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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
(Mark One)
    REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR

    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR

    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR

    SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from ________________ to ________________

Commission file number: 001-35129
Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
British Virgin Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Dr. Luis Bonavita 1294, Office 501
Montevideo, Uruguay, 11300 WTC Free Zone
(Address of principal executive offices)
Juan David Bastidas
Chief Legal Officer
Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc.
Dr. Luis Bonavita 1294, 5th floor, Office 501, WTC Free Zone
Montevideo, Uruguay 11300
Telephone: +598 2626-3000
Fax: +598 2626-3018
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A shares, no par valueARCONew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital stock or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
Class A shares: 127,265,773
Class B shares: 80,000,000
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes o No x

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes o No x

Note - Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
x
Non-accelerated filer  Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP
x
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board  
o
Other  
o
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
  o Item 17 o Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes No x





Table of Contents
ARCOS DORADOS HOLDINGS INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
i

Table of Contents
ii

Table of Contents
iii

Table of Contents
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
All references to “U.S. dollars,” “dollars,” “U.S.$” or “$” are to the U.S. dollar. All references to “Argentine pesos” or “ARS$” are to the Argentine peso. All references to “Brazilian reais” or “R$” are to the Brazilian real. All references to “Mexican pesos” or “Ps.” are to the Mexican peso. All references to “Venezuelan bolívares” or “Bs.” are to the Venezuelan bolívar, the legal currency of Venezuela. See “Item 3. Key Information—A. Selected Financial Data—Exchange Rates and Exchange Controls” for information regarding exchange rates for the Argentine, Brazilian and Mexican currencies.
Definitions
In this annual report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “Arcos Dorados,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “ours,” “us” or similar terms refer to Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc., together with its subsidiaries. All references to “systemwide” refer only to the system of McDonald’s-branded restaurants operated by us or our franchisees in 20 countries and territories in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Argentina, Aruba, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, the U.S. Virgin Islands of St. Croix and St. Thomas, and Venezuela, which we refer to as the “Territories,” and do not refer to the system of McDonald’s-branded restaurants operated by McDonald’s Corporation, its affiliates or its franchisees (other than us).
We own our McDonald’s franchise rights pursuant to a Master Franchise Agreement for all of the Territories, except Brazil, which we refer to as the MFA, and a separate, but substantially identical, Master Franchise Agreement for Brazil, which we refer to as the Brazilian MFA. We refer to the MFA and the Brazilian MFA, as amended or otherwise modified to date, collectively as the MFAs. We commenced operations on August 3, 2007, as a result of our purchase of McDonald’s operations and real estate in the Territories (except for Trinidad and Tobago), which we refer to collectively as the “McDonald’s LatAm” business, and the acquisition of McDonald’s franchise rights pursuant to the MFAs, which together with the purchase of the McDonald’s LatAm business, we refer to as the “Acquisition.”
Financial Statements
We prepare our financial statements in accordance with accounting principles and standards generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, and elect to report in U.S. dollars.
The financial information contained in this annual report includes our consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, which have been audited by Pistrelli, Henry Martin y Asociados S.R.L., member firm of Ernst & Young Global, as stated in their report included elsewhere in this annual report.
We were incorporated on December 9, 2010 as a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Arcos Dorados Limited, the prior holding company for the Arcos Dorados business. On December 13, 2010, Arcos Dorados Limited effected a downstream merger into and with us, with us as the surviving entity. The merger was accounted for as a reorganization of entities under common control in a manner similar to a pooling of interest and the consolidated financial statements reflect the historical consolidated operations of Arcos Dorados Limited as if the reorganization structure had existed since Arcos Dorados Limited was incorporated in July 2006.
Our fiscal year ends on December 31. References in this annual report to a fiscal year, such as “fiscal year 2020,” relate to our fiscal year ended on December 31 of that calendar year.
Operating Data
Our operating segments are composed of four geographic regions of operation: (i) the South Latin American division, or “SLAD,” which is comprised of Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Uruguay, (ii) the Caribbean division, which is comprised of Aruba, Colombia, Curaçao, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, the U.S. Virgin Islands of St. Croix and St. Thomas, and Venezuela, (iii) Brazil and (iv) the North Latin American division, or “NOLAD,” which is comprised of Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama.
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We operate McDonald’s-branded restaurants under two different operating formats: those directly operated by us, or “Company-operated” restaurants, and those operated by franchisees, or “franchised” restaurants. All references to “restaurants” are to our freestanding, food court, in-store and mall store restaurants and do not refer to our McCafé locations or Dessert Centers. Systemwide data represents measures for both our Company-operated restaurants and our franchised restaurants.
We are the majority stakeholder in two joint ventures with third parties that collectively own 15 restaurants in Argentina and Chile. We consider these restaurants to be Company-operated restaurants. We also have granted developmental licenses to 9 restaurants. Developmental licensees own or lease the land and buildings on which their restaurants are located and pay a franchise fee to us in addition to the continuing franchise fee due to McDonald’s. We consider these restaurants to be franchised restaurants.
Market Share and Other Information
Market data and certain industry forecast data used in this annual report were obtained from internal reports and studies, where appropriate, as well as estimates, market research, publicly available information (including information available from the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, website) and industry publications, including the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and the CIA World Factbook. Industry publications generally state that the information they include has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Similarly, internal reports and studies, estimates and market research, which we believe to be reliable and accurately extracted by us for use in this annual report, have not been independently verified. However, we believe such data is accurate and agree that we are responsible for the accurate extraction of such information from such sources and its correct reproduction in this annual report.
Basis of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting and include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Rounding
We have made rounding adjustments to some of the figures included in this annual report. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that preceded them.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report contains statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Many of the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “expect,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate” and “potential,” among others.
Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this annual report and include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our intent, belief or current expectations. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to of various factors, including, but not limited to, those identified in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in this annual report. These risks and uncertainties include factors relating to:
effects of COVID-19 pandemic and private or government measures that could negatively affect the global economy and our markets’ economy and business;

changes in our liquidity or the availability of lines of credit and other sources of financing, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;

general economic, political, demographic and business conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean;
fluctuations in inflation and exchange rates in Latin America and the Caribbean;
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our ability to implement our growth strategy;
the success of operating initiatives, including advertising and promotional efforts and new product and concept development by us and our competitors;
our ability to compete and conduct our business in the future;
changes in consumer tastes and preferences, including changes resulting from concerns over nutritional or safety aspects of beef, poultry, french fries or other foods or the effects of health pandemics or food-borne illnesses, such as COVID-19, “mad cow” disease and avian influenza or “bird flu,” and changes in spending patterns and demographic trends, such as the extent to which consumers eat meals away from home;
the availability, location and lease terms for restaurant development;
our franchisees, including their business and financial viability and the timely payment of our franchisees’ obligations due to us and to McDonald’s;
our ability to comply with the requirements of the MFAs, including McDonald’s standards;
our decision to own and operate restaurants or to operate under franchise agreements;
the availability of qualified restaurant personnel for us and for our franchisees, and the ability to retain such personnel;
changes in commodity costs, labor, supply, fuel, utilities, distribution and other operating costs;
changes in labor laws;
our ability, if necessary, to secure alternative distribution of supplies of food, equipment and other products to our restaurants at competitive rates and in adequate amounts, and the potential financial impact of any interruptions in such distribution;
material changes in government regulation;
material changes in tax legislation;
other factors that may affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations; and
other risk factors discussed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.”
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments or to release publicly any revisions to these statements in order to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
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ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS
We are incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands with limited liability. We are incorporated in the British Virgin Islands because of certain benefits associated with being a British Virgin Islands company, such as political and economic stability, an effective judicial system, a favorable tax system, the absence of exchange control or currency restrictions, and the availability of professional and support services. However, the British Virgin Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and provides protections for investors to a significantly lesser extent. In addition, British Virgin Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.
A majority of our directors and officers, as well as certain of the experts named herein, reside outside of the United States. A substantial portion of our assets and several of such directors, officers and experts are located principally in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process outside Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay upon such directors or officers, or to enforce against us or such parties in courts outside Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay judgments predicated solely upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or other non-Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan regulations, as applicable. In addition, local counsel to the Company have advised that there is doubt as to whether the courts of Argentina, Brazil or Uruguay would enforce in all respects, to the same extent and in as timely a manner as a U.S. court or non-Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan court, an original action predicated solely upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws or other non-Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan regulations, as applicable; and that the enforceability in Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan courts of judgments of U.S. courts or non-Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws or other non-Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan regulations, as applicable, will be subject to compliance with certain requirements under Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan law, including the condition that any such judgment does not violate Argentine, Brazilian or Uruguayan public policy.
We have been advised by Maples and Calder, our counsel as to British Virgin Islands law, that the United States and the British Virgin Islands do not have a treaty providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts of the United States in civil and commercial matters and that a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any general or state court in the United States based on civil liability, whether or not predicated solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws, would not be automatically enforceable in the British Virgin Islands. We have been advised by Maples and Calder that a final and conclusive judgment obtained in U.S. federal or state courts under which a sum of money is payable (i.e., not being a sum claimed by a revenue authority for taxes or other charges of a similar nature by a governmental authority, or in respect of a fine or penalty or multiple or punitive damages) may be the subject of an action on a debt in the court of the British Virgin Islands under British Virgin Islands common law.

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PART I

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
A.    Directors and Senior Management
Not applicable.
B.    Advisers
Not applicable.
C.    Auditors
Not applicable.
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
A.    Offer Statistics
Not applicable.
B.    Method and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
A.    Selected Financial Data
The selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and the income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 of Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc. are derived from the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report, which have been audited by Pistrelli, Henry Martin y Asociados S.R.L., member firm of Ernst & Young Global. The selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 of Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc. are derived from consolidated financial statements audited by Pistrelli, Henry Martin y Asociados S.R.L., which are not included herein.
Our operating segments are composed of four geographic regions of operation: (i) the South Latin American division, or “SLAD,” which is comprised of Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Uruguay, (ii) the Caribbean division which is comprised of Aruba, Colombia, Curaçao, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, the U.S. Virgin Islands of St. Croix and St. Thomas and Venezuela (iii) Brazil and (iv) the North Latin American division, or “NOLAD,” which is comprised of Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama.
We were incorporated on December 9, 2010 as a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of Arcos Dorados Limited, the prior holding company for the Arcos Dorados business. On December 13, 2010, Arcos Dorados Limited effected a downstream merger into and with us, with us as the surviving entity. The merger was accounted for as a reorganization of entities under common control in a manner similar to a pooling of interest and the consolidated financial statements reflect the historical consolidated operations of Arcos Dorados Limited as if the reorganization structure had existed since Arcos Dorados Limited was incorporated in July 2006. We did not commence operations until the Acquisition on August 3, 2007.
We prepare our financial statements in accordance with accounting principles and standards generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, and elect to report in U.S. dollars. This financial information should be read in conjunction with “Presentation of Financial and Other Information,” “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included elsewhere in this annual report.


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For the Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except for per share data)
(Loss) Income Statement Data:
Sales by Company-operated restaurants$
1,894,618
$2,812,287$2,932,609$3,162,256$2,803,334
Revenues from franchised restaurants
89,601
146,790148,962157,269125,296
Total revenues
1,984,219
2,959,0773,081,5713,319,5252,928,630
Company-operated restaurant expenses:
Food and paper
(677,087)
(1,007,584)(1,030,499)(1,110,240)(1,012,976)
Payroll and employee benefits
(413,074)
(567,653)(607,793)(683,954)(607,082)
Occupancy and other operating expenses(624,154)(799,633)(803,539)(842,519)(752,428)
Royalty fees(110,957)(155,388)(157,886)(163,954)(142,777)
Franchised restaurants—occupancy expenses(43,512)(61,278)(67,927)(69,836)(55,098)
General and administrative expenses(171,382)(212,515)(229,324)(244,664)(221,075)
Other operating (expenses) income, net(10,807)4,910(61,145)68,57741,386
Total operating costs and expenses(2,050,973)(2,799,141)(2,958,113)(3,046,590)(2,750,050)
Operating (loss) income(66,754)159,936123,458272,935178,580
Net interest expense(59,068)(52,079)(52,868)(68,357)(66,880)
(Loss) gain from derivative instruments(2,297)439(565)(7,065)(3,065)
Gain from securities
25,676
Foreign currency exchange results(31,707)12,75414,874(14,265)32,354
Other non-operating income (expenses), net2,296 (2,097)270(435)(2,360)
(Loss) Income before income taxes(131,854)118,95385,169182,813138,629
Income tax expense(17,532)(38,837)(48,136)(53,314)(59,641)
Net (loss) income(149,386)80,11637,033129,49978,988
Less: Net income attributable to non-controlling interests(65)(220)(186)(333)(178)
Net (loss) income attributable to Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc.(149,451)79,89636,847129,16678,810
(Loss) Earnings per share:
Basic net (loss) income per common share attributable to Arcos Dorados$(0.73)$0.39$0.18$0.61$0.37
Diluted net (loss) income per common share attributable to Arcos Dorados$(0.73)$0.39$0.18$0.61$0.37
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As of December 31,
20202019201820172016
(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except for share data)
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalent$
165,989
$121,880$197,282$308,491$194,803
Total current assets
415,531
405,368464,562653,037445,190
Property and equipment, net
796,532
960,986856,192890,736847,966
Total non-current assets
1,878,423
2,152,3171,113,4771,150,7061,059,863
Total assets
2,293,954
2,557,6851,578,0391,803,7431,505,053
Accounts payable209,535259,577242,455303,452217,914
Short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt
3,129
16,5294,1924,35928,099
Total current liabilities
503,471
595,447493,312605,583548,308
Long-term debt, excluding current portion
773,445
623,575626,424629,142551,580
Total non-current liabilities
1,592,467
1,540,672691,968702,018605,169
Total liabilities
2,095,938
2,136,1191,185,2801,307,6011,153,477
Total common stock
519,518
516,119512,760509,647506,884
Total equity
198,016
421,566392,759496,142351,576
Total liabilities and equity
2,293,954
2,557,6851,578,0391,803,7431,505,053
Shares outstanding207,265,773204,070,029205,232,247211,072,508210,711,224
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For the Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages)
Other Data:
Total Revenues
Brazil$862,748 $1,385,566$1,345,453$1,496,573$1,333,237
Caribbean division(1)381,090 399,251 483,743474,822409,671
NOLAD311,887 431,266 406,848386,874363,965
SLAD428,494 742,994 845,527961,256821,757
Total1,984,2192,959,077 3,081,5713,319,5252,928,630
Operating (Loss) Income
Brazil$16,121$164,342$159,511$160,608$122,636
Caribbean division(1)4,494 (1,100)(49,567)1,538(12,392)
NOLAD(16,680)16,5397,72699,15245,145
SLAD(16,626)42,41053,77771,71866,359
Corporate and others and purchase price allocation(54,063)(62,255)(47,989)(60,081)(43,168)
Total(66,754)159,936123,458272,935178,580
Operating Margin(2)
Brazil1.9%11.9%11.9%10.7%9.2%
Caribbean division(1)1.2(0.3)(10.2)0.3(3.0)
NOLAD(5.3)3.81.925.612.4
SLAD(3.9)5.76.47.58.1
Total(3.4)5.44.08.26.1
Adjusted EBITDA(3)
Brazil$
76,155
$227,844$218,391$218,172$168,076
Caribbean division(1)28,847 24,955(8,281)40,84418,049
NOLAD
10,207
39,02732,31333,71736,288
SLAD
3,272
63,12073,67087,08376,327
Corporate and others(50,370)(63,171)(58,096)(74,879)(60,295)
Total68,111291,775257,997304,937238,445
Adjusted EBITDA Margin(4)
Brazil8.8%16.4%16.2%14.6%12.6%
Caribbean division(1)7.66.2(1.7)8.64.4
NOLAD3.39.07.98.710.0
SLAD0.88.58.79.19.3
Total3.49.98.49.28.1
Other Financial Data:
Working capital(5)(87,940)(190,079)(28,750)47,454(103,118)
Capital expenditures(6)90,144267,893197,041175,63692,282
Cash Dividends declared per common share$0.05$0.11$0.10$— $— 
Stock Dividends declared per every 75 common shares1.00— — — — 
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As of December 31,
20202019201820172016
Number of systemwide restaurants2,2362,2932,2232,1882,156
Brazil1,0201,023968929902
Caribbean division318336337350353
NOLAD507530524519517
SLAD391404394390384
Number of Company-operated restaurants1,5761,5801,5401,5461,553
Brazil610612584579584
Caribbean division269251251263266
NOLAD353364362363365
SLAD344353343341338
Number of franchised restaurants660713683642603
Brazil410411384350318
Caribbean division4985868787
NOLAD154166162156152
SLAD4751514946

