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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 20-F

(Mark One)

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

OR

  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

OR

  SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission file number 001-37922

ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Building One, No. 1685 Huazhi Road,
Qingpu District, Shanghai, 201708
People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Huiping Yan, Chief Financial Officer

Building One, No. 1685 Huazhi Road,
Qingpu District, Shanghai, 201708
People’s Republic of China
Phone: (86 21) 5980 4508
Email: hp.yan@zto.com

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

American depositary shares, each representing one Class A ordinary share par value US$0.0001 per share

ZTO

New York Stock Exchange

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share

2057

The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

Table of Contents

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2020, there were 828,869,972 ordinary shares outstanding, par value $0.0001 per share, being the sum of 622,769,972 Class A ordinary shares and 206,100,000 Class B ordinary shares.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

  Yes     No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

  Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

  Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

  Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

  Item 17    Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

  Yes     No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

  Yes     No

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

3

PART I

4

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

4

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

4

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

4

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

53

ITEM 4A.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

89

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

90

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

111

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

126

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

128

ITEM 9.

THE OFFER AND LISTING

131

ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

131

ITEM 11.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

147

ITEM 12.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

148

PART II

151

ITEM 13.

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

151

ITEM 14.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

151

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

151

ITEM 16A.

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

152

ITEM 16B.

CODE OF ETHICS

152

ITEM 16C.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

153

ITEM 16D.

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

153

ITEM 16E.

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

153

ITEM 16F.

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

154

ITEM 16G.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

154

ITEM 16H.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

154

PART III

154

ITEM 17.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

154

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

154

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

155

i

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INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:

“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one Class A ordinary share;
“ADRs” are to the American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;
“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
“delivery service fees” are to service fees directly charged by network partners from parcel senders in connection with express delivery services rendered. The full delivery service fees collected by pickup outlets upfront from the senders typically comprise of (i) the pickup service fees; (ii) the network transit fees payable to the Company; and (iii) the last-mile delivery fees payable to the delivery outlets operated by other network partners;
“Hong Kong” or “HK” or “Hong Kong S.A.R.” are to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PRC;
“Hong Kong Listing Rules” are to the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, as amended or supplemented from time to time;
“Hong Kong Stock Exchange” are to The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited;
our “network partners” are to business partners that own and operate pickup and delivery outlets in our network and operate express delivery services under our “Zhongtong” or “ZTO” brand;
“network transit fees” are to fees payable by our network partners to us in connection with the services we provide to them, which mainly include parcel sorting and parcel line-haul transportation;
“New Retail” are to the continued integration of online and offline retail channels by large e-commerce platforms and various retail merchants to reduce customer acquisition costs and enhance customers' shopping experience;
“ordinary shares” are to our Class A and Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share;
our “parcel volume” in any given period are to the number of parcels collected by our network partners using our waybills in that period;
“RMB” or “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;
“SFO” are to the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Chapter 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong), as amended or supplemented from time to time;

1

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“unit cost per parcel” are to the sum of cost of revenues and total operating expenses of the applicable period divided by our total parcel volume during the same period;
“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$,” or “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States;
“ZTO Express” are to ZTO Express Co. Ltd. or, depending on the context, ZTO Express Co. Ltd. and its subsidiaries; and
“ZTO,” “we,” “us,” “our company” or “our” are to ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc., its subsidiaries and its consolidated affiliated entities. Depending on the context, references to “we” and “our” may also include the network partners within our network.

2

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements that relate to our current expectations and views of future events. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigations Reform Act of 1995.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

our goals and strategies;
our future business development, financial conditions and results of operations;
the expected growth of the express delivery industry in China;
our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our services;
our expectations regarding our relationships with network partners, direct and end customers, suppliers and our other stakeholders;
competition in our industry; and
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.

You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. Other Sections of this annual report discuss factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

Our reporting currency is the Renminbi, or RMB. This annual report contains translations of RMB and Hong Kong dollar amounts into U.S. dollars at specific rates solely for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations of RMB and Hong Kong dollars into U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars into RMB in this annual report were made at a rate of RMB6.5250 to US$1.00 and HK$7.7534 to US$1.00, the respective exchange rates on December 31, 2020 set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. We make no representation that any RMB, Hong Kong dollar or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this annual report could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars, RMB or Hong Kong dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

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PART I

ITEM 1.          IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.          OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.          KEY INFORMATION

A.          Our Selected Consolidated Financial Data

The following summary consolidated statements of comprehensive income data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 and summary consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The summary consolidated statements of comprehensive income data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 and the summary consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP.

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You should read the summary consolidated financial information in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results expected for future periods.

Years Ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands, except for share and per share data)

Selected Consolidated Comprehensive Income Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Revenues

 

9,788,768

 

13,060,073

 

17,604,451

 

22,109,946

 

25,214,290

 

3,864,259

Cost of revenues

 

(6,345,899)

 

(8,714,489)

 

(12,239,568)

 

(15,488,778)

 

(19,377,184)

 

(2,969,683)

Gross profit

 

3,442,869

 

4,345,584

 

5,364,883

 

6,621,168

 

5,837,106

 

894,576

Operating income (expenses):

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

Selling, general and Administrative

 

(705,995)

 

(780,517)

 

(1,210,717)

 

(1,546,227)

 

(1,663,712)

 

(254,975)

Other operating income, net

 

32,104

 

183,368

 

178,057

 

387,890

 

580,973

 

89,038

Total operating expenses

 

(673,891)

 

(597,149)

 

(1,032,660)

 

(1,158,337)

 

(1,082,739)

 

(165,937)

Income from operations

 

2,768,978

 

3,748,435

 

4,332,223

 

5,462,831

 

4,754,367

 

728,639

Other income (expenses):

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

Interest income

 

44,791

 

166,325

 

401,162

 

585,404

 

442,697

 

67,846

Interest expense

 

(12,986)

 

(15,668)

 

(780)

 

 

(35,307)

 

(5,411)

Loss from fair value changes of financial instruments

(877)

(134)

Gain on deemed disposal of equity method investments

 

9,551

 

 

 

 

 

Gain/(loss) on disposal of equity investees and subsidiary

 

 

 

562,637

 

(2,860)

 

1,086

 

166

Impairment of investment in equity investee

 

 

(30,000)

 

 

(56,026)

 

 

Unrealized gain from investment in equity investee

754,468

Foreign currency exchange gain (loss)

 

9,977

 

(48,149)

 

41,189

 

13,301

 

(127,180)

 

(19,491)

Income before income tax and share of loss in equity method investments

 

2,820,311

 

3,820,943

 

5,336,431

 

6,757,118

 

5,034,786

 

771,615

Income tax expense

 

(731,987)

 

(646,361)

 

(929,133)

 

(1,078,295)

 

(689,833)

 

(105,722)

Share of loss in equity method investments

 

(36,721)

 

(15,682)

 

(19,386)

 

(7,556)

 

(18,507)

 

(2,836)

Net Income

 

2,051,603

 

3,158,900

 

4,387,912

 

5,671,267

 

4,326,446

 

663,057

Net loss/(income) attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

2,252

 

763

 

(4,887)

 

2,878

 

(14,233)

 

(2,181)

Net income attributable to ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc.

 

2,053,855

 

3,159,663

 

4,383,025

 

5,674,145

 

4,312,213

 

660,876

Change in redemption value of convertible redeemable preferred shares

 

(133,568)

 

 

 

 

 

Net income attributable to ordinary shareholders

 

1,920,287

 

3,159,663

 

4,383,025

 

5,674,145

 

4,312,213

 

660,876

Net earnings per share/ADS attributable to ordinary shareholders

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

Basic

 

2.91

 

4.41

 

5.83

 

7.24

 

5.42

 

0.83

Diluted

 

2.91

 

4.40

 

5.82

 

7.23

 

5.42

 

0.83

Weighted average shares used in calculating net earnings per ordinary share/ADS

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

Basic

 

634,581,307

 

717,138,526

 

751,814,077

 

784,007,583

 

796,097,532

 

796,097,532

Diluted

 

634,581,307

 

717,599,562

 

752,672,956

 

784,331,120

 

796,147,504

 

796,147,504

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax of nil:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

308,398

 

(590,545)

 

867,612

 

104,004

 

(771,291)

 

(118,205)

Comprehensive income attributable to ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc.

 

2,362,253

 

2,569,118

 

5,250,637

 

5,778,149

 

3,540,922

 

542,671

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As of December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Current assets:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

11,287,789

 

5,425,024

 

4,622,554

 

5,270,204

 

14,212,778

 

2,178,204

Short-term investment

 

 

5,224,559

 

13,599,852

 

11,113,217

 

3,690,402

 

565,579

Advances to suppliers

 

646,666

 

263,574

 

337,874

 

438,272

 

589,042

 

90,275

Prepayments and other current assets

 

379,055

 

719,983

 

1,507,996

 

1,964,506

 

2,334,688

 

357,805

Non-current assets:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

Property and equipment, net

 

4,065,562

 

6,473,010

 

9,035,704

 

12,470,632

 

18,565,161

 

2,845,235

Goodwill

 

4,157,111

 

4,241,541

 

4,241,541

 

4,241,541

 

4,241,541

 

650,045

Total assets

 

23,403,738

 

25,827,638

 

39,682,857

 

45,890,502

 

59,204,750

 

9,073,524

Liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Short-term bank borrowings

 

450,000

 

250,000

 

 

 

1,432,929

 

219,606

Other current liabilities

 

1,656,590

 

2,281,067

 

2,833,769

 

3,552,288

 

4,487,084

 

687,676

Total liabilities

 

3,652,991

 

4,386,321

 

5,413,308

 

7,487,105

 

10,105,052

 

1,548,666

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity

 

23,403,738

 

25,827,638

 

39,682,857

 

45,890,502

 

59,204,750

 

9,073,524

Years Ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

Selected Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

2,572,243

 

3,630,684

 

4,404,051

 

6,304,186

 

4,950,749

 

758,735

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(3,085,040)

 

(8,294,547)

 

(12,872,633)

 

(3,664,213)

 

(3,549,341)

 

(543,960)

Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities

 

9,415,093

 

(1,061,558)

 

7,042,122

 

(1,982,306)

 

8,337,407

 

1,277,764

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

302,097

 

(424,000)

 

275,680

 

(3,207)

 

(656,137)

 

(100,558)

Net increase/(decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

9,204,393

 

(6,149,421)

 

(1,150,780)

 

654,460

 

9,082,678

 

1,391,981

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year

 

2,718,762

 

11,923,155

 

5,773,734

 

4,622,954

 

5,277,414

 

808,799

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year

 

11,923,155

 

5,773,734

 

4,622,954

 

5,277,414

 

14,360,092

 

2,200,780

B.          Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.          Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.          Risk Factors

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Our business and growth are highly dependent on the development of the e-commerce industry and the emergence of New Retail in China.

We generate a significant portion of our parcel volume by serving end customers that conduct business on various e-commerce platforms in China, and our end customers rely on our services to fulfill orders placed by consumers on such platforms. In December 2020, more than 90% of our total parcel volume was attributable to e-commerce platforms. Our business and growth are therefore highly dependent on the viability and prospects of the e-commerce industry in China.

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Any uncertainties relating to the growth, profitability and regulatory regime of the e-commerce industry in China could have a significant impact on us. The development of the e-commerce industry in China is affected by a number of factors, most of which are beyond our control. These factors include:

the growth of broadband and mobile internet penetration and usage in China;
the consumption power and disposable income of e-commerce consumers in China, as well as changes in demographics and consumer tastes and preferences;
the availability, reliability and security of e-commerce platforms;
the selection, price and popularity of products offered on e-commerce platforms;
the potential impact of the COVID-19 to our business operations and the economy in China and elsewhere generally;
the emergence of alternative channels or business models that better suit the needs of consumers in China;
the development of fulfillment, payment and other ancillary services associated with e-commerce;
the continued integration of online and offline retail channels by large e-commerce platforms and various retail merchants to reduce customer acquisition costs and enhance customers’ shopping experience (“New Retail”); and
changes in laws and regulations, as well as government policies, that govern the e-commerce industry in China.

The e-commerce industry is highly sensitive to changes in macroeconomic conditions, and e-commerce spending tends to decline during recessionary periods. Many factors beyond our control, including inflation and deflation, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, volatility of stock and property markets, interest rates, tax rates and other government policies and changes in unemployment rates can adversely affect consumer confidence and spending behavior on e-commerce platforms, which could in turn materially and adversely affect our growth and profitability. In addition, unfavorable changes in domestic and international politics, including military conflicts, political turmoil and social instability, may also adversely affect consumer confidence and spending, which could in turn negatively impact our growth and profitability.

Our business operations have relied on, and are likely to continue to be significantly influenced by, certain third-party e-commerce platforms.

Our business operations have relied on certain third-party e-commerce platforms, such as the Alibaba ecosystem, and we still expect to be significantly influenced by those third-party e-commerce platforms in the foreseeable future.

Although such third-party e-commerce platforms are not our direct customers, they have significant influence over how transactions take place on their e-commerce platforms, including how purchase orders are fulfilled by indicating to consumers the preferred express delivery companies for orders placed. For example, in order to maintain and foster our cooperation with Alibaba, we may have to accommodate the demands and requirements from various players in the Alibaba ecosystem, such as the adoption of digital waybills initiated by Cainiao Network, a central logistics information system and solutions provider affiliated with Alibaba. Such demands and requirements may increase the cost of our business or weaken our connection with our end customers.

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Furthermore, in May 2018, Alibaba and Cainiao Network entered into a strategic transaction with us. Pursuant to the transaction terms, certain investors led by Alibaba and Cainiao Network invested US$1.38 billion in our company in exchange for approximately 10% of our equity interest at that time and obtained certain shareholder rights in our company. The transaction was completed in June 2018. Alibaba has also invested, and may invest in the future, in our competitors. Alibaba may encourage merchants on its platforms to choose certain other investees’ services over ours for business reasons. Alibaba may also build an in-house delivery network to serve its e-commerce platforms in the future. If either or both of these situations were to materialize, our business may be negatively impacted, and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We face risks associated with our network partners and their employees and personnel.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 30,000 pickup/delivery outlets and over 5,350 direct network partners under our ZTO brand. We rely on these network partners to directly interact with and serve end customers. However, the interests of a network partner may not be entirely aligned with ours or with those of our other network partners at all times. We manage our business relationships with direct network partners through contractual agreements, which provide for performance incentives along with periodic evaluations. Our direct network partners may sub-contract part of their business to their cooperation partners, which we refer to as our indirect network partners. The sub-contracting to indirect network partners is subject to our consent. However, we may not be able to manage the network partners as effectively as if we had full ownership of them or operated their business directly. In particular, we do not enter into agreements with our indirect network partners and are therefore unable to exert a significant degree of influence over them.

Our network partners and their employees have a significant number of direct interactions with our end customers, and their performance is directly associated with our brand. We do not directly supervise the employees of our network partners in providing services to end customers. Our existing network-wide service standards and periodic training to the personnel of our network partners may not be sufficient for us to effectively monitor, maintain and improve their service quality or their general conduct towards end-customers. In the event of any unsatisfactory performance or unlawful behavior by our network partners and/or their employees towards end-customers, we may experience service disruptions and our reputation may be materially and adversely affected. We may voluntarily, or upon the request of applicable authorities, conduct investigations on such event and adopt remediation/preventive measures. Such efforts may not be limited to the relevant parties, but applicable throughout our network, which could cause temporary diversion from the ordinary course of our and our network partners’ business. Furthermore, our network partners may fail to implement sufficient control over the pickup and delivery personnel who work at the outlets in connection with their conduct, such as proper collection and handling of parcels and delivery service fees, adherence to customer privacy standards and timely delivery of parcels. As a result, we or our network partners may suffer financial losses, incur liabilities and suffer reputational damage in the event of theft or late delivery of parcels, embezzlement of delivery service fees, mishandling of customer privacy, misconduct or unlawful behavior towards end-customers, or any other behavior that reflects adversely on our business and reputation.

Suspension or termination of a network partner’s services in a particular geographic area may result in a significant interruption or failure to provide services in the corresponding geographic area. A network partner may suspend or terminate its services voluntarily or involuntarily due to various reasons, including a disagreement or dispute with us, failure to make a profit, failure to obtain requisite approvals, failure to maintain licenses or permits or to comply with other governmental regulations, and events beyond our or its control, such as inclement weather, natural disasters, transportation interruptions or labor unrest or shortage. Due to the intense competition in China’s express delivery industry, our existing network partners may also choose to discontinue their cooperation with us and work with our competitors instead. We may not be able to promptly replace these network partners or find alternative ways to provide services in a timely, reliable and cost-effective manner, or at all. As a result of any service disruptions associated with our network partners, our customer satisfaction, reputation, operations and financial performance may be materially and adversely affected.

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We face intense competition, which could adversely affect our results of operations and market share.

We operate in a highly competitive and consolidating industry. We compete primarily with leading domestic express delivery companies, including YTO Express, STO Express, Yunda Express, Best Express, SF Express and the express delivery services provided by China Post such as EMS. We compete with them based on a number of factors, including network stability, business model, operational capabilities, infrastructure capacity, cost control and service quality. We have historically experienced a decline in the delivery service market prices and we may continue to face downward pricing pressure. If we and our network partners cannot effectively control our costs to remain competitive, our market share and revenue may decline. Additionally, if we have to subsidize our network partners to increase our network partners’ competitiveness, our gross margin may decline. Our competitors may attempt to gain market share by lowering their rates, especially during economic slowdowns or in key regional markets. Such rate reductions may limit our ability to maintain or increase our rates and operating margins and inhibit our ability to grow our business.

In addition, major e-commerce platforms, such as Alibaba, Pinduoduo and JD.com, may choose to build or further develop their respective in-house delivery capabilities to serve their logistics needs and compete with us, which may significantly affect our market share and total parcel volume. Furthermore, as we diversify our service offering and further expand our customer base, we may face competition from existing or new players in new sectors we choose to enter. In particular, we or our network partners may face competition from existing or new last-mile delivery service providers which may expand their service offerings to include express delivery or adopt a business model disruptive to our business and compete with our network partners for delivery personnel. Similarly, existing players in an adjacent or sub-market may choose to leverage their existing infrastructure and expand their services to serve our customers. If these players succeed in doing so, our market share may suffer and our business and financial performance may be significantly and adversely affected.

Certain of our current and potential competitors, as well as international logistics operators with a presence in China, may have significantly greater resources, longer operating histories, larger customer bases and greater brand recognition than us. Other current and potential competitors may be acquired by, receive investment from, or enter into strategic relationships with, established and well-financed companies or investors which would help enhance their competitiveness. Moreover, competitors may adopt more aggressive pricing policies or devote greater resources to marketing and promotional campaigns than us. We may not be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors, and competitive pressures may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Any service disruptions experienced by our sorting hubs or the outlets operated by our network partners may adversely affect our business operations.

Our daily operations rely heavily on the orderly performance of our sorting hubs and the pickup and delivery outlets operated by our network partners. Any service disruption at our sorting hubs or the pickup and delivery outlets as a result of a failure or disruption of the automated facilities, under-capacity during peak parcel volume periods, force majeure, third-party sabotage, disputes, employee delinquency or strike, government inspections or regulatory orders mandating service halt or temporary or permanent shutdown would adversely impact our business operations. For example, any ad hoc regulatory inspection by local authorities, such as environmental safety and security checks, on any of our facilities or our network partners’ service outlets may cause business disruptions and delay the processing and delivery of parcels. The outbreak of an epidemic, such as the recent outbreak of COVID-19, may also cause a significant disruption to our business. For instance, certain emergency measures implemented by the Chinese government in early 2020, mandated the temporary closure of our facilities, sorting hubs and service outlets. If we are required by governmental authorities to implement changes to our facilities or relocate any of our facilities or our network partners’ service outlets, our and our network partners’ operating costs may increase as a result. In the event of service disruptions at our sorting hubs or outlets, parcel sorting or parcel pickup and delivery may be delayed, suspended or stopped. Such parcels would need to be redirected to other nearby sorting hubs or outlets, and such rerouting of parcels will likely increase risks of delay and delivery errors. At the same time, increased parcel sorting or pickup and delivery pressure on nearby sorting hubs or outlets may negatively impact their performance and result in adverse effects to our entire network. Any of the foregoing events may result in significant operational interruptions and slowdowns, customer complaints and reputational damage.

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Our technology systems are critical to our business operations and growth prospects, and failure to continue to improve, and effectively utilize, our technology systems or develop new technologies could harm our business operations, reputation and growth prospects.

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our technology systems is critical to our ability to deliver high-quality customer services. We rely on the Zhongtian system, our self-developed and centralized technology systems, which consists of our operational management system, our network management system, our settlement system, our finance system and other systems and mobile apps connecting our network partners to efficiently operate our network. These integrated systems support the smooth performance of certain key functions of our business, such as order tracking, fleet dispatch and management, route planning, and fee settlement. In addition, the maintenance and processing of various operating and financial data is essential to the day-to-day operation of our business and formulation of our strategies. Therefore, our business operations and growth prospects depend, in part, on our ability to maintain and make timely and cost-effective enhancements and upgrade to our technology systems and to introduce innovative additions to meet changing operational needs. Continued investment in information technology and equipment to enhance operational efficiency and reliability is part of our growth strategy. While we have significantly increased our spending on technology, such investment may not be sufficient to fully support our expanding business needs. Failure to maintain sufficient spending on technology systems could cause economic losses and put us at a disadvantage to our competitors. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to keep up with technological improvements or that technologies developed by others (including our competitors) will not render our services less competitive or attractive. Any issues impairing the functionality and effectiveness of our systems could result in unanticipated system disruptions, slower response time and impaired user experiences, as well as delays or inaccuracies in reporting operating and financial information.

Any interruptions caused by telecommunications failures, computer viruses, hacking, or other attempts to harm our technology infrastructure could result in the unavailability or slowdown of our centralized system and significantly impact workflows throughout our entire network. We can provide no assurance that our current security mechanisms will be sufficient to protect our technology systems from any third-party intrusions, viruses or hacker attacks, information or data theft or other similar activities. Any such occurrences could disrupt our services, damage our reputation and harm our results of operations.

We operate in a labor-intensive industry and an overall contraction in the availability of workers in the labor market or any labor unrest may negatively affect our business.

Our business is labor-intensive. As of December 31, 2020, we had a total of 22,536 employees and over 57,000 outsourced personnel. A failure by us or our network partners to maintain a stable and dedicated workforce may result in disruption or delays in the services provided to end customers. We and our network partners often need to hire additional or temporary workers to handle the significant increase in parcel volume following special promotional events such as promotional campaigns on June 18, November 11 and December 12 of each year or during other peak seasons throughout the year. During these periods we have observed an increasingly competitive and tight labor market. In general, this has resulted in, and we expect will continue to result in, increased labor costs driven by higher salaries, social benefits and employee headcounts.

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Further, we and our network partners compete with other companies in our industry as well as other labor-intensive industries for labor, and such competition may affect the overall stability of our workforce and the performance of our network. For example, emerging disruptive business models like intra-city delivery, which enables senders and recipients within the same city to achieve rapid point-to-point delivery; or omni-channel delivery, which fulfills the logistics demands for omni-channel retailers and consumers, are likely to compete for pickup and delivery personnel with our network partners and service outlets. Some of our network partners or outlets may be pressured to increase compensation and social welfare benefits for their employees, which may result in lower profitability and insufficient cashflow for our network partners or service outlets. If our network partners or service outlets are unable to offer competitive salaries and benefits, or pay their employees on time or in full, they may lose their personnel, resulting in insufficient delivery resources, disgruntled employees, and lower delivery service quality in certain parts of our network.

We and our network partners have been involved in labor disputes in the past, none of which either individually or in the aggregate, had a material adverse impact on us. We and our network partners expect to continue to be involved in labor disputes from time to time, including involvement in various legal or administrative proceedings related to such disputes. Any labor unrest directed against us or our network partners could directly or indirectly prevent or hinder our normal business operations, and, if not resolved in a timely manner, lead to delays in fulfilling our customer orders and decreases in our revenue. Historically, we have experienced an incident where an employee strike of one of our network partners caused a prolonged service suspension in a southern city of China, and we cannot assure you that similar incidents would not happen in the future. We and our network partners cannot predict or control any labor unrest, especially those involving labor not directly employed by us. Further, labor unrest may have a negative effect on general labor market conditions or result in changes to labor laws, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We engage outsourcing firms to provide personnel for our operations. We have limited control over these personnel and may be liable for violations of applicable PRC labor laws and regulations accordingly.

We engage outsourcing firms to provide a large number of personnel to work at our network facilities. As of December 31, 2020, over 57,000 outsourced personnel were active in our operations. We enter into agreements with outsourcing firms and do not have any direct contractual relationship with outsourced personnel, resulting in limited control over them. If any outsourced personnel fail to operate in accordance with instructions, policies and business guidelines set forth by outsourcing firms based on our requirements, our market reputation, brand image and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Our agreements with the outsourcing firms may provide that we are not liable to the outsourced personnel. However, if the outsourcing firms violate any relevant PRC labor laws, regulations or their employment agreements with the personnel, such personnel may file a claim against us as they provide their services at our network facilities. As a result, we may incur legal liability, and our market reputation, brand image as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We face risks associated with parcels handled and transported through our network and risks associated with transportation.

