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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021

OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______

Commission file number 0-24531
 
CoStar Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
52-2091509
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1331 L Street, NW
Washington,DC20005
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(202) 346-6500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:  
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.01 par value)CSGPNasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o
  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x  No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company



 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No x

As of April 23, 2021, there were 39,493,550 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.






COSTAR GROUP, INC.
FORM 10-Q
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION 
Item 1. 
  
  
  
Item 2. 
Item 3. 
Item 4. 
PART II OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. 
Item 1A. 
Item 2. 
Item 3. 
Item 4. 
Item 5. 
Item 6. 

3


PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.Financial Statements

COSTAR GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share data)
(unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Revenues$457,697 $391,847 
Cost of revenues88,748 78,909 
Gross profit368,949 312,938 
Operating expenses:  
Selling and marketing (excluding customer base amortization)138,687 125,107 
Software development46,784 41,610 
General and administrative63,850 58,873 
Customer base amortization18,419 11,484 
 267,740 237,074 
Income from operations101,209 75,864 
Interest (expense) income(7,878)1,651 
Other (expense) income(50)841 
Income before income taxes93,281 78,356 
Income tax expense19,069 5,563 
Net income$74,212 $72,793 
Net income per share - basic$1.90 $2.00 
Net income per share - diluted$1.88 $1.98 
Weighted-average outstanding shares - basic39,158 36,471 
Weighted-average outstanding shares - diluted39,371 36,776 

See accompanying notes.

4


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Net income$74,212 $72,793 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Foreign currency translation adjustment323 (12,949)
Unrealized gain on investments 189 
Reclassification adjustment for realized loss on investments included in net income
 541 
Total other comprehensive income (loss)323 (12,219)
Total comprehensive income$74,535 $60,574 
See accompanying notes.

5


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
ASSETS 
Current assets:  
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$3,690,296 $3,755,912 
Accounts receivable124,361 119,059 
Less: Allowance for credit losses(14,563)(15,110)
Accounts receivable, net109,798 103,949 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets22,233 28,651 
Total current assets3,822,327 3,888,512 
Deferred income taxes, net3,633 4,983 
Property and equipment, net239,480 126,325 
Lease right-of-use assets90,949 108,740 
Goodwill2,210,976 2,235,999 
Intangible assets, net450,341 426,745 
Deferred commission costs, net93,056 93,274 
Deposits and other assets16,223 15,856 
Income tax receivable14,986 14,986 
Total assets$6,941,971 $6,915,420 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$16,870 $15,732 
Accrued wages and commissions68,590 80,998 
Accrued expenses58,290 110,305 
Income taxes payable28,757 16,316 
Lease liabilities27,932 32,648 
Deferred revenue89,696 74,851 
Total current liabilities290,135 330,850 
Long-term debt, net987,018 986,715 
Deferred income taxes, net86,081 72,991 
Income taxes payable25,387 25,282 
Lease and other long-term liabilities106,425 124,223 
Total liabilities1,495,046 1,540,061 
Total stockholders' equity5,446,925 5,375,359 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$6,941,971 $6,915,420 
See accompanying notes.
6


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Loss
Retained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202039,414 394 $4,208,252 $(889)$1,167,602 $5,375,359 
Net income— — — — 74,212 74,212 
Other comprehensive income— — — 323 — 323 
Exercise of stock options21  6,341 — — 6,341 
Restricted stock grants77 1 — — — 1 
Restricted stock grants surrendered(37) (27,667)— — (27,667)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 15,264 — — 15,264 
Employee stock purchase plan4 — 3,092 — — 3,092 
Balance at March 31, 202139,479 395 $4,205,282 $(566)$1,241,814 $5,446,925 
See accompanying notes.
7


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

Common StockAdditional
Paid-In Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Loss
Retained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 201936,668 366 $2,473,338 $(8,585)$940,474 $3,405,593 
Net income— — — — 72,793 72,793 
Other comprehensive loss— — — (12,219)— (12,219)
Exercise of stock options41 1 9,232 — — 9,233 
Restricted stock grants83 1 (1)— —  
Restricted stock grants surrendered(56)(1)(30,144)— — (30,145)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 15,006 — — 15,006 
Employee stock purchase plan4 — 2,550 — — 2,550 
Balance at March 31, 202036,740 367 $2,469,981 $(20,804)$1,013,267 $3,462,811 
See accompanying notes.
8