(1)Currency devaluations in Venezuela have had a significant effect on our income statements and have impacted the comparability of our income statements. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects-A. Operating Results-Foreign Currency Translation-Venezuela.”
(2)Operating margin is operating income divided by total revenues, expressed as a percentage.
(3)Adjusted EBITDA is a measure of our performance that is reviewed by our management. Adjusted EBITDA does not have a standardized meaning and, accordingly, our definition of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to Adjusted EBITDA as used by other companies. Total Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure. For our definition of Adjusted EBITDA, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects-A. Operating Results-Key Business Measures.”
(4)Adjusted EBITDA margin is Adjusted EBITDA divided by total revenues, expressed as a percentage.
(5)Working capital equals current assets minus current liabilities.
(6)Includes property and equipment expenditures and purchase of restaurant businesses paid at the acquisition date.
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Presented below is the reconciliation between net income and Adjusted EBITDA on a consolidated basis:
Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation
For the Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
Net (loss) income attributable to Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc.$(149,451)$79,896$36,847$129,166$78,810
Plus (Less):
Net interest expense59,06852,07952,86868,35766,880
Loss (gain) from derivative instruments2,297(439)5657,0653,065
(Gain) from securities(25,676)— — — — 
Foreign currency exchange results31,707(12,754)(14,874)14,265(32,354)
Other non-operating (income) expenses, net(2,296)2,097(270)4352,360
Income tax expense17,53238,83748,13653,31459,641
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests65220186333178
Operating (loss) income(66,754)159,936123,458272,935178,580
Plus (Less):
Items excluded from computation that affect operating income:
Depreciation and amortization126,853123,218105,80099,38292,969
Gains from sale or insurance recovery of property and equipment(4,210)(5,175)(4,973)(95,081)(57,244)
Write-offs of property and equipment4,5014,7334,1678,5285,776
Impairment of long-lived assets6,6368,79018,95017,5647,697
Impairment of goodwill10852731672005,045
Reorganization and optimization plan— — 11,003— 5,341
2008 Long-Term Incentive Plan incremental compensation from modification— — (575)1,409281
Adjusted EBITDA68,111291,775257,997304,937238,445

Exchange Rates and Exchange Controls
In 2020, 69.2% of our total revenues were derived from our restaurants in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Puerto Rico. While we elect to report figures in U.S. dollars, our revenues are conducted in the local currency of the territories in which we operate, and as such may be affected by changes in the local exchange rate to the U.S. dollar. The exchange rates discussed in this section have been obtained from each country’s central bank. However, in most cases, for consolidation purposes, we use a foreign currency to U.S. dollar exchange rate provided by Bloomberg that differs slightly from that reported by the aforementioned central banks.
Brazil
Exchange Rates
The Brazilian real appreciated 19.4% against the U.S. Dollar in 2016, 1.7% in 2017, depreciated 19% in 2018, depreciated 25.5% in 2019, depreciated 29% in 2020 and depreciated 8.5% in the first quarter of 2021. As of April 23, 2021, the exchange rate for the purchase of U.S. dollars was R$5.48 per U.S. dollar.
Exchange Controls
Brazilian Resolution 3,568 establishes that, without prejudice to the duty of identifying customers, operations of foreign currency purchase or sale up to $3,000 or its equivalent in other currencies are not required to submit documentation relating to legal transactions underlying these foreign exchange operations. According to Resolution 3,568, the Central Bank of Brazil may define simplified forms to record operations of foreign currency purchases and sales of up to $3,000 or its equivalent in other currencies.
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The Brazilian Monetary Council may issue further regulations in relation to foreign exchange transactions, as well as on payments and transfers of Brazilian currency between Brazilian residents and non-residents (such transfers being commonly known as the international transfer of reais), including those made through so-called non-resident accounts.
Brazilian law also imposes a tax on foreign exchange transactions, or “IOF/Exchange,” on the conversion of reais into foreign currency and on the conversion of foreign currency into reais. As of October 7, 2014, the general IOF/Exchange rate applicable to almost all foreign currency exchange transactions was increased from zero to 0.38%, although other rates may apply in particular operations, such as the below transactions which are currently not taxed:
inflow related to transactions carried out in the Brazilian financial and capital markets, including investments in our common shares by investors which register their investment under Resolution No. 4,373;
outflow related to the return of the investment mentioned under the first bulleted item above; and
outflow related to the payment of dividends and interest on shareholders’ equity in connection with the investment mentioned under the first bulleted item above.
Notwithstanding these rates of the IOF/Exchange, in force as of the date hereof, the Minister of Finance is legally entitled to increase the rate of the IOF/Exchange to a maximum of 25% of the amount of the currency exchange transaction, but only on a prospective basis.
Although the Central Bank of Brazil has intervened occasionally to control movements in the foreign exchange rates, the exchange market may continue to be volatile as a result of capital movements or other factors, and, therefore, the Brazilian real may substantially decline or appreciate in value in relation to the U.S. dollar in the future.
Brazilian law further provides that whenever there is a significant imbalance in Brazil’s balance of payments or reasons to foresee such a significant imbalance, the Brazilian government may, and has done so in the past, impose temporary restrictions on the remittance of funds to foreign investors of the proceeds of their investments in Brazil. The likelihood that the Brazilian government would impose such restricting measures may be affected by the extent of Brazil’s foreign currency reserves, the availability of foreign currency in the foreign exchange markets on the date a payment is due, the size of Brazil’s debt service burden relative to the economy as a whole and other factors. We cannot assure you that the Central Bank will not modify its policies or that the Brazilian government will not institute restrictions or delays on cross-border remittances in respect of securities issued in the international capital markets.
Argentina
Exchange Rates
The Argentine peso depreciated 21.9% against the U.S. Dollar in 2016, 17.7% in 2017, 49.7% in 2018, 58.8% in 2019, 40.5% in 2020 and 9.3% in the first quarter of 2021. As of April 23, 2021, the exchange rate for the purchase of U.S. dollars was ARS$93.12 per U.S. dollar.
Exchange Controls
During 2001 and 2002, Argentina went through a period of severe political, economic and social crisis. Among other consequences, the crisis resulted in Argentina defaulting on its foreign debt obligations and the introduction of numerous changes in economic policies, including currency controls that tightened restrictions on capital flows, exchange controls, an official U.S. dollar exchange and transfer restrictions that substantially limited the ability of companies to retain foreign currency or make payments abroad. Although these foreign exchange controls were eased in a series of measures introduced by former President Mauricio Macri’s administration starting in December 2015, his administration also reinstated the main exchange controls, starting in September 2019.
On September 1, 2019, the Argentine government issued Decree No. 609/2019 whereby foreign exchange controls were reinstated. The decree: (i) reinstated, originally until December 31, 2019, exporters’ obligation to repatriate and settle for Argentine pesos (through the foreign exchange market or the “MLC”, per its acronym in Spanish) the proceeds from exports of goods and services on the terms and conditions set forth by the Central Bank of Argentina’s implementing regulations; and (ii) authorized the Central Bank of Argentina to (a) regulate access to the foreign exchange market for the purchase of foreign currency and outward remittances; and (b) set forth regulations to avoid practices and transactions aimed to circumvent, through the use of securities and other instruments, the measures adopted through the decree. On the same date, the Central Bank of Argentina issued Communication “A” 6770, which was subsequently amended and supplemented by further
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Central Bank of Argentina communications. As a consequence of these exchange controls, the spread between the official exchange rate and other exchange rates resulting implicitly from certain capital market operations usually effected to obtain U.S. dollars has broadened significantly, reaching a value of approximately 64% above the official exchange rate as of April 23, 2021.
At present, foreign exchange regulations have been (i) extended indefinitely, and (ii) consolidated in a single set of regulation, Communication “A” 6844, as subsequently amended and supplemented from time to time by Central Bank of Argentina’s communications (jointly, the “Argentine FX Regulations”). Below is a description of the main exchange control measures implemented through the aforementioned regulations:
Specific provisions for inward remittances
Obligation to repatriate and settle in Argentine pesos the proceeds from exports of services
Section 2.2 of the Argentine FX Regulations imposes on exporters the obligation to repatriate, and settle in the MLC, the proceeds from services rendered to non-residents within 5 business days following payment thereof.
Sale of non-financial non-produced assets
Pursuant to section 2.3 of the Argentine FX Regulations, the proceeds in foreign currency of the sale to non-residents of non-financial non-produced assets must be repatriated and settled in Argentine pesos in the MLC within 5 business days following either the perception of funds in the country or abroad, or their accreditation in foreign accounts.
External financial indebtedness
Pursuant to section 2.4 of the Argentine FX Regulations, the new regulations have reinstated the requirement to repatriate, and settle in Argentine pesos through the MLC, the proceeds of new financial indebtedness disbursed from and after September 1, 2019 as a condition for accessing the MLC to make debt service payments thereunder. The reporting of the debt under the reporting regime established by Communication “A” 6401 (as amended and restated from time to time, the “External Assets and Liabilities Reporting Regime”) is also a condition to access the MLC to repay external financial indebtedness. However, per Communication “A” 7106, debtors of principal of foreign external financial indebtedness scheduled to be due between October 15, 2020 and March 31, 2021 were limited to access the MLC for up to 40% of the principal owed during such period (this period was subsequently extended to December 31, 2021 by Communication “A” 7230). Hence, these new regulations impose a requirement on debtors to restructure the remaining 60% of principal owed during such period (or obtain new financing), but allows the access to the MLC for all interest under such payments. These regulations are subject to certain characteristics and thresholds but generally apply to external financial indebtedness. Debtors of external financial indebtedness subject to these regulations are required to submit to a refinancing plan evidencing compliance with this regulation.
Specific Provisions Regarding Access to the MLC
Payment of principal under external financial indebtedness to non-resident affiliates
Access to the MLC for payments of principal under debts with non-resident affiliates will be subject to the Central Bank of Argentina’s prior approval until June 30, 2021.
Payment of imports of goods
Communication “A” 7030 of the Central Bank of Argentina sets forth that, for the purposes of accessing the MLC to pay imports of goods or the principal amount of debts arising from the import of goods, the Central Bank of Argentina’s prior approval will be required until June 30, 2021, unless certain requirements are met, namely:
a) the entity has received an affidavit from the client stating that the total amount of payments associated with its imports of goods processed through the MLC during 2020, including the payment for which approval is sought, does not exceed in more than US$1,000,000 the amount by which the importer would have access to the exchange market when computing: (i) the imports of goods registered on behalf of the relevant in the system for tracking payments of imports of goods (SEPAIMPO) and that were registered between January 1, 2020 and the day prior to accessing the MLC, (ii) plus the amount of payments made under other exceptions, (ii) minus the amount pending to be paid in Argentina, related to payments of imports with pending customs registration made between September 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019;
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b) in the case of a “deferred payment” or “demand payment” of imports corresponding to goods that have been shipped as of July 1, 2020 or that, having been shipped previously, have not arrived in the country before that date; and
c) it is a payment associated with an operation not included in section b) above, to the extent that it is intended to be used towards the cancellation of a commercial debt for imports of goods with an export credit agency or a foreign financial entity or that was guaranteed by either of such entities.
Prior to authorizing payments for imports of goods, the intervening financial entity must, in addition to requesting the client’s affidavit, verify that such statement is compatible with the existing data in the relevant online Central Bank of Argentina’s databases.
Payment of services provided by non-residents
Pursuant to section 3.2 of the Argentine FX Regulations, residents may access the MLC for payment of services rendered by non-residents (except to affiliates), as long as it is verified that the operation has been declared, if applicable, in the last overdue presentation of the External Assets and Liabilities Reporting.
Access to the MLC for the prepayment of debts for services requires prior authorization by the Central Bank of Argentina.
Other Specific Provisions
Additional requirements on outflows through the MLC
For certain outflows of funds made through the MLC (i.e., payments of imports and other purchases of goods abroad; payment of services rendered by non-residents; remittances of profits and dividends; payment of principal and interest on external indebtedness; payments of interest on debts for the import of goods and services, among others), the intervening exchange institution shall obtain the Central Bank of Argentina’s prior approval before processing the transaction, unless the customer files an affidavit before such bank stating that, at the moment of accessing the MLC:
a) (i) all its foreign currency holdings are held in bank accounts within local financial institutions, and (ii) the customer has no external liquid assets available as of the date of access to the MLC in an amount higher than the equivalent to US$100,000 (or a higher amount, provided some requirements are met). Communication “A” 7030 provides a merely illustrative list of liquid external assets including, among others, holdings of foreign currency bills and coins, holdings of coined gold or gold bars for good delivery, demand deposits with financial institutions abroad and other investments that allow for immediate availability of foreign currency (including, for example, investments in external government securities, funds held in investment accounts with investment managers abroad, crypto-currency, funds in payment service providers’ accounts, among others); and
b) the customer commits to transfer and settle through the MLC within a term of 5 business days upon being made available, (i) any funds received from the collection of loans granted to third parties, (ii) the collection of time deposits, or (iii) the sale of any asset; provided that the loan had been granted, the time deposit had been made, and the asset had been purchased, in each case, after May 28, 2020.
Access to the MLC by non-residents
In accordance with section 3.12 of the Argentine FX Regulations, prior approval by the Central Bank of Argentina will be required for access to the foreign exchange market by non-residents for the purchase of foreign currency, except for the following operations: (a) International organizations and institutions that perform functions of official export credit agencies, (b) diplomatic representations and consular and diplomatic personnel accredited in the country for transfers made in the exercise of their functions, (c) Representatives in the country of Courts, Authorities or Offices, Special Missions, Commissions or Bilateral Bodies established by Treaties or International Agreements, of which Argentina is part, to the extent that transfers are made in the exercise of their functions, (d) foreign transfers in the name of individuals who are beneficiaries of retirement and / or pensions paid by the ANSES, for up to the amount paid by said agency in the calendar month and to the extent that the transfer is made to a bank account owned by the beneficiary in your registered country of residence, (e) purchase of foreign currency (in cash) by non-resident individuals for tourism and travel expenses, up to a maximum amount of U$S100 dollars, to the extent the financial entity can verify that the client has settled an amount equal or higher than the sum to be purchased within 90 days prior to the operation, and (f) transfers to offshore bank accounts by individuals that are beneficiaries of pensions granted by the national government pursuant to Laws No. 24,043, 24,411 and 25,914, as supplemented.
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Exchanges and arbitrage. Transactions involving securities
Pursuant to section 4.2 of the Argentine FX Regulations, entities are allowed to carry out exchange and arbitrage operations with their clients in the following cases: (i) such operation is not subject to the settlement obligation in the MLC; (ii) an individual transfers funds from their local accounts (which are already held in foreign currency) to its own bank accounts outside Argentina, (iii) when foreign currency transfers by local central collective deposit securities for funds received in foreign currency for capital services and income from National Treasury securities, (iv) arbitration operations not originated in foreign transfers provided that such funds are debited from an account in foreign currency of the client in a local entity, and (v) may be carried out without the need to obtain prior Central Bank of Argentina approval, provided that if structured as separate transactions, these would have access to the MLC without the need of an authorization by the Central Bank of Argentina.
Securities-related Operations
Pursuant to General Resolution No. 878/2020 of the Argentine Securities Commission (CNV, per its acronym in Spanish), sales of securities with settlement in foreign currency and in a foreign jurisdiction may be carried out, provided that a minimum holding period of 3 business days is observed from the date such securities are credited with the relevant depositary. With respect to sales of securities with settlement in foreign currency carried out locally, the minimum holding period will be of 1 business day to be counted from the date on which such securities were credited with the relevant depositary. These minimum holding periods shall not be applicable in the case of purchases of securities with settlement in foreign currency.
In addition, transfers of securities acquired from foreign depositaries with settlement in Argentine pesos will be processed subject to the compliance with a minimum holding period of 3 business days counted from the crediting thereof with the depositary, unless such crediting results from a primary placement of securities issued by the National Treasury or refers to shares and/or Argentine deposit certificates (CEDEARs) traded on markets regulated by the CNV. Brokers and trading agents must verify compliance with the aforementioned minimum holding period of the securities.
With respect to incoming transfers, General Resolution No. 878/2020 of the CNV provided that securities transferred by foreign depositaries and credited with a central depositary may not be allocated to the settlement of transactions in foreign currency and in a foreign jurisdiction until 3 business days after such crediting into sub-account(s) in the local custodian. If such securities are allocated to the settlement of transactions in foreign currency and in local jurisdiction, the minimum holding period will be 1 business day after such crediting into sub-account(s) in the local custodian.
Foreign Exchange Criminal Regime
Any operation that does not comply with the provisions of the foreign exchange regulations is subject to compliance with the Foreign Exchange Criminal Regime.
Notwithstanding the above mentioned measures adopted by the current administration, the Central Bank of Argentina and the federal government in the future may impose additional exchange controls that may further impact our ability to transfer funds abroad and may prevent or delay payments that our Argentine subsidiaries are required to make outside Argentina.
Mexico
Exchange Rates
The Mexican peso appreciated 4.26% in 2019, depreciated 5.2% in 2020 and depreciated 2.6% in the first quarter of 2021. As of April 23, 2021, the free-market exchange rate for the purchase of U.S. dollars was Ps.19.83 per U.S. dollar.
Exchange Controls
For the last few years, the Mexican government has maintained a policy of non-intervention in the foreign exchange markets, other than conducting periodic auctions for the purchase of U.S. dollars, and has not had in effect any exchange controls (although these controls have existed and have been in effect in the past). We cannot assure you that the Mexican government will maintain its current policies with regard to the Mexican peso or that the Mexican peso will not further depreciate or appreciate significantly in the future.


