S-3/A 1 d337371ds3a.htm AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO FORM S-3 Amendment No. 1 to Form S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 6, 2021

Registration No. 333- 252990

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Amendment No. 1

to

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

CEDAR REALTY TRUST, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland  

44 South Bayles Avenue
Port Washington, NY 11050-3765

(516) 767-6492

  42-1241468
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation of organization)
  (Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)   (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

 

Bruce J. Schanzer

Chief Executive Officer

Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.

44 South Bayles Avenue

Port Washington, NY 11050-3765

(516) 767-6492

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Yoel Kranz

Goodwin Procter LLP

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, NY 10018

(212) 813-8800

 

Adina G. Storch, Esq.

General Counsel

Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.

44 South Bayles Avenue

Port Washington, NY 11050-3765

(516) 767-6492

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement as determined by market conditions.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

 

Amount to be

registered/proposed

maximum offering price

per unit/proposed

maximum aggregate

offering price

  Amount of
registration fee

Common Stock

  (1)(2)    

Preferred Stock

  (1)(2)    

Depositary Shares

  (1)    

Warrants

  (1)    

Stock Purchase Contracts

  (1)    

Units

  (1)    

Total

  $750,000,000(1)   $81,825.00(3)

 

 

(1)

There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Stock Purchase Contracts and Units of the Registrant as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $750,000,000. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum initial offering price per unit will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder. There are also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of Common Stock as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for that issuance. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the securities being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions..

(2)

Includes rights to acquire common stock or preferred stock of the Company under any shareholder rights plan then in effect, if applicable under the terms of any such plan.

(3)

A registration fee of $81,825.00 with respect to the securities registered pursuant to this Registration Statement was previously paid in connection with the initial filing on February 11, 2021. The registration fee was calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus may change. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or other jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED May 6, 2021

PROSPECTUS

$750,000,000

 

CEDAR REALTY TRUST, INC.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Stock Purchase Contracts

Units

 

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of securities that Cedar Realty Trust, Inc. may offer and sell from time to time. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that sale and may add to or update the information in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in our securities.

Cedar Realty Trust, Inc. may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and/or agents on a continuous or delayed basis.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “CDR”, our 7.25% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol CDR PrB, and our 6.50% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol CDR PrC.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves various risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 as well as the risk factors contained in documents Cedar Realty Trust, Inc. files with the Securities and Exchange Commission and which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2021.

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we filed on Form S-3 with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell any combination of our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, stock purchase contracts or units from time to time and in one or more offerings. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered (if other than common stock) and the specific terms of that offering. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise requires, or unless otherwise specified, all references in this prospectus to the terms “we,” “us,” “our” and “our company” refer to Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document that we file at the public reference facilities of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at (800) SEC-0330 for further information about the public reference facilities. These documents may also be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

We also maintain an internet site at www.cedarrealtytrust.com where you may find additional information about us and our business. The information included, or referenced to, on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not intended to form a part of or be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, except for any information superseded by information contained directly in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement, any subsequently filed document deemed incorporated by reference or any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that we have previously filed with the SEC (other than information deemed furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules, including Items 2.02 and 7.01 of Form 8-K):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed on February 11, 2021;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 30, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on May 6, 2021

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 4, 2021 and April 29, 2021 (excluding Item 7.01 thereof); and

 

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the description of our shares of common stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on October 1, 2003, including any amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All documents filed by us under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement and/or on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the date of the completion of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus shall also be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part of this prospectus from the date of filing of those documents. Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a previously filed document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document that also is or was deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

The information relating to us contained in this prospectus should be read together with the information in the documents incorporated by reference.

You can obtain any of the documents incorporated by reference in this document from us or the SEC through the SEC’s website at the address described above. Documents incorporated by reference are available from us without charge, excluding any exhibits to those documents, unless the exhibit is specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this document. You can obtain documents incorporated by reference in this document at no cost by requesting them in writing or by telephone from us at the following address or telephone number:

Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.

Investor Relations

44 South Bayles Avenue

Port Washington, New York 11050

Telephone (516) 767-6492

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any accompanying prospectus supplement, within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). For these statements, we claim the protections of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in such Section. You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “contemplates,” “aims,” “continues,” “would” or “anticipates” or similar words or phrases in the positive or negative. In particular, forward looking statements include those pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance, dividend policy, results of operations, anticipated growth in our portfolio from operations, acquisitions, and market conditions and demographics. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and generally beyond our control. They depend on assumptions, data or methods which may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:

 

   

the economic, political and social impact of, and uncertainty relating to, the COVID-19 pandemic, including:

 

   

the effectiveness or lack of effectiveness of governmental relief in providing assistance to large and small businesses, particularly including our retail tenants and other retailers, that have suffered significant declines in revenues as a result of mandatory business shut-downs, “shelter-in-place” or “stay-at-home” orders and social distancing practices, as well as individuals adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic,

 

   

the duration of any such orders or other formal recommendations for social distancing and the speed and extent to which revenues of our retail tenants recover following the lifting of any such orders or recommendations,

 

   

the potential impact of any such events on the obligations of the Company’s tenants to make rent and other payments or honor other commitments under existing leases,

 

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the potential adverse impact on returns from redevelopment projects,

 

   

to the extent we were seeking to sell properties in the near term, significantly greater uncertainty regarding our ability to do so at attractive prices, and

 

   

the broader impact of the severe economic contraction and increase in unemployment that has occurred in the short term and negative consequences that will occur if these trends are not quickly reversed;

 

   

the ability and willingness of the Company’s tenants and other third parties to satisfy their obligations under their respective contractual arrangements with the Company;

 

   

the loss or bankruptcy of the Company’s tenants, particularly in light of the adverse impact to the financial health of many retailers that has occurred and continues to occur as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

   

the ability and willingness of the Company’s tenants to renew their leases with the Company upon expiration, the Company’s ability to re-lease its properties on the same or better terms in the event of nonrenewal or in the event the Company exercises its right to replace an existing tenant, and obligations the Company may incur in connection with the replacement of an existing tenant, particularly, in light of the adverse impact to the financial health of many retailers that has occurred and continues to occur as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the significant uncertainty as to when and the conditions under which potential tenants will be able to operate physical retail locations in future;

 

   

macroeconomic conditions, such as a disruption of or lack of access to capital markets and the adverse impact of the recent significant decline in the Company’s share price from prices prior to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

   

financing risks, such as the Company’s inability to obtain new financing or refinancing on favorable terms as the result of market volatility or instability; (vii) increases in the Company’s borrowing costs as a result of changes in interest rates and other factors, including the potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021;

 

   

the impact of the Company’s leverage on operating performance;

 

   

risks related to the market for retail space generally, including reductions in consumer spending, variability in retailer demand for leased space, adverse impact of e-commerce, ongoing consolidation in the retail sector and changes in economic conditions and consumer confidence;

 

   

risks endemic to real estate and the real estate industry generally;

 

   

competitive risks;

 

   

risks related to the geographic concentration of the Company’s properties in the Washington, D.C. to Boston corridor;

 

   

damage to the Company’s properties from catastrophic weather and other natural events, and the physical effects of climate change;

 

   

the inability of the Company to realize anticipated returns from its redevelopment activities;

 

   

uninsured losses;

 

   

loss of key officers and executives;

 

   

the Company’s ability and willingness to maintain its qualification as a REIT in light of economic, market, legal, tax and other considerations; and

 

   

information technology security breaches.

Investors should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to us (or to third parties making the forward-looking statements). We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus, except as required by applicable law. Investors should also refer to Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.’s annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for future periods and current reports on Form 8-K as it files them with the SEC, and to other materials Cedar Realty Trust, Inc. may furnish to the public from time to time through Forms 8-K or otherwise.

 

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CEDAR REALTY TRUST, INC.

We were organized in 1984 and elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, in 1986. We are a fully-integrated real estate investment trust that focuses primarily on ownership and operation of grocery-anchored shopping centers straddling the Washington D.C. to Boston corridor. At December 31, 2020, we owned and managed a portfolio of 54 operating properties (excluding properties “held for sale/conveyance”).

We conduct our business and own all of our properties through our operating partnership, in which we owned at December 31, 2020 an approximate 99.4% economic interest, and are its sole general partner.

Our principal executive offices are located at 44 South Bayles Avenue, Port Washington, NY 11050, our telephone number is (516) 767-6492 and our website address is www.cedarrealtytrust.com. The information included, or referenced to, on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not intended to form a part of or be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before making an investment decision. These risks are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the occurrence of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and documents we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus that are deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

USE OF PROCEEDS

When we offer particular securities, we will describe in a prospectus supplement relating to the securities offered how we intend to use the proceeds from their sale. We may invest funds not required immediately for such purposes in short-term investment grade securities.

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK AND PREFERRED STOCK

The following description of our common stock and preferred stock is not complete but is a summary of the rights and preferences of our common stock and preferred stock. While we believe that the following description covers the material terms of our common stock and preferred stock, the description may not contain all of the information that is important to you. We encourage you to read carefully our charter and bylaws and the applicable provisions of Maryland law for a more complete understanding of our common stock and preferred stock. Any series of preferred stock we issue will be governed by our charter (as amended and in effect as of the date of such issuance). Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and the following summary, to the extent it relates to those documents, is qualified in its entirety by reference thereto.

Authorized and Outstanding Securities.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150 million shares of common stock with a par value of $.06 per share, and 12.5 million shares of preferred stock, with a par value of $.01 per share. As of December 31, 2020, there were (1) 13,529,969 shares of common stock outstanding, (2) 1,449,609 shares outstanding of our 7.25% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (the “Series B Preferred Stock”), and (3) 5,000,000 shares outstanding of our 6.50% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (the “Series C Preferred Stock”).

Description of Common Stock

Voting

Under our articles of incorporation, as amended, which we refer to as our “charter”, holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to the common stock holders for vote at all meetings of stockholders.

 

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Dividends and Distributions

Subject to the preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors. Upon the declaration of dividends, holders of common stock are entitled to share in all such dividends, pro rata, in accordance with the relative number of shares of common stock held by each such holder.

Subject to the preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock, dividends and distributions are declared by our board of directors and paid to the holders of common stock in cash, property or our other securities (including shares of any class or series whether or not shares of such class or series are already outstanding) out of funds legally available therefor. Each share of common stock has identical rights with respect to dividends and distributions.

Liquidation Rights

Subject to the preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock, in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of, or any distribution of the assets of, the Company, each holder of common stock shall be entitled to receive, ratably with each other holder of common stock, that portion of the assets of the Company available for distribution to its stockholders as the number of shares of the common stock held by such holder bears to the total number of shares of common stock then outstanding.

Transferability

The common stock is freely transferable, and except for the 9.9% limit described below under “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” and federal and state securities laws restrictions on our directors, officers and other affiliates and on persons holding “restricted” stock, our stockholders are not restricted in their ability to sell or transfer shares of the common stock.

Sinking Fund, Preemptive, Subscription and Redemption Rights

The common stock does not carry any sinking fund, preemptive, subscription or redemption rights enabling a holder to subscribe for or receive shares of any class of our stock or any other securities convertible into shares of any class of our stock.

Listing

The common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which we refer to as the NYSE, under the symbol “CDR”.

Registrar and Transfer Agent

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC is the registrar and transfer agent for the common stock.

Description of Preferred Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to authorize the issuance of preferred stock in one or more classes or series and may determine, with respect to any such class or series, the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock of that class or series, including:

 

   

distribution rights;

 

   

conversion rights;

 

   

voting rights;

 

   

redemption rights and terms of redemptions; and

 

   

liquidation preferences.

The preferred stock we may offer from time to time under this prospectus, when issued, will be duly authorized, fully paid and non-assessable, and holders of preferred stock will not have any preemptive rights.

The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders. In addition, any preferred stock that we issue could rank senior to our common stock with respect to the payment of distributions, in which case we could not pay any distributions on our common stock until full distributions have been paid with respect to such preferred stock.

 

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The preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each class or series of preferred stock will be fixed by articles supplementary relating to the class or series. We will describe the specific terms of the particular series of preferred stock in the prospectus supplement relating to that series, which terms will include:

 

   

the designation and par value of the preferred stock;

 

   

the voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the number of shares of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share of preferred stock and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

   

the distribution rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

whether distributions will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date(s) from which distributions on the preferred stock will cumulate;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing for the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for, and any restriction on, redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for, and any restriction on, repurchase, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the terms and provisions, if any, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into common stock, including the conversion price (or manner or calculation) and conversion period;

 

   

the terms under which the rights of the preferred stock may be modified, if applicable;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any limitation on issuance of any other series of preferred stock, including any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

if appropriate, a discussion of any additional material federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if applicable;

 

   

in addition to those restrictions described below, any other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of the preferred stock; and

 

   

any additional rights, preferences, privileges or restrictions of the preferred stock.