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Operating activities:  
Net income$74,212 $72,793 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization35,410 24,256 
Amortization of deferred commissions costs15,317 14,747 
Amortization of Senior Notes discount and issuance costs578 292 
Non-cash lease expense6,483 6,261 
Stock-based compensation expense15,545 15,180 
Deferred income taxes, net5,464 2,825 
Credit loss expense1,820 6,183 
Other operating activities, net(136)541 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:  
Accounts receivable(7,609)(26,613)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(2,823)1,838 
Deferred commissions(15,078)(16,523)
Accounts payable and other liabilities(63,051)15,564 
Lease liabilities(7,788)(6,967)
Income taxes payable12,556 1,624 
Deferred revenue14,680 18,248 
Other assets2,273 1,215 
Net cash provided by operating activities87,853 131,464 
Investing activities:  
Proceeds from sale and settlement of investments 10,259 
Purchase of Richmond assets(123,259) 
Purchases of property and equipment and other assets(10,619)(7,133)
Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired(442)(432)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(134,320)2,694 
Financing activities:  
Proceeds from long-term debt 745,000 
Repurchase of restricted stock to satisfy tax withholding obligations(27,667)(30,144)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and employee stock purchase plan9,124 10,295 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(18,543)725,151 
Effect of foreign currency exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents(606)(2,117)
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(65,616)857,192 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at the beginning of period3,755,912 1,070,731 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at the end of period$3,690,296 $1,927,923 
Supplemental cash flow disclosures:
Interest paid$16,037 $499 
Income taxes paid$1,042 $1,111 
Supplemental non-cash investing and financing activities:
Consideration owed for acquisitions$385 $ 
See accompanying notes.
9


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

1.ORGANIZATION

CoStar Group, Inc. (the “Company” or “CoStar”) provides information, analytics, online marketplace and auction services to the commercial real estate and related business community through its comprehensive, proprietary database of commercial real estate information and related tools. The Company provides online marketplaces for commercial real estate, apartment rentals, lands for sale and businesses for sale, and its services are typically distributed to its clients under subscription-based license agreements that renew automatically, a majority of which have a term of at least one year. The Company operates within two operating segments, North America, which includes the United States ("U.S.") and Canada, and International, which primarily includes Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America.

On June 24, 2020, the Company acquired Ten-X Holding Company, Inc. and its subsidiaries ("Ten-X"), which operate an online auction platform for commercial real estate. On October 26, 2020, the Company acquired Emporis GmbH, a Germany-based provider of international commercial real estate data and images. On December 22, 2020, the Company acquired Homesnap, Inc. (“Homesnap”), which operates an online mobile software platform for residential real estate agents and brokers. See Notes 5 and 8 to the accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of these acquisitions.


2.SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Accounting policies are consistent for each operating segment.

Interim Financial Statements

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting only of a normal recurring nature, necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the results of its operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, its comprehensive income for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, its changes in stockholders' equity for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, and its cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

Certain notes and other information have been condensed or omitted from the interim financial statements presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Therefore, these financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including those related to revenue recognition, allowance for credit losses, the useful lives and recoverability of long-lived and intangible assets, and goodwill, income taxes, accounting for business combinations, stock-based compensation, estimating the Company's incremental borrowing rate for its leases, and contingencies, among others. The Company bases these estimates on historical and anticipated results, trends and various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable, including assumptions as to future events. These estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and recorded revenues and expenses. Actual results could differ from these estimates.

Revenue Recognition
10


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)


The Company derives revenues primarily by (i) providing access to its proprietary database of commercial real estate information and (ii) providing online marketplaces for professional property management companies, property owners, brokers and landlords, in each case, typically through a fixed monthly fee for its subscription-based services. The Company's subscription-based services consist primarily of information, analytics and online marketplace services offered over the Internet to commercial real estate industry and related professionals. Subscription contract rates are based on the number of sites, number of users, organization size, the client’s business focus, geography, the number and types of services to which a client subscribes, the number of properties a client advertises and the prominence and placement of a client's advertised properties in the search results. The Company’s subscription-based license agreements typically renew automatically, and a majority have a term of at least one year.

The Company also provides (i) market research, portfolio and debt analysis, management and reporting capabilities, (ii) real estate and lease management solutions, including lease administration and abstraction services, to commercial customers, real estate investors, and lenders via the Company’s other service offerings, (iii) benchmarking and analytics for the hospitality industry through STR, LLC and STR Global, Ltd. (together with STR, LLC, referred to as “STR”), (iv) an online auction platform for commercial real estate through Ten-X, LLC and its subsidiaries, which were acquired in June 2020, and (v) an online and mobile software platform that provides applications to optimize residential real estate agent workflow through Homesnap, which was acquired in December 2020. See Note 5 for details of the Homesnap and Ten-X acquisitions.

