Convention technical working group could affect both our customers' abilities and obligations in electronics repair and refurbishment. Also of note is China's Management Methods for Controlling Pollution Caused by EIPs regulation, commonly referred to as "China RoHS", which restricts the importation into and production within China of electrical equipment containing certain hazardous materials. Similar legislation has been or may be enacted in other jurisdictions, including in the United States. RoHS and other similar legislation bans or restricts the use of lead, mercury and certain other specified substances in electronics products and WEEE requires EU importers and/or producers to assume responsibility for the collection, recycling and management of waste electronic products and components. We have developed rigorous risk mitigating compliance programs designed to meet the needs of our customers as well as applicable regulations. These programs may include collecting compliance data from our suppliers, full laboratory testing and public reporting of other environmental metrics such as carbon emissions, electronic waste and water, and we also require our supply chain to comply. Non-compliance could potentially result in significant costs and/or penalties. In the case of WEEE, the compliance responsibility rests primarily with the EU importers and/or producers rather than with EMS companies. However, customers may turn to EMS companies for assistance in meeting their obligations under WEEE.
In addition, we are responsible for the cleanup of contamination at some of our current and former manufacturing facilities and at some third party sites. If more stringent compliance or cleanup standards under environmental laws or regulations are imposed, or the results of future testing and analyses at our current or former operating facilities indicate that we are responsible for the release of hazardous substances into the air, ground and/or water, we may be subject to additional liability. Additional environmental matters may arise in the future at sites where no problem is currently known or at sites that we may acquire in the future. Additionally, we could be required to alter our manufacturing and operations and incur substantial expense in order to comply with environmental regulations. Our failure to comply with environmental laws and regulations or adequately address contaminated sites could limit our ability to expand our facilities or could require us to incur significant expenses, which would harm our business.
Failure to comply with domestic or international employment and related laws could result in the payment of significant damages, which would reduce our net income.
We are subject to a variety of domestic and foreign employment laws, including those related to safety, wages and overtime, discrimination, whistle-blowing, classification of employees and severance payments. Enforcement activity relating to these laws, particularly outside of the United States, can increase as a result of increased media attention due to violations by other companies, changes in law, political and other factors. There can be no assurance that we won't be found to have violated such laws in the future, due to a more aggressive enforcement posture by governmental authorities or for any other reason. Any such violations could lead to the assessment of fines against us by federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities or damages payable to employees, which fines could be substantial and which would reduce our net income.
Our business could be impacted as a result of actions by activist shareholders or others.
We may be subject, from time to time, to legal and business challenges in the operation of our company due to actions instituted by activist shareholders or others. Responding to such actions could be costly and time-consuming, may not align with our business strategies and could divert the attention of our Board of Directors and senior management from the pursuit of our business strategies. Perceived uncertainties as to our future direction as a result of shareholder activism may lead to the perception of a change in the direction of the business or other instability and may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners and may affect our relationships with vendors, customers and other third parties.
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Social and environmental responsibility policies and provisions may be difficult to comply with and may impose costs on us.
There is an increasing focus on Sustainability including the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) in our industry. A number of our customers have adopted, or may adopt, procurement policies that include social and environmental responsibility provisions that their suppliers should comply with, or they may seek to include such provisions in their procurement terms and conditions. In addition, an increasing number of investors have adopted, or may adopt, ESG policies with which they expect their portfolio companies to comply. We currently comply with the sustainability standards set forth by various voluntarily sustainability initiatives and organizations, and we have joined the U.N. Global Compact, a voluntary initiative for businesses to develop, implement and disclose sustainability policies and practices. These social and environmental responsibility and ESG practices, policies, provisions and initiatives are subject to change, can be unpredictable, and may be difficult and expensive for us to comply with.
Climate change, and the legal and regulatory initiatives related to climate change, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
There is increasing concern that a gradual increase in global average temperatures due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in weather patterns around the globe and an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Changes in weather patterns and an increased frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather conditions could, among other things, impair our production capabilities, disrupt the operation of our supply chain, and impact our customers and their demand for our services. As a result, the effects of climate change could have a long-term adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In many of the countries in which we operate, governmental bodies are increasingly enacting legislation and regulations in response to the potential impacts of climate change. These laws and regulations have, and will continue to have, the potential to impact our operations directly or indirectly as a result of required compliance by us and our suppliers. In addition, we have committed to cut our operational emissions in half by 2030 as part of our long-term sustainability strategy and we may take additional voluntary steps to mitigate our impact on climate change. As a result, we may experience increases in energy, production, transportation and raw material costs, capital expenditures and insurance premiums and deductibles. Inconsistency of legislation and regulations among jurisdictions may also affect the costs of compliance with such laws and regulations. Any assessment of the potential impact of future climate change legislation, regulations or industry standards, as well as any international treaties and accords, is uncertain given the scope of potential regulatory change in the countries in which we operate. Given the political significance and uncertainty around the impact of climate change and how it should be addressed, we cannot predict how legislation and regulation will affect our financial condition, operating performance and ability to compete. Furthermore, even without such regulation, increased awareness and any adverse publicity in the global marketplace about potential impacts on climate change by us or other companies in our industry could harm our reputation. Any of the foregoing could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The success of certain of our activities depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights; claims of infringement or misuse of intellectual property and/or breach of license agreement provisions against our customers or us could harm our business.
We retain certain intellectual property rights to some of the technologies that we develop as part of our engineering, design, and manufacturing services and components offerings. The measures we have taken to prevent unauthorized use of our technology may not be successful. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, this could reduce or eliminate the competitive advantages of our proprietary technology, which would harm our business.
Our engineering, design and manufacturing services and component offerings involve the creation and use of intellectual property rights, which subject us to the risk of claims of infringement or misuse of intellectual property from third parties and/or breach of our agreements with third parties, as well as claims arising from the allocation of intellectual property risk among us and our customers. From time to time, we enter into intellectual property licenses (e.g., patent licenses and software licenses) with third parties which obligate us to report covered behavior to the licensor and pay license fees to the licensor for certain activities or products, or that enable our use of third party technologies. We may also decline to enter into licenses for intellectual property that we do not think is useful for or used in our operations, or for which our customers or suppliers have licenses or have assumed responsibility.
Given the diverse and varied nature of our business and the location of our business around the world, certain activities we perform, such as providing assembly services in China and India, may fall outside the scope of those licenses or may not be subject to the applicable intellectual property rights. Our licensors may disagree and claim royalties are owed for such activities. In addition, the basis (e.g., base price) for any royalty amounts owed are audited by licensors and may be challenged. Our customers are increasingly requiring us to indemnify them against the risk of intellectual property-related claims and licensors are claiming that activities we perform are covered by licenses to which we are a party.
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If any claims of infringement or misuse of intellectual property from third parties and/or breach of our agreements with third parties, as well as claims arising from the allocation of intellectual property risk among us and our customers, are brought against us or our customers, whether or not these have merit, we could be required to expend significant resources in defense of such claims. In the event of such a claim, we may be required to spend a significant amount of money to develop alternatives or obtain licenses or to resolve the issue through litigation. We may not be successful in developing such alternatives or obtaining such licenses on reasonable terms or at all, and any such litigation might not be resolved in our favor, in which cases we may be required to curtail certain of our services and offerings. Additionally, litigation could be lengthy and costly, and could materially harm our financial condition regardless of outcome.
We also face certain heightened risks to our intellectual property rights due to our extensive operations in foreign jurisdictions, including the risk of theft or misuse of our intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The laws of certain countries in which we operate may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and the mechanisms to enforce intellectual property rights may be inadequate to protect our rights, which could harm our business.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Our facilities consist of a global network of industrial parks, regional manufacturing operations, and design, engineering and product introduction centers, providing approximately 27 million square feet of productive capacity as of March 31, 2021. We do not identify or allocate assets by operating segment, as they are interchangeable in nature and used by multiple operating segments.
The composition of the square footage of our facilities, by region, is as follows:
Leased
(Manufacturing)
Owned
(Manufacturing)
Total
(Manufacturing)
Non-manufacturingTotal
(in million square feet)
Americas4.1 6.1 10.2 8.2 18.4 
Asia6.2 5.8 12.0 6.9 18.9 
Europe1.9 2.8 4.7 5.4 10.1 
Total12.2 14.7 26.9 20.5 47.4 
Our facilities include large industrial parks, ranging in size from approximately 100,000 to 4.4 million square feet in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico. We also have regional manufacturing operations, generally ranging in size from under 100,000 to approximately 2.7 million square feet in Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United States. We also have smaller design and engineering centers, innovation centers and product introduction centers at a number of locations in the world's major industrial and electronics markets.
Our facilities are well maintained and suitable for the operations conducted. The productive capacity of our plants is adequate for current needs.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For a description of our material legal proceedings, see note 13 "Commitments and Contingencies" to the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8, which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable
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PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
MARKET AND SHAREHOLDER INFORMATION
Our ordinary shares are quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "FLEX."
As of May 14, 2021 there were 2,933 holders of record of our ordinary shares. This does not include persons whose stock is in nominee or "street name" accounts through brokers.
DIVIDENDS
Since inception, we have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We currently do not have plans to pay any cash dividends in fiscal year 2022.
STOCK PRICE PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following stock price performance graph and accompanying information is not deemed to be "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, regardless of any general incorporation language in any such filing.
The graph below compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our ordinary shares, the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index and a peer group comprised of Benchmark Electronics, Inc., Celestica Inc., Jabil Inc., and Sanmina Corporation.
The graph below assumes that $100 was invested in our ordinary shares, in the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index and in the peer group described above on March 31, 2016 and reflects the annual return through March 31, 2021, assuming dividend reinvestment.
The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not indicative of, or intended to forecast, the possible future performances of our ordinary shares.