In addition to any other class or series of preferred stock that we may offer, issue or sell pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, we have previously issued shares of our Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock. We may reopen these series and issue additional shares of Series B Preferred Stock or Series C Preferred Stock. Our Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock rank senior to our common stock with respect to distribution rights and rights upon the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company. In addition to other preferential rights, each holder of our Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock is entitled to receive a liquidation preference, which is equal to $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid distributions thereon, before the holders of our common stock receive any distributions in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company. Furthermore, we are generally restricted from declaring or paying any distributions, or setting aside any funds for the payment of distributions, on our common stock or, subject to certain exceptions, redeeming or otherwise acquiring shares of our common stock unless full cumulative distributions on our Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock have been declared and either paid or set aside for payment in full for all past distribution periods.

 

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Upon certain changes in control (as defined in our charter), the holders of our Series B Preferred Stock and the Series C Preferred Stock have the right to convert some or all of their shares into a number of shares of our common stock based on a defined formula, subject to a share cap, or alternative consideration. The full terms governing our Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock are set forth in our charter, which is included as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and the foregoing summary is qualified in its entirety by reference thereto.

Our Series B Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “CDR-PrB” and our Series C Preferred Stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “CDR-PrC”. The transfer agent and registrar for our Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities such as qualified pension plans) during the last half of a taxable year.

Our charter provides that no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.9% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. The articles supplementary designating the terms of the Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock provide that the 9.9% ownership limitation applies to ownership of these series of preferred stock as separate classes. Any person who acquires or attempts to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of common stock or preferred that will or may violate the ownership limitation is required to give written notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our REIT status.

If our board of directors or a committee thereof determines that a transfer or proposed transfer of the shares of common stock or preferred stock violates or may violate the ownership limitation or certain other provisions of our charter prohibiting transfers that may have the effect of causing us to lose our REIT status, our board of directors or committee thereof is empowered to take any action it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including (i) electing to purchase any shares owned by a person or group of affiliated persons in excess of the ownership limitations or (ii) refusing to transfer or issue shares to a person if an acquisition of shares by such person or group would result in such person or group exceeding these ownership limits or jeopardizing our status as a REIT. Any transfer of shares that would result in a person or group exceeding ownership limits or in our disqualification as a REIT is deemed void as of the date of such transfer. Our board of directors has the right to waive the ownership limitations and excess share provisions of our charter relating to our common stock or preferred stock.

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

The following description of shares represented by depositary shares sets forth certain general terms and provisions of depositary agreements, depositary shares and depositary receipts. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of the depositary shares and related agreements and receipts will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those depositary shares. For more information, you should review the relevant form of deposit agreement and relevant form of depositary receipts, which will be filed with the SEC.

Interest in a Fractional Share, or Multiple Shares, of Preferred Stock

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares, each of which would represent an interest in a fractional share, or multiple shares, of preferred stock instead of whole shares of preferred stock. If so, we will allow a depositary to issue depositary shares to the public, each of which will represent an interest in a fractional share, or multiple shares, of preferred stock as described in the prospectus supplement.

Deposit Agreement

The shares of preferred stock underlying any depositary shares will be deposited under a separate deposit agreement between us and a bank or trust company acting as depositary with respect to those shares of preferred stock. The prospectus supplement relating to a series of depositary shares will specify the name and address of the depositary. Under the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion of its interest in a fractional share, or multiple shares, of the preferred stock underlying that depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of that preferred stock, including dividend, voting, redemption, conversion, and exchange and liquidation rights.

 

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Depositary shares will be evidenced by one or more depositary receipts issued under the deposit agreement. We will distribute depositary receipts to those persons purchasing such depositary shares in accordance with the terms of the offering made by the related prospectus supplement.

Dividends and Other Distributions

If we pay a cash distribution or dividend on a series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares, the depositary will distribute such dividends to the record holders of such depositary shares. If the distributions are in property other than cash, the depositary will distribute the property to the record holders of the depositary shares. However, if the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution of property, the depositary may, with our approval, sell such property and distribute the net proceeds from such sale to the record holders of the depositary shares.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the office of the depositary and upon payment of the charges provided in the deposit agreement and subject to the terms thereof, a holder of depositary receipts is entitled to have the depositary deliver to such holder the applicable number of shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares evidenced by the surrendered depositary receipts. There may be no market, however, for the underlying preferred stock and once the underlying preferred stock is withdrawn from the depositary, it may not be redeposited.

Redemption and Liquidation

The terms on which the depositary shares relating to the preferred stock of any series may be redeemed, and any amounts distributable upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Voting

Upon receiving notice of any meeting at which the holders of preferred stock represented by depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the notice to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to such series of preferred stock. Each record holder of such depositary shares on the record date may instruct the depositary on how to vote the shares of preferred stock underlying that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will vote the shares of preferred stock underlying those depositary shares according to those instructions, and we will take reasonably necessary actions to enable the depositary to do so. If the depositary does not receive specific instructions from the record holders of such depositary shares, it will abstain from voting those shares of preferred stock, unless otherwise discussed in the prospectus supplement.

Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement

We and the depositary may amend the form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and the related deposit agreement. However, any amendment that significantly affects the rights of the holders of depositary shares will not be effective unless holders of a majority of the then outstanding depositary shares approve that amendment. No amendment, however, may impair the right of any holder of depositary shares to receive any money or other property to which he or she may be entitled under the terms of the deposit agreement at the times and in the manner and amount provided for therein. We or the depositary may terminate a deposit agreement only if:

 

   

we redeemed or reacquired all outstanding depositary shares relating to the deposit agreement;

 

   

if applicable, all outstanding depositary shares have been converted into shares of Common stock or another series of preferred stock; or

 

   

there has been a final distribution with respect to the preferred stock of any series in connection with our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and such distribution has been made to the related depositary shareholders.

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer from time to time. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of any of the warrants that we may offer and the related agreements will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those warrants. For more information, you should review the relevant form of warrant agreement and the relevant form of warrant certificate, if any, which will be filed with the SEC.

 

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We may issue warrants for the purchase of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus. Warrants may be issued independently, together with any other securities offered by any prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such securities. We may issue warrants under a warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. We will name any warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the applicable prospectus supplement for the specific terms of any warrants that may be offered, including:

 

   

the title of such warrants;

 

   

the aggregate number of the warrants;

 

   

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants will be issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related security, if any, will be separately transferable;

 

   

the price at which each security that can be purchased upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which such right will expire;

 

   

the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time, if applicable;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange and exercise of such warrants.

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the stock purchase contracts that we may offer from time to time. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of any purchase contract that we may offer and the related agreements will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those stock purchase contracts. For more information, you should review the relevant form of stock purchase contract and the relevant form of pledge agreement for stock purchase contracts, if any, which will be filed with the SEC.

If we offer any stock purchase contracts, certain terms of that series of stock purchase contracts will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following:

 

   

the price of the securities or other property subject to the stock purchase contracts (which may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the stock purchase contracts);

 

   

any requirement for us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa, and whether the payments are unsecured or pre-funded;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the stock purchase contracts;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase or sale under the stock purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the stock purchase contract;

 

   

any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the stock purchase contracts;

 

   

whether the stock purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form;

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of such stock purchase contracts and any securities subject to such stock purchase contracts.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the units that we may offer from time to time. This summary does not contain all of the information that you may find useful. The particular terms of any of the units that we may offer and the related agreements will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those units. For more information, you should review the relevant form of unit agreement and the relevant form of unit certificate, if any, which will be filed with the SEC.

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

 

   

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units;

 

   

the applicable U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following description of the terms of our stock and of certain provisions of Maryland law is only a summary. Copies of our charter and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and the following description is qualified entirely by reference to our charter and bylaws and the applicable provisions of Maryland law.

Number of Directors; Vacancies

Our charter provides that the number of directors will be set only by the board of directors in accordance with our bylaws. Our bylaws provide that a majority of our entire board of directors may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors. However, the number of directors may never be less than three.

Whenever any vacancy occurs on the board of directors by reason of death, resignation, removal, or increase in the authorized number of directors, or otherwise, it may be filled by the board of directors or by the stockholders at a special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose.

Annual Elections; Majority Voting

Each of our directors will be elected by our stockholders to serve until our next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Our bylaws provide for majority voting in uncontested director elections. Pursuant to our bylaws, in a contested election, directors are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors, and in an uncontested election, a director is elected if he or she receives more votes for his or her election than votes against his or her election.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights, if any, of holders of any class or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause, and then only by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. “Cause” is defined in our charter to mean the willful and continuous failure of a director to substantially perform such director’s duties (other than any such failure resulting from temporary incapacity due to physical or mental illness) or the willful engaging by a director in gross misconduct materially and demonstrably injurious to the corporation.

 

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Calling of Special Meetings of Stockholders

Our bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called by our chairman of the board. Additionally, our bylaws provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the stockholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders shall be called by the chairman of the board or the secretary of the corporation upon the written request of (x) a majority of the directors or (y) the holders of 25 percent or more of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting.

Business Combinations

The MGCL provides that “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation.

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by two super-majority stockholder votes, unless, among other conditions, the holders of the corporation’s common stock receive a minimum price, as defined by Maryland law, for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. None of these provisions of Maryland law will apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by the board of directors of the corporation before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Furthermore, a person is not an interested stockholder if the transaction by which he or she would otherwise have become an interested stockholder is approved in advance by the board of directors.

As permitted by Maryland law, our charter contains an election exempting any business combinations between us and any other person or entity from the business combination provisions of the MGCL and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person as described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that the acquirer of certain levels of voting power in electing directors of a Maryland corporation (one-tenth or more, but less than one-third, one-third or more but less than a majority, and a majority or more) is not entitled to vote the shares in excess of the applicable threshold unless voting rights for the shares are approved at a meeting by holders of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock owned by the acquiror or by an officer or director of the corporation who is an employee of the corporation, or unless the acquisition of the shares has been specifically or generally approved or exempted from the statute by a provision in the corporation’s charter or bylaws adopted before the acquisition of the shares.

As permitted by Maryland law, our charter contains an election exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock.

Appraisal Rights

The MGCL provides that stockholders may exercise appraisal right, subject to certain exceptions, including if appraisal rights are eliminated under a company’s charter or if the company’s common stock is listed on a national securities exchange. Because the common stock is listed on the NYSE, our stockholders will not be entitled to exercise appraisal rights in the event of our consolidation, merger, transfer or business combination, the acquisition of the stockholder’s stock in a share exchange, amendment of our charter in a way that substantially adversely affects the stockholders’ rights, or our conversion to a different form of entity.

 

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Subtitle 8

Under Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL, a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three directors who are not officers or employees of the corporation, and who are not affiliated with a person who is seeking to acquire control of the corporation, may elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:

 

   

a classified board requirement;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the board of directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies; or

 

   

a requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders only at the written request of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting.

We have not elected to create a classified board; however, our board of directors may elect in the future, without stockholder approval, to create a classified board or elect to be subject to one or more of the other provisions of Subtitle 8.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Other than amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or by a specific provision in our charter, our charter may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors, without stockholder approval, has the power under our charter to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue, to authorize us to issue authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify any unissued shares of our preferred stock, or reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock, into one or more classes or series of stock and set the terms of such newly classified or reclassified shares.

Our board of directors may amend or repeal our bylaws or adopt new by laws. In addition, stockholders, by the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on the matter, may amend or repeal our bylaws or adopt new bylaws, provided, that stockholders may not alter or repeal the section of our bylaws providing for director, officer and employee indemnification or the provisions relating to amendment of the bylaws, in either case without the approval of our board of directors

Transactions Outside the Ordinary Course of Business

We generally may not merge with or into or consolidate with another company, sell all or substantially all of our assets or engage in a statutory share exchange or convert unless such transaction is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

The provisions of the MGCL, our charter and our bylaws described above including, among others, and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interests.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Our charter and bylaws provide for indemnification of directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

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The MGCL generally permits indemnification of any director or officer with respect to any proceedings unless it is established that: (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was either (i) committed in bad faith or (ii) the result of active and deliberate dishonesty; (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or (c) in the case of a criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. The indemnity may include judgments, penalties, fines, settlements, and reasonable expenses actually incurred by the director or officer in connection with the proceedings. However, a corporation may not indemnify a director or officer who shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, or who instituted a proceeding against the corporation (unless such proceeding was brought to enforce the indemnification provisions of the MGCL, or the charter, bylaws, a resolution of the board of directors of the corporation or an agreement approved by the board of directors). In addition, a director may not be indemnified under the MGCL in respect of any proceeding charging improper personal benefit to the director, whether or not involving action in the director’s official capacity, in which the director was adjudged to be liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. The termination of any proceeding by judgment, order or settlement does not create a presumption that the director or officer did not meet the requisite standard of conduct required for permitted indemnification. The termination of any proceeding by conviction, or plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, or an entry of an order of probation prior to judgment, creates a rebuttable presumption that the director or officer did not meet that standard of conduct. A director or officer who has been successful on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding referred to above shall be indemnified against any reasonable expenses incurred by the director or officer in connection with the proceeding.

