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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
____________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
____________________________________________________________

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the transition period from __________ to __________             
Commission file number 000-18911
____________________________________________________________
GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ____________________________________________________________
Montana81-0519541
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)
49 Commons LoopKalispell,Montana59901
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(406)756-4200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 ____________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueGBCINASDAQ Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No
The number of shares of Registrant’s common stock outstanding on April 20, 2021 was 95,505,432. No preferred shares are issued or outstanding.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 


 Page
Part I. Financial Information
Item 1 – Financial Statements





ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

 

ACL or allowance – allowance for credit losses
ALCO – Asset Liability Committee
ASC – Accounting Standards CodificationTM
ASU – Accounting Standards Update
ATM – automated teller machine
Bank – Glacier Bank
CARES Act – Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act
CDE – Certified Development Entity
CDFI Fund – Community Development Financial Institutions Fund
CECL – current expected credit losses
CEO – Chief Executive Officer
CFO – Chief Financial Officer
Company – Glacier Bancorp, Inc.
COVID-19 – coronavirus disease of 2019
DDA – demand deposit account
Fannie Mae – Federal National Mortgage Association
FASB – Financial Accounting Standards Board
FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FHLB – Federal Home Loan Bank
Final Rules – final rules implemented by the federal banking agencies that established a
  new comprehensive regulatory capital framework
FRB – Federal Reserve Bank
Freddie Mac – Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
GAAP – accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
GDP – gross domestic product
Ginnie Mae – Government National Mortgage Association
Interest rate locks - residential real estate derivatives for commitments
LIBOR – London Interbank Offered Rate
LIHTC – Low Income Housing Tax Credit
NMTC – New Markets Tax Credit
NOW – negotiable order of withdrawal
NRSRO – Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations
OCI – other comprehensive income
OREO – other real estate owned
PCD – purchased credit-deteriorated
PPP – Paycheck Protection Program
Repurchase agreements – securities sold under agreements to repurchase
ROU – right-of-use
S&P – Standard and Poor’s
SBA – United States Small Business Administration
SBAZ – State Bank Corp. and its subsidiary, State Bank of Arizona
SEC – United States Securities and Exchange Commission
TBA – to-be-announced
TDR – troubled debt restructuring
VIE – variable interest entity








GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
 
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Assets
Cash on hand and in banks$227,745 227,108 
Interest bearing cash deposits650,705 406,034 
Cash and cash equivalents878,450 633,142 
Debt securities, available-for-sale5,853,315 5,337,814 
Debt securities, held-to-maturity588,751 189,836 
Total debt securities6,442,066 5,527,650 
Loans held for sale, at fair value118,731 166,572 
Loans receivable11,269,929 11,122,696 
Allowance for credit losses(156,446)(158,243)
Loans receivable, net11,113,483 10,964,453 
Premises and equipment, net322,354 325,335 
Other real estate owned2,965 1,744 
Accrued interest receivable79,331 75,497 
Core deposit intangible, net53,021 55,509 
Goodwill514,013 514,013 
Non-marketable equity securities10,022 10,023 
Bank-owned life insurance122,843 123,763 
Other assets113,273 106,505 
Total assets$19,770,552 18,504,206 
Liabilities
Non-interest bearing deposits$6,040,440 5,454,539 
Interest bearing deposits10,063,884 9,342,990 
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase996,878 1,004,583 
Other borrowed funds33,452 33,068 
Subordinated debentures132,499 139,959 
Accrued interest payable2,590 3,305 
Deferred tax liability3,116 23,860 
Other liabilities202,308 194,861 
Total liabilities17,475,167 16,197,165 
Commitments and Contingent Liabilities
Stockholders’ Equity
Preferred shares, $0.01 par value per share, 1,000,000 shares authorized, none issued or outstanding
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 117,187,500 shares authorized
955 954 
Paid-in capital1,495,438 1,495,053 
Retained earnings - substantially restricted719,072 667,944 
Accumulated other comprehensive income79,920 143,090 
Total stockholders’ equity2,295,385 2,307,041 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$19,770,552 18,504,206 
Number of common stock shares issued and outstanding95,501,819 95,426,364 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4



GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

 Three Months ended
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)March 31,
2021
March 31,
2020
Interest Income
Investment securities$27,306 21,014 
Residential real estate loans10,146 11,526 
Commercial loans113,541 98,684 
Consumer and other loans10,559 11,641 
Total interest income161,552 142,865 
Interest Expense
Deposits3,014 5,581 
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase689 989 
Federal Home Loan Bank advances 346 
Other borrowed funds
174 128 
Subordinated debentures863 1,452 
Total interest expense4,740 8,496 
Net Interest Income156,812 134,369 
Credit loss expense48 19,185 
Net interest income after credit loss expense
156,764 115,184 
Non-Interest Income
Service charges and other fees12,792 14,020 
Miscellaneous loan fees and charges2,778 1,285 
Gain on sale of loans21,624 11,862 
Gain on sale of debt securities284 863 
Other income2,643 5,242 
Total non-interest income40,121 33,272 
Non-Interest Expense
Compensation and employee benefits62,468 59,660 
Occupancy and equipment9,515 9,219 
Advertising and promotions2,371 2,487 
Data processing5,206 5,282 
Other real estate owned12 112 
Regulatory assessments and insurance1,879 1,090 
Core deposit intangibles amortization2,488 2,533 
Other expenses12,646 15,104 
Total non-interest expense96,585 95,487 
Income Before Income Taxes100,300 52,969 
Federal and state income tax expense19,498 9,630 
Net Income$80,802 43,339 
Basic earnings per share$0.85 0.46 
Diluted earnings per share$0.85 0.46 
Dividends declared per share$0.31 0.29 
Average outstanding shares - basic95,465,801 93,287,670 
Average outstanding shares - diluted95,546,922 93,359,792 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
5



GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 
 Three Months ended
(Dollars in thousands)March 31,
2021
March 31,
2020
Net Income$80,802 43,339 
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, Net of Tax
Unrealized (losses) gains on available-for-sale securities
(84,798)80,555 
Reclassification adjustment for gains included in net income
(326)(862)
Net unrealized (losses) gains on available-for-sale securities
(85,124)79,693 
Tax effect21,511 (20,195)
Net of tax amount(63,613)59,498 
Unrealized gains on derivatives used for cash flow hedges
593  
Reclassification adjustment for losses included in net income
  
