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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

     ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2020

     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                         to                        

Commission File No. 001-35561

IDEANOMICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Nevada

20-1778374

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or
organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

1441 Broadway, Suite 5116, New York, NY 10018

(Address of principal executive offices)

(212) 206-1216

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

Nasdaq Capital Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes       No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes       No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes       No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes       No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-Accelerated Filer

Smaller Reporting Company

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

As of June 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter as of the original date of this filing), the market value of the shares of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates (based upon the closing price of shares as reported by Nasdaq) was approximately $388,199,635. Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each executive officer and director and each by each person who owns 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have excluded from the calculation in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates of the registrant. This determination affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

There were a total of 419,314,800 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of March 29, 2021.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

None.

Table of Contents

IDEANOMICS, INC.

Annual Report on FORM 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

    

    

Page

 

PART I

2

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

2

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

14

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

25

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

25

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

26

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

26

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

26

ITEM 6.

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

27

PART II

28

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

28

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

43

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

F -1

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

53

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

53

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

54

PART III

54

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

54

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

61

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS

63

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

64

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

66

PART IV

67

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

67

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

67

i

Table of Contents

Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements

In addition to historical information, this report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act (as defined below), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act (as defined below). We use words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “project,” “target,” “plan,” “optimistic,” “intend,” “aim,” “will” or similar expressions which are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements include, among others, those concerning our transition to become a next-generation financial technology company; our expectations regarding the market for our new and existing products and industry segment growth; our expectations regarding demand for and acceptance of our new and existing products or services; our expectations regarding our partnerships and joint ventures, acquisitions, investments; our beliefs regarding the potential benefits and opportunities from integrating digital artificial intelligence and blockchain technology as part of our product and services offerings; our business strategies and goals; any projections of sales, earnings, revenue, margins or other financial items; any statements regarding the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations; any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance; uncertainties related to conducting business in the PRC; and all assumptions, expectations, predictions, intentions or beliefs about future events. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, including, and without limitation, those identified in Item 1A—“Risk Factors” included herein, as well as assumptions, which, if they were to ever materialize or prove incorrect, could cause the results of the Company to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance, or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements included herein are made as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made, from time to time, after the date of this report to conform our prior statements to actual results or revised expectations.

Use of Terms

Except as otherwise indicated by the context, references in this report to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our Company,” “the Company,” “IDEX,” or “Ideanomics,” are to the business of Ideanomics, Inc. (formerly known as “Seven Star Cloud Group, Inc.,” “SSC” and “Wecast Network, Inc.,”) a Nevada corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries and variable interest entities.

In addition, unless the context otherwise requires and for the purposes of this report only:

“CB Cayman” refers to our wholly-owned subsidiary China Broadband, Ltd., a Cayman Islands company;
“Exchange Act” refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;
“EV” refers to electric vehicles, particularly battery operated electric vehicles;
“FINRA” refers to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority;
“HK SAR” refers to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China;
“Hua Cheng” refers to Hua Cheng Hu Dong (Beijing) Film and Television Communication Co., Ltd., a PRC company that is 39% owned by Sinotop Beijing and is a 20% owner of Zhong Hai Media;
“Intelligenta” refers to the BDCG investment which was rebranded as Intelligenta;
“Legacy YOD” business refers to the premium content and integrated value-added service solutions for the delivery of VOD (defined below) and paid video programing to digital cable providers, Internet Protocol Television (“IPTV”) providers, Over-the-Top (“OTT”) streaming providers, mobile manufacturers and operators, as well as direct customers;
“MEG” refers to Mobile Energy Global the subsidiary that holds all of the Company’s EV;
“PRC,” “China,” and “Chinese,” refer to the People’s Republic of China;
“Renminbi” and “RMB” refer to the legal currency of the PRC;
“SEC” refers to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;
“Securities Act” refers to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
“Sinotop Beijing” refers to Beijing Sino Top Scope Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company controlled by YOD Hong Kong through contractual arrangements;
“U.S. dollars,” “dollars,” “USD,” “US$,” and “$” refer to the legal currency of the United States;
“U.S. Tax Reform” refers to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, enacted by the United States of America on December 22, 2017;

ii

Table of Contents

“VOD” refers to video on demand, which includes near video on demand (“NVOD,”) subscription video on demand (“SVOD,”) and transactional video on demand (“TVOD;”)
“WFOE” refers to Beijing China Broadband Network Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company and a “wholly foreign-owned enterprise,” which we previously wholly owned and which was sold during the quarter ended March 31, 2014;
“YOD Hong Kong” refers to YOU On Demand (Asia) Limited, formerly Sinotop Group Limited, a Hong Kong company, which is wholly- owned by CB Cayman;
“YOD WFOE” refers to YOU On Demand (Beijing) Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company and a “wholly foreign-owned enterprise,” which is wholly-owned by YOD Hong Kong; and
“SSSIG” refers to Sun Seven Stars Investment Group Limited, a British Virgin Islands corporation, an affiliate of Bruno Wu (“Dr. Wu”), the former Chairman of the Company.

iii

Table of Contents

PART I

ITEM 1.BUSINESS

Overview

Ideanomics, Inc. (“Ideanomics” or the “Company”) (Nasdaq: IDEX) was incorporated in the State of Nevada on October 19, 2004. From 2010 through 2017, our primary business activities were providing premium content video on demand (“VOD”) services, with primary operations in the PRC, through our subsidiaries and variable interest entities (“VIEs”) under the brand name You-on-Demand (“YOD.”) We closed the YOD business during 2019.

Starting in early 2017, the Company transitioned its business model to become a next-generation financial technology (“fintech”) company. The Company built a network of businesses, operating principally in the trading of petroleum products and electronic components that the Company believed had significant potential to recognize benefits from blockchain and artificial intelligence (“AI”) technologies including enhancing operations, addressing cost inefficiencies, improving documentation and standardization, unlocking asset value and improving customer engagement. During 2018, the Company ceased operations in the petroleum products and electronic components trading businesses and disposed of the businesses during 2019. As we looked to deploy fintech solutions in late 2018 and into 2019, we identified a unique opportunity in the Chinese Electric Vehicle (“EV”) industry to facilitate large scale conversion of fleet vehicles from internal combustion engines to EV. This led us to establish our Mobile Energy Global (“MEG”) business unit. Fintech continues to be a sector of interest to us as we look to invest in and develop businesses that can improve the financial services industry, particularly as it relates to deploying blockchain and AI technologies.

Principal Products or Services and Their Markets

Overview

Ideanomics Mobility

Ideanomics Mobility is driving EV adoption by assembling a synergistic ecosystem of subsidiaries and investments across the 3 key pillars of EV: Vehicles, Charging, and Energy. These three pillars provide the foundation for Ideanomics Mobility’s planned offering of unique business solutions such as Charging as a Service (“CaaS”) and Vehicle as a Service (“VaaS.”)

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Each operating company within Ideanomics Mobility offers its own unique products and participates in a shared services ecosystem fulfilling Ideanomics’ Sales-to-Financing-to-Charging (“S2F2C”) model, with centralized supply chain operations and marketing expertise designed to accelerate growth and business opportunities across the group.

The combination of products from within its subsidiaries and investments, coupled with Ideanomics Mobility’s shared services, will provide the Company with the opportunity to bring to market unique business solutions intended to drive commercial fleet electrification such as Charging-as-a-Service and Vehicle-as-a-Service. These solutions offer fleet operators an opportunity to benefit from an OpEx-driven model which lowers the barrier to entry for the adoption of zero emissions fleets.

The Company believes that the EV market is poised for rapid growth.  Bloomberg NEF estimates that global commercial EV sales will reach 1.2 million units in 2023. The global EV charging infrastructure market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 33.4% from 2021 to 2028 to $144.97 billion. President Biden’s administration is supportive of EV with a goal to achieve a 100% clean-energy economy and states such as California have accelerated timelines to phase out internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicles.

Ideanomics Mobility’s mission is to leverage its ecosystem of synergistic operating companies to generate efficiencies and increase business opportunities across the group. With a diverse commercial EV product offering, the company plans to use EV and EV battery sales and financing solutions to attract commercial fleet operators that will generate large scale demand for energy. The Company operates as an end-to-end solutions provider for the procurement, financing, charging and energy management needs for fleet operators of commercial EV. Ideanomics Mobility focuses on commercial EV rather than passenger personal EV, as commercial EV is on an accelerated adoption path when compared to consumer EV adoption – which is expected to take between ten to fifteen years. We focus on four distinct commercial vehicle types with supporting income streams: 1) Closed-area heavy commercial, in sectors such as Mining, Airports, and Sea Ports 2) Last-mile delivery light commercial 3) Buses and Coaches 4) Taxis. The vehicle financing solutions (such as purchase or leasing) would generate fee-based revenues whereas the charging and energy management would yield recurring revenue streams.

Ideanomics Mobility’s revenues are generated from its S2F2C operating model. The Company’s planned EV revenues will come from the sale of EVs under our Medici Motor Works and Treeletrik brands outside of the China and within China through our MEG operating units sale of other manufacturers vehicles and batteries.

The Company’s presence in the China market creates a deep knowledge of the logistics and supply chain for the manufacture of EVs, batteries and related components; this in turn enables the sourcing of high quality components at competitive prices for the Company’s operations outside of China.

Within the Ideanomics Mobility business unit there are four operating companies:

Mobile Energy Global (“MEG”)

The Company’s MEG business operates in China where government clean air regulations and subsidy programs provide a strong impetus for the adoption of commercial EV.  The Company competes in China using its S2F2C. Using this model the Company helps the customer find the best vehicle for its needs and earns fees for every completed sale; revenue is derived from the spread between group buying of vehicles and price sold, fees for the arrangement of financing, and payments from subsequent charging and energy management.

Tree Technologies Sdn. Bhd. (“Tree Technologies”)

Tree Technologies is headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and through its Treeletrik brand sells EV bikes, scooters, and batteries throughout the ASEAN region. Two-wheel bikes and scooters form a large part of the transport infrastructure in the ASEAN region; according to Deloitte Consulting, there were 13.7 million motor bikes sold in the six major ASEAN countries in 2019. Environmental regulations in the ASEAN region help accelerate the adoption of EV bikes. The Company has also started to import Treeletrik brand EV bikes into the United States.

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Medici Motor Works

Medici Motor Works plans to sell its own brand vehicles in the United States, Latin America and Europe. Presently, the Company is working with manufacturers based in China to design and build trucks, buses and closed-area vehicles for mining, airports and seaports.

Solectrac, Inc. (“Solectrac”)

On October 21, 2020 the Company acquired 15%, and on November 23, 2020 the Company subsequently increased its ownership to 24% in California-based Solectrac, Inc.  Solectrac develops, assembles and distributes 100% battery-powered electric tractors—an alternative to diesel tractors—for agriculture and utility operations.

According to Research And Markets, the global agricultural tractor market is currently valued at $75 billion, with the North American agricultural tractor market expected to reach $20 billion by 2023. The largest segment for agricultural tractors is the below-40HP segment, where Solectrac's initial three models address the broad needs of the market. Its tractors are specifically designed to serve the needs of community-based farms, vineyards, orchards, equestrian arenas, greenhouses, and hobby farms.

Founded in 2012 to take electric tractors into commercial production, Solectrac was incorporated as a California Benefit Corp in 2019. It has received grants from the Indian U.S. Science and Technology Fund and the National Science Foundation. In 2020, Solectrac received the World Alliance Solar Impulse Efficient Solutions label from the Solar Impulse Foundation. The label was awarded for being one of the one thousand most efficient and profitable solutions that can transition society to being economically viable while being environmentally sustainable.

Recent Developments Since December 31, 2020

Since December 31, 2020 the Company has completed a number of transactions that have expanded the scope of the Company’s EV activities.

WAVE

On January 15, 2021 acquired 100% of privately held Wireless Advanced Vehicle Electrification, Inc. ("WAVE.")