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COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Flex, the S&P 500 Index, and Peer Group
3/163/173/183/193/203/21
Flex Ltd.100.00 139.30 135.41 82.92 69.44 151.82 
S&P 500 Index100.00 117.17 133.57 146.25 136.05 212.71 
Peer Group100.00 145.91 131.95 104.01 87.70 177.65 
Prepared by Zacks Investment Research, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved. Copyright 1980-2021
Index Data: Copyright Standard and Poor's, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information regarding purchases of our ordinary shares made by us for the period from January 1, 2021 through March 31, 2021.
Period (2)Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
Average Price
Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value
of Shares that May Yet
Be Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
January 1 - January 29, 2021— $— — $462,318,284 
January 30 - February 26, 20212,862,625 18.86 2,862,625 408,318,704 
February 27 - March 31, 20215,229,442 17.56 5,229,442 316,512,931 
Total8,092,067  8,092,067  

(1)    During the period from January 1, 2021 through March 31, 2021 all purchases were made pursuant to the program discussed below in open market transactions. All purchases were made in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.


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(2)    On August 7, 2020, our Board of Directors authorized repurchases of our outstanding ordinary shares for up to $500 million. This is in accordance with the share purchase mandate whereby our shareholders approved a repurchase limit of 20% of our issued ordinary shares outstanding at the Annual General Meeting held on the same date as the Board authorization. As of March 31, 2021, shares in the aggregate amount of $316.5 million were available to be repurchased under the current plan.
RECENT SALES OF UNREGISTERED SECURITIES
None.
INCOME TAXATION UNDER SINGAPORE LAW
Dividends.    Singapore does not impose a withholding tax on dividends. All dividends on our ordinary shares are not taxable in Singapore to shareholders, provided that any dividends are paid to shareholders outside of Singapore for this purpose and such dividends are not received or deemed to be received in Singapore by shareholders and are not derived by shareholders pursuant to any trade or business carried on in Singapore. Certain tax exemptions are available for foreign-sourced dividends received by Singapore tax residents, subject to conditions. Since inception, we have not declared nor paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares, and we currently do not have plans to pay any cash dividends.
Gains on Disposal.    Under current Singapore tax law there is no tax on capital gains, and thus any profits from the disposal of shares are not taxable in Singapore unless the gains arising from the disposal of shares are income in nature and subject to tax, especially if they arise from activities which the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore regards as the carrying on of a trade or business in Singapore (in which case, the profits on the sale would be taxable as trade profits rather than capital gains).
Shareholders who apply, or who are required to apply, the Singapore Financial Reporting Standard 109 Financial Instruments ("FRS 109") for the purposes of Singapore income tax may be required to recognize gains or losses (not being gains or losses in the nature of capital) in accordance with the provisions of FRS 109 (as modified by the applicable provisions of Singapore income tax law) even though no sale or disposal of shares is made.
Stamp Duty.    There is no stamp duty payable for holding shares, and no duty is payable on the issue of new shares. When existing shares are acquired in Singapore, a stamp duty of 0.2% is payable on the instrument of transfer of the shares at market value. The stamp duty is borne by the purchaser unless there is an agreement to the contrary. If the instrument of transfer is executed outside of Singapore, the stamp duty must be paid only if the instrument of transfer is received in Singapore.
Estate Taxation.    The estate duty was abolished for deaths occurring on or after February 15, 2008.
An individual shareholder who is a U.S. citizen or resident (for U.S. estate tax purposes) will have the value of the shares included in the individual's gross estate for U.S. estate tax purposes. An individual shareholder generally will be entitled to a tax credit against the shareholder's U.S. estate tax to the extent the individual shareholder actually pays Singapore estate tax on the value of the shares; however, such tax credit is generally limited to the percentage of the U.S. estate tax attributable to the inclusion of the value of the shares included in the shareholder's gross estate for U.S. estate tax purposes, adjusted further by a pro rata apportionment of available exemptions. Individuals who are domiciled in Singapore should consult their own tax advisors regarding the Singapore estate tax consequences of their investment.
Tax Treaties Regarding Withholding.    There is no reciprocal income tax treaty between the U.S. and Singapore regarding withholding taxes on dividends and capital gains.
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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
These historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future. The following selected consolidated financial data set forth below was derived from our historical audited consolidated financial statements and is qualified by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." On April 1, 2018, we adopted the new revenue standard and as a result we recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect at the time. As further discussed in note 2 to the consolidated financial statement in Item 8, the prior year amounts related to interest expense (income), net are now presented separately under interest, net, and the remaining balances under interest and other, net have been reclassified to the other charges (income), net within the consolidated statement of operations. For comparability purposes, the prior periods have been recast to conform to the current presentation. The reclassifications had no effect on the previously reported results of operations (Amounts may not sum due to rounding).
 Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
 20212020201920182017
 (In millions, except per share amounts)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS DATA:     
Net sales$24,124 $24,210 $26,211 $25,441 $23,863 
Cost of sales22,349 22,681 24,594 23,778 22,303 
Restructuring charges (3)88 190 99 67 39 
Gross profit1,687 1,338 1,518 1,596 1,521 
Selling, general and administrative expenses817 834 953 1,019 937 
Intangible amortization62 64 74 79 81 
Restructuring charges (3)13 26 14 24 11 
Interest, net148 174 175 137 120 
Other charges (income), net (1)(67)82 120 (184)
Income before income taxes714 158 182 521 371 
Provision for income taxes101 71 89 92 51 
Net income$613 $88 $93 $429 $320 
Diluted earnings per share:     
Total$1.21 $0.17 $0.18 $0.80 $0.59 

 As of March 31,
 20212020201920182017
 (In millions)
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET DATA:     
Working capital (2)$3,529 $1,875 $1,506 $1,902 $1,883 
Total assets15,836 13,690 13,499 13,716 12,593 
Total long-term debt, excluding current portion3,515 2,689 2,422 2,898 2,891 
Shareholders' equity3,436 2,831 2,972 3,019 2,678 

(1)For fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, refer to note 16 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion.

During fiscal year 2018, the Company recognized a $151.6 million gain from the deconsolidation of Elementum, and $38.7 million of income from the sale of a non-strategic cost basis investment.

(2)Working capital is defined as current assets, less current liabilities.
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(3)The Company initiated restructuring plans during each of the fiscal years presented in the table above. For the restructuring plans initiated during fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019, refer to note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion. During fiscal year 2018, the Company initiated targeted restructuring activities focused on optimizing the Company's cost structure in lower growth areas and, more importantly, streamlining certain corporate and segment functions. Restructuring charges are recorded based upon employee termination dates, site closures and consolidation plans generally in conjunction with an overall corporate initiative to drive cost reduction and realign the Company's global footprint. The Company recognized approximately $78.6 million of cash charges predominantly related to employee severance costs and $12.1 million of non-cash charges for asset impairment and other exit charges under the above plan. Of these total charges, approximately $66.8 million was recognized in cost of sales. During fiscal year 2017, the Company initiated a restructuring plan to accelerate its ability to support more Sketch-to-Scale® efforts across the Company and reposition away from historical legacy programs and structures through rationalizing its current footprint at existing sites and at corporate SG&A functions. The Company recognized restructuring charges of approximately $49.4 million primarily for employee termination costs under the above plan. Of these total charges, approximately $38.8 million was recognized in cost of sales.

ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The words "expects," "anticipates," "believes," "intends," "plans" and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements which refer to expectations, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly disclose any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring subsequent to filing this Form 10-K with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, those discussed in this section and in Item 1A, "Risk Factors." In addition, new risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors or to assess the impact of such risk factors on our business. Accordingly, our future results may differ materially from historical results or from those discussed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, the reader should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
OVERVIEW
We are the manufacturing partner of choice that helps a diverse customer base design and build products that improve the world. Through the collective strength of a global workforce across approximately 30 countries and responsible, sustainable operations, we deliver technology innovation, supply chain, and manufacturing solutions to diverse industries and end markets. In the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, the Company made certain changes in its organization structure as part of its strategy to further drive efficiency and productivity with two focused and complimentary delivery models. As a result, the Company now reports its financial performance based on two reportable segments:
Flex Agility Solutions ("FAS"), which is comprised of the following end markets:
Communications, Enterprise and Cloud ("CEC"), including data infrastructure, edge infrastructure and communications infrastructure;
Lifestyle, including appliances, consumer packaging, floorcare, micro mobility and audio; and
Consumer Devices, including mobile and high velocity consumer devices.
Flex Reliability Solutions ("FRS"), which is comprised of the following end markets:
Automotive, including autonomous, connectivity, electrification, and smart technologies;
Health Solutions, including medical devices, medical equipment and drug delivery; and
Industrial, including capital equipment, industrial devices, renewable including our Nextracker business, grid edge, and power systems.
Our strategy is to provide customers with a full range of cost competitive, vertically-integrated global supply chain solutions through which we can design, build, ship and service a complete packaged product for our customers. This enables our customers to leverage our supply chain solutions to meet their product requirements throughout the entire product life cycle.
Over the past few years, we have seen an increased level of diversification by many companies, primarily in the technology sector. Some companies that have historically identified themselves as software providers, Internet service providers or e-commerce retailers have entered the highly competitive and rapidly evolving technology hardware markets, such as mobile devices, home entertainment and wearable devices. This trend has resulted in a significant change in the manufacturing and supply chain solutions requirements of such companies. While the products have become more complex, the supply chain
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solutions required by such companies have become more customized and demanding, and it has changed the manufacturing and supply chain landscape significantly.
We use a portfolio approach to manage our extensive service offerings. As our customers change the way they go to market, we have the capability to reorganize and rebalance our business portfolio in order to align with our customers' needs and requirements in an effort to optimize operating results. The objective of our business model is to allow us to be flexible and redeploy and reposition our assets and resources as necessary to meet specific customer's supply chain solutions needs across all the markets we serve and earn a return on our invested capital above the weighted average cost of that capital.
During the first half of fiscal year 2020 in connection with the recent geopolitical developments and uncertainties, primarily impacting one customer in China, we experienced a reduction in demand for products assembled for that customer. As a result, we accelerated our strategic decision to reduce our exposure to certain high-volatility products in both China and India. We also initiated targeted activities to restructure our business to further reduce and streamline our cost structure. During fiscal year 2021, in order to further support our strategy and build a sustainable organization, and after considering that the economic recovery from the pandemic will be slower than anticipated, we identified and engaged in certain structural changes. See additional discussion regarding these restructuring actions below under "Results of Operations - Restructuring charges".
We believe that our continued business transformation is strategically positioning us to take advantage of the long-term, future growth prospects for outsourcing of advanced manufacturing capabilities, design and engineering services and after-market services.
Update on the Impact of COVID-19 on our Business
As anticipated, our results were negatively impacted by COVID-19 disruptions to our factories, workforce, and suppliers most notably in our first quarter as the impact from the pandemic extended throughout the entire quarter. Total COVID-19 related costs incurred over fiscal year 2021 were over $150 million and were primarily comprised of enhanced health and safety protocols, incremental labor incentives, incremental supply chain costs and forced under-absorption of idle and underutilized labor and overhead costs. As we expected, these incremental costs persisted during fiscal year 2021, but declined significantly over the period as demand improved. Although not materially impacting our results for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2021, most recently, with the second wave of the pandemic, we have also been experiencing temporary plant closures and/or restrictions at certain manufacturing facilities in Brazil and Malaysia. In addition, India is experiencing a severe COVID-19 resurgence, which has resulted in renewed disease control measures being taken to limit its spread including movement bans and shelter-in-place orders. We have workforce and operations in India and are closely monitoring the situation in India. Our priority is the welfare of our employees.
Throughout the fiscal year 2021, COVID-19 related demand and production pressures remained in certain end markets that we serve. Net sales decreased $0.1 billion during fiscal year 2021 versus the prior year primarily due to declines in our Consumer Devices business included in the FAS segment. Included in the FRS segment, our Health Solutions business performed well during fiscal year 2021 driven by the increased demand for critical care products and diagnostics and patient monitoring programs. Our factories were productive throughout most of fiscal year 2021 resulting in sales recovering specifically for the automotive businesses that were shut down during the majority of the first quarter. During the third quarter of fiscal year 2021, we started to see certain component constraints in the supply chain and we continued to carefully monitor potential supply chain disruptions due to ongoing tightness in the overall component environment. We expect consumer devices to be one of the end markets more sensitive to industry component constraints. In addition, while we anticipate revenue will continue to improve across our end markets, we believe that our businesses tied to consumer spending, such as Lifestyle and Consumer Devices, will continue to be impacted if there is a prolonged demand slowdown. Refer to “Risk Factors - The COVID-19 pandemic has materially and adversely affected our business and results of operations. The duration and extent to which it will continue to adversely impact our business and results of operations remains uncertain and could be material.
As part of our continuous response to the outbreak, we initiated salary cuts, furloughs and other programs to cut costs during the first half of fiscal year 2021. This also included aggressively reducing discretionary corporate spend. Employees that have been operating on a work-from-home basis are continuing to do so. While there still remains an elevated degree of uncertainty, we have removed specific austerity measures involving employee compensation.
We are continuously evaluating our capital structure in response to the current environment and expect that our current financial condition, including our liquidity sources are adequate to fund future commitments. See additional discussion in the Liquidity and Capital Resources section below.
Other Developments
We are actively pursuing alternatives for our Nextracker business. We are considering options that may include, among others, a full or partial separation of the business through an initial public offering, sale, spin-off, or other transaction. On April
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28, 2021, we announced that we confidentially submitted a draft registration statement on Form S-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission relating to the proposed initial public offering of Nextracker's Class A common stock. The initial public offering and its timing are subject to market and other conditions and the SEC’s review process, and there can be no assurance that we will proceed with such offering or any alternative transaction. Refer to "Risk Factors - We are pursuing alternatives for our Nextracker business, including a full or partial separation of the business, through an initial public offering of Nextracker or otherwise, which may not be consummated as or when planned or at all, and may not achieve the intended benefits."
This Annual Report on Form 10-K does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy securities, and shall not constitute an offer, solicitation or sale in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of that jurisdiction.
Business Overview
We are one of the world's largest providers of global supply chain solutions, with revenues of $24.1 billion in fiscal year 2021. We have established an extensive network of manufacturing facilities in the world's major consumer and enterprise markets (Asia, the Americas, and Europe) to serve the growing outsourcing needs of both multinational and regional customers. We design, build, ship, and service consumer and enterprise products for our customers through a network of over 100 facilities in approximately 30 countries across four continents. As of March 31, 2021, our total manufacturing capacity was approximately 27 million square feet. The following tables set forth the relative percentages and dollar amounts of net sales by region and by country, and net property and equipment, by country, based on the location of our manufacturing sites (amounts may not sum due to rounding):
 Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
202120202019
 (In millions)
Net sales by region:
Asia$9,326 39 %$9,362 39 %$11,470 44 %
Americas9,672 40 %10,066 42 %9,893 38 %
Europe5,126 21 %4,782 19 %4,848 18 %
$24,124 $24,210 $26,211 
Net sales by country:
China$6,147 25 %$5,665 23 %$6,649 25 %
Mexico4,413 18 %4,449 18 %4,539 17 %
U.S.3,648 15 %3,719 15 %3,106 12 %
Malaysia1,563 %1,539 %1,996 %
Brazil1,554 %1,831 %2,181 %
Hungary1,313 %1,355 %1,290 %
Other5,486 25 %5,652 24 %6,450 25 %
$24,124 $24,210  $26,211  

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Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
20212020
(In millions)
Property and equipment, net:
Mexico$553 26 %$555 25 %
U.S.361 17 %378 17 %
China331 16 %396 18 %
India166 %207 %
Malaysia106 %111 %
Hungary105 %100 %
Other475 23 %469 22 %
$2,097 $2,216 

We believe that the combination of our extensive open innovation platform solutions, design and engineering services, advanced supply chain management solutions and services, significant scale and global presence, and manufacturing campuses in low-cost geographic areas provide us with a competitive advantage and strong differentiation in the market for designing, manufacturing and servicing consumer and enterprise products for leading multinational and regional customers. Specifically, we offer our customers the ability to simplify their global product development, manufacturing process, and after-sales services, and enable them to meaningfully accelerate their time to market and cost savings.
Our operating results are affected by a number of factors, including the following:
the impacts on our business due to component shortages, disruptions in transportation or other supply chain related constraints including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;

the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and results of operations;

changes in the macro-economic environment and related changes in consumer demand;

the mix of the manufacturing services we are providing, the number, size, and complexity of new manufacturing programs, the degree to which we utilize our manufacturing capacity, seasonal demand, and other factors;

the effects on our business when our customers are not successful in marketing their products, or when their products do not gain widespread commercial acceptance;

our ability to achieve commercially viable production yields and to manufacture components in commercial quantities to the performance specifications demanded by our customers;

the effects that current credit and market conditions (including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic) could have on the liquidity and financial condition of our customers and suppliers, including any impact on their ability to meet their contractual obligations;

the effects on our business due to certain customers' products having short product life cycles;

our customers' ability to cancel or delay orders or change production quantities;

our customers' decisions to choose internal manufacturing instead of outsourcing for their product requirements;

integration of acquired businesses and facilities;

increased labor costs due to adverse labor conditions in the markets we operate;