We have also entered into indemnity agreements with several of our officers and directors that provide that we will, subject to certain conditions, pay on behalf of the indemnified party any amount which the indemnified party is or becomes legally obligated to pay because of any act or omission or neglect or breach of duty, including any actual or alleged error or misstatement or misleading statement, which the indemnified party commits or suffers while acting in the capacity as an officer or director. Once an initial determination is made by the registrant that a director or officer did not act in bad faith or for personal benefit, the indemnification provisions contained in the charter, bylaws, and indemnity agreements would require us to advance any reasonable expenses incurred by the director or officer, and to pay the costs, judgments, and penalties determined against a director or officer in a proceeding brought against them.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

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CERTAIN U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary discusses certain U.S. federal income tax considerations associated with our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our shares of common stock and preferred stock. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. The information in this section is based on the current Code, current, temporary and proposed income tax regulations promulgated under the Code (“Treasury Regulations”), the legislative history of the Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS (including its practices and policies as endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except in the case of the taxpayer to whom a private letter ruling is addressed), and existing court decisions. Future legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations and court decisions could change current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law, possibly with retroactive effect. Any change could apply retroactively. We have not obtained any rulings from the IRS concerning the tax treatment of the matters discussed below. Thus, it is possible that the IRS could challenge the statements in this discussion and that a court could agree with the IRS.

Special rules that are not discussed below may apply to you if, for example you are a broker-dealer, a trust, an estate, a regulated investment company, a REIT, a financial institution, an insurance company, a person who holds 10% or more (by vote or value) of our stock, a partnership or other pass-through entity or an investor in such an entity, a person subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code, a person holding our common stock or preferred stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “short sale,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment, a person required to accelerate any item of gross income as a result of such income being recognized on an applicable financial statement, a person who marks-to market our common stock or preferred stock, a U.S. expatriate, a U.S. Stockholder (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, a tax-exempt entity, a Non-U.S. Stockholder (as defined below) or are otherwise subject to special tax treatment under the Code.

This summary does not discuss the impact that any U.S. federal taxes other than income taxes (such as estate and gift taxes), U.S. state and local taxes, alternative minimum taxes, estate taxes, and taxes imposed by non-U.S. jurisdictions could have on the matters discussed in this summary. In addition, this summary assumes that security holders hold our stock as capital assets, which generally means as property held for investment. In addition, the following summary does not address any U.S. federal income tax consequences to holders of our outstanding stock that could result if we issue any redeemable preferred stock at a price that exceeds its redemption price by more than a de minimis amount or that otherwise provides for dividends that are economically a return of the stockholders investment (rather than a return on the stockholder’s investment), which preferred stock could be considered “fast-pay stock” under Treasury Regulations promulgated under Section 7701(l) of the Code and treated under such regulations as a financing instrument among the holders of the fast-pay stock and our other stockholders.

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors in order to determine the U.S. federal, state, local, foreign and other tax consequences to them of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our shares, the tax treatment of a REIT and the effect of potential changes in the applicable tax laws.

For purposes of this discussion, references to “our company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer solely to Cedar Realty Trust, Inc. and do not include the Operating Partnership or any of our other subsidiaries. For purposes of this discussion, the term “corporation” includes any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the term “stock” means interests treated as equity in a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For purposes of this discussion, the term “partnership” includes any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the term “partner” includes any person treated as a member of a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

General

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the applicable provisions of the Code and the Treasury regulations promulgated thereunder, or Treasury Regulations, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1986. We believe we have operated as a REIT and intend to continue operating as a REIT so long as our Board of Directors determines that REIT qualification remains in our best interest. However, we cannot assure you that we will meet the applicable requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws, which are highly technical and complex.

In brief, a corporation that complies with the provisions in Code Sections 856 through 860 and qualifies as a REIT generally is not taxed on its taxable income to the extent such income is currently distributed to stockholders, thereby completely or substantially eliminating the “double taxation” that a corporation and its stockholders generally bear together. However, as discussed in greater detail below, we could be subject to U.S. federal income tax in some circumstances even if we qualify as a REIT and would likely suffer adverse consequences, including reduced cash available for distribution to its stockholders, if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Goodwin Procter LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this registration statement. Goodwin Procter LLP is of the opinion that commencing with our taxable year ended on December 31, 2016, we have been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT under the Code and our actual method of operation through the date hereof (as represented by us to Goodwin Procter LLP) has enabled us to meet, and our proposed method of operation (as represented by us to Goodwin Procter LLP) will enable us to continue to meet, the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. This opinion has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Goodwin Procter LLP’s opinion is based on representations made by us as to certain factual matters relating to our prior and intended and expected organization, ownership and method of operation. Goodwin Procter LLP has not verified those representations, and their opinion assumes that such representations and covenants are accurate and complete, that we have been owned, organized and operated and will continue to be owned, organized and will continue to operate in accordance with such representations and covenants and that we will take no action inconsistent with our status as a REIT. In addition, this opinion is based on the law existing and in effect as of its date (and to the extent applicable, the law in effect for prior periods covered by their opinion). Our qualification and taxation as a REIT will depend on our ability to have met and to meet on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, the asset composition, distribution levels, diversity of share ownership and various other qualification tests imposed under the Code discussed below. Goodwin Procter LLP has not reviewed and will not review our compliance with these tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, the opinion of our tax counsel does not guarantee our ability to qualify as or remain qualified as a REIT, and no assurance can be given that we have satisfied and will satisfy such tests for our taxable year ended December 31, 2016 or for any subsequent period. Also, the opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP is not binding on the IRS, or any court, and could be subject to modification or withdrawal based on future legislative, judicial or administrative changes to U.S. federal income tax laws, any of which could be applied retroactively. Goodwin Procter LLP will have no obligation to advise us or the holders of our stock or debt of any subsequent change in the matters addressed in its opinion, the factual representations or assumptions on which the conclusions in the opinion are based, or of any subsequent change in applicable law.

Taxation

We are subject to tax at normal corporate rates on our “REIT taxable income.” The term “REIT taxable income” means the taxable income as computed for a corporation which is not a REIT:

 

   

without the deductions allowed by Code Sections 241 through 247, and 249 (relating generally to the deduction for dividends received);

 

   

excluding amounts equal to: the net income from foreclosure property and the net income derived from prohibited transactions;

 

   

deducting amounts equal to: the net loss from foreclosure property, the net loss derived from prohibited transactions, the tax imposed by Code Section 857(b)(5) upon a failure to meet the 95% or the 75% gross income tests, the tax imposed by Code Section 856(c)(7)(C) upon a failure to meet the quarterly asset tests, the tax imposed by Code Section 856(g)(5) for otherwise avoiding REIT disqualification, and the tax imposed by Code Section 857(b)(7) on non-arm’s length transactions between REITs and their taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs;

 

   

deducting the amount of dividends paid under Code Section 561, computed without regard to the amount of the net income from foreclosure property (which is excluded from REIT taxable income); and

 

   

without regard to any change of annual accounting period pursuant to Code Section 443(b).

Because we are allowed the deduction for dividends paid in calculating our REIT taxable income, in any year in which we qualify as a REIT we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that portion of our taxable income or net capital gain which is distributed to our stockholders.

Although we can eliminate or substantially reduce our U.S. federal income tax liability by maintaining our REIT qualification and paying sufficient dividends, we will be subject to U.S. federal tax in the following circumstances:

 

   

We will be taxed at normal corporate rates on any undistributed taxable income and/or net capital gain.

 

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If we fail to satisfy either the 95% Gross Income Test or the 75% Gross Income Test (each of which is described below), but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and we therefore maintain our REIT qualification, we will be subject to a tax equal to the product of (a) the amount by which we failed the 75% or 95% Gross Income Test (whichever amount is greater) multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

We will be subject to an excise tax if we fail to currently distribute sufficient income. In order to make the “required distribution” with respect to a calendar year, we must distribute the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the calendar year, and (3) the excess, if any, of the grossed up required distribution (as defined in the Code) for the preceding calendar year over the distributed amount for that preceding calendar year. Any excise tax liability would be equal to 4% of the difference between the amount required to be distributed under this formula and the amount actually distributed and would not be deductible by us.

 

   

If we have net income from prohibited transactions (generally, gain from inventory or “dealer property”) such income would be subject to a 100% tax. See “- REIT Qualification Tests - Prohibited Transactions.”

 

   

We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the highest corporate rate on any non-qualifying income from foreclosure property, although we will not own any foreclosure property unless we make loans or accept purchase money notes secured by interests in real property and foreclose on the property following a default on the loan, or foreclose on property pursuant to a default on a lease.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests, as described below, other than a failure of the 5% or 10% REIT assets tests that does not exceed a statutory de minimis amount as described more fully below, but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the amount determined by multiplying the highest corporate tax rate (currently 21%) by the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any other provision of the Code that would result in our failure to continue to qualify as a REIT (other than a gross income or asset test requirement) and that violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification if we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders. Such penalties generally would not be deductible by us.

 

   

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT because we have accumulated non-REIT earnings and profits at the end of the relevant year (i.e., any earnings and profits that we inherit from a taxable C corporation during the year, such as through tax-free merger or tax-free liquidation with a taxable C corporation, and that are not distributed or otherwise offset during the taxable year), and the presence of non-REIT earnings and profits at year-end is not due to fraud with intent to evade tax, we generally may retain our REIT status by paying a special distribution, but we will be required to pay an interest charge on 50% of the amount of undistributed non-REIT earnings and profits.

 

   

If we acquire any asset from a corporation that is subject to full corporate-level U.S. federal income tax in a transaction in which our basis in the asset is determined by reference to the transferor corporation’s basis in the asset, such as through a tax-free merger or other tax-free reorganization, and we recognize gain on the disposition of such asset during the 5-year recognition period beginning on the date we acquired such asset, then such gain up to the amount of the excess of the fair market value of such asset as of the beginning of such recognition period over our adjusted basis in such asset at the beginning of such recognition period will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the highest regular corporate U.S. federal income tax rate (currently 21%). The results described in this paragraph assume that the non-REIT corporation does not elect, in lieu of this treatment, to be subject to an immediate tax when the asset is acquired by us.

 

   

We will be subject to a 100% penalty tax on some payments we receive or on certain other amounts (or on certain expenses deducted by our TRSs) if arrangements among us, our tenants and/or our TRSs are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

 

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The earnings of our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including any subsidiary we have elected to treat as a TRS, will generally be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

   

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include his, her or its proportionate share of our undistributed net capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in his, her or its income as long-term capital gain, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a refund or credit as the case may be for his, her or its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the stockholder’s basis in our stock. Stockholders that are U.S. corporations will also appropriately adjust their earnings and profits for the retained capital gain in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated.

In addition, notwithstanding our qualification as a REIT, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of other taxes, including state and local and foreign income, property, payroll and other taxes on our assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

REIT Qualification Tests

Organizational Requirements. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for its qualification as a REIT;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company;

 

  (5)

that meets the gross income requirements (the “Gross Income Tests”), asset requirements (the “Asset Tests”) and annual distribution requirements summarized below;

 

  (6)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons on at least 335 days in each full taxable year, proportionately adjusted for a short taxable year;

 

  (7)

generally in which, at any time during the last half of each taxable year, no more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include specified entities);

 

  (8)

that makes an election to be taxable as a REIT for the current taxable year, or has made this election for a previous taxable year, which election has not been revoked or terminated, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to maintain qualification as a REIT; and

 

  (9)

that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Organizational requirements (1) through (5) must be met during each taxable year for which REIT qualification is sought, while requirements (6) and (7) do not have to be met until after the first taxable year for which a REIT election is made.

We believe that we have sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to satisfy conditions (6) and (7) above. In addition, our charter provides restrictions regarding the transfer of shares of our capital stock that are intended to assist us in satisfying the share ownership requirements described in conditions (6) and (7) above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will be able to satisfy these share ownership requirements.

To monitor its compliance with condition (7) above, a REIT is required to send annual letters to its stockholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of its shares. If we comply with the annual letters requirement and we do not know or, exercising reasonable diligence, would not have known of our failure to meet condition (7) above, then we will be treated as having met condition (7) above. Failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to monetary penalties. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demand letters, you will be required by the Treasury Regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing your actual ownership of our shares and other information. We have complied with condition (8) above by making our REIT election as part of our U.S. federal income tax return for our taxable year ended December 31, 1986. For purposes of satisfying condition (9), we have adopted December 31 as our year end, and we intend to comply with the applicable record-keeping requirements.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. A REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company or other unincorporated entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, and will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity.