Founded in 2011, and headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, WAVE is a leading provider of inductive (wireless) charging solutions for medium and heavy-duty EVs. Embedded in roadways and depot facilities, the WAVE system automatically charges vehicles during scheduled stops. The hands-free WAVE system eliminates battery range limitations and enables fleets to achieve driving ranges that match that of internal combustion engines.

Deployed since 2012, WAVE has demonstrated the capability to develop and integrate high-power charging systems into heavy-duty EVs from leading commercial EV manufacturers. With commercially available wireless charging systems up to 250kW and higher power systems in development, WAVE provides custom fleet solutions for mass transit, logistics, airport and campus shuttles, drayage fleets, and off-road vehicles at ports and industrial sites.

Wireless charging systems offer several compelling benefits over plug-in-based charging systems, including reduced maintenance, improved health and safety, and expedited energy connection and are important to the deployment of autonomous driving vehicles. Furthermore, wireless in-route charging enables greater route lengths or smaller batteries while also maintaining battery life, thereby reducing costs for fleet operators. WAVE customers include what is currently the largest EV bus system in the U.S., the Antelope Valley Transit Authority, and its partnerships include Kenworth, Gillig, BYD, Complete Coach Works and the Department of Energy.

Energica Motor Company, S.P.A. (“Energica”)

On March 3, 2021 the Company purchased 20% of Energica, the world's leading manufacturer of high-performance electric motorcycles and the sole manufacturer of the FIM Enel MotoE™ World Cup. Energica has combined zero emission EV technology with the pedigree of high-performance mobility synonymous with Italy’s Motor Valley to create a range of exceptional products for the high-performance motorcycle market. To support its products, it has developed proprietary EV battery and DC fast-charging in-house that has applications and synergies with Ideanomics’ broader interests in the global EV sector.

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Silk EV Cayman LP (“Silk”)

On January 28, 2021, the Company invested $15.0 million in Silk EV via a promissory note.  Silk is an Italian engineering and design services company that has recently partnered with FAW to form a new company (Silk-FAW) to produce fully electric, luxury vehicles for the Chinese and Global auto markets. Silk-FAW has exclusive rights to develop Hongqi-S brand high-end electric sports cars. The Hongqi brand is the most well-known luxury auto brand in China. Silk-FAW vehicles are being designed in Italy’s Motor Valley and is attracting talent from the luxury and high-performance auto market.  Partnering with Silk provides access to Silk-FAW’s Innovation Centers providing us insight into technological advancements and all best-in-breed technology evaluated at those centers to support the development of high-performance sportscars (battery tech, power management systems, high performance motors.)

Ideanomics Capital

Ideanomics Capital is the Company's fintech business unit, which focuses on leveraging technology and innovation to improve efficiency, transparency, and profitability for the financial services industry.

Technology Metals Market Limited (“TM2”)

TM2 is a London based digital commodities issuance and trading platform for technology metals. It connects institutional investors, proprietary traders and retail investors with metals suppliers – miners, refiners, recyclers and mints. The platform focuses specifically on new metals that currently don’t have an active trading marketplace, such as rhodium, lithium, cobalt, rhenium, etc. The Company’s ownership interest in TM2 provides valuable data and insight into the global technology metals market, which is critical to the future of the Cleantech and EV industries. TM2 connects both pillars of Cleantech and Fintech. The types of metals and materials traded on the TM2 platform are critical to Cleantech (for EV battery production, energy storage systems, solar cells, etc.,) while the Fintech platform is innovative in representing these commodities which do not exist on traditional exchanges.

On January 28, 2021, the Company entered into a simple agreement for future equity with TM2 pursuant to which Ideanomics invested $2.1 million. This investment is a follow-on investment further the Company’s prior investment of $1.2 million in stock-based consideration in December 2019.

Delaware Board of Trade (“DBOT”)

The Delaware Board of Trade (“DBOT”) is a broker dealer that also operates an Alternative Trading System (“ATS,”) presently DBOT is not trading; the business remains in full regulatory compliance. Recent developments have pointed to increased recognition of digital securities’ relevance in regulated global capital markets. As well, regulatory easing of certain restrictions such as the threshold for private securities (Reg A+), along with good demand for products such as pre-IPO issuance, provide good tailwind for the broker dealers business.  The Company has filed a continuing membership application for private placement activities in the primary markets. The Company believes that growing demand for private placements, along with increased attention in digital securities, provide a favorable environment for DBOT’s future growth.

Timios

On January 8, 2021 the Company acquired 100% of privately-held Timios Holdings Corp. ("Timios.") Timios, a nationwide title and escrow services provider, which has been expanding in recent years through offering innovative and freedom-of-choice-friendly solutions for real estate transactions. The products include residential and commercial title insurance, closing and settlement services, as well as specialized offerings for the mortgage process industry.

Ideanomics expects that Timios will become one of the cornerstones of Ideanomics Capital. Timios combines difficult to obtain local and state licenses, a knowledgeable and experienced team, and a scalable platform to deliver best-in-class services through both centralized processing and localized branch networks. Ideanomics will assist Timios in scaling its business in various ways, including referring client acquisitions and product innovation.

Founded in 2008 by real estate industry veteran Trevor Stoffer, Timios' vision is to bring transparency to real estate transactions. The company offers title and settlement, appraisal management, and real-estate-owned (“REO”) title and closing services in 44 states and currently serves more than 280 national and regional clients.

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Non-Core Assets

The Company has identified a number of business units that it considers non-core and is evaluating strategies for divesting these assets. The non-core assets are Grapevine, a marketing and ecommerce platform focused on influencer marketing, and FinTech Village a 58-acre development site in West Hartford, Connecticut.

On January 28, 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors accepted an offer of $2.75 million for Fintech Village, and subsequently signed a non-binding sale contract on March 15, 2021.  The Company believes that Fintech Village met the criteria for held for sale classification on January 28, 2021.

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials

The Company’s Tree Technologies business located in Malaysia and its WAVE business located in Utah, United States, (acquired in the first quarter of 2021 – see Recent Developments section) assemble and manufacture motor bikes and inductive charging systems respectively. These businesses depend on a ready supply of components that are sourced domestically and internationally and any interruption to the supply of components could have an adverse impact on the Company’s results. The Company’s suppliers that manufacture EVs and batteries depend on a ready supply of raw materials and components, consequently a shortage of raw materials or components could adversely impact their manufacturing process and, potentially, impact the Company’s revenues as it may not be able to complete orders that it had received.  The Company may also be adversely impacted if global logistic and supply chains are interrupted.

Seasonality

The Company expects that orders and sales will be influenced by the amount and timing of budgeted expenditure by its customers. Typically, the Company would expect to see higher sales at the start of the year when companies start executing on their capital programs and at the end of the year when companies are spending any surplus or uncommitted budget before the new budget cycle commences. The Company’s operating businesses are in the early stage of their development and consequently do not have sufficient trading histories to project seasonal buying patterns with any degree of confidence.

Working Capital Requirements

As the Company expands its business the need for working capital will continue to grow.  From time to time the Company’s MEG operating division in China has the opportunity to purchase a large number of vehicles at a favorable price, the terms of the purchase contract frequently require the Company to pay some or all of the cost in advance of the delivery of the vehicles with the resultant need to commit material amounts of working capital.  The Company’s Tree Technologies subsidiary requires working capital to support the assembly of EV motor bikes and scooters for the ASEAN market. The Company acquired WAVE and Solectrac in the first quarter of 2021 (see the Recent Developments section), both of these businesses will require working capital to fund the purchase of components for the assembly of wireless charging systems and electric tractors, respectively. The Company will continue to raise both debt and equity capital to support the working capital needs of these businesses and its U.S. Head Office functions.

Trade marks, Patents and Licenses

The Company’s Intelligenta business operates under a license granted by Seasail Ventures Limited (“Seasail.”) The license does not have a stated term.

Customer Concentration

The Company is in the process of building out its Ideanomics Mobility unit and has not yet reached a stage of development where the loss of any single customer would have a material adverse effect on the Company.

Reliance on Government Contracts

The Company does not contract directly with the government of the PRC, however it does have investments, partnerships and agreements with the State Own Entities (“SOE”) described above. Additionally, the rate at which commercial fleets convert to EV is heavily

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influenced by federal and provincial policies in the PRC as they relate to clean air and adoption of EV technology. Consequently, the Company’s results may be adversely impacted by changes in regulations in the PRC.

Competitive Business Conditions, Competitive Position in the Industry and Methods of Competition

Ideanomics Mobility

Purchasers of commercial vehicles have the choice between traditional ICE vehicles and EVs and this is likely to continue for at least the next five years and possibly longer. The most important drivers for the development of the commercial fleet EV market are federal and provincial regulations relating to clean air and electronic vehicles including subsidies and incentives to help owners of fleets of commercial vehicles to convert from combustion engines to EV. The speed at which fleet operators convert to EV is highly correlated with government regulations, targets and related subsidies and incentives. If the governments, or municipalities, change the regulations, targets, incentives or subsidies then the rate at which fleet operators convert their vehicles to EV could slow down which in turn may lead to lower revenues for the Company. Additionally, the rate, and form in which, the commercial fleet EV market develops is dependent upon technological developments in battery and charging systems; deployment of the charging infrastructure to support widespread commercial EV use and the development of new financing and lending structures that address the different collateral and resale values of the battery and vehicle versus internal combustion engine vehicles.

In addition to its directly owned operations the Company operates through a network of investment arrangements, partnerships and formal and informal alliances; consequently, its competitive position could be adversely impacted if one of the members of the alliance was not able to meet the demand for its products, decides not to continue to cooperate with the Company, or goes out of business.

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Ideanomics Capital

The Company’s Ideanomics Capital business unit operates in sectors that are undergoing rapid change.

DBOT is a broker dealer that also operates an ATS. In April 2020 the Company ceased trading OTC equities, terminated the employees assigned to DBOT and the services needed to operate the business. The Company has continued to maintain DBOT’s regulatory licenses and required regulatory capital. The Company has applied for regulatory approval to broker digital securities and tokens, this is a nascent market which the Company believes has good long term potential.

Corporate Structure

The following chart depicts our corporate structure as of December 31, 2020:

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(1)

In 2020, the Company renamed You On Demand (Asia) Limited to Medici Operation Limited.

(2)

In 2020, the Company renamed You On Demand (Beijing) Information Consulting Co., Limited. to Beijing Medici New Energy Automobile Co,, Ltd.

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(3)

In 2020, the Company renamed Wecast Services Group Limited to MEG Technology Services Group Limited.

(4)

In 2020, the Company renamed Shanghai Boqu Investment Management Consulting Co., Ltd. to Shanghai Ainengju Investment Management Consulting Co., Ltd.

VIE Structure and Arrangements

The Company consolidated certain VIEs located in the PRC in which it held variable interests and was the primary beneficiary through contractual agreements. The Company was the primary beneficiary because it had the power to direct activities that most significantly affected their economic performance and had the obligation to absorb or right to receive the majority of their losses or benefits. The results of operations and financial position of these VIEs are included in the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019. A shareholder in one of the VIEs is the spouse of Bruno Wu (“Dr. Wu,”) the former Chairman of the Company.

Refer to Note 10 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

The contractual agreements listed below, which collectively granted the Company the power to direct the VIEs activities that most significantly affected their economic performance, as well to cause the Company to have the obligation to absorb or right to receive the majority of their losses or benefits, were terminated by all parties on December 31, 2019. As a result, the Company deconsolidated the VIEs as of December 31, 2019. The deconsolidation resulted in a net loss of $2.0 million recorded in “Gain (loss) on disposal of subsidiaries, net” in the consolidated statements of operations, and a statutory income tax of $0.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2019.

For these consolidated VIEs, their assets were not available to the Company and their creditors did not have recourse to the Company. Prior to December 31, 2019, in order to operate certain legacy business in the PRC and to comply with PRC laws and regulations that prohibit or restrict foreign ownership of companies that provides value-added telecommunication services, the Company entered into a series of contractual agreements with two VIEs. These contractual agreements were initially set to expire in March 2030 and April 2036, respectively, and could not be terminated by the VIEs, except with the consent of, or a material breach, by the Company. A shareholder in one of the VIEs is the spouse of Dr. Wu, the former Chairman of the Company.