The Company analyzes contracts to determine the appropriate revenue recognition using the following steps: (i) identification of contracts with customers, (ii) identification of distinct performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determination of contract transaction price, (iv) allocation of contract transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) determination of revenue recognition based on timing of satisfaction of the performance obligations.

The Company recognizes revenues upon the satisfaction of its performance obligation(s) (upon transfer of control of promised services to its customers) in an amount that reflects the consideration to which it expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services. Revenues from subscription-based services are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the agreement.

In limited circumstances, the Company's contracts with customers include promises to transfer multiple services, such as contracts for its subscription-based services and professional services. For these contracts, the Company accounts for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct, which involves the determination of the standalone selling price for each distinct performance obligation.

Deferred revenue results from amounts billed in advance to customers or cash received from customers in advance of the Company's fulfillment of its performance obligation(s) and is recognized as those obligations are satisfied.

Contract assets represent a conditional right to consideration for satisfied performance obligations that become a receivable when the conditions are satisfied. Contract assets are generated when contractual billing schedules differ from revenue recognition timing.

Certain sales commissions are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. Sales commissions incurred for obtaining new contracts are deferred and then amortized as selling and marketing expenses on a straight-line basis over a period of benefit that the Company has determined to be three years. The three-year amortization period was determined based on several factors, including the nature of the technology and proprietary data underlying the services being purchased, customer contract renewal rates and industry competition. Certain commission costs are not capitalized as they do not represent incremental costs of obtaining a contract.

See Note 3 for further discussion of the Company's revenue recognition.

Cost of Revenues

Cost of revenues principally consists of salaries, benefits, bonuses and stock-based compensation expenses and other indirect costs for the Company's researchers who collect and analyze the commercial real estate data that is the basis for the Company's information, analytics and online marketplaces and for employees that support these products. Additionally, cost of revenues includes the cost of data from third-party data sources and costs related to advertising purchased on behalf of
11


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

customers, credit card and other transaction fees relating to processing customer transactions, which are expensed as incurred, and the amortization of acquired trade names, technology and other intangible assets.

Advertising Costs

The Company expenses advertising costs as incurred. Advertising costs include digital marketing, television, radio, print and other media advertising. Advertising costs were approximately $65 million and $54 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Foreign Currency

The Company’s reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency for the majority of its operations is the local currency, with the exception of certain international locations of STR for which the functional currency is the British Pound. Assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect as of the balance sheet date. Gains and losses resulting from translation are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss. Currency gains and losses on the translation of intercompany loans made to foreign subsidiaries that are of a long-term investment nature are also included in accumulated other comprehensive loss. Gains and losses resulting from transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity are included in other (expense) income in the condensed consolidated statements of operations using the average exchange rates in effect during the period. The Company recognized net foreign currency losses of $0.2 million and gains of $1.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which are included in other (expense) income on the condensed consolidated statements of operations.

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss

The components of accumulated other comprehensive loss were as follows (in thousands):
 March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Foreign currency translation adjustment$(566)$(889)
Total accumulated other comprehensive loss
$(566)$(889)
There were no amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive loss to the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2021. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company sold its long-term variable debt instruments with an auction reset feature, referred to as auction rate securities ("ARS") and reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive loss a realized loss of $0.5 million to earnings which is included in other (expense) income in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.

Income Taxes

Deferred income taxes result from temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and the basis reported in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and the tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted rates in effect during the year in which the Company expects differences to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided against assets, including net operating losses, if the Company determines it is more likely than not that some portion or all of an asset may not be realized. Interest and penalties related to income tax matters are recognized in income tax expense.

See Note 11 for additional information regarding income taxes.

Net Income Per Share

Net income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period on a basic and diluted basis.


12


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

The following table sets forth the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share (in thousands, except per share data):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
Numerator:
20212020
 
Net income
$74,212 $72,793 
Denominator:  
Denominator for basic net income per share — weighted-average outstanding shares
39,158 36,471 
Effect of dilutive securities:  
Stock options, restricted stock awards and restricted stock units
213 305 
Denominator for diluted net income per share — weighted-average outstanding shares
39,371 36,776 
   
Net income per share — basic $1.90 $2.00 
Net income per share — diluted $1.88 $1.98 
 
The Company’s potentially dilutive securities include outstanding stock options and unvested stock-based awards which include restricted stock awards that vest over a specific service period, restricted stock awards with a performance and a market condition, restricted stock units and awards of matching restricted stock units ("Matching RSUs") awarded under the Company's Management Stock Purchase Plan. Shares underlying unvested restricted stock awards that vest based on performance and market conditions that have not been achieved as of the end of the period are not included in the computation of basic or diluted net income per share. Diluted net income per share considers the impact of potentially dilutive securities except when the inclusion of the potentially dilutive securities would have an anti-dilutive effect.