The assets and gross income of a partnership of which a REIT is a partner retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership in which we own an interest is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of Asset Tests and Gross Income Tests.

If we become a partner in any partnership that we do not control and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our qualification as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a Gross Income Test or Asset Test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own certain assets through subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries.” A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for purposes of the Asset Tests and Gross Income Tests. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, but may be subject to state or local tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “- Asset Tests.” While we currently hold all of our investments through the Operating Partnership, we also may hold investments separately, through qualified REIT subsidiaries. Because a qualified REIT subsidiary must be wholly owned by a REIT, any such subsidiary utilized by us would have to be owned by us, or another qualified REIT subsidiary, and could not be owned by the Operating Partnership unless we own 100% of the equity interest in the Operating Partnership.

Certain other wholly-owned entities also may be treated as disregarded as separate from their owners for U.S. federal income tax purposes, generally including any domestic unincorporated entity that would be treated as a partnership if it had more than one owner for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of any such disregarded entity will be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the owner of the disregarded entity.

If a disregarded subsidiary or qualified REIT subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another one of our disregarded subsidiaries), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership (if not formerly a qualified REIT subsidiary) or a taxable corporation (if formerly a qualified REIT subsidiary). Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the Asset Tests and Gross Income Tests, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “- Asset Tests” and “- Income Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in TRSs. We currently own an interest in three TRSs and may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. A TRS is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS generally may engage in any business, including investing in assets and engaging in activities that could not be held or conducted directly by us without jeopardizing our qualification as a REIT.

A domestic TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation (and a non-U.S. TRS would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on certain U.S. source income and income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, if any). We may conduct material activities through a TRS and the amount of such taxes paid by our TRS(s) could be substantial.

 

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A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset tests described below. However, no more than 20% of the gross value of a REIT’s assets may be represented by securities of one or more TRSs (or 25% for our taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018).

Share Ownership Requirements

The common stock and any other stock we issue must be held by a minimum of 100 persons (determined without attribution to the owners of any entity owning our stock) for at least 335 days in each full taxable year, proportionately adjusted for partial taxable years. In addition, we cannot be “closely-held,” which means that at all times during the second half of each taxable year, no more than 50% in value of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” as specifically defined for this purpose (determined by applying certain attribution rules under the Code to the owners of any entity owning our stock). However, these two requirements do not apply until after the first taxable year an entity elects REIT status.

Our charter contains certain provisions intended, among other purposes, to enable us to meet these share ownership requirements. First, subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person may beneficially or constructively own (applying certain attribution rules under the Code) more than 9.9% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or more than 9.9% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any class or series of shares of our stock, as well as in certain other circumstances. See the Section entitled “Description of Capital Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in this prospectus. Additionally, our charter contains provisions requiring each holder of our shares to disclose, upon demand, constructive or beneficial ownership of shares as deemed necessary to comply with the requirements of the Code. Furthermore, stockholders failing or refusing to comply with our disclosure request will be required, under Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, to submit a statement containing information regarding the beneficial ownership of our stock to the IRS at the time of filing their annual income tax returns for the year in which the request was made.

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter of the taxable year, we must satisfy five tests based on the composition of our assets, or the Asset Tests. After initially meeting the Asset Tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our qualification as a REIT for failure to satisfy the Asset Tests at the end of a later quarter solely due to changes in value of our assets. In addition, if the failure to satisfy the Asset Tests results from an acquisition during a quarter, the failure generally can be cured by disposing of non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We will continue to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with these tests and intend to act within 30 days after the close of any quarter as may be required to cure any noncompliance.

75% Asset Test. At least 75% of the value of our assets must be represented by “real estate assets,” cash, cash items (including receivables) and government securities, which we refer to as the 75% Asset Test. Real estate assets include (1) real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on interests in real property); (2) for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, personal property leased with real property if the rents attributable to the personal property would be rents from real property under the income tests discussed below; (3) shares in other qualifying REITs; (4) for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs; and (5) any stock or debt instrument (not otherwise a real estate asset) attributable to the temporary investment of “new capital,” but only for the one-year period beginning on the date we received the new capital. A stock or debt instrument will qualify as being attributable to the temporary investment of new capital if the money used to purchase the stock or debt instrument is received by us in exchange for our stock (other than through a dividend reinvestment plan) or in a public offering of debt obligations that have a maturity of at least five years. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests described below under “- 25% Asset Test.”

We are currently invested in a number of real properties. In addition, we have invested and intend to invest funds not used to acquire properties in cash sources, “new capital” investments or other liquid investments which allow us to continue to qualify under the 75% Asset Test. Therefore, our investment in real properties should constitute “real estate assets” and should allow us to meet the 75% Asset Test. A real estate mortgage loan that we own generally will be treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% Asset Test if, on the date that we acquire or originate the mortgage loan, the value of the real property securing the loan is equal to or greater than the principal amount of the loan. Notwithstanding the foregoing, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a mortgage loan secured by both real property and personal property shall be treated as a wholly qualifying real estate asset (and all interest and gain from such loan may be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% income test) if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, even if the real property collateral value is less than the outstanding principal balance of the loan.

 

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25% Asset Test. Except as described below, the remaining 25% of our assets generally may be invested without regard to the 75% Asset Test, which we refer to as the 25% Asset Test. However, if we invest in any securities that do not qualify under the 75% Asset Test, other than securities of our TRS, such securities may not exceed either (1) 5% of the value of our assets as to any one issuer; or (2) 10% of the outstanding securities by vote or value of any one issuer. The 10% value test does not apply to certain “straight debt” and other excluded securities, as described in the Code, including but not limited to any loan to an individual or estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property, and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, a partnership interest held by a REIT is not considered a “security” for purposes of the 10% value test; instead, the REIT is treated as owning directly its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets, which is based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership (disregarding for this purpose the general rule that a partnership interest is not a security), but excluding certain securities described in the Code.

For purposes of the 10% value test, “straight debt” means a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors other than certain contingencies relating to the timing and amount of principal and interest payments, as described in the Code. In the case of an issuer which is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer which (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

TRS Ownership Test. As described above, no more than 20% of the gross value of our assets may be represented by securities of one or more TRSs (or 25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018).

25% Debt Test. Not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property.

We believe that our holdings of real estate assets and other securities comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we intend to monitor compliance on an ongoing basis.

A REIT is able to cure certain asset test violations. As noted above, a REIT cannot own securities of any one issuer representing more than 5% of the total value of the REIT’s assets or more than 10% of the outstanding securities, by vote or value, of any one issuer. However, a REIT would not lose its REIT qualification for failing to satisfy these 5% or 10% asset tests in a quarter if the failure is due to the ownership of assets the total value of which does not exceed the lesser of (1) 1% of the total value of the REIT’s assets at the end of the quarter for which the measurement is done, or (2) $10 million; provided, that in either case the REIT either disposes of the assets within six months after the last day of the quarter in which the REIT identifies the failure (or such other time period prescribed by the Department of the Treasury, or the Treasury), or otherwise meets the requirements of those rules by the end of that period.

If a REIT fails to meet any of the asset test requirements for a quarter and the failure exceeds the de minimis threshold described above, then the REIT still would be deemed to have satisfied the requirements if (1) following the REIT’s identification of the failure, the REIT files a schedule with a description of each asset that caused the failure, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Treasury; (2) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; and (3) the REIT disposes of the assets within six months after the last day of the quarter in which the identification occurred or such other time period as is prescribed by the Treasury (or the requirements of the rules are otherwise met within that period). A REIT that relies on this cure provision must pay a tax on the failure equal to the greater of (1) $50,000, or (2) an amount determined (under regulations) by multiplying (x) the highest rate of tax for corporations under Code Section 11, by (y) the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure for the period beginning on the first date of the failure and ending on the date the REIT has disposed of the assets (or otherwise satisfies the requirements).

Income Tests

For each calendar year, we must satisfy two separate tests based on the composition of our gross income, as defined under our method of accounting, or the Gross Income Tests.

75% Gross Income Test. At least 75% of our gross income for the taxable year (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain other items) must result from (1) rents from real property, (2) interest on obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, (3) gains from the sale or other disposition of real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property, and including gain from the sale of certain personal property ancillary to such real property) other than property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our trade or business, (4) dividends from other qualifying REITs and gain (other than gain from prohibited transactions) from the sale of shares of other qualifying REITs, (5) other specified sources relating to real property or mortgages thereon, and (6) for a limited time, income from temporary investments of “new capital” (as described under the 75% Asset Test above). We refer to this requirement as the 75% Gross Income Test.

 

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95% Gross Income Test. At least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain other items) for the taxable year must be derived from (1) sources which satisfy the 75% Gross Income Test, (2) dividends, (3) interest, or (4) gain from the sale or disposition of stock or other securities that are not assets held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our trade or business. We refer to this requirement as the 95% Gross Income Test.

Rents from Real Property. Income attributable to a lease of real property generally will qualify as “rents from real property” under the 75% Gross Income Test and the 95% Gross Income Test if such lease is respected as a true lease for U.S. federal income tax purposes (see “- Characterization of Property Leases”) and subject to the rules discussed below. Rent from a particular tenant will not qualify if we, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our stock, actually or constructively, owns 10% or more of the total combined voting power or 10% of the total value of all classes of stock in a corporate tenant, or 10% or more of the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant (subject to certain exceptions). The portion of rent attributable to personal property rented in connection with real property will not qualify, unless the portion attributable to personal property is 15% or less of the total rent received under, or in connection with, the lease.

Generally, rent will not qualify as “rents from real property” if it is based in whole, or in part, on the income or profits derived by any person from the underlying property. However, rent will not fail to so qualify if it is based on a fixed percentage (or designated varying percentages) of receipts or sales, including amounts above a base amount so long as the base amount is fixed at the time the lease is entered into, the provisions are in accordance with normal business practice and the arrangement is not an indirect method for basing rent on income or profits.

If a REIT furnishes or renders certain “impermissible tenant services” to the tenants at the property, and the income derived from the services exceeds 1% of the total amount received by that REIT with respect to the property, then no amount received by the REIT with respect to the property will qualify as “rents from real property.” Impermissible services are services other than services “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant.” For these purposes, the income that a REIT is considered to receive from the provision of “impermissible tenant services” will not be less than 150% of the cost of providing the service. If the amount so received is 1% or less of the total amount received by us with respect to the property, then only the income from the impermissible services will not qualify as “rents from real property.” However, “impermissible tenant services” generally will not include services that are provided to tenants through an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue, or through a TRS. With respect to this rule, tenants have received and will receive some services in connection with their leases of the real properties. We believe we have structured, and intend to structure the services we provide as necessary (such as through the use of our TRSs and/or independent contractors and/or by limiting the revenues from impermissible tenant services at certain properties to comply with the 1% rule) as needed so that providing these services will not cause the rents received with respect to the properties to fail to qualify as rents from real property for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test (and the 95% Gross Income Test described below) or so that the amount of any non-qualifying rents does not jeopardize our compliance with the Gross Income Tests.

In addition, we intend to structure, and, to the extent applicable, we believe we have structured, our leasing activities so that any non-qualifying rent (i) based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person (excluding rent based on a percentage of receipts or sales, as described above), (ii) attributable to personal property in an amount greater than 15% of the total rent received under the applicable lease, and (iii) from any lease with a related party tenant does not cause us to fail the Gross Income Tests.

Amounts received as rent from a TRS are not excluded from rents from real property by reason of the related party rules described above, if the activities of the TRS and the nature of the properties it leases meet certain requirements (generally relating to leases of less than 10% of the total leased space in a building and leases of hotels and health care facilities). The TRSs must pay regular corporate tax rates on any taxable income they earn. Further, the rules impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT or the REIT’s tenants whose terms are not on an arm’s-length basis.

Interest Income. All interest income qualifies under the 95% Gross Income Test, and interest on loans secured by real property or by interests in real property qualifies under the 75% Gross Income Test; provided, that in both cases, the interest does not depend, in whole or in part, on the income or profits of any person (excluding amounts based on a fixed percentage of receipts or sales). If a loan is secured by both real property and other property, the interest on it may nevertheless qualify under the 75% Gross Income Test if the amount of the loan does not exceed the fair market value of the real property at the time of the loan commitment. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, if a loan is secured by both real property and personal property and the value of the personal property collateral represents less than 15% of the value of the total property securing the loan, the interest on it may qualify under the 75% Gross Income Test regardless of whether the amount of the loan exceeds the fair market value of the real property at the time of the loan commitment. We believe we have structured, and intend to structure all of our loan investments as needed so that our investments in loans do not prevent us from satisfying the 75% Gross Income Test.