Net unrealized gains on derivatives used for cash flow hedges
593  
Tax effect(150) 
Net of tax amount443  
Total other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
(63,170)59,498 
Total Comprehensive Income$17,632 102,837 






























See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
6



GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES
IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Three Months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020
 
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)Common StockPaid-in CapitalRetained
Earnings
Substantially Restricted
Accumulated
Other Compre-
hensive Income
 
SharesAmountTotal
Balance at January 1, 202092,289,750 $923 1,378,534 541,050 40,226 1,960,733 
Net income— — — 43,339 — 43,339 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 59,498 59,498 
Cash dividends declared ($0.29 per share)
— — — (27,727)— (27,727)
Stock issued in connection with acquisitions
3,007,044 30 112,103 — — 112,133 
Stock issuances under stock incentive plans
111,480 1 (1)— —  
Stock-based compensation and related taxes
— — 1,015 — — 1,015 
Cumulative-effect of accounting changes
— — — (12,347)— (12,347)
Balance at March 31, 202095,408,274 $954 1,491,651 544,315 99,724 2,136,644 
Balance at January 1, 202195,426,364 $954 1,495,053 667,944 143,090 2,307,041 
Net income— — — 80,802 — 80,802 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — (63,170)(63,170)
Cash dividends declared ( $0.31 per share)
— — — (29,674)— (29,674)
Stock issuances under stock incentive plans
75,455 1 (1)— —  
Stock-based compensation and related taxes
— — 386 — — 386 
Balance at March 31, 202195,501,819 $955 1,495,438 719,072 79,920 2,295,385 
















See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
7



GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
 Three Months ended
(Dollars in thousands)March 31,
2021
March 31,
2020
Operating Activities
Net income$80,802 43,339 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Provision for credit losses48 19,185 
Net amortization of debt securities8,562 3,237 
Net accretion of purchase accounting adjustments
  and deferred loan fees and costs
12,892 324 
Origination of loans held for sale(439,887)(275,256)
Proceeds from loans held for sale509,668 268,067 
Gain on sale of loans(21,624)(11,862)
Gain on sale of debt securities(284)(863)
Bank-owned life insurance income, net(641)(656)
Stock-based compensation, net of tax benefits1,491 1,199 
Depreciation and amortization of premises and equipment5,251 4,833 
Gain loss on sale and write-downs of other real estate owned, net (196)
Amortization of core deposit intangibles2,488 2,533 
Amortization of investments in variable interest entities3,158 2,114 
Net increase in accrued interest receivable(3,834)(10,690)
Net decrease (increase) in other assets14,036 (9,793)
Net decrease in accrued interest payable(715)(99)
Net decrease in other liabilities(23,666)(9,654)
Net cash provided by operating activities147,745 25,762 
Investing Activities
Maturities, prepayments and calls of available-for-sale debt securities290,743 176,926 
Purchases of available-for-sale debt securities(1,302,635)(811,523)
Maturities, prepayments and calls of held-to-maturity debt securities4,130 20,250 
Principal collected on loans1,519,493 810,652 
Loan originations(1,683,608)(942,157)
Net additions to premises and equipment(1,573)(940)
Proceeds from sale of other real estate owned176 1,198 
Proceeds from redemption of non-marketable equity securities 36,244 
Purchases of non-marketable equity securities (51,598)
Proceeds from bank-owned life insurance1,575  
Investments in variable interest entities(7,021)(2,895)
Net cash received from acquisitions 43,713 
Net cash used in investing activities(1,178,720)(720,130)




See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
8



GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Continued)
 
 Three Months ended
(Dollars in thousands)March 31,
2021
March 31,
2020
Financing Activities
Net increase in deposits$1,306,824 178,132 
Net (decrease) increase in securities sold under agreements to repurchase(7,705)3,263 
Net increase in short-term Federal Home Loan Bank advances 475,000 
Repayments of long-term Federal Home Loan Bank advances (547)
Net decrease in other borrowed funds(7,116)(5)
Cash dividends paid(14,530)(18,652)
Tax withholding payments for stock-based compensation(1,351)(977)
Proceeds from stock option exercises161 634 
Net cash provided by financing activities1,276,283 636,848 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash245,308 (57,520)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period633,142 330,961 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$878,450 273,441 
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information
Cash paid during the period for interest$5,455 8,595 
Cash paid during the period for income taxes2  
Supplemental Disclosure of Non-Cash Investing and Financing Activities
Transfer of debt securities from available-for-sale to held-to-maturity$403,767  
Sale and refinancing of other real estate owned$ 215 
Transfer of loans to other real estate owned1,397 465 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities345 2,241 
Dividends declared during the period but not paid29,674 27,727 
Acquisitions
Fair value of common stock shares issued 112,133 
Cash consideration 13,721 
Fair value of assets acquired 744,109 
Liabilities assumed 618,255 












See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
9



GLACIER BANCORP, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Note 1. Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

General
Glacier Bancorp, Inc. (“Company”) is a Montana corporation headquartered in Kalispell, Montana. The Company provides a full range of banking services to individuals and businesses in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona and Nevada through its wholly-owned bank subsidiary, Glacier Bank (“Bank”). The Company offers a wide range of banking products and services, including: 1) retail banking; 2) business banking; 3) real estate, commercial, agriculture and consumer loans; and 4) mortgage origination services. The Company serves individuals, small to medium-sized businesses, community organizations and public entities.

In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the results for the interim periods. All such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. These interim financial statements do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for complete financial statements and they should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results anticipated for the year ending December 31, 2021. The condensed consolidated statement of financial condition of the Company as of December 31, 2020 has been derived from the audited consolidated statements of the Company as of that date.

The Company is a defendant in legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business. In the opinion of management, the disposition of pending litigation will not have a material affect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change include: 1) the determination of the allowance for credit losses (“ACL” or “allowance”) on loans; 2) the valuation of debt securities; 3) the valuation of real estate acquired in connection with foreclosures or in satisfaction of loans; and 4) the evaluation of goodwill impairment. For the determination of the ACL on loans and real estate valuation estimates, management obtains independent appraisals (new or updated) for significant items. Estimates relating to the investment valuations are obtained from independent third parties. Estimates relating to the evaluation of goodwill for impairment are determined based on internal calculations using independent party inputs.

Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company include the parent holding company and the Bank, which consists of sixteen bank divisions and a corporate division. The corporate division includes the Bank’s investment portfolio, wholesale borrowings and other centralized functions. The Bank divisions operate under separate names, management teams and advisory directors. The Company considers the Bank to be its sole operating segment as the Bank 1) engages in similar bank business activity from which it earns revenues and incurs expenses; 2) the operating results of the Bank are regularly reviewed by the Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) (i.e., the chief operating decision maker) who makes decisions about resources to be allocated to the Bank; and 3) financial information is available for the Bank. All significant inter-company transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

The Bank has subsidiary interests in variable interest entities (“VIE”) for which the Bank has both the power to direct the VIE’s significant activities and the obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. These subsidiary interests are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Bank also has subsidiary interests in VIEs for which the Bank does not have a controlling financial interest and is not the primary beneficiary. These subsidiary interests are not included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

The parent holding company owns non-bank subsidiaries that have issued trust preferred securities. The trust subsidiaries are not included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Company's investments in the trust subsidiaries are included in other assets on the Company's statements of financial condition.


10



Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, cash held as demand deposits at various banks and the Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”), interest bearing deposits, federal funds sold, and liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. The Bank is required to maintain an average reserve balance with either the FRB or in the form of cash on hand. During 2020, the Fed temporarily reduced the reserve requirement due to COVID-19. The required reserve balance at March 31, 2021 was $0.

Debt Securities
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, which significantly changed the allowance for credit loss accounting policies for debt securities. The following debt securities and allowance for credit loss accounting policies are presented under Accounting Standards Codification™ (“ASC”) Topic 326.

Debt securities for which the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity and are carried at amortized cost. Debt securities held primarily for the purpose of selling in the near term are classified as trading securities and are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in income. Debt securities not classified as held-to-maturity or trading are classified as available-for-sale and are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, net of income taxes, as a separate component of other comprehensive income (“OCI”). Premiums and discounts on debt securities are amortized or accreted into income using a method that approximates the interest method. The objective of the interest method is to calculate periodic interest income at a constant effective yield. The Company does not have any debt securities classified as trading securities. When the Company acquires another entity, it designates all debt securities as available-for-sale at acquisition date and records the debt securities at fair value.

The Company reviews and analyzes the various risks that may be present within the investment portfolio on an ongoing basis, including market risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. Market risk is the risk to an entity’s financial condition resulting from adverse changes in the value of its holdings arising from movements in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, equity prices or commodity prices. The Company assesses the market risk of individual debt securities as well as the investment portfolio as a whole. Credit risk, broadly defined, is the risk that an issuer or counterparty will fail to perform on an obligation. The credit rating of a security is considered the primary credit quality indicator for debt securities. Liquidity risk refers to the risk that a security will not have an active and efficient market in which the security can be sold.

A debt security is investment grade if the issuer has adequate capacity to meet its commitment over the expected life of the investment, i.e., the risk of default is low and full and timely repayment of interest and principal is expected. To determine investment grade status for debt securities, the Company conducts due diligence of the creditworthiness of the issuer or counterparty prior to acquisition and ongoing thereafter consistent with the risk characteristics of the security and the overall risk of the investment portfolio. Credit quality due diligence takes into account the extent to which a security is guaranteed by the U.S. government and other agencies of the U.S. government. The depth of the due diligence is based on the complexity of the structure, the size of the security, and takes into account material positions and specific groups of securities or stratifications for analysis and review of similar risk positions. The due diligence includes consideration of payment performance, collateral adequacy, internal analyses, third party research and analytics, external credit ratings and default statistics.

The Company has acquired debt securities through acquisitions and if the securities have more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination, they are designated as purchased credit-deteriorated (“PCD”) securities. An ACL is determined using the same methodology as with other debt securities. The sum of a PCD security’s fair value and associated ACL becomes its initial amortized cost basis. The difference between the initial amortized cost basis and the par value of the debt security is a noncredit discount or premium, which is amortized into interest income over the life of the security. Subsequent changes to the ACL are recorded through provision for credit losses.

For additional information relating to debt securities, see Note 2.


11



Allowance for Credit Losses - Available-for-Sale Debt Securities
For available-for-sale debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company first assesses whether it intends to sell, or it is more-likely-than-not that it will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value through other expense. For the available-for-sale securities that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the Company evaluates whether the decline in fair value has resulted from credit losses or other factors. In such assessment, the Company considers the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, if there are any changes to the investment grade of the security by a rating agency, and if there any adverse conditions that impact the security. If this assessment indicates a credit loss exists, the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected from the security is compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a potential credit loss exists and an ACL is recorded for the credit loss, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized cost. Any estimated credit losses that have not been recorded through an ACL are recognized in OCI.

The Company has elected to exclude accrued interest from the estimate of credit losses for available-for-sale debt securities. As part of its non-accrual policy, the Company charges-off uncollectable interest at the time it is determined to be uncollectable.

Allowance for Credit Losses - Held-to-Maturity Debt Securities
For estimating the allowance for held-to-maturity (“HTM”) debt securities that share similar risk characteristics with other securities, such securities are pooled based on major security type. For pools of such securities with similar risk characteristics, the historical lifetime probability of default and severity of loss in the event of default is derived or obtained from external sources and adjusted for the expected effects of reasonable and supportable forecasts over the expected lives of the securities on those historical credit losses. Expected credit losses on securities in the held-to-maturity portfolio that do not share similar risk characteristics with any of the pools of debt securities are individually measured based on net realizable value, or the difference between the discounted value of the expected future cash flows, based on the original effective interest rate, and the recorded amortized cost basis of the securities.

The Company has elected to exclude accrued interest from the estimate of credit losses for held-to-maturity debt securities. As part of its non-accrual policy, the Company charges off uncollectable interest at the time it is determined to be uncollectable.