changes in tax legislation; and

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changes in trade regulations and treaties.
We also are subject to other risks as outlined in Item 1A, "Risk Factors".
Net sales for fiscal year 2021 decreased less than 1%, or $0.1 billion, to $24.1 billion from the prior year. The decrease in sale was most notable in our FAS segment, down $0.6 billion, or 4.0%, from the prior year, driven by lower demand in our Consumer Devices business due to the impact of COVID-19 and more significantly our continued strategic shift away from high volatility, short cycle businesses that we initiated in the prior years. Largely offsetting the overall decline in revenue from our FAS segment for fiscal year 2021, was an increase in net sales from our FRS segment of $0.5 billion, or 4.7%, from the prior year, primarily driven by an increase in sales from our Health Solutions business and to a lesser extent from our Industrial business. Our fiscal year 2021 gross profit totaled $1.7 billion, representing an increase of $0.3 billion, or 26%, from the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by lower restructuring costs in fiscal year 2021 versus those incurred in fiscal year 2020 as a result of the geopolitical challenges and uncertainties which impacted certain of our customers. Gross profit also increased by $0.1 billion due to customer asset impairment charges recorded in the prior year coupled with the write-down of inventory not recoverable due to the significant reductions in future customer demand as we reduced our exposure to certain higher volatility businesses. Our net income totaled $0.6 billion, representing an increase of $0.5 billion, or 597%, compared to fiscal year 2020, due to the factors explained above, further impacted by higher impairment charges incurred in fiscal year 2020. Refer to note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for details of the investment impairments.
Cash provided by operations increased by approximately $1.6 billion to a cash inflow of $0.1 billion for fiscal year 2021 compared with a cash outflow of $1.5 billion for fiscal year 2020 primarily driven by the $0.5 billion increase in net income and the reduced cash outflow related to accounts receivables during fiscal year 2021. Our net working capital ("NWC") is calculated as current quarter accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, plus inventories and contract assets, less accounts payable and certain other current liabilities related to vendor financing programs. Our net working capital as a percentage of annualized sales for fiscal year 2021 increased to 11.5% from 6.3% in the prior year as a direct result of reducing the outstanding balance of accounts receivable sold through our ABS and accounts receivable factoring programs.
We believe adjusted free cash flow is an important liquidity metric because it measures, during a given period, the amount of cash generated that is available to repay debt obligations, make investments, fund acquisitions, repurchase company shares and for certain other activities. Our adjusted free cash flow is defined as cash from operations, plus cash collections of deferred purchase price receivables (for fiscal year 2020), less net purchases of property and equipment to present adjusted cash flows on a consistent basis for investor transparency. We also excluded the impact to cash flows related to certain vendor programs that is required for U.S. GAAP presentation as well as cash outflows related to repayment of the outstanding balance of our ABS programs in fiscal year 2021 as we utilized proceeds from debt issuance to replace funding from the ABS programs for working capital purposes. Our adjusted free cash flow remained relatively flat at $0.7 billion for fiscal year 2021 compared to $0.7 billion for fiscal year 2020. Refer to Liquidity and Capital Resources section for the adjusted free cash flows reconciliation to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure of cash flows from operations. Cash used in investing activities decreased by approximately $2.5 billion to a cash outflow of $0.2 billion for fiscal year 2021, compared with a cash inflow of $2.3 billion for fiscal year 2020, primarily due to lower cash collections on deferred purchase price receivables offset by lower net capital expenditures in the current fiscal year. Cash provided by financing activities increased by approximately $1.2 billion to a cash inflow of $0.7 billion during fiscal year 2021, compared with a cash outflow of $0.5 billion in the prior year, primarily driven by $1.4 billion of proceeds received in aggregate, net of discounts and after premiums, following the issuance of the 2026 Notes and the 2030 Notes, partially offset by $0.4 billion cash paid for the repayment of the term loan due June 2022.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP" or "GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been and will continue to be uncertainty and disruption in the global economy and financial markets. We have made estimates and assumptions taking into consideration certain possible impacts due to COVID-19. These estimates may change, as new events occur, and additional information is obtained. Actual results may differ from those estimates and assumptions.
We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. For further discussion of our significant accounting policies, refer to note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
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Revenue Recognition
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to recognize, we apply the following steps: (i) identify the contracts with the customers; (ii) identify performance obligations in the contracts; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations per the contracts; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. Further, we assess whether control of the product or services promised under the contract is transferred to the customer at a point in time (PIT) or over time (OT). We are first required to evaluate whether our contracts meet the criteria for OT recognition. We have determined that for a portion of our contracts, we are manufacturing products for which there is no alternative use (due to the unique nature of the customer-specific product and intellectual property restrictions) and we have an enforceable right to payment including a reasonable profit for work-in-progress inventory with respect to these contracts. As a result, revenue is recognized under these contracts OT based on the cost-to-cost method as it best depicts the transfer of control to the customer measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date as compared to the total estimated costs at completion of the performance obligation. For all other contracts that do not meet these criteria, we recognize revenue when we have transferred control of the related manufactured products which generally occurs upon delivery and passage of title to the customer. Refer to note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further details.
Customer Contracts and Related Obligations
Certain of our customer agreements include potential price adjustments which may result in variable consideration. These price adjustments include, but are not limited to, sharing of cost savings, committed price reductions, material margins earned over the period that are contractually required to be paid to the customers, rebates, refunds tied to performance metrics such as on-time delivery, and other periodic pricing resets that may be refundable to customers. We estimate the variable consideration related to these price adjustments as part of the total transaction price and recognize revenue in accordance with the pattern applicable to the performance obligation, subject to a constraint. We constrain the amount of revenues recognized for these contractual provisions based on our best estimate of the amount which will not result in a significant reversal of revenue in a future period. We determine the amounts to be recognized based on the amount of potential refunds required by the contract, historical experience and other surrounding facts and circumstances. Refer to note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further details.
Customer Credit Risk
We have an established customer credit policy through which we manage customer credit exposures through credit evaluations, credit limit setting, monitoring, and enforcement of credit limits for new and existing customers. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers' financial condition and make provisions for doubtful accounts based on the outcome of those credit evaluations. We evaluate the collectability of accounts receivable based on specific customer circumstances, current economic trends, historical experience with collections and the age of past due receivables. To the extent we identify exposures as a result of customer credit issues, we also review other customer related exposures, including but not limited to inventory and related contractual obligations.
Restructuring Charges
We recognize restructuring charges related to our plans to close or consolidate excess manufacturing facilities and rationalize administrative functions and to realign our corporate cost structure. In connection with these activities, we recognize restructuring charges for employee termination costs, long-lived asset impairment and other exit-related costs.
The recognition of these restructuring charges requires that we make certain judgments and estimates regarding the nature, timing and amount of costs associated with the planned restructuring activity. To the extent our actual results differ from our estimates and assumptions, we may be required to revise the estimates of future liabilities, requiring the recognition of additional restructuring charges or the reduction of liabilities already recognized. Such changes to previously estimated amounts may be material to the consolidated financial statements. At the end of each reporting period, we evaluate the remaining accrued balances to ensure that no excess accruals are retained, and the utilization of the provisions are for their intended purpose in accordance with developed exit plans.
Refer to note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion of our restructuring activities.
Inventory Valuation
Our inventories are stated at the lower of cost (on a first-in, first-out basis) or net realizable value. Our industry is characterized by rapid technological change, short-term customer commitments and rapid changes in demand. We purchase our inventory based on forecasted demand, and we estimate write downs for excess and obsolete inventory based on our regular
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reviews of inventory quantities on hand, and the latest forecasts of product demand and production requirements from our customers. If actual market conditions or our customers' product demands are less favorable than those projected, additional write downs may be required. In addition, unanticipated changes in the liquidity or financial position of our customers and/or changes in economic conditions may require additional write downs for inventories due to our customers' inability to fulfill their contractual obligations with regards to inventory procured to fulfill customer demand.
Valuation of Private Company Investments
We assess our investments for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the assets may be impaired. The factors we consider in our evaluation of potential impairment of our investments, include, but are not limited to a significant deterioration in the earnings performance or business prospects of the investee, or factors that raise significant concerns about the investee’s ability to continue as a going concern, such as negative cash flows from operation or working capital deficiencies. The carrying value of certain of our investments are individually material, and thus there is the potential for material charges in future periods if we determine that those investments are impaired. Refer to note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion of our investments.
Carrying Value of Long-Lived Assets
We review property and equipment and acquired amortizable intangible assets for impairment at least annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset group may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value. Recoverability of property and equipment and acquired amortizable intangible assets are measured by comparing their carrying amount to the projected cash flows the assets are expected to generate. If such asset groups are determined to be impaired, the impairment loss recognized, if any, is the amount by which the carrying amount of the property and equipment and acquired amortizable intangible assets exceeds fair value. Our judgments regarding projected cash flows for an extended period of time and the fair value of assets may be impacted by changes in market conditions, general business environment and other factors including future developments of the COVID-19 pandemic which remain highly uncertain and unpredictable. To the extent our estimates relating to cash flows and fair value of assets change adversely we may have to recognize additional impairment charges in the future.
Goodwill
Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. Recoverability of goodwill is measured at the reporting unit level by comparing the reporting unit's carrying amount, including goodwill, to the fair value of the reporting unit, which is measured based upon, among other factors, market multiples for comparable companies as well as a discounted cash flow analysis. These approaches use significant unobservable inputs, or Level 3 inputs, as defined by the fair value hierarchy and require us to make various judgmental assumptions about sales, operating margins, growth rates and discount rates which consider our budgets, business plans and economic projections, and are believed to reflect market participant views. Some of the inherent estimates and assumptions used in determining fair value of the reporting units are outside the control of management, including interest rates, cost of capital, tax rates, market EBITDA comparables and credit ratings. While we believe we have made reasonable estimates and assumptions to calculate the fair value of the reporting units, it is possible a material change could occur. If our actual results are not consistent with our estimates and assumptions used to calculate fair value, it could result in material impairments of our goodwill. Refer to note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further detail on our goodwill.
Contingent Liabilities
We may be exposed to certain liabilities relating to our business operations, acquisitions of businesses and assets and other activities. We make provisions for such liabilities when it is probable that the settlement of the liability will result in an outflow of economic resources or the impairment of an asset. We make these assessments based on facts and circumstances that may change in the future resulting in additional expenses.
Refer to note 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion of our contingent liabilities.
Income Taxes
Our deferred income tax assets represent temporary differences between the carrying amount and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities, which will result in deductible amounts in future years, including net operating loss carry forwards. Based on estimates, the carrying value of our net deferred tax assets assumes that it is more likely than not that we will be able to generate sufficient future taxable income in certain tax jurisdictions to realize these deferred income tax assets. Our judgments
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regarding future profitability may change due to future market conditions, changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors. If these estimates and related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to increase or decrease our valuation allowance against deferred tax assets previously recognized, resulting in additional or lesser income tax expense.
We are regularly subject to tax return audits and examinations by various taxing jurisdictions and around the world, and there can be no assurance that the final determination of any tax examinations will not be materially different than that which is reflected in our income tax provisions and accruals. Should additional taxes be assessed as a result of a current or future examination, there could be a material adverse effect on our tax position, operating results, financial position and cash flows. Refer to note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion of our tax position.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of net sales (amounts may not sum due to rounding). The financial information and the discussion below should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." As previously disclosed, we made certain changes in our organization structure. As a result of these changes, we revised our reportable segments as further discussed in note 20 to the consolidated financial statement in Item 8. There was no change to our consolidated financial statements. Additionally, as further discussed in note 2 to the consolidated financial statement in Item 8, the prior year amounts related to interest expense (income), net are now presented separately under interest, net, and the remaining balances under interest and other, net have been reclassified to other charges (income), net within the consolidated statement of operations. For comparability purposes, the prior periods have been recast to conform to the current presentation. The reclassifications had no effect on the previously reported results of operations.
The data below, and discussion that follows, represents our results from operations.
 Fiscal Year Ended
March 31,
 202120202019
Net sales100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of sales92.6 93.7 93.8 
Restructuring charges0.4 0.8 0.4 
Gross profit7.0 5.5 5.8 
Selling, general and administrative expenses3.4 3.4 3.6 
Intangible amortization0.3 0.3 0.3 
Restructuring charges0.1 0.1 0.1 
Interest, net0.6 0.7 0.7 
Other charges (income), net(0.3)0.3 0.4 
Income before income taxes2.9 0.7 0.7 
Provision for income taxes0.4 0.3 0.3 
Net Income 2.5 %0.4 %0.4 %