 

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Dividend Income. Distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries are generally classified as dividends to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% Gross Income Test, but not the 75% Gross Income Test. Any dividends received by us from a REIT will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 95% and 75% Gross Income Tests.

We have monitored and will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our TRSs and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other non-qualifying income, within the limitations of the Gross Income Tests. Although we intend to take these actions to prevent a violation of the Gross Income Tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

Foreclosure Property. Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when the REIT did not know or have reason to know that default would occur, and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the maximum U.S. federal corporate tax rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. If we believe we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

Satisfaction of the Gross Income Tests. Our share of income from the Operating Partnership’s properties primarily gives rise to rental income and gains on sales of the properties, substantially all of which generally has qualified and will qualify under the 75% Gross Income and 95% Gross Income Tests. However, we have TRSs through which we may provide certain services, engage in activities that would give rise to non-qualifying income for either Gross Income Test, make sales that we believe could be subject to the 100% tax on prohibited transactions if made outside a TRS, and/or otherwise conduct certain activities or hold certain properties. The gross income generated by our TRSs would not be included in our gross income. However, any dividends from our TRSs to us would be included in our gross income and qualify for the 95% Gross Income Test, but not the 75% Gross Income Test. Because the activities of our TRSs are/could be substantial, the amount of such dividends also could be substantial.

If we fail to satisfy either the 75% Gross Income or 95% Gross Income Tests for any taxable year, we may retain our qualification as a REIT for such year if we satisfy the IRS that (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and (2) we attach to our return a schedule describing the nature and amount of each item of our gross income. If this relief provision is available, we would remain subject to tax equal to the greater of the amount by which we failed the 75% Gross Income Test or the 95% Gross Income Test, as applicable, multiplied by a fraction meant to reflect our profitability. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally incur unexpectedly exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that the failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances involving us, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements

In addition to the other tests described above, we are required to distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our stockholders each year in an amount at least equal to the excess of: (1) the sum of: (a) 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and by excluding any net capital gain); and (b) 90% of the net income (after tax) from foreclosure property; less (2) the sum of some types of items of non-cash income. Whether sufficient amounts have been distributed is based on amounts paid in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if we: (1) declared a dividend before the due date of our tax return (including extensions); (2) distribute the dividend within the 12-month period following the close of the taxable year (and not later than the date of the first regular dividend payment made after such declaration); and (3) file an election with our tax return. Additionally, dividends that we declare in October, November or December in a given year payable to stockholders of record in any such month will be treated as having been paid on December 31st of that year so long as the dividends are actually paid during January of the following year. If we fail to meet the annual distribution requirements as a result of an adjustment to our U.S. federal income tax return by the IRS, or under certain other circumstances, we may cure the failure by paying a “deficiency dividend” (plus penalties and interest to the IRS) within a specified period.

 

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For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2015, in order for our distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (1) pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and (2) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents. Any non-publicly offered REIT in which we invest would be subject to the preferential dividend rule regardless of the date of the distribution.

If we do not distribute 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the undistributed portion. We also will be subject to an excise tax if we fail to currently distribute sufficient income. In order to make the “required distribution” with respect to a calendar year and avoid the excise tax, we must distribute the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the calendar year, and (3) the excess, if any, of the grossed up required distribution (as defined in the Code) for the preceding calendar year over the distributed amount for that preceding calendar year. Any excise tax liability would be equal to 4% of the difference between the amount required to be distributed and the amount actually distributed and would not be deductible by us.

We believe we have paid and intend to pay sufficient dividends each year to satisfy the annual distribution requirements and avoid U.S. federal income and excise taxes on our earnings; however, it may not always be possible to do so. It is possible that we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the annual distribution requirements due to tax accounting rules and other timing differences. Other potential sources of non-cash taxable income include:

 

   

“residual interests” in REMICs or taxable mortgage pools;

 

   

loans or mortgage-backed securities held as assets that are issued at a discount and require the accrual of taxable economic interest in advance of receipt in cash; and

 

   

loans on which the borrower is permitted to defer cash payments of interest, distressed loans on which we may be required to accrue taxable interest income even though the borrower is unable to make current servicing payments in cash, and debt securities purchased at a discount.

We will closely monitor the relationship between our REIT taxable income and cash flow, and if necessary to comply with the annual distribution requirements, will attempt to borrow funds to fully provide the necessary cash flow or to pay dividends in the form of taxable in-kind distributions of property, including taxable stock dividends. The insufficiency of our cash flow to cover our distribution requirements could require us to (1) sell assets in adverse market conditions, (2) borrow on unfavorable terms, (3) distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions or capital expenditures or used for the repayment of debt, (4) pay dividends in the form of taxable stock dividends or (5) use cash reserves, in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements.

We may seek to satisfy our distribution requirements by making taxable stock dividends. Moreover, we may determine to utilize certain stock dividends the proper treatment of which is not entirely clear without obtaining a private letter ruling from the IRS confirming the treatment of the stock dividend as a taxable stock dividend. In that case, it is possible that the IRS could challenge our treatment of the stock dividend as a taxable stock dividend, and if such challenge were successful the stock dividend would not count towards satisfying our distribution requirements.

Non-REIT Accumulated Earnings and Profits. As a REIT, at the end of a taxable year (including our first REIT taxable year ending December 31, 1986), we may not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year (sometimes referred to as “non-REIT earnings and profits”). Such non-REIT earnings and profits include any accumulated earnings and profits of non-REIT corporations whose assets we acquire (or are deemed to have acquired) through tax-free mergers and other tax-free reorganizations and through tax-free liquidations.

We believe that we have operated, and we intend to continue to operate, so that we have not had and will not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year at the close of any taxable year. However, if it is subsequently determined that we had any accumulated non-REIT earnings and profits as of the end of any taxable year, we could fail to qualify as a REIT beginning with the applicable taxable year. Pursuant to Treasury Regulations, however, so long as our failure to comply with the prohibition on non-REIT earnings and profits was not due to fraud with intent to evade tax, we could cure such failure by paying an interest charge on 50% of the amount of accumulated non-REIT earnings and profits and by making a special distribution of accumulated non-REIT earnings and profits. We intend to utilize such cure provisions if ever required to do so. The amount of any such interest charge could be substantial.

 

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Failure to Qualify

If we fail to continue to qualify, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as a REIT in any taxable year, we may be eligible for relief provisions if the failures are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. If the applicable relief provisions are not available or cannot be met, we will not be able to deduct our dividends and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, thereby reducing cash available for distributions. In such event, all distributions to stockholders (to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) will be taxable as qualified dividend income. This “double taxation” results from our failure to continue to qualify as a REIT. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we will not be eligible to elect REIT qualification for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We are required to maintain records and request on an annual basis information from specified stockholders. These requirements are designed to assist us in determining the actual ownership of our outstanding stock and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.

Prohibited Transactions

As discussed above, we will be subject to a 100% U.S. federal income tax on any net income derived from “prohibited transactions.” Net income derived from prohibited transactions arises from the sale or exchange of property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our business which is not foreclosure property. There is an exception to this rule for a sale of property that meets the following requirements:

 

   

the property is a real estate asset under the 75% Asset Test;

 

   

we have held the property for not less than 2 years;

 

   

the aggregate expenditures made by us or any of our partners during the 2-year period preceding the date of the sale which are includable in the basis of the property do not exceed 30% of the net selling price of the property;

 

   

in the case of property consisting of land or improvements not acquired through foreclosure (or deed in lieu of foreclosure) or lease termination, we held the property for not less than 2 years for production of rental income;

 

   

if we do not satisfy the not more than 7 sale requirement in the next bullet, substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures with respect to the property were made through an independent contractor from whom we do not derive income or a TRS; and

 

   

we satisfy one of the following with respect to the taxable year of the sale: (i) we do not make more than 7 sales of property during the taxable year (excluding sales of foreclosure property or in connection with an involuntary conversion); (ii) the sale occurs in a year when we dispose of less than 10% of our assets (measured by U.S. federal income tax basis or fair market value, and ignoring involuntary dispositions and sales of foreclosure property); or (iii) for tax years beginning after December 18, 2015, the sale occurs in a year when we dispose of less than 20% of our assets and less than 10% of the three-year average of our assets (measured by U.S. federal income tax basis or fair market value, and ignoring involuntary dispositions and sales of foreclosure property).

Although we may eventually sell any property, our primary intention in acquiring and operating the properties is the production of rental income and we do not expect to hold any property for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our business unless held through a TRS or we structure the sale of such property to comply with the above safe harbor. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates.

 

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Hedging Transactions. We have entered into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities and may enter into additional hedging transactions in the future. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swaps or cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by Treasury Regulations, any income from a hedging transaction (1) made in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred by us to acquire or own real estate assets, (2) entered into primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests (or any property that generates such income or gain), or, (3) for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, that hedges against transactions described in clause (i) or (ii) and is entered into in connection with the extinguishment of debt or sale of property that is being hedged against by the transaction described in clause (i) or (ii), and which complies with certain identification requirements, including gain from the disposition or termination of such a transaction, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and the 75% gross income test. To the extent we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We believe we have structured and intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT.

Characterization of Net Leases. We have acquired and intend to acquire and own commercial properties subject to net leases. We believe we have structured and currently intend to structure our leases so that they qualify as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If, however, the IRS were to recharacterize our leases as service contracts, loans, partnership agreements or otherwise, rather than true leases, or disregard the leases altogether for tax purposes, all or part of the payments that we receive from the lessees would not be considered rent and might not otherwise satisfy the various requirements for qualification as “rents from real property.” In that case, we would not be able to satisfy either the 75% or 95% Gross Income Tests and, as a result, could lose our REIT qualification.

Tax on Built-in Gains of Former C Corporation Assets. If a REIT acquires an asset from a C corporation in a transaction in which the REIT’s tax basis in the asset is determined by reference to the basis of the asset in the hands of the C corporation (e.g., a tax-free reorganization under Section 368(a) of the Code), the REIT may be subject to an entity-level tax upon a taxable disposition during a 5-year period following the acquisition date. The amount of the tax is determined by applying the highest regular corporate tax rate, which is currently 21%, to the lesser of (i) the excess, if any, of the asset’s fair market value over the REIT’s tax basis in the asset on the acquisition date, or (ii) the gain recognized by the REIT in the disposition. The amount described in clause (i) is referred to as “built-in gain.”

Tax Aspects of Investments in Partnerships

General. We currently hold and anticipate holding direct or indirect interests in one or more partnerships, including the Operating Partnership. We operate as an Umbrella Partnership REIT, or UPREIT, which is a structure whereby we own a direct interest in the Operating Partnership, and the Operating Partnership, in turn, directly or indirectly owns our properties (generally through lower-tier partnerships and disregarded entities, but the Operating Partnership also may hold properties through lower-tier REITs or TRSs or other taxable corporations).

The following is a summary of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of our investment in the Operating Partnership if the Operating Partnership is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This discussion should also generally apply to any investment by the Operating Partnership in a lower-tier property partnership.

A partnership (other than a publicly traded partnership taxed as a corporation) is generally not subject to tax as an entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Rather, partners are allocated their allocable share of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially subject to tax thereon, without regard to whether the partners receive any distributions from the partnership. We are required to take into account our allocable share of the foregoing items for purposes of the various REIT gross income and asset tests, and in the computation of our REIT taxable income and U.S. federal income tax liability. Further, there can be no assurance that distributions from the Operating Partnership will be sufficient to pay the tax liabilities resulting from an investment in the Operating Partnership.

Generally, a domestic entity with two or more members formed as a partnership or other non-corporate entity under state law will be taxed as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless it specifically elects otherwise or is treated as a corporation under special rules for “publicly traded partnerships.” Because the Operating Partnership was formed as a partnership under state law, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Operating Partnership will be treated as a partnership if it has two or more partners and is not treated as a corporation under the publicly traded partnership rules, or as a disregarded entity if it is treated as having one partner. As a result, if the Operating Partnership becomes wholly owned by us, it will cease to be a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and become a disregarded entity.

 

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Domestic unincorporated entities with more than one owner may be treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes in certain circumstances, including if the entity is a “publicly traded partnership” that does not qualify for an exemption based on the character of its income. A partnership is a “publicly traded partnership” under Section 7704 of the Code if:

 

   

interests in the partnership are traded on an established securities market; or

 

   

interests in the partnership are readily tradable on a “secondary market” or the “substantial equivalent” of a secondary market.