We handle a large volume of parcels across our network, and face challenges with respect to the protection and inspection of these parcels. Parcels in our network may be stolen, damaged or lost for various reasons, and we and/or our network partners may face actual or alleged liability for such incidents. In addition, we may fail to detect unsafe or prohibited/restricted items. There have been incidents in the past where our network partners failed to strictly implement parcel screening procedures and allowed controlled items to be mailed through our network. Further, unsafe items processed and transported by us, such as flammables and explosives, toxic or corrosive items and radioactive materials, may damage other parcels in our network, injure their recipients, harm our personnel and result in property damage. Failure to prevent prohibited or restricted items from entering our network may result in administrative or criminal penalties as well as civil liability for personal injury and property damage.

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The transportation of parcels involves inherent risks. We have a large number of vehicles and personnel involved in our transportation operations at all times, who are subject to risks associated with transportation safety, including transportation related injuries and losses. For example, our vehicles and personnel may be involved in traffic accidents from time to time, resulting in personal injury and loss or damage to parcels carried by them. In addition, frictions or disputes may occasionally arise from the direct interaction of our personnel with parcel senders and recipients, which may result in personal injury or property damage if such incidents escalate. The insurance policies carried by us may not fully cover the damages caused by transportation related injuries or losses.

Any of the foregoing could disrupt our services, cause us to incur substantial expenses and divert the time and attention of our management. We and our network partners may face claims and incur significant liabilities if found liable or partially liable for any injuries, damages or losses. Claims against us may exceed the amount of our insurance coverage or may not be covered by insurance at all. Government authorities may also impose significant fines on us or require us to adopt costly preventive measures. Furthermore, if our services are perceived to be unsafe by our end customers, e-commerce platforms and consumers, our business volume may be significantly reduced, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our past growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth, and if we are unable to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Our business has grown substantially in recent years, but our past growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth. Our revenue growth in recent years was partly attributable to business acquisition, such as the acquisition of China Oriental Express Co., Ltd. The acquired business of China Oriental Express Co., Ltd. provides freight forwarding services, and our revenue generated from such services amounted to RMB1,278.7 million, RMB1,236.0 million, RMB1,862.7 million (US$285.5 million) in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively, accounting for 7.3%, 5.6% and 7.4% of our total revenues during the same periods, respectively. We plan to further expand our network in response to increasing customer and consumer needs, but we may not succeed in doing so. Even if we are able to expand our network as planned, we may not be able to continue to integrate and optimize a larger network. In addition, as customer and consumer needs at both the national and regional levels are continuously changing, we may not be able to successfully anticipate or respond to such changes. For example, we may experience shortages in our delivery capacity if our expansion fails to accurately and timely match increased customer and consumer demand. Furthermore, our anticipated future growth will likely place significant demands on our management and operations. Our success in managing our growth will depend, to a significant degree, on the ability of our executive officers and other members of our senior management to carry out our strategies effectively, our ability to balance the interests between us and our network partners as well as among our network partners, and our ability to adapt, improve and develop our financial and management information systems, controls and procedures. In addition, we will likely have to successfully recruit, train and manage more employees and improve and expand our sales and marketing capabilities. If we are not able to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively due to any of the foregoing reasons, our expansion may not be successful, and our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

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Our long-term growth and competitiveness are highly dependent on our ability to control costs and maintain or raise prices.

To maintain competitive pricing and enhance our profit margins, we must continually control our costs. Effective cost-control measures have a direct impact on our financial condition and results of operations. We have adopted various cost control measures and will continue to add new ones as necessary and appropriate. For example, transportation costs can be reduced through the choice of appropriate vehicles and optimization of transportation routes, and labor costs can be reduced through automation. However, the measures we have adopted or will adopt in the future may not be as effective as expected in improving our financial condition and results of operations. We do not intend to compete with our competitors by introducing aggressive pricing policies, which we consider detrimental to our long-term growth. Delivery services fees charged by our network partners to parcel senders have declined over time, partially as a result of market competition. Our gross profit per parcel is also affected by a variety of other factors, such as a decline in the average weight of parcels handled by us, an increase in the adoption of digital waybills, which have a lower charge rate than traditional paper waybills, an increase in delivery services directly provided to certain enterprise customers, and changes in our operating model. For example, the direct shipping model, whereby some parcels are directly shipped by certain volume-qualified network partners to our destination sorting hubs without going through our origination sorting hubs, reduces overall delivery time and operating costs and also lowers our revenues. If we are not able to effectively control our cost and adjust the level of network transit fees based on operating costs and market conditions, our profitability and cash flow may be adversely affected.

We outsource part of our line-haul transportation needs to our related party and use their services.

We outsource part of our line-haul transportation needs to Tonglu Tongze Logistics Ltd., or Tonglu Tongze, which is a transportation operator that works exclusively for ZTO. Tonglu Tongze had a fleet of over 750 trucks as of December 31, 2020. In 2018, 2019 and 2020, we incurred RMB547.5 million, RMB479.1 million and RMB331.3 million (US$50.8 million), respectively, of transportation service fees to Tonglu Tongze and its subsidiaries and had RMB45.5 million, RMB20.7 million of accounts payable as of December 31, 2018, and 2019, respectively, and RMB9.2 million (US$1.4 million) of prepayments as of December 31, 2020. Certain of our employees beneficially owned majority equity interests in Tonglu Tongze as of December 31, 2020. Therefore, we treat Tonglu Tongze as our related party and we expect to continue to rely on its services. Given the material level of Tonglu Tongze’s continued service to us, we may face a number of risks and uncertainties and there can be no assurance that (i) Tonglu Tongze’s service will continue to be available to us on an exclusive basis or at all, (ii) Tonglu Tongze’s service quality will remain stable and will not materially deteriorate, (iii) Tonglu Tongze will not unilaterally increase its service pricing, (iv) Tonglu Tongze and its employees will not engage in any wrongdoing or misconduct. or (v) our good relationship with Tonglu Tongze will not deteriorate. Our overall business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected if any of the foregoing factors were to materialize.

We face challenges in diversifying our service offerings and expanding our customer base.

We intend to further diversify our service offerings and expand our customer base to increase the number of revenue sources in the future. New services or new types of customers may involve risks and challenges that we do not currently face. Such new initiatives may require us to devote significant financial and managerial resources and may not perform as well as expected. We may not be able to successfully address customer demand and preferences and our existing network and facilities may not be adaptable enough to accommodate new services or customers. For example, different service offerings will likely require different equipment specifications and service standards, which may require significant time and costs to implement. We may also be inexperienced with operating models and cost structures associated with new types of customers we may choose to pursue. In addition, we may not be able to provide services of sufficient quality, which may result in complaints or liability claims against us, all of which would harm our overall reputation and financial performance. We may also selectively invest in emerging business opportunities in adjacent logistics markets, such as less-than-truckload shipping, or leverage our existing network and infrastructure to directly engage in related businesses. We cannot assure you that such endeavors will be profitable or that we will be able to recoup our investments with respect to any new services or new types of customers in time or at all.

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Damage to our brand image and corporate reputation could materially and adversely impact our business.

We believe our brand image and corporate reputation will play an increasingly important role in enhancing our competitiveness and maintaining our growth. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, may negatively impact our brand image and corporate reputation if not properly managed. These factors include our ability to provide superior services to our end customers, successfully conduct marketing and promotional activities, manage relationships with and among network partners, manage complaints and negative publicity, and maintain a positive perception of our company, our peers and the express delivery industry in general. Any actual or perceived deterioration of our service quality, which is based on an array of factors including customer satisfaction, number of complaints as well as number of accidents, may subject us to damages, including the loss of important customers. Any negative publicity against us or our peers may harm our corporate reputation and may result in changes to government policies and the regulatory environment. If we are unable to promote our brand image and protect our corporate reputation, we may not be able to maintain and grow our customer base and our business and our growth prospects may be adversely affected.

Our business and the business of our network partners are subject to a broad range of PRC laws and regulations. If we or our network partners are deemed to be not in compliance with any of these laws and regulations, our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely impacted.

Our business is subject to governmental supervision and regulation by the relevant PRC governmental authorities, including but not limited to the State Post Bureau and the Ministry of Transportation. Together, these governmental authorities promulgate and enforce regulations that cover many aspects of our day-to-day operations. See also “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation.” For example, the PRC Postal Law indicates that express delivery companies cannot engage in “posting and mail delivery business exclusively operated by postal enterprises.” However, PRC law does not provide a definition for “posting and mail delivery business exclusively operated by postal enterprises.” If the authorities define such term in the future and if the parcels that we deliver fall into the defined category, we may be considered in violation of such regulation. Further, certain of our network partners may commence express delivery services while still in the process of obtaining Courier Service Operation Permits, and since they use our brand in their businesses, we may be subject to fines or receive order of rectification as a result. Incidents like the foregoing ones may materially and adversely impact our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

According to the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, which were promulgated by the State Council on March 2, 2018, took effect on May 1, 2018 and were amended on March 2, 2019, we are subject to a revised set of requirements in operating our express delivery business, including but not limit to: (i) we are required to timely file records with the local post administrations for opening express delivery terminal outlets; (ii) in case we intend to suspend operating express delivery services, we shall make public announcement in advance, submit a written notice to the postal administrative departments, return the Courier Service Operation Permit and make proper arrangement on undelivered express parcels; (iii) we shall not sell, reveal or illegally provide any client information and we shall take remedial measures and report to the local post administrations in case any client information is revealed or may be revealed; (iv) we shall verify the identity of senders and register their identity information when receiving express parcels and shall not receive their express parcels where senders refuse to furnish identity information or furnish false identity information; (v) we shall refuse to accept the prohibited parcels and shall cease to sorting, transporting and delivering parcels which are suspected of containing prohibited items and shall promptly submit a report to governmental authorities and assist in investigations; (vi) we shall formulate our emergency plans, carry out emergency drills and exercises regularly and report emergencies to the local postal administrations; (vii) clients may claim compensation from us for any delay, missing, damage or shortage of express parcels handled by our network partners, since they use our trademark, corporate name and express waybill. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Express Delivery Services.” The operation of our express delivery service is subject to this regulation. Failure to comply with these regulations result in requirement to rectify, fines, suspension of business for remediation or revocation of Courier Service Operation Permit.

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Pursuant to the Administrative Provisions concerning the Running of Cargo Vehicles with Out-of-Gauge Goods promulgated by the PRC Ministry of Transport, which took effect on September 21, 2016, cargo vehicles running on public roads shall not carry cargo weighing more than the limits prescribed by this regulation and their dimensions shall not exceed those as set forth by the same regulation. The operation of our truck fleet is subject to this regulation.

We have not been required to modify or replace any of our trucks. While we expect to gradually reduce the number of non-complying trucks, the non-complying trucks may be banned and we may be required to modify noncomplying trucks or purchase new ones to replace them. Otherwise, we may be subject to additional penalties under this regulation if we continue to operate trucks that exceed the limits set forth in the regulation.

Pursuant to the E-commerce Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the E-commerce Law, promulgated by Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, which took effect on January 1, 2019, we are subject to certain requirements in e-commerce business, including but not limit to, (i) in providing express logistics services for e-commerce activities, the providers thereof shall abide by laws and administrative regulations, and comply with the service standards and time limits they have promised; (ii) while handing over commodities, express logistics service providers shall remind consignees to examine the commodities immediately on the spot; where the commodities are received by others for consignees, such express logistics service providers shall obtain the consent of consignees, and are further required not only to examine the postal articles in the presence of senders so as to inspect whether the postal articles are prohibited or restricted from express delivery but also to remind consignees to examine the commodities immediately on the spot; and (iii) express logistics service providers are required to use environmental-friendly packaging materials in accordance with the relevant provisions in an effort to reduce the consumption of packaging materials and implement the recycling measures. While offering express logistics services, the providers thereof may agree to be entrusted by e-commerce operators to collect payments for goods on a commission basis. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Express Delivery Services.” The operation of our express delivery service is subject to this law. If we are found to be not compliant with the requirements, and we may be required to rectify. In order to adapt to the evolving e-commerce industry, which could have a significant impact on us, we may need to develop or upgrade existing business model. If our efforts to comply with laws and regulations concerning e-commerce business are unsuccessful, our business, financial condition and results of operation may be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, our network partners have full discretion over their daily operations and make localized decisions with respect to their facilities, vehicles and hiring and pricing decisions. Their operations are regulated by various PRC laws and regulations, including local administrative rulings, orders and policies that are pertinent to their localized express delivery business. For example, local regulations may specify the models or types of vehicles to be used in parcel pickup and delivery services or require the network partners to implement heightened parcel safety screening procedures, which could materially drive up the operating costs and delivery efficiency of the pickup and delivery outlets.

Existing and new laws and regulations may be enforced from time to time and substantial uncertainties exist regarding the interpretation and implementation of current and any future PRC laws and regulations applicable to us and/or our network partners. If the PRC government requires additional approvals or licenses, imposes additional restrictions on our or our network partners’ operations, or tightens enforcements of existing or new laws or regulations, it has the authority, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate income, revoke business licenses, and require us or our network partners to discontinue relevant business operations. Since our network partners use our brand in their businesses, if they are found to be noncompliant with PRC laws and regulations, our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely impacted.

Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to the business operation of us or our network partners may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We and our network partners are required to hold a number of licenses and permits in connection with our business operation, including, but not limited to, the Courier Service Operation Permit and Road Transportation Operation Permit.

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Under PRC laws, an enterprise that operates and provides express delivery services must obtain a Courier Service Operation Permit listing out all the regions it and its branches are allowed to operate in. Such enterprise needs to make a filing with the relevant postal authority to update or renew its Courier Service Operation Permit to include any additional regions it plans to expand into. Our consolidated affiliated entities engaging in the express delivery services need to obtain the Courier Service Operation Permits, which based on our geographical coverage would cover the majority part of China. Our consolidated affiliated entities are required to timely make all required filings with the relevant postal authorities including to update or renew their Courier Service Operation Permits with respect to the regions they operate in.

Failure to make such filings may result in a correction order or fines. In addition, an enterprise engaging in road freight transportation is required to obtain a Road Transportation Operation Permit from the relevant county-level road transportation administrative bureau. Similarly, our network partners also need to obtain necessary licenses and permits to operate express delivery and transportation business. Failure to obtain such licenses and permits may result in suspension of operation, fines or other penalties by government authorities. In addition, companies that apply for the Courier Service Operation Permit are subject to certain service capability requirements, including sufficient number of express delivery personnel. If any of our consolidated affiliated entities are found to have failed to meet the service capability requirements at the time of applying for or during the validity of such permit, such entities may be subject to a fine ranging from RMB10,000 to RMB30,000, their Courier Service Operation Permits may be revoked and they cannot re-apply to obtain the permit for a period of three years.

After obtaining the Courier Service Operation Permit, an enterprise is further required to maintain its express delivery service operations during the validity of such permit. Where the permit-holder does not operate any express delivery services for a period of time over six months without due grounds after obtaining the Courier Service Operation Permit, or suspends its business for more than six months without authorization, the postal administrative departments may cancel the Courier Service Operation Permit of such holder.

We are currently not aware of any such cancellation or notice of cancellation. If we become subject to such cancellation, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.

However, we cannot assure you that the relevant governmental authorities would not require us to obtain the approvals or take any other actions retrospectively in the future. If the relevant governmental authorities require us to obtain the approvals, we cannot assure you that we will be able to do so in a timely manner or at all. Additionally, we may not be able to renew Road Transportation Operation Permit of the relevant subsidiaries due to the lack of such prior approval.

New laws and regulations may be enforced from time to time to require additional licenses and permits other than those we currently have. For instance, the E-commerce Law establishes additional standards in the express delivery industry. The PRC Foreign Investment Law, or the FIL which was promulgated on March 15, 2019 and came into force on January 1, 2020, replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. Further, the State Council also promulgated the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery on March 2, 2018. The Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, which took effect on May 1, 2018 and were amended on March 2, 2019, stipulate additional requirements and filing procedures for courier service operators in operating new express delivery terminal outlets. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Express Delivery Services.” As a result, substantial uncertainties exist regarding the interpretation and implementation of current and any future PRC laws and regulations applicable to our businesses. If the PRC government considers that we or our network partners were operating without the proper approvals, licenses or permits or promulgates new laws and regulations that require additional approvals or licenses or imposes additional restrictions on the operation of any part of our business, it has the authority, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate our income, revoke our business licenses, and require us to discontinue our relevant business or impose restrictions on the affected portion of our business. Any of these actions by the PRC government may have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

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Any deficiencies in China’s telecommunication and Internet infrastructure could impair the functioning of our technology system and the operation of our business.

Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the telecommunication and internet infrastructure in China. The availability and reliability of our website, mobile applications, customer service hotline and technology systems depend on telecommunication carriers and other third-party providers for digital data transmission and storage capacity, including bandwidth and server storage, among other things. If we are unable to enter into and renew agreements with these providers on acceptable terms, or if any of our existing agreements with such providers are terminated as a result of our breach or otherwise, our ability to provide our services to our customers could be adversely affected. We have experienced service interruptions in the past due to service interruptions at the underlying external telecommunications service providers, such as Internet data centers and broadband carriers. Frequent service interruptions could frustrate customers and discourage them from using our services, which could cause us to lose customers and harm our operating results.

We may not be able to maintain our corporate culture, which has been a key to our success.

Since our inception, our corporate culture has been defined by our mission, vision and values, and we believe that our culture has been critical to our success. In particular, our corporate culture has helped us serve our customers, attract, retain and motivate employees and network partners, and create value for our shareholders. We face a number of challenges that may affect our ability to maintain our corporate culture, including:

failure to identify and promote people to leadership positions in our organization who share our culture, values and mission;
the increasing number and geographic diversity of our network partners;
competitive pressure to move in directions that may divert us from our mission and values;
the continued challenges resulting from a constantly evolving business environment;
potential pressure from public markets to focus on short-term results instead of long-term value creation; and
the increasing need to develop expertise in new areas of business that affect us.

If we are not able to maintain our corporate culture or if our culture fails to deliver the long-term results we expect to achieve, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected if we are unable to provide high quality services to network partners and our end customers.

The success of our business largely depends on our ability to maintain and further enhance our service quality. We provide our network partners — our direct customers — with access to our line-haul transportation and sorting network. Together with our network partners, we provide complete door-to-door express delivery services to our end customers, which consist mainly of e-commerce merchants and other express delivery service users. If we or our network partners are unable to provide express delivery services in a timely, reliable, safe and secure manner, our reputation and customer loyalty could be negatively affected. If our customer service personnel fail to satisfy individual customer needs and respond effectively to customer complaints, we may lose potential or existing end customers and experience a decrease in customer orders, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We face risks associated with the financial services we provide to network partners.

We provide financial services to qualified network partners. A qualified network partner shall meet certain criteria set by us, such as having a legal and stable income or source of income and engaging in operation activities that are legal and meet the national industrial policies and requirements. Under PRC laws, an enterprise must obtain business licenses with corresponding business scope and/or approvals or filings from relevant governmental authorities related to operating and providing financial services, and the Company is compliant with the relevant laws and regulations in the PRC in all material aspects during the 2018, 2019 and 2020 with regard to the provision of such financial services. In connection with the financial services we provide to qualified network partners, we have obtained requisite business licenses and/or approvals under relevant PRC laws and regulations through Zhengzhou Airport Economic Comprehensive Experimental Zone ZTO Microcredit Loans Co., Ltd., Shanghai Wanhong Financial Leasing Co., Ltd., Tianjin Wanhong Financial Leasing Co., Ltd. and Tianjin Wanhong Commercial Factoring Co., Ltd. respectively. We entered into agreements with such qualified network partners and have committed and will continue to commit our own capital, which has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on our cash flow. However, we cannot assure you that our consolidated affiliated entities have timely made all required filings with the relevant governmental authorities including to update or renew their business licenses, approvals or filings, and the failure may subject us to a correction order or fines.

The risk of payment defaults and other credit risks are inherent to our financial services business. We cannot assure you that our monitoring of credit risk issues is or will be sufficient to result in lower delinquencies. Furthermore, our ability to manage the quality of these loans and the associated credit risks will also impact the results of operations of our financial services business. A deterioration in the overall quality of our loan portfolio and the increasing exposure to credit risks may occur due to a variety of reasons, including factors beyond our control, such as a slowdown in the growth of the global or Chinese economy or a liquidity or credit crisis in the global or Chinese finance sector, which may materially and adversely affect our businesses, operations or liquidity of our network partners, or their ability to repay or roll over their debt. Any significant deterioration in the asset quality of our financial services business and significant increase in associated credit risks may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Customer demand is difficult to forecast accurately, and we may fail to make accurate planning and spending decisions to match actual customer demand.

We make planning and spending decisions, including capacity expansion, procurement commitments, personnel hiring and other resource requirements based on our estimates of customer demand. The parcel volume we generate from end customers can vary significantly and unexpectedly, reducing our ability to accurately estimate future customer demand. In particular, we may potentially experience capacity and resource shortages in fulfilling customer orders following special promotional events such as promotional campaigns on June 18, November 11 and December 12 of each year or during other peak seasons throughout the year. Failure to meet customer demand in a timely fashion or at all may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends on the continuing efforts of our management. If we lose their services, our business may be severely disrupted.

Our business operations depend on the continuing efforts of our management team, particularly members of our senior management named in this annual report. If one or several members of our management team were unable or unwilling to continue their employment with us, we may not be able to replace them in a timely manner, or at all. We may incur additional expenses to recruit and retain qualified replacements. In addition, our management may join a competitor or form a competing company. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to successfully enforce our contractual rights included in employment agreements with our management team, in particular in China, where almost all of these individuals reside. As a result, our business may be negatively affected due to the loss of one or more members of our management, and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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If we are unable to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We intend to hire and retain additional qualified employees to support our business operations and planned expansion. Our future success depends to a significant extent on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly management and operational personnel with expertise in the express delivery industry, the e-commerce industry or other areas we may choose to expand into. Our experienced mid-level managers are instrumental in executing our business plans, implementing our business strategies and supporting our business operations and growth, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain these qualified personnel.

We have made, and may need to continue to make, substantial capital expenditures, and we will face risks that are inherent to such investments.

In order to implement our strategies and expansion plan, we made significant capital expenditures on the acquisition of land use rights, construction of facilities and upgrading of delivery infrastructure in connection with the growth of our business. We paid an aggregate of approximately RMB4.0 billion, RMB5.2 billion and RMB9.2 billion (US$1.4 billion) in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively, for the purchases of property and equipment and purchases of land use rights.

To facilitate our future expansion, including the entry into new sectors such as less-than-truckload business, we may need to continue to make substantial capital expenditures.

Significant capital expenditures are associated with certain inherent risks. We may not have the resources to fund such investment. Even if we have sufficient funding, assets that best suit our needs may not be available at reasonable prices or at all. For example, land resources may be scarce in an area that best fits our network expansion plan due to local zoning plans or other regulatory controls. In addition, we are likely to incur capital expenditures earlier than all of the anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be lower, or may be realized more slowly, than we expected. In addition, the carrying value of the related assets may be subject to impairment, which may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Our results of operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations.

We experience seasonality in our business, mainly correlating to the seasonality patterns associated with e-commerce in China. For example, our customers generally record fewer purchase orders during national holidays in China, particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday season in the first quarter of each year. Furthermore, when e-commerce platforms hold special promotional campaigns, for example, on November 11 and December 12 of each year, we typically observe peaks of parcel volume immediately following these campaigns. Our financial condition and results of operations for future periods may continue to fluctuate. As a result, our results of operations and the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may fluctuate from time to time due to seasonality.

Fluctuations in the price or availability of fuel and uncertainty in third-party transportation capacity may adversely affect our line-haul transportation costs and operational results.

Fuel costs and transportation expenses incurred in relation to the use of third-party transportation services represent 31%, 26% and 9% of our line-haul transportation costs in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The availability and price of fuel and third-party transportation capacity are subject to political, economic, and market factors that are outside of our control. In 2020, we continued to increase the use of self-owned and operated, cost-efficient high capacity trucks to replace third-party outsourced trucks, to further enhance transportation efficiency. In the event of a significant increase in fuel prices and third-party transportation service charges, our transportation expenses may rise, and our gross profit may decrease if we are unable to adopt effective cost control-measures or pass on incremental costs to our customers. As a result, our operating margin and the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may be adversely affected.

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We may not be able to obtain additional capital when desired, on favorable terms or at all.

We need to make continued investments in equipment, land, facilities and technological systems to remain competitive. Due to the unpredictable nature of the capital markets and our industry, we cannot assure you that we will be able to raise additional capital on terms favorable to us, or at all, if and when required, especially if we experience disappointing operating results. If adequate capital is not available to us as required, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of unanticipated opportunities, develop or enhance our infrastructure or respond to competitive pressures could be significantly limited. If we cannot raise required capital when needed, we may be unable to meet the demands of existing and prospective customers, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we do raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interests of our shareholders could be significantly diluted. These newly issued securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing shareholders.