Net sales
The following table sets forth our net sales by segment, and their relative percentages:
Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
202120202019
Net sales:(In millions)
Flex Agility Solutions$13,493 56 %$14,053 58 %$16,855 64 %
Flex Reliability Solutions10,631 44 %10,157 42 %9,356 36 %
$24,124 $24,210 $26,211 
Fiscal year 2021 vs 2020
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Net sales during fiscal year 2021 totaled $24.1 billion, representing a decrease of $0.1 billion, or less than 1%, from $24.2 billion during fiscal year 2020. The decrease in net sales was most notable in our FAS segment, down $0.6 billion, or 4%, from the prior year, mainly due to a drop of 25% in our Consumer Devices business resulting from lower demand due to the impact of COVID-19 in the earlier part of fiscal year 2021, and our continued strategic shift away from high volatility, short cycle businesses that we initiated in fiscal year 2019. CEC grew 2% in fiscal year 2021 from the prior year driven by cloud and critical infrastructure spending. Lifestyle grew 5% in fiscal year 2021 from the prior year due to new customer ramps and continued market strength driven by work, learn and live-from-home trends. Largely offsetting the overall decline in revenue in our FAS segment was an increase in revenues from our FRS segment of $0.5 billion, or 5%, driven primarily by an increase of roughly 25% in sales from prior year of our Health Solutions business as a result of continued demand for critical care products, ventilator project ramps initiated earlier in fiscal year 2021, and continued growth in our chronic care business. Industrial revenue grew approximately 3% from the prior year with steady demand in core industrial. These increases in our FRS segment were offset by a drop of approximately 7% in our Automotive business due to the factory shutdowns in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021 despite the recovery noted in the subsequent quarters of fiscal year 2021.
Net sales were also lower in our Americas and Asia regions during fiscal year 2021, with decreases of $0.4 billion and less than $0.1 billion, respectively, partially offset by higher sales in Europe of $0.3 billion during the same period.
Fiscal year 2020 vs 2019
Net sales during fiscal year 2020 totaled $24.2 billion, representing a decrease of $2.0 billion, or 8%, from $26.2 billion during fiscal year 2019. The decrease in net sales was most notable in our FAS segment, down $2.8 billion, or 17%, from fiscal year 2019, driven by our targeted reductions of high volatility, low margin, short-cycle customers and product categories and further impacted by significant COVID-19 related supply chain constraints in our fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020. Additionally, our FAS segment was impacted by a 15% reduced demand from our CEC business due to the slower roll-out of 5G technology and our previously announced disengagement with Huawei Technologies Co., coupled with production disruptions due to COVID-19 in our fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020. Partially offsetting the overall decrease in revenue was a $0.8 billion, or 9% increase in our FRS segment. The increase in our FRS segment was primarily driven by a 19% increase in demand from our Industrial business throughout the year, which more than offset the underlying supply chain disruptions due to COVID-19 that impacted product ramps for various businesses within the FRS segment in our fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020. Offsetting the increase from our Industrial businesses were modest decreases of 2% in our Automotive businesses due to COVID-19 disruptions as multiple factories shut down late in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020.
Net sales were also lower in our Asia and Europe regions during fiscal year 2020, with decreases of $2.1 billion and less than $0.1 billion, respectively, partially offset by slightly higher sales in the Americas with an increase of $0.2 billion during the same period.
Our ten largest customers during fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 accounted for approximately 36%, 39% and 43% of net sales, respectively. We have made substantial efforts to diversify our portfolio which allows us to operate at scale in many different industries, and, as a result, no customer accounted for greater than 10% of net sales in fiscal year 2021, 2020 or 2019.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales is affected by a number of factors, including the number and size of new manufacturing programs, product mix, labor cost fluctuations by region, component costs and availability and capacity utilization.
Fiscal year 2021 vs 2020
Cost of sales during fiscal year 2021 totaled $22.3 billion, representing a decrease of approximately $0.4 billion, or 1% from $22.7 billion during fiscal year 2020. The decrease in cost of sales is more notable in our FAS segment. Cost of sales in FAS for fiscal year 2021 decreased $0.6 billion or almost 5% from fiscal year 2020, which is in line with the 4.0% decrease in revenue, primarily as a result of COVID-19 impacting our Consumer Devices business in the earlier part of fiscal year 2021, coupled with our targeted disengagement of high volatility, short cycle businesses initiated in fiscal year 2019. Offsetting the decrease in cost of sales in FAS is an increase of $0.5 billion, or 5%, related to the FRS segment during fiscal year 2021. These fluctuations are consistent with the associated change in net sales noted above. Cost of sales was also higher in the prior year due to $0.1 billion of customer assets impairment charges for customers that were experiencing financial difficulties as well as the write-down of inventory not recoverable due to significant reductions in future customer demand as we reduced our exposure to certain higher volatility businesses.
Fiscal year 2020 vs 2019
Cost of sales during fiscal year 2020 totaled $22.7 billion, representing a decrease of approximately $1.9 billion, or 8% from $24.6 billion during fiscal year 2019. The decrease in cost of sales for fiscal year 2020 is more notable in our FAS
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segment with a decrease of $2.7 billion or almost 17% from fiscal year 2019, which is in line with the 17% decrease in revenue, primarily as a result of our targeted reductions of high volatility, low margin, short-cycle customers and product categories and further impacted by significant COVID-19 related supply chain constraints in our fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020. Our FRS segment partially offset the decrease described above with an increase of $0.7 billion, or 8%, from fiscal year 2019, which is in line with the 9% increase in revenue noted above. In addition, we wrote down inventory in the second quarter of fiscal year 2020 that will not be recovered due to significant reductions in future customer demand as we reduced our exposure to certain high volatility business.
Gross profit
Gross profit is affected by a fluctuation in costs of sales elements as outlined above and further by a number of factors, including product life cycles, unit volumes, pricing, competition, new product introductions, and the expansion or consolidation of manufacturing facilities, as well as specific restructuring activities initiated from time to time. The flexible design of our manufacturing processes allows us to manufacture a broad range of products in our facilities and better utilize our manufacturing capacity across our diverse geographic footprint and service customers from all segments. In the cases of new programs, profitability normally lags revenue growth due to product start-up costs, lower manufacturing program volumes in the start-up phase, operational inefficiencies, and under-absorbed overhead. Gross margin for these programs often improves over time as manufacturing volumes increase, as our utilization rates and overhead absorption improve, and as we increase the level of manufacturing services content. As a result of these various factors, our gross margin varies from period to period.
Gross profit during fiscal year 2021 increased $0.3 billion to $1.7 billion, or 7.0% of net sales, from $1.3 billion, or 5.5% of net sales, during fiscal year 2020, an improvement of 150 basis points. The increase in gross profit and gross margin during fiscal year 2021 primarily resulted from lower restructuring costs, $0.1 billion in fiscal year 2021, versus $0.2 billion in fiscal year 2020. The decline of $0.1 billion was primarily due to higher charges taken in fiscal year 2020 due to geopolitical challenges and uncertainties which impacted certain of our customers. Gross profit also increased due to the $0.1 billion of customer assets impairment charges recorded in the prior year for customers that were experiencing financial difficulties coupled with the write-down of inventory not recoverable due to the significant reductions in future customer demand as we reduced our exposure to certain higher volatility businesses. These increases were partially offset by the decline in revenue and gross profit in our Consumer Devices and Automotive end markets reflecting COVID-19 demand and production pressures during the first half of fiscal year 2021.
Gross profit decreased $0.2 billion to $1.3 billion in fiscal year 2020, from $1.5 billion in fiscal year 2019. Gross margin decreased 30 basis points, to 5.5% of net sales in fiscal year 2020, from 5.8% of net sales in fiscal year 2019. The decrease in both gross profit and gross margin is primarily due to lower sales coupled with an additional $91 million, or 40 basis points, of restructuring charges incurred during fiscal year 2020 versus fiscal year 2019. In addition, we wrote down inventory in the second quarter of fiscal year 2020 that will not be recovered due to significant reductions in future customer demand as we reduced our exposure to certain high volatility businesses. We also incurred approximately $52 million, or 21 basis points, of direct incremental costs due to COVID-19 in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020. These were partially offset by the favorable product mix and the increased revenue and gross profit from our Industrial business and benefits realized from our earlier restructuring activities initiated in fiscal year 2019.
Segment income
An operating segment's performance is evaluated based on its pre-tax operating contribution, or segment income. Segment income is defined as net sales less cost of sales, and segment selling, general and administrative expenses, and does not include amortization of intangibles, stock-based compensation, customer related assets impairments (recoveries), restructuring charges, the new revenue standard adoption impact, legal and other, interest, net and other charges (income), net. A portion of depreciation is allocated to the respective segments, together with other general corporate research and development and administrative expenses.
The following table sets forth segment income and margins (amounts may not sum due to rounding):
 Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
 202120202019
 (In millions)
Segment income:
Flex Agility Solutions$449 3.3 %$369 2.6 %$442 2.6 %
Flex Reliability Solutions662 6.2 %642 6.3 %534 5.7 %