A partnership will not be treated as a publicly traded partnership if it qualifies for certain safe harbors. We intend that the Operating Partnership (and any partnership invested in by the Operating Partnership) has complied and will comply with a “safe harbor” for partnerships with fewer than 100 partners to avoid being classified as a publicly traded partnership. However, no assurance can be given that any such partnership will at all times satisfy such safe harbor. We reserve the right to not satisfy any safe harbor.

There is a risk that the right of a holder of Operating Partnership common units to redeem the units for cash (or common stock at our option) could cause Operating Partnership common units to be considered readily tradable on the substantial equivalent of a secondary market, and we may not be eligible for a safe harbor at all times. If the Operating Partnership is a publicly traded partnership, it will be taxed as a corporation unless at least 90% of its gross income has consisted and will consist of “qualifying income” under Section 7704 of the Code. Qualifying income generally includes real property rents and certain other types of passive income. We believe that the Operating Partnership has had and will continue to have sufficient qualifying income so that it would be taxed as a partnership, even if it were classified as a publicly traded partnership. The income requirements applicable to REITs under the Code and the definition of qualifying income under the publicly traded partnership rules are very similar. Although differences exist between these two income tests, we do not believe that these differences will cause the Operating Partnership to fail the 90% gross income test applicable to publicly traded partnerships. However, there is sparse guidance as to the proper interpretation of this 90% gross income test, and thus it is possible that differences will arise that prevent us from satisfying the 90% gross income test.

If for any reason the Operating Partnership (or any partnership invested in by the Operating Partnership) is taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change, and as a result, we would most likely be unable to satisfy the applicable REIT requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws discussed above. In addition, any change in the status of any partnership may be treated as a taxable event, in which case we could incur a tax liability without a related cash distribution. Further, if any partnership was treated as a corporation, items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such partnership would be subject to corporate income tax, and the partners of any such partnership would be treated as stockholders, with distributions to such partners being treated as dividends.

Income Taxation of Partnerships and their Partners. Although a partnership agreement generally will determine the allocation of a partnership’s income and losses among the partners, such allocations may be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Code Section 704(b) and the Treasury Regulations if the allocations do not have “substantial economic effect” and are not otherwise consistent with the partners’ interests in the partnership. If any allocation is not recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ economic interests in the partnership. We believe that the allocations of taxable income and loss in the Operating Partnership agreement comply with the requirements of Code Section 704(b) and the Treasury Regulations.

In some cases, special allocations of net profits or net losses will be required to comply with the U.S. federal income tax principles governing partnership tax allocations. Additionally, pursuant to Code Section 704(c), income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to property contributed to the Operating Partnership in exchange for units must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, the unrealized gain or loss attributable to the property at the time of contribution. The amount of such unrealized gain or loss is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value and the adjusted basis of the property at the time of contribution, and such difference (as adjusted for amortization) may be referred to as a “book-tax difference.” These allocations are designed to eliminate book-tax differences by allocating to contributing partners lower amounts of depreciation deductions and increased taxable income and gain attributable to the contributed property than would ordinarily be the case for economic or book purposes. With respect to any property purchased by the Operating Partnership, such property generally will have an initial tax basis equal to its fair market value, and accordingly, Code Section 704(c) will not apply, except as described further below in this paragraph. The application of the principles of Code Section 704(c) in tiered partnership arrangements is not entirely clear. Accordingly, the IRS may assert a different allocation method than the one selected by the Operating Partnership to cure any book-tax differences. In certain circumstances, we create book-tax differences by adjusting the values of properties for economic or book purposes, and generally the rules of Code Section 704(c) would apply to such differences as well.

 

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Some expenses incurred in the conduct of the Operating Partnership’s activities may not be deducted in the year they were paid. To the extent this occurs, the taxable income of the Operating Partnership may exceed its cash receipts for the year in which the expense is paid. As discussed above, the costs of acquiring properties must generally be recovered through depreciation deductions over a number of years. Prepaid interest and loan fees, and prepaid management fees are other examples of expenses that may not be deducted in the year they were paid.

If a partnership (including the Operating Partnership) is audited by the IRS with respect to tax returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, unless such partnership qualifies for and affirmatively elects an alternative procedure, the partnership will be liable for the hypothetical increase in partner-level taxes (including interest and penalties) resulting from an adjustment of partnership (or partnership-related) tax items on audit. Such hypothetical tax liability, or “imputed underpayment,” will be determined based on the highest rate of tax applicable to corporations or individuals, subject to certain potential adjustments that may reduce the amount. Under the default rule, this imputed underpayment generally must be paid in the year of the adjustment, resulting in a potential shift of the cost of an assessment to those persons that are partners in such partnership in the year of the assessment, and away from those who were partners in the year of the underpayment. The partnership audit rules create procedures to modify (or reduce) a proposed imputed underpayment if certain conditions are satisfied, but no assurances can be provided that such procedures can, or will, be used to reduce or eliminate imputed underpayments.

Under an alternative “push out” procedure, if elected, the partnership would issue statements to persons who were partners in the audited year setting forth each partner’s share of any adjustments. Each partner is then required to take into account any increases or decreases in taxes that would result from such adjustments, including any adjustments to subsequent years before the year in which the statement is received resulting from the adjustment to the reviewed year, for the taxable year in which the partner receives the statement, rather than filing amended returns for the years adjusted. If any of our subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies (including the Operating Partnership) is able to and in fact elects the alternative push out procedure for a given adjustment, the amount of taxes for which the persons who were partners in the year audited will be liable will be increased by any applicable penalties and a special interest charge. There can be no assurance that any such entities will be eligible to make such an election or that it will, in fact, make such an election for any given adjustment.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders. As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions paid to our U.S. stockholders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits (and not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income) will be ordinary income. For tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, non-corporate taxpayers are permitted to take a deduction for a portion of certain pass-through business income, including dividends received from REITs that are not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income (subject to certain limitations). Dividends on our preferred stock will be treated as made out of any available earnings and profits in priority to distributions on our common stock.

Generally, for purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Stockholder” is a person (other than a partnership or entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes or a person subject to special treatment under the Code) that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust if (1) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect under current Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U. S. person.

If a partnership holds our stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A partner of a partnership holding our stock should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to the partner of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock by the partnership.

 

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Distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated first as a tax-deferred return of capital to the U.S. Stockholder, reducing the U.S. Stockholder’s tax basis in his, her or its stock by the amount of such distribution, and then as capital gain. Because our earnings and profits are reduced for depreciation and other non-cash items, it is possible that a portion of each distribution will constitute a tax-deferred return of capital. Additionally, because distributions in excess of earnings and profits reduce the U.S. Stockholder’s basis in our stock, this will increase the U.S. Stockholder’s gain, or reduce the U.S. Stockholder’s loss, on any subsequent sale of the stock.

Distributions that are designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed as long-term capital gain to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the U.S. Stockholder that receives such distribution has held its stock. However, corporate stockholders may be required to treat up to 20% of some types of capital gain dividends as ordinary income. We also may decide to retain, rather than distribute, our net capital gain and pay any tax thereon. In such instances, U.S. Stockholders would include their proportionate shares of such gain in income as long-term capital gain, receive a refund or credit on their returns for their proportionate share of our tax payments, and increase the tax basis of their shares of stock by the after-tax amount of such gain.

With respect to U.S. Stockholders who are taxed at the rates applicable to individuals, we may elect to designate a portion of our distributions paid to such U.S. Stockholders as “qualified dividend income.” A portion of a distribution that is properly designated as qualified dividend income is taxable to non-corporate U.S. Stockholders at the preferential rates applicable to long-term capital gain; provided, that the U.S. Stockholder has held the stock with respect to which the distribution is made for more than 60 days during the 121 day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which such stock became ex-dividend with respect to the relevant distribution. The maximum amount of our distributions eligible to be designated as qualified dividend income for a taxable year is equal to the sum of:

 

  (1)

the qualified dividend income received by us during such taxable year from C corporations (including TRSs);

 

  (2)

the excess of any “undistributed” REIT taxable income recognized during the immediately preceding year over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such undistributed REIT taxable income; and

 

  (3)

the excess of any income recognized during the immediately preceding year attributable to the sale of a built-in-gain asset that was acquired in a carry-over basis transaction from a non-REIT corporation over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such income.

Generally, dividends that we receive will be treated as qualified dividend income for purposes of (1) above if the dividends are received from a regular, domestic C corporation (such as any TRS) or certain foreign corporations, and specified holding period and other requirements are met.

Dividend income is characterized as “portfolio” income under the passive loss rules and cannot be offset by a stockholder’s current or suspended passive losses. Corporate stockholders cannot claim the dividends-received deduction for such dividends unless we lose our REIT qualification. In addition, taxable distributions from us generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations. A U.S. stockholder that elects to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of stock or qualified dividend income as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amounts.

Although U.S. Stockholders generally will recognize taxable income in the year that a distribution is received, any dividend we declare in October, November or December of any year and is payable to a U.S. Stockholder of record on a specific date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. Stockholder on December 31st of the year it was declared if we pay it during January of the following calendar year. Because we are not a pass-through entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Stockholders may not use any of our operating or capital losses to reduce their tax liabilities.

We may have the ability to declare a large portion of a dividend in shares of our stock. As long as a portion of such dividend is payable in cash or other property and certain requirements are met, the entire distribution may be treated as a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, U.S. Stockholders could be taxed on 100% of the dividend in the same manner as a cash dividend, even though most of the dividend was paid in shares of our stock. In general, any dividend on shares of our preferred stock will be taxable as a dividend, regardless of whether any portion is paid in stock.

In general, the sale of our stock held for more than 12 months will produce long-term capital gain or loss. All other sales will produce short-term gain or loss. In each case, the gain or loss is equal to the difference between the amount of cash and fair market value of any property received from the sale and the U.S. Stockholder’s basis in the stock sold. However, any loss from a sale or exchange of stock by a U.S. Stockholder who has held such stock for six months or less generally will be treated as a long-term capital loss, to the extent that the U.S. Stockholder treated our distributions as long-term capital gain. The use of capital losses is subject to limitations. A redemption by us of any redeemable preferred stock we may issue could be treated either as a taxable disposition of shares or as a dividend, depending on the applicable facts and circumstances. In the event we issue any redeemable preferred stock, the prospectus supplement will discuss the tax considerations of owning such securities in greater detail.

 

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Information reporting (transfer statements) on other transactions may also be required under these rules. Generally, these reports are made for certain transactions. Transfer statements are issued between “brokers” and are not issued to the IRS or to you.

Stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the consequences of these rules.

Capital Gains and Losses. The tax rate differential between capital gain and ordinary income for non-corporate taxpayers may be significant. As noted above, a taxpayer generally must hold a capital asset for more than one year for gain or loss derived from its sale or exchange to be treated as long-term capital gain or loss. The highest marginal individual income tax rate is currently 37%. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gains applicable to non-corporate taxpayers is 20% for sales and exchanges of capital assets held for more than one year, except that the maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “section 1250 property,” or depreciable real property, is 25% to the extent that such gains are “unrecaptured section 1250 gains.” With respect to distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends and any retained capital gain that we are deemed to distribute, we generally may designate whether such a distribution is taxable to our non-corporate stockholders as long-term capital gains or unrecaptured section 1250 gains. The IRS has the authority to prescribe, but has not yet prescribed, regulations that would apply a capital gain tax rate of 25% (which is generally higher than the long-term capital gain tax rates for non-corporate taxpayers) to a portion of capital gain realized by a non-corporate stockholder on the sale of REIT stock that would correspond to the REIT’s “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain.” In addition, the characterization of income as capital gain or ordinary income may affect the deductibility of capital losses. A non-corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses not offset by capital gains against its ordinary income only up to a maximum annual amount of $3,000. A non-corporate taxpayer may carry forward unused capital losses indefinitely. A corporate taxpayer must pay tax on its net capital gain at ordinary corporate rates (currently up to 21%). A corporate taxpayer can deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, with unused losses being carried back three years and forward five years.

If a U.S. stockholder recognizes a loss upon a subsequent disposition of our common stock or preferred stock in an amount that exceeds a prescribed threshold, it is possible that the provisions of certain Treasury Regulations involving “reportable transactions” could apply, with a resulting requirement to separately disclose the loss generating transactions to the IRS. While these regulations are directed towards “tax shelters,” they are written quite broadly and apply to transactions that would not typically be considered tax shelters. Significant penalties apply for failure to comply with these requirements. You should consult your tax advisors concerning any possible disclosure obligation with respect to the receipt or disposition of our common stock or preferred stock, or transactions that might be undertaken directly or indirectly by us. Moreover, you should be aware that we and other participants in transactions involving us (including our advisors) might be subject to disclosure or other requirements pursuant to these regulations.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders. U.S. tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI. U.S. tax-exempt entities must separately compute their taxable income and loss for each unrelated trade or business activity for purposes of determining their UBTI. UBTI generally includes (i) any income or gain not sufficiently related to a tax-exempt organization’s exempt purpose, other than certain passive investment income such as dividends, interest, rents from real property and capital gains, and (ii) debt-financed income derived from property not sufficiently related to such exempt purpose that is subject to “acquisition indebtedness.” Thus, our distributions to a U.S. Stockholder that is a domestic tax-exempt entity and capital gain recognized by such an entity with respect to our stock should not constitute UBTI unless such U.S. Stockholder borrows funds (or otherwise incurs acquisition indebtedness within the meaning of the Code) to acquire or carry its shares of stock, subject to the pension held REIT rules discussed below. Notwithstanding the foregoing, special rules may cause part or all of the income or gain recognized with respect to our stock held by social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, and supplemental unemployment benefit trusts (which are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Code Sections 501(c)(7), (9), or (17)), to be treated as UBTI.