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B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.    Risk Factors
Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected if any of the risks described below occur. As a result, the market price of our class A shares could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. This annual report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks facing our company or investments in Latin America and the Caribbean described below and elsewhere in this annual report.

Summary of Risk Factors
An investment in our Company is subject to a number of risks, including risks related to our business, results of operations and Financial Conditions, risks related to our liquidity and indebtedness and risks related to our industry. The following summarizes some, but not all, of these risks. Please carefully consider all of the information discussed in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in this annual report for a more thorough description of these and other risks.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
The spread of COVID-19 has materially and adversely affected our business, results of operations and cash flows, and may continue to do so.
Our rights to operate and franchise McDonald’s-branded restaurants are dependent on the MFAs, the expiration of which would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Our business depends on our relationship with McDonald’s and changes in this relationship may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
McDonald’s has the right to acquire all or portions of our business upon the occurrence of certain events and, in the case of a material breach of the MFAs, may acquire our non-public shares or our interests in one or more Territories at 80% of their fair market value.
The failure to successfully manage our future growth may adversely affect our results of operations.
We depend on oral agreements with third-party suppliers and distributors for the provision of products that are necessary for our operations.
Our financial condition and results of operations depend, to a certain extent, on the financial condition of our franchisees and their ability to fulfill their obligations under their franchise agreements.
We do not have full operational control over the businesses of our franchisees.
Ownership and leasing of a broad portfolio of real estate exposes us to potential losses and liabilities.
The success of our business is dependent on the effectiveness of our marketing strategy.
The inability to attract and retain qualified personnel may affect our growth and results of operations.
The resignation, termination, permanent incapacity or death of our Executive Chairman could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Labor shortages or increased labor costs could harm our results of operations.
A failure by McDonald’s to protect its intellectual property rights, including its brand image, could harm our results of operations.


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Risks Related to Our Results of Operations and Financial Condition
We use non-committed lines of credit to partially finance our working capital needs.
Covenants and events of default in the agreements governing our outstanding indebtedness could limit our ability to undertake certain types of transactions and adversely affect our liquidity.
Inflation and government measures to curb inflation may adversely affect the economies in the countries where we operate, our business and results of operations.
Exchange rate fluctuations against the U.S. dollar in the countries in which we operate have negatively affected, and could continue to negatively affect, our results of operations.
Price controls and other similar regulations in certain countries have affected, and may in the future affect, our results of operations.
We are subject to significant foreign currency exchange controls and currency devaluation in certain countries in which we operate.

Risks Related to Government Regulation
If we fail to comply with, or if we become subject to, more onerous government regulations, our business could be adversely affected.
We could be subject to expropriation or nationalization of our assets and government interference with our business in certain countries in which we operate.
Non-compliance with anti-terrorism and anti-corruption regulations could harm our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Any tax increase or change in tax legislation may adversely affect our results of operations.
Tax assessments in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate may negatively affect our business and results of operations.
Litigation and other pressure tactics could expose our business to financial and reputational risk.
Information technology system failures or interruptions or breaches of our network security may interrupt our operations, exposing us to increased operating costs and to litigation.
Our insurance may not be sufficient to cover certain losses.

Risks Related to Our Industry
The food services industry is intensely competitive and we may not be able to continue to compete successfully.
Increases in commodity prices or other operating costs could harm our operating results.
Demand for our products may decrease due to changes in consumer preferences or other factors.
Our investments to enhance the customer experience, including through technology, may not generate the expected returns.
Our business activity may be negatively affected by disruptions, catastrophic events or health pandemics.
Restrictions on promotions and advertisements directed at families with children and regulations regarding the nutritional content of children’s meals may harm McDonald’s brand image and our results of operations.
We are subject to increasingly strict data protection laws, which could increase our costs and adversely affect our business.
Environmental laws and regulations may affect our business.
We may be adversely affected by legal actions with respect to our business.
Unfavorable publicity or a failure to respond effectively to adverse publicity, particularly on social media platforms, could harm our reputation and adversely impact our business and financial performance.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations in Latin America and the Caribbean
Our business is subject to the risks generally associated with international business operations.
Developments and the perception of risk in other countries, especially emerging market countries, may adversely affect business, results, financial conditions and prospects.
Changes in governmental policies in the Territories could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Latin America has experienced, and may continue to experience, adverse economic conditions that have impacted, and may continue to impact, our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Some of our customers depend on remittances from family members living overseas. Laws, regulations or events that limit such remittances or any changes to United States immigration policy may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.


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Risks Related to Our Class A Shares
Mr. Woods Staton, our Executive Chairman, controls all matters submitted to a shareholder vote, which will limit your ability to influence corporate activities and may adversely affect the market price of our class A shares.
Sales of substantial amounts of our class A shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our class A shares to decline.
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to, and we will, rely on exemptions from certain NYSE corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, including the requirement that a majority of an issuer’s directors consist of independent directors. This may afford less protection to holders of our class A shares.
Risks Related to Investing in a British Virgin Islands Company
We are a British Virgin Islands company and it may be difficult for you to obtain or enforce judgments against us or our executive officers and directors in the United States.
You may have more difficulty protecting your interests than you would as a shareholder of a U.S. corporation.
You may not be able to participate in future equity offerings, and you may not receive any value for rights that we may grant.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
The spread of COVID-19 has materially and adversely affected our business, results of operations and cash flows, and may continue to do so.
Since mid-March 2020, when the COVID-19 virus began to spread in Latin America and the Caribbean, operations in all our markets were significantly disrupted. Governments at the local, state and/or federal level in all countries in which we operate implemented measures intended to stem the spread of COVID-19. In order to comply with these government measures, some of our markets closed all restaurants for a period of time, especially from the end of March through the middle of April 2020. During that period, the peak percentage of fully-closed restaurants reached approximately 50% of our entire restaurant footprint. Beginning in the middle of April 2020 and through the end of 2020, while following the operating hours and/or occupancy restrictions imposed by the governments in the markets in which we operate, we steadily began re-opening restaurants and were able to resume operating at least one sales channel, such as drive-thru, delivery and/or take out, in nearly all of our restaurants, as well as, the vast majority of our dessert centers. However, due to the ongoing and dynamic nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, additional periods of government-imposed operating restrictions to slow the spread of the virus are being implemented in some markets and may impact additional markets in the future. In addition, although our supply chain has not been materially disrupted by the pandemic to date, any resurgence of the pandemic in one or more markets may lead to disruptions in our supply chain, if our suppliers experience disruption of their operations due to the pandemic.
In order to mitigate the impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and outlook, we implemented several cash preservation measures including, but not limited to, reducing costs and expenses, limiting capital expenditures and renegotiating terms and conditions with lessors and other suppliers of goods and services. We expect to maintain these cash preservation measures until the operating environment normalizes. In addition, on July 6, 2020, we announced the Board of Directors’ decision to cancel the two remaining cash dividend installments that were to be paid in August and December 2020 and the Board of Directors’ communicated approval of a stock dividend, which was distributed in August 2020.
In addition, McDonald’s granted us a deferral of all royalty payments, due related to sales in March, April, May, June and July 2020 until the first half of 2021. Also, in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, we agreed with McDonald’s to reduce the advertising and promotion spending requirement from 5% to 4% of our gross sales for the full year 2020 (beginning on January 1, 2021 we resumed spending 5% of our gross sales on advertising and promotion) and approved the withdrawal of the previously-approved 2020-2022 restaurant opening plan and reinvestment plan, agreeing in place of this obligation to a plan for 2021 only. We expect to discuss our 2022 restaurant opening plan and reinvestment plan with McDonald’s in the second half of 2021. If we are unable to meet our commitments under a future plan and we are unable to reach an agreement on the revised terms for the restaurant opening plan and reinvestment plan or are otherwise unable to obtain a waiver from McDonald’s, we will be in default under the terms of the MFAs. As part of the approved plan for 2021, McDonald’s agreed to provide us with growth support, which is expected to result in a consolidated effective royalty rate of about 5.3% in 2021. Finally, McDonald’s granted us limited waivers from June 30, 2020 through and including December 31, 2021 as we were not in compliance with the MFAs’ requirement to maintain a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio equal to or greater than 1.50 and a maximum leverage ratio of 4.25. If the COVID-19 pandemic worsens, we may not be able to meet our quarterly financial ratios or obtain additional waivers in the future.