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Fiscal year 2021 vs 2020
FAS segment margin increased 70 basis points, to 3.3% for fiscal year 2021, from 2.6% for fiscal year 2020. The margin increase during the period was driven by an increase in demand from high-end audio, floor care and appliance customers included in our Lifestyle end markets coupled with better fixed costs absorption. This is partially offset by the decline in our Consumer Devices business due to elevated overhead costs and supply chain constraints noted in the earlier part of fiscal year 2021.
FRS segment margin decreased 10 basis points, to 6.2% for fiscal year 2021, from 6.3% for fiscal year 2020. The slight decrease in margin during the period is primarily the results of plant shutdowns during most of our first quarter of fiscal year 2021, which affected the entire automotive ecosystem across all regions, coupled with under-absorption and efficiency impacts, in addition to new product ramps in our Health Solution market.
Fiscal year 2020 vs 2019
FAS segment margin remained constant at 2.6% for fiscal year 2020 and fiscal year 2019, respectively. FAS segment margin in fiscal year 2020 was impacted by manufacturing inefficiencies from supply chain disruptions and constraints in the fourth quarter due to COVID-19, slower roll-out of 5G technology, and ongoing repositioning of our operating structure and portfolio transition in the Consumer Devices end market. FAS segment margin in fiscal year 2019 was impacted by losses from our NIKE operations in Mexico, which we exited in the third quarter coupled with under-performance of certain accounts in the Consumer Devices end markets, partially offset by operational efficiencies and improved absorption of overhead in our CEC business.
FRS segment margin increased 60 basis points, to 6.3% for fiscal year 2020, from 5.7% for fiscal year 2019. The FRS segment margin benefited from favorable business mix resulting from increased demand from new business particularly in the Industrial end market, greater levels of design and engineering led engagements and improved operational execution. Offsetting these favorable impacts to the FAS segment were margin deterioration due to accelerated investments and costs associated with new program ramps and pricing pressure with demand declines in the global market that impacted product mix, coupled with under absorption of costs associated with the temporary closure of several automotive sites in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020 due to COVID-19.
Restructuring charges
In order to support our strategy and build a sustainable organization, and after considering that the economic recovery from the pandemic will be slower than anticipated, we identified certain structural changes to restructure the business. These restructuring actions will eliminate non-core activities primarily within our corporate function, align our cost structure with our reorganizing and optimizing of our operations model along our two reporting segments, and further sharpen our focus to winning business in end markets where we have competitive advantages and deep domain expertise. During fiscal year 2021, we recognized approximately $0.1 billion of restructuring charges, most of which related to employee severance.
During the first half of fiscal year 2020 in connection with the geopolitical developments and uncertainties, primarily impacting one customer in China, we experienced a reduction in demand for products assembled for that customer. As a result, we accelerated our strategic decision to reduce our exposure to certain high-volatility products in both China and India. We also initiated targeted activities to restructure our business to further reduce and streamline our cost structure. During fiscal year 2020, we recognized $0.2 billion of restructuring charges. We incurred cash charges of approximately $159 million, that were predominantly for employee severance, in addition to non-cash charges of $57 million, primarily related to asset impairments.
During fiscal year 2019, we took targeted actions to optimize our portfolio, most notably within our former Consumer Technologies Group segment. We recognized restructuring charges of approximately $0.1 billion during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, of which $73 million were non-cash charges primarily for asset impairments. A significant component of our charges were associated with the wind down of our NIKE operations in Mexico in the third quarter of fiscal year 2019. In addition, we executed targeted head-count reductions at existing operating and design sites and corporate functions and exited certain immaterial businesses. Of these total charges, approximately $99 million was recognized as a component of cost of sales during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019.
Refer to note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion of our restructuring activities.
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") totaled $0.8 billion, or 3.4% of net sales, during fiscal year 2021, compared to $0.8 billion, or 3.4% of net sales, during fiscal year 2020, decreasing by $17 million or 2%, which reflects strong cost discipline practiced across the enterprise as well as the benefits from our distinct actions taken to temporarily reduce
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compensation costs across our employee base and aggressively reducing our discretionary spend levels during the first half of fiscal year 2021.
SG&A totaled $0.8 billion, or 3.4% of net sales, during fiscal year 2020, compared to $1.0 billion, or 3.6% of net sales, during fiscal year 2019, decreasing by $0.2 billion or 12%, due to strict cost discipline focused on driving further productivity improvements which enabled us to respond quickly to current market conditions by taking targeted actions on our discretionary spends coupled with a refined cost structure benefiting from prior restructuring initiatives.
Intangible amortization
Amortization of intangible assets in fiscal years 2021 and 2020 were $62 million and $64 million, respectively, representing a decrease of $2 million and $10 million, from their respective prior years as a result of certain intangible assets being fully amortized during the respective periods.
Interest, net
Interest, net was $148 million during fiscal year 2021, compared to $174 million during fiscal year 2020, decreasing $26 million primarily due to lower expenses from our asset-backed securitization programs, partially offset by a higher average borrowing level during fiscal year 2021.
Interest, net was $174 million during fiscal year 2020, remaining relatively constant from $175 million during fiscal year 2019. The slight decrease was driven by a lower interest rate environment during fiscal year 2020 compared to the prior year.
Other charges (income), net
During fiscal year 2021, we recorded $67 million of other income, net, primarily as a result of recognizing $83 million of equity in earnings, driven by the value increase in certain investment funds resulting from discrete market events including IPOs of certain companies included in the funds. Out of the $83 million equity in earnings recorded in fiscal year 2021, we collected $48 million of cash proceeds as we sold certain shares received as a distribution from one of our funds' investments. Partially offsetting the income was an impairment charge of $37 million related to certain non-core investments that were determined to be other than temporarily impaired.
During fiscal year 2020, and in connection with our ongoing assessment of our investment portfolio strategy, we concluded that the carrying amounts of certain non-core investments were other than temporarily impaired and recognized a $98 million total impairment charge.
During the last half of fiscal year 2019, we reassessed our strategy with respect to our entire investment portfolio. As a result, we recognized an aggregate net charge related to investment impairments and dispositions of approximately $193 million for the year ended March 31, 2019. The aggregate charge was primarily driven by write-downs of our investment positions in a non-core cost method investment and Elementum that were recognized in the third and fourth quarters of fiscal 2019, respectively. We also incurred other investment impairments that were individually immaterial as a result of our strategy shift and due to market valuation changes. Offsetting these charges was an $87 million non-cash gain from the deconsolidation of Bright Machines.
Refer to note 16 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further discussion of our other charges (income), net.
Income taxes
We work to ensure that we accrue and pay the appropriate amount of income taxes according to the laws and regulations of each jurisdiction in which we operate. Certain of our subsidiaries have, at various times, been granted tax relief in their respective countries, resulting in lower income taxes than would otherwise be the case under ordinary tax rates. The consolidated effective tax rates were 14.1%, 44.7% and 48.7% for the fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The effective rate varies from the Singapore statutory rate of 17.0% in each year as a result of the following items:
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Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
202120202019
Income taxes based on domestic statutory rates17.0 %17.0 %17.0 %
Effect of tax rate differential(11.6)(51.2)(74.1)
Change in unrecognized tax benefit1.5 (0.6)(8.4)
Change in valuation allowance4.9 58.4 105.4 
Foreign exchange movement on prior year taxes recoverable0.7 8.4 3.0 
Expiration of tax attributes— — 2.3 
APB 23 tax liability0.1 5.5 1.1 
Other1.5 7.2 2.4 
Provision for income taxes14.1 %44.7 %48.7 %