Our income from equity investments is generally case based and non-recurring in nature, which could affect our financial results.

We had recorded gain on disposal of equity investees and subsidiary of RMB562.6 million in 2018 in relation to the disposal of our investments our shares in Shenzhen Feng Chao Technology Ltd. for cash consideration of RMB697.9 million in May 2018. In 2019, we had unrealized gain from investment in equity investee of RMB754.5 million, which resulted from an observable price change in a follow-on offering by Cainiao Network in the fourth quarter of 2019. Gain on disposal of equity investees and unrealized gain from investment in equity investee are on a case by case basis and are generally non-recurring in nature. There is no guarantee that we will realize gains from our equity investments in the future, and there is no assurance that our investments will generate positive returns. Our financial results would be adversely affected if we fail to generate income from our equity investments or incur loss from such investments.

Our business and results of operations may be adversely affected if we are unable to integrate the businesses and assets we have acquired.

We may not be able to successfully integrate the businesses and assets we have acquired or to timely and effectively train and integrate the employees of the acquired network partners into our operations. As a result, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

A severe or prolonged downturn in the Chinese or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

COVID-19 continues to have a severe and prolonged negative impact on the Chinese and the global economy. Even before the outbreak of COVID-19, the global macroeconomic environment faced numerous challenges. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has decreased since 2010. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies which have been adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China, even before 2020. Unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns about the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have negative economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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We have limited insurance coverage which could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.

We have limited insurance coverage. For example, we are not legally required to maintain insurance for parcel shipments. We do not maintain business interruption insurance or general third-party liability insurance, nor do we maintain key-man life insurance. We cannot assure you that our insurance coverage is sufficient to prevent us from any loss or that we will be able to successfully claim our losses under our current insurance policies on a timely basis, or at all. If we incur any loss that is not covered by our insurance policies, or the compensated amount is significantly less than our actual loss, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We rely on certain key operating metrics to evaluate the performance of our business, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.

We rely on certain key operating metrics, such as parcel volume and unit cost per parcel, to evaluate the performance of our business. Our operating metrics may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics used by our competitors due to differences in methodology and assumptions. We calculate these operating metrics using internal company data that has not been independently verified. For example, our parcel volume data is derived based on the number of parcels collected by our network partners using our waybills. If we discover material inaccuracies in the operating metrics we use, or if they are perceived to be inaccurate, our reputation may be harmed, and our evaluation methods and results may be impaired, which could negatively affect our business. If investors make investment decisions based on operating metrics we disclose that are inaccurate, we may also face potential lawsuits or disputes.

Failure to protect confidential information of our end customers or consumers could damage our reputation and substantially harm our business and results of operations.

We have access to a large amount of confidential information in our day-to-day operations. Each waybill contains the names, addresses, phone numbers and other contact information of the sender and recipient of a parcel. The content of the parcel may also constitute or reveal confidential information. The proper use and protection of confidential information is essential to maintaining customer trust in us and our services.

Our technology systems also process and store a significant amount of confidential information and data for the proper functioning of our network. Security breaches and hacker attacks on our system might result in a compromise to the technology that we use to protect confidential information. We may not be able to prevent third parties, especially hackers or other individuals or entities engaging in similar activities, from illegally obtaining confidential information in our possession. Such individuals or entities may engage in various other illegal activities using such information. Further, as parcels move through our network from pickup to delivery, a large number of personnel handle the flow of parcels and have access to significant amounts of confidential information. Some of these personnel may misappropriate the confidential information despite the security policies and measures we have implemented. In addition, most of the delivery and pickup personnel are not our employees, which makes it more difficult for us to implement sufficient and effective control over them.

Practices regarding the collection, use, storage, transmission and security of personal information have recently come under increased public scrutiny. In the future, the PRC government may adopt new laws and regulations regulating the solicitation, collection, processing or use of personal or consumer information. Compliance with such new laws and regulations could affect how we collect, store and process the information and require significant capital and other resources.

Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations could cause our customers to lose trust in us and our services. Any perception that the privacy of information is unsafe or vulnerable when using our services, could damage our reputation and substantially harm our business.

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We may fail to successfully enter necessary or desirable strategic alliances or make acquisitions or investments, and we may not be able to achieve the anticipated benefits from these alliances, acquisitions or investments we make.

We may selectively pursue strategic alliances and potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations, including opportunities that can help us further expand our service offering and improve our technology systems.

Strategic alliances with third parties could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance or default by counterparties, and increased expenses in establishing these new alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to control or monitor the actions of our strategic partners. To the extent a strategic partner suffers any negative publicity as a result of its business operations, our reputation may be negatively affected by virtue of our association with such party.

To consolidate and optimize our delivery capacity in key geographic areas in China, we conducted certain asset and equity acquisitions from 2014 to 2016. In 2017, we acquired the core business of China Oriental Express Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries. In June 2018, we made a strategic investment of approximately US$168 million to acquire approximately 15% of equity stake in Cainiao Post, Cainiao Network’s network of last-mile delivery stations. We have recorded goodwill as a result of certain acquisitions. If these companies do not subsequently generate the anticipated financial performance or if any goodwill impairment test triggering event occurs, we may need to revalue or write down the value of goodwill and other intangible assets in connection with such acquisitions, which would harm our results of operations. No impairment charge for the goodwill was recognized for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020. Furthermore, we continually review our equity method investments in equity investees to determine whether a decline in fair value below the carrying value is “other-than-temporary” and impairment loss needs to be recognized. The primary factors that we consider include the duration and severity of the decline in fair value, the financial condition, operating performance and the prospects of the equity investee and other company specific information such as recent rounds of financing. We recognized impairment losses of nil, RMB56.0 million and nil related to equity investments for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and 2020, respectively. If the condition or performance of the equity investees has changed in the future, we may have to record additional impairment charges in future accounting periods. If we need to recognize significant impairment losses on equity investments, our results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, we may consider strategically acquiring other companies, businesses, assets or technologies that are complementary to our business and operations as part of our growth strategy. The strategic acquisition and subsequent integration of new businesses is likely to require significant managerial and financial resources and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our growth and business operations. Acquired businesses or assets may not generate the financial results we expect and may be loss making over time. The cost and duration of integrating newly acquired businesses could also materially exceed our expectations. Any such negative developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is subject to the risks associated with international expansion initiatives.

Our current operations are almost exclusively in China, but we also offer express delivery services in certain key overseas markets. We intend to continue to explore and enter into other international expansion initiatives in the future. These initiatives are likely to involve countries where we have limited operational experience and subject us to various risks, including changes in local economic and political conditions, changes in international laws and regulations, changes in tariffs, trade restrictions, trade agreements and taxation, and difficulties in managing or overseeing operations outside China. The occurrence or consequences of any of these risks may restrict our ability to operate in the affected country and/or decrease our profitability of our operations in that country. We will also be exposed to increased risk of loss from foreign currency fluctuations and exchange controls, as well as longer accounts receivable payment cycles. We may also fail to alter or adjust our business practices in time to avoid or reduce adverse effects from any of the foregoing risks.

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We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our trademarks, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and other intellectual property as critical to our business. We rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements to protect our proprietary rights. It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to a lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality agreements and license agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We cannot provide any assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business and reputation may be harmed by unethical or anticompetitive business conduct within or in connection with our network.

There has been and may continue to be unethical or anticompetitive conduct, misconduct or unlawful behavior by our employees within, or in connection with, our network, such as with respect to the procurement of resources and the pricing of delivery service charges. The existing protocols and disciplinary measures governing the business conduct of our employees and our customers may not be sufficient to prevent them or their personnel from acting unethically or anticompetitively. Such conduct may include the mishandling of funds or accepting unlawful kick-backs during our raw material or equipment procurement. We are also aware of certain e-commerce merchants placing fabricated orders, such as parcels with valueless content, to themselves or to their designated parties with the intent to generate inflated sales records and consumer reviews and create perceived popularity among online consumers. These fabricated orders do not directly impact our revenues as our network partners are generally able to collect service charges from these merchants. It is extremely difficult for us and our network partners to distinguish these orders from genuine orders through the ordinary parcel screening procedures. We may be subject to heightened compliance costs or loss of business due to reduced e-commerce business volume if the PRC government cracks down on these unethical practices. We also have little control over third parties involved in unethical or anticompetitive business conduct targeted at or in connection with our network, such as non-compliance with laws, third-party sabotage or allegations intended to harm us or our network partners. We may incur substantial monetary losses and our reputation may suffer as a result to such conduct. We may also incur significant liabilities and penalties arising from such unethical conduct and may be required to allocate significant resources and incur material expenses to prevent such unethical or anticompetitive conduct in the future.

We have been named as a defendant in putative shareholder class action lawsuits that could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.

We will have to defend against the putative shareholder class action lawsuits described in “Business — Legal Proceedings,” including any appeals of such lawsuits should our initial defense be unsuccessful. We are currently unable to estimate the possible loss or possible range of loss, if any, associated with the resolution of these lawsuits. In the event that our initial defense of these lawsuits is unsuccessful, there can be no assurance that we will prevail in any appeal. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiff’s appeal of a judgment in these lawsuits, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

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The title defects with respect to or encumbrances on certain land and buildings or failure to obtain requisite approvals, licenses or permits in carrying out our property construction may cause interruptions to our business operations.

As of December 31, 2020, we have not obtained land use rights certificates with respect to an aggregate gross land area of approximately 329,000 square meters of self-operated sorting hubs and property ownership certificates with respect to 79 buildings. We are in the process of applying for the registration of the land use right and property ownership certificates pursuant to the applicable contracts for assignment of state-owned construction land use right, but we are unable to estimate the time required to complete such registration and obtain such certificates. We have also used some new buildings before we finish filing of as-built inspection on such buildings. Furthermore, although it is customary for express delivery services providers to construct buildings on industrial land as their offices, delivery and sorting hubs or outlets, depending on the attitude and supervision of relevant government authority, we could be asked to use the building in line with the approved usage specified on certain licenses of such buildings.

In connection with the construction of structures on our property, we are required to obtain requisite licenses, permits, certificates and approvals, including but not limited to, land use rights certificates/real estate certificates, construction land planning permits, construction works planning permits, construction work commencement permits and completion certificates from relevant government authorities in China. If we fail to obtain or renew such certificates, permits, registrations, filings, approvals and licenses in a timely manner, we may be subject to penalties and sanctions, including fines, rectification orders, construction suspension orders and demolition orders, all of which may adversely affect our construction efforts. We have not been in full compliance with certain construction requirements under PRC laws and regulations. For example, we have commenced certain construction projects prior to obtaining requisite permits and putting completed buildings into use before passing the requisite inspection and acceptance tests. Our non-compliance with these requirements has resulted in penalties imposed by the relevant government authorities.

Any of the foregoing risks could result in significant disruption to our operations and result in additional costs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our use of certain leased properties could be challenged by third parties or governmental authorities, which may cause interruptions to our business operations.

As of March 31, 2021, for a small portion of our leased sorting hubs and offices, we have not been provided by the lessors with the applicable certificates, approvals or any other documentation proving their right to lease those properties to us. If our lessors are not the owners of the properties and they have not obtained consents from the owners or their lessors or permits from the relevant governmental authorities, our leases could be invalidated. If this occurs, we may have to renegotiate the leases with the owners or other parties who have the right to lease the properties, and the terms of the new leases may be less favorable to us. To our knowledge, some of the lessors of the leased delivery and pickup outlets have not provided our network partners with their property title certificates, approvals or other documentation proving their right to lease those properties. If our network partners were to find replacement premises for their outlets due to any lease deficiencies, the daily operations of such outlets may be negatively affected. In addition, a substantial portion of our leasehold interests in leased properties have not been registered with the relevant PRC governmental authorities as required by relevant PRC laws. The failure to register leasehold interests may expose us to potential fines.

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Furthermore, some of our leased properties do not have title certificates or approvals and, the owner or lessor of such property may not have the right to lease such property to us. For example, certain properties we lease in Beijing for our sorting hub and office do not have a title certificate due to lack of appropriate approval during its construction, and the owner of such property had received notice from government authorities indicating that the construction was illegal. Although relevant authorities have not mandated the owner to dismantle the property, our use of the leased property may be affected in the future. In the event that our use of properties is successfully challenged, we may be subject to fines and forced to relocate. In addition, we may become involved in disputes with the property owners or third parties who otherwise have rights to or interests in our leased properties. We are currently using our best efforts to find an alternative location in Beijing, including purchasing a new piece of land, to mitigate the risk arising from such title deficiency. However, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to find suitable replacement sites on terms acceptable to us on a timely basis, or at all, or that we will not be subject to material liability resulting from third parties’ challenges on our use of such properties. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Failure to renew our current leases or locate desirable alternatives for our facilities could materially and adversely affect our business.

We lease properties to operate some of our offices and sorting hubs and some of our network partners lease properties to operate their pickup and delivery outlets. We and our network partners may not be able to successfully extend or renew such leases upon expiration, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and may be forced to relocate the affected operations. Such relocation may disrupt our operations and result in significant relocation expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to locate desirable alternative sites for our facilities as our business continues to grow and failure in relocating our operations when required could adversely affect our business and operations. In addition, we compete with other businesses for premises at certain locations or of desirable sizes. Even if we or our network partners are able to extend or renew the respective leases, rental payments may significantly increase as a result of the high demand for the leased properties.

Our failure to comply with regulations on commercial franchising may result in penalties to us.

Pursuant to the Administrative Regulations on Commercial Franchising Operations promulgated by the State Council on February 6, 2007 and Administrative Measures on the Record Filing of Commercial Franchises issued by the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China, or the MOFCOM on December 12, 2011, collectively the Regulations and Provisions on Commercial Franchising, commercial franchising refers to the business activities where an enterprise that possesses the registered trademarks, enterprise logos, patents, proprietary technology or any other business resources allows such business resources to be used by another business operator through contract and the franchisee follows the uniform business model to conduct business operation and pay franchising fees according to the contract. We and our network partners are therefore subject to regulations on commercial franchising. Under the relevant regulations, we may be required to file our cooperation arrangements with network partners with the MOFCOM or its local counterparts. As of March 31, 2020, we have not received any order from any governmental authorities to make such filing.

If relevant authorities determine that we have failed to report franchising activities in accordance with the regulations, we may be subject to report within a specified time limit and fines ranging from RMB 10,000 to RMB50,000 and if we fail to comply within the rectification period determined by the competent governmental authority, we may be subject to an additional fine ranging from RMB50,000 to RMB 100,000 and the relevant authority may issue a public reprimand.

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We are uncertain about the recoverability of our input value added tax, which may affect our financial positions in the future.

As of December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, our input value added tax (“VAT”) amounted to RMB927.6 million, RMB1,386.0 million and RMB1,698.5 million (US$260.3 million), respectively. Input VAT can be deducted from output VAT payable. The VAT recoverable is mainly the net difference between output and input VAT. We did not encounter any disputes with the relevant taxation authorities on the amounts of VAT recoverable during 2018, 2019 and 2020. However, we cannot guarantee the recoverability of input VAT in the future because the rules, regulations and policies governing VAT may change in the future, which may have an impact on VAT recoverable. If we fail to recover our input VAT, our financial positions would be adversely affected.

Economic sanctions and anti-corruption laws imposed by the United States and other jurisdictions may expose us to potential compliance risks.

Sanctions laws prohibit us from doing business in or with certain countries or governments, and with certain persons or entities that have been sanctioned by the United States or other governments and international or regional organizations, such as the United Nations Security Council. Although our primary market is China, we intend to expand our international business in the future, which may increase our exposure to international sanctions. For example, we have limited control over the activities of our international business partners and investees, which may provide delivery services into jurisdictions that are subject to sanctions. Any U.S. affiliate and any U.S. person employees will be subject to compliance with all U.S. economic sanctions requirements. We have implemented internal controls to monitor our compliance with applicable economic sanctions, but there can be no assurance that we are able to prevent or detect inadvertent business dealings with sanctioned parties or the delivery of parcels to higher-risk or prohibited end-uses. We also cannot predict with certainty the interpretation or implementation of any sanction laws or policies. While we do not believe that we are in violation of any applicable sanctions or that any of our activities are currently sanctionable under applicable laws, some of our activities or the activities of our affiliates could be exposed to penalties under these laws. Any alleged sanctions violations may adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we are subject to relevant anti-corruption laws in the PRC and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, as well as other anti-corruption laws globally. Our activities in China create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by employees, consultants, agents or other business partners of our company and its affiliates. We may also be held liable under successor liability for violations committed by companies in which we invest or that we acquire.

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We face risks related to severe weather conditions and other natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, such as the outbreak of COVID-19, which could significantly disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our business could be adversely affected by severe weather conditions and natural disasters, such as snowstorms, earthquakes, fire, typhoons or floods, or the outbreak of avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza A (H1N1), H7N9 or another epidemic. Any of these occurrences could cause severe disruptions to our daily operations and may warrant a temporary closure of our facilities. Such closures may disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations. Our operation could also be disrupted if our suppliers, customers or business partners were affected by such natural disasters or health epidemics. The outbreak of the COVID- 19 epidemic in China and internationally has resulted in significant disruptions and distortions in the global economy. The Chinese government has taken certain emergency measures to combat the spread of the virus, including extension of the Lunar New Year holidays, implementation of travel bans, blockade of certain roads and closure of factories and businesses, and may continue to take further measures to keep this epidemic outbreak in check. We have temporarily closed our branch offices, sorting hubs and service outlets from late January to mid-to late February 2020 due to the COVID-19 outbreak, which resulted in a decline of parcel volume in January and February 2020, as compared with the same period in 2019. We have also experienced a temporary labor shortage in January and February 2020 which has caused delays in our delivery services. We have taken measures to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, including strictly implementing self-quarantine and disinfection measures at our headquarters, sorting hubs and service outlets in accordance with government issued protocols. While most of the restrictions on movement within China have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there is great uncertainty as to the future development of the outbreak. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases which may lead to the re-imposition of restrictions. Consequently, the COVID-19 pandemic may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The extent to which this pandemic impacts our results of operations will depend on future developments which are highly uncertain and unpredictable. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak harms the Chinese economy in general.

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RISKS RELATED TO OUR CORPORATE STRUCTURE

If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating certain of our operations in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

Under current PRC laws and regulations, foreign enterprises or individuals may not invest in or operate domestic mail delivery services. According to the Negative List, foreign investment is prohibited in the establishment of any postal enterprise and in the establishment of any domestic mail delivery services. Postal enterprises refer to the China Post Group and its wholly owned enterprises or controlled enterprises providing postal services, as well as other services including but not limited to mail delivery, postal remittances, savings and issuance of stamps and production and sale of philatelic products.

We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. Accordingly, none of our PRC subsidiaries is eligible to operate domestic mail delivery services in China. It is also practically and economically not possible to separate the delivery of mail from the delivery of non-mail items in our day-to-day services. To ensure strict compliance with the PRC laws and regulations, we conduct such business activities through ZTO Express, our consolidated affiliated entity, and its subsidiaries. Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, our wholly owned subsidiary in China, has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with ZTO Express and its 43 shareholders, which allows us to (i) exercise effective control over ZTO Express, (ii) receive substantially all of the economic benefits of ZTO Express, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in ZTO Express when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. Because of these contractual arrangements, we have control over and are the primary beneficiary of ZTO Express and hence consolidate its financial results as our variable interest entity under U.S. GAAP.

If the PRC government finds that our contractual arrangements do not comply with its restrictions on foreign investment in domestic express delivery services of mail, or if the PRC government otherwise finds that we, ZTO Express, or any of its subsidiaries are in violation of PRC laws or regulations or lack the necessary permits or licenses to operate our business, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities, would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations or failures, including, without limitation:

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;
discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities;
imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or consolidated affiliated entities, or imposing other requirements with which such entities may not be able to comply;
requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our variable interest entity and deregistering the equity pledges of our variable interest entity, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our variable interest entity; or
restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of any of our financing outside China to fund our business and operations in China.

Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of our variable interest entity that most significantly impact its economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our variable interest entity, we may not be able to consolidate the entity in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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We rely on contractual arrangements with our variable interest entity and its shareholders for a substantial portion of our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with ZTO Express and its shareholders to operate domestic express delivery services, including delivery of mail. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure.” These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our variable interest entity. For example, our variable interest entity and its shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct its operations in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests.

If we had direct ownership of ZTO Express, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of ZTO Express, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on our variable interest entity and its shareholders to perform of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our variable interest entity. The shareholders of our consolidated variable interest entity may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portion of our business through the contractual arrangements with our variable interest entity. If any dispute relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings and therefore may be subject to the uncertainties in the PRC legal system. Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our variable interest entity may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as compared to if we had direct ownership over our variable interest entity.

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Any failure by our variable interest entity or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.

If our variable interest entity or its shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure you will be effective under PRC law. For example, if the shareholders of ZTO Express refuse to transfer their equity interest in ZTO Express to us or our designee if we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they otherwise act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations. Due to the significant number of shareholders in ZTO Express, we may not be able to obtain consent and cooperation from all the shareholders in further actions with respect to ZTO Express, such as the transferring the shareholders’ respective equity interests in ZTO Express to our designee. In addition, if any third parties claim any interest in such shareholders’ equity interests in ZTO Express, our ability to exercise shareholders’ rights or foreclose the share pledge according to the contractual arrangements may be impaired. For example, even though we have obtained spousal consents from spouses of our six key shareholders of ZTO Express, who collectively hold 73.8% of the equity interests in ZTO Express, we have not required spousal consents to be entered into by the rest of the shareholders of our variable interest entity. With respect to those shareholders, we cannot assure you that our WFOE will be able to exercise or enforce its rights in full under our contractual arrangements in the event of a dispute between the shareholder and his or her spouse. If these or other disputes between the shareholders of our variable interest entity and third parties were to impair our control over ZTO Express, our ability to consolidate the financial results of our variable interest entity would be affected, which would in turn result in a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition. All the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our variable interest entity, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.

The shareholders of our variable interest entity may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The shareholders of ZTO Express may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our variable interest entity to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our variable interest entity, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our variable interest entity and receive economic benefits from it. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with ZTO Express to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and these shareholders, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

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Our current corporate structure and business operations may be affected by the PRC Foreign Investment Law.

The FIL replaced the existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the PRC Equity Joint Venture Law, the PRC Cooperative Joint Venture Law and the PRC Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The FIL stipulates four forms of foreign investment, including (i) a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, establishes a foreign-invested enterprise within China; (ii) a foreign investor acquires stock shares, equity, property shares, or other like rights and interests of an enterprise within China; (iii) a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, invests in a new project within China; and (iv) a foreign investor invests through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Though it does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, there is no assurance that foreign investment via contractual arrangement would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activities under the definition in the future. In addition, the definition contains a catch-all provision that includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. In any of these cases, it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

Contractual arrangements in relation to our variable interest entity may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our PRC variable interest entity owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the VIE contractual arrangements were not entered into on an arm’s length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust income of ZTO Express in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by ZTO Express for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase its tax liabilities without reducing our PRC subsidiaries’ tax expenses. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on ZTO Express for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our variable interest entity’s tax liabilities increase or if it is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

We may lose the ability to use and benefit from assets held by our consolidated affiliated entities that are material to the operation of a certain portion of our business if the entity goes bankrupt or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

As part of our contractual arrangements with ZTO Express, our consolidated affiliated entities hold certain assets that are material to the operation of a certain portion of our business, including sorting hub premises and sorting equipment. If ZTO Express goes bankrupt and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or the rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, ZTO Express may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If ZTO Express undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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RISKS RELATED TO DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

Substantially all of our assets and operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing since 2012. Furthermore, China's GDP growth turned negative in the first quarter of 2020. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to a reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. In addition, in the past the Chinese government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate adjustment, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, which may adversely affect our business and operating results.

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past four decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our ability to enforce our contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us.

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. In recent years, regulatory and administrative measures over various areas such as environmental protection and fire safety have tightened and enhanced in China. While such development is beneficial to the operation of business in China over the long run, PRC-based companies may experience temporary business disruption and incur increased compliance costs in the short run.