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We currently have certain letters of credit in place in favor of McDonald’s that guarantee our obligations under the MFAs. The letters of credit were issued by Credit Suisse amounting to $45 million, Itaú Unibanco S.A. (Itaú) amounting to $15 million and JPMorgan amounting to $20 million. These letters of credit contain a limited number of customary affirmative and negative covenants, including a maximum indebtedness to EBITDA ratio of 4.0 for Credit Suisse and Itaú, and 4.5 for JPMorgan. We received waivers from our lenders for any event of default which may have occurred related to compliance with these financial ratio covenants in our letters of credit, which are measured at the end of each quarter, through and including the first quarter of 2021, for Itaú and JPMorgan, and December 31, 2021 for Credit Suisse. Although we do not have any amounts outstanding under these letters of credit at this time, certain of our lenders may terminate these letters of credit if we do not meet certain ratios thereunder in the future or if we are in default under our other indebtedness, among other reasons. If our lenders terminate our letters of credit, we would be in breach of our obligations under the MFAs, if we cannot replace the instrument or use cash as collateral.
Regarding our liquidity, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we drew on our revolving credit facilities and short-term lines of credit to stabilize our cash flow and had to obtain waivers for our compliance with financial ratio covenants from our lenders for certain periods. As of December 31, 2020, we had zero balances drawn on our short-term credit lines and were in compliance with the financial ratio covenants under our current revolving credit facility. Should the COVID-19 pandemic worsen, we may need to draw on our available revolving credit facility and short-term credit lines in the future if we are unable to find alternative sources of funding.
Moreover, we benefited from some government measures enacted in Latin America and the Caribbean to help companies deal with the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, including modification of existing regulations to reduce workdays or tax costs, tax payment deferral and subsidies related to labor costs, among others. All subsidies granted were recognized on a systematic basis over the periods in which the related expenses were recorded, within “payroll and employee benefits” or “General and administrative expenses” in our consolidated statement of (loss) income. We meet all the terms and conditions required by the governments to maintain the benefits granted. Although as of December 31, 2020, some of the government measures remained in force, we cannot predict the extent or duration of current or forthcoming programs. The end of government support and a sustained growth of unemployment and under-employment will result in a decline in consumption that could negatively impact our sales.
In order to help our franchisees mitigate the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, we deferred a portion of franchisee rent payments in the six markets in which we have franchised restaurants. In addition, our franchisees also benefitted from the deferral of royalty payments due, related to sales for March, April, May, June and July 2020, as well as the reduction of the marketing and promotion spending requirement from 5% to 4% of their gross sales for the full year 2020, granted by McDonald’s.
Although vaccination has started in the region, providing a foreseeable transition to normalcy, the COVID-19 virus is still spreading aggressively and continues to negatively impact our business and such impact could be material to our financial results, conditions and outlook. If we do not achieve profitability, our business and our ability to repay our financial obligations will be adversely affected. Moreover, if volatility in the financial markets continues, our cost of capital could increase and may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional financing if needed.
Our rights to operate and franchise McDonald’s-branded restaurants are dependent on the MFAs, the expiration of which would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Our rights to operate and franchise McDonald’s-branded restaurants in the Territories, and therefore our ability to conduct our business, derive exclusively from the rights granted to us by McDonald’s in two MFAs through 2027. As a result, our ability to continue operating in our current capacity is dependent on the renewal of our contractual relationship with McDonald’s.
McDonald’s has the right, in its reasonable business judgment based on our satisfaction of certain criteria set forth in the MFAs, to grant us an option to extend the term of the MFAs with respect to all Territories for an additional period of 10 years after the expiration in 2027 of the initial term of the MFAs upon such terms as McDonald’s may determine. Pursuant to the MFAs, McDonald’s will determine whether to grant us the option to renew between August 2020 and August 2024. If McDonald’s grants us the option to renew and we elect to exercise the option, then we and McDonald’s will amend the MFAs to reflect the terms of such renewal option, as appropriate. We cannot assure you that McDonald’s will grant us an option to extend the term of the MFAs or that the terms of any renewal option will be acceptable to us, will be similar to those contained in the MFAs or will not be less favorable to us than those contained in the MFAs.

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If McDonald’s elects not to grant us the renewal option or we elect not to exercise the renewal option, we will have a three-year period in which to solicit offers for our business, which offers would be subject to McDonald’s approval. Upon the expiration of the MFAs, McDonald’s has the option to acquire all of our non-public shares and all of the equity interests of our wholly owned subsidiary Arcos Dourados Comercio de Alimentos S.A., the master franchisee of McDonald’s for Brazil, at their fair market value.
In the event McDonald’s does not exercise its option to acquire LatAm, LLC and Arcos Dourados Comercio de Alimentos S.A., the MFAs would expire and we would be required to cease operating McDonald’s-branded restaurants, identifying our business with McDonald’s and using any of McDonald’s intellectual property. Although we would retain our real estate and infrastructure, the MFAs prohibit us from engaging in certain competitive businesses, including Burger King, Subway, KFC or any other quick-service restaurant, or QSR, business, or duplicating the McDonald’s system at another restaurant or business during the two-year period following the expiration of the MFAs. As the McDonald’s brand and our relationship with McDonald’s are among our primary competitive strengths, the expiration of the MFAs for any of the reasons described above would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Our business depends on our relationship with McDonald’s and changes in this relationship may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our rights to operate and franchise McDonald’s-branded restaurants in the Territories, and therefore our ability to conduct our business, derive exclusively from the rights granted to us by McDonald’s in the MFAs. As a result, our revenues are dependent on the continued existence of our contractual relationship with McDonald’s.
Pursuant to the MFAs, McDonald’s has the ability to exercise substantial influence over the conduct of our business. For example, under the MFAs, we are not permitted to operate any other QSR chains, we must comply with McDonald’s high quality standards, we must own and operate at least 50% of all McDonald’s-branded restaurants in each of the Territories, we must maintain certain guarantees in favor of McDonald’s, including a standby letter of credit (or other similar financial guarantee acceptable to McDonald’s) in an amount of $80.0 million, to secure our payment obligations under the MFAs and related credit documents, we cannot incur debt above certain financial ratios, we cannot transfer the equity interests of our subsidiaries, any significant portion of their assets or certain of the real estate properties that we own without McDonald’s consent, and McDonald’s has the right to approve the appointment of our chief executive officer and chief operating officer. In addition, the MFAs require us to reinvest a significant amount of money, including through reimaging our existing restaurants, opening new restaurants and advertising, which plans McDonald’s has the right to approve. As a result of the business disruptions caused by COVID-19 pandemic, we agreed with McDonald’s to withdraw our previously-approved 2020-2022 restaurant opening plan and reinvestment plan. On December 18, 2020, we reached an agreement with McDonald’s for new restaurant openings and reinvestment capital expenditures in 2021. We expect to discuss our 2022 restaurant opening plan and reinvestment plan with McDonald’s in the second half of 2021. Also in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, McDonald’s granted us a deferral of royalty payments due, related to our gross sales in March, April, May, June and July 2020, until 2021, as well as a reduction of the advertising and promotion spending requirement from 5% to 4% of our gross sales for the full year 2020. In addition to using our cash flow from operations, we may need to incur additional indebtedness in order to finance future commitments, which could adversely affect our financial condition. Moreover, we may not be able to obtain this additional indebtedness on favorable terms, or at all. Failure to comply with our future commitments could constitute a material breach of the MFAs and may lead to a termination by McDonald’s of the MFAs.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, McDonald’s has no obligation to fund our operations. In addition, McDonald’s does not guarantee any of our financial obligations, including trade payables or outstanding indebtedness, and has no obligation to do so.
If the terms of the MFAs excessively restrict our ability to operate our business or if we are unable to satisfy our restaurant opening and reinvestment commitments under the MFAs, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

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McDonald’s has the right to acquire all or portions of our business upon the occurrence of certain events and, in the case of a material breach of the MFAs, may acquire our non-public shares or our interests in one or more Territories at 80% of their fair market value.
Pursuant to the MFAs, McDonald’s has the right to acquire our non-public shares or our interests in one or more Territories upon the occurrence of certain events, including the death or permanent incapacity of our controlling shareholder or a material breach of the MFAs. In the event McDonald’s were to exercise its right to acquire all of our non-public shares, McDonald’s would become our controlling shareholder.
McDonald’s has the option to acquire all, but not less than all, of our non-public shares at 100% of their fair market value during the twelve-month period following the eighteen-month anniversary of the death or permanent incapacity of Mr. Woods Staton, our Executive Chairman and controlling shareholder. In addition, if there is a material breach that relates to one or more Territories in which there are at least 100 restaurants in operation, McDonald’s has the right either to acquire all of our non-public shares or our interests in our subsidiaries in such Territory or Territories. By contrast, if the initial material breach of the MFAs affects or is attributable to any of the Territories in which there are less than 100 restaurants in operation, McDonald’s only has the right to acquire the equity interests of any of our subsidiaries in the relevant Territory. For example, since we have more than 100 restaurants in Mexico, if a Mexican subsidiary were to materially breach the MFA, McDonald’s would have the right either to acquire our entire business throughout Latin America and the Caribbean or just our Mexican operations, whereas upon a similar breach by our Ecuadorean subsidiary, which has less than 100 restaurants in operation, McDonald’s would only have the right to acquire our interests in our operations in Ecuador.
McDonald’s was granted a perfected security interest in the equity interests of LatAm, LLC, Arcos Dourados Comercio de Alimentos S.A. and certain of their subsidiaries to protect this right. In the event this right is exercised as a result of a material breach of the MFAs, the amount to be paid by McDonald’s would be equal to 80% of the fair market value of the acquired equity interests. If McDonald’s exercises its right to acquire our interests in one or more Territories as a result of a material breach, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected. See “Item 10. Additional Information—C. Material Contracts—The MFAs—Termination” for more details about fair market value calculation.
The failure to successfully manage our future growth may adversely affect our results of operations.
Our business has grown significantly since the Acquisition, largely due to the opening of new restaurants in existing and new markets within the Territories, and also from an increase in comparable store sales. Our total number of restaurant locations has increased from 1,569 at the date of the Acquisition to 2,236 restaurants as of December 31, 2020.
Our growth is, to a certain extent, dependent on new restaurant openings and therefore may not be constant from period to period; it may accelerate or decelerate in response to certain factors. There are many obstacles to opening new restaurants, including determining the availability of desirable locations, securing reliable suppliers, hiring and training new personnel and negotiating acceptable lease terms, and, in times of adverse economic conditions, franchisees may be more reluctant to provide the investment required to open new restaurants. In addition, our growth in comparable store sales is dependent on continued economic growth in the countries in which we operate as well as our ability to continue to predict and satisfy changing consumer preferences and to manage through other external pressures, including global pandemics such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. See “—The spread of COVID-19 has materially and adversely affected our business, results of operations and cash flows, and may continue to do so.”
We plan our capital expenditures on an annual basis, taking into account historical information, regional economic trends, restaurant opening and reimaging plans, site availability and the investment requirements of the MFAs in order to maximize our returns on invested capital. The success of our investment plan may, however, be harmed by factors outside our control, such as changes in macroeconomic conditions, including as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, changes in demand and construction difficulties that could jeopardize our investment returns and our future results and financial condition.
We depend on oral agreements with third-party suppliers and distributors for the provision of products that are necessary for our operations.
Supply chain management is an important element of our success and a crucial factor in optimizing our profitability. We use McDonald’s centralized supply chain management model, which relies on approved third-party suppliers and distributors for goods, and we generally use several suppliers to satisfy our needs for goods. This system encompasses selecting and developing suppliers of core products—beef, chicken, buns, produce, cheese, dairy mixes, beverages and toppings—who are able to comply with McDonald’s high quality standards and establishing sustainable relationships with these suppliers.