Special “pension held REIT” rules apply to the ownership of REIT shares by some tax-exempt pension trusts. If, treating stock held by a tax-exempt pension trust as being held by a single individual rather than by the trust’s beneficiaries, we would be “closely-held” (discussed above with respect to the share ownership tests), then tax-exempt pension trusts owning more than 10% by value of our stock may be required to treat a percentage of our dividends as UBTI. This rule applies if: (1) at least one tax-exempt pension trust owns more than 25% by value of our shares, or (2) one or more tax-exempt pension trusts (each owning more than 10% by value of our shares) hold in the aggregate more than 50% by value of our shares. The percentage treated as UBTI is our gross income (less direct expenses) derived from an unrelated trade or business (determined as if we were a tax-exempt pension trust) divided by our gross income from all sources (less direct expenses). If this percentage is less than 5%, however, none of the dividends will be treated as UBTI.

 

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Backup Withholding and Information Reporting. The amount of dividends treated as paid during each calendar year and the proceeds of any sale or other disposition of our stock will be reported to our U.S. Stockholders and the IRS. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. Stockholder may be subject to backup withholding at the current rate of 24% with respect to such dividends and proceeds paid, unless the U.S. Stockholder (1) is a corporation or comes within other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact or (2) provides a taxpayer identification number or social security number, certifies under penalties of perjury that such number is correct and that such U.S. Stockholder is not subject to backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. Stockholder that does not provide his, her or its correct taxpayer identification number or social security number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against such U.S. Stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Medicare Tax. Certain net investment income earned by U.S. citizens and resident aliens and certain estates and trusts is subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax. Net investment income includes, among other things, dividends on and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of shares of stock. Holders of shares of our stock should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax on their ownership and disposition of such shares.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

General. The rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders are complex, and as such, only a summary of such rules is provided in this prospectus. A “Non-U.S. Stockholder” means a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is not otherwise subject to special treatment under the Code. This disclosure does not address stockholders that are non-U.S. trusts or estates, and additional considerations may apply to stockholders that are non-U.S. trusts or estates and to the beneficiaries of any such non-U.S. trusts or estates. Non-U.S. investors should consult with their own tax advisors and financial planners to determine the impact that U.S. federal, state and local income tax or similar laws will have on such investors as a result of an investment in our stock. The discussion below assumes we have qualified as a REIT and will continue to qualify as a REIT.

Distributions - In General. Distributions paid by us that are not attributable to gain from our sales or exchanges of United States real property interests, or USRPIs (discussed further below), and not designated by us as capital gain dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such dividends to Non-U.S. Stockholders ordinarily will be subject to a withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the dividend unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates that tax. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. If income from the investment in our stock is treated as effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the Non-U.S. Stockholder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the graduated rates applicable to ordinary income, in the same manner as U.S. Stockholders are taxed with respect to such dividends, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise (and also may be subject to a 30% branch profits tax on its effectively connected earnings and profits in the case of a stockholder that is a foreign corporation that is not entitled to the benefits of a treaty that exempts it from such tax). In general, Non-U.S. Stockholders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our stock. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and not attributable to gain from our sales or exchanges of USRPIs will not be taxable to a stockholder to the extent they do not exceed the adjusted basis of the stockholder’s shares (determined separately for each share). Instead, they will reduce the adjusted basis of such shares. To the extent that such dividends exceed the adjusted basis of a Non-U.S. Stockholder’s shares, they will be treated as gain from the sale or disposition of the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s shares, and may be subject to tax as described in the “Sales of Shares” portion of this Section below. However, as discussed below, we may nevertheless withhold on such distributions.

Distributions to a Non-U.S. Stockholder that do not arise from the disposition of a USRPI and that we properly designate as capital gain dividends generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation except as described below under “- Sales of Shares,” although we may nonetheless withhold with respect to such distributions as discussed below.

 

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Distributions Attributable to Sale or Exchange of Real Property. Except as discussed below with respect to 10% or less holders of regularly traded classes of stock, “qualified shareholders” and “qualified foreign pension funds,” for any year in which we qualify as a REIT, a Non-U.S. Stockholder will incur tax on distributions by us that are attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of USRPIs under special provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws known as the Foreign Investment in Real Property Act, or FIRPTA. The term USRPIs includes interests in real property and shares in corporations at least 50% of whose real estate and business assets consist of interests in U.S. real property. Under those rules, a Non-U.S. Stockholder is taxed on distributions by us attributable to gain from sales or exchanges of USRPIs as if the gain were effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. Stockholder. A Non-U.S. Stockholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at regular tax rates applicable to U.S. Stockholders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax. A corporate Non-U.S. Stockholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution. We must withhold 21% of any distribution that is a distribution attributable to USRPI gain. A Non-U.S. Stockholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount we withhold. However, FIRPTA and this 21% withholding tax will not apply to any distribution with respect to any class of our stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States if the recipient Non-U.S. Stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of distribution. In the case of a capital gain dividend attributable to USRPI gain, a recipient exempt from tax under FIRPTA by reason of not owning more than 10% of such class of stock must treat the capital gain dividend as an ordinary dividend subject to the rules discussed above.

U.S. Federal Income Tax Withholding on Distributions not Subject to FIRPTA. For U.S. federal income tax withholding purposes, we generally will withhold tax at the rate of 30% on the amount of any distribution (other than distributions of USRPI gain subject to FIRPTA as discussed above) made to a Non-U.S. Stockholder, unless the Non-U.S. Stockholder provides us with appropriate documentation (1) evidencing that such Non-U.S. Stockholder is eligible for an exemption or reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, generally an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (in which case we will withhold at the lower treaty rate) or (2) claiming that the dividend is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s conduct of a trade or business within the U.S., generally an IRS Form W-8ECI (in which case we will not withhold tax). We also may be required to withhold tax at the rate of 21% on the portion of any dividend to a Non-U.S. Stockholder that is or could be designated by us as a capital gain dividend, even if not attributable to USRPI gain. Such withheld amounts of tax do not represent actual tax liabilities, but rather, represent payments in respect of those tax liabilities described in the preceding two paragraphs. Therefore, such withheld amounts are creditable by the Non-U.S. Stockholder against its actual U.S. federal income tax liabilities, including those described in the preceding two paragraphs. The Non-U.S. Stockholder would be entitled to a refund of any amounts withheld in excess of such Non-U.S. Stockholder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liabilities, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Additional withholding regulations may require us to withhold 15% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

In light of potential difficulties in properly characterizing a distribution for purposes of the above withholding rules, we may determine to withhold at the highest rate that we determine could apply.

Sales of Shares. A Non-U.S. Stockholder generally will not incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain on a disposition of our common stock or preferred stock as long as at all times during the five-year period ending on the date of disposition non-U.S. persons hold, directly or indirectly, less than 50% in value of our stock. For these purposes, in the case of any class of our stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market a person holding less than 5% of such class of stock for five years will be treated as a U.S. person unless we have actual knowledge that such person is not a U.S. person. Because our common stock is publicly traded, we cannot assure you that our non-U.S. ownership will be less than 50% at any time. Even if our non-U.S. ownership remains under 50% for five years and we otherwise meet the requirements of this rule, pursuant to “certain wash sale” rules under FIRPTA, a Non-U.S. Stockholder may incur tax under FIRPTA to the extent such stockholder disposes of our stock within a certain period prior to a distribution attributable to USRPI gain and directly or indirectly (including through certain affiliates) reacquires our stock within certain prescribed periods, provided that this rule will not apply to a disposition and reacquisition of our common stock by a Non-U.S. Stockholder owning, actually or constructively, 5% or less of our common stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such distribution attributable to USRPI gain.

Regardless of the extent of our non-U.S. ownership, a Non-U.S. Stockholder will not incur tax under FIRPTA on a disposition of shares of a class of our publicly traded stock if such Non-U.S. Stockholder owned, actually or constructively, at all times during a specified testing period, 10% or less of the total fair market value of such class of stock. The testing period is the shorter of (1) the period during which the Non-U.S. Stockholder held the shares and (2) the five-year period ending on the disposition date. For as long as our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market, a Non-U.S. Stockholder should not incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain on a sale of our common stock unless it owns, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our common stock during such testing period. If we issue a class of preferred stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market, the rules described in the previous sentence will also apply to sales of such preferred stock. Provided that our common stock continues to be regularly traded on an established securities market, a Non-U.S. Stockholder will not incur tax under FIRPTA on a disposition of the shares of our non-publicly traded preferred stock if the fair market value of all of the shares of such class of preferred stock acquired by such Non-U.S. Stockholder did not exceed 5% of the fair market value of our regularly traded class of stock with the lowest fair market value, determined as of the most recent acquisition date.

 

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If the gain on the sale of our stock were taxed under FIRPTA, a Non-U.S. Stockholder would be taxed on that gain in the same manner as U.S. Stockholders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax. Furthermore, a Non-U.S. Stockholder generally will incur U.S. federal income tax on gain not subject to FIRPTA (including a properly designated capital gain dividend not attributable to USRPI gain) if:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise, the Non-U.S. Stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Stockholders with respect to such gain and may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on its effectively connected earnings and profits, subject to adjustments, in the case of a foreign corporation; or

 

   

the Non-U.S. Stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and meets certain other criteria, in which case the Non-U.S. Stockholder will incur a 30% tax on his or her capital gains derived from sources within the United States (net of certain losses derived from sources within the United States), unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise.

Qualified Shareholders. To the extent our stock is held directly (or indirectly through one or more partnerships) by a “qualified shareholder,” it will not be treated as a USRPI for such qualified shareholder. Thus, gain from the sale or exchange of our stock (including distributions treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our stock) will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such gain is treated as effectively connected with the qualified shareholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business. Further, to the extent such treatment applies, any distribution to such shareholder will not be treated as gain recognized from the sale or exchange of a USRPI (and capital gains dividends attributable to USRPI gain and non-dividend distributions to such shareholder may be treated as ordinary dividends). For these purposes, a qualified shareholder is generally a Non-U.S. Stockholder that (i)(A) is eligible for treaty benefits under an income tax treaty with the United States that includes an exchange of information program, and the principal class of interests of which is listed and regularly traded on one or more stock exchanges as defined by the treaty, or (B) is a foreign limited partnership organized in a jurisdiction with an exchange of information agreement with the United States and that has a class of regularly traded limited partnership units (having a value greater than 50% of the value of all partnership units) on the New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle” (within the meaning of Section 897(k)(3)(B) of the Code) and (iii) maintains records of persons holding 5% or more of the class of interests described in clauses (i)(A) or (i)(B) above. However, in the case of a qualified shareholder having one or more “applicable investors,” the exception described in the first sentence of this paragraph will not apply to the “applicable percentage” of the qualified shareholder’s stock (with “applicable percentage” generally meaning the percentage of the value of the interests in the qualified shareholder held by applicable investors after applying certain constructive ownership rules). The applicable percentage of the amount realized by a qualified shareholder on the disposition of our stock or with respect to a distribution from us attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI will be treated as amounts realized from the disposition of USRPIs. Such treatment shall also apply to applicable investors in respect of distributions treated as a sale or exchange of stock with respect to a qualified shareholder. For these purposes, an “applicable investor” is a person (other than a qualified shareholder) who generally holds an interest in the qualified shareholder and holds more than 10% of our stock (applying certain constructive ownership rules).