The following table summarizes the shares underlying the unvested performance-based restricted stock and anti-dilutive securities excluded from the basic and diluted earnings per share calculations (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Performance-based restricted stock awards72 84 
Anti-dilutive securities90 96 
Stock-Based Compensation

Equity instruments issued in exchange for services performed by officers, employees, and directors of the Company are accounted for using a fair-value based method and the fair value of such equity instruments is recognized as expense in the consolidated statements of operations.

For stock-based awards that vest over a specific service period, compensation expense is measured based on the fair value of the awards at the grant date and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the awards, net of an estimated forfeiture rate. For equity instruments that vest based on achievement of a performance and market condition, stock-based compensation expense is recognized based on the expected achievement of the related performance and market conditions at the end of each reporting period over the vesting period of the awards. If the Company's initial estimates of the achievement of the performance conditions change, the related stock-based compensation expense and timing may fluctuate from period to period based on those estimates. If the performance conditions are not met, no stock-based compensation expense will be recognized, and any previously recognized stock-based compensation expense will be reversed. For awards with both a performance and a market condition, the Company estimates the fair value of each equity instrument granted on the date of grant using a Monte-Carlo simulation model. This pricing model uses multiple simulations to evaluate the probability of achieving the market condition to calculate the fair value of the awards.
13


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)


Stock-based compensation expense for stock options, restricted stock awards and restricted stock units issued under equity incentive plans, stock purchases under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan, Deferred Stock Units (“DSUs”) and Matching RSUs awarded under the Company's Management Stock Purchase Plan included in the Company’s results of operations were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20212020
Cost of revenues$2,969 $2,472 
Selling and marketing (excluding customer base amortization)1,462 2,024 
Software development2,914 2,528 
General and administrative8,200 8,156 
Total stock-based compensation expense $15,545 $15,180 
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash

The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash consisted of the following as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 (in thousands):

 March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents$3,686,947 $3,693,813 
Restricted cash:
RentPath termination fee held in escrow under the terms of the Asset Purchase Agreement 58,750 
Other restricted cash related to acquisitions3,349 3,349 
Total restricted cash3,349 62,099 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$3,690,296 $3,755,912 
Allowance for Credit Losses

The Company maintains an allowance for credit losses to cover its current expected credit losses ("CECL") on its trade receivables and contract assets arising from the failure of customers to make contractual payments. The Company estimates credit losses expected over the life of its trade receivables and contract assets based on historical information combined with current conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay and reasonable and supportable forecasts. While the Company uses various credit quality metrics, it primarily monitors collectability by reviewing the duration of collection pursuits on its delinquent trade receivables. Based on the Company’s experience, the customer's delinquency status is the strongest indicator of the credit quality of the underlying trade receivables, which is analyzed monthly. The Company’s policy is to write-off trade receivables when they are deemed uncollectible. A majority of the Company's trade receivables are less than 365 days outstanding.

Under the CECL impairment model, the Company develops and documents its allowance for credit losses on its trade receivables based on four portfolio segments. The determination of portfolio segments is based primarily on the qualitative consideration of the nature of the Company’s business operations and the characteristics of the underlying trade receivables, as follows:

CoStar Suite Portfolio Segment - The CoStar Suite portfolio segment consists of two classes of trade receivables based on geographical location: CoStar Suite, North America and CoStar Suite, International.

Information Services Portfolio Segment - The information services portfolio segment consists of four classes of trade receivables: Real Estate Manager; information services, North America; STR, US; and STR, International.

Multifamily Portfolio Segment - The multifamily portfolio segment consists of one class of trade receivables.
14


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)


Commercial Property and Land Portfolio Segment - The commercial property and land portfolio segment consists of four classes of trade receivables: LoopNet; Ten-X; Homesnap; and other commercial property and land online marketplaces.

See Note 4 for further discussion of the Company’s accounting for allowance for credit losses.

Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement contains a lease and the classification of a lease, if applicable, is made at lease commencement, at which time the Company also measures and recognizes a right-of-use ("ROU") asset, representing the Company’s right to use the underlying asset, and a lease liability, representing the Company’s obligation to make lease payments under the terms of the arrangement. For the purposes of recognizing ROU assets and lease liabilities associated with the Company’s leases, the Company has elected the practical expedient to not recognize a ROU asset or lease liability for short-term leases, which are leases with a term of twelve months or less. The lease term is defined as the noncancelable portion of the lease term, plus any periods covered by an option to extend the lease if it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised.