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McDonald’s standards include cleanliness, product consistency and timeliness as well as commitments to follow internationally recognized manufacturing practices, to meet or exceed all local food regulations and to comply with our Hazard Analysis Critical Control Plan, a systematic approach to food safety that emphasizes protection within the processing facility, rather than detection, through analysis, inspection and follow-up.
Our 38 largest suppliers account for approximately 75% of our purchases excluding Venezuela. Very few of our suppliers have entered into written contracts with us as we only have pricing protocols with a vast majority of them. Our supplier approval process is thorough and lengthy in order to ensure compliance with McDonald’s high quality standards. We therefore tend to develop strong relationships with approved suppliers and, given our importance to them, have found that pricing protocols with them are generally enough to ensure a reliable supply of quality products. While we source our supplies from many approved suppliers in Latin America and the Caribbean, thereby reducing our dependence on any one supplier, the informal nature of the majority of our relationships with suppliers means that we may not be assured of long-term or reliable supplies of products from those suppliers.
In addition, certain supplies, such as beef, must often be locally sourced due to restrictions on their importation. In light of these restrictions, as well as the MFAs’ requirement to purchase certain core supplies from approved suppliers, we may not be able to quickly find alternate or additional supplies in the event a supplier is unable to meet our orders.
If our suppliers fail to provide us with products in a timely manner due to unanticipated demand, production or distribution problems, financial distress or shortages, if our suppliers decide to terminate their relationship with us or if McDonald’s determines that any product or service offered by an approved supplier is not in compliance with its standards and we are obligated to terminate our relationship with such supplier, we may have difficulty finding appropriate or compliant replacement suppliers. As a result, we may face inventory shortages that could negatively affect our operations.
Our financial condition and results of operations depend, to a certain extent, on the financial condition of our franchisees and their ability to fulfill their obligations under their franchise agreements.
As of December 31, 2020, 29.5% of our restaurants were franchised. Under our franchise agreements, we receive monthly payments which are, in most cases, the greater of a fixed rent or a certain percentage of the franchisee’s gross sales. Franchisees are independent operators with whom we have franchise agreements. We typically own or lease the real estate upon which franchisees’ restaurants are located and franchisees are required to follow our operating manual that specifies items such as menu choices, permitted advertising, equipment, food handling procedures, product quality and approved suppliers. Our operating results depend to a certain extent on the restaurant profitability and financial viability of our franchisees. The concurrent failure by a significant number of franchisees to meet their financial obligations to us could jeopardize our ability to meet our obligations. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we expect some of our franchisees to have difficulty meeting their financial obligations to us. As of the date hereof, franchisees have already resumed making rent payments to us in almost all of the six markets where we have franchisees. See “—The spread of COVID-19 has materially and adversely affected our business, results of operations and cash flows, and may continue to do so.”
We are liable for our franchisees’ monthly payment of a continuing franchise fee to McDonald’s, which represents a percentage of those franchised restaurants’ gross sales. To the extent that our franchisees fail to pay this fee in full, we are responsible for any shortfall under the MFAs. As such, the concurrent failure by a significant number of franchisees to pay their continuing franchise fees could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. McDonald’s agreed to defer all franchise fee payments, whether they are related to company-operated or franchisee operated restaurants, for March, April, May, June and July 2020 sales until 2021. As of the date hereof, we have paid the deferred franchise fee payments relative to March, April, May and June 2020. We expect to pay the deferred franchise fee relative to July 2020 in early May 2021. If we are unable to pay such franchise fees when they are due, or we have further difficulty meeting our obligations in the coming months and McDonald’s does not provide additional deferrals or waivers, we will be in default under the MFAs.
We do not have full operational control over the businesses of our franchisees.
We are dependent on franchisees to maintain McDonald’s quality, service and cleanliness standards, and their failure to do so could materially affect the McDonald’s brand and harm our future growth. Although we exercise significant influence over franchisees through the franchise agreements, franchisees have some flexibility in their operations, including the ability to set prices for our products in their restaurants, hire employees and select certain service providers. In addition, it is possible that some franchisees may not operate their restaurants in accordance with our quality, service, cleanliness, health or product standards. Although we take corrective measures if franchisees fail to maintain McDonald’s quality, service and cleanliness standards, we may not be able to identify and rectify problems with sufficient speed and, as a result, our image and operating results may be negatively affected.

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Ownership and leasing of a broad portfolio of real estate exposes us to potential losses and liabilities.
As of December 31, 2020, we owned the land for 489 of our 2,236 restaurants and the buildings for all but 9 of our restaurants. The value of these assets could decrease or rental costs could increase due to changes in local demographics, the investment climate and increases in taxes.
The majority of our restaurant locations, or those operated by our franchisees, are subject to long-term leases. We may not be able to renew leases on acceptable terms or at all, in which case we would have to find new locations to lease or be forced to close the restaurants. If we are able to negotiate a new lease at an existing location, we may be subject to a rent increase. In addition, current restaurant locations may become unattractive due to changes in neighborhood demographics or economic conditions, which may result in reduced sales at these locations.
The success of our business is dependent on the effectiveness of our marketing strategy.
Market awareness is essential to our continued growth and financial success. Pursuant to the MFAs, we create, develop and coordinate marketing plans and promotional activities throughout the Territories, and franchisees contribute a percentage of their gross sales to our marketing plan. In addition, we are required under the MFAs to spend at least 5% of our sales on advertising and promotional activities in the majority of our markets. In connection with the COVID-19 outbreak, we have agreed with McDonald’s to reduce this spending requirement from 5% to 4% of our gross sales for the full year 2020. Beginning on January 1, 2021, we resumed spending 5% of our gross sales on advertising and promotion. Pursuant to the MFAs, McDonald’s has the right to review and approve our marketing plans in advance and may request that we cease using the materials or promotional activities at any time if McDonald’s determines that they are detrimental to its brand image. We also participate in global and regional marketing activities undertaken by McDonald’s and pay McDonald’s approximately 0.1% of our sales in order to fund such activities.
If our advertising programs are not effective, or if our competitors begin spending significantly more on advertising than we do, we may be unable to attract new customers or existing customers may not return to our restaurants and our operating results may be negatively affected.
The inability to attract and retain qualified personnel may affect our growth and results of operations.
We have a strong management team with broad experience in human resources, product development, supply chain management, operations, finance, marketing, real estate development and training. Our growth plans place substantial demands on our management team, and future growth could increase those demands. In addition, pursuant to the MFAs, McDonald’s is entitled to approve the appointment of our chief executive officer and chief operating officer. Our ability to manage future growth will depend on the adequacy of our resources and our ability to continue to identify, attract and retain qualified personnel. Failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Also, the success of our operations depends in part on our ability to attract and retain qualified regional and restaurant managers and general staff. If we are unable to recruit and retain our employees, or fail to motivate them to provide quality food and service, our image, operations and growth could be adversely affected.
The resignation, termination, permanent incapacity or death of our Executive Chairman could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Due to Mr. Woods Staton’s unique experience and leadership capabilities, it would be difficult to find a suitable successor for him if he were to cease serving as Executive Chairman for any reason. In the event of Mr. Woods Staton’s death or permanent incapacity, pursuant to the MFA, McDonald’s has the right to acquire all of our non-public shares during the twelve-month period beginning on the eighteen-month anniversary of his death or incapacity.
In addition, in the event that we need to appoint a new CEO, pursuant to the MFA, we must submit to McDonald’s the name of such proposed successor for approval. If we and McDonald’s have not agreed upon a successor CEO after six months, McDonald’s may designate a temporary CEO in its sole discretion pending our submission of information relating to a further candidate and McDonald’s approval of that candidate. A delay in finding a suitable successor CEO could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

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Labor shortages or increased labor costs could harm our results of operations.
Our operations depend in part on our ability to attract and retain qualified restaurant managers and crew. While the turnover rate varies significantly among categories of employees, due to the nature of our business we traditionally experience a high rate of turnover among our crew and we may not be able to replace departing crew with equally qualified or motivated staff.
As of December 31, 2020, we had 73,438 employees in our Company-operated restaurants and staff. Controlling labor costs is critical to our results of operations, and we closely monitor those costs. Some of our employees are paid minimum wages; any increases in minimum wages or changes to labor regulations in the Territories could increase our labor costs. For example, during 2020, Venezuela implemented three increases in the minimum wage. In addition, in December 2019, the government of Argentina enacted a decree establishing that employees dismissed without cause in the following six months were entitled to double indemnification from employers in an effort to mitigate the impact of economic difficulties facing the country at the time and has since been amended to only apply on a case-by-case basis with a maximum amount of AR$500,000. In April 2020, amid the COVID-19 outbreak, the Argentine government prohibited dismissals with or without cause under the argument of force majeure or lack of/reduction of work not imputable to the employer until May 31, 2021 (after several extensions) (this last cause also applies for temporary suspensions). These or similar regulations, if adopted, may have an adverse impact on our results of operations. Competition for employees could also cause us to pay higher wages.
We are also impacted by the costs and other effects of compliance with regulations affecting our workforce. These regulations are increasingly focused on employment issues, including wage and hour, healthcare, employee safety and other employee benefits and workplace practices. Claims of non-compliance with these regulations could result in liability and expense to us. Our potential exposure to reputational and other harm regarding our workplace practices or conditions or those of our franchisees or suppliers, including those giving rise to claims of sexual harassment or discrimination (or perceptions thereof) could have a negative impact on consumer perceptions of us and our business. In 2019, two of our restaurant employees in Peru died in a workplace accident at one of our restaurants. This accident is under investigation by Peruvian authorities, and while we do not expect a material impact from this event, any future workplace accidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Some of our employees are represented by unions and are working under agreements that are subject to annual salary negotiations. We cannot guarantee the results of any such collective bargaining negotiations or whether any such negotiations will result in a work stoppage. In addition, employees may strike for reasons unrelated to our union arrangements. Any future work stoppage could, depending on the affected operations and the length of the work stoppage, have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Additionally, the Company benefited from some government measures enacted in Latin America and the Caribbean to help companies deal with the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, including modification of existing regulations to reduce workdays or tax costs, tax payment deferral and subsidies related to labor costs, among others. All subsidies granted were recognized on a systematic basis over the periods in which the related expenses were recorded, within “payroll and employee benefits” or “General and administrative expenses” in the consolidated statement of (loss) income. The Company meets all the terms and conditions required by the governments to maintain the benefits granted. Although as of December 31, 2020, some of the government measures continued in force, the Company cannot predict the extent or duration of current or forthcoming programs.
A failure by McDonald’s to protect its intellectual property rights, including its brand image, could harm our results of operations.
The profitability of our business depends in part on consumers’ perception of the strength of the McDonald’s brand. Under the terms of the MFAs, we are required to assist McDonald’s with protecting its intellectual property rights in the Territories. Nevertheless, any failure by McDonald’s to protect its proprietary rights in the Territories or elsewhere could harm its brand image, which could affect our competitive position and our results of operations.
Under the MFAs, we may use, and grant rights to franchisees to use, McDonald’s intellectual property in connection with the development, operation, promotion, marketing and management of our restaurants. McDonald’s has reserved the right to use, or grant licenses to use, its intellectual property in Latin America and the Caribbean for all other purposes, including to sell, promote or license the sale of products using its intellectual property. If we or McDonald’s fail to identify unauthorized filings of McDonald’s trademarks and imitations thereof, and we or McDonald’s do not adequately protect McDonald’s trademarks and copyrights, the infringement of McDonald’s intellectual property rights by others may cause harm to McDonald’s brand image and decrease our sales.

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Risks Related to Our Results of Operations and Financial Condition
We use non-committed lines of credit to partially finance our working capital needs.
We use non-committed lines of credit to partially finance our working capital needs. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and related disruption in regional and global economic activity, we drew on our available lines as needed, although our cash flow had stabilized by the second quarter of 2020, and we did not have any amounts outstanding under our credit lines as of December 31, 2020. Given the nature of these lines of credit, they could be withdrawn and no longer be available to us, or their terms, including the interest rate, could change to make the terms no longer acceptable to us. The availability of these lines of credit depends on the level of liquidity in financial markets, which can vary based on events outside of our control, including financial or credit crises. Any inability to draw upon our non-committed lines of credit could have an adverse effect on our working capital, financial condition and results of operations.
Covenants and events of default in the agreements governing our outstanding indebtedness could limit our ability to undertake certain types of transactions and adversely affect our liquidity.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $673.2 million in total outstanding indebtedness, consisting of $776.6 million in long-term debt net of $103.3 million related to the fair market value of our outstanding derivative instruments. The agreements governing our outstanding indebtedness contain covenants and events of default that may limit our financial flexibility and ability to undertake certain types of transactions. For instance, we are subject to negative covenants that restrict some of our activities, including restrictions on:
creating liens;
paying dividends;
maintaining certain leverage ratios;
entering into sale and lease-back transactions; and
consolidating, merging or transferring assets.
If we fail to satisfy the covenants set forth in these agreements or another event of default occurs under the agreements, our outstanding indebtedness under the agreements could become immediately due and payable. In addition, we are required to meet certain financial ratios under our lines of credit and revolving credit facilities. We were not in compliance with our financial ratios during certain periods in 2020 and received waivers from our lenders. We repaid amounts outstanding under our revolving credit facility with BofA and our lines of credit and refinanced our revolving credit facility with JPMorgan during 2020, and we are currently in compliance with our ratios under our existing agreements. However, if we are unable to comply with such ratios or obtain waivers for non-compliance in the future, we will be in default under our line of credit and revolving credit facility. In the case of our revolving credit facility, any amounts drawn under such facility may be declared to be immediately due and payable by the relevant lender, who may also terminate its obligation to provide loans under such agreement if we are not in compliance with our ratios under the agreement. In the case of our non-committed lines of credit, if we have previously drawn any amount, then such amounts may be immediately due and payable to the relevant lender, subject to the terms of each non-committed line of credit. If our outstanding indebtedness becomes immediately due and payable and we do not have sufficient cash on hand to pay all amounts due, we could be required to sell assets, to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or to obtain additional financing. Refinancing may not be possible and additional financing may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, or at all.
Inflation and government measures to curb inflation may adversely affect the economies in the countries where we operate, our business and results of operations.
Many of the countries in which we operate, have experienced, or are currently experiencing, high rates of inflation. For example, as of July 1, 2018, Argentina is considered highly inflationary under U.S. GAAP. In addition, Venezuela has been considered highly inflationary under U.S. GAAP since 2010. Although inflation rates in many of the other countries in which we operate have been relatively low in the recent past, we cannot assure you that this trend will continue. The measures taken by the governments of these countries to control inflation have often included maintaining a tight monetary policy with high interest rates, thereby restricting the availability of credit and retarding economic growth. Inflation, measures to combat inflation and public speculation about possible additional actions have also contributed materially to economic uncertainty in many of these countries and to heightened volatility in their securities markets. Periods of higher inflation may also slow the growth rate of local economies that could lead to reduced demand for our core products and decreased sales. Inflation is also likely to increase some of our costs and expenses, which we may not be able to fully pass on to our customers or offset with other efficiencies, which could adversely affect our operating margins and operating income.