The key terms of the VIE Agreements are summarized as follows:

Equity Pledge Agreement - The VIEs’ shareholders pledged all of their equity interests in the VIEs  to a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in the PRC;
Call Option Agreement - The VIEs’ shareholders granted an exclusive option to a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in the PRC, or its designee, to purchase all or any portion of the VIEs’ Shareholders’ equity in the VIEs;
Power of Attorney - The VIEs’ shareholders granted to a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in the PRC the irrevocable right, for the maximum period permitted by law, all of its voting rights as shareholders of VIEs;
Technical Service Agreement – A wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in the PRC had the exclusive right to provide technical service, marketing and management consulting service, financial support service and human resource support services to the VIEs, and the VIEs were required to take all commercially reasonable efforts to permit and facilitate the provision of the services;
Spousal Consent - The spouses of the VIEs’ shareholders unconditionally and irrevocably agreed to the execution of the Equity Pledge Agreement, Call Option Agreement and Power of Attorney agreement;
Letter of Indemnification – A wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in the PRC agreed to indemnify such nominee shareholder against any personal, tax or other liabilities incurred in connection with their role in equity transfer to the greatest extent permitted under PRC law;

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Management Services Agreement - In addition to agreements described above, another of the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries entered into a Management Services Agreement with each VIE.  Pursuant to such Management Services Agreement, the wholly-owned subsidiary had the exclusive right to provide to the VIE management, financial and other services related to the operation of the VIE’s business, and the VIE was required to take all commercially reasonable efforts to permit and facilitate the provision of the services by the subsidiary. In addition, at the sole discretion of the subsidiary, the VIE was obligated to transfer to the subsidiary, or its designee, any part or all of the business, personnel, assets and operations of the VIE which could be lawfully conducted, employed, owned or operated by the subsidiary; and
Loan Agreement - Pursuant to the Loan Agreement dated April 5, 2016, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in the PRC agreed to lend RMB 19.8 million and RMB 0.2 million, respectively, to the VIEs’ Shareholders, one of whom is the spouse of Dr. Wu, the Company’s former Chairman.  The termination of the Loan Agreement resulted in a loss of $5.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2019.

Our Unconsolidated Equity Investments

We hold a 34.0% ownership interest in Glory, which through its subsidiary Tree Manufacturing, holds a domestic EV manufacturing license in Malaysia. Tree Manufacturing had entered into a product supply and a product distribution arrangement for EVs with Tree Technologies, a consolidated subsidiary of the Company.

In 2018, we signed an investment agreement to establish Intelligenta for providing services for financial or energy industries by utilizing AI and big data technology in the United States.  We hold a 60.0% ownership interest and Seasail holds 40% of Intelligenta.  

On October 22, 2020, the Company acquired 1.4 million common shares, representing 15.0% of the total common shares outstanding, of Solectrac for a purchase price of $0.91 per share, for total consideration of $1.3 million.  On November 19, 2020, Ideanomics acquired an additional 1.3 million shares of common stock for $1.00 per share, for a subsequent investment of $1.3 million.  With this subsequent investment, Ideanomics owned 2.7 million common shares out of a total number of issued and outstanding common shares of 10.2 million after the transaction, or 27.0%.  

Solectrac develops, assembles and distributes 100% battery-powered electric tractors-an alternative to diesel tractors-for agriculture and utility operations. Solectrac tractors provide an opportunity for farmers around the world to power their tractors by using the sun, wind, and other clean renewable sources of energy.

Our investments in Glory, BDCG and Solectrac, where we may exercise significant influence, but not control, are classified as a long-term equity investments and accounted for using the equity method. Under the equity method, the investment is initially recorded at cost and adjusted for our share of undistributed earnings or losses of the investee. Investment losses are recognized until the investment is written down to nil, provided that we do not guarantee the investee’s obligations or we are committed to provide additional funding.

In the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recorded impairment losses with respect to its equity method investments of $16.6 million and $13.1 million, respectively.

Refer to Note 10 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

Our Competition

Ideanomics Mobility Business Unit

The Company’s EV business operates in the market for fleet commercial vehicles, this market is still in its development stage. The Company could face competition from other companies that develop and operate a similar integrated platform for the procurement, purchase, financing, charging and energy management needs of fleet EV operators. The Company could also face competition from companies that only operate in one part of the vehicle purchase and operation cycle, for example, an EV vehicle or battery manufacturer may sell directly to EV fleet operators while also participating in the platform operated by the Company’s MEG business.

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Other

Grapevine competes in the consumer marketing sector and specializes in designing and managing “influencer” led social media campaigns for brands and advertising agencies that do not have a capability to manage influencer marketing campaigns directly. This is a very competitive sector with multiple competitors.

Revenue Recognition

The Company records and reports revenues in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S., particularly ASC 606,  Revenue from Contracts with Customers which provides guidance on how revenues should be reported and the timing of when revenues should be reported. ASC 606 includes guidance on when revenue should be recognized on a Gross (Principal) or Net (Agent) basis, the Company’s contracts are typically with large enterprises and consequently are heavily negotiated as to the services to be provided; consequently the accounting treatment for the reporting of revenues may vary materially between contracts including whether the revenue is reported on a Principal (Gross) or Agent (Net) basis.

Regulation

General Regulation of Businesses in the PRC

We are required to obtain government approval from or filing with the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (“MOFCOM”) and/or other government agencies in the PRC for transactions, such as our acquisition or disposition of business entities in the PRC. Additionally, foreign ownership of certain business and assets in the PRC is not permitted without specific government approval.

Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are principally governed by the Special Administrative Measures for Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List) ("Negative List") and the Catalogue of Industries for Encouraged Foreign Investment ("Encouraged Foreign Investment Catalogue," together with the Negative List, the "Catalogue,") which was promulgated and is amended from time to time by the MOFCOM and the National Development and Reform Commission. The Catalogue sets forth the industries in which foreign investments are encouraged, restricted, or prohibited. Industries that are not listed in any of the above three categories are permitted areas for foreign investments and are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations. Establishment of wholly foreign owned enterprises is generally allowed in encouraged and permitted industries. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in industries in the prohibited category.

Under PRC law, the establishment of a wholly foreign owned enterprise is subject to the approval of or filing with the MOFCOM or its local counterparts and the wholly foreign owned enterprise must register with the competent administration for market regulation. Our significant PRC subsidiaries have duly obtained all material approvals required for their business operations.

In addition, the transportation sector is subject to regulation at the central and provincial level. The PRC government may issue from time to time new laws or new interpretations on existing laws, some of which are not published on a timely basis or may have retroactive effect. Administrative and court proceedings in the PRC may also be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.. Regulatory risk also encompasses the interpretation by the tax authorities of current tax laws, and our legal structure and scope of operations in the PRC, which could be subject to further restrictions resulting in limitations on our ability to conduct business in the PRC.

Chinese regulations will also significantly impact our MEG business unit. For example, in September 2017, reports were published that the PRC may begin prohibiting the practice of using digital assets for capital fundraising. In 2018, reports surfaced that the PRC had banned local digital asset exchanges from operating within the country. On January 10, 2019, the Cyberspace Administration of China passed the Administrative Provisions on Blockchain Information Services (“Provisions on Blockchain,”) which took effect on February 19, 2019. The Provisions on Blockchain clarify terms of the scope of blockchain information services, the filing process for blockchain information services, the responsibilities for blockchain information service providers, and the consequences of violations. Until there is greater regulatory clarity and acceptance of digital token and blockchain-based financial products in the PRC, we may not be able to provide services under our MEG business unit in the PRC.

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Taxation

On March 16, 2007, the National People’s Congress of the PRC passed the Enterprise Income Tax law (“EIT Law,”) and on November 28, 2007, the State Council of China passed its implementing rules which took effect on January 1, 2008. The EIT Law and its implementing rules impose a unified earned income tax (“EIT”) rate of 25.0% on all domestic-invested enterprises and foreign invested enterprises (“FIEs”) unless they qualify under certain limited exceptions. In addition, under the EIT Law, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with “de facto management bodies” within the PRC is considered a resident enterprise and will normally be subject to an EIT of 25% on its global income. The implementing rules define the term “de facto management bodies” as “an establishment that exercises, in substance, overall management and control over the production, business, personnel, accounting, etc., of a Chinese enterprise.” If the PRC tax authorities subsequently determine that we should be classified as a resident enterprise, then our organization’s global income will be subject to PRC income tax of 25%. For detailed discussion of PRC tax issues related to resident enterprise status, see Part I—Item 1A—“Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC- Under the EIT Law, we may be classified as a “resident enterprise” of China. Such classification will likely result in dividends payable to our foreign investor and gains on sale of our common stock by our foreign investors may become subject to PRC taxation.”

Foreign Currency Exchange

Under the PRC foreign currency exchange regulations applicable to us, RMB is convertible for current account items, including the distribution of dividends, interest payments, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions. Currently, our PRC operating entities may purchase foreign currencies for settlement of current account transactions, including payments of dividends to us, without the approval of the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE,”) by complying with certain procedural requirements. Conversion of RMB for capital account items, such as direct investment, loan, security investment and repatriation of investment, however, is still subject to the approval of SAFE. In particular, if our PRC operating entities borrow foreign currency through loans from us or other foreign lenders, these loans must be registered with SAFE, and if we finance the subsidiaries by means of additional capital contributions, these capital contributions must be registered or filed with by certain government authorities. These limitations could affect our PRC operating entities’ ability to obtain foreign exchange through debt or equity financing.

Dividend Distributions

PRC regulations restrict the ability of our PRC entities to make dividends and other payments to their offshore parent company. PRC legal restrictions permit payments of dividends by our PRC entities only out of their accumulated after-tax profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Each of our PRC subsidiaries is also required under PRC laws and regulations to allocate at least 10% of our annual after-tax profits determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the PRC to a statutory general reserve fund until the amounts in such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Our PRC subsidiaries have the discretion to allocate a portion of their after-tax profits to staff welfare and bonus funds, which may not be distributed to equity owners except in the event of liquidation.

In addition, under the EIT law, the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on Negotiated Reduction of Dividends and Interest Rates (“Notice 112,”) which was issued on January 29, 2008, dividends from our PRC operating subsidiaries paid to us through our entities will be subject to a withholding tax at a rate of 10%. Furthermore, the ultimate tax rate will be determined by treaty between the PRC and the tax residence of the holder of the PRC subsidiary. Dividends declared and paid from before January 1, 2008 on distributable profits are grandfathered under the EIT Law and are not subject to withholding tax.

We intend to reinvest profits, if any, and do not intend on making cash distributions of dividends in the near future.

Regulation Regarding our Fintech Businesses

Securities and Commodities Laws

In order for a securities exchange to operate, it must register as a broker-dealer with the SEC, and become a member of FINRA. Depending on a securities exchange’s activities, it may be required to also register as a broker dealer on the state level. DBOT is a registered broker dealer with an ATS.  Depending upon the jurisdiction, we may also be required to comply with laws applicable to securities exchanges.

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Financial Crimes and Sanctions Compliance

The jurisdictions in which we operate and intend to operate generally have adopted laws to prevent money laundering, terrorist financing, fraud and other financial crime, as well as to ensure compliance with applicable sanctions regimes. Various aspects of our business require us to develop and implement policies and procedures that confirm the identity of customers, detect suspicious activities and ensure we do not do business with blocked persons.

Environmental Disclosures

As part of the acquisition of the Fintech Village property (see Part I—Item 2—“Properties,”) we agreed to assume responsibility for completing environmental remediation, previously initiated by the prior owner, relating to the cleanup of asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (“PCBs”) from building materials on the property and any contamination of soil and groundwater on the land, an existing condition cited by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection for the State of Connecticut (“DEEP.”) We were required, as part of the purchase of the land, to post an $8.0 million surety bond, the approximate cost of previous remediation costs. The surety bond will serve either serve as collateral to the state if we do not complete the environmental remediation to state and federal requirements or be returned to us in full if remediation efforts are successful and completed.