In determining the amount of lease payments used in measuring ROU assets and lease liabilities, the Company has elected the practical expedient not to separate non-lease components from lease components for all classes of underlying assets. Consideration deemed part of the lease payments used to measure ROU assets and lease liabilities generally includes fixed payments and variable payments based on either an index or a rate, offset by lease incentives. The ROU asset also includes any lease prepayments. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The rates implicit within the Company's leases are generally not determinable. Therefore, the Company's incremental borrowing rate is used to determine the present value of lease payments. The determination of the Company’s incremental borrowing rate requires judgment and is determined at lease commencement, or as of January 1, 2019 for operating leases in existence upon adoption of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 842. The incremental borrowing rate is subsequently reassessed upon a modification to the lease arrangement.

Lease costs related to the Company's operating leases are generally recognized as a single ratable lease cost over the lease term.

See Note 7 for further discussion of the Company’s accounting for leases.

Long-Lived Assets, Intangible Assets and Goodwill

Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, and purchased intangibles subject to amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.

Goodwill is tested annually for impairment by each reporting unit on October 1 of each year or more frequently if an event or other circumstance indicates that we may not recover the carrying value of the asset. The Company may first assess qualitative factors to evaluate whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, or elect to bypass such assessment. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, or the Company elects to bypass such assessment, the Company then determines the fair value of each reporting unit. The fair value of each reporting unit is compared to the carrying amount of the reporting unit. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value, then an impairment loss is recognized for the difference.

15


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

Debt Issuance Costs

Costs incurred in connection with the issuance of long-term debt are deferred and amortized as interest expense over the term of the related debt using the effective interest method for term debt and on a straight-line basis for revolving debt. The Company made a policy election to classify deferred issuance costs on the revolving credit facility as a long-term asset on its condensed consolidated balance sheets. Upon a refinancing or amendment, previously capitalized debt issuance costs are expensed and included in loss on extinguishment of debt if the Company determines that there has been a substantial modification of the related debt. If the Company determines that there has not been a substantial modification of the related debt, any previously capitalized debt issuance costs are amortized as interest expense over the term of the new debt instrument.

See Note 10 for additional information regarding the Company's accounting for its outstanding debt, revolving credit facility, and related issuance costs.

Business Combinations

The Company allocates the purchase consideration related to business combinations to the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired, and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The purchase consideration is determined based on the fair value of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred and equity interests issued, after considering any transactions that are separate from the business combination. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets and contingent liabilities. Significant estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows from acquired customer bases, acquired technology and acquired trade names and other intangible assets, useful lives, royalty rates and discount rates. Any adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period are recorded in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to earnings.

For a given acquisition, the Company may identify certain pre-acquisition contingencies as of the acquisition date and may extend its review and evaluation of these pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period in order to obtain sufficient information to assess whether the Company includes these contingencies as a part of the fair value estimates of assets acquired and liabilities assumed and, if so, determine their estimated fair value.

If the Company cannot reasonably determine the fair value of a pre-acquisition contingency (non-income tax related) by the end of the measurement period, which is generally the case given the nature of such matters, the Company will recognize an asset or a liability for such pre-acquisition contingency if: (i) it is probable that an asset existed or a liability had been assumed at the acquisition date and (ii) the amount of the asset or liability can be reasonably estimated. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes in the Company's estimates of such contingencies will affect earnings and could have a material effect on its results of operations and financial position.

In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. The Company reevaluates these items based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date with any adjustments to its preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill, provided that the Company is within the measurement period. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect the Company's provision for income taxes in its condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income and could have a material impact on its results of operations and financial position.




16


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)



3.REVENUE FROM CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS    

Disaggregated Revenue

The Company provides information, analytics and online marketplaces to the commercial real estate industry and related professionals. Revenues by operating segment and type of service consist of the following (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
North AmericaInternationalTotalNorth AmericaInternationalTotal
Information and analytics
CoStar Suite$163,554 $8,630 $172,184 $157,335 $7,621 $164,956 
Information services27,686 7,010 34,696 25,690 6,692 32,382 
Online marketplaces
Multifamily166,147  166,147 137,460  137,460 
Commercial property and land
84,376 294 84,670 56,962 87 57,049 
Total revenues$441,763 $15,934 $457,697 $377,447 $14,400 $391,847 
Deferred Revenue

Changes in deferred revenue for the period were as follows (in thousands):
Balance at December 31, 2020$77,363 
Revenue recognized in the current period from the amounts in the beginning balance(45,988)
New deferrals, net of amounts recognized in the current period60,668 
Effects of foreign currency82 
Balance at March 31, 2021(1)
$92,125 
__________________________
(1) Deferred revenue is comprised of $90 million of current liabilities and $2 million of noncurrent liabilities classified within lease and other long-term liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2021.