The variation in our effective tax rate each year is primarily a result of recognition of earnings in foreign jurisdictions which are taxed at rates lower than the Singapore statutory rate including the effect of tax holidays and tax incentives we received primarily for our subsidiaries in China, Malaysia, Costa Rica, Netherlands and Israel of $21 million, $16 million and $24 million in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Additionally, our effective tax rate is impacted by changes in our liabilities for uncertain tax positions of $11 million, ($1) million, and ($15) million and changes in our valuation allowances on deferred tax assets of $35 million, $93 million and $192 million in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We generate most of our revenues and profits from operations outside of Singapore.
We are regularly subject to tax return audits and examinations by various taxing jurisdictions around the world, and there can be no assurance that the final determination of any tax examinations will not be materially different than that which is reflected in our income tax provisions and accruals. Should additional taxes be assessed as a result of a current or future examination, there could be a material adverse effect on our tax position, operating results, financial position and cash flows.
We provide a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets that in our estimation are not more likely than not to be realized. During fiscal year 2021, we released a valuation allowance of $25 million mainly related to certain operations in Canada as this amount was deemed to be more likely than not to be realized due to the sustained profitability during the past three fiscal years as well as continued forecasted profitability of those subsidiaries. Various other valuation allowance positions were also reduced due to varying factors such as recognition of uncertain tax positions impacting deferred tax assets, one-time income recognition in loss entities, and foreign exchange impacts on deferred tax balances. Lastly, these valuation allowance reductions and eliminations were offset by current period valuation allowance additions due to increased deferred tax assets as a result of current period losses in legal entities with existing full valuation allowance positions.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
In response to the recent challenging environment following the COVID-19 pandemic, we continuously evaluate our ability to meet our obligations over the next 12 months and have proactively reset our capital structure during these times to improve maturities and liquidity. As a result, we expect that our current financial condition, including our liquidity sources are adequate to fund current and future commitments. As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $2.6 billion and bank and other borrowings of approximately $3.8 billion. We have a new $2.0 billion revolving credit facility, that is due to mature in January 2026 (the "2026 Credit Facility"), under which we had no borrowings outstanding as of March 31, 2021. The new credit facility replaced the previous $1.75 billion credit facility that was to mature in June 2022. We also issued $675 million of 3.750% Notes due February 2026 and $650 million of 4.875% Notes due May 2030 and repaid $433 million for the term loan due June 2022 in fiscal year 2021. Refer to note 8 to the consolidated financial statement in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional details on the new credit facility and the new notes. As of March 31, 2021, we were in compliance with the covenants under all of our credit facilities and indentures.
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Our cash balances are held in numerous locations throughout the world. As of March 31, 2021, over half of our cash and cash equivalents were held by foreign subsidiaries outside of Singapore. Although substantially all of the amounts held outside of Singapore could be repatriated, under current laws, a significant amount could be subject to income tax withholdings. We provide for tax liabilities on these amounts for financial statement purposes, except for certain of our foreign earnings that are considered indefinitely reinvested outside of Singapore (approximately $1.5 billion as of March 31, 2021). Repatriation could result in an additional income tax payment; however, for the majority of our foreign entities, our intent is to permanently reinvest these funds outside of Singapore and our current plans do not demonstrate a need to repatriate them to fund our operations in jurisdictions outside of where they are held. Where local restrictions prevent an efficient intercompany transfer of funds, our intent is that cash balances would remain outside of Singapore and we would meet our liquidity needs through ongoing cash flows, external borrowings, or both.
Fiscal Year 2021
Cash provided by operating activities was $0.1 billion during fiscal year 2021. The total cash provided by operating activities resulted primarily from $0.6 billion of net income for the period plus $0.6 billion of non-cash charges such as depreciation, amortization, non-cash lease expense, restructuring and impairment charges, provision for doubtful accounts, deferred income taxes and stock-based compensation. Depreciation expense was $0.4 billion and relatively consistent with prior years. These additions were offset by a net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $1.1 billion, primarily driven by cash outflows related to accounts receivables resulting from the reduction of our outstanding balances of accounts receivable sold through our ABS and accounts receivable factoring programs.
We believe NWC, and net working capital as a percentage of annualized net sales are key metrics that measure our liquidity. NWC is calculated as current quarter accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, plus inventories and contract assets, less accounts payable and certain other current liabilities related to vendor financing programs. NWC increased by $1.5 billion to $2.9 billion as of March 31, 2021, from $1.4 billion as of March 31, 2020. This increase is primarily driven by a $1.7 billion increase in net receivables as we reduced our outstanding balances on our ABS and accounts receivable factoring programs as discussed above, coupled with a $0.1 billion increase in inventories, and partially offset with a $0.1 billion decrease in contract assets and a $0.1 billion increase in accounts payable. Our net working capital as a percentage of annualized net sales as of March 31, 2021 increased to 11.5% as compared to 6.3% of annualized net sales as of March 31, 2020 as a direct result of reducing the outstanding balance of accounts receivable sold through our ABS and accounts receivable factoring programs. We expect to operate in this range going forward. Though we have mitigated most of the initial supplier constraints and component shortages that we had encountered in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, we continue to operate in an unusual and dynamic environment with respect to COVID-19 related production limitations and fluctuating demand. We expect it will take additional time to adequately drive down our inventory levels to align with the current demand environment. We are actively working with our partners to rebalance safety and buffer stock requirements and we have an established enterprise-wide cross-functional initiative resetting our load planning. Component shortages are also expected to persist at least in the near future as we are seeing increasing supply constraints. We are working diligently with our partners to secure needed parts and fulfill demand.
Cash used in investing activities totaled $0.2 billion during fiscal year 2021. This was primarily driven by approximately $0.4 billion of capital expenditures for property and equipment to continue expanding capabilities and capacity in support of our expanding Health Solutions and Industrial businesses net of approximately $0.1 billion of proceeds from the sale of fixed assets including proceeds from the sale of an exited facility in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2021 as a result of the disengagement of a certain customer in fiscal year 2020. Further offsetting the capital expenditures was $48 million of proceeds from the sale of certain shares received as distribution from one of our funds' investments.
Cash provided by financing activities was $0.7 billion during fiscal year 2021. This was primarily driven by $1.4 billion of proceeds received in aggregate, net of discounts and after premiums, following the issuance of the 2026 Notes and the 2030 Notes, partially offset by $0.4 billion of cash paid for the repayment of the term loan due June 2022. Refer to note 8 to the consolidated financial statement in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional details. Also offsetting cash provided by financing activities was $0.2 billion of cash paid for the repurchase of our ordinary shares.
Fiscal Year 2020
Cash used in operating activities was $1.5 billion during fiscal year 2020. The total cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from $88 million of net income for the period plus $0.8 billion of non-cash charges such as depreciation, amortization, restructuring and impairment charges, provision for doubtful accounts, and stock-based compensation. Depreciation expense was $0.4 billion and slightly lower than prior years. These additions were more than offset by a net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $2.4 billion, primarily driven by cash outflows related to accounts receivable. Cash collections from the deferred purchase price on our ABS sales programs of $2.6 billion were included in cash from investing activities.
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Cash provided by investing activities totaled $2.3 billion during fiscal year 2020. This was primarily driven by $2.6 billion of cash collections on deferred purchase price receivables from our ABS Programs offset by approximately $0.4 billion of net capital expenditures for property and equipment to continue expanding capabilities and capacity in support of our expanding Health Solutions and Industrial businesses. In addition, other investing activities include $44 million of proceeds from the sale of our partial investment in Bright Machines.
Cash used in financing activities was $0.5 billion during fiscal year 2020. This was primarily the result of (i) $0.7 billion of cash paid for the repayment of the term loan due November 2021, (ii) $0.5 billion of cash paid for the tender and redemption of the outstanding balance of our 4.625% Notes due February 2020, (iii) $0.1 billion of cash paid to pay off the outstanding balance of our short-term bank borrowings facility in India, and (iv) $0.3 billion of cash paid for the repurchase of our ordinary shares. Partially offsetting the payments described above were $0.7 billion of proceeds, net of discount and premium, received following the issuance of the 2029 Notes, $0.3 billion of proceeds following the execution of our term loan agreement due in April 2024, $59 million of proceeds from drawdowns from our India term loan facility coupled with $47 million of proceeds from the execution of our term loan due in March 2021.
Fiscal Year 2019
Cash used in operating activities was $3.0 billion during fiscal year 2019. As further discussed below, cash collections on the deferred purchase price from our ABS Programs of $3.6 billion were included in cash from investing activities instead of cash from operating activities in accordance with new accounting guidance adopted in fiscal year 2019. The total cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from $93 million of net income for the period plus $0.8 billion of non-cash charges such as depreciation, amortization, restructuring and impairment charges, provision for doubtful accounts, and stock-based compensation, net of a gain of $87 million from the deconsolidation of Bright Machines which were included in the determination of net income. Depreciation expense was $0.4 billion and relatively consistent with prior years. These additions were more than offset by a net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $3.9 billion. In accordance with the new accounting guidance adopted in fiscal year 2019, cash collections on deferred purchase price from our ABS Programs were classified as cash flows from investing activities and no longer included in cash receipts related to accounts receivable. As a result, while accounts receivable only increased by approximately $95 million from fiscal year 2018 to fiscal year 2019, the impact to operating cash flows is an outflow of $3.6 billion. Year over year increases in inventory and contract assets also added to the net change in our operating assets and liabilities reflected on our cash flow from operations.
Cash provided by investing activities totaled $3.3 billion during fiscal year 2019. This was primarily driven by the impact of our adoption of ASU 2016-15 during fiscal year 2019 referred to above, which required us to classify cash collections on the deferred purchase price from our ABS Programs that were previously classified as operating cash inflows as cash flows from investing activities. In addition, we received $0.3 billion of proceeds, net of cash held, in connection with the divestiture of our China-based Multek operations as further described in note 18 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data". We also invested $0.6 billion of net capital expenditures for property and equipment to expand capabilities and capacity in support of our Industrial, Automotive and Health Solutions businesses.
Cash used in financing activities was $30 million during fiscal year 2019. This was primarily the result of repurchases of ordinary shares in the amount of $0.2 billion, offset by $0.2 billion received from the drawdown of India Facilities.
Adjusted Free Cash Flow
We believe adjusted free cash flow is an important liquidity metric because it measures, during a given period, the amount of cash generated that is available to repay debt obligations, make investments, fund acquisitions, repurchase company shares and for certain other activities. Our adjusted free cash flow is defined as cash from operations, plus cash collections of deferred purchase price receivables (for fiscal year 2020 and prior), less net purchases of property and equipment to present adjusted cash flows on a consistent basis for investor transparency. We also excluded the impact to cash flows related to certain vendor programs that is required for U.S. GAAP presentation. During fiscal year 2021, we proactively and strategically reduced the outstanding balance of our ABS programs. Proceeds from our debt issuance replaced the funding from the ABS programs for working capital purposes. We reduced the balance on this short-term financing product by $0.8 billion as of March 31, 2021 from March 31, 2020, which has the accounting effect of reducing our cash flow from operations, resulting in no balance outstanding as of March 31, 2021. As this decrease in cash flow reflects the change of our capital strategy, we have added this back for our adjusted free cash flow calculation. Our adjusted free cash flow was $0.7 billion, $0.7 billion and $3 million for fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Adjusted free cash flow is not a measure of liquidity under U.S. GAAP, and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. Adjusted free cash flow should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to net cash provided by operating activities. Adjusted free cash flows reconcile to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure of cash flows from operations as follows:
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 Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
 202120202019
 (In millions)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$144 $(1,533)$(2,971)
Reduction in ABS levels797 — — 
Cash collection of deferred purchase price and other2,561 3,605 
Purchases of property and equipment(351)(462)(725)
Proceeds from the disposition of property and equipment85 106 94 
Adjusted free cash flow$677 $672 $