Loans Held for Sale
Loans held for sale generally consist of long-term, fixed rate, conforming, single-family residential real estate loans intended to be sold on the secondary market. Loans held for sale are recorded at fair value and typically sold with servicing rights released. Changes in fair value are recognized in non-interest income. Fair value elections are made at the time of origination based on the Company’s fair value election policy.

Loans Receivable
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted FASB ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, which significantly changed the loan and allowance for credit loss accounting policies. The following loan and allowance for credit loss accounting policies are presented under ASC Topic 326, whereas prior periods are presented in accordance with the incurred loss model as disclosed in the Company’s 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The Company’s loan segments or classes are based on the purpose of the loan and consist of residential real estate, commercial real estate, other commercial, home equity, and other consumer loans. Loans that are intended to be held-to-maturity are reported at the unpaid principal balance less net charge-offs and adjusted for deferred fees and costs on originated loans and unamortized premiums or discounts on acquired loans. Interest income is accrued on the unpaid principal balance. Fees and costs on originated loans and premiums or discounts on acquired loans are deferred and subsequently amortized or accreted as a yield adjustment over the expected life of the loan utilizing the interest or straight-line methods. The interest method is utilized for loans with scheduled payment terms and the objective is to calculate periodic interest income at a constant effective yield. The straight-line method is utilized for revolving lines of credit or loans with no scheduled payment terms. When a loan is paid off prior to maturity, the remaining unamortized fees and costs on originated loans and unamortized premiums or discounts on acquired loans are immediately recognized into interest income.

Loans that are thirty days or more past due based on payments received and applied to the loan are considered delinquent. Loans are designated non-accrual and the accrual of interest is discontinued when the collection of the contractual principal or interest is unlikely. A loan is typically placed on non-accrual when principal or interest is due and has remained unpaid for ninety days or more. When a loan is placed on non-accrual status, interest previously accrued but not collected is reversed against current period interest income. Subsequent payments on non-accrual loans are applied to the outstanding principal
12



balance if doubt remains as to the ultimate collectability of the loan. Interest accruals are not resumed on partially charged-off impaired loans. For other loans on non-accrual, interest accruals are resumed on such loans only when they are brought fully current with respect to interest and principal and when, in the judgment of management, the loans are estimated to be fully collectible as to both principal and interest.

The Company has acquired loans through acquisitions, some of which have experienced more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination. The Company considers all acquired non-accrual loans to be PCD loans. In addition, the Company considers loans accruing ninety days or more past due with estimated credit losses or substandard loans with estimated credit losses to be PCD loans. An ACL is determined using the same methodology as other loans held for investment. The ACL determined on a collective basis is allocated to individual loans. The sum of a loan’s fair value and ACL becomes the initial amortized cost basis. The difference between the initial amortized cost basis and the par value of the loan is a noncredit discount or premium, which is amortized into interest income over the life of the loan. Subsequent changes to the ACL are recorded through provision for credit losses.

For additional information relating to loans, see Note 3.

Allowance for Credit Losses - Loans Receivable
The allowance for credit losses for loans receivable represents management’s estimate of credit losses over the expected contractual life of the loan portfolio. The estimate is determined based on the amortized cost of the loan portfolio including the loan balance adjusted for charge-offs, recoveries, deferred fees and costs, and loan discount and premiums. Recoveries are included only to the extent that such amounts were previously charged-off. The Company has elected to exclude accrued interest from the estimate of credit losses for loans. Determining the adequacy of the allowance is complex and requires a high degree of judgment by management about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Subsequent evaluations of the then-existing loan portfolio, in light of the factors then prevailing, may result in significant changes in the allowance in those future periods.

The allowance is increased for estimated credit losses which are recorded as expense. The portion of loans and overdraft balances determined by management to be uncollectable are charged-off as a reduction to the allowance and recoveries of amounts previously charged-off increase the allowance. The Company’s charge-off policy is consistent with bank regulatory standards. Consumer loans generally are charged-off when the loan becomes over 120 days delinquent. Real estate acquired as a result of foreclosure or by deed-in-lieu of foreclosure is classified as other real estate owned (“OREO”) until such time as it is sold.

The expected credit loss estimate process involves procedures to consider the unique characteristics of each of the Company’s loan portfolio segments, which consist of residential real estate, commercial real estate, other commercial, home equity, and other consumer loans. When computing the allowance levels, credit loss assumptions are estimated using a model that categorizes loan pools based on loss history, credit and risk characteristics, including current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts about the future. The Company has determined a four consecutive quarter forecasting period is a reasonable and supportable period. Expected credit loss for periods beyond reasonable and supportable forecast periods are determined based on a reversion method which reverts back to historical loss estimate over a four consecutive quarter period on a straight-line basis.

Credit quality is assessed and monitored by evaluating various attributes and the results of those evaluations are utilized in underwriting new loans and the process for estimating the expected credit losses. The following paragraphs describe the risk characteristics relevant to each portfolio segment.

Residential Real Estate.  Residential real estate loans are secured by owner-occupied 1-4 family residences. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income and credit rating of the borrowers. Credit risk in these loans is impacted by economic conditions within the Company’s market areas that affect the value of the residential property securing the loans and affect the borrowers' personal incomes. Mitigating risk factors for this loan segment include a large number of borrowers, geographic dispersion of market areas and the loans are originated for relatively smaller amounts.

Commercial Real Estate.  Commercial real estate loans typically involve larger principal amounts, and repayment of these loans is generally dependent on the successful operation of the property securing the loan and/or the business conducted on the property securing the loan. Credit risk in these loans is impacted by the creditworthiness of a borrower, valuation of the property securing the loan and conditions within the local economies in the Company’s diverse, geographic market areas.

13



Commercial.  Commercial loans consist of loans to commercial customers for use in financing working capital needs, equipment purchases and business expansions. The loans in this category are repaid primarily from the cash flow of a borrower’s principal business operation. Credit risk in these loans is driven by creditworthiness of a borrower and the economic conditions that impact the cash flow stability from business operations across the Company’s diverse, geographic market areas.

Home Equity.  Home equity loans consist of junior lien mortgages and first and junior lien lines of credit (revolving open-end and amortizing closed-end) secured by owner-occupied 1-4 family residences. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income and credit rating of the borrowers. Credit risk in these loans is impacted by economic conditions within the Company’s market areas that affect the value of the residential property securing the loans and affect the borrowers' personal incomes. Mitigating risk factors for this loan segment are a large number of borrowers, geographic dispersion of market areas and the loans are originated for terms that range from 10 to 15 years.