Contract Assets

The Company had contract assets of $9 million as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, which are generated when contractual billing schedules differ from revenue recognition timing. Contract assets represent a conditional right to consideration for satisfied performance obligations that becomes a receivable when the conditions are satisfied. Current contract assets are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets, and non-current contract assets are included in deposits and other assets on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. The revenue recognized from contract assets for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was not material.

17


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)



Commissions

Commissions expense is included in selling and marketing expense in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations. Commissions expense activity for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was as follows (in thousands). The Company determined that no deferred commissions were impaired as of March 31, 2021:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Commissions incurred$26,347 $22,437 
Commissions capitalized in the current period(15,078)(16,523)
Amortization of deferred commissions costs15,317 14,747 
Total commissions expense
$26,586 $20,661 
Unsatisfied Performance Obligations

Remaining contract consideration for which revenue has not been recognized due to unsatisfied performance obligations was approximately $271 million at March 31, 2021, which the Company expects to recognize over the next five years. This amount does not include contract consideration for contracts with a duration of one year or less.


4.ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES

The following table details the activity related to the allowance for credit losses for trade receivables by portfolio segment (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
CoStar SuiteInformation servicesMultifamilyCommercial property and landTotal
Beginning balance at December 31, 2020
$5,531 $2,739 $4,387 $2,453 $15,110 
Current-period provision for expected credit losses(1), (2)
924 11 291 594 1,820 
Write-offs charged against the allowance, net of recoveries and other(1,117) (778)(472)(2,367)
Ending balance at March 31, 2021
$5,338 $2,750 $3,900 $2,575 $14,563 
__________________________
(1) Credit loss expense is included in general and administrative expenses on the condensed consolidated statement of operations.
(2) Credit loss expense related to contract assets was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2021.

18


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
CoStar SuiteInformation servicesMultifamilyCommercial property and landTotal
Beginning balance at December 31, 2019
$1,264 $624 $1,195 $1,465 $4,548 
Current-period provision for expected credit losses(1), (2)
2,634 1,247 1,403 899 6,183 
Write-offs charged against the allowance, net of recoveries and other(1,372) (565)(483)(2,420)
Ending balance at March 31, 2020
$2,526 $1,871 $2,033 $1,881 $8,311 
__________________________
(1) Credit loss expense is included in general and administrative expenses on the condensed consolidated statement of operations.
(2) Credit loss expense related to contract assets was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
19



COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)
5.ACQUISITIONS

Homesnap

On December 22, 2020, pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated November 20, 2020, by and among CoStar Realty Information, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (“CRI”), Snapped Halo Merger Sub Corp., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of CRI (“Merger Sub”), and Homesnap, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("Homesnap"), Merger Sub was merged with and into Homesnap (the “Homesnap Merger”), with Homesnap surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of CRI. In connection with the Homesnap Merger, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests in Homesnap for a purchase price of $250 million in cash. Homesnap is an industry-leading online and mobile software platform that provides user-friendly applications to optimize residential real estate agent workflow and reinforce the agent-client relationship. Homesnap has relationships, data, software, and tools for residential real estate professionals that are complementary to CoStar’s existing offerings.

The following table summarizes the amounts recorded for acquired assets and assumed liabilities recorded at their fair values as of the acquisition date (in thousands):
Preliminary: December 22, 2020Measurement Period AdjustmentsUpdated Preliminary: December 22, 2020
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$10,225 $— $10,225 
Accounts receivable595 67 662 
Lease right-of-use assets3,437 — 3,437 
Goodwill211,114 (25,805)185,309 
Intangible assets32,000 35,000 67,000 
Deferred tax assets (liabilities)7,502 (8,925)(1,423)
Lease liabilities(3,375)— (3,375)
Deferred revenue(4,000)— (4,000)
Other assets and liabilities(7,144)(337)(7,481)
Fair value of identifiable net assets acquired$250,354 $ $250,354 
The net assets of Homesnap were recorded at their estimated fair values. In valuing the acquired assets and assumed liabilities, fair value estimates were based primarily on future expected cash flows, market rate assumptions for contractual obligations and appropriate discount rates. The purchase price allocation is preliminary, subject primarily to the Company's assessment of certain tax matters. The estimated fair value of the customer base assets incorporated significant assumptions that had a material impact on the estimated fair value, such as discount rates, projected revenue growth rates, customer attrition rates and profit margins. See Note 8 for measurement period impact on goodwill.
The following table summarizes the fair values (in thousands) of the identifiable intangible assets acquired in the Homesnap acquisition included in the Company's North America operating segment, their related estimated useful lives (in years) and their respective amortization methods:
Estimated Fair ValueEstimated Useful LifeAmortization Method
Customer base$45,000 10Accelerated
Trade name7,000 10Straight-line
Technology15,000 6Straight-line
Total intangible assets$67,000 
Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the consideration transferred over the net assets recognized and represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired that could not be individually identified and separately recognized. Specifically, the goodwill recorded as part of the Homesnap acquisition includes but is not limited to: (i) the expected synergies and other benefits that the Company believes will result from combining its operations with Homesnap's operations; and (ii) any
20