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We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and we rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries for our cash requirements, including for services of any debt we may incur. Our subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends is based upon their distributable earnings. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to their respective shareholders only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our variable interest entity is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a statutory reserve until such reserve reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. If our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to their respective shareholders could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our businesses, pay dividends or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from loaning to or making additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

Any funds we transfer to our PRC subsidiaries, either as a shareholder loan or as an increase in registered capital, are subject to approval by or registration, filing and/or reporting (as applicable) with relevant governmental authorities in China. According to the relevant PRC regulations on Foreign Investment Enterprises, or the FIEs, in China, capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries shall go through registration, filing and/or reporting procedures (as applicable) at competent governmental authorities in China. In addition, (a) any foreign loan procured by our PRC subsidiaries is required to be registered with the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, or its local branches, and (b) each of our PRC subsidiaries may not procure loans which exceed (i) the difference between its registered capital and its total investment amount as approved by the MOFCOM or its local branches, or (ii) the specified upper limited calculated by using a risk-weight approach. Any medium- or long-term loan to be provided by us to our variable interest entity must be approved by and/or registered with the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, and/or SAFE or its local branches (as applicable). We may not obtain such government approvals or complete such registration, filing and/or reporting (as applicable) on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future capital contributions or foreign loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to receive such approvals or complete such registration, filing and/or reporting (as applicable), our ability to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

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On August 29, 2008, SAFE promulgated the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 142. SAFE Circular 142 regulates the conversion by FIEs of foreign currency into Renminbi by restricting the usage of converted Renminbi. SAFE Circular 142 provides that any Renminbi capital converted from registered capitals in foreign currency of FIEs may only be used for purposes within the business scopes approved by PRC governmental authority and such Renminbi capital may not be used for equity investments within China unless otherwise permitted by the PRC law. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the Renminbi capital converted from registered capital in foreign currency of FIEs. The use of such Renminbi capital may not be changed without SAFE approval, and such Renminbi capital may not in any case be used to repay Renminbi loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been utilized. As a result, we are required to apply, and have applied, Renminbi funds converted from the net proceeds we received from our initial public offering within the business scopes of our PRC subsidiaries. The Circular on Reforming the Management Approach Regarding the Foreign Exchange Capital Settlement of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, took effect as of June 1, 2015 and superseded SAFE Circular 142 on the same date. SAFE Circular 19 launched a nationwide reform of the administration of the settlement of the foreign exchange capitals of FIEs and allows FIEs to settle their foreign exchange capital at their discretion but continues to prohibit FIEs from using the Renminbi fund converted from their foreign exchange capitals for expenditure beyond their business scopes. On June 9, 2016, SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account thereafter, or SAFE Circular 16. SAFE Circular 16 reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19 and removed certain restrictions previously provided under several SAFE circulars, including removal of restriction on conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency registered capital into RMB and use of such RMB capital. However, SAFE Circular 16 continues to prohibit foreign-invested enterprises from, among other things, using RMB funds converted from their foreign exchange capitals for expenditure beyond their business scope, and providing loans to non-affiliated enterprises except as permitted in the business scope. On October 23, 2019, SAFE issued the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Facilitating Cross-border Trade and Investment, which, among other things, expanded the use of foreign exchange capital to domestic equity investment area. SAFE Circular 19, SAFE Circular 16 and other relevant rules and regulations may significantly limit our ability to transfer to and use in China any foreign currency, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

PRC regulation of loans in foreign currencies by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may limit our ability to fund the operations of our consolidated variable interest entity.

Due to restrictions imposed on loans in foreign currencies extended to PRC domestic companies, we are unlikely to have our Cayman Islands holding company or other offshore entities to extend loans to our variable interest entity, a PRC domestic company. Meanwhile, we are not likely to finance the activities of our variable interest entity by means of capital contributions due to regulatory restrictions relating to foreign investment in PRC domestic enterprises engaged in domestic express delivery services of mail. In addition, due to the restrictions on a foreign-invested enterprise’s use of Renminbi converted from foreign-currency registered capital under PRC regulations, including but not limited to SAFE Circular 19, as described under the foregoing risk factor, our PRC subsidiaries may be unable to use the Renminbi converted from their registered capital to provide loans to our variable interest entity. Additionally, our PRC subsidiaries are not prohibited under PRC laws and regulations from using their capital generated from their operating activities to provide entrusted loans through financial institutions to our variable interest entity. We will assess the working capital requirements of our variable interest entity on an ongoing basis and, if needed, may have our PRC subsidiaries to use their capital from operating activities to provide financial support to our variable interest entity.

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Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that the Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy will impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Any significant appreciation or depreciation of the Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive into Renminbi to fund our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the valuation of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have entered into some hedging transactions, such as foreign currency deposits, foreign currency forward contract and options, in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into more hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited, and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our Cayman Islands holding company primarily relies on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends to our company. However, approval from or registration with appropriate governmental authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and variable interest entity to pay off their respective debt in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi. For example, People’s Bank of China announced that from November 28, 2016, buying, paying or making capital expenditure of more than US$5 million or its equivalent must be reported as large-amount transaction to SAFE. Once reported to SAFE, such large-amount transactions are subject to examination of authenticity and compliance by the MOFCOM, the NDRC, SAFE, People’s Bank of China or other competent authorities. Although SAFE issued a statement stating that amounts from legitimate business transactions and capital reduction would not be affected, the PRC government may at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

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Certain PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.

Among other things, in June 22, 2009, the MOFCOM issued the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. Such regulation requires, among other things, that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor acquires control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if (i) any important industry is concerned, (ii) such transaction involves factors that have or may have impact on the national economic security; (iii) such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise which holds famous trademarks or PRC time-honored brands; or (iv) certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, issued by the State Council on August 3, 2008 with latest amendment released on September 18, 2018, were triggered. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, or NPC which became effective on August 1, 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds must be cleared by the MOFCOM before they can be completed. In addition, the Notice of the General Office of the State Council on the Establishment of the Security Review System for Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors which became effective on March 3, 2011 require acquisitions by foreign investors of PRC companies engaged in military related or certain other industries that are crucial to national security be subject to security review before consummation of any such acquisition. We may pursue potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval or clearance from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.

On July 4, 2014, SAFE has promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, to replace the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Residents’ Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 75, which ceased to be effective upon the promulgation of SAFE Circular 37. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents (including PRC individuals and PRC corporate entities) to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. SAFE Circular 37 is applicable to our shareholders who are PRC residents and may be applicable to any offshore acquisitions that we make in the future.

Under SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who make, or have prior to the implementation of SAFE Circular 37 made, direct or indirect investments in offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPVs, will be required to register such investments with local branches of SAFE. In addition, any PRC resident who is a direct or indirect shareholder of an SPV, is required to update its filed registration with the local branch of SAFE with respect to that SPV, to reflect any material change. Moreover, any subsidiary of such SPV in China is required to urge the PRC resident shareholders to update their registration with the local branch of SAFE. If any PRC shareholder of such SPV fails to make the required registration or to update the previously filed registration, the subsidiary of such SPV in China may be prohibited from distributing its profits or the proceeds from any capital reduction, share transfer or liquidation to the SPV, and the SPV may also be prohibited from making additional capital contribution into its subsidiary in China. The Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Foreign Exchange Administration Policy on Direct Investment, or SAFE Notice 13, became effective on June 1, 2015. Under SAFE Notice 13, applications for foreign exchange registration of inbound foreign direct investment and outbound overseas direct investment, including those required under SAFE Circular 37, will be filed with qualified banks instead of SAFE. The qualified banks will directly examine the applications and accept registrations under the supervision of SAFE.

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All of our shareholders that we are aware of being subject to SAFE regulations have completed all necessary initial registrations with the local SAFE branch or qualified banks as required by SAFE Circular 37. We cannot assure you, however, that all of these individuals may thereafter continue to make required filings or updates on a timely manner, or at all. We can provide no assurance that we are or will in the future continue to be informed of the identities of PRC residents holding a direct or indirect interest in our company. Any failure or inability by such individuals to comply with SAFE regulations may subject us to fines or legal sanctions, such as restrictions on our cross-border investment activities or our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to, or obtain foreign exchange-denominated loans from, our company or prevent us from making distributions or paying dividends. As a result, our business operations and our ability to make distributions to you could be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, as these foreign exchange regulations are still relatively new, and their interpretation and implementation has been constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant governmental authorities. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign-currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans of overseas publicly listed companies may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly listed companies may submit applications to local branches of SAFE for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. In the meantime, our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC residents residing in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to limited exceptions, and who have been granted incentive share awards by us, may follow the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, promulgated by SAFE on February 15, 2012, or the 2012 SAFE notices. Pursuant to the 2012 SAFE notices, PRC citizens and applicable non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted options are subject to these regulations as our company became an overseas listed company upon the completion of our initial public offering. Failure to complete SAFE registrations may subject them to fines of up to RMB300,000 for entities and up to RMB50,000 for individuals, and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation — Regulations Relating to Employee Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company.”

The State Taxation Administration, or the STA, has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise share options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Employee Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company.”

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It may be difficult for overseas securities regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigations that are common in the United States (including securities law class actions and fraud claims) generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of a mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective on March 1, 2020, no overseas securities regulator may directly conduct investigations or collect evidence and no entities or individuals may provide documents or materials in connection with securities activities without proper authorization as stipulated under Article 177. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability of an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigations or collect evidence within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests.

If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with its “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control and overall management over the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. On April 22, 2009, the STA issued a circular, known as STA Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the STA’s general position on how the “de facto management body” text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to STA Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational senior management and senior management department’s performance of their duties is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

We believe that ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. is not a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Tax — Enterprise Income Tax.” However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we may be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from dividends we pay to our shareholders that are non-resident enterprises, including the holders of our ADSs. In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders (including our ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends payable to our non-PRC individual shareholders (including our ADS holders) and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such shareholders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% unless a reduced rate is available under an applicable tax treaty. It is unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. is treated as a PRC resident enterprise.

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We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

On February 3, 2015, the STA issued a Public Notice Regarding Certain Corporate Income Tax Matters on Indirect Transfer of Properties by Non-Tax Resident Enterprises, or STA Public Notice 7. According to STA Public Notice 7, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers equities and other properties of a PRC resident enterprise to evade its obligation of paying enterprise income tax by implementing arrangements that are not for bona fide commercial purpose, such indirect transfer shall be re-identified and recognized as a direct transfer of equities and other properties of the PRC resident enterprise. STA Public Notice 7 provides clearer criteria than STA Circular 698 for assessment of reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. STA Public Notice 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets. PRC taxable assets include assets attributed to an establishment or place of business in China, real properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, with respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an indirect transfer, the non-resident enterprise as either the transferor or the transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets, may report such indirect transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was clearly established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes. According to the Announcement of the State Taxation Administration on Matters Concerning Withholding of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises at Source, or STA Announcement 37, effective on December 1, 2017 and amended on June 15, 2018, the withholding party shall, within seven days of the day on which the withholding obligation occurs, declare and remit the withholding tax to the competent tax authority at its locality. Where the withholding party fails to withhold and remit the income tax payable or is unable to perform its obligation in this regard, the non-resident enterprise that earns the income shall, declare and pay the tax that has not been withheld to the competent tax authority at the place where the income occurs, and complete the Withholding Statement of the People’s Republic of China for Enterprise Income Tax.

We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries or investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is the transferor in such transactions and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is the transferee in such transactions, under STA Public Notice 7 and STA Announcement 37. For transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing under STA Public Notice 7. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with STA Public Notice 7 and STA Announcement 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments or imposition of any additional taxes could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules permit certain “high and new technology enterprises strongly supported by the state,” or HNTE, which hold independent ownership of core intellectual property to enjoy a preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% subject to certain qualification criteria. Shanghai Zhongtongji Network Technology Co. Ltd., or Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, our wholly owned subsidiary, was recognized by relevant PRC government authorities as an HNTE, on November 12, 2020 and therefore became eligible for the preferential 15% enterprise income tax rate from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2022 upon its filing with the relevant tax authority. In addition, Shanghai Shuangcaiji Intellect Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Shuangcaiji Intellect, was recognized by relevant PRC government authorities as an HNTE, on November 12, 2020 and therefore became eligible for the preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2022 upon its filing with the relevant tax authority. We cannot assure you that Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or Shanghai Shuangcaiji Intellect will continue to qualify as an HNTE when it is subject to review in the future. Should Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or Shanghai Shuangcaiji Intellect lose this qualification for any reason, it will no longer enjoy the 15% preferential tax rate, and its applicable enterprise income tax rate may increase to 25%. If Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, or Shanghai Shuangcaiji Intellect, does not maintain its status as an HNTE, our financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, ten of our subsidiaries were qualified enterprises within the Catalog of Encouraged Industries in the Western Region to enjoy the 15% preferential income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020. The preferential income tax rate will expire in December 2030. Furthermore, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network applied for the Key Software Enterprise status in earlier 2020 and obtained the status from relevant PRC government authorities in September 2020. With this status, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network was entitled to a preferential tax rate of 10% for the fiscal year of 2019, which contributed to the decrease of income tax expense of RMB200.7 million for 2019 and was recognized in 2020. It remains uncertain whether Shanghai Zhongtongji Network will be eligible for the qualification in the future.

We may be required to register our operating offices outside of our residence addresses as branch offices under PRC law.

Under PRC law, a company setting up premises for business operations outside its residence address shall register and obtain business licenses for branch offices at the competent local administration for market regulation. We may expand our delivery network in the future to additional locations in China, and we may not be able to register branch offices which operate outside our company’s residence address in a timely manner due to complex procedural requirements and relocation of branch offices from time to time. If the PRC regulatory authorities determine that we are in violation of the relevant laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties, including fines, confiscation of income and suspension of operation. If we become subject to these penalties, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected.

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Our failure to fully comply with PRC labor-related laws may expose us to potential penalties.

Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. We did not pay, or were not able to pay, certain past social security and housing fund contributions in strict compliance with the relevant PRC regulations for and on behalf of our employees due to differences in local regulations and inconsistent implementation or interpretation by local authorities in the PRC and varying levels of acceptance of the housing fund system by our employees. Although we have recorded accruals for estimated underpaid amounts in our financial statements, we may be subject to fines and penalties for our failure to make payments in accordance with the applicable PRC laws and regulations. We may be required to make up the contributions for these plans as well as to pay late fees and fines. We have not made any accruals for the interest on underpayments and penalties that may be imposed by the relevant PRC government authorities in the financial statements. If we are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA ACT, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA ACT states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the U.S.

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB.

On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above.

The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection for three consecutive years. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfil its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA ACT. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA ACT. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.

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The SEC has announced that the SEC staff is preparing a consolidated proposal for the rules regarding the implementation of the HFCA ACT and to address the recommendations in the PWG report. It is unclear when the SEC will complete its rulemaking and when such rules will become effective and what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The implications of this possible regulation in addition the requirements of the HFCA ACT are uncertain. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of our ADSs to be materially and adversely affected, and our securities could be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” earlier than would be required by the HFCA ACT. If our securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs.

The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ordinary shares are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance, or the MOF, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB in the PRC or by the CSRC or the MOF in the United States. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the MOF to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

Proceedings instituted by the SEC against five PRC-based accounting firms, including the auditors of our consolidated financial statements in this annual report, could result in our financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

Starting in 2011 the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including auditors of our consolidated financial statements in this annual report, were affected by a conflict between U.S. and Chinese law. Specifically, for certain U.S.-listed companies operating and audited in mainland China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the Chinese firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under Chinese law, they could not respond directly to the U.S. regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the CSRC.

In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the Chinese accounting firms, including auditors of our consolidated financial statements in this annual report. A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioner had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the CSRC. The firms will receive matching Section 106 requests and are required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they fail to meet specified criteria, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Remedies for any future noncompliance could include, as appropriate, an automatic six-month bar on a single firm’s performance of certain audit work, commencement of a new proceeding against a firm, or in extreme cases the resumption of the current proceeding against all four firms.

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In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, U.S.-listed companies and the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may be adversely affected.

If auditors of our consolidated financial statements in this annual report was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our ADSs from the New York Stock Exchange or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR SHARES AND OUR ADSs

We adopt different practices as to certain matters as compared with many other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

We completed our public offering in Hong Kong in September 2020 and the trading of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange commenced on September 29, 2020 under the stock code “2057.” As a company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange pursuant to Chapter 19C of the Hong Kong Listing Rules, we are not subject to certain provisions of the Hong Kong Listing Rules pursuant to Rule 19C.11, including, among others, rules on notifiable transactions, connected transactions, share option schemes, content of financial statements as well as certain other continuing obligations. In addition, in connection with the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we obtained a number of waivers and/or exemptions from strict compliance with the Hong Kong Listing Rules, the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, the Takeovers Codes and the SFO. As a result, we will adopt different practices as to those matters as compared with other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange that do not enjoy those exemptions or waivers.

Our articles of association are specific to us and include certain provisions that may be different from the requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules and common practices in Hong Kong. For example, Rule 19C.07(7) of the Hong Kong Listing Rules provides that the minimum stake required to convene an extraordinary general meeting and add resolutions to a meeting agenda must not be higher than 10% of the voting rights, on a one vote per share basis, in the share capital of a qualifying issuer, but our articles of association provide that at least one third of the aggregate voting power of our company is required to convene an extraordinary general meeting. We will put forth a resolution at or before our next annual general meeting to revise our articles of association to comply with Rule 19C.07(7) of the Hong Kong Listing Rules. The next annual general meeting is expected to be held around mid-2021. Prior to the amendment to our articles of association, the minimum of one-third of the aggregate voting power of our company is still required to convene an extraordinary general meeting.

Furthermore, if 55% or more of the total worldwide trading volume, by dollar value, of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs over our most recent fiscal year takes place on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will regard us as having a dual primary listing in Hong Kong and we will no longer enjoy certain exemptions or waivers from strict compliance with the requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules, the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, the Takeovers Codes and the SFO, which could result in us having to amend our corporate structure and articles of association and our incurring of incremental compliance costs.

The trading price of our ADSs has been and is likely to continue to be, and the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares can be, volatile, which could result in substantial losses to holders of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

The trading prices of our ADSs and Class A ordinary shares have been and is likely to continue to be volatile and could fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, the

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high and low closing prices of our ADSs on NYSE in 2020 were US$38.6 and US$21.7, respectively. Likewise, the high and low closing prices of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 2020 since our listing in September 2020 were HK$259.8 and HK$207.2, respectively.

Fluctuation in the trading prices of our listed securities may occur due to broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in Hong Kong and/or the United States. Furthermore, stock markets in general have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies like us. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in the trading price of our listed securities may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, most of whom have been granted options or other equity incentives. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our listed securities may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

variations in our revenues, earnings and cash flow;
announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;
announcements of new offerings, solutions and expansions by us or our competitors;
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
detrimental adverse publicity about us, our services or our industry;
additions or departures of key personnel;
release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities; and
potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

Our dual-class share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

We have a dual-class share structure such that our ordinary shares consist of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. In respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, holders of Class A ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares are entitled to ten votes per share based on our dual-class share structure. Our ADSs represent underlying Class A ordinary shares. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any sale, transfer, assignment or disposition of any Class B ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder or upon a change of ultimate beneficial ownership of any Class B ordinary shares to any person who is not an affiliate of the holder of such Class B ordinary shares, such Class B ordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A ordinary shares.

As of the date of this annual report, Zto Lms Holding Limited, a British Virgin Islands company wholly beneficially owned by The LMS Family Trust, with Mr. Meisong Lai as the settlor and Mr. Meisong Lai and his family members as beneficiaries, holds 206,100,000 Class B ordinary shares. Due to the disparate voting powers associated with our dual-class share structure, Mr. Meisong Lai holds 77.1% of the aggregate voting power of our company as of

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March 31, 2021. As a result of the dual-class share structure and the concentration of ownership, Mr. Meisong Lai has considerable influence over matters such as decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. He may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could have the effect of depriving our other shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of our listed securities. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may view as beneficial.

As we are listed as a Grandfathered Greater China Issuer pursuant to Chapter 19C of the Hong Kong Listing Rules (Secondary Listings of Qualifying Issuers) with a WVR structure, certain shareholder protection measures and governance safeguards under Chapter 8A of the Hong Kong Listing Rules (Weighted Voting Rights) do not apply to us pursuant to Rule 19C.12 and our memorandum and articles of association differ from Chapter 8A in a number of ways. As a result, our memorandum and articles of association provide less shareholder protection and have fewer governance safeguards than if our Company were subject to Chapter 8A in its entirety.

Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our ADSs.

Short selling is the practice of selling securities that the seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. The short seller hopes to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as the short seller expects to pay less in that purchase than it received in the sale. As it is in the short seller’s interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions regarding the relevant issuer and its business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling a security short. These short attacks have, in the past, led to selling of shares in the market.

Public companies listed in the United States that have substantially all of their operations in China have been the subject of short selling. Much of the scrutiny and negative publicity has centered on allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result, many of these companies are now conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations and, in the interim, are subject to shareholder lawsuits and/or SEC enforcement actions.

It is not clear what effect such negative publicity could have on us. If we were to become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we could have to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend ourselves. While we would strongly defend against any such short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the relevant short seller by principles of freedom of speech, applicable state law or issues of commercial confidentiality. Such a situation could be costly and time-consuming and could distract our management from growing our business. Even if such allegations are ultimately proven to be groundless, allegations against us could severely impact our business operations and stockholder’s equity, and any investment in our ADSs could be greatly reduced or rendered worthless.

Certain existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders.

As of March 31, 2021, our directors and officers collectively own an aggregate of 81.7% of the total voting power of our outstanding ordinary shares. As a result, they have substantial influence over our business, including significant corporate actions such as mergers, consolidations, sales of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. They may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs. These actions may be taken even if they

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are opposed by our other shareholders, including our ADS holders. In addition, the significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise.

We have granted, and may continue to grant, share incentives, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

In 2016, we adopted the 2016 Share Incentive Plan for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. We account for compensation costs for all share options using a fair value-based method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In June 2016, we also established an employee shareholding platform to allow our employees in the PRC to receive share incentives. We account for shared-based compensation for these share incentive awards using a fair value-based method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We will incur additional share-based compensation expenses in the future as we continue to grant share incentives using the ordinary shares reserved for this platform. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—B. Compensation of Directors and Executive Officers—2016 Share Incentive Plan” and “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—B. Compensation of Directors and Executive Officers—Employee Share Holding Platform.” We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, the market price for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price of or trading volume for our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our listed securities could adversely affect their respective market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of such securities and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

Negative publicity may harm our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business.

Negative publicity about us, including our services, management, business model and practices, compliance with applicable rules, regulations and policies, or our network partners may materially and adversely harm our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to defuse any such negative publicity within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Additionally, allegations, directly or indirectly against us, may be posted on the internet by anyone on a named or anonymous basis, and can be quickly and widely disseminated. Information posted may be inaccurate, misleading and adverse to us, and it may harm our reputation, business or prospects. The harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. Our reputation may be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of negative and potentially inaccurate or misleading information about our business and operations, which in turn may materially adversely affect our

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relationships with our customers, employees or business partners, and adversely affect the price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

Because we do not expect to pay regular dividends in the foreseeable future, investors must mainly rely on price appreciation of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs for return on their investments.

We intend to retain most of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. On March 16, 2021, our board of directors approved a special dividend of US$0.25 per ADS or share for 2020, to be paid to shareholders of record as of the close of business on April 8, 2021. Investors should not rely on an investment in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors has discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare dividends, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our directors. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on investments in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of such securities. There is no guarantee that our listed securities will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which investors purchased the securities. Investors may not realize a return on investment in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs and may even lose the entire investment.

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our memorandum and articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. For example, such provisions include a dual-class share structure that gives greater voting power to the Class B ordinary shares beneficially owned by our founder. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our ordinary shares and/or ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through Hong Kong or U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take actions against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States or in Hong Kong. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States or Hong Kong. For example, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate

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law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States or a Hong Kong court.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than copies of our memorandum and articles of association, our register of mortgages and charges and any special resolution passed by our shareholders) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our memorandum and articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States and Hong Kong. To the extent we choose to follow home country practice with respect to corporate governance matters, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers or companies incorporated in Hong Kong.

Furthermore, our memorandum and articles of association are specific to us and include certain provisions that may be different from common practices in Hong Kong, such as the absence of the requirement that the appointment, removal and remuneration of auditors must be approved by a majority of our shareholders.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States or Hong Kong.

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Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company. We conduct our operations in China and substantially all of our assets are located in China. In addition, many of our directors and senior management named in this annual report reside outside the United States or Hong Kong, and most of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States or Hong Kong. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for shareholders to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States or Hong Kong in the event that shareholders believe that their rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws, Hong Kong securities laws or otherwise. Even if shareholders are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render them unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

Holders of our ADSs may have fewer rights than holders of our ordinary shares and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our shareholders and may only exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Holders of ADSs may not call a shareholders’ meeting, and do not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. Under our memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting is ten (10) days. We have undertaken to (i) provide 14 days’ notice for any general meetings after the listing in Hong Kong and (ii) put forth a resolution at or before our 2021 annual general meeting of the Company which is expected to be held in or before June 2021 to revise our memorandum and articles of association, so that the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting will be changed to 14 days. Under the deposit agreement, ADS holders must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. If we ask for ADS holders’ instructions, then upon receipt of such voting instructions, the depositary will try to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with these instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for ADS holders’ instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions given by ADS holders, but it is not required to do so. ADS holders will not be able to directly exercise their rights to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs unless they withdraw the Class A ordinary shares and become the registered holders of such Class A ordinary shares prior to the record date for the general meeting.

When a general meeting is convened, holders of ADSs may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit withdrawal of the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by their ADSs to allow them to cast their votes with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for ADS holders’ instructions, the depositary will notify ADS holders of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to the ADS holders. We have agreed to give the depositary at least 30 days’ prior notice of our shareholder meetings. Nevertheless, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to holders of ADSs or carry out their voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to holders of ADSs in a timely manner, but we cannot assure that holders of ADSs will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote their ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise their right to vote and may lack recourse if the underlying ordinary shares represented by their ADSs are not voted as they requested.