Other Consumer.  The other consumer loan portfolio consists of various short-term loans such as automobile loans and loans for other personal purposes. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income of the borrowers. Credit risk is driven by consumer economic factors (such as unemployment and general economic conditions in the Company’s diverse, geographic market area) and the creditworthiness of a borrower.

The allowance is impacted by loan volumes, delinquency status, credit ratings, historical loss experiences, estimated prepayment speeds, weighted average lives and other conditions influencing loss expectations, such as reasonable and supportable forecasts of economic conditions. The methodology for estimating the amount of expected credit losses reported in the allowance has two basic components: 1) individual loans that do not share similar risk characteristics with other loans and the measurement of expected credit losses for such individual loans; and 2) the expected credit losses for pools of loans that share similar risk characteristics.

Loans that do not Share Similar Risk Characteristics with Other Loans. For a loan that does not share similar risk characteristics with other loans, expected credit loss is measured based on the net realizable value, that is, the difference between the discounted value of the expected future cash flows, based on the original effective interest rate, and the amortized cost basis of the loan. For these loans, the expected credit loss is equal to the amount by which the net realizable value of the loan is less than the amortized cost basis of the loan (which is net of previous charge-offs and deferred loan fees and costs), except when the loan is collateral-dependent, that is, when foreclosure is probable or the borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and repayment is expected to be provided substantially through the operation or sale of the collateral. In these cases, expected credit loss is measured as the difference between the amortized cost basis of the loan and the fair value of the collateral. The fair value of the collateral is adjusted for the estimated cost to sell if repayment or satisfaction of a loan is dependent on the sale (rather than only on the operation) of the collateral. The Company has determined that non-accrual loans do not share similar risk characteristics with other loans and these loans are individually evaluated for estimated allowance for credit losses. The Company, through its credit monitoring process, may also identify other loans that do no share similar risk characteristics and individually evaluate such loans. The starting point for determining the fair value of collateral is to obtain external appraisals or evaluations (new or updated). The valuation techniques used in preparing appraisals or evaluations (new or updated) include the cost approach, income approach, sales comparison approach, or a combination of the preceding valuation techniques. The Company’s credit department reviews appraisals, giving consideration to the highest and best use of the collateral. The appraisals or evaluations (new or updated) are reviewed at least quarterly and more frequently based on current market conditions, including deterioration in a borrower’s financial condition and when property values may be subject to significant volatility. Adjustments may be made to the fair value of the collateral after review and acceptance of the collateral appraisal or evaluation (new or updated).

Loans that Share Similar Risk Characteristics with other Loans. For estimating the allowance for loans that share similar risk characteristics with other loans, such loans are segregated into loan segments. Loans are designated into loan segments based on loans pooled by product types and similar risk characteristics or areas of risk concentration. In determining the ACL, the Company derives an estimated credit loss assumption from a model that categorizes loan pools based on loan type which is further segregated by the credit quality indicators. This model calculates an expected loss percentage for each loan segment by considering the non-discounted simple annual average historical loss rate of each loan segment (calculated through an “open pool” method), multiplying the loss rate by the amortized loan balance and incorporating that segment’s internally generated prepayment speed assumption and contractually scheduled remaining principal pay downs on a loan level basis. The annual historical loss rates are adjusted over a reasonable economic forecast period by a multiplier that is calculated based upon current national economic forecasts as a proportion of each segment’s historical average loss levels. The Company will then revert from the economic forecast period back to the historical average loss rate in a straight-line basis. After the reversion period, the loans will be assumed to experience their historical loss rate for the remainder of their contractual lives. The model applies the
14



expected loss rate over the projected cash flows at the individual loan level and then aggregates the losses by loan segment in determining their quantitative allowance. The Company will also include qualitative adjustments to adjust the ACL on loan segments to the extent the current or future market conditions are believed to vary substantially from historical conditions in regards to:
lending policies and procedures;
international, national, regional and local economic business conditions and developments that affect the collectability of the portfolio, including the condition of various markets;
the nature and volume of the loan portfolio including the terms of the loans;
the experience, ability, and depth of the lending management and other relevant staff;
the volume and severity of past due and adversely classified or graded loans and the volume of non-accrual loans;
the quality of our loan review system;
the value of underlying collateral for collateralized loans;
the existence and effect of any concentrations of credit, and changes in the level of concentrations; and
the effect of external factors such as competition and legal and regulatory requirements on the level of estimated credit losses in the existing portfolio.

The Company regularly reviews loans in the portfolio to assess credit quality indicators and to determine the appropriate loan classification and grading in accordance with applicable bank regulations. The primary credit quality indicator for residential, home equity and other consumer loans is the days past due status, which consists of the following categories: 1) performing loans; 2) 30 to 89 days past due loans; and 3) non-accrual and ninety days or more past due loans. The primary credit quality indicator for commercial real estate and commercial loans is the Company’s internal risk rating system, which includes the following categories: 1) pass loans; 2) special mention loans; 3) substandard loans; and 4) doubtful or loss loans. Such credit quality indicators are regularly monitored and incorporated into the Company’s allowance estimate. The following paragraphs further define the internal risk ratings for commercial real estate and commercial loans.

Pass Loans. These ratings represent loans that are of acceptable, good or excellent quality with very limited to no risk. Loans that do not have one of the following ratings are considered pass loans.

Special Mention Loans. These ratings represent loans that are designated as special mention per the regulatory definition. Special mention loans are currently protected but are potentially weak. The credit risk may be relatively minor yet constitute an undue and unwarranted risk in light of the circumstances surrounding a specific loan. The rating may be used to identify credit with potential weaknesses that if not corrected may weaken the loan to the point of inadequately protecting the Bank’s credit position. Examples include a lack of supervision, inadequate loan agreement, condition, or control of collateral, incomplete, or improper documentation, deviations from lending policy, and adverse trends in operations or economic conditions.