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)
intangible assets that do not qualify for separate recognition, such as the assembled workforce. The $185 million of goodwill recorded as part of the acquisition is associated with the Company's North America operating segment. Goodwill recorded in connection with this acquisition is not amortized, but is subject to an annual impairment test. Goodwill recognized is not deductible for income tax purposes.
As of March 31, 2021, transaction costs associated with the Homesnap acquisition were not material.

Ten-X

On June 24, 2020, pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated May 13, 2020, by and among CoStar Realty Information, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (“CRI”), Crescendo Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of CRI (“Merger Sub”), Ten-X Holding Company, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("Ten-X Holding"), and Thomas H. Lee Equity Fund VII L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, solely in its capacity as representative thereunder, Merger Sub was merged with and into Ten-X Holding (the “Merger”), with Ten-X Holding surviving the Merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of CRI. In connection with the Merger, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests in Ten-X Holding and Ten-X Holding's subsidiaries (collectively, "Ten-X") for a purchase price of $188 million in cash. Ten-X operates an online auction platform for commercial real estate. The Ten-X acquisition is expected to enable the Company to create a new end-to-end commercial real estate platform, combining LoopNet and CoStar's online audience of buyers with Ten-X’s leadership in online auctions for performing and distressed assets.

The following table summarizes the amounts recorded for acquired assets and assumed liabilities recorded at their fair values as of the acquisition date (in thousands):
Preliminary:
June 24, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents$3,290 
Accounts receivable131 
Lease right-of-use assets4,945 
Goodwill135,700 
Intangible assets58,000 
Lease liabilities(4,945)
Deferred tax liabilities(4,816)
Other assets and liabilities(4,590)
Fair value of identifiable net assets acquired$187,715 
The net assets of Ten-X were recorded at their estimated fair values. In valuing the acquired assets and assumed liabilities, fair value estimates were based primarily on future expected cash flows, market rate assumptions for contractual obligations and appropriate discount rates. The purchase price allocation is preliminary, subject to the Company's assessment of certain tax matters. The estimated fair value of the customer base assets incorporated significant assumptions that had a material impact on the estimated fair value, such as discount rates, projected revenue growth rates, customer attrition rates and profit margins.
The following table summarizes the fair values (in thousands) of the identifiable intangible assets acquired in the Ten-X acquisition included in the Company's North America operating segment, their related estimated useful lives (in years) and their respective amortization methods:
Estimated Fair ValueEstimated Useful LifeAmortization Method
Customer base$46,000 6Accelerated
Technology11,000 5Straight-line
Other intangible assets1,000 2Straight-line
Total intangible assets$58,000 

21


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)
Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the consideration transferred over the net assets recognized and represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired that could not be individually identified and separately recognized. Specifically, the goodwill recorded as part of the Ten-X acquisition includes but is not limited to: (i) the expected synergies and other benefits that the Company believes will result from combining its operations with Ten-X's operations; and (ii) any intangible assets that do not qualify for separate recognition, such as the assembled workforce. The $136 million of goodwill recorded as part of the acquisition is associated with the Company's North America operating segment. Goodwill recorded in connection with this acquisition is not amortized, but is subject to an annual impairment test. Goodwill recognized is not deductible for income tax purposes.

As of March 31, 2021, transaction costs associated with the Ten-X acquisition were not material. The Company paid $3 million in incentive compensation to Ten-X employees negotiated as part of the acquisition, and this expense was recognized in the post-combination period during the three months ended September 30, 2020.

Pro Forma Financial Information

The unaudited pro forma financial information presented below summarizes the combined results of operations for the Company, Ten-X and Homesnap as though the companies were combined as of January 1, 2019. The unaudited pro forma financial information for all periods presented includes amortization charges from acquired intangible assets, retention compensation, as referenced above, and the related tax effects, along with certain other accounting effects, but excludes the impacts of any expected operational synergies. The unaudited pro forma financial information as presented below is for informational purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the results of operations that would have been achieved if the acquisitions had taken place on January 1, 2019.