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Exchange rate fluctuations against the U.S. dollar in the countries in which we operate have negatively affected, and could continue to negatively affect, our results of operations.
We are exposed to exchange rate risk in relation to the US dollar. While substantially all of our income is denominated in the local currencies of the countries in which we operate, our supply chain management involves the importation of various products, and some of our imports, as well as some of our capital expenditures and a significant portion of our long-term debt, are denominated in U.S. dollars. As a result, the decrease in the value of the local currencies of the countries in which we operate as compared to the U.S. dollar has increased our costs, and any further decrease in the value of such currencies will further increase our costs. Although we maintain a hedging strategy to attempt to mitigate some of our exchange rate risk, our hedging strategy may not be successful or may not fully offset our losses relating to exchange rate fluctuations.
As a result, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar with respect to the various currencies of the countries in which we operate or in U.S. dollar interest rates could adversely impact our net income, results of operations and financial condition.
Price controls and other similar regulations in certain countries have affected, and may in the future affect, our results of operations.
Certain countries in which we conduct operations have imposed, and may continue to impose, price controls that restrict our ability, and the ability of our franchisees, to adjust the prices of our products. For example, there are currently certain price control regulations in force in Argentina. Although the industry in which we operate is not yet subject to these regulations, it is not clear whether the current administration will apply or enforce price controls in the future on the industry in which we operate.
Moreover, the Venezuelan market is subject to a regulation establishing a maximum profit margin for companies and maximum prices for certain goods and services. Although we managed to navigate the negative impact of the price controls on our operations from 2013 through 2020, the existence of such laws and regulations continues to present a risk to our business. We continue to closely monitor developments in this dynamic environment. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation.”
The imposition and enforcement of these and similar restrictions in the future may place downward pressure on the prices at which our products are sold and may limit the growth of our revenue. We cannot assure you that existing price controls will not be enforced or become more stringent, or that new price controls will not be imposed in the future, or that any such controls may not have an adverse effect on our business. Our inability to control the prices of our products could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are subject to significant foreign currency exchange controls and currency devaluation in certain countries in which we operate.
Certain Latin American economies have experienced shortages in foreign currency reserves and their respective governments have adopted restrictions on the ability to transfer funds out of the country and convert local currencies into U.S. dollars. This may increase our costs and limit our ability to convert local currency into U.S. dollars and transfer funds out of certain countries, including for the purchase of dollar-denominated inputs, the payment of dividends or the payment of interest or principal on our outstanding debt. In the event that any of our subsidiaries are unable to transfer funds to us due to currency restrictions, we are responsible for any resulting shortfall.
For example, in 2020, our subsidiaries in Argentina represented 10% of our total revenues. Although the exchange controls had been relaxed, since September 2019, the Argentine government has tightened restrictions on capital flows and imposed exchange controls and transfer restrictions, substantially limiting the ability of companies to retain foreign currency or make payments outside of Argentina. Furthermore, the Central Bank of Argentina implemented regulations requiring its prior approval for certain foreign exchange transactions otherwise authorized to be carried out under the applicable regulations, such as dividend payments or repayment of principal of inter-company loans as well as certain imports of goods. As a consequence of these exchange controls, the spread between the official exchange rate and other exchange rates resulting implicitly from certain securities transactions (usually effected to obtain U.S. dollars) has broadened significantly, reaching a value of approximately 64% above the official exchange rate as of April 23, 2021. The implementation of the above-mentioned measures could impact our ability to transfer funds outside of Argentina and may prevent or delay payments that our Argentine subsidiaries are required to make outside Argentina. As a result, if we are prohibited from transferring funds out of Argentina, or if we become subject to similar restrictions in other countries in which we operate, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

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In addition, the continuing devaluation of the Argentine peso since the end of 2015 and the Venezuelan bolivar since 2010 has led to higher inflation levels, has significantly reduced competitiveness, real wages and consumption and has had a negative impact on businesses whose success is dependent on domestic market demand and supplies payable in foreign currency.
Further currency devaluations in any of the countries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See “Item 3. Key Information—A. Selected Financial Data—Exchange Rates and Exchange Controls.”
Risks Related to Government Regulation
If we fail to comply with, or if we become subject to, more onerous government regulations, our business could be adversely affected.
We are subject to various federal, state, provincial and municipal laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate, including those related to the food services industry, health and safety standards, importation of goods and services, marketing and promotional activities, nutritional labeling, zoning and land use, environmental standards and consumer protection. We strive to abide by and maintain compliance with these laws and regulations. The imposition of new laws or regulations, including potential trade barriers, may increase our operating costs or impose restrictions on our operations, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.
For example, Argentine regulations require us to seek permission from the Argentine authorities prior to importing certain goods or make payments in foreign currency for the import of such goods. Although these regulations do not currently affect us, they may in the future prevent or delay the receipt of goods that we require for our operations, or increase the costs associated with obtaining those goods, and therefore have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Additionally, in 2017, Venezuela enacted the Productive Foreign Investments Constitutional Act, which replaced the Foreign Investment Act of 2014. This law establishes the requirements and limitations for the transfer of dividends and repatriation of foreign investments. It also establishes a minimum investment sum to be registered with the Ministry of Popular Power with Foreign Investment, limits access to internal financing, modifies the criteria of foreign investments and creates a new penalty system for those who do not comply with the law.

Regulations governing the food services industry have become more restrictive. We cannot assure you that new and stricter standards will not be adopted or become applicable to us, or that stricter interpretations of existing laws and regulations will not occur. Any of these events may require us to spend additional funds to gain compliance with the new rules, if possible, and therefore increase our cost of operation.
We could be subject to expropriation or nationalization of our assets and government interference with our business in certain countries in which we operate.
We face a risk of expropriation or nationalization of our assets and government interference with our business in several of the countries in which we do business. These risks are particularly acute in Venezuela. The current Venezuelan government has promoted a model of increased state participation in the economy through welfare programs, exchange and price controls and the promotion of state-owned companies. We can provide no assurance that Company-operated or franchised restaurants will not be threatened with expropriation and that our operations will not be transformed into state-owned enterprises. In addition, the Venezuelan government may pass laws, rules or regulations which may directly or indirectly interfere with our ability to operate our business in Venezuela which could result in a material breach of the MFAs, in particular if we are unable to comply with McDonald’s operations system and standards. A material breach of the MFAs would trigger McDonald’s option to acquire our non-public shares or our interests in Venezuela. See “—Risks Related to Our Business and Operations—McDonald’s has the right to acquire all or portions of our business upon the occurrence of certain events and, in the case of a material breach of the MFAs, may acquire our non-public shares or our interests in one or more Territories at 80% of their fair market value.”

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Non-compliance with anti-terrorism and anti-corruption regulations could harm our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
A material breach under the MFAs would occur if we, or our subsidiaries that are a party to the MFAs, materially breached any of the representations or warranties or obligations under the MFAs (not cured within 30 days after receipt of notice thereof from McDonald’s) relating to or otherwise in connection with any aspect of the master franchise business, the franchised restaurants or any other matter in or affecting any one or more Territories, including by failing to comply with anti-terrorism or anti-corruption policies and procedures required by applicable law.
We maintain policies and procedures that require our employees to comply with anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”), and our corporate standards of ethical conduct. However, we cannot ensure that these policies and procedures will always protect us from intentional, reckless or negligent acts committed by our employees or agents. If we are not in compliance with the FCPA and other applicable anti-corruption laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties and other remedial measures, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws by U.S. or other governmental authorities could adversely impact our reputation, cause us to lose or become disqualified from bids, and lead to other adverse impacts on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any tax increase or change in tax legislation may adversely affect our results of operations.
Since we conduct our business in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, we are subject to the application of multiple tax laws and multinational tax conventions. Our effective tax rate therefore depends on these tax laws and multinational tax conventions, as well as on the effectiveness of our tax planning abilities. Our income tax position and effective tax rate are subject to uncertainty as our income tax position for each year depends on the profitability of Company-operated restaurants and on the profitability of franchised restaurants operated by our franchisees in tax jurisdictions that levy income tax at a broad range of rates. It is also dependent on changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, the impact of various accounting rules, changes to these rules and tax laws and examinations by various tax authorities. If our actual tax rate differs significantly from our estimated tax rate, this could have a material impact on our financial condition. In addition, any increase in the rates of taxes, such as income taxes, excise taxes, value added taxes, import and export duties, and tariff barriers or enhanced economic protectionism could negatively affect our business. Fiscal measures that target either QSRs or any of our products could also be taken.
We cannot assure you that any governmental authority in any country in which we operate will not increase taxes or impose new taxes on our operations or products in the future.
Tax assessments in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate may negatively affect our business and results of operations.
As part of the ordinary course of business, we are subject to inspections by federal, municipal and state tax authorities in Latin America. These inspections may generate tax assessments which, depending on their results, may have an adverse effect on our financial results. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.”
Litigation and other pressure tactics could expose our business to financial and reputational risk.
Given that we conduct our business in many countries, we may be subject to multi-jurisdictional private and governmental lawsuits, including but not limited to lawsuits relating to labor and employment practices, taxes, trade and business practices, franchising, intellectual property, consumer, real property, landlord/tenant, environmental, advertising, nutrition and antitrust matters. In the past, QSR chains have been subject to class-action lawsuits claiming that their food products and promotional strategies have contributed to the obesity of some customers. We cannot guarantee that we will not be subject to these or similar types of lawsuits in the future. We may also be the target of pressure tactics such as strikes, boycotts and negative publicity from government officials, suppliers, distributors, employees, unions, special interest groups and customers that may negatively affect our reputation.

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Information technology system failures or interruptions or breaches of our network security may interrupt our operations, exposing us to increased operating costs and to litigation.
We rely heavily on our computer systems and network infrastructure across our operations including, but not limited to, point-of-sale processing at our restaurants. We implement security measures and controls that we believe provide reasonable assurance regarding our security posture. However, there remains the risk that our technology systems are vulnerable to damage, disability or failures due to physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure or other catastrophic events. If those systems were to fail or otherwise be unavailable, and we were unable to recover in a timely way, we could experience an interruption in our operations. Moreover, security breaches involving our systems may occur from time to time. These include internal and external security breaches, denial of service attacks, viruses, worms and other disruptive problems caused by hackers. Our information technology systems contain personal, financial and other information that is entrusted to us by our customers, our employees and other third parties, as well as financial, proprietary and other confidential information related to our business. For example, on September 20, 2019 a journalist gained access to sensitive employee and partner information in Brazil due to a misconfigured service system provided by one of Arcos’ service providers. Our IT team discovered and resolved the breach in a matter of hours in conjunction with the service provider and we engaged a well-known consultancy firm to help us perform an investigation of the breach and its ramifications. While our investigation determined that the impact of the breach was low, we cannot assure you that we will not experience similar security breaches in the future.
Furthermore, we have experienced a rise in transactions through online digital channels for which we rely on third party operators or trusted certified payment gateways to handle sensitive financial transactions. Our increasing reliance on third party systems also presents the risks faced by the third party’s business, including the operational, security and credit risks of those parties. Moreover, there has also been an increase in number of registered customers for whom we store and process personal information to strengthen our relationship with customers. An actual or alleged security breach of our or their systems could result in disruptions, shutdowns, theft or unauthorized disclosure of personal, financial, proprietary or other confidential information. The occurrence of any of these incidents could result in reputational damage, adverse publicity, loss of consumer confidence, reduced sales and profits, complications in executing our growth initiatives and regulatory and legal risk.
Our insurance may not be sufficient to cover certain losses.
We face the risk of loss or damage to our properties, machinery and inventories due to fire, theft and natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. While our insurance policies cover some losses with respect to damage or loss of our properties, machinery and inventories, our insurance may not be sufficient to cover all such potential losses. For example, we suffered losses in connection with a truck drivers’ strike in Brazil in 2018, which disrupted our supply chain that were not covered by our insurance policies. Our losses due to lower sales as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic were also not covered. In the event that any losses exceed our insurance coverage or are not covered by our insurance policies, we will be liable for the excess. In addition, even if such losses are fully covered by our insurance policies, such fire, theft or natural disaster may cause disruptions or cessations in its operations that would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Industry
The food services industry is intensely competitive and we may not be able to continue to compete successfully.
Although competitive conditions in the QSR industry vary in each of the countries in which we conduct our operations, in general, we compete with many well-established restaurant companies on price, brand image, quality, sales promotions, new product development and restaurant locations. Since the restaurant industry has few barriers to entry, our competitors are diverse and range from national and international restaurant chains to individual, local restaurant operators. Our largest competitors include Burger King, Yum! Brands (which operates KFC restaurants, Taco Bell and Pizza Hut and Pizza Hut Express restaurants), Carl’s Junior and Subway. In Brazil, we also compete with Habib’s, a Brazilian QSR chain that focuses on Middle Eastern food, and Bob’s, a primarily-Brazilian QSR chain that focuses on hamburger product offerings. We also face strong competition from new businesses targeting the same clients we serve, as well as from street vendors of limited product offerings, including hamburgers, hot dogs, pizzas and other local food items. We expect competition to increase as our competitors continue to expand their operations, introduce new products and market their brands.