On January 28, 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors accepted an offer of $2.75 million for Fintech Village, and subsequently signed a non-binding sale contract on March 15, 2021. The Company  is required to remove or renovate the contaminated buildings on the property. If we elect to sell, transfer or change the use of the facility, additional environmental testing may be required. We cannot assure that we will not discover further environmental contamination, that any planned timeline for remediation will not be delayed, that we would not be required by DEEP or the EPA to incur significant expenditures for environmental remediation in the future.

Human Capital Management

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2020, we had more than 110 employees in four countries. Within this total, 100% of the employee base is comprised of full-time employees and 32.4% are in the United States.

We are an organization built on strong values, employee engagement and ownership. At our core, we are committed to our employees by providing them with an opportunity to participate in our success. By cultivating a dynamic mix of people and ideas, we enrich our businesses’ performance, the experience of an increasingly diverse employee base, and our communities’ engagement.

Human Capital Measures and Objectives

In operating our businesses, human capital measures and objectives are critical drivers of revenues and margins. We continually work to expand service offerings and geographies and seek to manage human capital resources to maximize profitability in the face of shifting client demands.

Our human capital measures and objectives include revenue per employee and profit per employee. The Company is transforming itself and in a phase of rapid growth, consequently these measures may not be comparable between time periods or may be distorted by a change in the nature of our business.

We continue to invest in the business by adding talented professionals across all of our businesses and functional areas. In 2020, we hired approximately 50 new employees.

Human Capital and Social Policies and Practices

We are committed to our people and the communities we serve, investing in our employees' long-term development and engagement by delivering training, programs and a culture where our people can thrive. We are committed to equal opportunity, diversity and other policies and practices, and an abiding pledge to community service and charity. We take seriously the health, safety and welfare

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of our employees, clients, vendors and the broader communities in which we operate and are taking extraordinary measures in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) / Sustainability Information

To learn more about policies and practices and our continuing efforts related to human capital and ESG matters, please refer to our website at www.ideanomics.com for further information. You may also find our Corporate Governance Guidelines, the charters of the committees of our Board of Directors. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website, is not part of, and not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our employees are not represented by a labor organization or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any work stoppages.

We are required under PRC law to make contributions to employee benefit plans at specified percentages of employee salary. In addition, we are required by the PRC law to cover employees in the PRC with various types of social insurance. We believe that we are in compliance with the relevant PRC laws.

ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS

The business, financial condition and operating results of the Company may be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including but not limited to those described below. Any one or more of such factors could directly or indirectly cause the Company’s actual results of operations and financial condition to vary materially from past or anticipated future results of operations and financial condition. Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and stock price. The following information should be read in conjunction with Part II—Item 7—“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes in Part II—Item 8—“Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND STRATEGY

We expect to require additional financing in the future to meet our business requirements. Such capital raising may be costly, difficult or not possible to obtain and, if obtained, could significantly dilute current stockholders’ equity interests.

We must continue to rely on proceeds from debt and equity issuances to pay for ongoing operating expenses and repay existing debt in order to execute our business plan. Although we may attempt to raise funds by issuing debt or equity instruments, additional financing may not be available to us on terms acceptable us or at all or such resources may not be received in a timely manner. If we are unable to raise additional capital when required or on acceptable terms, we may be required to scale back or to discontinue certain operations, scale back or discontinue the development of new business lines, reduce headcount, sell assets, file for bankruptcy, reorganize, merge with another entity, or cease operations.

We are in the process of transforming our business model, such that there is only a limited basis to evaluate our business and prospects. This transformation may continue to evolve, and ultimately may not be successful.

We are in the process of transforming our business model to develop a platform for the procurement, purchase, and financing of vehicles, charging and energy solutions  for commercial fleets of Electric Vehicles. In connection with this transformation, we are in the process of considerable changes, including initiatives to assemble a new management team, reconfigure the business structure, and expand our mission and business lines. It is uncertain whether these efforts will prove beneficial or whether we will be able to develop the necessary business models, infrastructure and systems to support the business. This includes having or hiring the right talent to execute our business strategy, and building a team with the technological capability and know-how to build the products and provide the services we envision. Market acceptance of new product and service offerings will be dependent in part on our ability to include functionality and usability that address customer requirements, and optimally price our products and services to meet customer demand and cover our costs.

Even if we implement our plan in accordance with our expectations, our assumptions regarding costs and growth of revenue may differ substantially from reality. Furthermore, even if the anticipated benefits and savings are realized in part, there may be consequences,

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internal control issues, or business impacts that were not expected. Additionally, as a result of our restructuring efforts in connection with our business transformation plan, we may experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge or loss of efficiency during transitional periods. Reorganization and restructuring can require a significant amount of management and other employees’ time and focus, which may divert attention from operating activities and growing our business. If we fail to achieve some or all of the expected benefits of these activities, it could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Such transformations may lead to a significant fluctuation in operating results and they may vary materially from market expectations.

The success of the Company’s efforts to develop its Ideanomics Mobility business unit is highly dependent upon suitable financing structures being developed.

The market for commercial fleets of EVs is in the early stage of development and provides unique challenges to fleet owners trying to finance the purchase of fleets of EV and the related charging, storage and battery infrastructure. Unlike vehicles powered by Internal Combustion Engines, the power source in an EV, the battery, can be separated from the vehicle which creates unique challenges for lenders in valuing the collateral for any loan. Additionally, the market for commercial EVs is very new and consequently there is no reliable history of resale values to support lending decisions. Large scale adoption of EVs will require a range of borrowing options and loan types to be available to fund purchases and leasing of EV similar to those that currently exist to finance the purchasing and leasing of traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, in some of the Company’s target markets there is no well developed market for lending to private enterprises and this may further slow down the adoption of EVs. The Company is working with banks and insurance companies to create lending structures and pools of capital that can be used to finance fleet purchases of commercial EVs. Even if the Company can create the necessary pools of capital and lending structures there is no guarantee that any regulatory approvals required for these new structures will be obtained. If the Company is not able to develop a solution for the funding of fleet purchases of EVs and related charging and battery infrastructure then the Company’s Ideanomics Mobility business may not be successful and generate minimal revenues and incur substantial losses.

The transformation of our business will put added pressure on our management and operational infrastructure, impeding our ability to meet any potential increased demand for our services and possibly hurting our future operating results.

Our business plan is to significantly grow our operations to meet anticipated growth in demand for the services that we offer, and by the introduction of new goods or services. Growth in our businesses will place a significant strain on our personnel, management, financial systems and other resources. The evolution of our business also presents numerous risks and challenges, including:

our ability to successfully and rapidly expand sales to potential new distributors in response to potentially increasing demand;
the costs associated with such growth, which are difficult to quantify, but could be significant; and
rapid technological change.

To accommodate any such growth and compete effectively, we will need to obtain additional funding for working capital and to improve develop supply chain and logistics capabilities, information systems, procedures and controls and expand, train, motivate and manage our employees, and such funding may not be available in sufficient quantities, if at all. If we are not able to manage these activities and implement these strategies successfully to expand to meet any increased demand, our operating results could suffer.

The success of our business is dependent on our ability to hire and retain key employees with the specialists skills that we need for our business.

We depend on the services of our key employees. Our success will largely depend on our ability to hire and retain these key employees and to attract and retain qualified senior and middle level managers to our management team.

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We have recruited executives and management both in the United States and the in our operations outside of the United States to assist in our ability to manage the business and to recruit and oversee employees. While we believe we offer compensation packages that are consistent with market practice, we cannot be certain that we will be able to hire and retain sufficient personnel to support our business. The loss of any of our key employees, or failure to find a suitable successor, would significantly harm our business. Our future success will also depend on our ability to identify, hire, develop and retain skilled key employees. We do not maintain key person life insurance on any of our employees. Future sales or acquisitions by us may also cause uncertainty among our current employees and employees of an acquired entity, which could lead to the departure of key employees. Such departures could have an adverse impact on our business and the anticipated benefits of a sale or acquisition.

Our international operations expose us to a number of risks.

Our international activities are significant to our revenues and profits, and we plan to further expand internationally. In certain international market segments, we have relatively little operating experience and may not benefit from any first-to-market advantages or otherwise succeed. It is costly to establish, develop, and maintain international operations and platforms, and promote our brand internationally.

Our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including:

local economic and political conditions, including sanctions and other regulatory actions that prohibit sales to, or purchases from, countries and legal entities that are within the scope of the sanction. Government regulations, both federal and municipal, that may restrict the available market for our products and services through the requirement for a minimum value of local produced content, or restrict the availability of subsidies for products that do not meet designated value for local produced content, e.g. the Buy America program;
government regulation and restrictive governmental actions (such as trade protection measures, including export duties and quotas and custom duties and tariffs), nationalization, and restrictions on foreign ownership;
restrictions on sales or distribution of certain products or services and uncertainty regarding liability for products, services, and content, including uncertainty as a result of less Internet-friendly legal systems, local laws, lack of legal precedent, and varying rules, regulations, and practices regarding the physical and digital distribution of media products and enforcement of IP rights;
limitations on the repatriation and investment of funds and foreign currency exchange restrictions;
limited technology infrastructure;
environmental and health and safety liabilities and expenditures relating to the disposal and remediation of hazardous substances into the air, water and ground;
shorter payable and longer receivable cycles and the resultant negative impact on cash flow;
increased risk over the ability to collect accounts receivable and other amounts owed to the Company due the limited credit checking information available in some of the countries we operate in and possible difficulties to pursue legal action to collect amounts owed to us;
laws and regulations regarding consumer and data protection, privacy, network security, encryption, payments, and restrictions on pricing or discounts;
geopolitical events, including war and terrorism.

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We may face challenges in expanding our international and cross-border businesses and operations.

As we expand our international and cross-border businesses into an increasing number of international markets, we will face risks associated with expanding into markets in which we have limited or no experience and in which we may be less well-known. We may be unable to attract a sufficient number of customers and other participants, fail to anticipate competitive conditions or face difficulties in operating effectively in these new markets. The expansion of our international and cross-border businesses will also expose us to risks inherent in operating businesses globally, including:

inability to recruit international and local talent and challenges in replicating or adapting our Company policies and procedures to different local and regional operating environments;
lack of acceptance of our product and service offerings;
challenges and increased expenses associated with staffing and managing international and cross-border operations and managing an organization spread over multiple jurisdictions;
trade barriers, such as import and export restrictions, customs duties and other taxes, competition law regimes and other trade restrictions, as well as other protectionist policies;
differing and potentially adverse tax consequences;
increased and conflicting regulatory compliance requirements;
challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences;
increased costs to protect the security and stability of our information technology systems, IP and personal data, including compliance costs related to data localization laws;
availability and reliability of international and cross-border payment systems and logistics infrastructure;
exchange rate fluctuations; and
political instability and general economic or political conditions in particular countries or regions.

As we acquire, dispose of or restructure our businesses, product lines, and technologies, we may encounter unforeseen costs and difficulties that could impair our financial performance.

An important element of our management strategy is to review acquisition prospects that would complement our existing products, augment our market coverage and distribution ability, or enhance our capabilities. As a result, we may seek to make acquisitions of companies, products, or technologies, or we may reduce or dispose of certain product lines or technologies that no longer fit our business strategies. For regulatory or other reasons, we may not be successful in our attempts to acquire or dispose of businesses, products, or technologies, resulting in significant financial costs, reduced or lost opportunities, and diversion of management’s attention. Managing an acquired business, disposing of product technologies, or reducing personnel entails numerous operational and financial risks, including, among other things, (i) difficulties in assimilating acquired operations and new personnel or separating existing business or product groups, (ii) diversion of management’s attention away from other business concerns, (iii) amortization of acquired intangible assets, (iv) adverse customer reaction to our decision to cease support for a product, and (v) potential loss of key employees or customers of acquired or disposed operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve and manage successfully any such integration of potential acquisitions, disposition of product lines or technologies, or reduction in personnel or that our management, personnel, or systems will be adequate to support continued operations. Any such inabilities or inadequacies could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition, and/or cash flows.