The unaudited pro forma financial information for the three months ended March 31, 2020 combine the historical results of the Company, Ten-X and Homesnap for the periods prior to the acquisition date, and the effects of the pro forma adjustments listed above.
The unaudited pro forma financial information, in the aggregate, was as follows (in thousands, except per share data):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Revenue$411,289 
Net income$64,244 
Net income per share - basic$1.76 
Net income per share - diluted$1.75 

6.INVESTMENTS AND FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received in the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. There is a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which categorizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.

As of March 31, 2021, the Company's financial assets comprise Level 1 cash equivalents with original maturities of three months or less in the amount of $3.4 billion. As of March 31, 2021, the Company had no Level 2 or Level 3 financial assets measured at fair value.

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company sold its ARS investments for $10.3 million and recognized a realized loss of $0.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 included in other (expense) income on the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations.

In addition to the financial instruments listed above, the Company holds other financial instruments, including cash equivalents, cash deposits, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and Senior Notes. The carrying value for
22


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)

such financial instruments, other than the Senior Notes, each approximated their fair values as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. The estimated fair value of the Company's outstanding Senior Notes using quoted prices from the over-the-counter markets, considered Level 2 inputs, was $0.97 billion as of March 31, 2021.

7.LEASES

The Company has operating leases for its office facilities, data centers and certain vehicles, as well as finance leases for office equipment. The Company's leases have remaining terms of less than one year to eight years. The leases contain various renewal and termination options. The period that is subject to an option to extend the lease is included in the lease term if it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised. The period that is subject to an option to terminate the lease is included if it is reasonably certain that the option will not be exercised.

Lease costs related to the Company's operating leases included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Operating lease costs:20212020
   Cost of revenues$2,324 $2,894 
   Software development1,393 1,396 
   Selling and marketing (excluding customer base amortization)2,650 2,539 
   General and administrative1,308 1,174 
Total operating lease costs$7,675 $8,003 
The impact of lease costs related to finance leases and short-term leases was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2021.

Supplemental balance sheet information related to operating leases was as follows (in thousands):
BalanceBalance Sheet LocationMarch 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Operating lease liabilities$124,904 $148,975 
Less: imputed interest(8,799)(10,998)
Present value of lease liabilities116,105 137,977 
Less: current portion of lease liabilitiesLease liabilities27,932 32,648 
Long-term lease liabilitiesLease and other long-term liabilities$88,173 $105,329 
Weighted-average remaining lease term in years4.04.0
Weighted-average discount rate3.6 %3.6 %
Balance sheet information related to finance leases was not material as of March 31, 2021.

Supplemental cash flow information related to leases was as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20212020
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
Operating cash flows used in operating leases$8,980 $8,709 
ROU assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations:
Operating leases$1,864 $5,080 
23


COSTAR GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)




8.GOODWILL

The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill by operating segment consist of the following (in thousands):
 North AmericaInternationalTotal
Goodwill, December 31, 2019$1,738,360 $143,660 $1,882,020 
Acquisitions, including measurement period adjustments(1)
347,134 1,273 348,407 
Effect of foreign currency translation 5,572 5,572 
Goodwill, December 31, 20202,085,494 150,505 2,235,999 
Acquisitions, including measurement period adjustments(2)
(25,805) (25,805)
Effect of foreign currency translation 782 782 
Goodwill, March 31, 2021$2,059,689 $151,287 $2,210,976 
__________________________
(1) North America goodwill for the year ended December 31, 2020, includes goodwill recorded in connection with the acquisitions of Ten-X and Homesnap, as well as STR measurement period adjustments to goodwill of $0.3 million. International goodwill for the year ended December 31, 2020 includes goodwill recorded in connection with the acquisition of Emporis GmbH of $1.2 million and STR measurement period adjustments of $0.1 million.

(2) North America goodwill during the three months ended March 31, 2021, includes Homesnap measurement period adjustments of $25.8 million. See Note 5 for acquisition details.
The Company recorded goodwill of approximately $185 million and $136 million in connection with the December 2020 Homesnap and June 2020 Ten-X acquisitions, respectively.
No impairments of the Company's goodwill were recognized during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

9.INTANGIBLE ASSETS

Intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands, except amortization period data):
 March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Weighted-
Average
Amortization
Period (in years)
Acquired technology and data$131,433 $131,551 5
Accumulated amortization(100,013)(97,791) 
Acquired technology and data, net31,420 33,760  
Acquired customer base581,041 545,643 10
Accumulated amortization(314,819)(296,758) 
Acquired customer base, net266,222 248,885  
Acquired trade names and other intangible assets264,674 249,465 11
Accumulated amortization(111,975)(105,365)&#