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Holders of our ADSs may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.

Our ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as an offering of rights, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We are required to file with the SEC an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information that we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, investors may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to investors, were they investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we have ceased to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costlier. As we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We will also incur additional costs as a result of the Listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

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We are named as a defendant in a putative shareholder class action lawsuit in the United States, and we may be involved in more class action lawsuits in the future. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.” Such lawsuits could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the lawsuits. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares.

Depending upon the value of our assets, which may be determined based, in part, on the market value of our ADSs and ordinary shares, and the nature of our assets and income over time, we could be considered a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes. A non-U.S. corporation will be considered a PFIC, for any taxable year if either (i) 75% or more of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income (the “income test”); or (ii) 50% or more of the value of its assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). The average percentage of a corporation’s assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income is generally determined on the basis of the fair market value of the corporation’s assets at the end of each quarter. This determination is based on the adjusted tax basis of the corporation’s assets.

In addition, we will be treated as owning a proportionate share of the assets and earning a proportionate share of the income of any other corporation in which we own, directly or indirectly, 25% or more (by value) of the stock. Although the law in this regard is unclear, we treat our consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes because we control their management decisions and we are entitled to substantially all of the economic benefits, and, as a result, we consolidate their results of operations in our U.S. GAAP financial statements and treat them as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes. If it were determined, however, that we are not the owner of our consolidated VIE and its subsidiaries for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year and in future taxable years.

Based on the nature of our income and assets and the market price of our ADSs, we do not believe we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2020, and we do not anticipate becoming a PFIC on the current taxable year or in the foreseeable future. Because PFIC status is a fact-intensive determination, no assurance can be given that we will not be classified as a PFIC for that year. While we do not anticipate becoming a PFIC, changes in the nature of our income or assets, or fluctuations in the market price of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs, may cause us to become a PFIC for future taxable years. In estimating the value of our goodwill and other unbooked intangibles, we have taken into account our market capitalization, which may fluctuate over time. Under circumstances where revenues from activities that produce passive income significantly increase relative to our revenues from activities that produce non-passive income or where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of becoming classified as a PFIC may substantially increase.

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The different characteristics of the capital markets in Hong Kong and the U.S. may negatively affect the trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

As dual-listed company, we are subject to Hong Kong and NYSE listing and regulatory requirements concurrently. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange and NYSE have different trading hours, trading characteristics (including trading volume and liquidity), trading and listing rules, and investor bases (including different levels of retail and institutional participation). As a result of these differences, the trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs may not be the same, even allowing for currency differences. Fluctuations in the price of our ADSs due to circumstances peculiar to the U.S. capital markets could materially and adversely affect the price of our Class A ordinary shares, or vice versa. Certain events having significant negative impact specifically on the U.S. capital markets may result in a decline in the trading price of our Class A ordinary shares notwithstanding that such event may not impact the trading prices of securities listed in Hong Kong generally or to the same extent, or vice versa.

Exchange between our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs may adversely affect the liquidity and/or trading price of each other.

Our ADSs are currently traded on the NYSE. Subject to compliance with U.S. securities law and the terms of the deposit agreement, holders of our Class A ordinary shares may deposit Class A ordinary shares with the depositary in exchange for the issuance of our ADSs. Any holder of ADSs may also withdraw the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement for trading on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. In the event that a substantial number of Class A ordinary shares are deposited with the depositary in exchange for ADSs or vice versa, the liquidity and trading price of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and our ADSs on the NYSE may be adversely affected.

The time required for the exchange between Class A ordinary shares and ADSs might be longer than expected and investors might not be able to settle or effect any sale of their securities during this period, and the exchange of Class A ordinary shares into ADSs involves costs.

There is no direct trading or settlement between the NYSE and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange on which our ADSs and our Class A ordinary shares are respectively traded. In addition, the time differences between Hong Kong and New York, unforeseen market circumstances or other factors may delay the deposit of Class A ordinary shares in exchange of ADSs or the withdrawal of Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. Investors will be prevented from settling or effecting the sale of their securities during such periods of delay. In addition, there is no assurance that any exchange of Class A ordinary shares into ADSs (and vice versa) will be completed in accordance with the timelines that investors may anticipate.

Furthermore, the depositary for the ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services including for the issuance of ADSs upon deposit of Class A ordinary shares, cancelation of ADSs, distributions of cash dividends or other cash distributions, distributions of ADSs pursuant to share dividends or other free share distributions, distributions of securities other than ADSs and annual service fees. As a result, shareholders who exchange Class A ordinary shares into ADSs, and vice versa, may not achieve the level of economic return the shareholders may anticipate.

An active trading market for our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange might not be sustained and trading prices of our Class A ordinary shares might fluctuate significantly.

Since the listing of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we have consistently been an actively-traded company on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. However, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will be sustained. The trading price or liquidity for our ADSs on the NYSE might not be indicative of those of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. If an active trading market of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange is not sustained, the market price and liquidity of our Class A ordinary shares could be materially and adversely affected.

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In 2014, the Hong Kong, Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges collaborated to create an inter-exchange trading mechanism called Stock Connect that allows international and mainland Chinese investors to trade eligible equity securities listed in each other’s markets through the trading and clearing facilities of their home exchange. Stock Connect currently covers over 2,000 equity securities trading in the Hong Kong, Shanghai and Shenzhen markets. Stock Connect allows mainland Chinese investors to trade directly in eligible equity securities listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, known as Southbound Trading; without Stock Connect, mainland Chinese investors would not otherwise have a direct and established means of engaging in Southbound Trading. In October 2019, the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges separately announced their amended implementation rules in connection with Southbound Trading to include shares of WVR companies to be traded through Stock Connect. However, since these rules are relatively new, there remains uncertainty as to the implementation details, especially with respect to shares of those companies with a secondary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. It is unclear whether and when the Class A ordinary shares of our Company, a WVR company with a secondary listing in Hong Kong upon the Listing, will be eligible to be traded through Stock Connect, if at all. The ineligibility or any delay of our Class A ordinary shares for trading through Stock Connect will affect mainland Chinese investors’ ability to trade our Class A ordinary shares and therefore may limit the liquidity of the trading of our Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

There is uncertainty as to whether Hong Kong stamp duty will apply to the trading or conversion of our ADSs.

In connection with our initial public offering of Class A ordinary shares in Hong Kong, or the Hong Kong IPO, we have established a branch register of members in Hong Kong, or the Hong Kong share register. Our Class A ordinary shares that are traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, including those to be issued in the Hong Kong IPO and those that may be converted from ADSs, are registered on the Hong Kong share register, and the trading of these Class A ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will be subject to the Hong Kong stamp duty. To facilitate ADS-ordinary share conversion and trading between NYSE and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we also moved a portion of our issued Class A ordinary shares from our register of members maintained in the Cayman Islands to our Hong Kong share register.

Under the Hong Kong Stamp Duty Ordinance, any person who effects any sale or purchase of Hong Kong stock, defined as stock the transfer of which is required to be registered in Hong Kong, is required to pay Hong Kong stamp duty. The stamp duty is currently set at a total rate of 0.2% of the greater of the consideration for, or the value of, shares transferred, with 0.1% payable by each of the buyer and the seller.

To the best of our knowledge, Hong Kong stamp duty has not been levied in practice on the trading or conversion of ADSs of companies that are listed in both the United States and Hong Kong and that have maintained all or a portion of their ordinary shares, including ordinary shares underlying ADSs, in their Hong Kong share registers. However, it is unclear whether, as a matter of Hong Kong law, the trading or conversion of ADSs of these dual-listed companies constitutes a sale or purchase of the underlying Hong Kong-registered ordinary shares that is subject to Hong Kong stamp duty. We advise investors to consult their own tax advisors on this matter. If Hong Kong stamp duty is determined by the competent authority to apply to the trading or conversion of our ADSs, the trading price and the value of your investment in our Class A ordinary shares and/or ADSs may be affected.

ITEM 4.         INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.          History and Development of the Company

We commenced our express delivery service business through Shanghai Zhongtongji Express Service Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Zhongtongji, in Shanghai, China in January 2009. Prior to 2014, we operated express delivery services in Shanghai, Anhui Province, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province through Shanghai Zhongtongji, which authorized and cooperated with third-party business partners to operate ZTO-branded express delivery services elsewhere in China.

In January 2013, the shareholders who separately owned Shanghai Zhongtongji and 15 network partners located in the cities and provinces mentioned above, established ZTO Express, as the holding company to hold the businesses of Shanghai Zhongtongji and the 15 network partners.

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In January 2014, ZTO Express acquired businesses and assets of Shanghai Zhongtongji and eight network partners that were wholly owned by some of the shareholders who formed ZTO Express.

In October 2015, ZTO Express and its wholly owned subsidiaries acquired express delivery businesses from 16 network partners and their respective shareholders in exchange for equity interest in ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. and cash.

In April 2015, ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. was incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as our offshore holding company to facilitate financing and offshore listing. Upon its incorporation, ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. issued 600,000,000 ordinary shares to the British Virgin Islands holding vehicles of the then shareholders of ZTO Express, in proportion to these shareholders’ then respective share percentage in ZTO Express. ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. established ZTO Express Limited in British Virgin Islands as its wholly-owned subsidiary in April 2015. ZTO Express Limited subsequently established ZTO Express (Hong Kong) Limited as its wholly owned subsidiary in May 2015.

In July 2015, ZTO Express (Hong Kong) Limited established a wholly owned PRC subsidiary, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network. Due to the PRC legal restrictions on foreign ownership in companies that provide mail delivery services in China, we carry out our express delivery business through ZTO Express, a domestic PRC company, equity interests in which are held by PRC citizens and companies established in Shanghai China.

Zhongtongji Network entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including an exclusive call option agreement, an equity pledge agreement, a voting rights proxy agreement, as described in more detail below, irrevocable powers of attorney and an exclusive consulting and services agreement and its supplemental agreement, with ZTO Express and its shareholders, and obtained spousal consent letters by the spouses of six key shareholders of ZTO Express. These shareholders are Messrs. Meisong Lai, Jianfa Lai, Jilei Wang, Xiangliang Hu, Shunchang Zhang and Xuebing Shang, collectively holding 73.8% of equity interest in ZTO Express.

As a result of these contractual arrangements, we have effective control over, and are the primary beneficiary of, ZTO Express. ZTO Express is therefore our consolidated variable interest entity, or consolidated VIE, which generally refers to an entity in which we do not have any equity interests but whose financial results are consolidated into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP because we have effective financial control over, and are the primary beneficiary of, that entity. We treat ZTO Express and its subsidiaries as our consolidated affiliated entities under U.S. GAAP and have consolidated their financial results in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. However, those contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership.

On October 27, 2016, our ADSs commenced trading on the NYSE under the symbol “ZTO.” We raised from our initial public offering approximately $1.4 billion in net proceeds after deducting underwriting commissions and the offering expenses payable by us.

In May 2017, we announced a US$300 million share repurchase program and repurchased an aggregate of 9,759,888 ADSs at an average purchase price of US$14.12, including repurchase commissions, under this program as of May 21, 2018.

In May 2018, Alibaba and Cainiao Network entered into a strategic transaction with us. Pursuant to the transaction terms, investors led by Alibaba and Cainiao Network invested US$1.38 billion in our company in exchange for approximately 10% of our equity interest at that time and obtained certain shareholder rights in our company. The transaction was completed in June 2018.

In June 2018, we made a strategic investment of approximately US$168 million to acquire approximately 15% of equity stake in Cainiao Post, Cainiao Network’s network of last-mile delivery stations. Our strategic investment in Cainiao Post was done in conjunction with four other leading express delivery companies in China, including YTO Express, STO Express, Yunda Express, and Best Inc., in the aggregate amount of approximately US$495 million.

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In November 2018, we announced a new share repurchase program whereby we were authorized to repurchase our own Class A ordinary shares, in the form of ADSs, with an aggregate value of up to US$500 million during an 18-month period thereafter. The term of the share repurchase plan was extended to June 30, 2021 as approved by our board in March 2020. In March 2021, the board of directors approved changes to the share repurchase program, increasing the aggregate value of shares that may be repurchased from US$500 million to US$1 billion and extending the effective time by two years through June 30, 2023. As of March 31, 2021, we have purchased an aggregate of 17,395,023 ADSs at a weighted average purchase price of US$23.14 per ADS, including repurchase commissions.

On September 29, 2020, our Class A ordinary shares commenced trading on the Main Board of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange under the stock code “2057.” We raised from our listing in Hong Kong approximately HK$11.1 billion (US$1.4 billion) in net proceeds after deducting underwriting commissions and the offering expenses payable by us.

Our principal executive offices are located at Building One, No.1685 Huazhi Road, Qingpu District, Shanghai, 201708, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 21 5980-4508. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC on www.sec.gov. You can also find information on our website http://ir.zto.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this annual report.

B.           Business Overview

We are a leading express delivery company in China. Through our network and together with our network partners, we provide domestic and international express delivery services supplemented by other value-added services.

We have developed an extensive and reliable delivery network in China. As of December 31, 2020, our network infrastructure consists of 94 sorting hubs with 339 automation lines, over 3,600 line-haul routes serviced by approximately 9,700 self-owned line-haul vehicles, and over 5,350 direct network partners operating approximately 30,000 pickup/delivery outlets and over 68,000 last-mile posts. Our network covers over 99.6% of cities and counties in China.

Service Offerings by US and Our Network Partners

We mainly provide express deliveries in China of parcels weighing under 50 kilograms with expected delivery time ranging from 24 to 72 hours. Our delivery time has improved over time.

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The following chart sets out the services provided by us and our network partners.

Key Category

    

Service Offerings

Domestic Express

Express Delivery

     Intra-city Delivery

     Inter-city Delivery

Enterprise Customer Services

     Customized one-stop express delivery solution for key accounts

Ancillary Services(1)

     Cash-on-Delivery Service

     Alternative Address Pick-up & Delivery

     Proof-of-delivery Collection

     Parcel Interception Service

     Reverse Logistics

     Others

Regional

     Hong Kong/Taiwan Door-to-Door Express Service

International Express

Cross-border

     International express services to key overseas markets in cooperation with business partners

(1)Alternative Address Pick-up & Delivery service enables the sender to change the pick-up and destination address. Proof-of-delivery Collection service is a kind of service where we collect the receipt signed by the recipient upon successfully delivering a parcel and send it to the sender. Parcel Interception Service allows senders to intercept and redirect a parcel before it is scheduled for delivery or delivered to its destination. As to Reverse Logistics service, the senders, such as the merchants on e-commerce platforms, may entrust us to pick up goods from the designated addresses, such as consumer's home and retail stores, and deliver the goods to the designated addresses, such as factories and warehouses.

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Express delivery service process

The following diagram illustrates the process for the completion of a typical domestic delivery order in our network.

The full delivery fees collected by pickup outlets upfront from the senders typically comprise of (i) the pickup service fees, (ii) the network transit fees payable to our Company; and (iii) the last-mile delivery fees payable to the delivery outlets operated by other network partners. After collection, pickup outlets would keep the pickup service fees, and pay the network transit fees and the last-mile delivery fees to our Company. We would then pass the last-mile delivery fees on to the applicable delivery outlets.

Step 1: Parcel Pickup. A pickup outlet operated by our network partner arranges for a courier to collect the parcel from the sender (such as a merchant on e-commerce platform or an enterprise customer) once the pickup outlet has received a delivery order. Unless the sender chooses pay-at-arrival service, the pickup outlet collects the full delivery service fee upfront from the sender at the time of pickup. All collected parcels are then forwarded to our regional sorting hub once or twice per day depending on parcel volume. Typically, parcels that are picked up before 6 p.m. will be shipped to our sorting hub on the same day. Each parcel is assigned a waybill with a unique tracking number and barcode which, together with our automated systems, allows us to track the status of each individual parcel throughout the entire pickup, sorting and delivery process.

Step 2: Parcel Sorting and Line-Haul Transportation. Upon the receipt of parcels shipped from various pickup outlets from locations in their respective coverage area, the sorting hub sorts, further packs and dispatches parcels to the destination sorting hub. We provide line-haul transportation services between sorting hubs. Barcodes on each waybill attached to the parcels are scanned as they go through each sorting and transportation gateway, allowing us to keep track of the delivery service status of each parcel.

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Step 3: Parcel Delivery. Our destination sorting hub unloads and sorts the parcels, which are then delivered to the recipients by the delivery outlets operated by our network partners. Once the recipient signs the waybill to confirm receipt, a full-service cycle is completed, and settlement of the delivery service fee promptly ensues in our network payment settlement system.

Express delivery service pricing

The network transit fees that we charge our network partners for the express delivery services we provide to them primarily consist of (i) a fixed amount for a waybill attached to each parcel and (ii) a variable amount per parcel for sorting and line-haul transportation based on parcel weight and route distance. We evaluate our pricing and make adjustments from time to time based on our operating costs, market conditions and competitions as well as our service quality. For our direct network partners at the provincial level, we provide fee discounts to those who significantly outperform the performance targets that we set.

Our service pricing is also be affected by the pricing adopted by our network partners, who have full discretion over the pricing of their services; such pricing is reflected in the amount of full delivery service fees they collect upfront from senders. Our network partners determine their pricing mainly based on their total costs, which primarily consists of the network transit fees we charge, the last-mile delivery fees payable to the delivery network partners, as well as the outlet operating costs. We provide guidelines to set the last-mile delivery fees together with network partners operating delivery outlets, where the guidelines are based on a variety of factors including the economic environment, market conditions and business conditions of the outlets. We are able to monitor the “fee sharing” mechanism between pickup and delivery outlets as the guidelines are implemented and the fees are payable through our system. Our network partners also consider other factors including market conditions and competition as well as their service quality. We do not set any explicit limitations on pricing and allow pricing latitude to our network partners so that they can effectively respond to the competitive dynamics in their local markets with tailor-made pricing based on the business volume and long-term prospect of each sender. Historically, the delivery service fees our network partners are able to charge have declined over time, partially as a result of competitive pressure.

Other logistics services

Building on our core express delivery business, we strive to become an integrated logistics service provider. We are expanding our service offerings with a goal to build an ecosystem featuring express delivery, less-than-truckload, cross-border, warehousing, aviation, commerce and more. For example, we provide less-than-truckload (LTL) logistics services with a focus on heavy cargo and international express delivery services in Southeast Asia, Africa and other countries; we also provide customers with integrated logistics solutions for warehousing, distribution and transportation. Furthermore, we provide freight forwarding services through the acquired business of China Oriental Express Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries, which is a major freight forwarding and international logistics services provider in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Furthermore, we are also expanding into air cargo business.

Our Network and Infrastructure

Our network consists of (i) our directly operated core sorting hubs and line-haul transportation network and (ii) network partner-operated outlets, as well as last-mile posts, across China.

Sorting hubs

Our sorting hubs are connected by the line-haul transportation network we operate. Each sorting hub collects parcels from outlets within its coverage area, sorts parcels according to their destination and dispatches them to the appropriate destination sorting hub. As of December 31, 2020, we operated 84 sorting hubs and our business partners operated 10 sorting hubs.

The sorting hubs operated by our business partners are located in remote areas in China and we work closely with independent third-party owners to effectively operate those hubs. In addition to the sorting hubs, our network partners also operate sorting facilities in certain remote areas in China.

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44 of the sorting hubs operated by us are located on premises we own, for 11 of which we also lease additional areas, and 40 of the sorting hubs operated by us are located on leased premises. We plan to make long-term investments in land and facilities on self-owned premises to support the stability of our operations. From time to time, we also provide temporary warehousing services to certain key account customers to store their products close to their target demographics.

We have continuously adopted new technology solutions in automation hardware and software to enhance the efficiency of our operations. For example, we adopted telescopic conveyor belts for loading and unloading trucks in 2015, as well as fully integrated dynamic-weighing machines capable of measuring the dimensions and weight of parcels simultaneously at a high speed without having to stop the flow of packages. In addition, we work with technology companies and academic institutions to customize and upgrade existing design concepts. For example, we successfully collaborated with the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the Academy’s development of several variations of automated sorting equipment since 2015. We have also developed and continuously re-engineered sophisticated software (including data-enabled algorithm, real-time analytics and recalibration) to support high-speed sorting in order to ensure fast and reliable package data capturing and dispatch, and to reduce sorting errors and costs of re-work. In particular, we utilize an image-based learning algorithm in our safety inspection of packages to recognize prohibited illegal items during our inspection process and to reduce human error. The number and capacity of our automated sorting lines increased substantially from eight in 2016 (all of which were for small parcels) to 339 in 2020 (119 of which were for large parcels and the remaining 220 were for small parcels).

Line-haul transportation network

We connect our sorting hubs with over 3,600 well-planned line-haul routes. Our line-haul transportation network is serviced by (i) our own fleet, (ii) a fleet operated by Tonglu Tongze, a company majority-owned by our employees which works exclusively for us, and (iii) certain independent third-party vehicles. We control the route planning and vehicle dispatch of our entire line-haul transportation network.

As of December 31, 2020, our own fleet consisted of approximately 9,700 trucks, of which approximately 7,900 are high capacity 15 to 17-meter-long trailer models. Tonglu Tongze had a fleet of over 750 trucks as of December 31, 2020. Certain of our employees beneficially owned majority equity interests in Tonglu Tongze as of December 31, 2020. Tonglu Tongze purchases vehicles with its own funds, and they implement dispatching plans according to our network needs. The price we pay to Tonglu Tongze is based on our market insights on cost factors. We use the same criteria and pricing standards when we contract independent third-party transportation companies. We also contract other independent third-party transportation companies to fulfil additional capacity needs, most of which are single trip transportation when we foresee a low return trip truckload. We carefully review the operating history, fleet condition, reliability and other comprehensive criteria of the bidders to select only suitable providers.

In order to further improve our operating efficiencies as volume increases, we have systematically increased the proportion of high capacity 15- to 17-meter-long trailer models within our fleet from 39% in 2016 to 72% in 2019 and further to 81% in 2020 to optimize unit output and reduce cost. Moreover, we have established a systematic data and technology driven program to optimize trailer designs to reduce costs as well as enable digital tracking for real-time analytics of our vehicles. Further, we also helped develop improved vehicle parts and patented trailer designs. For example, our proprietary patented design of curved aluminum trailer is not only lighter but also more aerodynamic compared with traditional square-shaped steel containers. The higher capacity of these trailers (145m3 rather than 127m3) and lighter weight (6,700kg/ea rather than 9,000kg/ea) contributes to the increased fuel economy of our trailers and further contributes to the reduction in transportation cost. In addition, we have made RFID chip embedded Michelin tires a standard issue for line-haul vehicles. This allows us to better manage our moving assets by assessing real-time operating conditions such as vehicle speed and estimated fuel consumption and estimating normal wear and tear in order to schedule proper maintenance intervals.

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We assess incoming volume (including maximum stress level) and simulated route planning (including road conditions) to inform our choice between deploying our own line-haul resources or supplementing capacity with third-party transportation services. We combine the programming interface of third-party map applications with our big data of parcel traffic and volume to feed our intelligent service routing algorithm to model the rate and direction of parcel flow, dynamically predict future capacity demands, and make adjustments in allocation of personnel and transport resources. Hence we are able to reduce inefficiency in parcel handling, increase fleet load rates and achieve optimal transportation time and costs.

Pickup and delivery outlets and last-mile posts

The pickup and delivery outlets are all operated by our network partners and are not owned by us. Our network partners primarily provide pickup and last-mile delivery services through the outlets managed by them, although certain larger outlets also have regional sorting and dispatching capabilities. Each outlet has its own designated geographical scope of operation and can generally only take orders originating within that area. Our network partners also generally arrange the transportation between pickup/delivery outlets and our sorting hubs. As of December 31, 2020, our network had approximately 30,000 pickup and delivery outlets nationwide, covering 99.6% of China’s cities and counties.

We have encouraged our network partners to invest early and secure physical presence with last-mile capabilities and consumer access by establishing last-mile posts. We currently have over 68,000 last mile posts across China. A last mile post is on average a 35-60 square meter space located near residential areas or office buildings or on university campuses where the couriers can leave delivery packages for recipients to pick up instead of delivering in person. A last mile post can be multifunctional and serve different purposes including receiving outgoing packages, collecting fees from couriers who leave packages for pickup (including processing packages left by competitors’ couriers) and realizing retail profit, thereby achieving greater overall labor and facility costs efficiencies.

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Our Network Partner Model

Our network partners own and operate the pickup and delivery outlets under our brand and form an important part of our network system. The diagram below illustrates our network partner model.

As of December 31, 2020, we had over 5,350 network partners with whom we have directly entered into agreements prescribing the terms and conditions of their operations of pickup and delivery outlets under our brand. We refer to such network partners as our direct network partners. These agreements with direct network partners are generally for a term of three years and each direct network partner may elect to negotiate with us for renewal of the agreement upon expiration if it wishes to remain in our network. Our network partners pay us network transit fees for the express delivery services we provide to them. The network transit fees that we charge our network partners for the express delivery services we provide to them primarily consist of (i) a fixed amount for a waybill attached to each parcel and (ii) a variable amount per parcel for sorting and line-haul transportation based on parcel weight and route distance. We have the right to impose monetary penalties on our direct network partners for failure to adhere to the terms of the agreements. A direct network partner is also required to place a deposit with us as a performance guarantee. We have authorized our direct network partners to conduct their express delivery business exclusively under our “Zhongtong” or “ZTO” brand and mandate the unified application of our logos on outlets, personnel uniforms, transportation vehicles and packaging materials.