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In addition, any acquisition could result in changes, such as potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities, the amortization of related intangible assets, and goodwill impairment charges, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and/or the price of our common stock.

Intellectual property litigation could cause us to spend substantial resources and could distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to IP claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development, sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of IP litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.

Our ability to conduct our businesses may be materially adversely impacted by catastrophic events, including natural disasters, pandemics and other international health emergencies, weather-related events, terrorist attacks, and other disruptions.

We may encounter disruptions involving power, communications, transportation or other utilities or essential services depended on by us or by third parties with whom we conduct business. This could include disruptions as the result of natural disasters, pandemics, other international health emergencies, or weather-related or similar events (such as fires, hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, landslides and other natural conditions including the effects of climate change), political instability, labor strikes or turmoil, or terrorist attacks. The global coronavirus pandemic had a significant impact on global commerce. Similar potential disruptions may occur in any of the locations in which we, our counterparties or our customers do business. We continue to assess the potential impact on our counterparties and customers of such events, and what impact, if any, these events could have on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we fail to develop and maintain effective disclosure controls and an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results or prevent fraud may be adversely affected, and investor confidence and market price of our shares may be adversely impacted.

Our reporting obligations as a public company place a significant strain on our management and our operational and financial resources and systems and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. We are subject to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act,”) which requires us to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. Material weaknesses and significant deficiencies may be identified during the audit process or at other times.

If we fail to develop and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our management may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. This could in turn result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements. If we fail to timely achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to produce reliable financial reports. Any failure to improve and maintain the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting could lead to future errors in our financial statements that could require a restatement or untimely filings, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, and result in a decline in our stock price.

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The Sarbanes-Oxley Act also requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures. As a publicly traded company, we are required to file periodic reports containing our consolidated financial statements with the SEC within a specified time following the completion of quarterly and annual periods. Maintaining effective disclosure controls and procedures is necessary to identify information we must disclose in our periodic reports. Our disclosure controls and procedures have been ineffective in the past, and to the extent that our disclosure controls and procedures are found to be ineffective in the future, such finding could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our disclosures, harm our business, and negatively impact the trading price of our common stock.

We are currently, and may in the future be, subject to substantial litigation, investigations and proceedings that could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and result in harm to our business.  

The Company and certain of its former officers and directors are defendants in a purported class action captioned Rudani v. Ideanomics, Inc., et al, pending in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York against the Company.   The Amended Complaint alleges violations of Section 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  Among other things, the Amended Complaint alleges purported misstatements made by the Company in 2017 and 2018.  The Company and certain of its current and former officers and directors are also defendants in a consolidated purported securities class action captioned In Re Ideanomics, Inc. Securities Litigation, pending in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, which alleges violations of Section 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 arising from certain purported misstatements by the Company beginning in March 2020 regarding its MEG division.  The Company is also a nominal defendant, and certain of its former officers and directors are named as defendants, in a consolidated shareholder derivative action pending in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, captioned In re Ideanomics, Inc. Derivative Litigation which alleges violations of violations of Section 14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, breach of fiduciary duties, unjust enrichment, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, and corporate waste and seeks monetary damages and other relief on behalf of the Company. The Company is also a nominal defendant, and certain of its former officers and directors are named as defendants, in a shareholder derivative action pending in the United States District Court for the District of Nevada, captioned Zare v. Wu, et al., 20-cv-608, which alleges breach of fiduciary duties, gross mismanagement, and contribution against certain defendants under Section 10(b) and 21D of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. While the Company believes that these lawsuits are without merit and plans to vigorously defend itself against these claims, there can be no assurance that the Company will prevail in the lawsuits. The Company cannot currently estimate the possible loss or range of losses, if any, that it may experience in connection with these litigations.  There is currently a mediation scheduled for April 2021 for all of the pending actions that have been filed and discussed above.

As reported previously, the Company is subject to an investigation by the SEC and has responded to various information requests and subpoenas from the SEC. The Company is fully cooperating with the SEC’s requests, and cannot predict the outcome of this investigation.

We are exposed to potential liabilities and reputational risk associated with litigation, regulatory proceedings and government investigations and enforcement actions. In addition, we are obligated to indemnify and advance expenses to certain individuals involved in certain of these proceedings. Further, volatility in our stock price may also make us vulnerable to future class action litigation.  Any adverse judgment in or settlement of any pending or any future litigation or investigation could result in payments, fines and penalties that could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Regardless of the merits of the claims and the outcome, legal proceedings have resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant legal fees and expenses, diversion of management’s time and other resources, and adverse publicity. Such proceedings could also adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR IDEANOMICS MOBILITY BUSINESS UNIT

We experience significant competitive pressure in the Ideanomics Mobility business unit, which may negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The Company’s Ideanomics Mobility business unit is operating in the fleet commercial EV market globally. The commercial EV market is still in its development stage and the rate at which the operators of fleets of commercial vehicles replace their internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with EV is very dependent upon (i) environmental and clean air regulations that mandate conversion to EV, (ii) the subsidies that government bodies make available to cover the cost of conversion and (iii) the availability of financing to cover some or all of the cost of conversion, (iv) regulations governing the amount of locally manufactured content required in vehicles sold in a particular market, (v) the availability of charging and battery swap infrastructure, (vi) the rate at which EV technologies evolve.

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Environmental and clean air regulations drive the timing and rate at which fleet operators convert to EV and by extension the size of the market and the type of vehicles that are in demand at any time. The Company’s revenues and profits may be adversely impacted if demand for EV is lower than expected due to a change in regulation or regulations favor conversion of vehicle types that have lower profit margins.

Converting fleets to EV is very capital intensive and most operators require substantial amounts of funding in the form of government and municipal subsidies and bank financing. The amount and form of subsidies are subject to change from time to time as government bodies adjust subsidies to influence consumer behavior. The mechanisms for financing of EV are still being developed and large scale conversion from internal combustion engines to EV is highly dependent upon the amount and terms of financing available for the conversion to EV.

We currently have limited intellectual property rights related to our Ideanomics Mobility business unit, and primarily rely on third parties through agreements with them to conduct research and development activities and protect proprietary information.

Although we believe our success will depend in part on our ability to acquire, invest in or develop proprietary technology to effectively compete with our competitors, we currently have, and for the foreseeable future will have, limited direct IP rights related to our new Ideanomics Mobility business unit. The IP relevant to the products and services we plan to provide is held primarily by third-parties, including our strategic partners. Accordingly, we will rely on these third parties for research and development activities, which will present certain risks. For example, we will have limited control over the research and development activities of the business of our partners, and may require licenses from these third parties if we wish to develop products directly. If these businesses are unable to effectively maintain a competitive edge relative to the market with their technologies and IP, it may adversely affect our business and financial position.

Our reliance on third parties also presents risks related to ownership, use and protection of proprietary information. We are required to rely on the terms of the related agreements, including the partnership agreements to protect our interests, as well as our investments and partners’ trade secret protections, non-disclosure agreements, and invention assignment agreements to protect confidential and proprietary information. If the IP and other confidential information of our investments and strategic partners are not adequately protected, competitors may be able to use their proprietary technologies and information, thereby eroding any competitive advantages that IP provides to us.

RISKS RELATED TO DOING BUSINESS IN THE PRC

U.S. financial regulatory and law enforcement agencies, including without limitation the SEC, U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. national securities exchanges, have limited ability, and in fact may have no ability, to conduct investigations within the PRC concerning our Company, our PRC-based officers, directors, market research services or other professional services or experts.

A substantial part of our assets and our current operations are conducted in the PRC, and some of our officers, directors and other professional service providers are nationals and residents of the PRC. U.S. financial regulatory and law enforcement agencies, including without limitation the SEC, U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. national securities exchanges, have limited ability, and in fact may have no ability, to conduct investigations within the PRC concerning our Company, and the PRC may have limited or no agreements in place to facilitate cooperation with the SEC’s Division of Enforcement for investigations within its jurisdiction.

Adverse changes in political, economic and other policies of the Chinese government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of the PRC, which could materially and adversely affect the growth of our business and our competitive position.

Our business operations have a material dependency on the PRC for both revenues generated with the PRC and as a source of finished products and components for our global operations. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in the PRC. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including:

the degree of government involvement;
the level of development;
the growth rate;

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the control of foreign exchange;
the allocation of resources;
an evolving and rapidly changing regulatory system; and
a lack of sufficient transparency in the regulatory process.

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth in the past 30 years, growth has been uneven, both geographically and across various sectors of the economy. The Chinese economy has also experienced certain adverse effects due to the global financial crisis. In addition, the growth rate of the PRC’s gross domestic product has materially slowed in recent years, according to the National Bureau of Statistics of China. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments, foreign currency exchange restrictions or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us.

The continued control of these assets and other aspects of the national economy by the Chinese government could materially and adversely affect our business. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over Chinese economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

Any adverse change in the economic conditions or government policies in the PRC could have a material adverse effect on overall economic growth, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for our products and consequently have a material adverse effect on our businesses.

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could limit the legal protections available to you and to us, which could cause material adverse effects to our business operations.

We conduct part of our business through our subsidiaries in the PRC. Our subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investments in the PRC and, in particular, laws applicable to FIEs. The PRC legal system is based on written statutes, and prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since 1979, a series of new PRC laws and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in the PRC. However, there could be a change of law and it is uncertain whether business industries in which our China subsidiaries operate will be subject to the foreign investment restrictions or prohibitions.

Since the PRC legal system continues to evolve rapidly, the interpretations of many laws, regulations, and rules are not always uniform, and enforcement of these laws, regulations, and rules involve uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to you and to us. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until after the occurrence of the violation.

In addition, any litigation in the PRC may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management’s attention. In addition, some of our executive officers and directors are residents of the PRC and not of the United States, and substantially all the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it could be difficult for investors to affect service of process in the United States or to enforce a judgment obtained in the United States against our Chinese operations and entities.

You may have difficulty enforcing judgments against us.

Most of our operations are located outside of the United States and part of our current operations are conducted in the PRC. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors, that are not residents in the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts. Courts in the PRC may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based on treaties between the PRC and the country where the judgment is made or on reciprocity between jurisdictions. The PRC does not have any treaties or other arrangements that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments with the United States. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our

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directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security, or the public interest.

Our results could be adversely affected by the trade tensions between the United States and the PRC.

With the increasing interconnectedness of global economic and financial systems and our business related to the PRC, trade tensions between the United States and the PRC can have an immediate and material adverse impact on our business. Changes to trade policies, treaties and tariffs in the jurisdictions in which we operate, or the perception that these changes could occur, could adversely affect our international and cross-border operations, our financial condition and results of operations. For example, the U.S. administration under has advocated greater restrictions on trade generally and significant increases on tariffs on goods imported into the United States, particularly from the PRC. Such trade restrictions or tariffs could cause U.S. companies to respond by minimizing their use of Chinese suppliers, thereby moving the supply chain away from China and limiting our competitive advantage in developing our logistics management and financing business. Further, the U.S. or the PRC could impose additional sanctions that could restrict us from doing business directly or indirectly in either country. Such actions could have material adverse impact on our profitability and operations. Government regulations, both federal and municipal, that may restrict the available market for our products and services through the requirement for a minimum value of local produced content, or restrict the availability of subsidies for products that do not meet designated value for local produced content, e.g. the Buy America program.

Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to use cash generated from sales in the PRC to fund our business activities outside of the PRC.