Substandard Loans. This rating represents loans that are inadequately protected by the current sound worth and paying capacity of the obligor or of the collateral pledged. A loan so classified must have a well-defined weakness that jeopardizes the liquidation of the debt. These loans are characterized by the distinct possibility that the Bank will sustain some loss if the deficiencies are not corrected. Loss potential, while existing in the aggregated amount of substandard loans, does not have to exist in an individual loan classified substandard.

Doubtful/Loss Loans. A loan classified as doubtful has the characteristics that make collection in full, on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, highly improbable. The possibility of loss is extremely high, but because of pending factors, which may work to the advantage and strengthening of the loan, its classification as loss is deferred until its more exact status may be determined. Pending factors include proposed merger, acquisition, or liquidation procedures, capital injection, perfecting liens on additional collateral and refinancing plans. Loans are classified as loss when they are deemed to be not collectible and of such little value that continuance as an active asset of the Bank is not warranted. Loans classified as loss must be charged-off. Assignment of this classification does not mean that an asset has absolutely no recovery or salvage value, but that it is not practical or desirable to defer writing off a basically worthless asset, even though partial recovery may be attained in the future.


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Restructured Loans
A restructured loan is considered a troubled debt restructuring (“TDR”) if the creditor, for economic or legal reasons related to the debtor’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the debtor that it would not otherwise consider. The Company periodically enters into restructure agreements with borrowers whereby the loans were previously identified as TDRs. When such circumstances occur, the Company carefully evaluates the facts of the subsequent restructure to determine the appropriate accounting and under certain circumstances it may be acceptable not to account for the subsequently restructured loan as a TDR. When assessing whether a concession has been granted by the Company, any prior forgiveness on a cumulative basis is considered a continuing concession. The Company has made the following types of loan modifications, some of which were considered a TDR:
reduction of the stated interest rate for the remaining term of the debt;
extension of the maturity date(s) at a stated rate of interest lower than the current market rate for newly originated debt having similar risk characteristics; and
reduction of the face amount of the debt as stated in the debt agreements.

The Company recognizes that while borrowers may experience deterioration in their financial condition, many continue to be creditworthy borrowers who have the willingness and capacity for debt repayment. In determining whether non-restructured or performing loans issued to a single or related party group of borrowers should continue to accrue interest when the borrower has other loans that are non-performing or are TDRs, the Company on a quarterly or more frequent basis performs an updated and comprehensive assessment of the willingness and capacity of the borrowers to timely and ultimately repay their total debt obligations, including contingent obligations. Such analysis takes into account current financial information about the borrowers and financially responsible guarantors, if any, including for example:
analysis of global, i.e., aggregate debt service for total debt obligations;
assessment of the value and security protection of collateral pledged using current market conditions and alternative market assumptions across a variety of potential future situations; and
loan structures and related covenants.

On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) was signed into law which includes many provisions that impact the Company and its customers. The banking regulatory agencies have encouraged banks to work with borrowers who have been impacted by the coronavirus disease of 2019 (“COVID-19”) and the CARES Act, along with related regulatory guidance, allows banks to not designate certain modifications as TDRs that otherwise may have been classified as TDRs. In general, in order to qualify for such treatment, the modifications need to be short-term and made on a good faith basis in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to borrowers who were previously deemed current as outlined in the regulatory guidance. The Company has made such modifications to assist borrowers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

The allowance for credit losses on a TDR is measured using the same method as all other loans held for investment. For a TDR that is individually reviewed and not collateral-dependent, the value of the concession can only be measured using the discounted cash flow method. When the value of a concession is measured using the discounted cash flow method, the ACL is determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at the original interest of the loan.

Allowance for Credit Losses - Off-Balance Sheet Credit Exposures
The Company maintains a separate allowance for off-balance sheet credit exposures, including unfunded loan commitments, which is included in other liabilities on the Company’s statements of financial condition. The Company estimates the amount of expected losses by calculating a commitment usage factor over the contractual period for exposures and applying the loss factors used in the allowance for credit loss methodology to the results of the usage calculation to estimate the liability for credit losses related to unfunded commitments for each loan segment. No credit loss estimate is reported for off-balance sheet credit exposures that are unconditionally cancellable by the Bank or for unfunded amounts under such arrangements that may be drawn prior to the cancellation of the arrangement.

Provision for Credit Losses
The Company recognizes provision for credit losses on the allowance for off-balance sheet credit exposures (e.g., unfunded loan commitments) together with provision for credit losses on the loan portfolio in the income statement line item provision for credit losses. Provision for credit losses on the loan portfolio were $489,000 and $22,744,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Provision for off-balance sheet credit exposures were ($441,000) and ($3,559,000) for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. There was no provision for credit losses on debt securities for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and 2020 respectively.

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Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are accounted for at cost less depreciation. Depreciation is computed on a straight-line method over the estimated useful lives or the term of the related lease. The estimated useful life for office buildings is 15 to 40 years and the estimated useful life for furniture, fixtures, and equipment is 3 to 10 years. Interest is capitalized for any significant building projects. For additional information relating to premises and equipment, see Note 4.

Leases
The Company leases certain land, premises and equipment from third parties. A lessee lease is classified as an operating lease unless it meets certain criteria (e.g., lease contains option to purchase that Company is reasonably certain to exercise), in which case it is classified as a finance lease. Operating leases are included in net premises and equipment and other liabilities on the Company’s statements of financial condition and lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Finance leases are included in net premises and equipment and other borrowed funds on the Company’s statements of financial condition. Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. An ROU asset represents the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and also includes any direct costs and payments made prior to lease commencement and excludes lease incentives. When an implicit rate is not available, an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date is used in determining the present value of the lease payments. A lease term may include an option to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain the option will be exercised. The Company accounts for lease and nonlease components (e.g., common-area maintenance) together as a single combined lease component for all asset classes. Short-term leases of 12 months or less are excluded from accounting guidance; as a result, the lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and the leases are not reflected on the Company’s statements of financial condition. Renewal and termination options are considered when determining short-term leases. Leases are accounted for on an individual lease level.

Lease improvements incurred at the inception of the lease are recorded as an asset and depreciated over the initial term of the lease and lease improvements incurred subsequently are depreciated over the remaining term of the lease.

The Company also leases certain premises and equipment to third parties. A lessor lease is classified as an operating lease unless it meets certain criteria that would classify it as either a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease. For additional information relating to leases, see Note 4.