Each of our direct network partners is authorized by us to operate within a designated area, the size of which ranges from a township to an entire province. Depending on the size of, and the business volume in, their respective authorized areas, many of our direct network partners subcontract a portion of their business to third parties with our consent. We do not directly enter into agreements with those third parties and refer to them as our indirect network partners. Indirect network partners are also authorized to operate ZTO-branded express delivery business.

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Our Zhongtian system provides the technological infrastructure for the management of our network partners. The Zhongtian system consists of our operational management system, network management system, settlement system, finance system and other integrated systems and mobile apps connecting our network partners. In particular, our Zhongtian system tracks each delivery order and calculates the network transit fees payable to us, and the last-mile delivery fees payable to our direct network partners and, where applicable, our indirect network partners. Starting from May 2018, we use Alipay to handle the settlement of payments from our network partners to us and among our direct network partners. All of our direct network partners have an Alipay account on our Zhongtian system, and we require them to make a prepayment from their respective account to our ZTO Alipay account through our Zhongtian system. The prepaid amount is used to settle network transit fees from our network partners to us and settle last-mile delivery fee from us to direct network partners.

All of our direct network partners and most of our indirect network partners work with us exclusively. A small number of our indirect network partners may process packages for other express delivery companies. This is typically limited to situations where an outlet is located in a remote or isolated area or newly established markets. Such exceptions to our exclusivity requirement are necessary in order to support the outlet’s start-up volume.

We control the qualification of new network partners and we provide extensive ongoing training to our network partners. We also periodically review the performance of our network partners on parcel volume, local market share, service quality and parcel safety/security scores. We consider the conditions and forecast of the local market to set guidance for those indicators. We also set guidance and review the performance of certain pickup and delivery outlets with large parcel volume. For our direct network partners at the provincial level, we provide fee discounts to those who significantly outperform the performance targets that we set.

If a direct network partner continuously fails to meet applicable performance targets set by us, we may unilaterally terminate our agreement with such direct network partner, which has only occurred in isolated cases historically. In those cases, we would introduce qualified buyers vetted by us or, in the cases where the exiting direct network partner has already identified a buyer itself, we would review the buyer’s credentials and decide whether to accept or reject it. In the case of voluntary departure by a direct network partner, it may choose to sell the outlet operating business to a buyer, where the foregoing review process would also apply. Moreover, under the agreement with us, the network partner may provide a three-month notice of termination and the agreement would be terminated upon mutual agreement between the parties. A network partner who discontinues cooperation with us may join a third party express delivery network.

Under the agreement with us, the network partner also has the right to unilaterally terminate the agreement within seven days from the date of execution of the agreement with notice to us; provided that, if the network partner has started to use our network resources, has begun to provide services to customers, or has exercised other major rights under the agreement, the network partner shall not terminate the agreement accordingly. The network partner’s major rights under the agreement are entitlements to the following products or services provided by us: (1) electronic documents or software in relation to enterprise management system; (2) guidance on the use of express delivery networks, business operation model and employee training; (3) sufficient, continuous and quality-guaranteed material supply; (4) advertising support; and (5) network transit service.

We provide our network partners latitude in their pricing decisions. The network partners have full discretion over their daily operations and can make localized decisions with respect to facilities, vehicles and recruitment to meet their operational needs.

We also provide financial services to qualified network partners. We select qualified network partners based on certain criteria set by us, such as having legal and stable income or source of income and engaging in operation activities that are legal and meet the national industrial policies and requirements. To provide such financial services, we enter into relevant agreements with qualified network partners under which the material terms (e.g. loan amount, maturity date, guarantee or pledge and event of default (as applicable)) of such financial services are stipulated. We have obtained the requisite business licenses and/or approvals under relevant PRC laws and regulations in order to provide such financial services to qualified network partners.

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We had a financing receivables balance of RMB518.0 million, RMB1,060.9 million and RMB2,462.5 million (US$377.4 million) as of December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020. No material default occurred as of December 31, 2020.

Our Customers

The following chart illustrates parcel and fund flows to and from our direct and end customers.

Our direct customers are our direct network partners, who, along with our indirect partners, own and operate pickup and delivery outlets. We provide our direct network partners with access to our line-haul transportation and sorting network, which form the infrastructure of their and our indirect partners’ express delivery services. In addition, we also directly serve some enterprise customers, including vertical e-commerce and traditional merchants, in connection with the delivery of their products to consumers.

Together with our network partners, we mainly serve e-commerce merchants and other express service users as our end customers. A significant portion of our end customers are merchants on China’s e-commerce platforms. Our enterprise customers are typically larger, nationwide brands with customized requirements for express delivery services. For certain enterprise customers, we provide direct pickup services without going through the pickup outlets of our network partners. We collect the full amount of delivery service fees from our enterprise customers and pay a portion of these fees to the delivery outlets of our network partners for last-mile delivery services provided by them. Depending on the availability and capacity of our personnel at the relevant locations, orders from some enterprise customers may also be picked up through our network partners.

Customer Service

We believe our high-quality customer service enhances our customer loyalty and brand image. Our network partners directly interact with our end customers, and we provide ongoing training and conduct regular performance reviews to ensure they provide quality customer services.

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We also operate a call center network providing real-time assistance during business hours, seven days a week. Our automated system continues to respond to inquiries outside of business hours and forwards complicated inquiries to our live call center representatives for further handling during business hours. Our call center network is localized with branch offices in over 32 provinces in China with mostly local hires to leverage their local knowledge. All branches can be reached via a unified number and use a centralized call system and database. Our call system automatically directs incoming calls to the local branch near the caller’s location for localized handling. We have approximately 740 call center representatives who adhere to the same customer service standards nationwide and their local knowledge adds to our customer service effectiveness. We provide regular trainings to our representatives and periodically review callers’ level of satisfaction with the service they received from us. At the end of each call, each caller is asked to grade the quality of our customer service and a designated call-back team follows up on all incidences of dissatisfaction.

Information Technology and Intellectual Property

We have built our proprietary technology systems with open-source and mainstream technologies and have refined and tailored those technologies to suit our operational needs. We design and utilize our technology systems to enhance the efficiency and scalability of our network and these systems play an important role in the success of our business. The principal components of our technology system include:

Zhongtian System—Our self-developed and centralized Zhongtian system serves as the technology backbone for our express delivery management and network operation. The Zhongtian system has hundreds of modules with numerous functionalities and features covering all scenarios of our business and operations, consisting of our operational management system, network management system, settlement system, finance system and other integrated systems and mobile apps connecting our network partners:

Parcel sorting, transportation and tracking management. Our parcels are sorted and dispatched based on routing logic through the Zhongtian system. With this system, that is compatible with the digital waybill technology, we can track each parcel processed through the vast network based on a unique waybill barcode assigned to each parcel. As the parcel moves through each gateway, its barcode is scanned, and its route and other delivery information are captured in the Zhongtian system. We also monitor the capacity of our sorting hubs on the Zhongtian system and monitor the real-time movement of each on-duty truck with GPS and GIS technology that is synchronized with the Zhongtian system.
Settlement payment calculation. The Zhongtian System tracks each delivery order and, according to pre-set formulae, calculates the network transit fees payable to us as well as last-mile delivery fees payable to the network partners.
Platform integration. Our Zhongtian system is connected to the order systems of major e-commerce platforms and vertical e-commerce websites in China. Merchants can therefore seamlessly place delivery orders to the outlets via our Zhongtian system.
Mobile application. The Zhongtian system also supports our mobile application so that pickup and delivery personnel are able to handle functions such as digital waybill printing, order pickup, parcel tracking, receipt signing on mobile devices. The mobile solutions are user centric and comprehensive in meeting the varied needs of different personnel.
Customer service support. Our call center representatives have access to the Zhongtian system’s database to provide better and more effective customer service. The automated customer service functions on our website and our WeChat official account allow end customers to track parcels and search outlet locations with the data support from the Zhongtian system.

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Management of sale of accessories. Our network partners make online purchases of accessories, such as (i) portable bar code readers, (ii) thermal paper used for digital waybill printing, and (iii) ZTO-branded packing materials and uniforms, from us utilizing the accessories management module available on the Zhongtian system. Our network partners can log on to our system and place orders for waybills, packing materials, portable barcode scanners and other accessories. We then send out the accessories to our network partners once we have processed the orders received.
Data analytics and decision support. The Zhongtian system collects and provides valuable operational data such as parcel volume, hub utilization and parcel delivery speed to analyze and enhance our and our network partners’ performance. It provides a dashboard available to our core management team with various data and analytical tools. By utilizing the dashboard, our management can monitor and evaluate our business in real-time.

We have leased a high-grade data center in Zhejiang province to support our core operational systems, such as Zhongtian, and our transportation management system. Our server center in Shanghai mainly provides the network infrastructure for our managerial, data backup and other non-core functions. We have adopted security policies and measures, including encryption technology, to protect our software, proprietary data and customer information. Our system is configured with multiple layers of security to prevent unauthorized access to our software and databases, and we implement security protocols for communication among applications. We utilize a system of firewalls to prevent unauthorized access to our internal systems. Exchange of critical data on our website and public and private interfaces use the Secure Sockets Layer networking protocol, a standard security technology for establishing encrypted network communications. We regularly back up our databases, including customer data, with both on-site and off-site storage. Encryption is used to secure sensitive information when it is in transit or being stored.

Since 2016, we have established a digital product innovation system with eight major digital product lines, covering end-to-end online and offline processes for customer engagement, customer care, franchisee enablement, sorting hub operations, transportation, finance, smart mobility equipment and e-collaboration. This system enables around 200 applications throughout our information technology platform.

We have been developing a suite of technologies focusing on applying new features to enable fast digital product iteration, such as micro-service architecture, deep learning and AI, big data, private and hybrid cloud, DevOps, among others. We have also developed proprietary algorithms for order dispatchment and forecasting, as well as capabilities for real-time monitoring of information systems, automatic failure detection and recovery and high-throughput processing of 100-million orders in a single day.

We regard our trademarks, copyrights, patents, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. As of December 31, 2020, we owned 214 computer software copyrights in China for various aspects of our operations, maintained 217 trademark registrations and 76 patents inside China. As of December 31, 2020, we had registered 14 domain names, including zto.cn, among others.

In addition, we demonstrate the wide use of our technology resources, including Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), in various digital services, such as the ZTO Open Platform at zop.zto.com, an express delivery service technology docking platform which shares ZTO’s various service interfaces, and ZTO Security Response Center at sec.zto.com, an online platform for persons inside and outside the ZTO network to report security vulnerabilities to better protect customer information and enhance network security. We share with the public our achievements in improving digitization and intelligization in our operations through our annual ZTO Tech Open Day.

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Competition

The express delivery industry in China is fragmented and we compete primarily with leading domestic express delivery companies including YTO Express, STO Express, Yunda Express, Best Express, SF Express and the express delivery services provided by China Post such as EMS. We also face competition from emerging players in our industry or existing players in adjacent markets who may choose to leverage their existing infrastructure and expand their services into express delivery. We believe that our core value framework, superior scale, distinct partner network, best-in-class operational capabilities and cost efficiencies provide us with a competitive advantage. Entry into the express delivery industry requires significant initial investment into network construction and partner attraction. However, certain more established e-commerce companies may establish or further improve their proprietary delivery infrastructure and compete with us. Furthermore, as we look to offer additional products and services and expand our customer base, we may face competition from established players in new sectors we may choose to enter.

Procurement

We have adopted centralized procurement for selecting, bidding and purchasing land use rights, certain sorting equipment, line-haul transportation vehicles and consumables such as waybills, barcode scanners and uniforms. We hold bidding processes where possible to select products and services with the best value. We provide favorable payment terms in exchange for discounts and to promote long-term stable relationships with reliable suppliers. We work with manufacturers and research institutions to design and modify equipment to best fit our needs. Compared with off-the-shelf products available in the market, our tailor-made equipment generally has lower procurement and maintenance costs and higher operational efficiency.

We also leverage the scale of our network and assist our network partners to negotiate better procurement terms with their suppliers.

Security and Safety

We have established parcel security screening protocols to inspect parcels before we accept them for sorting and delivery. We have categorized prohibited items for land and air transport into a few classes, such as flammables and explosives, gunpowder, gasoline, opium and poultry. All senders are required to identify the content of their parcels. We require the pickup team to visually inspect items sent by end customers. We also have other measures such as X-ray screening of parcels for safety hazards or prohibited items. We have penalty measures in place for sorting hubs that handle pickup or delivery of prohibited items.

Workplace safety and transportation safety are important to our business. We have implemented safety protocols for our sorting hubs and ground transportation fleet to ensure safety and minimize accidents. We provide periodic training to our employees to recognize hazards, mitigate risk and avoid injury of themselves and others at work.

We have introduced and localized driver safety programs from overseas with the support of our vehicle insurance company China Pacific Insurance. In 2017, we equipped our line-haul vehicles with AI enabled smart devices that can decipher images, recognize unsafe gestures, and communicate with our home office data processing center that would automatically send escalating alarms to rectify unsafe driving behaviors. As a result, we reduced our accident rate and unit premium cost from 2016 to 2020.

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Branding and Marketing

We strive to enhance our brand awareness through the provision of high quality services and marketing initiatives. We were awarded as one of National Civilized Units in Transportation Industry by the PRC Ministry of Transportation for the year of 2020. We won the China Express Golden Parcels Contribution Award for Ten Years in 2020, the 2019 China Express Volume and Quality Double Upgrade Award and 2019 China Express Social Responsibility Award. We won the Data Service Award at the 9th China Big Data Application Golden Bell Award in 2019 for our intelligent customer service products and systems. Mr. Meisong Lai, our chairman, was awarded the Ram Charan Management Practice Award in 2019 by the Chinese edition of Harvard Business Review, recognizing excellent management practices. We were awarded as one of the 2019 Shanghai Top 100 Enterprises (ranked 61). Shanghai Zhongtongji Network was awarded as one of Shanghai’s Top 100 Enterprises in the Software and Information Technology Service Industry in 2019. In 2018, we were awarded as one of the National Advanced Logistics Enterprises and China’s Top 100 Logistics Enterprises’ at the Commendation Congress of Advanced Logistics Enterprises. We were awarded as one of AAAAA logistics companies by China Federation of Logistics & Purchasing in August 2017.

We employ a variety of programs and marketing activities to promote our brand and our services. We regularly attend trade fairs, such as the China Beijing International Fair for Trade in Services, and speak at industry forums. We also operate a news feed channel and leverage various mobile social network applications, such as WeChat, to distribute business updates and corporate news. Our offline marketing activities include traditional media such as billboard and public relations activities. In addition, we require our network partners to apply our logos on personnel uniforms, transportation vehicles and packaging materials in a consistent and unified manner in order to further enhance our brand recognition during interactions with our end customers.

We train and guide our network partners to market their products to our end customers and maintain customer relationships. Our designated team maintains enterprise customer relationships directly through regular dialogue. In general, we and our network partners strive to continuously improve our service qualities to elevate our brand and attract and retain more customers.

Corporate Social Responsibility

We are committed to leveraging our technology and logistics infrastructure to benefit society. Since our founding, we have been highly committed to environmental, social and corporate responsibility matters, including environmental sustainability, employee care, poverty alleviation and more.

Environmental Sustainability.    We have established a dedicated team to lead the formulation, implementation and supervision of environmental protection measures throughout our network. To reduce the negative impact of packaging consumables on the environment, we continue to promote the use of green and recyclable packaging and biodegradable packaging. We also take the initiatives to recycle packaging materials, and guide end consumers to reuse packaging cartons. Moreover, we have been committed to reducing the harmful impact of transportation on environment. Each of our line-haul vehicles is equipped with positioning equipment to monitor if there’s any abnormality in the transportation process together with GIS (Geographic Information System) to help plan proper transportation routes. We have also used high capacity trailers in order to improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. Meanwhile, we encourage our network partners to use eco-friendly transportation vehicles such as new-energy vehicles and battery-powered cars for pickup and delivery. Furthermore, we vigorously promote the use of energy-saving and environmental friendly equipment in our operation, including sorting, transportation and delivery.

Employee care.    We strive to provide employees with welfare benefits and a broad range of career development opportunities. We have established a sound talent cultivation mechanism and created an online-offline combined training platform. We have also organized and carried out vocational skills competitions and other activities for employees to improve professional skills. We have set up a management trainee program which aims to cultivate future leaders of the company through a three-year training plan. We also strive to help our employees balance their work and life. We have organized various recreational and sports activities to enrich the cultural life of employees.

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Poverty alleviation. We have actively explored the rural market, and implemented an initiative of “bringing express delivery services into villages” by improving the last-mile logistics infrastructure and promoting the coverage of logistics services in rural areas. We have promoted a two-way circulation channel for agricultural products to the city and industrial products to the countryside, which aims to help stimulate consumption in rural areas and increase the income of rural residents.

COVID-19 outbreak relief. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, we have done our utmost to help people in heavily affected regions in China. At the beginning of the outbreak, we immediately set up an emergency response leading group and a frontline command and control group to fully coordinate land and air transportation resources and provide support for epidemic prevention and control across the country. By the end of March 2020, we had delivered more than 700 tons of medical and rescue supplies to Hubei Province, including masks, protective clothing, disinfectants, medical gloves, livelihood support materials, etc. Meanwhile, we take the health and safety of our employees as our top priority. We provided all of our frontline employees with masks and other protective equipment immediately after the outbreak. We also set up a dedicated fund of RMB100 million for COVID- 19 epidemic prevention and control to help frontline workers after resumption of business.

Environmental protection. We have published our annual ESG report since 2019, detailing our key initiatives and development in areas pertaining to environmental, social and corporate governance issues. The ESG reports are available at http://zto.investorroom.com/.

We are subject to a number of regulations on environmental protection in China. For example, pursuant to the PRC Law on Environment Impact Assessment, our construction project is required to undergo an environmental impact assessment, and an environmental impact assessment report must be submitted to the relevant governmental authorities in charge of ecological environment for approval before the commencement of construction, as applicable. In accordance with the Administrative Regulations on the Environmental Protection of Construction Projects and the Interim Measures on the Administration of Acceptance Inspection of Construction Project Environmental Protection, after the completion of a construction project, we are required to obtain a completion acceptance on environmental protection for the project from the competent department of environmental protection or carry out the acceptance inspection by ourselves, as the case may be.

Insurance

We maintain various insurance policies to safeguard against risks and unexpected events. We have purchased compulsory motor vehicle liability insurance and commercial insurance such as automobile third-party liability insurance, vehicle loss insurance and driver/passenger liability insurance. We also provide social security insurance including pension insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance and medical insurance to our employees.

We do not purchase insurance for items delivered by us. Instead, our end customers may choose to pay an additional fee to purchase our priority handling services for valuable items, under which we will compensate those customers based on the value declared in the case of item loss or damage attributable to us. We do not maintain business interruption insurance; nor do we maintain product liability insurance or key-man insurance. We consider that the coverage from the insurance policies maintained by us is adequate for our present operations and is in line with the industry norm. Our management evaluates the adequacy of our insurance coverage from time to time and purchase additional insurance policies as needed.

Regulation

This Section sets forth a summary of the most significant rules and regulations that affect our business activities in China or our shareholders’ rights to receive dividends and other distributions from us.

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Regulations Relating To Foreign Investment

Industry Catalogue Relating to Foreign Investment.

The MOFCOM and the NDRC jointly promulgated the Negative List for Foreign Investment Access, or the Negative List, on June 23, 2020, which became effective on July 23, 2020, and the Catalogue of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment (2020 Edition), or the Catalogue, on December 27, 2020, which became effective on January 27, 2021. The Catalogue and the Negative List set forth the industries in which foreign investments are encouraged, restricted, or prohibited. Industries that are not listed in any of the above three categories are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations. Establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises is generally allowed in encouraged and permitted industries. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in industries in the prohibited category.

We are mainly engaged in express delivery services, which may involve domestic express delivery services of mail. According to the Negative List, foreign investments in domestic express delivery services of mail are prohibited. Therefore, we provide domestic express delivery services of mail through our consolidated affiliated entities in China.

Our PRC subsidiaries also operate in certain industries which fall into the encouraged category, such as road transportation and technical support and consulting services. Our subsidiary Shanghai Zhongtongji Network is registered in accordance with PRC law and mainly engages in technical support and consulting services, which are encouraged under the Catalogue.

The PRC Foreign Investment Law and Regulations.

Pursuant to the FIL, adopted by the PRC National People’s Congress and came into effect on January 1, 2020, China will grant national treatment to foreign-invested entities, except for those foreign-invested entities that operate in “restricted” or “prohibited” industries prescribed in the Negative List.

According to the FIL, “foreign investment” refers to investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by one or more natural persons, business entities, or other organizations of a foreign country (collectively referred to as “foreign investors”) within China. Although the FIL does not comment on the concept of “de facto control” or contractual arrangements with variable interest entities, it has a catch-all provision to include investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated by laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions of the State Council to classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—Our current corporate structure and business operations may be affected by the PRC Foreign Investment Law.”

The FIL also provides that the State establishes a foreign investment information report system. Foreign investors or the foreign investment enterprise shall submit investment information to the competent commerce department through the enterprise registration system and the enterprise credit information publicity system and the foreign investors or the foreign investment enterprise could be imposed a fine ranging from RMB100,000 to RMB500,000 by the competent commerce department for failing to report investment information as required to the foreign investment information report system.

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Pursuant to the Measures for Information Reporting on Foreign Investment, promulgated by the MOFCOM and the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR, and became effective on January 1, where a foreign investor carries out investment activities in China directly or indirectly, the foreign investor or the foreign investment enterprise shall submit the investment information to the competent commerce department. The Implementation Regulation for the FIL, promulgated by the PRC State Council and became effective on January 1, 2020, provides that foreign investment enterprises established in accordance with the Law of the PRC on Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprises, the Law of the PRC on Foreign Investment Enterprises and the Law of the PRC on Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprises prior to implementation of the FIL shall, within the five-year period following the implementation of the FIL, adjust their organization form, organization structure pursuant to the provisions of the PRC Company Law, the PRC Partnership Enterprise Law and related laws, and complete change registration in accordance with the law. With effect from January 1, 2025, where an existing foreign investment enterprise has not adjusted its organization form or organization structure and complete the change registration in accordance with the law, the market regulatory authorities shall not process the application(s) for any other registration matter(s) of the said foreign investment enterprise, and shall publicly announce the relevant information.

Regulations Relating To Express Delivery Services

The PRC Postal Law, which was most recently amended on April 24, 2015, sets out the fundamental rules on the establishment and operation of an express delivery company. Pursuant to the Postal Law, an enterprise that operates and provides express delivery services must run its express delivery business by obtaining a Courier Service Operation Permit. In order to apply for a business permit for express delivery services, a company must meet all the requirements as a corporate legal person and satisfy certain prerequisites with respect to its service capacity and management system, and its registered capital must be no less than RMB500,000 to operate within a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government, no less than RMB1,000,000 in the case of cross-provincial operation, and no less than RMB2,000,000 to operate international express delivery services.

Filing with the postal administrative department is required where an express delivery company sets up branches. The requirements for the establishment of a branch of express delivery company are specified in the Administrative Measures for Courier Service Market, or the Courier Market Measures, which was announced by the Ministry of Transport on January 11, 2013. The Courier Market Measures stipulate that where any express delivery company establishes its branches or business departments, it must register with the local industrial and commercial administration where such branches or business departments are located by submitting its express delivery services operation permit and a list of its branches and, such branches or business departments must, within 20 days after they obtain their relevant business licenses, file with the local postal administrative department. The Postal Law stipulates that if an express delivery company fails to complete such required registration and/or filing with the relevant governmental authority, it may be ordered to rectify and to pay general fines of no more than RMB10,000. If the non-compliance situations are severe, a fine ranging from RMB10,000 to RMB50,000 can be imposed, and the offender may face suspension of its business operation before completing the rectification.

Pursuant to (i) the Postal Law, (ii) the Courier Market Measures, (iii) the Administrative Measures on Courier Service Operation Permits, which was most recently amended on November 28, 2019, and (iv) the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, which was mostly recently amended on March 2, 2019, any entity engaging in express delivery services must obtain a Courier Service Operation Permit from the State Post Bureau or its local counterpart and is subject to their supervision and regulation. If an entity operates express delivery services without obtaining a Courier Service Operation Permit in accordance with the above measures and regulations, it may be compelled to make corrections, subject to the confiscation of its earnings generated from its unlicensed operating express delivery services, imposed a fine ranging from RMB50,000 to RMB100,000 or where the circumstances are severe, ranging from RMB100,000 to RMB200,000, and/or ordered to suspend its business operation for rectification or even cancellation of its Courier Service Operation Permit. If a permit-holder who ceases its business operation for over six months within the effective period of the Courier Service Operation Permit, it will be ordered by the postal administration departments to return the Courier Service Operation Permit, and if it refuses or fails to do so on time, the postal administration departments shall publicly announce the annulment of the Courier Service Operation Permit.