At present, a substantial part of our sales will be settled in RMB, and any future restrictions on currency exchanges may limit our ability to use revenue generated in RMB to fund any future business activities outside the PRC or to make dividend or other payments in U.S. dollars. Although the Chinese government introduced regulations in 1996 to allow greater convertibility of the RMB for current account transactions, significant restrictions still remain, including primarily the restriction that FIEs may only buy, sell or remit foreign currencies after providing valid commercial documents, at those banks in the PRC authorized to conduct foreign exchange business. In addition, foreign exchange transactions under the capital account remain subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities and companies are required to open and maintain separate foreign exchange accounts for capital account items. This could affect our ability to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing for our subsidiaries and the VIEs. Recent volatility in the RMB foreign exchange rate as well as capital flight out of the PRC may lead to further foreign exchange restrictions and policies or practices which adversely affect our operations and ability to convert RMB. We cannot be certain that the Chinese regulatory authorities will not impose more stringent restrictions on the convertibility of the RMB.

Restrictions under PRC law on our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make dividends and other distributions could materially and adversely affect our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could benefit our business, pay dividends to you, and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

At present, part of our sales are earned by our PRC operating entities. However, PRC regulations restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make dividends and other payments to their offshore parent companies. PRC legal restrictions permit payments of dividends by our PRC subsidiaries only out of their accumulated after-tax profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries are also required under PRC laws and regulations to allocate at least 10% of their annual after-tax profits determined in accordance with PRC GAAP to a statutory general reserve fund until the amounts in said fund reaches 50% of their registered capital. Allocations to these statutory reserve funds can only be used for specific purposes and are not transferable to us in the form of loans, advances, or cash dividends. Any limitations on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer funds to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

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We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption laws, and any determination that we violated these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act (“FCPA”) and other laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by U.S. persons and issuers as defined by the statute, for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have operations and agreements with third parties, and make most of our sales in the PRC. The PRC also strictly prohibits bribery of government officials. Our activities in the PRC create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by the employees, consultants, sales agents, or distributors of our Company, which may not always be subject to our control. It is our policy to implement safeguards to discourage these practices by our employees. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be less than effective, and the employees, consultants, sales agents, or distributors of our company may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible. Violations of the FCPA or Chinese anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, the U.S. government may seek to hold our Company liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies in which we invest or that we acquire.

Our operations in foreign countries are subject to risks that could adversely impact our financial results, such as economic or political volatility, foreign legal and regulatory requirements, international trade factors (export controls, trade sanctions, duties, tariff barriers and other restrictions), protection of our proprietary technology in certain countries, potentially burdensome taxes, crime, employee turnover, staffing, managing personnel in diverse culture, labor instability, transportation delays, and foreign currency fluctuations.

If we become directly subject to the recent scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity involving U.S.-listed Chinese companies, we may have to expend significant resources to investigate and resolve the matter which could harm our business operations, stock price and reputation and could result in a loss of your investment in our stock, especially if such matter cannot be addressed and resolved favorably.

Over the past several years, U.S. public companies that have substantially all of their operations in the PRC, particularly companies like ours which have completed so-called reverse merger transactions, have been the subject of intense scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity by investors, financial commentators and regulatory agencies, such as the SEC. Much of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity is in connection with financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, a lack of effective internal controls over financial accounting, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity, the publicly traded stock of many U.S. listed Chinese companies has sharply decreased in value and, in some cases, has become virtually worthless. Many of these companies are now subject to shareholder lawsuits and SEC enforcement actions and are conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations. It is not clear what affect this sector-wide scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity will have on our Company, our business and our stock price. If we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or not, we will have to expend significant resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend our Company. This situation will be costly and time consuming and distract our management from growing our Company.

The disclosures in our reports and other filings with the SEC and our other public announcements are not subject to the scrutiny of any regulatory bodies in the PRC. Accordingly, our public disclosure should be reviewed in light of the fact that no governmental agency that is located in the PRC, where part of our operations and business are located, has conducted any due diligence on our operations or reviewed or cleared any of our disclosure.

We are regulated by the SEC and our reports and other filings with the SEC are subject to SEC review in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. Unlike public reporting companies whose operations are located primarily in the United States, however, substantially all of our operations are located in the PRC, Hong Kong and Singapore. Since substantially all of our operations and business takes place outside of United States, it may be more difficult for the staff of the SEC to overcome the geographic and cultural obstacles that are present when reviewing our disclosure. These same obstacles are not present for similar companies whose operations or business take place entirely or primarily in the United States. Furthermore, our SEC reports and other disclosure and public announcements are not subject to the review or scrutiny of any PRC regulatory authority. For example, the disclosure in our SEC reports and other filings are not subject to the review of the CSRC. Accordingly, you should review our SEC reports, filings and our other public announcements with the understanding that no local regulator has done any due diligence on our Company and with the understanding that none of our SEC reports, other filings or any of our other public announcements has been reviewed or otherwise been scrutinized by any local regulator.

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RISKS RELATED TO OUR STOCK

The market price of our common stock is volatile, leading to the possibility of its value being depressed at a time when you may want to sell your holdings.

The market price of our common stock is volatile, and this volatility may continue. Numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control or are not discernible or determinable by our Company, may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our common stock may be highly volatile for specific business reasons. Factors such as variations in our revenues, earnings and cash flow, announcements of new investments, cooperation arrangements or acquisitions, and fluctuations in market prices for our products could cause the market price for our shares to change substantially. Following periods of such volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action as well as derivative litigation has often been brought against that company and its officers and directors. Because of the potential volatility of the Company’s common stock price, it may become the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from its business.

Moreover, the trading market for our common stock will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock, the market price for our common stock would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price for our common stock or trading volume to decline.

The market price of our common stock could be also subject to volatility if the value of our business and common stock is viewed as being linked to the price and value of digital assets. If investors view our business and the value of our common stock as dependent upon or linked to the value or growth of digital assets, whether or not tokenized on our blockchain platforms, the price of such digital assets may influence significantly the market price of shares of our common stock.

Furthermore, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations for reasons unrelated to operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our common stock and other interests in our Company at a time when you want to sell your interest in us.

Provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws or Nevada law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of us or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Our articles of incorporation authorize our Board to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock. The preferred stock may be issued in one or more series, the terms of which may be determined at the time of issuance by the Board without further action by the shareholders. These terms may include preferences as to dividends and liquidation, conversion rights, redemption rights and sinking fund provisions. The issuance of any preferred stock could diminish the rights of holders of our common stock, and therefore could reduce the value of such common stock. In addition, specific rights granted to future holders of preferred stock could be used to restrict our ability to merge with, or sell assets to, a third party. The ability of our Board to issue preferred stock could make it more difficult, delay, discourage, prevent or make it costlier to acquire or effect a change-in-control, which in turn could prevent our shareholders from recognizing a gain in the event that a favorable offer is extended and could materially and negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

In addition, Section 78.438 of the Nevada Revised Statutes prohibits a publicly-held Nevada corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder (generally defined as a person which together with its affiliates owns, or within the last three years has owned, 10% of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder) unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. The existence of the foregoing provisions and other potential anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our Company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

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Certain of our shareholders hold a significant percentage of our outstanding voting securities.

As of March 29, 2021, Dr. Wu, is the beneficial owners of approximately 11.1% of our outstanding voting securities (through their ownership of the Common Stock and 100% our Series A Preferred Stock, which entitle the holder to cast ten votes for every share of common stock that is issuable upon conversion of a share of Series A Preferred Stock (each share of Series A Preferred Stock is convertible into 0.1333333 shares of common stock), or a total of 9,333,330 votes). Mr. Shane McMahon, our Vice Chairman, is the beneficial owner of approximately 2.2% of our outstanding voting securities. As a result, each possesses significant influence over the election of our directors and the authorization of any proposed significant corporate transactions. Their respective ownership and control may also have the effect of delaying or preventing a future change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

For the foreseeable future, we intend to retain any earnings to finance the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock or Series A preferred stock. Accordingly, investors must be prepared to rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation to earn an investment return, which may never occur. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board and will depend on our results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors our Board deems relevant. In addition, our ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on our ability to declare dividends and profits in our subsidiaries domiciled outside of the United States. Rules in other jurisdictions may greatly restrict and limit the ability of our subsidiaries to declare dividends to us which, in addition to restricting our cash flow, limits our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.

Even if we are able to pay dividends on our common stock or Series A preferred stock, our Board may choose not to declare dividends on our capital stock. In addition, financing agreements that we may enter into in the future may limit our ability to pay cash dividends. Fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect our business and the value of our securities.

The value of our common stock will be indirectly affected by the foreign exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and those currencies in which our sales may be denominated. Appreciation or depreciation in the value of currencies in which are sales are denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations. Fluctuations in the exchange rate will also affect the relative value of any dividend we issue that will be exchanged into U.S. dollars, as well as earnings from, and the value of, any U.S. dollar-denominated investments we make in the future.

Very limited hedging transactions are available in the PRC to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. While we may enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these transactions may be limited, and we may not be able to successfully hedge our exposure at all.

ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

The Company has no unresolved Staff Comments.

ITEM 2.PROPERTIES

In 2018, we relocated our principal executive office from Beijing, China to New York, New York. We lease our principal executive office, which is located at 1441 Broadway, Suite 5116, New York, NY 10018. We lease an approximately 6,085 square foot office space in Beijing, China, which is used by both our Mobile Energy Group Services business unit and legacy YOD business for our PRC-based operations. In October 2018, we completed the $5.2 million acquisition of a 58-acre property located at 1700 and 1800 Asylum Avenue in West Hartford, Connecticut, which was formerly part of the University of Connecticut campus and will be the site of our new “Fintech Village.”

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In response to the COVID-19 pandemic the company closed its New York City office at 55 Broadway in the first quarter of 2020. The Company concluded that it did not require the 55 Broadway office and terminated the lease in the third quarter of 2020. The Company has entered into a short term lease for a very limited amount of office space at 1441 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. The Company has a 15 year lease on showroom and office space in the city of Qingdao in the PRC. The Company's Tree Technologies subsidiary has office space in Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia and a long term lease on 250 acres of vacant land zoned for industrial development on the Gebeng Industrial Estate, Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur,Malaysia which is near the port of Kuantan.

Except for FinTech Village, the Company believes that all its properties have been adequately maintained, are generally in good condition, and are suitable and adequate for our business.

ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Refer to Note 19 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part 4, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Price Information

The Company’s common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “IDEX.” The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low closing bid prices of the Company’s common stock.

Closing Bid Prices

High

Low

Year Ended December 31, 2020

    

  

    

  

1st Quarter

$

1.34

$

0.30

2nd Quarter

$

3.29

$

0.38

3rd Quarter

$

1.78

$

0.81

4th Quarter

$

3.15

$

0.82

Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

  

 

  

1st Quarter

$

2.07

$

1.13

2nd Quarter

$

2.46

$

1.28

3rd Quarter

$

2.80

$

1.46

4th Quarter

$

1.59

$

0.66

Approximate Number of Holders of Our Common Stock

As of March 29, 2021, there were approximately 365 holders of record of the Company’s common stock. This number excludes the shares of the Company’s common stock beneficially owned by shareholders holding stock in securities trading accounts through DTC, or under nominee security position listings.

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Dividend Policy

The Company has never declared or paid a cash dividend. Any future decisions regarding dividends will be made by the Company’s Board. The Company currently intends to retain and use any future earnings for the development and expansion of the business and does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The Company’s Board has complete discretion on whether to pay dividends, subject to the approval of the Company’s shareholders. Even if the Company’s Board decides to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, the Company’s ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on the Company’s ability to declare dividends and profits in the PRC subsidiaries. PRC rules greatly restrict and limit the ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to declare dividends which, in addition to restricting the Company’s cash flow, limits its ability to pay dividends to its shareholders.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

See Part III—Item 12—Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters—“Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans.”

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

The Company did not sell any equity securities during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 that were not previously disclosed in a quarterly report on Form 10-Q or a current report on Form 8-K that was filed during the 2020 fiscal year.

Purchases of Equity Securities

No repurchases of the Company’s common stock were made in the year ended December 31, 2020.

ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

Not Applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following management’s discussion and analysis is presented in five sections as below and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto and the other financial information appearing elsewhere in this report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical information, the following discussion contains certain forward-looking information. See “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements” above for certain information concerning those forward-looking statements.

Overview
Results of Operations
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Outlook
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

OVERVIEW

Ideanomics, Inc. (Nasdaq: IDEX) was incorporated in the State of Nevada on October 19, 2004. From 2010 through 2017, our primary business activities were providing premium content video on demand (“VOD”) services, with primary operations in the PRC, through our subsidiaries and variable interest entities under the brand name You-on-Demand (“YOD.”) We closed the YOD business during 2019.

Starting in early 2017, the Company transitioned its business model to become a next-generation financial technology (“fintech”) company. The Company built a network of businesses, operating principally in the trading of petroleum products and electronic components that the Company believed had significant potential to recognize benefits from blockchain and AI technologies including, for example, enhancing operations, addressing cost inefficiencies, improving documentation and standardization, unlocking asset value and improving customer engagement. During 2018 the Company ceased operations in the petroleum products and electronic components trading businesses and disposed of the businesses during 2019. As we looked to deploy fintech solutions in late 2018 and into 2019, we found a unique opportunity in the Chinese EV industry to facilitate large scale conversion of fleet vehicles from internal combustion engines to EV. This led us to establish our MEG business unit to take advantage of this opportunity, subsequently we have extended our EV business to the ASEAN countries and have made an acquisition in the U.S. in the first quarter of 2021.

Fintech continues to be an important area for us as we look to invest in and develop businesses that can improve the financial services industry, particularly as it relates to digital securities.

Principal Factors Affecting Our Financial Performance

Our business is expected to be impacted by both macroeconomic and Ideanomics-specific factors. The following factors have been part of the transformation of the Company which affected the results of our operations in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:

Our ability to transform our business and to meet internal or external expectations of future performance. In connection with this transformation, we are in the process of considerable changes, which include assembling a new management team in the United States and overseas, reconfiguring our business structure, continuing to further enhance our controls, procedures, and oversight during this transformation, and expanding our mission and business lines for continued growth. It is uncertain whether these efforts will prove beneficial or whether we will be able to develop the necessary business models, infrastructure and systems to support our businesses. To succeed, among other things, we will need to have or hire the right talent to execute our business strategy. Market acceptance of new product and service offerings will be dependent in part on our ability to include functionality and usability that address customer requirements, and optimally price our products and services to meet customer demand and cover our costs.

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Our ability to remain competitive. We will continue to face intense competition: these new technologies are constantly evolving, and our competitors may introduce new platforms and solutions that are superior to ours. In addition, our competitors may be able to adapt more quickly to new technologies or may be able to devote greater resources to the development, marketing and sale of their products than we can. We may never establish and maintain a competitive position in the hybrid financing and logistics management businesses.
The fluctuation in earnings resulting from acquisitions, strategic equity investments, the formation of joint ventures, and in-licenses of technology. Our results of operations may fluctuate from period to period based on our entry into new transactions to expand our business. In addition, while we intend to contribute cash and other assets to our investments, we do not intend for our holding company to conduct significant research and development activities. In general we intend research and development activities to be conducted by our technology partners and licensors. These fluctuations in growth or costs and in our investments and partnerships may contribute to significant fluctuations in the results of our operations.

Liquidity Improvements

In the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company improved its liquidity position by raising a total of $225.5 million: $191.4 million through the issuance of common stock and exercise of warrants, $7.1 million from noncontrolling interest shareholders, and $27.0 million through the issuance of senior secured convertible notes. The Company converted senior secured convertible notes of $34.4 million plus accrued interest of $0.3 million to common stock. Additionally, the Company converted $4.6 million of convertible notes payable and accrued interest to related parties and an additional $1.5 million due to related parties to common stock. As a result of these actions, the Company reduced its the principal amount of its indebtedness by $50.9 million, and as of December 31, 2020, had cash and cash equivalents of $165.8 million, $163.8 million of which is held in U.S. financial institutions.

Based upon its business projections and its cash and cash equivalents balance as of December 31, 2020, the Company believes it has the ability to continue as a going concern.

Effects of COVID-19

Novel Coronavirus 2019 (“COVID-19”) is an infectious disease cause by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.  The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As of March 21, 2021, over 122.9 million cases had been reported across the globe, resulting in 2.7 million deaths.

The spread of COVID-19 has caused significant disruption to society as a whole, including the workplace. The resulting impact to the global supply chain has disrupted most aspects of national and international commerce, with government-mandated social distancing measures imposing stay-at-home and work-from-home orders in almost every country. The effects of social distancing have shut down significant parts of the local, regional, national, and international economies, for limited or extended periods of time, with the exception of government designated essential services.

In many parts of the world, stay-at-home and work-from-home orders were relaxed during the summer of 2020 as the effects of the Coronavirus appeared to lessen, and economic activity began to recover.  However, commencing in the autumn and fall of 2020, the U.S. as well as countries in Europe, South America and Asia began to experience an increase in new COVID-19 cases, and in some cases local, state, and national governments began to reinstate restrictive measures to stem the spread of the virus.  The U.S. and other countries also experienced an increase in new COVID-19 cases after the fall and winter holiday season, with new, more infectious variants of COVID-19 identified.  Various vaccines have been developed, with vaccinations programs in effect worldwide, though reaching acceptable levels for worldwide immunization against COVID-19 remains challenging.

The future effects of the virus are difficult to predict, due to uncertainty about the course of the virus, different variants that may evolve, and the supply  of the vaccine on a local, regional, and global basis, as well as the ability to implement vaccination programs in a short time frame.

Many of the Company’s operations are in the development or early stage, have not had significant revenues to date, and the Company does not anticipate significant adverse effects on its operations’ revenue as compared to its business plan in the near- or mid-term, although the future effects of COVID-19 may result in regional restrictive measures which may constrain the Company’s operations.

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The Company continues to monitor the overall situation with COVID-19 and its effects on both local, regional and global economies.

Information about segments

The Company’s chief operating decision maker has been identified as the chief executive officer, who reviews consolidated results when making decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance of the Company. Therefore, the Company operates in one segment with two business units: Ideanomics Mobility and Ideanomics Capital.

Our Unconsolidated Equity Investments

The investments where the Company exercises significant influence, but not control, are classified as long-term equity investments and accounted for using the equity method. Under the equity method, the investment is initially recorded at cost and adjusted for our share of undistributed earnings or losses of the investee. Investment losses are recognized until the investment is written down to nil, provided that we do not guarantee the investee’s obligations or we are committed to provide additional funding. Refer to Note 10 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

Taxation

United States

Ideanomics, Inc., M.Y. Products, LLC, Grapevine Logic, Inc., Delaware Board of Trade Holdings, Inc., Fintech Village, LLC are United States companies subject to the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. No provision for income taxes has been provided as none of the companies had taxable profit since inception. At the acquisition of Grapevine Logic, Inc. in 2018, deferred tax liabilities were recorded relating to intangible assets recorded for financial reporting purposes but not recognized for income tax purposes. The intangible assets consequently could not provide deductible amortization expense for income tax purposes. The deferred tax liabilities were recorded on the acquisition date to the extent that they could not be offset by usable net operating loss carryforwards acquired in the acquisition. These deferred tax liabilities were reduced, providing an income tax benefit, to the extent that the intangible assets were reduced by amortization expense and additional net operating loss carry forwards were created to offset the liabilities. These benefits include $152,875 in 2019. The 2019 amount related to activities in the first two quarters of 2019. Ideanomics, Inc. increased its ownership in Grapevine Logic, Inc. such that beginning with the third quarter of 2019, the result of which was that Grapevine Logic, Inc. activities would be included in the consolidated tax return of Ideanomics, Inc. As a result, the valuation allowance provided against Ideanomics’ deferred tax assets were reduced by $361,059, the amount of Grapevine Logic, Inc.’s remaining deferred tax liabilities as that portion of Ideanomics Inc.’s net operating loss carryovers could now be utilized to offset these liabilities.

The Tax Cut and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) of 2017 includes provision for Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) under which taxes on foreign income are imposed on the excess of a deemed return on tangible assets of certain foreign subsidiaries. TCJA also enacted the Base Erosion and Anti-Abuse Tax (“BEAT”) under which taxes are imposed on certain base eroding payments to related foreign companies, subject to certain requirements.

Based on current year financial results, the company has determined that there is no GILTI nor BEAT tax liability.

In addition, the TCJA now entitles U.S. companies that owns 10.0% or more of a foreign corporation a 100% dividends-received deduction for the foreign-source portion of dividends paid by such foreign corporation. Also, net operating losses (“NOLs”) arising after December 31, 2017 are deductible only to the extent of 80.0% of the taxpayer’s taxable income, and may be carried forward indefinitely but generally not allowed to be carried back.

Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands

Under current laws of the Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands, the Company is not subject to tax on its income or capital gains. In addition, dividend payments are not subject to withholding tax in the Cayman Islands or British Virgin Islands.

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Hong Kong

The Company’s subsidiaries incorporated in Hong Kong are subject to Profits Tax of 16.5%. Tax expense of $0.1 million  was recorded in the year ended December 31, 2019 relating to the income on one Hong Kong subsidiary relating to a gain recorded on the sale of VIE related assets. All other Hong Kong subsidiaries had losses for 2019 and the resulting deferred tax assets relating to the loss carryovers were fully offset by a valuation allowance.

The People’s Republic of China

Under the PRC’s Enterprise Income Tax Law, the company’s Chinese subsidiaries and VIEs are subject to an EIT of 25.0%.

The Company’s future effective income tax rate depends on various factors, such as tax legislation, geographic composition of its pre-tax income and non-tax deductible expenses incurred. The Company’s management regularly monitors these legislative developments to determine if there are changes in the statutory income tax rate.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, one of the Company’s PRC subsidiaries incurred a tax obligation of $0.6 million relating to its EV sales. The entity did not have operating loss carryovers and is not able to utilize the loss carryovers of other subsidiaries. The transactions under which the VIE agreements were terminated resulted in gains to one VIE entity, prior to deconsolidation, that triggered a tax expense of $0.2 million. Other PRC entities either had losses that created additional operating loss carryovers, where the related deferred tax assets were offset by a valuation allowance, or had income that would have resulted in a current tax liability, except that they were able to offset those liabilities with operating loss carryovers from prior years. The use of prior year carryovers, in all cases for which the related deferred tax assets all had previously been offset by a valuation allowance, avoided $0.2 million of income tax expense.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (USD in thousands, except per share amounts)

For the years ended December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

    

Amount Change

    

% Change

 

Revenue

$

26,759

$

44,566

$

(17,807)

 

(40)

%

Cost of revenue

 

24,702

 

1,458

 

23,244

 

n/m

Gross profit

 

2,057

 

43,108

 

(41,051)

 

(95)

%

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

32,399

 

24,862

 

7,537

 

30

%

Research and development expense

 

1,635

 

 

1,635

 

n/m

Professional fees

 

12,541

 

5,828

 

6,713

 

n/m

Depreciation and amortization

 

5,310

 

2,229

 

3,081

 

n/m

Impairment losses

 

42,554

 

73,669

 

(31,115)

 

(42)

%

Change in fair value of contingent consideration, net

 

(5,503)

 

5,094

 

(10,597)

 

n/m

Total operating expenses

 

88,936

 

111,682

 

(22,746)

 

(20)

%

Loss from operations

 

(86,879)

 

(68,574)

 

(18,305)

 

27

%

Interest and other income (expense):

Interest expense, net

 

(15,970)

 

(5,616)

 

(10,354)

 

n/m

Expense due to conversion of notes

(2,266)

(2,266)

n/m

Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt

8,891

(3,940)

12,831

n/m

Impairment of and equity in loss of equity method investees

(16,698)

 

(13,718)

 

(2,980)

 

22

%

Gain (loss) on disposal of subsidiaries, net

 

276

 

(952)

 

1,228

 

n/m

Loss on remeasurement of DBOT investment

 

 

(3,179)

 

3,179

 

n/m

Other income (expense), net

 

6,603

 

(433)

 

7,036

 

n/m

Loss before income taxes and non-controlling interest

 

(106,043)

 

(96,412)

 

(9,631)

 

10

%

Income tax (expense) benefit

 

 

(417)

 

417

 

n/m

Net loss

 

(106,043)

 

(96,829)

 

(9,214)

 

10

%

Deemed dividend related to warrant repricing

 

(184)

 

(827)

 

643

 

(78)

%

Net loss attributable to common shareholders

 

(106,227)

 

(97,656)

 

(8,571)

 

9

%

Net (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interest

 

7,827

 

(852)

 

8,679

 

n/m

Net loss attributable to IDEX common shareholders

$

(98,400)

$

(98,508)

$

108

 

0

%

Basic and diluted loss per share

$

(0.46)

$

(0.82)

 

  

 

  

Revenues (USD in thousands)

For the years ended December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

    

Amount Change

    

% Change

 

Digital asset management services

$

$

40,700

$

(40,700)

 

n/m

Electric vehicles

19,462

2,693

16,769

 

n/m

Combustion engine vehicles

 

5,160

 

 

5,160

 

n/m

Charging and batteries

 

506

 

 

506

 

n/m

Digital advertising services

 

1,631

 

1,173

 

458

 

39

%

Total

$

26,759

$

44,566

$

(17,807)

 

(40)

%

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Table of Contents

n/m = Not Meaningful

Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $26.8 million as compared to $44.6 million for the same period in 2019, a decrease of $17.8 million, or 40%. The decrease was due to a change to our business focus from digital asset management services to the EV business. The Company generated $19.5 million from the sale of EVs as compared to $2.7 million in the prior year, an increase of $16.8 million. In the current year, the Company earned revenues of $5.2 million from the sale of combustion engine vehicles; the sale of combustion engine vehicles is not the Company’s primary focus, however, from time to time, the Company will sell combustion engine vehicles if a client places an order. During 2020, the Company made its first sales of charging and battery equipment. The Company believes this is very encouraging development as the provision of charging, battery and battery swap services is an important strategic focus for the Company. Revenues from Grapevine, the Company’s business focused on digital advertising services were $1.6 million as compared to $1.2 million in the prior year, an increase of $0.5 million or 39%. Grapevine is considered a non-core asset for Ideanomics.

The revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were recorded on either a Principal or Agent basis, depending on the terms of the underlying transaction, including the ability to control the product and the level of inventory risk taken. The majority of the revenue from the sale of EVs, as well as revenue from the sale of the combustion engine vehicles and charging and batteries for the year ended December 31, 2020 were recorded on a Principal basis because the Company has inventory risk in the transactions. The revenue from the sale of EVs for the year ended December 31, 2019 was recorded on an Agent basis due to the terms of the transaction.

Cost of revenue (USD in thousands)

For the years ended December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

    

Amount Change

    

% Change

 

Digital asset management services

$

$

467

$

(467)

 

n/m

Electric vehicles

18,035

18,035

 

n/m

Combustion engine vehicles

 

5,121

 

 

5,121

 

n/m

Charging and batteries

 

488

 

 

488

 

n/m

Digital advertising services

 

1,058

 

991

 

67

 

6.7

%

Total

$

24,702

$

1,458

$

23,244

 

n/m

n/m = Not Meaningful

Cost of revenues was $24.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The cost of revenues increased by $23.2 million. From a comparability perspective, the cost of revenue during 2019 is not indicative of the new business in 2020. The cost of revenue during 2019 was primarily associated with the digital asset management services and creator payments from the Grapevine business. The cost of revenue from the sale of EVs was $18.0 million; there was no cost of revenue recorded for the sale of EVs during 2019 as the company acted as agent in the sale of EVs in 2019 and consequently revenues were recorded on “net” basis without any corresponding cost of revenues. Cost of revenues from the sale of combustion engine vehicles was $5.1 million; there were no sales of combustion engine vehicles in the prior year. Cost of revenues for charging and batteries was $0.5 million; there were no sales of charging and batteries in the prior year. The cost of revenues for the digital advertising services provided by Grapevine were $1.1 million as compared to $1.0 million in the prior year, an increase of almost $0.1 million or 6.7%.

Gross profit (USD in thousands)

For the years ended December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

    

Amount Change

    

% Change

Digital asset management services

$

$

40,233

$

(40,233)

n/m

Electric vehicles

1,427

2,693

(1,266)

 

n/m

Combustion engine vehicles

 

39

 

 

39

 

n/m

Charging and batteries

 

18

 

 

18

 

n/m

Digital advertising services

 

573

 

182

 

391

 

n/m

Total

$

2,057

$

43,108

$

(41,051)

 

n/m

n/m = Not Meaningful

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Table of Contents

Gross profit ratio

For the years ended December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

 

Digital asset management services

 

%

99

%

Electric vehicles

 

7

100

Combustion engine vehicles

 

1

Charging and batteries

 

4

Digital advertising services

 

35

16

Total

 

8

%

97

%

The gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $2.1 million, as compared to $43.1 million during the same period in 2019, a decrease of $41.1 million. The decrease was due to the Company recorded service revenue from digital asset management services in 2019 which was not repeated in 2020 and had a low cost of revenue. The gross profit earned from the sale of EVs was $1.4 million a decrease of $1.3 million from the prior year. The Company acted in an agent capacity in the sale of EVs in 2019 and consequentially the revenue was recorded on a “net” basis without any cost of revenue which resulted in a higher gross profit and gross margin.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Our selling, general and administrative expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $32.4 million as compared to $24.9 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $7.5 million or 30%. The majority of the increase was due to increased stock based compensation expense, bonuses and sales commissions and salaries resulting from the increase in employee numbers and sales activity, and bad debt expense which was partially offset by lower spending on travel and entertainment due to the restrictions on travel and entertaining arising from COVID-19 and lower severance expense.

Research and development expense

Research and development expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 represents the fees paid for EV technical development and design.

Professional fees

Professional fees for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $12.5 million as compared to $5.8 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $6.7 million. The majority of this increase was due to increased expense for investor relations programs, legal fee expense related to regulatory enquires, fund raising and merger and acquisition activities, and class action lawsuits.  Expenses for  consultants and contractors increased as a result of the Company’s continued expansion.

Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $ 5.3 million as compared to $2.2 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $3.1 million. The increase was mainly due to the increase in amortization expense of $2.1 million arising from the shortening of the useful life on an intellectual property intangible asset.

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Table of Contents

Impairment losses

The following table summarizes the impairment losses recorded in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

Asset Impaired

    

Note

    

Caption

    

Amount

2020

2019

GTB – digital currency

 

Note 9 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets

 

Impairment losses

$

$

61,124

Equity method investments

 

Note 10 - Long-term Investments

 

Impairment of and equity in loss of equity method investments

16,650

 

13,062

Intangible assets

 

Note 9 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets

 

Impairment losses

20,446

 

5,715

Goodwill

 

Note 9 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets

 

Impairment losses

9,323

 

Right of use assets

Note 11 - Leases

Impairment losses

6,424

Fintech buildings, land and capitalized fees

Note 8 - Property and Equipment, net

Impairment losses

3,315

2,299

Fintech buildings asset retirement cost

Note 8 - Property and Equipment, net

Impairment losses

1,996

1,504

Fixed assets and other

 

 

923

 

Cost method investments

 

Note 10 - Long-term Investments

 

Impairment losses

241

 

3,026

Total

 

  

$

59,318

$

86,730

Additional information related to the impairment losses recorded in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:

Year Ended December 31, 2020

The Company recorded impairment losses of $16.7 million related to its equity method investments, Glory and BDCG.  In the fourth quarter of 2020, Tree Technologies obtained its own domestic manufacturing license, and determined that it would not purchase vehicles from Tree Manufacturing, Glory’s subsidiary, and that the investment in Glory was therefore impaired.  The Company evaluated the business prospects of BDCG in light of the continued political tensions between China and the U.S., and determined that its business prospects had diminished.
The Company recorded impairment losses of $20.4 million related to intangible assets:
oAn impairment loss of $12.5 million related to Tree Technologies marketing and distribution agreement with Tree Manufacturing after Tree manufacturing obtained its own domestic manufacturing license, and determining that it would not purchase vehicles from Tree Manufacturing.
oImpairment losses of $7.1 million related to DBOT’s intangible assets, its continuing membership agreement and customer list.
oAn impairment loss of $0.8 million related to Grapevine’s influencer network, after determining that the attrition rate of the influencer network was higher than expected.
The Company recorded an impairment loss of $9.3 million related to the goodwill of its consolidated subsidiary, DBOT, after evaluating its business prospects.  

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Table of Contents

The Company recorded impairment losses of $6.4 million related to right of use assets after ceasing to use the related real estate premises.
The Company recorded impairment losses of $3.3 million related to its investment in Fintech Village, and recorded an impairment loss of $2.0 million for the related asset retirement cost.
The Company recorded an impairment loss of $0.2 million related to a cost method investment after its price per share declined in the fourth quarter of 2020.

Year Ended December 31, 2019

The Company recorded an impairment loss of $61.1 million in the fourth quarter of 2019 related to GTB which the Company had received in connections with a services agreement and an asset purchase agreement with GT Dollar Pte, a minority shareholder at the time of the transaction. On October 29, 2019, GTB had an unexpected significant decline in quoted price, from $17.00 to $1.84. This decline continued through the fourth quarter of 2019, and on December 31, 2019 the quoted price was $0.23. As a result of this decline in quoted price, and its inability to convert GTB into other digital currencies which were more liquid, or fiat currency, the Company performed an impairment analysis and recorded an impairment loss.
The Company recorded a $13.1 million impairment loss in Glory, an equity method investment, in the fourth quarter of 2019, when it became apparent that Glory’s subsidiary, Tree Manufacturing, would not receive the land use rights to 250 acres of vacant land and other assets.
The Company recorded a $5.7 million impairment loss related to a secure mobile financial information, social, and messaging platform that has been designed for streamlining financial-based communication for professional and retail users. Management determined these assets had no future use and recorded an impairment loss.
The Company recorded impairment losses of $3.0 million in two non-marketable equity investments after management evaluated their performance.
The Company recorded an impairment loss of $2.3 million in the third quarter of 2019 in connection with four buildings in Fintech Village, which were later demolished, and recorded an impairment loss of $1.5 million for the related asset retirement cost.

Change in fair value of contingent consideration, net

For the year ended December 31, 2020, Change in fair value of contingent consideration, net of $5.5 million represents the remeasurement loss of $1.5 million of the contingent consideration payable to the former DBOT shareholder and remeasurement gain of $7.0 million of the contingent consideration payable to the Tree Technology shareholders.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, Change in fair value of contingent consideration, net of $5.1 million represents the remeasurement of the contingent consideration payable to the former DBOT shareholders due to the decline in Ideanomics’ stock price.

Loss from operations

Loss from operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $86.9 million as compared to loss of $68.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 an increase of $18.3 million. The increased Loss from Operations is due to number of factors, the gross profit for 2019 included revenues from digital asset services which had a gross profit margin of almost 100% which was not repeated in 2020, increased expenses for selling, general and administrative, research and development, professional fees, and depreciation and amortization expense partially offset  by lower impairment charges and a gain resulting from a change in the fair value of contingent consideration.

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Table of Contents

Interest expense, net

Our interest expense increased $10.4 million to $16.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, from $5.6 million during 2019. The interest expense increase during 2020 was primarily due to the amortization of beneficial conversion features and the interest associated with convertible notes issued in 2020. The following table summarizes the breakdown of the interest expense (in thousands):

    

    

Year ended December 31, 

    

Year ended December 31, 

2020

2019

Interest, net

$

1,485

$

1,381

Amortization of discount

 

14,485

 

4,235

Total

$

15,970