 

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Qualified Foreign Pension Funds. For FIRPTA purposes neither a “qualified foreign pension fund” nor any entity all of the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund is treated as a foreign person, thereby exemption such entities from tax under FIRPTA. A “qualified foreign pension fund” is an organization or arrangement (i) created or organized in a foreign country, (ii) established by a foreign country (or one or more political subdivisions thereof) or one or more employers to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or their designees as a result of, or in consideration for, services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary that has a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information about its beneficiaries is provided, or is otherwise available, to relevant local tax authorities and (v) with respect to which, under its local laws, (A) contributions that would otherwise be subject to tax are deductible or excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate, or (B) taxation of its investment income is deferred, or such income is excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate. Under proposed Treasury Regulations on which taxpayers generally may rely, but which are subject to change, a “qualified controlled entity” also is not treated as a foreign person for purposes of FIRPTA. Under such regulations, a qualified controlled entity generally includes a trust or corporation organized under the laws of a foreign country all of the interests of which are held by one or more qualified foreign pension funds either directly or indirectly through one or more qualified controlled entities or partnerships. Distributions received by qualified foreign pension funds and their non-U.S. wholly owned subsidiaries and qualified controlled entities will be taxed as described above at “- Distributions - In General” regardless of whether the distribution is attributable to the sale of a USRPI. Gain of a qualified foreign pension fund or its non-U.S. wholly owned subsidiary or qualified controlled entity from the sale or exchange of our stock as well as our capital gain dividends and distributions treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our stock under the rules described above at “- Distributions - In General,” will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such gain is treated as effectively connected with the qualified foreign pension fund’s (or the subsidiary’s or qualified controlled entity’s, as applicable) conduct of a U.S. trade or business, in which case the qualified foreign pension fund (or subsidiary or qualified controlled entity) generally will be subject to a tax at the same graduated rates applicable to U.S. Stockholders, unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise, and may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on its effectively connected earnings and profits, subject to adjustments, in the case of a foreign corporation.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding. The applicable withholding agent will report to our Non-U.S. Stockholders and the IRS the amount of dividends treated as paid during each calendar year and the amount of any tax withheld with respect to such payments. Copies of the information returns reporting such payments and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which the Non-U.S. Stockholder resides or is established under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty or agreement. In addition, a Non-U.S. Stockholder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to dividends paid on shares of our stock, unless the Non-U.S. Stockholder certifies that it is not a U.S. person or otherwise establishes an exemption. If the proceeds of a disposition of stock are paid by or through a U.S. office of a broker-dealer, the payment is generally subject to information reporting and to backup withholding unless the disposing Non-U.S. Stockholder certifies as to its name, address and non-U.S. status or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, U.S. information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds if the payment is made outside the U.S. through a foreign office of a foreign broker-dealer, provided, however, that if the proceeds from a disposition of stock are paid to or through a foreign office of a U.S. broker-dealer or a non-U.S. office of a foreign broker-dealer that is (1) a “controlled foreign corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (2) a person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for a three-year period was effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, (3) a foreign partnership with one or more partners who are U.S. persons and who, in the aggregate, hold more than 50% of the income or capital interest in the partnership, or (4) a foreign partnership engaged in the conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., then (A) backup withholding will apply only if the broker-dealer has actual knowledge that the owner is not a Non-U.S. Stockholder, and (B) information reporting will apply unless the Non-U.S. Stockholder certifies its non-U.S. status. Prospective foreign purchasers should consult their tax advisors and financial planners concerning these rules.

Foreign Accounts and “FATCA”

FATCA Withholding on Certain Foreign Accounts and Entities. The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, provisions of the Code, together with administrative guidance and certain intergovernmental agreements entered into thereunder, impose a 30% withholding tax on “withholdable payments” (as defined below) made to “foreign financial institutions” (as defined below) and certain other non-U.S. entities (whether or not such foreign financial institutions or non-U.S. entities receive the payment as a beneficial owner or intermediary) unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting, and withholding obligations or (2) the foreign non-financial entity either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner. “Withholdable payment” generally includes any payment of interest, dividends, and certain other types of generally passive income if such payment is from sources within the United States. “Foreign financial institution generally means any non-U.S. entity that (i) accepts deposits in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business, (ii) as a substantial portion of its business holds financial assets for the account of others, or (iii) is engaged or holds itself out as being engaged primarily in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities, partnership interests, commodities, or any interest in such assets. If the payee is a foreign financial institution that is not exempt under the administrative guidance or an intergovernmental agreement or not subject to special treatment under certain intergovernmental agreements, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertakes to identify accounts (and certain debt and equity interests in such foreign financial institutions) held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent them from complying with these reporting and other requirements. Investors in jurisdictions that have entered into intergovernmental agreements may, in lieu of foregoing requirements, be required to report such information to their home jurisdiction.

 

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Other Tax Considerations

State, Local and Foreign Taxes. We and you may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which we transact business or reside. Our and your state, local and foreign tax treatment may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed above. Any foreign taxes incurred by us would not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. You should consult your own tax advisors and financial planners regarding the effect of state, local and foreign tax laws on an investment in the shares of our stock.

Legislative Proposals. You should recognize that our and your present U.S. federal income tax treatment may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative actions at any time, which may be retroactive in effect. The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by Congress, the IRS and the Treasury Department, and statutory changes as well as promulgation of new regulations, revisions to existing statutes, and revised interpretations of established concepts occur frequently.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities in any one or more of the following ways:

 

   

directly to investors;

 

   

to investors through agents;

 

   

to dealers;

 

   

through a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable NYSE or other stock exchange rules;

 

   

through underwriting syndicates led by one or more managing underwriters; and

 

   

through one or more underwriters acting alone.

If we sell securities to a dealer acting as principal, the dealer may resell such securities at varying prices to be determined by such dealer in its discretion at the time of resale without consulting with us and such resale prices may not be disclosed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Any underwritten offering may be on a best efforts or a firm commitment basis. We may also make direct sales through subscription rights distributed to our shareholders on a pro rata basis, which may or may not be transferable. In any distribution of subscription rights to shareholders, if all of the underlying securities are not subscribed for, we may then sell the unsubscribed securities directly to third parties or engage the services of one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, including standby underwriters, to sell the unsubscribed securities to third parties.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Any of the prices may represent a discount from the prevailing market prices.

In the sale of the securities, underwriters or agents may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the securities, for whom they may act as agents, in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act, and any discounts or commissions they receive from us and any profit on the resale of securities they realize may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. The applicable prospectus supplement will, where applicable:

 

   

identify any such underwriter or agent;

 

   

describe any compensation in the form of discounts, concessions, commissions or otherwise received from us by each such underwriter or agent and in the aggregate to all underwriters and agents;

 

   

identify the amounts underwritten; and

 

   

identify the nature of the underwriter’s obligation to take the securities.

Unless otherwise specified in the related prospectus supplement, each series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than the Common stock, which is listed on the NYSE. Common stock sold pursuant to a prospectus supplement will be listed on the NYSE, subject to the NYSE’s approval of the listing of the other than Common stock on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a series of securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of, or the trading market for, any series of securities.

 

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Until the distribution of the securities is completed, rules of the SEC may limit the ability of any underwriters and selling group members to bid for and purchase the securities. As an exception to these rules, underwriters are permitted to engage in some transactions that stabilize the price of the securities. Such transactions consist of bids or purchases for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities.

If any underwriters create a short position in the securities in an offering in which they sell more securities than are set forth on the cover page of the applicable prospectus supplement, the underwriters may reduce that short position by purchasing the securities in the open market.

The lead underwriters may also impose a penalty bid on other underwriters and selling group members participating in an offering. This means that if the lead underwriters purchase securities in the open market to reduce the underwriters’ short position or stabilize the price of the securities, they may reclaim the amount of any selling concession from the underwriters and selling group members who sold those securities as part of the offering.

In general, purchases of a security for the purpose of stabilization or to reduce a short position could cause the price of the security to be higher than it might be in the absence of such purchases. The imposition of a penalty bid might also have an effect on the price of a security to the extent that it discourages resales of the security before the distribution is completed.

We do not make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above might have on the price of the securities. In addition, we do not make any representation that underwriters will engage in such transactions or that such transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

Under agreements into which we may enter, underwriters, dealers and agents who participate in the distribution of the securities may be entitled to indemnification by us against some liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, perform services for us or be our customers in the ordinary course of business.

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by particular institutions to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in such prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in such prospectus supplement. Each delayed delivery contract will be for an amount no less than, and the aggregate principal amounts of securities sold under delayed delivery contracts shall be not less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with which such contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and others, but will in all cases be subject to our approval. The obligations of any purchaser under any such contract will be subject to the conditions that (a) the purchase of the securities shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject, and (b) if the securities are being sold to underwriters, we shall have sold to the underwriters the total principal amount of the securities less the principal amount thereof covered by the contracts. The underwriters and such other agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of such contracts.

To comply with applicable state securities laws, the securities offered by this prospectus will be sold, if necessary, in such jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, securities may not be sold in some states unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with.

 

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EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc. appearing in Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2020 (including the schedule appearing therein), and the effectiveness of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in its reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York.

 

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CEDAR REALTY TRUST, INC.

Common Stock

 

 

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

Stock Purchase Contracts

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

            , 2021

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered are set forth in the following table:

 

SEC Registration Fee

   $ 81,825.00  

Accounting fees and expenses

    

Blue Sky fees and expenses

    

Legal fees and expenses (other than Blue Sky)

    

Printing fees and expenses

    

Transfer Agent, Depositary and Trustee fees and expenses

    

Miscellaneous (including listing and rating agency fees)

    

Total

   $ 81,825.00

 

*

Estimated expenses not presently known. Each prospectus supplement will reflect estimated expenses based on the amount of the related offering.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its shareholders for money damages, except to the extent that (i) it is proved that the person actually received an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services for the amount of the benefit or profit in money, property or services actually received; or (ii) a judgment or other final adjudication adverse to the person is entered in a proceeding based on a finding in the proceeding that the person’s action, or failure to act, was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty and was material to the cause of action adjudicated in the proceeding. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter authorizes us, to the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits, to obligate us to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of such corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity, or in the defense of any claim, issue or matter in the proceeding, against reasonable expenses incurred by the director or officer in connection with the proceeding, claim, issue or matter. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

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in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct, was adjudged liable to the corporation or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

We also maintain liability insurance for our officers and directors.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

The exhibit index in this registration statement identifies the exhibits that are included in this registration statement and are incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

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(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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Exhibit

 

Description

*1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement.
4.1   Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.
4.2   Articles Supplementary to Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of Form 8-A filed on August 18, 2017.
4.3   Articles Supplementary to Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Form 8-K filed on August 22, 2017.
4.4   Articles Supplementary to Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Form 8-K filed on December 15, 2017.
4.5   Articles of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Form 8-K filed on May 7, 2018.
4.6   Articles of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Form 8-K filed on November 27, 2020.
4.7   Articles of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of Form 8-K filed on November 27, 2020.
4.8   Amended and Restated By-laws of Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of Form 8-K filed on November 2, 2020.
*4.9   Form of Articles Supplementary for Preferred Stock
*4.10   Form of Deposit Agreement
*4.11   Form of Warrant
*4.12   Form of Deposit Agreement
*4.13   Form of Stock Purchase Contract
*4.14   Form of Unit Agreement
+5.1   Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP as to the legality of the securities being registered.
+8.1   Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP regarding certain federal income tax considerations
+23.1   Consent of Ernst & Young LLP.
+23.2   Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibits 5.1 and 8.1 hereto).
**24.1   Powers of Attorney (included on the signature page to Cedar Realty Trust, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File Nos. 333-252990), filed with the SEC on February 11, 2021).

 

*

To be filed by amendment or in a Current Report on Form 8-K, as applicable.

**

Previously filed.

+

Filed herewith.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this pre-effective Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Port Washington, State of New York, on this 6th day of May, 2021.

 

CEDAR REALTY TRUST, INC.
By:  

/S/ BRUCE J. SCHANZER

  Bruce J. Schanzer
  President and Chief Executive Officer

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

/s/ BRUCE J. SCHANZER

   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director  

May 6, 2021

Bruce J. Schanzer    (Principal Executive Officer)  

/s/ PHILIP R. MAYS

   Senior Executive Vice President,  

May 6, 2021

Philip R. Mays   

Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

(Principal Financial Officer)

 

/s/ GASPARE J. SAITTA, II

   Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer  

May 6, 2021

Gaspare J. Saitta, II    (Principal Accounting Officer)  

*

   Director  

May 6, 2021

Abraham Eisenstat     

*

   Director  

May 6, 2021

Gregg A. Gonsalves     

*

   Director  

May 6, 2021

Pamela N. Hootkin     

*

   Director  

May 6, 2021

Sabrina L. Kanner     

*

   Director  

May 6, 2021

Steven G. Rogers     

*

   Director  

May 6, 2021

Roger Widmann     

 

*

Bruce J. Schanzer hereby signs this Amendment No. 1 to the Registration Statement on behalf of each of the indicated persons for whom he is attorney-in-fact pursuant to a power of attorney filed as an exhibit to this Registration Statement.

 

By:  

/S/ BRUCE J. SCHANZER

  Bruce J. Schanzer
  President and Chief Executive Officer

 

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