Our cash balances are generated and held in numerous locations throughout the world. Liquidity is affected by many factors, some of which are based on normal ongoing operations of the business and some of which arise from fluctuations related to global economics and markets. Local government regulations may restrict our ability to move cash balances to meet cash needs under certain circumstances; however, any current restrictions are not material. We do not currently expect such regulations and restrictions to impact our ability to pay vendors and conduct operations throughout the global organization. We believe that our existing cash balances, together with anticipated cash flows from operations and borrowings available under our credit facilities, will be sufficient to fund our operations through at least the next twelve months.
Future liquidity needs will depend on fluctuations in levels of inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable, the timing of capital expenditures for new equipment, the extent to which we utilize operating leases for new facilities and equipment, and the levels of shipments and changes in the volumes of customer orders.
We maintain global paying services agreements with several financial institutions. Under these agreements, the financial institutions act as our paying agents with respect to accounts payable due to our suppliers who elect to participate in the program. The agreements allow our suppliers to sell their receivables to one of the participating financial institutions at the discretion of both parties on terms that are negotiated between the supplier and the respective financial institution. Our obligations to our suppliers, including the amounts due and scheduled payment dates, are not impacted by our suppliers’ decisions to sell their receivables under this program. During fiscal years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the cumulative payments due to suppliers participating in the programs amounted to approximately $1.0 billion and $0.9 billion, respectively. Pursuant to their agreements with one of the financial institutions, certain suppliers may elect to be paid early at their discretion. We are not always notified when our suppliers sell receivables under these programs. The available capacity under these programs can vary based on the number of investors and/or financial institutions participating in these programs at any point in time.
In addition, we maintain various uncommitted short-term financing facilities including but not limited to commercial paper program and revolving sale and repurchase of subordinated note established under the securitization facility, under which there were no borrowings outstanding as of March 31, 2021.
Historically, we have funded operations from cash and cash equivalents generated from operations, proceeds from public offerings of equity and debt securities, bank debt and lease financings. We also sell a designated pool of trade receivables under ABS Programs and sell certain trade receivables, which are in addition to the trade receivables sold in connection with these securitization agreements. We may enter into debt and equity financings, sales of accounts receivable and lease transactions to fund acquisitions and anticipated growth as needed.
During fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, we received approximately $0.6 billion, $7.6 billion and $6.8 billion, respectively from transfers of receivables under our ABS Programs, and $0.8 billion, $1.6 billion and $2.7 billion, respectively from other sales of receivables. As of March 31, 2021, and 2020, the outstanding balance on receivables sold for cash was $0.2 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively, under all our ABS programs and accounts receivable factoring program, which were removed from accounts receivable balances in our consolidated balance sheets.
Historically we have been successful in refinancing and extending the maturity dates on our term loans and credit facilities. In January 2021, we entered into a $2.0 billion credit agreement which matures in January 2026 and consists of a $2.0 billion revolving credit facility with a sub-limit of $360 million available for swing line loans, and a sub-limit of $175 million available for the issuance of letters of credit. The 2026 Credit Facility replaced the previous $1.75 billion credit facility, which was due to mature in June 2022.
The sale or issuance of equity or convertible debt securities could result in dilution to current shareholders. Further, we may issue debt securities that have rights and privileges senior to those of holders of ordinary shares, and the terms of this debt
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could impose restrictions on operations and could increase debt service obligations. This increased indebtedness could limit our flexibility as a result of debt service requirements and restrictive covenants, potentially affect our credit ratings, and may limit our ability to access additional capital or execute our business strategy. Any downgrades in credit ratings could adversely affect our ability to borrow as a result of more restrictive borrowing terms. We continue to assess our capital structure and evaluate the merits of redeploying available cash to reduce existing debt or repurchase ordinary shares. Under our current share repurchase program, our Board of Directors authorized repurchases of our outstanding ordinary shares for up to $500 million in accordance with the share purchase mandate approved by our shareholders at the date of the most recent Annual General Meeting which was held on August 7, 2020. During fiscal year 2021, we paid $183 million to repurchase shares under the current and prior repurchase plans at an average price of $17.49 per share. As of March 31, 2021, shares in the aggregate amount of $317 million were available to be repurchased under the current plan.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
Bank borrowings and long-term debt are as follows:
As of March 31,
20212020
(In millions)
Term Loan, including current portion, due in installments through June 2022— 433 
5.000% Notes due February 2023500 500 
Term Loan due April 2024 - three-month Yen LIBOR plus 0.50%305 310 
4.750% Notes due June 2025598 597 
3.750% Notes due February 2026694 — 
4.875% Notes due June 2029661 662 
4.875% Notes due May 2030694 — 
India Facilities133 138 
Other219 211 
Debt issuance costs(21)(13)
3,783 2,838 
Current portion, net of debt issuance costs(268)(149)
Non-current portion$3,515 $2,689 

Refer to the discussion in note 8 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for further details of our debt obligations.
We have purchase obligations that arise in the normal course of business, primarily consisting of binding purchase orders for inventory related items and capital expenditures. Additionally, we have leased certain of our property and equipment under finance lease commitments, and certain of our facilities and equipment under operating lease commitments.
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Future payments due under our purchase obligations, debt including finance leases and related interest obligations and operating leases are as follows (amounts may not sum due to rounding):
 TotalLess Than
1 Year
1 - 3 Years4 - 5 Years