Other Real Estate Owned
Property acquired by foreclosure or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure is initially recorded at fair value, less estimated selling cost, at acquisition date (i.e., cost of the property). The Company is considered to have received physical possession of residential real estate property collateralizing a consumer mortgage loan upon the occurrence of either the Company obtaining legal title to the property or the borrower conveying all interest in the property through a deed-in-lieu or similar agreement. Fair value is determined as the amount that could be reasonably expected in a current sale between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Subsequent to the initial acquisition, if the fair value of the asset, less estimated selling cost, is less than the cost of the property, a loss is recognized in other expense and the asset carrying value is reduced. Gain or loss on disposition of OREO is recorded in non-interest income or non-interest expense, respectively. In determining the fair value of the properties on the date of transfer and any subsequent estimated losses of net realizable value, the fair value of other real estate acquired by foreclosure or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure is determined primarily based upon appraisal or evaluation of the underlying property value.

Business Combinations and Intangible Assets
Acquisition accounting requires the total purchase price to be allocated to the estimated fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including certain intangible assets. Goodwill is recorded if the purchase price exceeds the net fair value of assets acquired and a bargain purchase gain is recorded in other income if the net fair value of assets acquired exceeds the purchase price.

Adjustment of the allocated purchase price may be related to fair value estimates for which all information has not been obtained of the acquired entity known or discovered during the allocation period, the period of time required to identify and measure the fair values of the assets and liabilities acquired in the business combination. The allocation period is generally limited to one year following consummation of a business combination.

Core deposit intangible represents the intangible value of depositor relationships resulting from deposit liabilities assumed in acquisitions and is amortized using an accelerated method based on an estimated runoff of the related deposits. The core
17



deposit intangible is evaluated for impairment and recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that its carrying amount may not be recoverable, with any changes in estimated useful life accounted for prospectively over the revised remaining life. For additional information relating to core deposit intangibles, see Note 5.

The Company tests goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level annually during the third quarter. The Company has identified that each of the Bank divisions are reporting units (i.e., components of the Glacier Bank operating segment) given that each division has a separate management team that regularly reviews its respective division financial information; however, the reporting units are aggregated into a single reporting unit due to the reporting units having similar economic characteristics.

The goodwill of a reporting unit is tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more-likely-than-not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. Examples of events and circumstances that could trigger the need for interim impairment testing include:
a significant change in legal factors or in the business climate;
an adverse action or assessment by a regulator;
unanticipated competition;
a loss of key personnel;
a more-likely-than-not expectation that a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit will be sold or otherwise disposed of; and
the testing for recoverability of a significant asset group within a reporting unit.

For the goodwill impairment assessment, the Company has the option, to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. The Company opted to bypass the qualitative assessment for its 2020 and 2019 annual goodwill impairment testing and proceed directly to the goodwill impairment assessment. The goodwill impairment process requires the Company to make assumptions and judgments regarding fair value. The Company calculates an implied fair value and if the implied fair value is less than the carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference. For additional information relating to goodwill, see Note 5.

Loan Servicing Rights
For residential real estate loans that are sold with servicing retained, servicing rights are initially recorded at fair value in other assets and gain on sale of loans. Fair value is based on market prices for comparable mortgage servicing contracts. The servicing asset is subsequently measured using the amortization method which requires the servicing rights to be amortized into non-interest income in proportion to, and over the period of, the estimated future net servicing income of the underlying loans.

Loan servicing rights are evaluated for impairment based upon the fair value of the servicing rights compared to the carrying value. Impairment is recognized through a valuation allowance, to the extent that fair value is less than the carrying value. If the Company later determines that all or a portion of the impairment no longer exists, a reduction in the valuation allowance may be recorded. Changes in the valuation allowance are recorded in other income. The fair value of the servicing assets are subject to significant fluctuations as a result of changes in estimated actual prepayment speeds and default rates and losses.

Servicing fee income is recognized in other income for fees earned for servicing loans. The fees are based on contractual percentage of the outstanding principal; or a fixed amount per loan and is recorded when earned. The amortization of loans servicing fees is netted against loan servicing fee income. For additional information relating to loan servicing rights, see Note 6.

Equity Securities
Non-marketable equity securities primarily consist of Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) stock. FHLB stock is restricted because such stock may only be sold to FHLB at its par value. Due to restrictive terms, and the lack of a readily determinable fair value, FHLB stock is carried at cost and evaluated for impairment. The investments in FHLB stock are required investments related to the Company’s borrowings from FHLB. FHLB obtains its funding primarily through issuance of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. The U.S. government does not guarantee these obligations, and each of the regional FHLBs is jointly and severally liable for repayment of each other’s debt.

The Company also has an insignificant amount of marketable equity securities that are included in other assets on the Company’s statements of financial condition. Marketable equity securities with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value and changes in fair value are recognized in other income. Marketable equity securities without readily
18



determinable fair values are carried at cost, minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment.

Other Borrowings
Borrowings of the Company’s consolidated variable interest entities and finance lease arrangements are included in other borrowings. For additional information relating to VIE’s, see Note 7.

Bank-Owned Life Insurance
The Company maintains bank-owned life insurance policies on certain current and former employees and directors, which are recorded at their cash surrender values as determined by the insurance carriers. The appreciation in the cash surrender value of the policies is recognized as a component of other non-interest income in the Company’s statements of operations.

Derivatives and Hedging Activities
The Company is exposed to certain risks relating to its ongoing operations. The primary risk managed by using derivative instruments is interest risk. Interest rate caps and interest rate swaps have been entered into to manage interest rate risk associated with variable rate borrowings and were designated as cash flow hedges. The Company does not enter into derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

These cash flow hedges were recognized as assets or liabilities on the Company’s statements of financial condition and were measured at fair value. Cash flows resulting from the interest rate derivative financial instruments that were accounted for as hedges of assets and liabilities were classified in the Company’s cash flow statement in the same category as the cash flows of the items being hedged. For additional information relating to the interest rate caps, see Note 9.

Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue when services or products are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled. The Company’s principal source of revenue is interest income from debt securities and loans. Revenue from contracts with customers within the scope of ASC Topic 606 was $13,695,000 and $14,458,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and largely consisted of revenue from service charges and other fees from deposits (e.g., overdraft fees, ATM fees, debit card fees). Due to the short-term nature of the Company’s contracts with customers, an insignificant amount of receivables related to such revenue was recorded at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 and there were no impairment losses recognized. Policies specific to revenue from contracts with customers include the following:

Service Charges. Revenue from service charges consists of service charges and fees on deposit accounts under depository agreements with customers to provide access to deposited funds and, when applicable, pay interest on deposits. Service charges on deposit accounts may be transactional or non-transactional in nature. Transactional service charges occur in the form of a service or penalty and are charged upon the occurrence of an event (e.g., overdraft fees, ATM fees, wire transfer fees). Transactional service charges are recognized as services are delivered to and consumed by the customer, or as penalty fees are charged. Non-transactional service charges are charges that are based on a broader service, such as account maintenance fees and dormancy fees, and are recognized on a monthly basis.

Debit Card Fees. Revenue from debit card fees includes interchange fee income from debit cards processed through card association networks. Interchange fees represent a portion of a transaction amount that the Company and other involved parties retain to compensate themselves for giving the cardholder immediate access to funds. Interchange rates are generally set by the card association networks and are based on purchase volumes and other factors. The Company records interchange fees as services are provided.

Recently Issued Accounting Guidance
The ASC is the FASB officially recognized source of authoritative GAAP applicable to all public and non-public non-governmental entities. Rules and interpretive releases of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the authority of the federal securities laws are also sources of authoritative GAAP for the Company as an SEC registrant. All other accounting literature is non-authoritative. The Company has not adopted any ASU’s in the current year that may have had a material effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations. Furthermore, there are no newly issued but not yet effective ASUs that could have a material effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.



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Note 2. Debt Securities

The following tables present the amortized cost, the gross unrealized gains and losses and the fair value of the Company’s debt securities:
 March 31, 2021
(Dollars in thousands)Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Available-for-sale
U.S. government and federal agency$36,122 231 (490)35,863 
U.S. government sponsored enterprises5,231 22  5,253 
State and local governments914,572 64,593 (513)978,652 
Corporate bonds278,914 9,952 (85)288,781 
Residential mortgage-backed securities3,369,683 16,420 (22,476)3,363,627 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,145,668 39,958 (4,487)1,181,139 
Total available-for-sale$5,750,190 131,176 (28,051)5,853,315 
Held-to-maturity
State and local governments$588,751 10,937 (728)598,960 
Total held-to-maturity$588,751 10,937 (728)598,960 

 December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Available-for-sale
U.S. government and federal agency$38,568 287 (267)38,588 
U.S. government sponsored enterprises9,747 34  9,781 
State and local governments1,321,763 94,974 (54)1,416,683 
Corporate bonds336,867 12,239 (8)349,098 
Residential mortgage-backed securities2,261,463 27,631 (4)2,289,090 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities1,177,458 57,575 (459)1,234,574 
Total available-for-sale$5,145,866 192,740 (792)5,337,814 
Held-to-maturity
State and local governments$189,836 13,380  203,216 
Total held-to-maturity$189,836 13,380  203,216 

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Maturity Analysis
The following table presents the amortized cost and fair value of available-for-sale and held-to-maturity debt securities by contractual maturity at March 31, 2021. Actual maturities may differ from expected or contractual maturities since some issuers have the right to prepay obligations with or without prepayment penalties.

 March 31, 2021
 Available-for-SaleHeld-to-Maturity
(Dollars in thousands)Amortized CostFair ValueAmortized CostFair Value
Due within one year$91,067 92,128 482 486 
Due after one year through five years237,676 248,388 23,431 24,883 
Due after five years through ten years247,854 257,032 66,883 71,375 
Due after ten years658,242 711,001 497,955 502,216 
1,234,839 1,308,549 588,751 598,960 
Mortgage-backed securities 1
4,515,351 4,544,766   
Total$5,750,190 5,853,315 588,751 598,960 
______________________________
1 Mortgage-backed securities, which have prepayment provisions, are not assigned to maturity categories due to fluctuations in their prepayment speeds.

Sales and Calls of Debt Securities
Proceeds from sales and calls of debt securities and the associated gains and losses that have been included in earnings are listed below:
 Three Months ended
(Dollars in thousands)March 31,
2021
March 31,
2020
Available-for-sale
Proceeds from sales and calls of debt securities54,336 77,073 
Gross realized gains 1
369 962 
Gross realized losses 1
(43)(100)
Held-to-maturity
Proceeds from calls of debt securities4,130 20,250 
Gross realized gains 1
 1 
Gross realized losses 1
(42) 
______________________________
1 The gain or loss on the sale or call of each debt security is determined by the specific identification method.
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Allowance for Credit Losses - Available-For-Sale Debt Securities
In assessing whether a credit loss existed on available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, the Company compared the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the debt securities with the amortized cost basis of the debt securities. In addition, the following factors were evaluated individually and collectively in determining the existence of expected credit losses:
credit ratings from Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations (“NRSRO” entities such as Standard and Poor’s [“S&P”] and Moody’s);
extent to which the fair value is less than cost;
adverse conditions, if any, specifically related to the impaired securities, including the industry and geographic area;
the overall deal and payment structure of the debt securities, including the investor entity’s position within the structure, underlying obligors, financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, including specific events which may affect the issuer’s operations or future earnings, and credit support or enhancements; and
failure of the issuer and underlying obligors, if any, to make scheduled payments of interest and principal.

The following table summarizes available-for-sale debt securities that were in an unrealized loss position for which an ACL has not been recorded, based on the length of time the individual securities have been in an unrealized loss position. The number of available-for-sale debt securities in an unrealized position is also disclosed.

 March 31, 2021
 Number
of
Securities
Less than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
(Dollars in thousands)Fair
Value
Unrealized
Loss
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Loss
Fair
Value
Unrealized
Loss
Available-for-sale
U.S. government and federal agency
24 $17,857 (343)2,361 (147)20,218 (490)
State and local governments57 36,748 (480)816 (33)37,564 (513)
Corporate bonds1 3,915 (85)  3,915 (85)
Residential mortgage-backed securities