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If any of our competitors offers products that are better priced or more appealing to the tastes of consumers, increases its number of restaurants, obtains more desirable restaurant locations, provides more attractive financial incentives to management personnel, franchisees or hourly employees or has more effective marketing initiatives than we do in any of the markets in which we operate, this could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Increases in commodity prices or other operating costs could harm our operating results.
Food and paper costs represented 35.7% of our total sales by Company-operated restaurants in 2020, and 21.4% of our food and paper raw materials cost is exposed to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. We rely on, among other commodities, beef, chicken, produce, dairy mixes, beverages and toppings. The cost of food and supplies depends on several factors, including global supply and demand, new product offerings, weather conditions, fluctuations in energy costs and tax incentives, all of which makes us susceptible to substantial price and currency fluctuations and other increased operating costs. Our hedging strategies on the imported portion of our food and paper raw materials may not be successful in fully offsetting cost increases due to currency fluctuations. Furthermore, due to the competitive nature of the restaurant industry, we may be unable to pass increased operating costs on to our customers, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Demand for our products may decrease due to changes in consumer preferences or other factors.
Our competitive position depends on our continued ability to offer items that have a strong appeal to consumers. If consumer dining preferences change due to shifts in consumer demographics, dietary inclinations, trends in food sourcing or food preparation and our consumers begin to seek out alternative restaurant options, our financial results might be adversely affected. In addition, negative publicity surrounding our products could also materially affect our business and results of operations.
Our success in responding to consumer demands depends in part on our ability to anticipate consumer preferences and introduce new items to address these preferences in a timely fashion.
Our investments to enhance the customer experience, including through technology, may not generate the expected returns.
We are engaged in various efforts to improve our customers’ experience in our restaurants. In particular, in partnership with McDonald’s, we have invested in Experience of the Future (“EOTF”), which focuses on restaurant modernization and technology and digital engagement in order to transform the restaurant experience. As we convert restaurants to EOTF, we are placing renewed emphasis on improving our service model and strengthening relationships with customers, in part through digital channels and loyalty initiatives and payment systems.
We have also started a digital transformation with the goal of increasing our engagement with our customers and using data in order to improve our decision-making. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have accelerated our digital transformation plans to better serve our customers. In order to accomplish this goal, we are making structural changes in our IT, including creating a “digital factory”, which we call ADvance, to facilitate collaboration across groups within Arcos Dorados and adopting agile methodologies and principles to aid different groups in transforming products and services and the customer experience, or in otherwise achieving a specific business objective. We may not fully realize the intended benefits of these significant investments, or these initiatives may not be well executed, and therefore our business results may suffer.
Our business activity may be negatively affected by disruptions, catastrophic events or health pandemics.
Unpredictable events beyond our control, including war, terrorist activities, political and social unrest and natural disasters, could disrupt our operations and those of our franchisees, suppliers or customers, have a negative effect on consumer spending or result in political or economic instability. These events could reduce demand for our products or make it difficult to ensure the regular supply of products through our distribution chain.
In addition, incidents of health pandemics, food-borne illnesses or food tampering could reduce sales in our restaurants. Widespread illnesses such as avian influenza, the H1N1 influenza virus, e-coli, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or “mad cow” disease), hepatitis A or salmonella could cause customers to avoid meat or fish products. Furthermore, our reliance on third-party food suppliers and distributors increases the risk of food-borne illness incidents being caused by third-party food suppliers and distributors who operate outside of our control and/or multiple locations being affected rather than a single restaurant. In addition, recurrent events in our region related to Dengue, Yellow Fever and Zika viruses, as well as the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, have resulted in heightened health concerns in the region, which could reduce the visits to our restaurants if these cases are not controlled.

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Food safety events involving McDonald’s outside of Latin America or other well-known QSR chains could negatively impact our business industry. Another extended issue in our region is the use of social media to post complaints against the QSR segment and the use of mobile phones to capture any deviation in our processes, products or facilities. Media reports of health pandemics, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, or food-borne illnesses found in the general public or in any QSR could dramatically affect restaurant sales in one or several countries in which we operate, or could force us to temporarily close an undetermined number of restaurants. As a restaurant company, we depend on consumer confidence in the quality and safety of our food. Any illness or death related to food that we serve could substantially harm our operations. While we maintain extremely high standards for the quality of our food products and dedicate substantial resources to ensure that these standards are met and well communicated publicly the spread of these illnesses is often beyond our control and we cannot assure you that new illnesses resistant to any precautions we may take will not develop in the future.
In addition, our industry has long been subject to the threat of food tampering by suppliers, employees or customers, such as the addition of foreign objects to the food that we sell. Reports, whether true or not, of injuries caused by food tampering have in the past negatively affected the reputations of QSR chains and could affect us in the future. Instances of food tampering, even those occurring solely at competitor restaurants, could, by causing negative publicity about the restaurant industry, adversely affect our sales on a local, regional, national or systemwide basis. A decrease in customer traffic as a result of public health concerns or negative publicity could materially affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Restrictions on promotions and advertisements directed at families with children and regulations regarding the nutritional content of children’s meals may harm McDonald’s brand image and our results of operations.
A significant portion of our business depends on our ability to make our product offerings appealing to families with children. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru are considering imposing, or have already imposed, restrictions that impact the ways in which we market our products, including proposals that would have the effect of restricting our ability to advertise directly to children through the use of toys and to sell toys in conjunction with food.
In June 2012, Chile passed a law banning the inclusion of toys in children’s meals with certain nutritional characteristics (Law Nº 20,606). This law came into effect on June 26, 2016. The ban in Chile also restricts advertisements to children under the age of 14. As a result of these laws, we modified our children’s meals in order to continue offering toys in them. However, we were subject to several audits by the Chilean authorities. Chilean Law Nº 20,869, which also came into effect on June 26, 2016, restricts advertisements on television and in movie theaters between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. This law affects food products that exceed certain standards of nutritional quality set by the Chilean authorities. These restrictions on advertisements did not affect or have any impact on our sales. On June 26, 2019, strict standards of nutritional quality set by the Chilean authorities came into effect. As a result of modifications that we made to the contents of some of our products in adherence with these stricter standards, we were able to continue offering toys in children’s meals. However, the volume of Happy Meals sold in Chile has been declining since 2016.
In 2013, Peru approved Law No. 30021, which, together with the corresponding Regulatory Decree approved in June 2017, restricts the advertising of processed food products and non-alcoholic beverages intended for children under 16. In addition, regulations establish that advertisements of food products and non-alcoholic beverages containing trans-fat and high levels of sodium, sugar and saturated fat must contain a warning stating that excessive consumption should be avoided. These regulations do not include food prepared on the spot at the request of a customer, and as a result, Arcos Dorados’ products are excluded from the scope of application of such law.
In Argentina, there is currently a draft bill in Congress (Draft bill for the promotion of healthy eating) aimed to provide consumers with complete and clear information about the nutritional contents of foods and drinks, and that would also regulate related advertisement activities. If the nutritional composition of the product exceeds certain sugar, salt, fat or calorie thresholds, this bill would require us to include a front-of-pack nutritional label or “warning seal” on several of our products. Additionally, many advertisement and sponsoring activities would be strictly forbidden in the case of products that hold one or more “warning seals”, such as: (i) conducting contests, games, promotions or cultural events; (iii) using cartoons or celebrities in advertisement; (iii) promoting online downloads; (iv) and offering or promising toys, games and prizes. Furthermore, marketing of “warning seal” products directed to children would be altogether forbidden. This draft bill has already been approved by the Senate on October 29, 2020 and there is a strong likelihood it will come into force in the short term.


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Since 2014, the Mexican Ministry of Health empowered the Federal Commission for Prevention of Sanitary Risks (Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios or COFEPRIS) to regulate advertising directed at families with children. On April 15, 2014, COFEPRIS issued certain regulations which establish the maximum contents of fat, sodium and sugars that every meal advertised to children on television and in cinemas may contain. In February of 2015, COFEPRIS ordered us to stop advertising Happy Meals on television until we disclosed all the nutritional information for Happy Meals to COFEPRIS. We provided this information to COFEPRIS, but we have not yet received any legal authorization to advertise Happy Meals either during the general times when children may be watching television or during any programming geared towards children. In 2019, we obtained the approval to advertise the McNuggets + water + kids fries + apple puree combination at any time. However, since then, we have decided to discontinue the apple puree and replace it with yogurt and we no longer have an approved combination. We have developed a Happy Meals with chicken nuggets that complies with COFEPRIS’ nutritional requirements.

In Brazil, the Federal Prosecutor’s Office filed suit in 2009 seeking to enjoin various QSRs, including us, from including toys in our children’s meals. The Lower Federal Court in São Paulo ruled that the lawsuit was without merit. The Prosecutor’s Office filed an appeal against this decision, which will be adjudicated by the Regional Federal Court in São Paulo. As of the date of this annual report, this appeal is still pending and the outcome remains uncertain. In addition, the number of proposed laws seeking to restrict the sale of toys with meals increased significantly in Brazil at the federal, state and municipal levels. In April 2013, a consumer protection agency in Brazil fined us $1.6 million for a 2010 advertising campaign relating to our offering of meals with toys from the motion picture Avatar. We filed a lawsuit seeking to annul the fine. The lower court ruled there was no basis for the penalty, which was upheld by the appellate court. The consumer protection agency filed a special appeal against this decision, which is pending final decision. Although similar fines relating to our current and previous advertising campaigns involving the sale of toys may be possible in the future, as of the date of this annual report, we are unaware of any other such fines, and in 2018, our subsidiaries in Brazil and Mexico joined the International Food and Beverage Alliance that regulates advertising for kids to help ensure our ongoing compliance with advertising restrictions.
On July 28, 2014, Colombia enacted Decree 975 of 2014, which sets forth certain directives regarding advertising directed at children. These directives include, (i) limiting any insinuation that the food and beverage being advertised is a substitute for any of the principal daily meals; (ii) any advertising directed at children or adolescents, during certain times of the day when children and adolescents are more likely to be consuming such advertising, must include disclosure that the advertisement is not part of the actual program; and (iii) requiring parental approval for any advertisement through a child/adolescent digital platform that requests any download or purchase.
Although we have introduced changes in our Happy Meals in order to offer more balanced and healthier options to our customers and in many cases been able to mitigate the impact of these types of laws and regulations on our sales, we may not be able to do so in the future and the imposition of similar or stricter laws and regulations in the future in the Territories may have a negative impact on our results of operations. In general, regulatory developments that adversely impact our ability to promote and advertise our business and communicate effectively with our target customers, including restrictions on the use of licensed characters, may have a negative impact on our results of operations.
We are subject to increasingly strict data protection laws, which could increase our costs and adversely affect our business.
We are subject to increasingly strict data protection laws in the markets in which we operate. For example, we are subject to the Brazilian General Data Protection Law (“Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados” or “LGPD”), federal law 13,709/2018, which became effective in September 2020. The LGPD significantly improves Brazil’s existing legal framework by regulating the use of personal data by the private and public sectors. The concept of “data processing” is broad and includes the collection, storage, transfer, deletion and other activities related to personal data. All companies that offer services or have operations involving personal data handling in Brazil are required to comply with the LGPD rules and adopt administrative and technical security measures to protect personal data. Administrative sanctions under the LGPD, which will be applicable starting in August 2021 by the newly-formed National Data Protection Authority (“ANPD”), include warnings, single and daily fines, and elimination of personal data at stake. The LGDP is very similar to the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which we are subject to in certain French territories where we operate in the Caribbean.

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Similarly, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Colombia have established data protection laws that largely follow the same framework. In Argentina, Law No. 25,326 (the “Data Protection Law”) is also very similar to the GDPR and requires companies that process personal data to register with Agency of Access to Public Information (“AAPI”), prescribes the instances in which data may be processed based on the law, requires that individuals be notified prior to their personal data being processed, among other security measures. Under the Data Protection Law, the AAPI has the power to impose pecuniary and non-pecuniary sanctions on companies that fail to comply with the law. Like Argentina and Brazil, Uruguay also has in place data protection laws similar to the GDPR that they have been strengthening in recent years, including by extending the scope of data protection regulation to data collected and treated abroad when it is related to the offering of products and services in Uruguay and requiring appointment of a compliance office for data protection when a large amount of data is being processed. In Colombia, Law 1581 also requires companies to have in place data protection measures and yearly disclosure of such measures and database of providers, clients and employees with the Superintendency of Industry and Commerce.
In Peru, companies are required to comply with the Personal Data Protection Law (Law No. 29733), which similarly regulates the use of personal data. Failure to comply is punishable with economic fines by the Personal Data Protection Authority. In November 2019, Peru approved the Directorial Resolution No. 80-2019-JUS/DGTAIPD, Practical Guide to Comply with the “Obligation to Inform,” which obligates companies to inform the various owners of personal data of the processing of their personal data and provides information about the obligation and various exceptions to it. Furthermore, in January 2020, Peru approved the Directorial Resolution N° 02-2020-JUS/DGTAIPD, Directive of the Personal Data Processing through Video Surveillance System, which establishes new obligations and prohibitions in any place where video surveillance is conducted. Compliance with these data protection laws and others in the markets in which we operate could result in increased costs and adversely affect our business.
Environmental laws and regulations may affect our business.
We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, discharges of pollutants into the air and water and the presence, handling, release and disposal of, and exposure to, hazardous substances and waste, such as common or non-hazardous waste and used vegetable oils, among others, in addition to requiring us to obtain permits and authorizations for various activities. These laws and regulations provide for significant fines and penalties for noncompliance. Third parties may also assert personal injury, property damage or other claims against owners or operators of properties associated with release of, or actual or alleged exposure to, hazardous substances at, on or from our properties.
Liability from environmental conditions relating to prior, existing or future restaurants or restaurant sites, including franchised restaurant sites, may have a material adverse effect on us. Moreover, the adoption of new or more stringent environmental laws or regulations could result in a material environmental liability to us.
In addition, beginning in 2018, Latin America experienced a wave of regulatory attempts to eliminate plastic bags and single use plastic products in the region. In many countries, new laws and regulations, especially in relation to the use of plastic bags, plastic straws, have already been approved and in many cases will carry stiff penalties for violations. We have addressed this issue in our business by removing the plastic straws in nearly all of our markets and instead using alternative products. Additionally, in most of the markets we removed plastic lids from products used in our business and changed the salad containers in Argentina and other markets to cardboard containers, which led to a significant reduction in single use plastic in our operation within the last three years. We will need to find suitable alternatives before these new laws and regulations become effective. Regulations tend to be replicated across countries, and we are seeing an increase in related activity, both nationally and locally, in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, Ecuador, Chile and Peru, among other territories. We may need to quickly replace other plastic products that we continue to use should additional laws and regulations be put in place. These alternatives may be more expensive than the plastic products we currently use, which may increase our costs and have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may be adversely affected by legal actions with respect to our business.
We could be adversely affected by legal actions and claims brought by consumers or regulatory authorities in relation to the quality of our products and eventual health problems or other consequences caused by our products or by any of their ingredients. We could also be affected by legal actions and claims brought against us for products made in a jurisdiction outside the jurisdictions where we are operating. An array of legal actions, claims or damaging publicity may affect our reputation as well as have a material adverse effect on our revenues and businesses.