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Enterprises engaged in express delivery services other than Postal Bureau Agencies may not engage in post and mail delivery business which are exclusively operated by Postal Bureau Agencies, and may not deliver any official documents of state-owned organizations. The express delivery business must operate within the permitted scope and under the valid terms of the Courier Service Operation Permit. The Courier Service Operation Permit is valid for 5 years upon its issuance and comes with an annual reporting obligation. The Circular on Implementing the Administrative Measures for the Courier Market and Strengthening the Administration of Courier Service Operations, which was issued by the State Post Bureau on February 7, 2013, further clarifies that the postal administrative department must examine whether an entity operates express delivery service within the permitted business scope and geographic scope of its Courier Service Operation Permit, and the geographic examination must be carried out down to the district-level within cities. Pursuant to the Courier Market Measures, failure to conduct express delivery services within the permitted operation scopes would subject the express delivery company to a correction order by the postal administrative department and a fine from RMB5,000 to RMB30,000. Moreover, in accordance with the Administrative Measures on Courier Service Operation Permits, an enterprise engaged in express delivery services must submit an annual reporting on its business licensing of courier services with the postal administrative authority which issued its Courier Service Operation Permit prior to 30 April each year. Where an express delivery service company fails to submit its annual report to the relevant postal administrative authority in a timely manner, it may be ordered by the postal administrative authorities to make correction, and may be subject to a fine of up to RMB10,000. Where an express delivery service company conceals any facts or commits fraud in its annual report, such express delivery service company may be ordered by the postal administrative authorities to make correction and imposed a fine ranging from RMB10,000 to RMB30,000.

In accordance with the Decision of the State Council on Issues concerning Cancelling and Adjusting a Batch of Administrative Examination and Approval Items on February 24, 2015, a company operating express delivery services must apply for and obtain the Courier Service Operation Permit prior to the application of its business license, and the obtaining of Courier Service Operation Permit is subject to industrial and commercial registration with prior examination.

In accordance with the Courier Market Measures, if any express delivery service is carried out through franchise, both the franchisees and franchisors must obtain the Courier Service Operation Permit and any franchisee must run its franchise business within its licensed scopes; and the franchisees and franchisors must enter into written agreements providing the rights and obligations of both parties and the liabilities of both parties in case of any violation of the legal rights and interests of the users of express delivery services. Any franchisee or franchisor failing to obtain the Courier Service Operation Permit or any franchisee failing to run its franchise business within its licensed scopes would be subject to a correction order by the relevant postal administrative authority and a fine ranging from RMB5,000 to RMB30,000.

Companies engaging in express delivery service must establish and implement a system for the examination of parcels or articles received for delivery. Pursuant to the PRC Postal Law and Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Postal Security in the Postal Industry issued by the Ministry of Transport on January 2, 2020, which became effective on February 15, 2020, express delivery companies must examine the postal articles so as to inspect whether the postal articles are prohibited or restricted from express delivery. Express delivery companies must also examine whether the names, nature and quantity of the postal articles have been properly disclosed on delivery form. Any failure to establish or implement such inspection system, or any unlawful acceptance or delivery of prohibited or restricted parcels/articles may result in the sanctions to the in-charge persons bearing direct responsibility and other persons subject to direct liability of the express delivery companies and the suspension of the company’s business operation for rectification or even cancellation of its Courier Service Operation Permit, being compelled to make corrections and being imposed a fine up to RMB5,000.

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According to the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, express delivery operators shall obtain the Courier Service Operation Permit for express delivery. Express delivery operators and their branches may open express delivery terminal outlets which are required to file with the local post administrations in the places where they are located for record within 20 days from the date of opening their express delivery terminal outlets. The delivery terminal outlets are not required to obtain a business license. Where an express delivery service operator fails to file with the local post administrations for opening their express delivery terminal outlets, such express delivery service company may be compelled to make corrections, imposed a fine ranging up to RMB50,000 and/or ordered to suspend business for rectification. In case an express delivery service company intends to suspend operating express delivery services, it shall (i) make public announcement ten days in advance, (ii) submit a written notice to the postal administrative departments, (iii) return the Courier Service Operation Permit and (iv) make proper arrangement on undelivered express parcels. Failure to comply with such requirement may be compelled to make corrections, imposed a fine ranging up to RMB50,000 and/or ordered to suspend business for rectification. According to the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, express delivery operators shall also verify the identity of senders and register their identity information when receiving express parcels. Where senders refuse to furnish their identity information or furnish false identity information, express delivery operators shall not receive their express parcels. According to the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, the Postal Law and the Anti-Terrorism Law, if any express delivery operator fails to verify the identity of senders yet registers their identity information, or identifies that the senders provide false identity information, but still receives the express parcels, such express delivery operator may be subject to a fine ranging from RMB 100,000 to RMB 500,000 or ordered to suspend business operation until cancellation of its express delivery services certificate, and the personnel directly in charge and other persons directly liable may be subject to a fine ranging up to RMB100,000. The Interim Regulations on Express Delivery also indicates that two or more express delivery operator may use a unified trademark, corporate name or express waybill to conduct the express delivery business. The express delivery operators shall enter into a written agreement to define their respective rights and obligations, carry out unified management of service quality, safety guarantee and business process, and provide unified express mail tracking, inquiry and complaint handling services for clients. Where the legitimate rights and interests of any client have been jeopardized due to the delay, missing, damage or shortage of express parcels, the client may request the express delivery operator to which the trademark, corporate name or express waybill belongs to offer compensation, or request the actual express delivery provider to pay compensation. ZTO Express and 54 of its subsidiaries have obtained the Courier Service Operation Permits to operate express delivery services. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to the business operation of us or our network partners may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

Pursuant to the E-commerce Law, we are subject to certain requirements in e-commerce business, including but not limit to the following: while handing over commodities, express logistics service providers shall remind consignees to examine the commodities immediately on the spot; where the commodities are received by others for consignees, such providers shall obtain the consent of consignees. Express logistics service providers shall use environmental-friendly packaging materials in accordance with the relevant provisions in an effort to reduce the consumption of packaging materials and implement the recycling measures. While offering express logistics services, the providers thereof may agree to be entrusted by e-commerce operators to collect payments for goods on a commission basis. The operation of our business is subject to this new law. If our express delivery services are not in compliance with the law, we may be required to rectify. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our business and the business of our network partners are subject to a broad range of PRC laws and regulations. If we or our network partners are deemed to be not in compliance with any of these laws and regulations, our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely impacted.”

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Road Transportation Operation Permit

Pursuant to the Regulations on Road Transportation promulgated by the State Council on April 30, 2004 and most recently amended on March 2, 2019, and the Provisions on Administration of Road Freight Transportation and Stations (Sites) issued by the Ministry of Transport on June 16, 2005 and most recently amended on June 20. 2019, or the Road Freight Provisions, the business operations of road freight transportation refer to commercial road freight transportation activities that provide public services. The road freight transportation includes general road freight transportation, special road freight transportation, road transportation of large articles, and road transportation of hazardous cargos. Special road freight transportation refers to freight transportation using special vehicles with containers, refrigeration equipment, or tank containers, etc. The Road Freight Provisions set forth detailed requirements with respect to vehicles and drivers.

Under the Road Freight Provisions, anyone engaging in the business of operating road freight transportation or stations (sites) must obtain a Road Transportation Operation Permit from the local county-level road transportation administrative bureau, and each vehicle used for road freight transportation must have a Road Transportation Certificate from the same authority. The incorporation of a subsidiary of road freight transportation operator that intends to engage in road transportation business is subject to the same approval procedure. If it intends to establish a branch, it should file with the local road transportation administrative bureau where the branch is to be established.

Although the Road Transportation Operation Permits have no limitation with respect to geographical scope, several provincial governments in China, including Shanghai and Beijing, promulgated local rules on administration of road transportation, stipulating that permitted operators of road freight transportation registered in other provinces should also make record-filing with the local road transportation administrative bureau where it carries out its business.

In 2020, ZTO Express and nine of its subsidiaries have obtained Road Transportation Operation Permits to operate general road freight transportation or station (sites). Shanghai Zhongtongji Logistics Co., Ltd. and 23 of its subsidiaries have obtained Road Transportation Operation Permits to operate general road freight transportation or station (sites). See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to the business operation of us or our network partners may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

Regulations On Cargo Vehicles

Pursuant to the Administrative Provisions concerning the Running of Cargo Vehicles with Out-of-Gauge Goods, cargo vehicles running on public roads shall not carry cargo weighing more than the limits prescribed by this regulation and their dimensions shall not exceed those as set forth by the same regulation. Vehicle operators who violate this regulation may be subject to a fine of up to RMB30,000 for each violation. In the event of repeated violations, the regulatory authority may suspend the operating license of the vehicle operator and/or revoke the business operation registration of the relevant vehicle. In the event more than 10% of the total vehicles of any road transportation enterprise are not in compliance with this regulation in any year, such road transportation enterprise shall suspend its business for rectification and its road transportation license may be revoked.

The operation of our truck fleet is subject to this regulation. If our trucks are not in compliance with this regulation, we may be required to modify such trucks to reduce their length or purchase new ones to replace them. Otherwise, we may be subject to penalties under this regulation if we continue to operate those trucks that exceed the limits set forth in the regulation. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our business and the business of our network partners are subject to a broad range of PRC laws and regulations. If we or our network partners are deemed to be not in compliance with any of these laws and regulations, our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely impacted.”

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Regulations Relating To International Freight Forwarding Business

Administrative Provisions on International Freight Forwarders promulgated on June 29, 1995 and its detailed rules regulate the business of international freight forwarding. According to the provisions and its detailed rules, the minimum amount of registered capital must be RMB5 million for an international freight forwarder by sea, RMB3 million for an international freight forwarder by air and RMB2 million for an international freight forwarder by land or for an entity operating international express delivery services. An international freight forwarder must, when each time applying for setting up a branch, increase its registered capital (or the excess amount over its minimum registered capital) by RMB500,000. Under the Measures on Filing of International Freight Forwarders (Interim) announced on March 2, 2005 and amended on August 18, 2016, all international freight forwarders and their branches registered with the state industrial and commercial administration must be filed with the MOFCOM or its authorized organs.

Regulations Relating To Use Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles For Commercial Flight Activities

On March 21, 2018, Civil Aviation Administration promulgated the Administrative Measures for Commercial Flight Activities of Civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Interim), pursuant to which an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Business License shall be obtained for the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for commercial flight activities, and no commercial flight activities shall be conducted without an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operation Permit. Three subsidiaries of ZTO Express, have obtained the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operation Permit.

Regulations On Commercial Franchising

Pursuant to the Regulations and Provisions on Commercial Franchising, commercial franchising refers to the business activities where an enterprise that possesses the registered trademarks, enterprise logos, patents, proprietary technology or any other business resources allows such business resources to be used by another business operator through contract and the franchisee follows the uniform business model to conduct business operations and pay franchising fees to the franchisor according to the contract. We and our network partners are therefore subject to regulations on commercial franchising. Under the Regulations and Provisions on Commercial Franchising, within 15 days of the first conclusion of franchising contract, the franchisor must carry out record-filing with the MOFCOM or its local counterparts and must report the status of its franchising contracts in the previous year in the first quarter of each year after record-filing. The MOFCOM announces the names of franchisors who have completed filing on the government website and makes prompt updates. If the franchisor fails to comply with these Regulations and Provisions on Commercial Franchising, the MOFCOM or its local counterparts have the discretion to take administrative measures against the franchisor, including fines and public announcements. The Regulations and Provisions on Commercial Franchising also set forth requirements on the contents of franchising contracts. ZTO Express has signed franchising contracts under the Regulations and Provisions on Commercial Franchising with its direct network partners. If we are deemed as a franchisor who fails to comply with the stipulations of filing with the competent commerce authority, we may be imposed a fine ranging from RMB10,000 to RMB100,000. As of December 31, 2020, we have not made any filings with local counterparts of the MOFCOM or received any governmental order to make such filings. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry — Our failure to comply with regulations on commercial franchising may result in penalties to us.”

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Regulations Relating To Personal Information Security And Consumer Protection

The Administrative Provisions on the Security of Personal Information of Express Service Users, promulgated by State Post Bureau on March 26, 2014, provide for the protection of the personal information of users of express or express delivery services, and the supervision on the express operations of postal enterprises and express delivery companies. In accordance with these provisions, the state postal administrative department and its local counterparts are the supervising and administering authority responsible for the security of the personal information of users of express or express delivery services, and postal enterprises and express delivery companies must establish and refine systems and measures for the security of such information. Specifically, express delivery companies must enter into confidentiality agreements with its employees regarding the information of its clients or users to specify confidentiality obligations and liabilities for violation thereof. Where express delivery companies are entrusted by operators engaging in online shopping, TV shopping, mail-order and other businesses to provide express delivery services, such express delivery companies must enter into agreements with the said principals agreeing upon provisions safeguarding the security of information of users of express delivery services. Courier companies operating through franchise are further required to formulate provisions on the security of information of users of express delivery services in franchising contracts and clarify the security responsibilities between franchisor and franchisee. A courier company and its employees causing damages to the users of express delivery services by divulging the users' information is expected to bear compensation liabilities. If a courier company is found to unlawfully furnish the information of users of express delivery services, the company and its employees are subject to administrative liabilities or even criminal penalties. A user of express delivery services may further seek remedies by following the Measures on Settling the Complaints of the Postal Users issued by State Post Bureau, which took effect on September 1, 2014. The Postal Users Complaints Settling Center implements the regime of mediation to handle the complaints from users on the quality of the express delivery services. According to the Interim Regulations on Express Delivery, an express delivery service company shall not sell, reveal or illegally provide any information of client that has been exposed during the provision of express services. In case the information of client is revealed or may be revealed, the express delivery service company shall take remedial measures immediately and report to the local post administrations. Failure to comply with such requirement may be subject to penalties including a fine ranging from RMB10,000 to RMB100,000, suspension of business for rectification or revoke of its Courier Service Operation Permit. We are subject to the above provisions or measures with regard to the security of personal information and believe that we are currently in compliance with the law in all material aspects.

Regulations On Financial Services

Pursuant to the Guiding Opinions of the China Banking Regulatory Commission and the People’s Bank of China on the Pilot Operation of Microcredit Loan Enterprises promulgated by the China Banking Regulatory Commission and the People’s Bank of China on May 4, 2008, to apply for the establishment of a microcredit loan enterprise, the applicant shall submit a formal application to the competent administrative departments at the provincial level, and upon the approval, the applicant shall register with the local branch of the industrial and commercial administration to obtain the business license.

Pursuant to the Notice of the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission on Issuing the Interim Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Financial Leasing Enterprises promulgated by the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission on May 26, 2020, provincial-level local financial regulatory authority shall establish a mechanism for consultation with administrations for market regulation to strictly control the registration of financial leasing enterprises and their branches.

Pursuant to the Notice of the General Office of the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission on Strengthening the Supervision and Administration of Commercial Factoring Enterprises promulgated by the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission on October 18, 2019, each financial regulatory authority shall coordinate with administrations for market regulation in strictly controlling the registration of commercial factoring enterprises before promulgation of the administrative measures for market access of commercial factoring enterprises. If the newly establishment of a commercial factoring enterprise is necessary, the financial regulatory authority shall set up a consultation mechanism with administrations for market regulation.

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Regulations Relating To Pricing

In China, the prices of a few numbers of products and services are set by the government. According to the Pricing Law promulgated on December 29, 1997, which became effective on May 1, 1998, operators must, as required by the government departments in charge of pricing, mark the prices explicitly and indicate the service items, pricing structures and other related standards clearly. Operators may not charge any fees that are not explicitly indicated. Operators must not commit unlawful pricing activities, such as colluding with others to manipulate the market price, using false or misleading prices to deceive consumers, or conducting price discrimination against other business operators. Failure to comply with the Pricing Law may subject business operators to administrative sanctions such as warning, ceasing unlawful activities, requiring compensation, confiscating illegal gains, fines. The business operators may be ordered to suspend business for rectification or having their business licenses revoked if the violations are severe. We are subject to the Pricing Law as a service provider and believe that our pricing activities are currently in compliance with the laws in all material aspects.

Regulations Relating To Leasing

We lease properties for our offices, sorting hubs, pickup and delivery outlets and other facilities. Pursuant to the Law on Administration of Urban Real Estate which took effect on January 1, 1995 with the latest amendment on August 26, 2019, which became effective on January 1, 2020, lessors and lessees are required to enter into a written lease contract, containing such provisions as the term of the lease, the use of the premises, rental price, liability for repair, and other rights and obligations of both parties. Both lessor and lessee are also required to file for registration and record the lease contract with the real estate administration department. Pursuant to implementing rules stipulated by certain provinces or cities, if the lessor and lessee fail to go through the registration procedures, both lessor and lessee may be subject to fines.

The Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, or the Civil Code, superseded the PRC Contract Law and became effective on January 1, 2021. According to the foregoing regulations, the lessee may sublease the leased premises to a third party, subject to the consent of the lessor. Where the lessee subleases the premises, the lease contract between the lessee and the lessor remains valid. The lessor is entitled to terminate the lease contract if the lessee subleases the premises without the consent of the lessor. In addition, if the lessor transfers the premises, the lease contract between the lessee and the lessor will still remain valid.

The Civil Code superseded the PRC Property Law and became effective on January 1, 2021. Pursuant to the foregoing regulations, if the mortgaged property is leased before the mortgage contract is executed, the previously established tenancy will not be affected by the subsequent mortgage, but where the mortgaged property is leased after the creation and registration of the mortgage interest, the tenancy cannot challenge the registered mortgage.

Regulations Relating To Land Use Right And Construction

Certain of our offices, sorting hubs and other facilities, together with the land use rights attached, are obtained or built by us or bought from third parties. Pursuant to the PRC Land Administration Law promulgated on June 25, 1986 with the latest amendment on August 26, 2019, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and the PRC Property Law which has been replaced by the Civil Code since January 1, 2021, any entity that needs land for the purposes of construction must obtain land use right and must register with local counterparts of Land and Resources Ministry. Land use right is established at the time of registration. We have not obtained title certificates of land use rights to certain pieces of land currently used by us. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—The title defects with respect to or encumbrances on certain land and buildings or failure to obtain requisite approvals, licenses or permits in carrying out our property construction may cause interruptions to our business operations.”

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According to the Measures for Control and Administration of Grant and Assignment of Right to Use Urban State-owned Land promulgated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development on December 4, 1992 with the amendment on January 26, 2011, and the PRC Law on Urban and Rural Planning promulgated by the National People’s Congress on October 28, 2007 and became effective on January 1, 2008 with the latest amendment on April 23, 2019, the Measures for Administration of Permission for Commencement of Construction Works promulgated by the Ministry of Housing Construction and Urban-Rural Development with the latest amendment on September 28, 2018, the Administrative Measures for Archival Filing on Inspection Upon Completion of Buildings and Municipal Infrastructure promulgated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development with the latest amendment on October 19, 2009, and the Regulations on the Quality Management of Construction Engineering promulgated by the State Council on January 30, 2000 and most recently amended on April 23, 2019, after obtaining land use right, the owner of land use right must obtain construction land planning permit, construction works planning permit from the relevant municipal planning authority, and a construction permit from relevant construction authority in order to commence construction. After a building is completed, an examination of completion by the relevant governmental authorities and experts must be organized. We have not been fully in compliance with certain construction requirements under PRC laws and regulations, such as commencing construction projects before obtaining the requisite permits and putting the constructions into use before passing the requisite inspection and acceptance. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—The title defects with respect to or encumbrances on certain land and buildings or failure to obtain requisite approvals, licenses or permits in carrying out our property construction may cause interruptions to our business operations.”

Regulations Relating To Environmental Protection

Pursuant to the PRC Law on Environment Impact Assessment promulgated on October 28, 2002 and most recently amended on December 29, 2018, and the Administrative Regulations on the Environmental Protection of Construction Projects promulgated on November 29, 1998 with the latest amendment on July 16, 2017, each construction project is required to undergo an environmental impact assessment, and an environmental impact assessment report must be submitted to the relevant governmental authorities in charge of ecological environment for approval before the commencement of construction. In the event that there is a material change in respect of the location, scale, nature of the construction project, the production techniques employed or the measures adopted for preventing pollution and preventing ecological damage of a given project, a new environmental impact assessment report must be submitted for approval. Moreover, in accordance with the Administrative Regulations on the Environmental Protection of Construction Projects, after the construction of a construction project for which an environmental impact report or environmental impact statement is required, the construction unit shall make an acceptance check of the matching environmental protection facilities and prepare an acceptance report according to the standards and procedures stipulated by the competent administrative department of environmental protection under the State Council. Subject to the Administrative Regulations on the Environmental Protection of Construction Projects, and the Interim Measures on the Administration of Acceptance Inspection of Construction Project Environmental Protection which became effective on November 20, 2017, except those construction projects requiring water, noise and solid waste pollution prevention facilities, which are still subject to acceptance by the environmental authorities, the constructing entities may organize the acceptance inspection upon the completion by themselves for other construction projects. Failure to comply with the above-mentioned regulations may subject an enterprise to fines, suspension of the construction and other administrative liabilities.

Regulations Relating To Intellectual Property Rights

The PRC government has adopted comprehensive governing laws for intellectual property rights, including copyrights, patents, trademarks and domain names.

Copyright. Copyright in China, including copyrighted software, is principally protected under the Copyright Law and its implementation rules and Regulations on the Protection of Computer Software. Under the Regulations on the Protection of Computer Software, the term of protection for copyrighted software is 50 years.

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Patent. Patents in China are principally protected under the Patent Law and its implementation rules. The Patent Law provides for patentable inventions, utility models and designs. Patentable inventions and utility models must meet three conditions: novelty, inventiveness and practical applicability. The National Intellectual Property Administration is responsible for examining and approving patent applications. The duration of a patent right is either 10 years or 20 years from the date of application, depending on the type of patent right.

Trademark. The Trademark Law and its implementation rules protect registered trademarks. The PRC Trademark Office of the National Intellectual Property Administration is responsible for the registration and administration of trademarks throughout China. The Trademark Law has adopted a “first-to-file” principle with respect to trademark registration. Where registration application for a trademark that is identical or similar to another trademark which has already registered or given preliminary examination, the application for such trademark may be rejected. Trademark registration is effective for a renewable ten-year period, unless otherwise revoked.

Domain Name. Domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures on the Internet Domain Names promulgated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, in August 24, 2017. The MIIT is the major regulatory body responsible for the administration of the PRC internet domain names, under supervision of which the China Internet Network Information Center, or the CNNIC, is responsible for the daily administration of CN domain names and Chinese domain names. Our domain name registration is handled through domain name service agencies established under the relevant regulations, and we become domain name holders upon successful registration.

Regulations Relating To Employment

Pursuant to the PRC Labor Law, promulgated by National People’s Congress and most recently amended on December 29, 2018, and the PRC Labor Contract Law, promulgated by Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on June 29, 2007 and amended on December 28, 2012, employers must execute written labor contracts with full-time employees. All employers must comply with local minimum wage standards. Violation of the PRC Labor Law and the PRC Labor Contract Law may result in the imposition of fines and other administrative and criminal liability in the case of serious violation.

Enterprises in China are required by PRC laws and regulations to participate in certain employee benefit plans, including social insurance funds, namely a pension plan, a medical insurance plan, an unemployment insurance plan, a work-related injury insurance plan and a maternity insurance plan, and a housing provident fund, and contribute to such plans or funds in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of the employees as specified by the local government from time to time at locations where they operate their businesses or where they are located. According to the PRC Social Insurance Law, promulgated by National People’s Congress on October 28, 2010 and most recently amended on December 29, 2018, and Interim Regulations on Levying Social Insurance Premiums, promulgated by National People’s Congress on January 22, 1999 and most recently amended on March 24, 2019, an employer that fails to make social insurance contributions may be ordered to rectify the non-compliance and pay the required contributions within a stipulated deadline and be subject to a late fee of up to 0.05% per day. If the employer still fails to rectify the failure to make social insurance contributions within the stipulated deadline, it may be subject to a fine ranging from one to three times of the amount overdue and/or subject to a late fee of 0.2% per day. According to the Regulations on Management of Housing Fund, promulgated by National People’s Congress on April 3, 1999 and most recently amended on March 24, 2019, an enterprise that fails to make housing fund contributions may be ordered to rectify the noncompliance and pay the required contributions within a stipulated deadline; otherwise, an application may be made to a local court for compulsory enforcement. In the event of failure to pay certain past social security and housing fund contributions in accordance with the applicable PRC laws and regulations for and on behalf of our employees, we may be subject to fines and penalties and may be required to make up the contributions for the social security and housing fund contributions as well as to pay late fees. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our failure to fully comply with PRC labor-related laws may expose us to potential penalties.”

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Regulations Relating To Foreign Exchange

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, most recently amended on August 5, 2008. Payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can usually be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. By contrast, approval from or registration with appropriate governmental authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of foreign currency-denominated loans.