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Unfavorable publicity or a failure to respond effectively to adverse publicity, particularly on social media platforms, could harm our reputation and adversely impact our business and financial performance.
The good reputation of our brand is a key factor in the success of our business. Actual or alleged incidents at any of our restaurants could result in harmful publicity. Moreover, we have seen a significant increase in the use of our delivery options as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Any actual or perceived issue with the delivery of orders could also result in harmful publicity. Even incidents occurring at restaurants operated by our competitors or in the supply chain generally could result in negative publicity that could harm the restaurant industry and thus, indirectly, our brand. In particular, in recent years, there has been a marked increase in the use of social media platforms and similar devices which give individuals access to a broad audience of consumers and other interested persons. Many social media platforms immediately publish the content their participants’ posts, often without filters or checks on accuracy of the content posted. A variety of risks are associated with the dissemination of this information online, including the improper disclosure of proprietary information, negative comments about our company, exposure of personally identifiable information, fraud or outdated information. The inappropriate use of social media platforms by our customers, employees or other individuals could increase our costs, lead to litigation or result in negative publicity that could damage our reputation. In addition, we are often affected by negative news about McDonald’s Corporation published in the media and picked up by Latin America outlets, as it can lead to the incorrect assumption by the public that it relates to Arcos Dorados or McDonald’s brand in our region. If we are unable to quickly and effectively respond to negative reports, comments or posts in the media and social media platforms, we may suffer damage to our reputation or loss of consumer confidence in our products, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, as well as require resources to rebuild our reputation.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations in Latin America and the Caribbean
Our business is subject to the risks generally associated with international business operations.
We engage in business activities throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2020, 69.2% of our revenues were derived from Brazil, Argentina, Puerto Rico and Mexico. As a result, our business is and will continue to be subject to the risks generally associated with international business operations, including:
governmental regulations applicable to food services operations;
changes in social, political and economic conditions;
transportation delays;
power, water and other utility shutdowns or shortages;
limitations on foreign investment;
restrictions on currency convertibility and volatility of foreign exchange markets;
inflation;
import-export quotas and restrictions on importation;
changes in local labor conditions;
changes in tax and other laws and regulations;
expropriation and nationalization of our assets in a particular jurisdiction; and
restrictions on repatriation of dividends or profits.
Some of the Territories have been subject to social and political instability in the past, and interruptions in operations could occur in the future. See also “—Developments and the perception of risk in other countries, especially emerging market countries, may adversely affect business, results, financial conditions and prospects.”

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Developments and the perception of risk in other countries, especially emerging market countries, may adversely affect business, results, financial conditions and prospects.
Arcos Dorados’ growth and profitability depend on political stability and economic activity in Latin America and the Caribbean, especially in emerging market countries. Recent political unrest and social strife could affect developments and perception of risk in this region. For example, in 2019, political and social unrest in Latin American countries, including Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia and Colombia sparked political demonstrations and, in some instances, violence. In October 2019, presidential elections were held in Bolivia, Uruguay and Argentina. Controversial outcomes in Bolivia and Uruguay led to violent protests and claims of fraudulent elections in Bolivia and a runoff election in Uruguay. In addition, in 2020, several countries saw protests relating to the handling of the COVID-19 pandemic by their respective governments.
Changes in governmental policies in the Territories could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Governments throughout Latin America and the Caribbean have exercised, and continue to exercise, significant influence over the economies of their respective countries. Accordingly, the governmental actions, political developments, regulatory and legal changes or administrative practices in the Territories concerning the economy in general and the food services industry in particular could have a significant impact on us. We cannot assure you that changes in the governmental policies of the Territories will not adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Latin America has experienced, and may continue to experience, adverse economic conditions that have impacted, and may continue to impact, our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The success of our business is dependent on discretionary consumer spending, which is influenced by general economic conditions, consumer confidence and the availability of discretionary income in the countries in which we operate. Latin American countries have historically experienced uneven periods of economic growth, recessions, periods of high inflation and economic instability. In 2019, economic growth in many Latin American countries slowed, with some entering recessions. We expect economic conditions to remain challenging in 2021 as a result of COVID-19, although most economies are expected to rebound from the economic contractions of 2020. Any prolonged economic downturn could result in a decline in discretionary consumer spending. This may reduce the number of consumers who are willing and able to dine in our restaurants, or consumers may make more value-driven and price-sensitive purchasing choices, eschewing our core menu items for our entry-level food options. We may also be unable to sufficiently increase prices of our menu items to offset cost pressures, which may negatively affect our financial condition.
In addition, a prolonged economic downturn may lead to higher interest rates, significant changes in the rate of inflation or an inability to access capital on acceptable terms. Our suppliers and service providers could experience cash flow problems, credit defaults or other financial hardships. If our franchisees cannot adequately access the financial resources required to open new restaurants, this could have a material effect on our growth strategy.
Some of our customers depend on remittances from family members living overseas. Laws, regulations or events that limit such remittances or any changes to United States immigration policy may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Many of the jurisdictions in which we operate depend on remittances as a source of revenue. Many of our customers rely on remittances from family members living overseas as a primary or secondary source of income. Any law, regulation or event that restricts, taxes or prevents those remittances may adversely affect these customers’ discretionary spending and demand for our products, which in turn may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Our Class A Shares
Mr. Woods Staton, our Executive Chairman, controls all matters submitted to a shareholder vote, which will limit your ability to influence corporate activities and may adversely affect the market price of our class A shares.
Mr. Woods Staton, our Executive Chairman, owns or controls common stock representing 38.6% and 75.9%, respectively, of our economic and voting interests. As a result, Mr. Woods Staton is and will be able to strongly influence or effectively control the election of our directors, determine the outcome of substantially all actions requiring shareholder approval and shape our corporate and management policies. The MFAs’ requirement that Mr. Woods Staton at all times hold at least 51% of our voting interests likely will have the effect of preventing a change in control of us and discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares, which could prevent shareholders from receiving a premium for their shares. Moreover, this concentration of share ownership may make it difficult for shareholders to replace management and may adversely affect the trading price for our class A shares because investors often perceive disadvantages in owning shares in companies with controlling shareholders. This concentration of control could be disadvantageous to other shareholders with interests different from those of Mr. Woods Staton and the trading price of our class A shares could be adversely affected. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions―A. Major Shareholders” for a more detailed description of our share ownership.
Furthermore, the MFAs contemplate instances where McDonald’s could be entitled to purchase the shares of Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc. held by Mr. Woods Staton. However, our publicly held class A shares will not be similarly subject to acquisition by McDonald’s.
Sales of substantial amounts of our class A shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our class A shares to decline.
Sales of substantial amounts of our class A shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our class A shares to decline. This could also impair our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of our equity securities. Under our articles of association, we are authorized to issue up to 420,000,000 class A shares, of which 127,265,773 class A shares were outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and 5,269,988 class A shares were held in treasury. We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our shares or the effect, if any, that future sales and issuances of shares would have on the market price of our class A shares.
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to, and we will, rely on exemptions from certain NYSE corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, including the requirement that a majority of an issuer’s directors consist of independent directors. This may afford less protection to holders of our Class A shares.
Section 303A of the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, Listed Company Manual requires listed companies to have, among other things, a majority of their board members be independent, and to have independent director oversight of executive compensation, nomination of directors and corporate governance matters. As a foreign private issuer, however, we are permitted to, and we will, follow home country practice in lieu of the above requirements. British Virgin Islands law, the law of our country of incorporation, does not require a majority of our board to consist of independent directors or the implementation of a nominating and corporate governance committee, and our board thus may not include, or may include fewer, independent directors than would be required if we were subject to these NYSE requirements. Since a majority of our board of directors may not consist of independent directors as long as we rely on the foreign private issuer exemption to these NYSE requirements, our board’s approach may, therefore, be different from that of a board with a majority of independent directors, and as a result, the management oversight of our Company may be more limited than if we were subject to these NYSE requirements.
Risks Related to Investing in a British Virgin Islands Company
We are a British Virgin Islands company and it may be difficult for you to obtain or enforce judgments against us or our executive officers and directors in the United States.
We are incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands. Most of our assets are located outside the United States. Furthermore, most of our directors and officers reside outside the United States, and most of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, you may find it difficult to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons or to enforce outside the United States judgments obtained against us or these persons in U.S. courts, including judgments in actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. Likewise, it may also be difficult for

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you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained against us or these persons in courts located in jurisdictions outside the United States, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. It may also be difficult for an investor to bring an action against us or these persons in a British Virgin Islands court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws.
As there is no treaty in force on the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters between the United States and the British Virgin Islands, courts in the British Virgin Islands will not automatically recognize and enforce a final judgment rendered by a U.S. court.
Any final and conclusive monetary judgment obtained against us in U.S. courts, for a definite sum, may be treated by the courts of the British Virgin Islands as a cause of action in itself so that no retrial of the issue would be necessary, provided that in respect of the U.S. judgment:
the U.S. court issuing the judgment had jurisdiction in the matter and we either submitted to such jurisdiction or were resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and were duly served with process;
the judgment given by the U.S. court was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations of ours;
in obtaining judgment there was no fraud on the part of the person in whose favor judgment was given or on the part of the court;
recognition or enforcement of the judgment in the British Virgin Islands would not be contrary to public policy; and
the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to public policy.
Under our articles of association, we indemnify and hold our directors harmless against all claims and suits brought against them, subject to limited exceptions.
You may have more difficulty protecting your interests than you would as a shareholder of a U.S. corporation.
Our affairs are governed by the provisions of our memorandum of association and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, and by the provisions of applicable British Virgin Islands law. The rights of our shareholders and the responsibilities of our directors and officers under the British Virgin Islands law are different from those applicable to a corporation incorporated in the United States. There may be less publicly available information about us than is regularly published by or about U.S. issuers. Also, the British Virgin Islands regulations governing the securities of British Virgin Islands companies may not be as extensive as those in effect in the United States, and the British Virgin Islands law and regulations in respect of corporate governance matters may not be as protective of minority shareholders as state corporation laws in the United States. Therefore, you may have more difficulty protecting your interests in connection with actions taken by our directors and officers or our principal shareholders than you would as a shareholder of a corporation incorporated in the United States.
You may not be able to participate in future equity offerings, and you may not receive any value for rights that we may grant.
Under our memorandum and articles of association, existing shareholders are entitled to preemptive subscription rights in the event of capital increases. However, our articles of association also provide that such preemptive subscription rights do not apply to certain issuances of securities by us, including (i) pursuant to any employee compensation plans; (ii) as consideration for (a) any merger, consolidation or purchase of assets or (b) recapitalization or reorganization; (iii) in connection with a pro rata division of shares or dividend in specie or distribution; or (iv) in a bona fide public offering that has been registered with the SEC.


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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A.    History and Development of the Company
Overview
We were incorporated as Arcos Dorados Holdings Inc. on December 9, 2010 under the laws of the British Virgin Islands as a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Arcos Dorados Limited, the prior holding company for the Arcos Dorados business. On December 13, 2010, Arcos Dorados Limited effected a downstream merger into and with us, with us as the surviving entity. Following the merger, we replaced Arcos Dorados Limited in the corporate structure and replicated its governance structure.
We are a British Virgin Islands company incorporated with limited liability and our affairs are governed by the provisions of our memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, and by the provisions of applicable British Virgin Islands law, including the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004, or the BVI Act. Our company number in the British Virgin Islands is 1619553. As provided in sub-regulation 4.1 of our memorandum of association, subject to British Virgin Islands law, we have full capacity to carry on or undertake any business or activity, do any act or enter into any transaction and, for such purposes, full rights, powers and privileges.
Our principal executive offices are located at Dr. Luis Bonavita 1294, Office 501, WTC Free Zone, Montevideo, Uruguay (CP 11300). Our telephone number at this address is +598 2626-3000. Our registered office in the British Virgin Islands is Maples Corporate Services (BVI) Limited, Kingston Chambers, P.O. Box 173, Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands.
The SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy, information statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. Our website address is www.arcosdorados.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this annual report.
Important Events
The Acquisition
McDonald’s Corporation has a longstanding history in Latin America and the Caribbean, dating to the opening of its first restaurant in Puerto Rico in 1967. Since then, McDonald’s expanded its presence across the region as consumer markets and opportunities arose, opening its first stores in Brazil in 1979, in Mexico and Venezuela in 1985 and in Argentina in 1986.
We commenced operations on August 3, 2007, as a result of the Acquisition of McDonald’s LatAm business. Woods Staton, our Executive Chairman and controlling shareholder, was the joint venture partner of McDonald’s Corporation in Argentina for over 20 years prior to the Acquisition and also served as President of McDonald’s South Latin American division from 2004 until the Acquisition. Our senior management team includes executives who had previously worked in McDonald’s LatAm business or with Mr. Woods Staton.
We hold our McDonald’s franchise rights pursuant to the MFA for all of the Territories except Brazil, executed on August 3, 2007, as amended and restated on November 10, 2008 and as further amended on August 31, 2010, June 3, 2011 and March 17, 2016, entered into by us, LatAm, LLC (the “Master Franchisee”), our former wholly owned subsidiary Arcos Dorados Coöperatieve U.A., Arcos Dorados B.V., certain subsidiaries of the Master Franchisee, Los Laureles, Ltd. and McDonald’s. On March 21, 2018, Arcos Dorados Group B.V. (together with Arcos Dorados B.V. and us, the “Owner Entities”) replaced Arcos Dorados Coöperatieve U.A. as party to the MFA. On August 3, 2007, our subsidiary Arcos Dourados Comercio de Alimentos S.A., or the Brazilian Master Franchisee, and McDonald’s entered into the separate, but substantially identical, Brazilian MFA, which was amended and restated on November 10, 2008. Arcos Dourados Comercio de Alimentos S.A., formerly a limited liability company, changed its legal constitution and became a closely-held company (“Sociedade por Ações Fechada” or “S.A.”) as of November 23, 2020, subject to certain publication and reporting requirements, including with respect to all acts or decisions made by its shareholders or its board of directors that impact or could impact third parties. See “Item 10. Additional Information―C. Material Contracts―The MFAs.”

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