On March 30, 2015, SAFE issued the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Management Approach regarding the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 19, the foreign exchange capital of foreign-invested enterprises is subject to the discretional foreign exchange settlement, which means the foreign exchange capital in the capital account of foreign-invested enterprises upon the confirmation of rights and interests of monetary contribution by the local foreign exchange bureau (or the book-entry registration of monetary contribution by the banks) may be settled at the banks based on the actual operation needs of the enterprises. The proportion of discretionary settlement of foreign exchange capital of foreign-invested enterprises is temporarily 100%. SAFE can adjust such proportion in due time based on the circumstances of international balance of payments.

SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises.

On January 26, 2017, SAFE issued the Notice of State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Improving the Review of Authenticity and Compliance to Further Promoting the Reform of Foreign Exchange Administration, or SAFE Circular 3, which stipulates several capital control measures with respect to the outbound remittance of profit from domestic entities to offshore entities. Moreover, pursuant to SAFE Circular 3, domestic entities shall make detailed explanations of the sources of capital and utilization arrangements, and provide board resolutions, contracts and other proof when completing the registration procedures in connection with an outbound investment. On October 23, 2019, SAFE issued the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Facilitating Cross-border Trade and Investment, which, among other things, expanded the use of foreign exchange capital to domestic equity investment area.

Regulations On PRC Mergers & Acquisitions

Pursuant to the M&A Rules, which was promulgated by the MOFCOM, the STA, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and SAFE on August 8, 2006 and subsequently amended by the MOFCOM on June 22, 2009, provided that the scenarios qualify as an acquisition of a domestic enterprise by a foreign investor. According to the Measures for Reporting of Information on Foreign Investment, which was issued by the MOFCOM and the SAMR and took effect on January 1, 2020, to acquire the equity of a non-foreign-invested enterprise within the territory of China, a foreign investor shall submit the initial report through the enterprise registration system when it applies for the registration of changes to the acquired enterprise. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Certain PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.” Currently, there remains uncertainty as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented in the context of an overseas offering. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.”

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Regulations On Dividend Distribution

According to the FIL, foreign investment enterprises in China may pay dividends freely in RMB or any other foreign currency according to law. In addition, according to the PRC Company Law, foreign investment enterprises, same as domestic enterprises, are required to set aside at least 10% of their after-tax profits (if any) each year to the company’s statutory reserves, until the accumulative amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. Although the statutory reserves can be used, among other ways, to increase the registered capital and eliminate future losses in excess of retained earnings of the respective companies, the reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of liquidation. Further, the foreign investment enterprises may allocate a portion of their after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards as discretionary reserve funds. These reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

Regulations On Offshore Financing

SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. All of our shareholders that we are aware of being subject to SAFE regulations have completed all necessary initial registrations with the local SAFE branch or qualified banks as required by SAFE Circular 37.

On February 13, 2015, SAFE released Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Simplifying and Improving the Direct Investment-related Foreign Exchange Administration Policies, which was partially abolished on December 30, 2019, under which local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registration for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registration and amendment registration, starting from June 1, 2015.

On March 11, 2020, the People’s Bank of China and SAFE jointly released the Notice on Adjusting Macro-Prudential Adjustment Parameters of Full-Caliber Cross-Border Financing, which raised the macro prudential adjustment parameter from 1 to 1.25. On January 7, 2021, the People’s Bank of China and SAFE jointly released the Notice on Adjusting Macro-Prudential Adjustment Parameters of Cross-Border Financing, which debased the macro prudential adjustment parameter from 1.25 to 1.

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Regulations Relating To Employee Stock Incentive Plan Of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company

Pursuant to Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, individuals participating in any stock incentive plan of any overseas publicly listed company who are PRC citizens or non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We and our executive officers and other employees, who are PRC citizens or non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year with the exception of diplomatic agents of foreign countries in China and the representatives of any international organization in China and have been granted options, are subject to these regulations as our company became an overseas listed company upon the completion of our initial public offering. Failure by such individuals to complete their SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and other legal sanctions. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans of overseas publicly listed companies may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.”

The STA has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options or restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise share options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities.

Regulations Relating To Tax

Dividend Withholding Tax

Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, which was recently amended on December 29, 2018, and its implementation rules, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and was amended on April 23, 2019, if a non-resident enterprise has not set up an organization or establishment in China, or has set up an organization or establishment but the income derived has no actual connection with such organization or establishment, it will be subject to a withholding tax on its PRC-sourced income at a rate of 10%. Pursuant to the Arrangement between Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, the withholding tax rate in respect to the payment of dividends by a PRC enterprise to a Hong Kong enterprise is reduced to 5% from a standard rate of 10% if the Hong Kong enterprise directly holds at least 25% of the PRC enterprise. The Notice of the STA on the Issues concerning the Application of the Dividend Clauses of Tax Agreements, or STA Circular 81 sets forth the requirements for a Hong Kong resident enterprise to enjoy the reduced withholding tax. Furthermore, the Administrative Measures for Convention Treatment for Non-resident Taxpayers, which became effective on January 1, 2020, require that non-resident taxpayers claiming treaty benefits shall be handled in accordance with the principles of “self-assessment, claiming benefits, retention of the relevant materials for future inspection.” Where a non-resident taxpayer self-assesses and concludes that it satisfies the criteria for claiming treaty benefits, it may enjoy treaty benefits at the time of tax declaration or at the time of withholding through a withholding agent, simultaneously gather and retain the relevant materials pursuant to the provisions of these Measures for future inspection, and subject to subsequent administration by tax authorities. Accordingly, ZTO Express (Hong Kong) Limited may be able to enjoy the 5% withholding tax rate for the dividends they receive from ZTO Express, if they satisfy the conditions prescribed under STA Circular 81 and other relevant tax rules and regulations. However, according to STA Circular 81, if the relevant tax authorities consider the transactions or arrangements we have are for the primary purpose of enjoying a favorable tax treatment, the relevant tax authorities may adjust the favorable withholding tax in the future.

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Enterprise Income Tax

Under the EIT Law, enterprises are classified as resident enterprises and nonresident enterprises. PRC resident enterprises typically pay an enterprise income tax at the rate of 25%. Uncertainties exist with respect to how the EIT Law applies to the tax residence status of ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. and our offshore subsidiaries.

Under the EIT Law, an enterprise established outside China with its “de facto management bodies” located within China is considered a “resident enterprise,” meaning that it is treated in a manner similar to a PRC domestic enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes. The implementing rules of the EIT Law define de facto management body as a managing body that in practice exercises “substantial and overall management and control over the production and operations, personnel, accounting, and properties” of the enterprise.

According to the Circular of the STA on Issues Concerning the Identification of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Registered Enterprises as Resident Enterprises in Accordance with the Actual Standards of Organizational Management, or STA Circular 82, a Chinese-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having a “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its worldwide income only if all of the criteria specified in STA Circular 82 are met. In addition, the STA issued the Bulletin of the STA on Printing and Distributing the Administrative Measures for Income Tax on Chinese-controlled Resident Enterprises Incorporated Overseas (Trial Implementation) on July 27, 2011 and amended on June 15, 2018 by the Announcement of the STA on Revising Certain Taxation Normative Documents, providing more guidance on the implementation of STA Circular 82. According to the Bulletin of the STA on Issues concerning the Determination of Resident Enterprises Based on the Standards of Actual Management Institutions, or STA Bulletin 9, issued by the STA on January 29, 2014, a Chinese-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise that satisfies the conditions prescribed under the STA Circular 82 for being recognized as a PRC tax resident must apply for being recognized as a PRC tax resident to the competent tax authority at the place of registration of its main investor within the territory of China.

We do not believe that we meet all of the conditions outlined in the immediately preceding paragraph. We believe that ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. and our offshore subsidiaries should not be treated as a “resident enterprise” for PRC tax purposes if the criteria for “de facto management body” as set forth in STA Circular 82 were deemed applicable to us. However, as the tax residency status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body” as applicable to our offshore entities, we may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the EIT Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income. We are actively monitoring the possibility of “resident enterprise” treatment for the applicable tax years and are evaluating appropriate organizational changes to avoid this treatment, to the extent possible.

In the event that ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. or any of our offshore subsidiaries is considered to be a PRC resident enterprise: ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. or our offshore subsidiaries, as the case may be, may be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our worldwide taxable income; dividend income that ZTO Express (Cayman) Inc. or our offshore subsidiaries, as the case may be, received from our PRC subsidiaries may be exempt from the PRC withholding tax; and dividends or interest paid to our overseas shareholders or ADS holders who are non-PRC resident individuals/enterprises as well as gains realized by such shareholders or ADS holders from the transfer of our shares or ADSs may be regarded as PRC-sourced income and as a result be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of 20% to individuals or up to 10% to enterprises, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in relevant tax treaties. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.”

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Under the Public Notice Regarding Certain Corporate Income Tax Matters on Indirect Transfer of Properties by Non-Tax Resident Enterprises, or STA Public Notice 7, issued by the STA on February 3, 2015, and was recently amended on December 29, 2017, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the relevant gain is to be regarded as effectively connected with the PRC establishment and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immoveable properties in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not effectively connected to a PRC establishment of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax at 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. According to the Announcement of the STA on Matters Concerning Withholding of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises at Source, or STA Announcement 37, the withholding party shall, within seven days of the day on which the withholding obligation occurs, declare and remit the withholding tax to the competent tax authority at its locality. Where the withholding party fails to withhold and remit the income tax payable or is unable to perform its obligation in this regard, the non-resident enterprise that earns the income shall, declare and pay the tax that has not been withheld to the competent tax authority at the place where the income occurs, and complete the Withholding Statement of the People’s Republic of China for Enterprise Income Tax. There is uncertainty as to the implementation details of STA Public Notice 7 and STA Announcement 37. If STA Public Notice 7 or STA Announcement 37 was determined to be applicable to some of our transactions involving PRC taxable assets, our offshore subsidiaries conducting the relevant transactions might be required to spend valuable resources to comply with STA Public Notice 7 and STA Announcement 37 or to establish that the relevant transactions should not be taxed under STA Public Notice 7 or STA Announcement 37. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.”

Where the payers fail to withhold any or sufficient tax, the non-PRC residents, as the transferors, are required to declare and pay such taxes to the tax authorities on their own within the statutory time limit. Failure to comply with the tax payment obligations by the non-PRC residents will result in penalties, including full payment of taxes owed, fines ranging from fifty percent to five times the amount of unpaid or underpaid tax and default interest on those taxes.

Under the EIT Law and its implementation rules, certain “high and new technology enterprises strongly supported by the state” that independently own core intellectual property and meet statutory criteria are permitted to enjoy a reduced 15% enterprise income tax rate. The Administrative Measures for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprises, issued by the STA, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the MOF on January 29, 2016, specifies the criteria and procedures for the qualification and certification of the High and New Technology Enterprises.

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Under the Circular on Issues Concerning Tax Policies for In-depth Implementation of Western Development Strategies, or the Circular 58 and the Bulletin of the STA on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax Concerning In-depth Implementation of Western Region Development Strategy promulgated on April 6, 2012, or the Circular 12, from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020, the primary business of the enterprise is listed in one of the industry items provided in the Catalogue of Encouraged Industries in Western Regions and annual primary business revenue of which accounts for more than 70% of the total enterprise revenue, may pay enterprise income tax at the reduced tax rate of 15% subject to the examination and confirmation of the competent tax authority. The STA promulgated the Announcement of the State Taxation Administration on Enterprise Income Tax Issues concerning the Implementation of the Catalog of Encouraged Industries in the Western Region thereafter, and from October 1, 2014, the payment of enterprise income tax at the reduced tax rate of 15% shall cease to apply to enterprises that have enjoyed policies for preferential treatment of enterprise income tax under the Circular 12 if their primary businesses no longer fall within the “encouraged” category of Catalog of Encouraged Industries in the Western Region. Afterwards, the STA abolished the examination and confirmation procedures of the competent tax authority for the preferential treatment under the Circular 12. The MOF, the STA and the NDRC promulgated the Announcement on Continuation of the Enterprise Income Tax Policy for the Western Region Development, or the Circular 23, from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2030, the primary business of the enterprise is listed in the one of industry items provided in the Catalogue of Encouraged Industries in Western Regions and primary business revenue of which accounts for more than 60% of the total enterprise revenue, may pay enterprise income tax at the reduced tax rate of 15% subject to the examination and confirmation of the competent tax authority. The Circular 23 came into force as from January 1, 2021 and the policy on enterprise income tax in the Circular 58 shall cease to be implemented with effect from the same day.

In order to encourage the development of the enterprises in software industry, the STA, the MOF, the NDRC and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the Circular on Issues Concerning Preferential Policies on Enterprise Income Tax for Software and Integrated Circuit Industries on May 4, 2016 and the Announcement on Enterprise Income Tax Policies for Promoting High Quality Development of Integrated Circuit Industry and Software Industry on December 11, 2020, which specifies the criteria and procedures for the qualification and certification of the Key Software Enterprise. The Key Software Enterprises encouraged by the State are entitled to be exempted from enterprise income tax from the first to the fifth year from the profit-making year and be subject to enterprise income tax at a reduced tax rate of 10% for subsequent years.

PRC Value-Added Tax

Pursuant to the Interim Value-Added Tax Regulations of the People’s Republic of China promulgated by the State Council and its implementation rules promulgated by the MOF, subject to applicable exceptions, tax payers selling goods, providing labor services of processing, repairs or maintenance, or selling services, intangible assets or real property in China, or importing goods to China shall pay value-added tax, or the VAT. A taxpayer is allowed to offset the qualified input VAT paid on taxable purchases against the output VAT chargeable on the revenue from services provided.

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Pursuant to the Pilot Proposals for the Collection of Value-Added Tax in Lieu of Business Tax, starting from January 1, 2012, the PRC government has been gradually implementing a pilot program in certain provinces and municipalities, levying a 11% VAT on revenue generated from transportation services in lieu of the business tax. Pursuant to the Circular on Comprehensively Promoting the Pilot Program of the Collection of Value-added Tax in Lieu of Business Tax issued afterwards, or the Circular 36, business tax shall be completely replaced by the VAT from May 1, 2016 and the VAT rate applicable to VAT taxpayers ranges from 6% to 17% (which has been reduced to 13% after April 1, 2019 pursuant to Circular 39). Pursuant to Circular of Taxation on Adjusting Value-added Tax Rates, or the Circular 32, issued by the MOF and STA, for VAT taxable sales or importation of goods originally subject to value-added tax rates of 17% and 11%, such tax rates were adjusted to 16% and 10%, respectively. Further, pursuant to the Announcement on Policies for Deepening the VAT Reform issued by the MOF, or the Circular 39, the STA and the General Administration of Customs on March 20, 2019, which came into force on April 1, 2019, for general VAT payers’ sales activities or imports that are subject to VAT at an existing applicable rate of 16% or 10%, the applicable VAT rate is adjusted to 13% or 9%, respectively. Under Circular 39, during the period from April 2019 to December 2021, certain qualified service industry taxpayers can enjoy an extra 10% for deduction of the tax payable, which is calculated based on the input VAT filed with the tax bureau. In addition, under Circular 39, qualifying tax payers who meet certain requirements are eligible for the newly increased unutilized input VAT refund. The refund of newly increased unutilized input VAT for the current period shall be calculated as per the following formula: refundable amount of newly increased unutilized input VAT for the current period = newly increased unutilized input VAT × the input component ratio × 60%.

Pursuant to the Announcement on the Taxation Policy related to the support of prevention of COVID-19 issued by the MOF and the STA on February 6, 2020, the tax payers of express delivery industry are permitted to enjoy the VAT exemption on the taxable income from providing express delivery service for the residents in 2020.

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D.            Organizational Structure

The following chart illustrates our company’s organizational structure, including our principal subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities as of March 31, 2021:

(1)Messrs. Meisong Lai, Jianfa Lai, Jilei Wang. Xiangliang Hu, Shunchang Zhang, Jianying Teng, Xuebing Shang, Baixi Lan and Jianchang Lai are beneficial owners of the shares of our Company and hold 34.35%, 12.00%, 10.00%, 7.05%, 6.00%, 5.02%, 4.40%, 1.40% and 1.06% equity interests in ZTO Express Co., Ltd., respectively. Among them, Messrs. Meisong Lai, Jianfa Lai, Jilei Wang are also directors of our Company. The remaining 18.72% equity interest in ZTO Express Co., Ltd. are held by 34 other shareholders who are, or whose beneficial owners are, to our knowledge, also beneficial owners of the Shares of our Company. None of these 34 shareholders hold more than 4.00% of the equity interest in ZTO Express Co., Ltd.

The following is a summary of the currently effective contractual arrangements by and among Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, our wholly owned subsidiary, ZTO Express, our consolidated affiliated entity, and the shareholders of ZTO Express.

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Agreements that provide us effective control over ZTO Express

Voting Rights Proxy Agreement. On August 18, 2015, ZTO Express and the shareholders of ZTO Express entered into a voting rights proxy agreement with Shanghai Zhongtongji Network. Pursuant to the voting rights proxy agreement, each of the shareholders of ZTO Express irrevocably appointed Meisong Lai, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network’s designated person, as their attorney-in-fact to exercise all applicable shareholder rights, including, but not limited to: (i) calling for and attending shareholders meetings as the proxy of the shareholders; (ii) exercising voting rights and all other shareholder’s rights provided under PRC laws and the articles of association of ZTO Express, including but not limited to, selling, transferring, pledging or disposing all or a portion of the shares held by such shareholder or the assets of ZTO Express; (iii) voting on all matters submitted to shareholders meetings, including but not limited to, the election of directors and senior management officers who shall be appointed by shareholders; and (iv)exercising other voting rights granted to the shareholders by the articles of association of ZTO Express, as may be amended from time to time. Shanghai Zhongtongji Network and Meisong Lai both have the right to execute documents in connection with and perform other obligations under the equity pledge agreement and exclusive call option agreement. Any conduct of Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or Meisong Lai in connection with ZTO Express will be deemed as conduct of the shareholders of ZTO Express. Any documents executed by Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or Meisong Lai in connection with ZTO Express will be deemed to be executed by the shareholders of ZTO Express. Each of the shareholders of ZTO Express agreed to acknowledge, accept and approve such conduct of or execution by Shanghai Zhongtongji Network and Meisong Lai. The voting rights proxy agreement will remain in force for an unlimited term, unless all the parties to the agreement mutually agree to terminate the agreement in writing. The authorization and appointment above are premised on Shanghai Zhongtongji Network’s designated person being a PRC citizen and Shanghai Zhongtongji Network’s consent of such authorization and appointment. If and only if Shanghai Zhongtongji Network sends a written notice to the shareholders of ZTO Express to replace its designated person, the shareholders of ZTO Express shall promptly appoint the replaced designated person as their new attorney-in-fact under their power of attorney. Otherwise, the voting rights proxy agreement shall be binding on the legal assignees or heirs of all parties, and the authorization and appointment by the shareholders of ZTO Express’s shall not be revoked.

Equity Pledge Agreement. On August 18, 2015, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, ZTO Express and the shareholders of ZTO Express entered into an equity pledge agreement and this agreement shall be binding on the legal assignees or heirs of all parties. Pursuant to the equity pledge agreement, each of the shareholders of ZTO Express pledged all of their equity interests in ZTO Express to guarantee their and ZTO Express’s performance of their obligations under the contractual arrangements, including the exclusive consulting and services agreement, its related agreements and the equity pledge agreement. If ZTO Express or its shareholders breach their contractual obligations under this agreement, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, as pledgee, will have the right to dispose of the pledged equity interests in ZTO Express and priority in receiving the proceeds from such disposal. The shareholders of ZTO Express also agreed that, during the term of the equity pledge agreement, they will not dispose of the pledged equity interests or create or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests. During the term of the equity pledge agreement, subject to specified exceptions therein, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network has the right to receive all of the dividends and profits distributed on the pledged equity interests. The equity pledges became effective in September 2015, which was when the pledge of equity interests contemplated in the equity pledge agreement were registered with the relevant administration for market regulation in accordance with the PRC Property Rights Law in force at that time, and will remain effective until ZTO Express and its shareholders have completed all of their obligations under the contractual arrangements or discharged all of their obligations under the contractual arrangements.

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Exclusive Call Option Agreement. On August 18, 2015, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, ZTO Express and the shareholders of ZTO Express entered into an exclusive call option agreement. Pursuant to the exclusive call option agreement, each of the shareholders of ZTO Express irrevocably granted Shanghai Zhongtongji Network an exclusive option to purchase, or have its designated entity or person to purchase, at its discretion, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of the shareholders’ equity interests in ZTO Express. The purchase price shall be the lower of (i)the amount that the shareholders contributed to ZTO Express as registered capital for the equity interests to be purchased, or (ii)the lowest price permitted by applicable PRC law. In addition, ZTO Express granted Shanghai Zhongtongji Network an exclusive option to purchase, or have its designated entity or person to purchase, at its discretion, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of ZTO Express’s assets at the lowest price permitted by applicable PRC law. Without the prior written consent of Shanghai Zhongtongji Network, among other applicable issues, the shareholders of ZTO Express may not increase or decrease the registered capital, dispose or cause the management of ZTO Express to dispose of its material assets (other than those disposal during ordinary operation), terminate or cause the management of ZTO Express to terminate any material contract or enter into any contract that is in conflict with its existing material contracts, appoint or remove any directors, supervisors or other relevant management members, cause ZTO Express to distribute or announce to distribute dividends to the shareholders, amend its articles of association, provide any loans or guarantees to any third parties or acquire any loans or guarantees from any third parties, and shall guarantee the continuance of ZTO Express. The exclusive call option agreement will remain effective until all equity interests in ZTO Express held by its shareholders and all assets of ZTO Express are transferred or assigned to Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or its designated entity or person. The exclusive call option agreement shall be binding on the legal assignees or heirs of all parties.

Irrevocable Powers of Attorney. Pursuant to the powers of attorney dated August 18, 2015, the shareholders of ZTO Express each irrevocably appointed Shanghai Zhongtongji Network’s designated person, Meisong Lai, as the attorney-in-fact to exercise all of applicable shareholder’s voting and related rights with respect to such shareholder’s equity interests in ZTO Express, including but not limited to: (i) calling for and attending shareholders meetings as the proxy of the shareholders; (ii) exercising voting rights and all other shareholder’s rights provided under PRC laws and the articles of association of ZTO Express, including but not limited to, selling, transferring, pledging or disposing all or a portion of the shares held by such shareholder or the assets of ZTO Express; (iii) voting on all matters submitted to shareholders meetings, including but not limited to, the election of directors and senior management officers that shall be appointed by shareholders; and (iv) exercising other voting rights granted to the shareholders by the articles of association of ZTO Express, as may be amended from time to time. Shanghai Zhongtongji Network and Meisong Lai both have the right to execute documents in connection with and perform other obligations under the equity pledge agreement and exclusive purchase option agreement. Any conduct of Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or Meisong Lai in connection with ZTO Express will be deemed as conduct of the shareholders of ZTO Express. Any documents executed by Shanghai Zhongtongji Network or Meisong Lai in connection with ZTO Express will be deemed to be executed by the shareholders of ZTO Express. Each of the shareholders of ZTO Express agreed to acknowledge, accept and approve such conduct of or execution by Shanghai Zhongtongji Network and Meisong Lai. Each power of attorney will remain in force until the voting rights proxy agreement expires or is terminated.

Spousal Consents. Each of the spouses of six key shareholders of ZTO Express, namely Meisong Lai, Jianfa Lai, Jilei Wang, Xiangliang Hu, Shunchang Zhang and Xuebing Shang, signed a spousal consent letter. These six key shareholders collectively hold 73.8% equity interest in ZTO Express. Under the spousal consent letters, each signing spouse unconditionally and irrevocably agreed that the spouse is aware of the abovementioned exclusive call option agreement, voting right proxy agreement, irrevocable powers of attorney, equity pledge agreement and the exclusive consulting and services agreement, and has read and understood the contractual arrangements. Each signing spouse has committed not to impose any adverse assertions upon the validity and existence of such contractual arrangement based on the existence or termination of the marital relationship with the relevant VIE shareholder, or exert any impediment or adverse influence over the relevant VIE shareholder’s performance of any contractual arrangement.

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Agreement that allows us to receive economic benefits from ZTO Express

Exclusive Consulting and Services Agreement. Under the exclusive consulting and services agreement and its supplemental agreement between Shanghai Zhongtongji Network and ZTO Express, dated August 18, 2015 and August 10, 2020, respectively, Shanghai Zhongtongji Network has the exclusive right to provide ZTO Express with the technical support and consulting services required by ZTO Express’s business. Shanghai Zhongtongji Network owns the exclusive intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. ZTO Express agrees to pay Shanghai Zhongtongji Network an annual service fee, at an amount equal to 100% of the net income of ZTO Express and its affiliates. This agreement will remain effective for an unlimited term, unless Shanghai Zhongtongji Network and ZTO Express mutually agree to terminate the agreement in writing, or the agreement is required to be terminated by applicable PRC law. ZTO Express is not permitted to unilaterally terminate the agreement in any event unless required by applicable law.

In the opinion of our PRC legal counsel: