P3YP3Ythe Philippine Credit Facility availability period, as amended from time to time, is up to January 31, 2021 and was further extended to May 1, 2021 in January 2021, and the maturity date of each individual drawdown, as amended from time to time, to be the earlier of: (i) the date which is 180 days from the date of drawdown, and (ii) the date which is 180 days after the end of the availability period.2.33P2YP2YP2YP2YfalseFY0001381640000000000000On April 24, 2019 and June 24, 2019, the board and the stockholders of MRP approved an amendment to the Amended Articles of Incorporation of MRP, respectively, whereby, without changing the total amount of the authorized capital stock, the par value per MRP common share was increased fromAs of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the allowances for credit losses of $16,517 and $25,026 are recorded as a reduction of the long-term receivables, which are included in long-term prepayments, deposits and other assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, respectively.As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the unamortized deferred financing costs related to the 2015 Revolving Credit Facility of the 2015 Credit Facilities of nil and $3,097 are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, respectively.As of December 31, 2020, the unamortized deferred financing costs related to the revolving credit facility of the 2020 Credit Facilities of $43,593 are included in long-term prepayments, deposits and other assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet.As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the unamortized deferred financing costs related to the 2016 SC Revolving Credit Facility of the 2016 Studio City Credit Facilities of $440 and $885 are included in long-term prepayments, deposits and other assets, in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, respectively.“Adjusted property EBITDA” is net (loss) income before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, pre-opening costs, development costs, property charges and other, share-based compensation, payments to the Philippine Parties, land rent to Belle, Corporate and Other expenses, and other non-operating income and expenses. The Company uses Adjusted property EBITDA to measure the operating performance of Mocha Clubs, Altira Macau, City of Dreams, Studio City, City of Dreams Manila and Cyprus Operations and to compare the operating performance of its properties with those of its competitors.The amount mainly represents management fee income for services provided by the Company to Melco International for management and operation for the project in Cyprus, and such amount was further recharged with mark-up by a subsidiary of Melco International to ICR Cyprus Group. The amount represents the transactions for the period up to the completion of the Acquisition of ICR Cyprus on July 31, 2019 as described in Note 25.The amount mainly represents management fee expenses for the services provided by the senior management of Melco International and for the operation of the office of Melco’s Chief Executive Officer.A company in which Mr. Lawrence Yau Lung Ho, Melco’s Chief Executive Officer, had beneficial interest of approximately 20% until December 10, 2019, the date on which Mr. Lawrence Yau Lung Ho disposed his entire beneficial interest in MECOM. The amount in 2019 represents the transactions with a joint venture and a subsidiary of MECOM during the period from January 1, 2019 to December 10, 2019.The amount represents goodwill which arose from the acquisition of Mocha Slot Group Limited and its subsidiaries by the Company in 2006.The amount represents goodwill which arose from the acquisition of Japan Ski Resort in 2009 as described in Note 25. As of December 31, 2020, the gross amount of goodwill and accumulated impairment losses were $13,864 and $13,864, respectively.The amount represents the share-based compensation expenses related to the grant of certain share-based awards under Melco International Share Incentive Plan to an employee of the Company. 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Table of Contents
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM 20-F
 
 
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from
    
    
    
to
    
    
    
OR
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission
file number 001-33178
 
 
MELCO RESORTS & ENTERTAINMENT LIMITED
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
36th Floor, The Centrium, 60 Wyndham Street,
Central, Hong Kong
(Address of principal executive offices)
Heather Rollo, Senior Vice President
, Chief Accounting Officer
Tel +852 2598 3600, Fax +852 2537 3618
36th Floor, The Centrium, 60 Wyndham Street, Central, Hong Kong
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile
number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
 
Trading Symbol
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
American depositary shares
each representing three ordinary shares
 
MLCO
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(The Nasdaq Global Select Market)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None.
(Title of Class)
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
1,456,547,942 ordinary shares outstanding as of December 31, 2020
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule
 405 of the Securities Act.
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section
 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1)
 has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of t
he Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2)
 has been subject to such filing r
equirements for the past 90 days.
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of
 Regulation
 S-T
 (
§
232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
I
ndicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
 non-accelerated
 filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in
 Rule
 12b-2
 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer 
  
Non-accelerated filer 
 
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section
 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section
 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP
 
  
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board 
  
Other 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
    
Item
 17
 
    
Item
 18
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined
 in
 Rule
 12b-2
 of
 the Exchange Act).
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections
 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.
    
Yes
 
    
No
 
 
 
 

Table of Contents
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ii

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
In this annual report
on Form 20-F, unless otherwise
indicated:
 
   
“2015 Credit Facilities” refers to the HK$13.65 billion (equivalent to US$1.75 billion) senior secured credit facilities agreement dated June 19, 2015, entered into by Melco Resorts Macau, as borrower, comprising (i) a Hong Kong dollar term loan facility of HK$3.90 billion (equivalent to US$500 million) with a term of six years and (ii) a HK$9.75 billion (equivalent to approximately US$1.25 billion) revolving credit facility, and following the repayment of all outstanding loan amounts, together with accrued interest and associated costs on May 7, 2020, other than the HK$1.0 million (equivalent to approximately US$129,000) which remained outstanding under the term loan facility and the HK$1.0 million (equivalent to approximately US$129,000) revolving credit facility commitment which remained available under the revolving credit facility, all other commitments under the 2015 Credit Facilities were cancelled;
 
   
“2020 Credit Facilities” refers to the senior facilities agreement dated April 29, 2020, entered into between, among others, MCO Nominee One, our subsidiary and as borrower, and Bank of China Limited, Macau Branch, Bank of Communications Co., Ltd. Macau Branch and Morgan Stanley Senior Funding, Inc., as joint global coordinators, under which lenders have made available HK$14.85 billion (equivalent to US$1.92 billion) in a revolving credit facility for a term of five years;
 
   
“2020 Studio City Notes” refers to the US$825.0 million aggregate principal amount of 8.50% senior notes due 2020 issued by Studio City Finance on November 26, 2012 and as to which no amount remains outstanding following the redemption of all remaining outstanding amounts in March 2019;
 
   
“2020 Studio City Notes Tender Offer” refers to the conditional tender offer by Studio City Finance to purchase for cash any and all of its outstanding 2020 Studio City Notes which commenced on January 22, 2019 and settled on February 11, 2019;
 
   
“2021 Senior Notes” refers to the US$1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 5.00% senior notes due 2021 issued by Melco Resorts Finance on February 7, 2013 and fully redeemed on June 14, 2017;
 
   
“2021 Studio City Senior Secured Credit Facility” refers to the facility agreement dated November 23, 2016 with, among others, Bank of China Limited, Macau Branch, to amend, restate and extend the Studio City Project Facility to provide for senior secured credit facilities in an aggregate amount of HK$234.0 million (equivalent to approximately US$30.1 million), which consist of a HK$233.0 million (equivalent to approximately US$29.9 million) revolving credit facility and a HK$1.0 million (equivalent to approximately US$129,000) term loan facility, and which has been amended, restated and extended by the 2028 Studio City Senior Secured Credit Facility;
 
   
“2024 Studio City Notes” refers to the US$600.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.25% senior notes due 2024 issued by Studio City Finance on February 11, 2019 and as to which no amount remains outstanding following the redemption of all remaining outstanding amounts in February 2021;
 
   
“2024 Studio City Notes Tender Offer” refers to the conditional tender offer by Studio City Finance to purchase for cash any and all of the outstanding 2024 Studio City Notes, which commenced and settled in January 2021;
 
   
“2025 Senior Notes” refers to the US$1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 4.875% senior notes due 2025 issued by Melco Resorts Finance, of which US$650.0 million in aggregate principal amount was issued on June 6, 2017 and US$350.0 million in aggregate principal amount was issued on July 3, 2017;
 
   
“2025 Studio City Notes” refers to the US$500 million aggregate principal amount of 6.00% senior notes due 2025 issued by Studio City Finance on July 15, 2020;
 
   
“2026 Senior Notes” refers to the US$500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.250% senior notes due 2026 issued by Melco Resorts Finance on April 26, 2019;
 
1

Table of Contents
   
“2027 Senior Notes” refers to the US$600.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.625% senior notes due 2027 issued by Melco Resorts Finance on July 17, 2019;
 
   
“2028 Senior Notes” refers to the US$850 million aggregate principal amount of 5.750% senior notes due 2028 issued by Melco Resorts Finance, of which US$500.0 million in aggregate principal amount was issued on July 21, 2020 (the “First 2028 Senior Notes”) and US$350.0 million in aggregate principal amount was issued on August 11, 2020 (the “Additional 2028 Senior Notes”);
 
   
“2028 Studio City Notes” refers to the US$500 million aggregate principal amount of 6.50% senior notes due 2028 issued by Studio City Finance on July 15, 2020;
 
   
“2028 Studio City Senior Secured Credit Facility” refers to the facility agreement dated March 15, 2021 with, among others, Bank of China Limited, Macau Branch, to amend, restate and extend the 2021 Studio City Senior Secured Credit Facility to provide for senior secured credit facilities in an aggregate amount of HK$234.0 million, equivalent to approximately US$30.1 million which consist of a HK$233.0 million (approximately US$29.9 million) revolving credit facility and a HK$1.0 million (approximately US$129,000) term loan facility;
 
   
“2029 Senior Notes” refers to the US$1.15 billion aggregate principal amount of 5.375% senior notes due 2029 issued by Melco Resorts Finance, of which US$900.0 million in aggregate principal amount was issued on December 4, 2019 (“First 2029 Senior Notes”) and US$250.0 million in aggregate principal amount was issued on January 21, 2021 (“Additional 2029 Senior Notes”);
 
   
“2029 Studio City Notes” refers to the US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 5.00% senior notes due 2029 issued by Studio City Finance on January 14, 2021;
 
   
“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each of which represents three ordinary shares;
 
   
“Altira Hotel” refers to our former subsidiary, Altira Hotel Limited, a Macau company through which we operated hotel and
certain other non-gaming businesses at
Altira Macau and which has been merged with Altira Resorts;
 
   
“Altira Macau” refers to an integrated resort located in Taipa, Macau, that caters to Asian VIP rolling chip customers;
 
   
“Altira Resorts” refers to our subsidiary, Altira Resorts Limited (formerly known as Altira Developments Limited), a Macau company through which we hold the land and building for Altira Macau and operate hotel and certain
other non-gaming businesses
at Altira Macau;
 
   
“AUD” and “Australian dollar(s)” refer to the legal currency of Australia;
 
   
“board” and “board of directors” refer to the board of directors of our Company or a duly constituted committee thereof;
 
   
“CGC” means the Cyprus Gaming and Casino Supervision Commission, also known as the Cyprus Gaming Commission;
 
   
“China” and “PRC” refer to the People’s Republic of China, excluding the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PRC (Hong Kong), the Macau Special Administrative Region of the PRC (Macau) and Taiwan from a geographical point of view;
 
   
“City of Dreams” refers to an integrated resort located in Cotai, Macau, which currently features casino areas and four luxury hotels, including a collection of retail brands, a wet stage performance theater (temporarily closed since June 2020) and other entertainment venues;
 
   
“City of Dreams Manila” refers to an integrated resort located within Entertainment City, Manila;
 
   
“City of Dreams Mediterranean” refers to the integrated resort project in Cyprus, which is currently under development and is expected to be the largest and premier integrated resort in Europe upon its opening;
 
2

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“COD Resorts” refers to our subsidiary, COD Resorts Limited (formerly known as Melco Crown (COD) Developments Limited), a Macau company through which we hold the land and buildings for City of Dreams, operate hotel and certain
other non-gaming businesses
at City of Dreams and provide shared services within the Company;
 
   
“Crown Resorts” refers to Crown Resorts Limited, a company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange;
 
   
“Cyprus Acquisition” refers to our acquisition of a 75% equity interest in ICR Cyprus from Melco International with the issuance of 55.5 million ordinary shares as consideration pursuant to the definitive agreement entered into between us and Melco International on June 24, 2019 and completed on July 31, 2019;
 
   
“Cyprus License” refers to the gaming license granted by the government of Cyprus to Integrated Casino Resorts on June 26, 2017 to develop, operate and maintain an integrated casino resort in Limassol, Cyprus (and until the operation of such integrated casino resort, the operation of a temporary casino in Limassol) and up to four satellite casino premises in Cyprus, for a term of 30 years from the date of grant and with the right for exclusivity in Cyprus for the first 15 years of the term;
 
   
“DICJ” refers to the Direcção de Inspecção e Coordenação de Jogos (the Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau), a department of the Public Administration of Macau;
 
   
“EUR” and “Euro(s)” refer to the legal currency of the European Union;
 
   
“Greater China” refers to mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, collectively;
 
   
“HIBOR” refers to the Hong Kong Interbank Offered Rate;
 
   
“HK$” and “H.K. dollar(s)” refer to the legal currency of Hong Kong;
 
   
“HKSE” refers to The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited;
 
   
“ICR Cyprus” refers to ICR Cyprus Holdings Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of Cyprus, and which we acquired a 75% equity interest upon the completion of the Cyprus Acquisition;
 
   
“Integrated Casino Resorts” refers to Integrated Casino Resorts Cyprus Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of Cyprus and which became our subsidiary upon the completion of the Cyprus Acquisition;
 
   
“MCO Investments” refers to our subsidiary, MCO (Philippines) Investments Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands;
 
   
“MCO Nominee One” refers to our subsidiary, MCO Nominee One Limited;
 
   
“Melco International” refers to Melco International Development Limited, a Hong Kong-listed company;
 
   
“Melco Leisure” refers to Melco Leisure and Entertainment Group Limited, a company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Melco International;
 
   
“Melco Philippine Parties” refers to Melco Resorts Leisure, MPHIL Holdings No. 1 and MPHIL Holdings No. 2;
 
   
“Melco Resorts Finance Notes” refers to, collectively, the 2025 Senior Notes, the 2026 Senior Notes, the 2027 Senior Notes, the 2028 Senior Notes and the 2029 Senior Notes;
 
   
“Melco Resorts Finance” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Resorts Finance Limited (formerly known as MCE Finance Limited), a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability;
 
   
“Melco Resorts Leisure” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Resorts Leisure (PHP) Corporation (formerly known as MCE Leisure (Philippines) Corporation), a corporation incorporated in the Philippines and one of the Philippine Licensees holding the Philippine License;
 
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“Melco Resorts Macau” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Resorts (Macau) Limited (formerly known as Melco Crown (Macau) Limited), a Macau company and the holder of our gaming subconcession;
 
   
“Mocha Clubs” refer to, collectively, our clubs with gaming machines, which are now
the largest non-casino based operations
of electronic gaming machines in Macau;
 
   
“MPHIL Holdings No. 1” refers to our subsidiary, MPHIL Holdings No. 1 Corporation (formerly known as MCE Holdings (Philippines) Corporation), a corporation incorporated in the Philippines and one of the Philippine Licensees holding the Philippine License;
 
   
“MPHIL Holdings No. 2” refers to our subsidiary, MPHIL Holdings No. 2 Corporation (formerly known as MCE Holdings No. 2 (Philippines) Corporation), a corporation incorporated in the Philippines and one of the Philippine Licensees holding the Philippine License;
 
   
“MRP” refers to our subsidiary, Melco Resorts and Entertainment (Philippines) Corporation (formerly known as Melco Crown (Philippines) Resorts Corporation), the shares of which have been delisted from the Philippine Stock Exchange since June 11, 2019 due to MRP’s public ownership having fallen below the minimum requirement of the Philippine Stock Exchange for more than six months;
 
   
“Nobu Manila” refers to the hotel development located in City of Dreams Manila branded as Nobu Hotel Manila;
 
   
“Nüwa Manila” refers to the hotel development located in City of Dreams Manila branded as Nüwa Hotel Manila, formerly branded as the Crown Towers hotel;
 
   
“our subconcession” and “our gaming subconcession” refers to the Macau gaming subconcession held by Melco Resorts Macau;
 
   
“PAGCOR” refers to the Philippines Amusement and Gaming Corporation, the Philippines regulatory body with jurisdiction over all gaming activities in the Philippines except for lottery, sweepstakes, cockfighting, horse racing and gaming inside the Cagayan Export Zone;
 
   
“PAGCOR Charter” refers to the Presidential Decree No. 1869, of the Philippines;
 
   
“Pataca(s)” or “MOP” refer to the legal currency of Macau;
 
   
“Philippine License” refers to the regular gaming license dated April 29, 2015 issued by PAGCOR to the Philippine Licensees in replacement of the Provisional License for the operation of City of Dreams Manila;
 
   
“Philippine Licensees” refers to holders of the Philippine License, which include the Melco Philippine Parties and the Philippine Parties;
 
   
“Philippine Notes” refers to the PHP15 billion aggregate principal amount of 5.00% senior notes due 2019 issued by Melco Resorts Leisure on January 24, 2014 and guaranteed by our Company and fully redeemed by December 28, 2018;
 
   
“Philippine Parties” refers to SM Investments Corporation, Belle Corporation and PremiumLeisure and Amusement, Inc.;
 
   
“Philippine peso(s)” and “PHP” refer to the legal currency of the Philippines;
 
   
“Renminbi” and “RMB” refer to the legal currency of China;
 
   
“SC ADSs” refers to the American depositary shares of SCI, each of which represents four Class A ordinary shares of SCI;
 
   
“SCI” refers to our subsidiary, Studio City International Holdings Limited, an exempted company registered by way of continuation in the Cayman Islands, the American depositary receipts of which are listed on the New York Stock Exchange;
 
   
“share(s)” and “ordinary share(s)” refer to our ordinary share(s), par value of US$0.01 each;
 
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“Studio City” refers to a cinematically-themed integrated resort in Cotai, an area of reclaimed land located between the islands of Taipa and Coloane in Macau;
 
   
“Studio City Casino” refers to the gaming areas being operated within Studio City;
 
   
“Studio City Company” refers to our subsidiary, Studio City Company Limited, which is a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands with limited liability and which is also an indirect subsidiary of SCI;
 
   
“Studio City Company Notes” refers to, collectively, the US$350.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.875% senior secured notes due 2019 (the “2019 Studio City Company Notes”) and the US$850.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.250% senior secured notes due 2021 (the “2021 Studio City Company Notes”), each issued by Studio City Company on November 30, 2016 and as to which no amount remains outstanding following the repayment in full upon maturity in November 2019 (in the case of the 2019 Studio City Company Notes) and the redemption of all remaining outstanding amounts in August 2020 (in the case of the 2021 Studio City Company Notes);
 
   
“Studio City Finance” refers to our subsidiary, Studio City Finance Limited, which is a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands with limited liability and which is also an indirect subsidiary of SCI;
 
   
“Studio City Hotels” refers to our subsidiary, Studio City Hotels Limited, which is a company incorporated in Macau with limited liability and which is also an indirect subsidiary of SCI;
 
   
“Studio City Investments” refers to our subsidiary, Studio City Investments Limited, which is a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands with limited liability and which is also an indirect subsidiary of SCI;
 
   
“Studio City IPO” refers to the initial public offering of a total of 33,062,500 SC ADSs, comprising the 28,750,000 SC ADSs sold initially and the 4,312,500 SC ADSs sold pursuant to the over-allotment option, at the price of US$12.50 per SC ADS;
 
   
“Studio City Notes” refer to, collectively, the 2025 Studio City Notes, the 2028 Studio City Notes and the 2029 Studio City Notes;
 
   
“Studio City Project Facility” refers to the senior secured project facility, dated January 28, 2013 and as amended from time to time, entered into between, among others, Studio City Company as borrower and certain subsidiaries as guarantors, comprising a term loan facility of HK$10,080,460,000 (equivalent to approximately US$1.3 billion) and revolving credit facility of HK$775,420,000 (equivalent to approximately US$100.0 million), and which was amended, restated and extended by the 2021 Studio City Senior Secured Credit Facility;
 
   
“the Philippines” refers to the Republic of the Philippines;
 
   
“TWD” and “New Taiwan dollar(s)” refer to the legal currency of Taiwan;
 
   
“US$” and “U.S. dollar(s)” refer to the legal currency of the United States;
 
   
“U.S. GAAP” refers to the U.S. generally accepted accounting principles; and
 
   
“we”, “us”, “our”, “our Company”, “the Company” and “Melco” refer to Melco Resorts & Entertainment Limited and, as the context requires, its predecessor entities and its consolidated subsidiaries.
This annual report
on Form 20-F includes our
audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of amounts listed therein are due to rounding. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures preceding them.
 
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GLOSSARY
 
“average daily rate”    calculated by dividing total room revenues including complimentary rooms (less service charges, if any) by total rooms occupied, including complimentary rooms, i.e., average price of occupied rooms per day
“cage”    a secure room within a casino with a facility that allows patrons to carry out transactions required to participate in gaming activities, such as exchange of cash for chips and exchange of chips for cash or other chips
“chip”    round token that is used on casino gaming tables in lieu of cash
“concession”    a government grant for the operation of games of fortune and chance in casinos in Macau under an administrative contract pursuant to which a concessionaire, or the entity holding the concession, is authorized to operate games of fortune and chance in casinos in Macau
“dealer”    a casino employee who takes and pays out wagers or otherwise oversees a gaming table
“drop”    the amount of cash to purchase gaming chips and promotional vouchers that is deposited in a gaming table’s drop box, plus gaming chips purchased at the casino cage
“drop box”    a box or container that serves as a repository for cash, chip purchase vouchers, credit markers and forms used to record movements in the chip inventory on each table game
“electronic gaming table”    table with an electronic or computerized wagering and payment system that allow players to place bets from multiple-player gaming seats
“gaming machine”    slot machine and/or electronic gaming table
“gaming machine handle”    the total amount wagered in gaming machines
“gaming machine win rate”    gaming machine win (calculated
before non-discretionary incentives
(including our point-loyalty programs) and allocating casino revenues related to goods and services provided to gaming patrons on a complimentary basis) expressed as a percentage of gaming machine handle
“gaming promoter”    an individual or corporate entity who, for the purpose of promoting rolling chip and other gaming activities, arranges customer transportation and accommodation, provides credit in its sole discretion if authorized by a gaming operator and arranges food and beverage services and entertainment in exchange for commissions or other compensation from a gaming concessionaire or subconcessionaire
“integrated resort”    a resort which provides customers with a combination of hotel accommodations, casinos or gaming areas, retail and dining facilities, MICE space, entertainment venues and spas
“junket player”    a player sourced by gaming promoters to play in the VIP gaming rooms or areas
“marker”    evidence of indebtedness by a player to the casino or gaming operator
“mass market patron”    a customer who plays in the mass market segment
“mass market segment”    consists of both table games and gaming machines played by mass market players primarily for cash stakes
“mass market table games drop”    the amount of table games drop in the mass market table games segment
 
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“mass market table games hold percentage”    mass market table games win (calculated before discounts, commissions,
non-discretionary
incentives (including our point-loyalty programs) and allocating casino revenues related to goods and services provided to gaming patrons on a complimentary basis) as a percentage of mass market table games drop
“mass market table games segment”    the mass market segment consisting of mass market patrons who play table games
“MICE”    Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions, an acronym commonly used to refer to tourism involving large groups brought together for an event or specific purpose
“net rolling”    net turnover
in a non-negotiable chip game
“non-negotiable chip”
   promotional casino chip that is not to be exchanged for cash
“non-rolling chip”
   chip that can be exchanged for cash, used by mass market patrons to make wagers
“occupancy rate”    the average percentage of available hotel rooms occupied, including complimentary rooms, during a period
“premium direct player”    a rolling chip player who is a direct customer of the concessionaires or subconcessionaires and is attracted to the casino through marketing efforts of the gaming operator
“progressive jackpot”    a jackpot for a gaming machine or table game where the value of the jackpot increases as wagers are made; multiple gaming machines or table games may be linked together to establish one progressive jackpot
“revenue per available room” or “REVPAR”    calculated by dividing total room revenues including complimentary rooms (less service charges, if any) by total rooms available, thereby representing a combination of hotel average daily room rates and occupancy
“rolling chip” or “VIP rolling chip”   
non-negotiable chip primarily
used by rolling chip patrons to make wagers
“rolling chip patron”    a player who primarily plays on a rolling chip or VIP rolling chip tables and typically plays for higher stakes than mass market gaming patrons
“rolling chip segment”    consists of table games played in private VIP gaming rooms or areas by rolling chip patrons who are either premium direct players or junket players
“rolling chip volume”    the
amount of non-negotiable chips wagered
and lost by the rolling chip market segment
“rolling chip win rate”    rolling chip table games win (calculated before discounts,
commissions, non-discretionary
incentives (including our point-loyalty programs) and allocating casino revenues related to goods and services provided to gaming patrons on a complimentary basis) as a percentage of rolling chip volume
“slot machine”    traditional slot or electronic gaming machine operated by a single player
“subconcession”    an agreement for the operation of games of fortune and chance in casinos between the entity holding the concession, or the concessionaire, and a subconcessionaire, pursuant to which the subconcessionaire is authorized to operate games of fortune and chance in casinos in Macau
 
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“table games win”    the amount of wagers won net of wagers lost on gaming tables that is retained and recorded as casino revenues. Table games win is calculated before discounts, commissions,
non-discretionary
incentives (including our point-loyalty programs) and allocating casino revenues related to goods and services provided to gaming patrons on a complimentary basis
“VIP gaming room”    gaming rooms or areas that have restricted access to rolling chip patrons and typically offer more personalized service than the general mass market gaming areas
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report
on Form 20-F contains forward-looking
statements that relate to future events, including our future operating results and conditions, our prospects and our future financial performance and condition, all of which are largely based on our current expectations and projections. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors” for a discussion of some risk factors that may affect our business and results of operations. Moreover, because we operate in a heavily regulated and evolving industry, may become highly leveraged and operate in Macau, a growth market with intense competition, the Philippines, a market that is expected to experience growth over the next several years, and Cyprus, a new market with significant growth potential, new risk factors may emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of these factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statement.
In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based the forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements relating to:
 
   
our goals and strategies;
 
   
the material impact of the global
COVID-19
pandemic on our business, financial results and liquidity, which could worsen and persist for an unknown duration;
 
   
the reduced access to our target markets due to travel restrictions, and the potential long-term impact on customer retention;
 
   
restrictions or conditions on visitation by citizens of mainland China to Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus, including in connection with the
COVID-19
pandemic, with respect to which we are unable to predict when all, or any of, such travel restrictions will be eased, or the period of time required for tourism to return to
pre-pandemic
levels (if at all);
 
   
the impact on the travel and leisure industry from factors such as an outbreak of an infectious disease, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, extreme weather patterns or natural disasters, military conflicts and any future security alerts and/or terrorist attacks or other acts of violence;
 
   
general domestic or global political and economic conditions, including in China and Hong Kong, which may impact levels of travel, leisure and consumer spending;
 
   
our ability to successfully operate our casinos;
 
   
our ability to extend or renew our Macau gaming subconcession beyond its current expiration date in 2022;
 
   
our ability to obtain or maintain all required governmental approval, authorizations and licenses for our operations;
 
   
our compliance with conditions and covenants under the existing and future indebtedness;
 
   
capital and credit market volatility;
 
   
our ability to raise additional capital, if and when required;
 
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our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;
 
   
the expected growth of the gaming and leisure market in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus;
 
   
the liberalization of travel restrictions on PRC citizens and convertibility of the Renminbi;
 
   
the tightened control of certain cross-border fund transfers from the PRC;
 
   
the availability of credit for gaming patrons;
 
   
the uncertainty of tourist behavior related to spending and vacationing at casino resorts in Macau , the Philippines and Cyprus;
 
   
fluctuations in occupancy rates and average daily room rates in Macau and the Philippines;
 
   
our ability to continue to develop new technologies and/or upgrade our existing technologies;
 
   
cybersecurity risks including misappropriation of customer information or other breaches of information security;
 
   
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;
 
   
increased competition from other casino hotel and resort projects in Macau and elsewhere in Asia, including the concessionaires (Sociedade de Jogos de Macau, S.A., or SJM, Wynn Resorts (Macau) S.A., or Wynn Macau, Galaxy Casino, S.A., or Galaxy) and subconcessionaires (including MGM Grand Paradise, S.A., or MGM Grand, and Venetian Macau Limited, or Venetian Macau) in Macau;
 
   
our ability to develop the additional land on which Studio City is located in accordance with Studio City land concession requirements, our business plan, completion time and within budget;
 
   
our development of City of Dreams Mediterranean and our entering into new development and construction projects and new ventures in or outside of Macau, the Philippines or Cyprus;
 
   
construction cost estimates for our development projects, including projected variances from budgeted costs;
 
   
government policies and regulation relating to the gaming industry, including gaming table allocations, gaming license approvals in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus and the legalization of gaming in other jurisdictions;
 
   
the completion of infrastructure projects in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus;
 
   
our ability to retain and increase our customers;
 
   
our ability to offer new services and attractions;
 
   
the outcome of any current and future litigation; and
 
   
other factors described under “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors.”
The forward-looking statements made in this annual report
on Form 20-F relate only
to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report
on Form 20-F. Except as
required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this annual report on
Form 20-F
and the documents that we referenced in this annual report on
Form 20-F
and have filed as exhibits with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
PART I
 
ITEM 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
 
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ITEM 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE 
Not applicable.
 
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ITEM 3.
KEY INFORMATION
A. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report beginning
on page F-1.
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification 326,
Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326)
(“ASU
2016-13”)
on January 1, 2020 under the modified retrospective method. Results for the periods beginning on or after January 1, 2020 are presented under the ASU
2016-13,
while prior year amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the previous basis. The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification 842,
Leases (Topic 842)
(“New Leases Standard”) on January 1, 2019 under the modified retrospective method. Results for the periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019 are presented under the New Leases Standard, while prior year amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the previous basis. The Company adopted a new revenue recognition standard issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “New Revenue Standard”) on January 1, 2018 under the modified retrospective method. Results for the periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 are presented under the New Revenue Standard, while prior year amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the previous basis.
In connection with the Cyprus Acquisition pursuant to which we acquired a 75% equity interest in ICR Cyprus from Melco International on July 31, 2019, the comparative information for 2018 and 2017 included the assets and liabilities of ICR Cyprus and its subsidiaries that were acquired by the Company at historical carrying amounts, and the financial results of ICR Cyprus and its subsidiaries, as if the Cyprus Acquisition had been in effect since the inception of common control resulting from the acquisition of ICR Cyprus and its subsidiaries by Melco International in September 2017 in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification
805-50,
Business Combinations — Related Issues
.
The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 have been derived from our consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. You should read the selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected in the future.
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
(1)
   
2019
(2)
   
2018
(3)
   
2017
   
2016
 
   
(In thousands of US$, except share and per share data and operating
data)
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
         
Total operating revenues / Net revenues
  $ 1,727,923     $ 5,736,801     $ 5,188,942     $ 5,284,823     $ 4,519,396  
Total operating costs and expenses
  $ (2,668,480   $ (4,989,123   $ (4,575,495   $ (4,680,283   $ (4,156,280
Operating (loss) income
  $ (940,557   $ 747,678     $ 613,447     $ 604,540     $ 363,116  
Net (loss) income
  $ (1,454,614   $ 394,228     $ 338,896     $ 312,220     $ 66,918  
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests
  $ 191,122     $ (21,055   $ 1,403     $ 32,608     $ 108,988  
Net (loss) income attributable to Melco Resorts & Entertainment Limited
  $ (1,263,492   $ 373,173     $ 340,299     $ 344,828     $ 175,906  
Net (loss) income attributable to Melco Resorts & Entertainment Limited per share
         
— Basic
  $ (0.882   $ 0.260     $ 0.226     $ 0.232     $ 0.116  
— Diluted
  $ (0.884   $ 0.258     $ 0.224     $ 0.230     $ 0.115  
 
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Year Ended December 31,
 
   
2020
(1)
   
2019
(2)
   
2018
(3)
   
2017
   
2016
 
   
(In thousands of US$, except share and per share data and operating data)
 
Net (loss) income attributable to Melco Resorts & Entertainment Limited per ADS
(4)
         
— Basic
  $ (2.647   $ 0.779     $ 0.678     $ 0.697     $ 0.348  
— Diluted
  $ (2.652   $ 0.775     $ 0.673     $ 0.691     $ 0.346  
Weighted average shares outstanding used in net (loss) income attributable to Melco Resorts & Entertainment Limited per share calculation
         
— Basic
    1,432,052,735       1,436,569,083       1,506,551,789       1,484,379,459       1,516,714,277  
— Diluted
    1,432,052,735       1,443,447,422       1,516,410,062       1,496,068,459       1,525,284,272  
Dividends declared per share
  $ 0.05504     $ 0.2135     $ 0.1867     $ 0.5604     $ 0.2408  
 
    
December 31,
 
    
2020
(1)
    
2019
    
2018
    
2017
    
2016
 
    
(In thousands of US$)
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
 
           
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 1,755,351      $ 1,394,982      $ 1,472,423      $ 1,436,940      $ 1,702,310  
Investment securities
     —          618,305        91,598        89,874        —    
Bank deposits with original maturities over three months
     —          —          —          9,884        210,840  
Restricted cash
     419        37,520        48,166        45,542        39,282  
Total assets
(6)
     9,020,967        9,488,422        9,121,996        9,150,822        9,340,341  
Total current liabilities
(6)
     1,116,250        1,525,460        2,146,928        1,685,689        1,479,140  
Long-term debt, net
(5)
     5,645,391        4,394,131        4,060,917        3,557,562        3,720,275  
Total liabilities
(6)
     7,182,896        6,345,194        6,149,704        5,561,135        5,516,927  
Noncontrolling interests
(7)
     735,950        704,260        675,015        511,451        479,544  
Total equity
(7)
     1,838,071        3,143,228        2,972,292        3,589,687        3,823,414  
Ordinary shares
     14,565        14,565        15,385        15,339        14,759  
 
(1)
We adopted the ASU
2016-13
on January 1, 2020 under the modified retrospective method. There was no material impact on our financial position as of January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 and our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 as a result of the adoption of the ASU
2016-13.
(2)
We adopted the New Leases Standard on January 1, 2019 under the modified retrospective method. There was no material impact on our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 as a result of the adoption of the New Leases Standard.
(3)
We adopted the New Revenue Standard on January 1, 2018 under the modified retrospective method. Results for the periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 are presented under the New Revenue Standard, while prior year amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the previous basis.
(4)
Each ADS represents three ordinary shares.
(5)
Includes current and
non-current
portion of long-term debt, net of debt issuance costs.
(6)
We adopted the New Leases Standard on January 1, 2019 under the modified retrospective method and recognized US$154.5 million of operating lease
right-of-use
assets (including the reclassification of deferred rent assets, prepaid rent, deferred rent liabilities and accrued rent to operating lease
right-of-use
assets) and US$170.8 million of operating lease liabilities as of January 1, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, operating lease
right-of-use
assets and operating lease liabilities were US$111.0 million and US$121.4 million, respectively.
(7)
We adopted the New Revenue Standard on January 1, 2018 under the modified retrospective method and recognized an increase to the opening balance of accumulated losses and noncontrolling interests of US$11.3 million and US$1.7 million, respectively, due to the cumulative effect of adopting the New Revenue Standard.
 
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The following events/transactions
affect the year-to-year comparability of
the selected financial data presented above:
 
   
In May 2016, we repurchased 155,000,000 ordinary shares (equivalent to 51,666,666 ADSs) from Crown Asia Investments Pty, Ltd. for the aggregate purchase price of US$800.8 million, and such shares were subsequently cancelled by us
 
   
On November 30, 2016 (December 1, 2016, Hong Kong time), we repaid the Studio City Project Facility (other than the HK$1.0 million rolled over into the term loan facility of the 2021 Studio City Senior Secured Credit Facility, which was entered into on November 23, 2016) as funded by the net proceeds from the offering of Studio City Company Notes issued by Studio City Company on November 30, 2016 and cash on hand
 
   
In May 2017, we issued and sold 27,769,248 ADSs (equivalent to 83,307,744 ordinary shares) and 81,995,799 ordinary shares and also repurchased 165,303,544 ordinary shares from Crown Asia Investments Pty, Ltd. for the aggregate purchase price of US$1.2 billion, and such repurchased shares were subsequently cancelled by us
 
   
On June 6, 2017, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$650.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Senior Notes
 
   
On June 14, 2017, together with the net proceeds from the issuance of US$650.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Senior Notes along with the proceeds in the amount of US$350.0 million from a partial drawdown of the revolving credit facility under the 2015 Credit Facilities and cash on hand, Melco Resorts Finance redeemed all of our outstanding 2021 Senior Notes
 
   
On July 3, 2017, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$350.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Senior Notes, the net proceeds from which were used to repay in full the US$350.0 million drawdown from the revolving credit facility under the 2015 Credit Facilities
 
   
On October 9, 2017, Melco Resorts Leisure partially redeemed the Philippine Notes in an aggregate principal amount of PHP7.5 billion, together with accrued interest
 
   
On June 15, 2018, Morpheus commenced operations with its grand opening on the same date
 
   
On August 31, 2018, Melco Resorts Leisure partially redeemed the Philippine Notes in an aggregate principal amount of PHP5.5 billion, together with accrued interest
 
   
In October 2018, SCI completed its initial public offering of 28,750,000 SC ADSs (equivalent to 115,000,000 Class A ordinary shares of SCI)
 
   
In November 2018, SCI completed the exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option in full to purchase an additional 4,312,500 SC ADSs from SCI
 
   
On December 13, 2018, MCO Investments completed its tender offer for the common shares of MRP and, together with an additional of 107,475,300 common shares of MRP acquired by MCO Investments on or after December 6, 2018, increased the Company’s equity interest in MRP from approximately 72.8% immediately prior to the announcement of the tender offer to approximately 97.9% on December 13, 2018
 
   
On December 28, 2018, Melco Resorts Leisure redeemed all of the Philippine Notes which remained outstanding
 
   
On December 31, 2018, Studio City Finance partially redeemed the 2020 Studio City Notes in an aggregate principal amount of US$400.0 million, together with accrued interest
 
   
On January 22, 2019, Studio City Finance commenced the 2020 Studio City Notes Tender Offer, which expired on February 4, 2019. The aggregate principal amount of valid tenders received and not validly withdrawn under the 2020 Studio City Notes Tender Offer amounted to US$216.5 million
 
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On February 11, 2019, Studio City Finance issued US$600.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 2024 Studio City Notes, the net proceeds of which were used to pay the tendering noteholders from the 2020 Studio City Notes Tender Offer and, on March 13, 2019, to redeem, together with accrued interest, all remaining outstanding amounts of the 2020 Studio City Notes
 
   
On April 26, 2019, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2026 Senior Notes, the net proceeds from which were used to partially repay the principal amount outstanding under the revolving credit facility under the 2015 Credit Facilities
 
   
On May 30, 2019, we agreed to purchase an approximately 19.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts from CPH Crown Holdings Pty Limited in two equal tranches under a definitive purchase agreement entered into on the same date. On June 6, 2019, we acquired the first tranche of an approximately 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts for which we paid the purchase price of AUD879.8 million (equivalent to approximately US$617.8 million based on the exchange rate on the transaction date). On February 6, 2020, we agreed with CPH Crown Holdings Pty Limited to terminate the obligation to purchase the second tranche of the remaining approximately 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts as originally contemplated under the definitive purchase agreement dated May 30, 2019 (as amended by an amendment agreement dated August 28, 2019)
 
   
On July 17, 2019, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$600.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2027 Senior Notes, the net proceeds from which were used to partially repay the principal amount outstanding under the revolving credit facility under the 2015 Credit Facilities
 
   
On July 31, 2019, we acquired a 75% equity interest in ICR Cyprus, whose subsidiaries are operating our temporary casino in Limassol and is licensed to operate four satellite casinos, as well as developing City of Dreams Mediterranean
 
   
On November 30, 2019, Studio City Company fully repaid the 2019 Studio City Company Notes upon its maturity with cash on hand
 
   
On December 4, 2019, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$900.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the First 2029 Senior Notes, the net proceeds from which were used to fully repay the principal amount outstanding under the revolving credit facility and to partially prepay the principal amount outstanding under the term loan facility under the 2015 Credit Facilities
 
   
On April 29, 2020, we sold all of our approximately 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts at the aggregate price of AUD551.6 million (equivalent to approximately US$359.1 million based on the exchange rate on the transaction date)
 
   
On April 29, 2020, our subsidiary, MCO Nominee One, as borrower, entered into the 2020 Credit Facilities pursuant to which the lenders have made available HK$14.85 billion (equivalent to US$1.92 billion) in a revolving credit facility for a term of five years
 
   
On May 6, 2020, MCO Nominee One drew down HK$2.73 billion (equivalent to US$352.2 million) under the 2020 Credit Facilities and, on May 7, 2020, we used a portion of the proceeds from such drawdown to repay all outstanding loan amounts under the 2015 Credit Facilities, together with accrued interest and associated costs, other than HK$1.0 million (equivalent to US$129,000) which remained outstanding under the term loan facility for the 2015 Credit Facilities. On May 7, 2020, following the repayment of outstanding amounts under the 2015 Credit Facilities, together with accrued interest and associated costs, a part of the revolving credit facility commitments under the 2015 Credit Facilities were canceled, following which the available revolving credit facility commitments under the 2015 Credit Facilities were HK$1.0 million (equivalent to US$129,000)
 
   
On July 15, 2020, Studio City Finance issued US$500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Studio City Notes and US$500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2028 Studio City Notes, from which a portion of the net proceeds were used to redeem in full by Studio City Company of the 2021 Studio City Company Notes
 
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On July 21, 2020, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$500.0 million in aggregate principal of the First 2028 Senior Notes, the net proceeds from which were used to repay the principal amount outstanding for the revolving credit facility under the 2020 Credit Facilities
 
   
On August 11, 2020, Melco Resorts Finance issued US$350.0 million in aggregate principal of the Additional 2028 Senior Notes
 
   
In relation to a series of private offers of its Class A ordinary shares announced by Studio City International Holdings Limited on July 7, 2020, or the Studio City Private Placements, Studio City International Holdings Limited completed a US$500 million private placement of shares. The net proceeds from this private placement was approximately US$499.2 million, of which US$291.2 million was from noncontrolling interests.
 
   
On September 23, 2020, MCO Nominee One drew down HK$1.94 billion (equivalent to US$249.9 million) under the 2020 Credit Facilities
Exchange Rate Information
The majority of our current revenues are denominated in H.K. dollars, whereas our current expenses are denominated predominantly in Patacas, H.K. dollars, the Philippine peso and Euros. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from H.K. dollars to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to H.K. dollars in this annual report
on Form 20-F were made
at a rate of HK$7.7528 to US$1.00.
The H.K. dollar is freely convertible into other currencies (including the U.S. dollar). Since October 17, 1983, the H.K. dollar has been officially linked to the U.S. dollar at the rate of HK$7.80 to US$1.00. The market exchange rate has not deviated materially from the level of HK$7.80 to US$1.00 since the peg was first established. However, in May 2005, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority broadened the trading band from the original rate of HK$7.80 per U.S. dollar to a rate range of HK$7.75 to HK$7.85 per U.S. dollar. The Hong Kong government has stated its intention to maintain the link at that rate and, acting through the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, has a number of means by which it may act to maintain exchange rate stability. However, no assurance can be given that the Hong Kong government will maintain the link at HK$7.75 to HK$7.85 per U.S. dollar or at all.
The noon buying rate on December 31, 2020 in New York City for cable transfers in H.K. dollars per U.S. dollars, provided in the H.10 weekly statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board of the United States as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, was HK$7.7534 to US$1.00. On March 19, 2021, the noon buying rate was HK$7.7646 to US$1.00. We make no representation that any H.K. dollar or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollar or H.K. dollar, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.
The Pataca is pegged to the H.K. dollar at a rate of HK$1.00 = MOP1.03. All translations from Patacas to U.S. dollars in this annual report
on Form 20-F were made
at the exchange rate of MOP7.9854 = US$1.00. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York does not certify for customs purposes a noon buying rate for cable transfers in Patacas. This annual report
on Form 20-F also contains
translations of certain Renminbi, New Taiwan dollars, the Philippine peso, Euro and Australian dollar amounts into U.S. dollars. Unless otherwise stated, all translations from Renminbi, New Taiwan dollars, Euros and Australian dollars to U.S. dollars in this annual report
on Form 20-F were made
at the noon buying rate on December 31, 2020 for cable transfers in RMB, New Taiwan dollars, Euros and Australian dollars per U.S. dollar, as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, which were RMB6.5250 to US$1.00, TWD28.0800 to US$1.00, EUR0.8177 to US$1.00 and AUD1.2972 to US$1.00, respectively. Unless otherwise stated, all conversions from the Philippine peso to U.S. dollars in this annual report
on Form 20-F were made
based on the volume weighted average exchange rate quoted through the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), which was PHP48.036 to US$1.00 on December 29, 2020.
 
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We make no representation that any RMB, TWD, PHP, EUR, AUD or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB or TWD or PHP or EUR or AUD, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. On March 19, 2021, the noon buying rate was RMB6.5070 to US$1.00, TWD28.4200 to US$1.00, EUR0.8397 to US$1.00 and AUD1.2910 to US$1.00. The exchange rate as of March 19, 2021 as provided by Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) was PHP48.673 US$1.00.
B. CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS
Not applicable.
C. REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Not applicable.
 
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D. RISK FACTORS
The following summarizes some, but not all, of the risks provided below. Please carefully consider all of the information discussed in this Item 3.D. “Risk Factors” in this annual report for a more thorough description of these and other risks.
You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information set forth in this annual report. Our business, financial condition and results of operations can be affected materially and adversely by any of the following risk factors.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations
 
   
Risks relating to the
COVID-19
pandemic and other epidemics and pandemics.
 
   
Risks relating to our significant projects in various phases of development, including construction risks.
 
   
Risks relating to generating a substantial portion of revenues and cash from Macau and Philippines.
 
   
Risks relating to operating in a highly regulated industry, including complying with regulatory requirements for and restrictions on the development of Studio City and City of Dreams Mediterranean.
 
   
Risks relating to regional political, social, economic and legal risks in the Macau, Philippines and Cyprus.
 
   
Risks relating to facing intense competition.
 
   
Risks relating to depending on the continued efforts of our senior management and retaining qualified personnel.
 
   
Risks relating to inadequate insurance coverage.
 
   
Risks relating to operating in the gaming industry, including risk of cheating and counterfeiting, inability to collect receivables from credit customers and dependence on gaming promoters for a portion of our gaming revenues.
 
   
Risks relating to mergers, acquisitions, strategic transactions and investments.
 
   
Risks relating to failure to comply with anti-corruption laws and anti-money laundering policies.
 
   
Risks relating to failure to protect the integrity and security of data, including customer information.
 
   
Risks relating to being delisted from the Nasdaq if the PCAOB continues to be unable to inspect our independent registered public accounting firm for three years.
Risks Relating to Operating in the Gaming Industry in Macau
 
   
Risks relating to the Melco Resorts Macau’s Subconcession Contract.
 
   
Risks relating to restrictions on export of Renminbi.
 
   
Risks relating to adverse changes or developments in gaming laws or other regulations in Macau.
 
   
Risks relating to limits on the maximum number of gaming tables in Macau.
Risks Related to Operating in the Gaming Industry in the Philippines
 
   
Risks related to tenancy relationships as the land and buildings comprising the site of City of Dreams Manila are leased.
 
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Risks relating to the regulatory requirements for and restrictions on the operation of City of Dreams Manila.
 
   
Risks relating to a suspension of VIP gaming operations at City of Dreams Manila under certain circumstances.
Risks Relating to Operating in the Gaming Industry in Cyprus
 
   
Risks relating to the continued partnership and cooperation of The Cyprus Phassouri (Zakaki) Limited for the operation of our Cyprus casinos.
 
   
Risks relating to the regulatory requirements for and restrictions on our operations in Cyprus and the development of City of Dreams Mediterranean.
Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Ownership
 
   
Risks relating to the substantial influence our controlling shareholder has over us.
 
   
Risks relating to competing with Melco International on casino projects.
Risks Relating to Our Financing and Indebtedness
 
   
Risks relating to our current, project and potential future indebtedness and our need for additional financing.
 
   
Risks relating to the inability to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our debt service obligations.
 
   
Risks relating to compliance with credit facilities and debt instruments.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations
The
COVID-19
pandemic has had, and will likely to continue to have, a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In December 2019, an outbreak of
COVID-19
was identified and has since spread around the world. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the
COVID-19
outbreak a global pandemic. Many governments around the world have implemented a variety of measures to reduce the spread of
COVID-19,
including travel restrictions and bans, instructions to residents to practice social distancing, quarantine advisories,
shelter-in-place
orders and required closures of
non-essential
businesses. The
COVID-19
pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets.
As a result of the
COVID-19
outbreak, the PRC government suspended the issuance of group and individual travel visas from China to Macau and the Hong Kong SAR government suspended all ferry and helicopter services between Hong Kong and Macau. In addition, the Macau government required all casinos in Macau to be closed for a
15-day
period in February 2020. Upon resumption of operations in February 2020, casinos in Macau were required to implement health-related precautionary measures, including temperature checks, mask protection, health declarations and requirements that gaming patrons be stopped from congregating together, that the number of players and spectators at tables be limited to three to four, that gaming patrons be prohibited from sitting in adjacent seats at gaming tables and that gaming patrons and casino employees maintain minimum physical distances.
Quarantine-free travel, subject to
COVID-19
safeguards such as testing and the usual visa requirements, was reintroduced between Macau and an increasing number of areas and cities within the PRC in progressive phases from June to August 2020, commencing with an area in Guangdong Province, which is
 
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adjacent to Macau, and expanding to additional areas and major cities within Guangdong Province, followed by most other areas of the PRC. On September 23, 2020, mainland China authorities fully resumed the IVS exit visa program, which permits individual PRC citizens from nearly 50 PRC cities to travel to Macau for tourism purposes. On December 21, 2020, the Macau government announced that generally, individuals who have been to countries and regions other than mainland China and Taiwan in the preceding 21 days are required to undergo a mandatory
21-day
quarantine upon entry into Macau from mainland China, Taiwan or Hong Kong. While certain travel restrictions have eased, health-related precautionary measures remain in place and customers were only recently permitted to enter casino premises in Macau without a negative nucleic acid test certificate. In addition, foreigners continue to be unable to enter Macau, except if they have been in mainland China in the preceding 21 days and are eligible for an exemption application.
According to the DSEC, visitor arrivals to Macau decreased by 85.0% on a year-over-year basis in 2020 as compared to 2019 while, according to the DICJ, gross gaming revenues in Macau declined by 79.3% on a year-over-year basis in 2020. As we derive a significant majority of our revenues from our business and operations in Macau, our business has been materially and adversely affected by the
COVID-19
pandemic.
In the Philippines, in February 2020, the Philippine government announced restrictions on inbound travel from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan as a measure to control the
COVID-19
outbreak. Subsequently, on March 16, 2020, the country, including Metro Manila, was placed under enhanced community quarantine with severe measures imposed including strict home quarantine, suspension of land, domestic air and domestic sea travel, limitation on inbound travel from other countries, prohibition of mass gatherings and suspension of work at various
non-essential
government offices and private offices. PAGCOR likewise ordered the suspension of all casinos and other gaming operations in Metro Manila, which includes City of Dreams Manila, for the duration of the enhanced community quarantine and, as a further attempt to restrict inbound tourists, the Philippine government has temporarily suspended the issuance of new visas and certain visa-free entries into the country from March 2020. Eventually, Metro Manila was placed under modified enhanced community quarantine in May 2020. In June 2020, the community quarantine in Metro Manila was further downgraded to general community quarantine thereby prompting PAGCOR to allow casinos to conduct dry run gaming operations at a limited operational capacity. However, PAGCOR again ordered the closure of casinos when Metro Manila was placed under modified enhanced community quarantine in August 2020 and only allowed the resumption of the casinos’ dry run gaming operations when Metro Manila reverted to general community quarantine on August 19, 2020. The general community quarantine in Metro Manila was originally extended to until March 31, 2021. During the general community quarantine period, other than the closure in August 2020, City of Dreams Manila’s casino has been open since June 19, 2020, allowing a limited capacity of players and guests. Subject to certain restrictions imposed by the Philippine Department of Tourism, our three hotels at City of Dreams Manila also resumed limited operations commencing from around October 2020 and certain of the dining establishments at City of Dreams Manila also resumed operations at a limited operational capacity during the last quarter of 2020. However, on March 27, 2021, the Philippine Government re-imposed the enhanced community quarantine over Metro Manila and adjacent provinces from March 29, 2021 to April 4, 2021 to stem the recent surge of COVID-19 cases. Under the enhanced community quarantine, additional restrictions were introduced that included prohibitions of mass gatherings, restrictions of movements of persons aged above 65 and under 18 and the imposition of a curfew from 6 p.m. to 5 a.m. City of Dreams Manila also temporarily closed beginning on March 29, 2021, and will remain closed for the duration of the enhanced community quarantine period. Such measures have had, and will likely continue to have, a material adverse effect on the business and operations of City of Dreams Manila.
In Cyprus, with outbreaks of
COVID-19
occurring throughout Europe, following an earlier decree given by the Minister of Health of Cyprus on March 10, 2020 that prohibited more than 75 people from gathering in the same indoor area until March 31, 2020, on March 15, 2020 and thereafter, the Cyprus government announced a series of measures designed to contain the spread of
COVID-19
that included closures of private businesses such as shopping malls, department stores, restaurants, cafes, nightclubs, cinemas, museum, sports venues and our casino operations in Cyprus for four weeks with effect from March 16, 2020, suspension of all
 
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hotel operations from March 22, 2020 to June 8, 2020, restrictions on inbound travel into Cyprus that included the suspension of all passenger flights into Cyprus from March 12, to June 8, 2020 and further restrictions on
non-essential
social and business activities from March 24, 2020 to May 3, 2020 that included suspension of most construction work within the country, including construction work at our City of Dreams Mediterranean project. During the first lockdown in Cyprus that began in March 2020, various restrictions were later extended until June that included the suspension of our casino operations in Cyprus until June 13, 2020. While there were some relaxation to the inbound flight restrictions during the summer period, restrictions remain in place for travelers coming from certain high-risk countries and certain travelers may be required to undergo
14-day
self-isolation upon arrival in Cyprus or subject to other requirements. Commencing from October 23, 2020, the cities of Limassol and Paphos became subject to a 11 p.m. to 5 a.m. curfew and our operations in those cities were required to be closed during those hours while the curfew remained in place. On November 12, 2020, as part of a regional lockdown, our casino operations in Limassol and Paphos were suspended until November 30, 2020 and thereafter, the government of Cyprus announced nationwide measures from November 30, 2020 to December 31, 2020, in an effort to prevent the spread of
COVID-19
which included, among others, curfew, restrictions on gatherings, sports, food and beverages and retail businesses and closure of various other businesses, including our casino operations in Cyprus. Our operations in Cyprus are currently closed and will remain closed while such measures remain in place. Such measures have had, and will likely continue to have, a material adverse effect on the business and operations of our Cyprus properties.
The
COVID-19
pandemic has also caused severe disruptions to the businesses of our tenants and other business partners, which may increase the risk of them defaulting on their contractual obligations with us resulting in potential increases in our bad debts.
As the impact from
the COVID-19 pandemic
is ongoing, any recovery from such disruptions will depend on future events, such as the successful production, distribution and widespread acceptance of safe and effective vaccines; the development of effective treatments
for COVID-19; the
duration of travel and visa restrictions, and customer sentiment and behavior (including the length of time before customers resume travel and participation in entertainment and leisure activities at high-density venues and the impact of potential higher unemployment rates, declines in income levels and loss of personal wealth resulting from the
COVID-19
pandemic on consumer behavior related to discretionary spending and traveling), all of which are highly uncertain. While
COVID-19
vaccines have been approved in various countries, the production, distribution and administration of any such vaccines on a widespread basis may take a significant amount of time, and there can be no assurances as to the long-term safety and efficacy of such vaccines or if the current vaccines will be effective against new strains of the coronavirus that causes
COVID-19.
Moreover, even if the
COVID-19
pandemic subsides, there is no guarantee that travel and consumer sentiment will rebound quickly or at all.
The disruptions to our business caused by the
COVID-19
pandemic have had a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and as such disruptions are ongoing, such material and adverse effects will likely continue.
Our operating history may not serve as an adequate basis to judge our future operating results and prospects. We have significant projects in various phases of development and therefore are subject to significant risks and uncertainties.
Our business operating history is shorter than some of our competitors and therefore may not serve as an adequate basis for your evaluation of our business and prospects. City of Dreams commenced operations in June 2009 and Morpheus, the third phase of City of Dreams, opened in June 2018. In addition, City of Dreams Manila commenced operations in December 2014 and Studio City commenced operations in October 2015. We also operate a temporary casino in Limassol and three satellite casinos in Nicosia, Ayia Napa and Paphos and are developing City of Dreams Mediterranean in Cyprus, a project in which we acquired a 75% equity interest in July 2019. Furthermore, we have significant projects, such as the remaining development of the land on which Studio City is located and City of Dreams Mediterranean in Cyprus as described above, both of which are in various phases of design or development.
 
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We face certain risks, expenses and challenges in operating gaming businesses in intensely competitive markets. Some of the risks relate to our ability to:
 
   
fulfill conditions precedent to draw down or roll over funds from current and future credit facilities;
 
   
respond to economic uncertainties, including the higher prospect of a global recession and a contraction of liquidity in the global credit markets as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
comply with covenants under our existing and future debt issuances and credit facilities;
 
   
raise additional capital, as required;
 
   
respond to changing financing requirements;
 
   
operate, support, expand and develop our operations and our facilities;
 
   
attract and retain customers and qualified employees;
 
   
maintain effective control of our operating costs and expenses;
 
   
maintain internal personnel, systems, controls and procedures to assure compliance with the extensive regulatory requirements applicable to the gaming business as well as regulatory compliance as a public company;
 
   
respond to competitive and/or deteriorating market conditions;
 
   
respond to changes in our regulatory environment and government policies; and
 
   
renew or extend leases or right to use agreements for existing Mocha Clubs or identify suitable locations and enter into new leases or right to use agreements for new Mocha Clubs or existing Mocha Clubs which we may relocate.
If we are unable to complete any of these tasks or successfully manage one or more of the risks, we may be unable to operate our businesses in the manner we contemplate and generate revenues from such projects in the amounts and by the times we anticipate. We may also be unable to meet the conditions to draw on our existing or future financing facilities in order to fund various activities, which may result in a default under our existing or future financing facilities. If any of these events were to occur, it would cause a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We generate a substantial portion of our cash flow from our properties in Macau and the Philippines and, as a result, we are subject to greater risks than a gaming company which operates in more geographical regions.
We are a parent company with limited business operations of our own. We conduct most of our business operations through our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Our primary sources of cash are dividends and distributions with respect to our ownership interests in our subsidiaries that are derived from the earnings and cash flow generated by our operating properties.
While we commenced operation of our temporary casino and satellite casinos in Cyprus, we primarily depend on our properties in Macau and City of Dreams Manila for our cash flow. Given that our operations are and will be primarily conducted based on our principal properties in Macau and one property in Manila prior to the opening of City of Dreams Mediterranean, we are and will be subject to greater risks resulting from limited diversification of our businesses and sources of revenues as compared to gaming companies with more operating properties in various geographic regions. These risks include, but are not limited to:
 
   
dependence on the gaming, tourism and leisure market in Macau and the Philippines;
 
   
limited diversification of businesses and sources of revenues;
 
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a decline in air, land or ferry passenger traffic to Macau or the Philippines from China or other areas or countries due to higher ticket costs, fears concerning travel, travel restrictions or otherwise, including as a result of the outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, such as the outbreak of
COVID-19,
or any social unrest in Hong Kong;
 
   
a decline in economic and political conditions in Macau, China, the Philippines or Asia, or an increase in competition within the gaming industry in Macau, the Philippines or generally in Asia;
 
   
inaccessibility to Macau or the Philippines due to inclement weather, road construction or closure of primary access routes;
 
   
austerity measures imposed now or in the future by the governments in China or other countries in Asia;
 
   
tightened control of cross-border fund transfers and/or foreign exchange regulations or policies effected by the Chinese, Macau and/or Philippine governments;
 
   
changes in Macau, China and Philippine laws and regulations, including gaming laws and regulations, anti-smoking legislation, or interpretations thereof, as well as China travel and visa policies;
 
   
any enforcement or legal measures taken by the Chinese government to deter gaming activities and/or marketing thereof;
 
   
natural and other disasters, including typhoons, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, outbreaks of infectious diseases, terrorism, violent criminal activities or disruption affecting Macau or the Philippines;
 
   
lower than expected rate of increase or decrease in the number of visitors to Macau or the Philippines;
 
   
relaxation of regulations on gaming laws in other regional economies that could compete with the Macau and the Philippine markets;
 
   
government restrictions on growth of gaming markets, including policies on gaming table allocation and caps; and
 
   
a decrease in gaming activities and other spending at our properties.
Any of these developments or events could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
All our current and future construction projects are and will be subject to significant development and construction risks, which could have a material adverse impact on related project timetables, costs and our ability to complete the projects.
All our current and future construction projects are and will be subject to a number of risks, including:
 
   
changes to plans and specifications;
 
   
engineering problems, including defective plans and specifications;
 
   
disruptions to key supply markets, including shortages of, and price increases in, energy, materials and skilled and unskilled labor, and inflation, including any disruptions resulting from the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
delays in obtaining or inability to obtain necessary permits, licenses and approvals;
 
   
lack of sufficient, or delays in availability of, financing;
 
   
changes in laws and regulations, or in the interpretation and enforcement of laws and regulations, applicable to gaming, leisure, residential, real estate development or construction projects;
 
   
labor disputes or work stoppages;
 
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shortage of qualified contractors and suppliers or inability to enter into definitive contracts with contractors with sufficient skills, financial resources and experience on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;
 
   
disputes with, and defaults by, contractors and subcontractors and other counter-parties;
 
   
personal injuries to workers and other persons;
 
   
environmental, health and safety issues, including site accidents and the spread or outbreak of infectious diseases, such as the ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
weather interferences or delays;
 
   
fires, typhoons and other natural disasters;
 
   
geological, construction, excavation, regulatory and equipment problems; and
 
   
other unanticipated circumstances or cost increases.
The occurrence of any of these events could increase the total costs, delay or prevent the construction or opening or otherwise affect the design and features of any existing or future construction projects which we might undertake. We cannot guarantee that our construction costs or total project costs for existing or future projects will not increase beyond amounts initially budgeted.
We could encounter substantial cost increases or delays in the development of our projects, which could prevent or delay the opening of such projects.
We have certain projects under development or intended to be developed pursuant to our expansion plan. The completion of these projects is subject to a number of contingencies, including adverse developments in applicable legislation, delays or failures in obtaining necessary government licenses, permits or approvals, disruptions to key supply markets, including shortages of, and price increases in energy, materials and skilled and unskilled labor, and inflation, including any disruptions resulting from the
COVID-19
outbreak. The occurrence of any of these developments could increase the total costs or delay or prevent the construction or opening of new projects, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, construction work at our City of Dreams Mediterranean project was suspended from March 24, 2020 to May 3, 2020 as required by the Cyprus government under the restrictions imposed to restrict
non-essential
business activities due to the
COVID-19
outbreak. We may also require additional financing to develop our projects. Our ability to obtain such financing depends on a number of factors beyond our control, including market conditions such as the higher prospect of a global recession and a contraction of liquidity in the global credit markets caused by the effect of the large-scale global
COVID-19
pandemic, investors’ and lenders’ perceptions of, and demand for, debt and equity securities of gaming companies and interest rates. In particular, the development of the City of Dreams Mediterranean project is still ongoing and in the early stages and therefore still requires significant additional capital investments. See
 “
Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Operating in the Gaming Industry in Cyprus — Our operations in Cyprus, particularly the development of City of Dreams Mediterranean, face significant risks and uncertainties which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations” for a discussion of the risks relating to the financing of the development of the City of Dreams Mediterranean project.
There is no assurance that the actual construction costs related to our projects will not exceed the costs we have projected and budgeted. In addition, construction costs, particularly labor costs, are increasing in Macau and in Cyprus, where we are developing the remaining project for Studio City in Macau and City of Dreams Mediterranean in Cyprus, respectively, and we believe that they are likely to continue to increase due to the significant building activity and the ongoing labor shortage in Macau and the increase in building activity and labor shortage in Cyprus, respectively. In addition, immigration and labor regulations as well as travel restrictions imposed as a result of the
COVID-19
outbreak in Macau or China may limit or restrict our
 
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contractors’ ability to obtain sufficient laborers from China to make up for any shortages in available labor in Macau and help reduce construction costs and in the case for Cyprus, our contractors may have to make up for any shortages in available labor from other European countries which could increase our labor costs and which may also be impacted by the travel restrictions imposed as a result of the
COVID-19
outbreak. Continuing increases in construction costs in Macau and Cyprus will increase the risk that construction will not be completed on time, within budget or at all, which could materially and adversely affect our business, cash flow, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Construction is subject to hazards that may cause personal injury or loss of life, thereby subjecting us to liabilities and possible losses, which may not be covered by insurance.
The construction of large-scale properties, including the types of projects we are or may be involved in, can be dangerous. Construction workers at such sites are subject to hazards that may cause personal injury or loss of life, thereby subjecting the contractors and us to liabilities, possible losses, delays in completion of the projects and negative publicity. We believe, and require, our contractors take safety precautions that are consistent with industry practice, but these safety precautions may not be adequate to prevent serious personal injuries or loss of life, damage to property or delays. If accidents occur during the construction of any of our projects, we may be subject to delays, including delays imposed by regulators, liabilities and possible losses, which may not be covered by insurance, and our business, prospects and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.
We are developing the remaining project for Studio City under the terms of a land concession which currently require us to fully develop the land on which Studio City is located by May 31, 2022. Any extension of the development period is subject to Macau government review and approval at its discretion. In the event of any failure to complete the remaining project, we could be forced to forfeit all or part of our investment in Studio City, along with our interest in the land on which Studio City is located and the building and structures on such land.
Land concessions in Macau are issued by the Macau government and generally have terms of 25 years and are renewable for further consecutive periods of ten years. Land concessions further stipulate a period within which the development of the land must be completed. In accordance with the Studio City land concession and the extension granted by the Macau government, the land on which Studio City is located must be fully developed by May 31, 2022.
While we opened Studio City in October 2015, development for the remaining land of Studio City is still ongoing. Although we have already made significant capital investments for the development for the remaining land of Studio City, we expect to require significant additional capital investments to complete the development. As of December 31, 2020, we had incurred approximately US$256.2 million aggregate costs relating to the development of our remaining project, primarily related to the initial design and planning costs and construction costs. Based on our current plan for the remaining project, we currently expect a project budget of approximately US$1.25 billion to US$1.30 billion for the development of the remaining project (exclusive of any
pre-opening
costs and financing costs). Such development for the remaining project of Studio City may be funded through various sources, including cash on hand, operating free cash flow as well as debt and/or equity financing. Our ability to obtain any debt financing also depends on a number of factors beyond our control, including market conditions such as the higher prospect of a global recession and fear for a contraction of liquidity in the global credit markets caused by the effect of the large-scale global
COVID-19
pandemic and lenders’ perceptions of, and demand for the debt financing for, the remaining project of Studio City. There is no guarantee that we can secure the necessary additional capital investments, including any debt financing, required for the development of the remaining project of Studio City in a timely manner or at all.
There is also no guarantee that we will complete the development of the remaining land of Studio City by the deadline. With the disruptions from the
COVID-19
outbreak, the construction period has been delayed and is expected to extend beyond the estimated approximately 32 months and the current development period. The
 
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extension of the development period of the remaining project for Studio City is subject to Macau government review and approval at its discretion. While the Macau government may grant extensions if we meet certain legal requirements, there can be no assurance that the Macau government will grant us the necessary extension of the development period or not exercise its rights to terminate the Studio City land concession. In the event that no further extension is granted or the Studio City land concession is terminated, we could lose all or substantially all of our investment in Studio City, including our interest in the land and building and may not be able to continue to operate Studio City as planned, which will materially and adversely affect our business and prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
We are developing the City of Dreams Mediterranean project in Cyprus and we are required under the Cyprus License to open the integrated casino resort by September 30, 2022. If we do not open City of Dreams Mediterranean by that time and the government of Cyprus does not grant us an extension of the opening date, we would be required to pay a penalty to the Cyprus government or even have the Cyprus License terminated if such delay continues beyond a grace period.
Our subsidiary, Integrated Casino Resorts, was granted the Cyprus License by the government of Cyprus on June 26, 2017 to develop, operate and maintain an integrated casino resort in Limassol, Cyprus (and until the operation of such integrated casino resort, the operation of a temporary casino in Limassol) and up to four satellite casino premises in Cyprus, for a term of 30 years from the date of grant and with the right for exclusivity in Cyprus for the first 15 years of the term. Following the extension granted by the government of Cyprus, the Cyprus License currently requires us to open the integrated casino resort in Limassol, namely City of Dreams Mediterranean, by September 30, 2022, and if we fail to meet such timeline, Integrated Casino Resorts is required to pay the government of Cyprus EUR10,000 (equivalent to approximately US$12,229) for each day of delay and up to a maximum of EUR1.0 million (equivalent to approximately US$1.2 million). If such delay continues for 100 business days, the government of Cyprus has the right to terminate the Cyprus License immediately without any obligation to offer any compensation to us. The development of City of Dreams Mediterranean is still ongoing and there is no guarantee that we will complete the development of the City of Dreams Mediterranean project and open by the deadline. The
COVID-19
outbreak has also caused significant disruptions to the construction work at City of Dreams Mediterranean. For example, construction work at City of Dreams Mediterranean was suspended from March 24, 2020 to May 3, 2020 as required by the Cyprus government under the restrictions imposed to restrict
non-essential
business activities due to the
COVID-19
outbreak. There is no assurance that the Cyprus government will not impose additional restrictions due to the
COVID-19
outbreak, which could cause further significant disruptions to the construction work at City of Dreams Mediterranean. Prior to the
COVID-19
outbreak, we estimated that City of Dreams Mediterranean would open at the end of 2021. With the disruptions from the
COVID-19
outbreak, we have applied for, and the government of Cyprus has granted, an extension of the relevant period to September 30, 2022. If the scheduled opening date of City of Dreams Mediterranean is further delayed and extended beyond the current estimated date, we will have to apply for a further extension of the relevant period. Any application for an extension of the relevant period shall be subject to the review and approval of the government of Cyprus at its discretion and there can be no assurance that the government of Cyprus will grant us any necessary extension or not exercise its right to terminate the Cyprus License in the circumstances highlighted above. In the event that no further extension is granted by the government of Cyprus and the Cyprus License is terminated, we could lose all or substantially all of our investment in Cyprus and may not be able to continue to operate our operations in Cyprus as planned, which will materially and adversely affect our business and prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
Inadequate transportation infrastructure in the Philippines, Macau or Cyprus may hinder increases in visitation to the Philippines, Macau or Cyprus.
City of Dreams Manila is located within Entertainment City, a controlled development in the City of Paranaque. Other than Solaire and Okada Manila, there are currently no other integrated tourism resorts which have begun operations in Entertainment City. It is unlikely that Manila’s existing transportation infrastructure is
 
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capable of handling the increased number of tourist arrivals that may be necessary to support visitor traffic to large scale integrated resorts within Entertainment City, such as City of Dreams Manila. Although the NAIA Expressway and the newly constructed Skyway
Stage-3
Expressway helped alleviate the traffic congestion within the area surrounding Entertainment City and the Philippine government continues to examine viable alternatives to ease traffic congestion in Manila, there is no guarantee that these measures will succeed, or that they will sufficiently eliminate the traffic problem or other deficiencies in Manila’s transportation infrastructure. Traffic congestion and other problems in Manila’s transportation infrastructure could adversely affect the tourism industry in the Philippines and reduce the number of potential visitors to City of Dreams Manila, which could, in turn, adversely affect our business and prospects, financial condition and results of our operations.
Macau consists of a peninsula and two islands and is connected to China by two border crossings. Macau has an international airport and connections to China and Hong Kong by road, ferry and helicopter. To support Macau’s planned future development as a gaming and leisure destination, the frequency of bus, car, air and ferry services to Macau will need to increase. While various projects are under development to improve Macau’s internal and external transportation links, including the Macau Light Rapid Transit and capacity expansion of border crossings, these projects may not be approved, financed or constructed in time to handle the projected increase in demand for transportation or at all, which could impede the expected increase in visitation to Macau and adversely affect our projects in Macau. For example, there has been a delay in the commencement of operation of the Macau Light Rapid Transit, which occurred in December 2019. Any further delays or termination of Macau’s transportation infrastructure projects may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Furthermore, the expected benefits from the completion of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, which opened to traffic on October 23, 2018, may not fully materialize, and may not result in significantly increased traffic to Macau and to our Macau properties.
Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Cyprus has two international airports with flights to other European countries as well as outside of Europe such as Russia, the Middle East and Africa. Cyprus existing transportation infrastructure may be incapable of handling the increased number of tourist arrivals that may be necessary to support visitor traffic to our temporary casino in Limassol and three satellite casinos in Nicosia, Ayia Napa and Paphos or City of Dreams Mediterranean (which is currently under development). There is no guarantee that any measures taken by the government of Cyprus will successfully increase air traffic into Cyprus or sufficiently eliminate the traffic problem or other deficiencies in Cyprus’ transportation infrastructure.
Our business in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus is subject to certain regional and global political, social and economic risks, as well as natural disasters, that may significantly affect visitation to our properties and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The strength and profitability of our business will depend on consumer demand for integrated resorts and leisure travel in general. Terrorist and violent criminal activities in Europe, the United States, Southeast Asia and elsewhere, military conflicts in the Middle East, social events, natural disasters such as typhoons, tsunamis and earthquakes, and outbreaks of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, including the
COVID-19
outbreak, have and may continue to negatively affect travel and leisure expenditures, including lodging, gaming and tourism. We cannot predict the extent to which such acts or events may affect us, directly or indirectly, in the future. See also “— The
COVID-19
pandemic has had, and will likely to continue to have, a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations” and “— An outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, contagious disease or other outbreaks may have an adverse effect on the economies of affected countries or regions and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.” We derive a significant majority of our revenues from our Macau business
and a significant number of our customers come from, and are expected to continue to come from, mainland China. Accordingly, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected by
 
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significant political, social and economic developments in Macau and China and our business is sensitive to the willingness of our customers to travel. In particular, our operating results may be adversely affected by:
 
   
changes in Macau’s and China’s political, economic and social conditions, including any slowdown in economic growth in China;
 
   
tightening of travel or visa restrictions to Macau or from China, including due to the outbreak of infectious disease, such as the
COVID-19
outbreak, or austerity measures which may be imposed by the Chinese government;
 
   
measures that may be introduced to control inflation, such as interest rate increases or bank account withdrawal controls; and
 
   
changes in the tax laws and regulations.
For example, our business and operations are affected by the travel or visa restrictions imposed by China on its citizens from time to time. Even before the
COVID-19
outbreak, the Chinese government imposed restrictions on exit visas granted to resident citizens of mainland China for travel to Macau. The government further restricts the number of days that resident citizens of mainland China may spend in Macau for certain types of travel. Such travel and visa restrictions, and any changes imposed by the Chinese government from time to time, could disrupt the number of visitors from mainland China to our properties.
Our operations in Macau are also exposed to the risk of changes in laws and policies that govern operations of Macau-based companies. Tax laws and regulations may also be subject to amendment or different interpretation and implementation, thereby adversely affecting our profitability after tax. Further, certain terms of our gaming subconcession may be subject to renegotiations with the Macau government in the future, including amounts we will be obligated to pay the Macau government in order to continue operations. The results of any renegotiations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the demand for gaming activities and related services and luxury amenities that we provide through our operations is dependent on discretionary consumer spending and, as with other forms of entertainment, is susceptible to downturns in global and regional economic conditions. An economic downturn may reduce consumers’ willingness to travel and reduce their spending overseas, which would adversely impact us as we depend on visitors from mainland China and other countries to generate a substantial portion of our revenues. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences could be driven by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions, high energy and food prices, the increased cost of travel, weak segments of the job market, perceived or actual disposable consumer income and wealth, fears of recession and changes in consumer confidence in the economy or fears of armed conflict or future acts of terrorism. An extended period of reduced discretionary spending and/or disruptions or declines in airline travel could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by any changes in China’s economy, including the decrease in the pace of economic growth. A number of measures taken by the Chinese government in recent years to control the rate of economic growth, including those designed to tighten credit and liquidity, have contributed to a slowdown of China’s economy. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China’s GDP growth rate was 2.3% in 2020, which was much lower than the 6.0% in 2019. Any slowdown in China’s future growth may have an adverse impact on financial markets, currency exchange rates and other economies, as well as the spending of visitors in Macau and our properties. There is no guarantee that economic downturns, whether actual or perceived, any further decrease in economic growth rates or an otherwise uncertain economic outlook in China will not occur or persist in the future, that they will not be protracted or that governments will respond adequately to control and reverse such conditions, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
City of Dreams Manila is located in the Philippines and is subject to certain economic, political and social risks within the Philippines. The Philippines has in the past experienced severe political and social
 
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instability, including acts of political violence and terrorism. Any future political or social instability in the Philippines could adversely affect the business operations and financial conditions of City of Dreams Manila. In addition, changes in the policies of the government or laws or regulations, or in the interpretation or enforcement of these laws and regulations, such as anti-smoking policies or legislation, may negatively impact consumption patterns of visitors to City of Dreams Manila and could adversely affect our business operations and financial condition.
In addition, demand for, and the prices of, gaming and entertainment products are directly influenced by economic conditions in the Philippines, including growth levels, interest rates, inflation, levels of business activity and consumption, and the amount of remittances received from overseas Filipino workers. Any deterioration in economic and political conditions in the Philippines or elsewhere in Asia could materially and adversely affect our Company’s business in the Philippines, as well as the prospects, financial condition and results of our operations in the Philippines.
Our business in the Philippines will also depend significantly on revenues from foreign visitors and be affected by the development of Manila and the Philippines as a tourist and gaming destination. Such revenues from foreign visitors and development of Manila and the Philippines may be disrupted by events that reduce foreigners’ willingness to travel to or create substantial disruption in Metro Manila and raise substantial concerns about visitors’ personal safety, such as power outages, civil disturbances, terrorist attacks and outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, among others. The Philippines has also experienced a significant number of major catastrophes over the years, including typhoons, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, which have caused road closures and work stoppages in the affected areas as well as cancellation of flights. We cannot predict the extent to which our business in the Philippines and tourism in Metro Manila in general will be affected by any of the above occurrences or fears that such occurrences will take place. We cannot guarantee that any disruption to our Philippine operations will not be protracted, that City of Dreams Manila will not suffer any damages and that any such damage will be completely covered by insurance or at all. Should the Philippines fail to continue to develop as a tourist destination or should Entertainment City or Manila fail to become a widely recognized regional gaming destination, City of Dreams Manila may fail to attract a sufficient number of visitors, which would cause a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Any of these occurrences may disrupt our operations in the Philippines.
The subtropical climate and location of both Macau and the Philippines render them susceptible to typhoons, heavy rainstorms and other natural disasters, while Cyprus is also susceptible to heavy rainstorms and other natural disasters. In the event of a major typhoon, such as Typhoon Hato and Typhoon Mangkhut in Macau in August 2017 and September 2018, respectively, or other natural disasters in Macau or the Philippines, our properties may be severely damaged, our operations may be materially and adversely affected and our properties may even be required to temporarily cease operations by regulatory authorities. Any flooding, unscheduled interruption in the technology or transportation services or interruption in the supply of public utilities is likely to result in an immediate and possibly substantial loss of revenues due to a shutdown of any of our properties and material adverse effect on our business operations and financial condition.
Our operations in Cyprus are subject to certain economic, political and social risks within Cyprus, particularly in the occupied part of Cyprus. There are ongoing political, social and economic issues in Cyprus relating to the division of the island following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, with the occupied part of Cyprus controlled by Turkey and its military. These issues have recently been escalated due to the discovery and exploration of natural gas in the Cyprus’ economic zones as well as in the economic zones around Cyprus. Turkey has unilaterally created its own economic zones overlapping the Cyprus’ ones and has initiated exploratory drilling in the area. Any future political or social instability in Cyprus could adversely affect the business operations and financial conditions of our casinos in Cyprus, as well as the development of City of Dreams Mediterranean. In addition, changes in government policies, laws or regulations, or in the interpretation or enforcement of these laws and regulations, may negatively impact consumption patterns of visitors to our facilities in Cyprus and could adversely affect our business operations and financial condition. On the economic
 
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front, Cyprus has suffered badly from a financial crisis in 2013 caused partly by the wider European sovereign debt crisis since 2011. Although Cyprus has emerged from the financial crisis relatively fast after a few years of recession, its relatively small and open economy means it remains susceptible to rapid changes in economic conditions in the neighboring regions or globally.
In addition, the global macroeconomic environment is facing significant challenges, including the higher prospect of a global recession caused by the effect of a large-scale global
COVID-19
pandemic, and dampened business sentiment and outlook. These events have also caused significant declines as well as volatility in global equity and debt capital markets, further elevating the risk of an extended global economic downturn or even a global recession that could in turn trigger a severe contraction of liquidity in the global credit markets. Even prior to these events, the global economy was facing the end of quantitative easing by the U.S. Federal Reserve, the continuation of international trade conflicts, including the trade disputes between the United States and China and the potential further escalation of trade tariffs and related retaliatory measures between these two countries and globally. There is considerable uncertainty over the impact and duration of the
COVID-19
outbreak on the global macroeconomic environment. In addition, tensions between the United States and China have continued to escalate in 2020 in connection with ongoing trade disputes as well as other political factors, including the
COVID-19
outbreak and the status of Hong Kong.
Continued rising political tensions could reduce levels of trade, investment, technological exchanges and other economic activities between the two major economies, which would have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets. The introduction of the National Security Law for Hong Kong and the U.S. State Department’s statements in reaction to it has resulted in a further deterioration in the
Sino-U.S.
bilateral relationship, which could negatively affect the Chinese economy and its demand for gaming and leisure activities.
In addition, other factors affecting discretionary consumer spending, including amounts of disposable consumer income, fears of recession, lack of consumer confidence in the economy, change in consumer preferences, high energy, fuel and other commodity costs and increased cost of travel may negatively impact our business. An extended period of reduced discretionary spending and/or disruptions or declines in airline travel could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China, remains. There have been concerns over conflicts, unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa, including between the United States and Iran, which have resulted in volatility in oil and other markets, and over the conflicts involving Ukraine and Syria and potential conflicts involving the Korean peninsula. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global economy or increase in international trade or political conflicts may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access capital markets to meet liquidity needs.
Policies, campaigns and measures adopted by the PRC and/or Macau governments from time to time could materially and adversely affect our operations.
A significant number of the customers of our properties come from, and are expected to continue to come from, China. Any travel restrictions imposed by China could negatively affect the number of patrons visiting our properties from China.
Since mid-2003, under
the Individual Visit Scheme, or IVS, Chinese citizens from certain cities have been able to travel to Macau individually instead of as part of a tour group. The Chinese government has in the past restricted and loosened IVS travel frequently and may continue to do so from time to time and it is unclear whether such measures will become more restrictive in the future. A decrease in the number of visitors from China would adversely affect our results of operations. See also “—An outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, contagious disease or other outbreaks may have an adverse effect on the
 
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economies of affected countries or regions and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations” for a discussion of how the
COVID-19
outbreak has affected the policies and measures adopted by the PRC and Macau governments.
In addition, certain policies and campaigns implemented by the Chinese government may lead to a decline in the number of patrons visiting our properties in Macau and the amount of spending by such patrons. The strength and profitability of our business depends on consumer demand for integrated resorts in general and for the type of luxury amenities that a gaming operator offers. Initiatives and campaigns undertaken by the Chinese government in recent years have resulted in an overall dampening effect on the behavior of Chinese consumers and a decrease in their spending, particularly in luxury good sales and other discretionary spending. For example, the Chinese government’s ongoing anti-corruption campaign has had an overall dampening effect on the behavior of Chinese consumers and their spending patterns both domestically and abroad. In addition, the number of patrons visiting our properties may be affected by the Chinese government’s focus on deterring marketing of gaming to Chinese citizens by casinos and its initiatives to tighten monetary transfer regulations, increase monitoring of various transactions, including bank or credit card transactions, and reduce the amount that China-issued ATM cardholders can withdraw in each withdrawal and impose a limit on the annual aggregate amount that may be withdrawn. It has also been reported that the Chinese government is developing its digital currency and has performed certain test trials in its application within mainland China. If a digital currency is adopted by the Macau government for gaming operations in Macau, there could be a material and adverse impact on our operations, especially our VIP rolling chip operations, if limitations on transactions per player are also introduced in conjunction with the adoption of the digital currency. In addition, amendments to China’s criminal laws, such that anyone that organizes trips for Chinese citizens for the purpose of gambling outside of mainland China, including Macau, may be deemed to have conducted a criminal act, came into effect on March 1, 2021. Further, prior convictions of staff of a foreign casino in China in relation to gaming-related activities in China have also created regulatory uncertainty on marketing activities in China. It is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, these amendments will adversely impact the operations of gaming promoters and any
knock-on
effect on VIP rolling chip operations as well as on the premium direct, premium mass and mass market segments. A wide interpretation, application or enforcement of these amendments by the PRC governmental authorities could have a material and adverse effect on our business and prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Further, prior convictions of staff of a foreign casino in China in relation to gaming-related activities in China have also created regulatory uncertainty on marketing activities in China.
We derive a significant majority of our revenues from our Macau gaming business and any disruptions or downturns in the Macau gaming market may have a material impact on our business.
Prior to 2014, we derived substantially all of our revenues from our business and operations in Macau. We now also generate revenues from our Philippine and Cyprus operations, but continue to derive a significant majority of our revenues from our Macau gaming business and may be materially affected by any disruptions or downturns in the Macau gaming market. While the Macau gaming market has generally improved since the third quarter of 2016 to the last quarter of 2018, the Macau gaming market, according to the DICJ, experienced a decline in gross gaming revenues from 2014 to 2016. We believe such decline was primarily driven by a deterioration in gaming demand from China, which provides a core customer base for the Macau gaming market, as well as other restrictions including the imposition of travel restrictions and the implementation of smoking restrictions in casinos. According to the DICJ, gross gaming revenues in Macau declined by 3.4% on a year-over-year basis in 2019. We believe such year-over-year decline in 2019 was mainly driven by a decline in VIP gaming revenues in Macau and the slowdown in the Chinese economy. According to the DICJ, gross gaming revenues in Macau declined by 79.3% on a year-over-year basis in 2020. We believe such year-over-year decline in 2020 was mainly due to the impact of the
COVID-19
outbreak, which has resulted in a significant decline in inbound tourism, among other things. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by such decline or other disruptions in the Macau gaming market. The
COVID-19
outbreak has had, and will likely to continue to have, a material adverse effect on the Macau gaming market. See “— An outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, contagious disease or other
 
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outbreaks may have an adverse effect on the economies of affected countries or regions and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.”
The gaming industries in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus are highly regulated.
Gaming is a highly regulated industry in Macau. Our Macau gaming business is subject to various laws and increased audits and inspections from regulators, such as those relating to licensing, tax rates and other regulatory obligations, such as anti-money laundering measures, which may change or become more stringent. Changes in laws may result in additional regulations being imposed on our gaming operations in Macau and our future projects. Our operations in Macau are also exposed to the risk of changes in the Macau government’s policies that govern operations of Macau-based companies and the Macau government’s interpretation of, or amendments to, our gaming subconcession. Any such adverse developments in the regulation of the Macau gaming industry could be difficult to comply with and could significantly increase our costs, which could cause our projects to be unsuccessful. See “— Risks Relating to Operating in the Gaming Industry in Macau — Adverse changes or developments in gaming laws or other regulations in Macau that affect our operations could be difficult to comply with or may significantly increase our costs, which could cause our projects to be unsuccessful.”
The Philippine gaming industry is also highly regulated, including the recent amendment to the existing Philippines Anti-Money Laundering Act, as amended (“Philippine AMLA”), whereby casinos are included as covered persons subject to reporting and other requirements under the Philippine AMLA. The Anti-Money Laundering Council and PAGCOR have also recently released regulations and guidelines on compliance. Amendments to existing anti-money laundering regulations have been signed into law, expanding the coverage of the Philippine AMLA and including Philippine offshore gaming operators in the list of covered persons, which includes the Melco Philippine Parties. The authority of the Anti-Money Laundering Council was also expanded to including the power to apply for search and seizure orders, issue subpoenas, and preserve, manage or dispose assets pursuant to a freeze order or judgment of forfeiture. While we have adjusted our anti-money laundering policies for our Philippine operations to the existing new rules and regulations, we cannot assure you that our contractors, agents or employees will continually adhere to any such current or future policies or any such current or future policies will be effective in preventing our Philippines operations from being exploited for money laundering purposes. City of Dreams Manila is also subject to increased audits and inspections from regulators, including those relating to anti-money laundering requirements and measures. City of Dreams Manila may legally operate under the Philippine License, which requires a number of periodic approvals from and reports to PAGCOR. PAGCOR may refuse to approve proposals by us and our gaming promoters, or modify previously approved proposals and may require us and/or our gaming promoters to perform acts with which we disagree. The Philippine License requires, among others, 95.0% of City of Dreams Manila’s total employees to be locally hired. PAGCOR could also exert a substantial influence on our human resource policies, particularly with respect to the qualifications and salary levels for gaming employees, especially in light of the fact that employees assigned to the gaming operations are required by PAGCOR to obtain a Gaming Employment License. As a result, PAGCOR could have influence over City of Dreams Manila’s gaming operations. Moreover, because PAGCOR is also an operator of casinos and gaming establishments in the Philippines, it is possible that conflicts in relation to PAGCOR’s operating and regulatory functions may exist or may arise in the future. In addition, we and our gaming promoters may not be able to obtain, or maintain, all requisite approvals, permits and licenses that various Philippine and local government agencies may require. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in the Philippines.
Furthermore, our licenses and permits from various Philippine government agencies, such as those related to labor, public works, safety, fire, buildings, health and environmental, are required to be renewed annually. There is no guarantee that the requirements for such permits and licenses will remain the same, or that the relevant Philippine government agencies will not impose additional and more onerous requirements. This may affect our ability to renew our licenses and permits, which could adversely affect our business in the Philippines.
 
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Gaming in Cyprus is a highly regulated new market and subject to various regulations of the European Union that are being developed and adopted in Cyprus. We will have to review and amend our anti-money laundering policies for our operations in Cyprus when new laws and regulations come into force. The CGC has and will continue to conduct business-wide anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing inspections at our Cyprus casinos and review our anti-money laundering policies. As a result of these inspections and reviews, we have made, and expect we will need to continue to make, certain adjustments to our policies and compliance procedures from time to time. Being a new gaming regime, there are also less precedents on the interpretation of these laws and regulations. Our Cyprus License also requires us to submit periodic reports to the CGC in areas that include our operations, regulatory compliance, consumer complaints and financial and tax reporting. If we are unable to fully comply with any of the foregoing requirements, we could be subject to fines or other penalties.
Furthermore, our operations in Cyprus require various licenses and permits granted from various governmental or regulatory bodies in Cyprus, such as those related to labor, food and beverages, safety, fire, buildings, health and environmental, some of which are required to be renewed annually. There is no guarantee that the requirements for such permits and licenses will remain the same, or that the relevant Cyprus governmental or regulatory bodies will not impose additional and more onerous requirements. This may affect our ability to renew our licenses and permits or we may not be able to obtain any additional licenses or permits required to conduct our business as our business and operations expand in a timely manner or at all, which could adversely affect our business in the Cyprus.
In addition, current laws and regulations in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus concerning gaming and gaming concessions and licenses, for the most part, have been enacted or amended recently and there are limited precedents on the interpretation of these laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are complex, and a court or administrative or regulatory body may in the future render an interpretation of these laws and regulations, or issue new or modified regulations, that differ from our interpretation. For instance, certain decisions issued recently by the Macau courts have determined that a gaming operator is liable for the refund of patron funds deposited with a gaming promoter for various purposes while other Macau court decisions have determined that a gaming operator has no such liability. These decisions are not final. The uncertainty caused by these contradictory decisions, a final adverse determination on a gaming operator’s liability with respect to a gaming promoter’s activity or new or modified regulations
could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Uncertainties in the legal systems in the PRC may expose us to risks.
Gaming-related activities in the PRC, including marketing activities, are strictly regulated by the PRC government and subject to various PRC laws and regulations. The PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve and the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all. As a result, we may not be aware of all policies and rules imposed by the PRC authorities which may affect or relate to our business and operations. There is also no assurance that our interpretation of the laws and regulations that affect our activities and operations in the PRC is or will be consistent with the interpretation and application by the PRC governmental authorities. These uncertainties may impede our ability to assess our legal rights or risks relating to our business and activities. Any changes in the laws and regulations, or in the interpretation or enforcement of these laws and regulations, that affect gaming-related activities in the PRC could have a material and adverse effect on our business and prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory terms. Such discretion of the PRC administrative and court authorities increases the uncertainties in the PRC legal system and makes it difficult to evaluate the likely outcome of any administrative and court proceedings in the PRC. Any litigation or proceeding in the PRC may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources and management attention. Any such litigation or proceeding could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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We face intense competition in Macau, the Philippines and elsewhere in Asia and Europe and may not be able to compete successfully.
The hotel, resort and gaming industries are highly competitive. The competitors of our business in Macau and the Philippines include many of the largest gaming, hospitality, leisure and resort companies in the world. Some of these current and future competitors are larger than we are and may have more diversified resources, better brand recognition and greater access to capital to support their developments and operations in Macau, the Philippines and elsewhere.
In the Philippine gaming market, we compete with hotels and resorts owned by both Philippine nationals and foreigners. PAGCOR, an entity owned and controlled by the government of the Philippines, also operates gaming facilities across the Philippines. Our operations in the Philippines face competition from gaming operators in other more established gaming centers across the region, particularly those of Macau and Singapore, and other major gaming markets located around the world, including Australia and Las Vegas, as we attract similar pools of customers and tourists. A number of such other operators have a longer track record of gaming operations and such other markets have more established reputations as gaming markets. Our operations in the Philippines may not be successful in its efforts to attract foreign customers and independent gaming promoters to City of Dreams Manila, and to promote Manila as a gaming destination.
In Macau, some competitors have opened new properties, expanded operations and/or have announced intentions for further expansion and developments in Cotai, where City of Dreams and Studio City are located. For example, Galaxy Casino, S.A., or Galaxy, opened Galaxy Macau Resort in Cotai in May 2011, Phase 2 of the Galaxy Macau Resort in May 2015, and Phase 3 of the Galaxy Macau Resort is currently being developed and expected to be completed and fully operational in the first half of 2022, while Phase 4 is expected to be completed and operational within a few years after the completion of Phase 3. Sands China Ltd., a subsidiary of Las Vegas Sands Corporation, opened the Parisian Macao in September 2016. Wynn Macau opened the Wynn Palace in Cotai in August 2016. MGM Grand Paradise opened MGM Cotai in February 2018. Sociedade de Jogos de Macau, S.A., or SJM, is currently developing its project in Cotai which is expected to open in the first half of 2021 and Sands Cotai Central in Cotai has been rebranded and redeveloped into The Londoner Macau, which opened in February 2021. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Market and Competition.”
In Cyprus, we hold a
30-year
casino gaming license, which commenced from June 2017 and as to which the first 15 years are exclusive. Although we hold the exclusive license to operate casinos in the Republic of Cyprus until 2032, we may face competition from a large number of sports betting shops in Cyprus, online sports betting or other illegal casinos in Cyprus recently closed down by the Cyprus government, and from a large number of casinos in the occupied part of Cyprus or from casinos in nearby parts of Europe and the Middle East.
We also compete to some extent with casinos located in other countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere in the world, including Las Vegas and Atlantic City in the United States. In addition, in December 2016, a law which conceptually enables the development of integrated resorts in Japan took effect. Certain other countries, such as Taiwan and Thailand, may also in the future legalize casino gaming and may not be subject to as stringent regulation as the Macau, Philippine and/or Cyprus markets. We also compete with both legal and illegal online gaming and sports betting websites, cruise ships operating out of Hong Kong and other areas of Asia that offer gaming. In addition, certain of our gaming promoters may become our competitors by operating their own gaming operations, which may result in the diversion of their junket players to their gaming operations. For instance, a major gaming promoter has announced the expansion of its businesses into operating gaming activities in Vietnam, Cambodia and the Philippines. The proliferation of gaming venues in Asia could also significantly and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.
 
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Currently, Macau is the only region in the Greater China area offering legal casino gaming. Although the Chinese government has strictly enforced its regulations prohibiting domestic gaming operations, there may be casinos in parts of China that are operated illegally and without licenses. In addition, there is no assurance that China will not in the future permit domestic gaming operations. Competition from casinos in China, legal or illegal, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and prospects.
Our regional competitors also include casino resorts that Melco International may develop elsewhere in Asia Pacific outside Macau or elsewhere in the world. Melco International may develop different interests and strategies for projects in Asia or elsewhere in the world which conflict with the interests of our business in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus or otherwise compete with us for gaming and leisure customers. See “— Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure and Ownership.”
The governments in Macau and the Philippines could grant additional rights to conduct gaming in the future, which could significantly increase competition and cause us to lose or be unable to gain market share.
In Macau, Melco Resorts Macau is one of the six companies authorized by the Macau government to operate gaming activities. Pursuant to the terms of Macau Law No. 16/2001, or the Macau Gaming Law, the Macau government is precluded from granting more than three gaming concessions. Each concessionaire was permitted to enter into a subconcession agreement with one subconcessionaire. The Macau government is currently considering the process of renewing, extending or granting gaming concessions or subconcessions for concessions and subconcessions expiring in 2022. The policies and laws of the Macau government could result in the grant of additional concessions or subconcessions, which could significantly increase the competition in Macau and cause us to lose or be unable to maintain or gain market share, and as a result, adversely affect our business.
In the Philippines, PAGCOR has issued regular gaming licenses to the Philippine Licensees and one other company and additional provisional gaming licenses to two other companies in the Philippines for the development and operation of integrated casino resorts. PAGCOR has granted a provisional license to a fifth operator located near the Entertainment City in
mid-2018.
PAGCOR has also licensed private casino operators in special economic zones, including four in the Clark Ecozone, one in Poro Point, La Union, one in Binangonan, Rizal and one in the Newport City CyberTourism Zone, Pasay City. The Philippine License granted by PAGCOR to the Philippine
Licensees is non-exclusive, and there
is no assurance that PAGCOR will not issue additional gaming licenses, or that it will limit the number of licenses it issues. Any additional gaming licenses issued by PAGCOR could increase competition in the Philippine gaming industry, which could diminish the value of the Philippine Licensees’ Philippine License. This could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in the Philippines.
Any simultaneous planning, design, construction and development of any projects may stretch our management’s time and resources, which could lead to delays, increased costs and other inefficiencies in the development of these projects.
There may be overlap in the planning, design, development and construction periods of our projects. Members of our senior management will be involved in planning and developing our projects at the same time, in addition to
overseeing our day-to-day operations. Our
management may be unable to devote sufficient time and attention to such projects, as well as our operating properties, which may result in delays in the construction or opening of any of our current or future projects, cause construction cost overruns or cause the performance of our operating properties to be lower than expected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our senior management, and our business may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.
We place substantial reliance on the gaming, project development and hospitality industry experience and knowledge of the Macau, the Philippine and the Cyprus markets possessed by members of our board of directors, our senior management team, as well as other management personnel. We may experience changes in our key management in the future, including for reasons beyond our control. The loss of Mr. Lawrence Ho’s services or the services of the other members of our board of directors or key management personnel could hinder our ability to effectively manage our business and implement our growth and development strategies. Finding suitable replacements for members of our board of directors or key management personnel could be difficult, and competition for personnel of similar experience could be intense in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus. In addition, we do not currently carry key person insurance on any members of our senior management team.
The success of our business depends on our ability to attract and retain an adequate number of qualified personnel. A limited labor supply, increased competition and any increase in demands from our employees could cause labor costs to increase.
The pool of experienced gaming and other skilled and unskilled personnel in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus is limited. Our demand remains high for personnel occupying sensitive positions that require qualifications sufficient to meet gaming regulations and other requirements or skills and knowledge that would need substantial training and experience. Competitive demand for qualified gaming and other personnel is expected to be intensified by the increased number of properties recently opened and expected to open in close proximity to our properties in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus. The limited supply and increased competition in the labor market could cause our labor costs to increase.
Macau government policy prohibits us
from hiring non-Macau resident dealers
and supervisors. In addition, the Macau government announced it will continue to monitor the proportion of management positions held by Macau residents and implement measures to ensure such proportion remains no less than 85% of senior
and mid-management positions.
Due to the increased competition in the labor market and the relevant regulatory restrictions, we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified individuals to operate our properties, or that costs to recruit and retain such personnel will not increase significantly. In addition, we have previously been subject to certain labor demands in Macau. The inability to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees and management personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Further, the Macau government is currently enforcing a labor policy pursuant to which the ratio of local to foreign workers that may be recruited is determined
on a case-by-case basis and,
in relation to construction works, must be at least 1:1 unless otherwise authorized by the Macau government. Such a policy could have a material adverse effect on our ability to complete works on our properties, such as the remaining development of the land on which Studio City is located. Moreover, if the Macau government enforces similar restrictive ratios in other areas, such as the gaming, hotel and entertainment sectors, or imposes additional restrictions on the hiring of foreign workers generally, including as a result of the
COVID-19
outbreak, this could have a material adverse effect on the operation of our properties.
In the Philippines, the Philippine License requires that at least 95.0% of City of Dreams Manila’s total employees be locally hired. Our inability to recruit a sufficient number of employees in the Philippines to meet this provision or to do so in a cost-effective manner may cause us to lower our hiring standards, which may have an adverse impact on City of Dreams Manila’s service levels, reputation and business. In addition, in February 2019, Kilusan ng Manggagawang Makabayan
(KMM-Katipunan)
Melco Resorts Leisure (PHP) Corporation — Table Games Division — Chapter, or
KMM-MELCO
[TDG], was certified by the Philippines Department of Labor to represent the
rank-and-file
employees of the Table Games Division of City of Dreams Manila as the
 
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former’s sole and exclusive bargaining agent and a collective bargaining agreement was subsequently signed between City of Dreams Manila and the
KMM-Katipunan
in February 2020. More recently, KMM-Katipunan also sought to organize and represent the employees of the Security Division of City of Dreams Manila and filed a petition in February 2021 to request for an election by the relevant employees, and such request and the related process are being reviewed by, and remain subject to the approval of, the Philippines Department of Labor. Any demand or activities of such collective bargaining agent, or any additional collective bargaining agents that may be certified by the Philippines Department of Labor in the future, could have a material adverse effect on the business and operations of City of Dreams Manila or our financial condition and results of operations.
In Cyprus, there is also a risk that our employees may organize or become part of a collective bargaining agreement or trade union. There is also a shortage of experienced gaming and other skilled and unskilled personnel as Cyprus is a new gaming market and we also compete with other local hotels and resorts for
non-gaming
personnel in the hospitality sector. There is also a shortage of labor in the construction sector given the robust building activities in Cyprus and the difficulty in applying for work permits for
non-EU
citizens. As a result, our contractors may have to make up for any shortages in available labor from Greece or other European countries which may be challenging due to the
COVID-19
related travel restrictions imposed by the government of Cyprus and could also increase our labor costs.
Moreover, casino resort employers may also contest the hiring of their former employees by us. There can be no assurance that any such claim will not be successful or other similar claims will not be brought against us or any of our affiliates in the future. In the event any such claim is found to be valid, we could suffer losses and face difficulties in recruiting from competing operators. If found to have basis by courts, these allegations could also result in possible civil liabilities on us or our relevant officers if such officers are shown to have deliberately and willfully condoned a patently unlawful act.
Our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all losses that we may suffer from our operations. In addition, our insurance costs may increase and we may not be able to obtain the same insurance coverage in the future.
We currently have various insurance policies providing certain coverage typically required by gaming and hospitality operations in Macau. In addition, we maintain various types of insurance policies for our Philippine and Cyprus business and operations, including mainly property damage, business interruption, general liability and crime insurance policies. In the Philippines, we also maintain a surety bond required by PAGCOR, which secures the prompt payment by Melco Resorts Leisure of the monthly licensee fees due to PAGCOR. These insurance policies provide coverage that is subject to policy terms, conditions and limits. There is no assurance that we will be able to renew such insurance coverage on equivalent premium costs, terms, conditions and limits upon their expiration. Certain events, such as typhoons and fires, may increase and have increased our premium costs. The cost of coverage may in the future become so high that we may be unable to obtain the insurance policies we deem necessary for the operation of our projects on commercially practicable terms, or at all, or we may need to reduce our policy limits or agree to certain exclusions from our coverage.
We cannot assure you that any such insurance policies we obtained or may obtain will be adequate to protect us from material losses. Certain acts and events, including any pandemic, epidemic of infectious diseases, earthquakes, hurricanes and floods, or terrorist acts, could expose us to significant uninsured losses that may be, or are, uninsurable or too expensive to justify obtaining insurance. As a result, we may not be successful in obtaining insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels. In addition, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of our lost investment or in some cases could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. In addition to the damages caused directly by a casualty loss (such as fire or natural disasters), infectious disease outbreaks or terrorist acts, we may suffer a disruption of our business as a result of these events or be subject to claims by third parties who may be injured or harmed. As an example, the
COVID-19
outbreak has resulted in many governments around the world, including in the Philippines, Macau and Cyprus where we operate, placing
 
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quarantines disallowing residents to travel into or outside of the quarantined area, enforcing business closures and other restrictions. While we intend to continue carrying business interruption insurance and general liability insurance, such insurance may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and, in any event, may not be adequate to cover any losses that may result from such events.
There is limited available insurance in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus and our insurers in Macau, the Philippines and Cyprus may need to secure reinsurance in order to provide adequate cover for our property and development projects. Our credit agreements, Melco Resorts Macau’s subconcession contract with Wynn Macau relating to the gaming concession in Macau (the “Subconcession Contract”), the Philippine License granted by PAGCOR and certain other material agreements require a certain level of insurance to be maintained, which must be obtained in Macau and the Philippines, respectively, unless otherwise authorized by the respective counter-parties. Failure to maintain adequate coverage could be an event of default under our credit agreements, the Subconcession Contract or the Philippine License and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Gaming inherently involves elements of chance that are beyond our control, and as a result our revenues may be volatile and the winnings of our patrons could exceed our casino winnings at particular times during our operations.
The gaming industry is characterized by the element of chance. In addition to the element of chance, theoretical expected win rates are also affected by other factors, including players’ skills and experience, the mix of games played, the financial resources of players, the spread of table limits, the volume and mix of bets placed by our players, the amount of time players spend on gambling and the number of our players. As a result, our actual win rates may differ greatly over short time periods, such as from quarter to quarter, and could cause our quarterly results to be volatile. Each of these factors, alone or in combination, have the potential to negatively impact our win rates, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our revenues are mainly derived from the difference between our casino winnings and the winnings of our casino patrons. Since there is an inherent element of chance in the gaming industry, we do not have full control over our winnings or the winnings of our casino patrons. If the winnings of our patrons exceed our casino winnings, we may record a loss from our gaming operations, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our gaming business is subject to the risk of cheating and counterfeiting.
All gaming activities at our table games are conducted exclusively with gaming chips which, like real currency, are subject to the risk of alteration and counterfeiting. We incorporate a variety of security and anti-counterfeit features to detect altered or counterfeit gaming chips. Despite such security features, unauthorized parties may try to copy our gaming chips and introduce, use and cash in altered or counterfeit gaming chips in our gaming areas. Any negative publicity arising from such incidents could also tarnish our reputation and may result in a decline in our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Gaming customers may attempt or commit fraud or cheat in order to increase their winnings, including in collusion with the casino’s staff. Internal acts of cheating could also be conducted by staff through collusion with dealers, surveillance staff, floor managers or other gaming area staff. Our existing surveillance and security systems, designed to detect cheating at our casino operations, may not be able to detect all such cheating in time or at all, particularly if patrons collude with our employees. In addition, our gaming promoters or other persons could, without our knowledge, enter into betting arrangements directly with our casino patrons on the outcomes of our games of chance, thus depriving us of revenues.
Our operations are reviewed to detect and prevent cheating. Each game has a theoretical win rate and statistics are examined with these in mind. Cheating may give rise to negative publicity and such action may materially affect our business, financial condition, operations and cash flows.
 
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An outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, contagious disease or other outbreaks may have an adverse effect on the economies of affected countries or regions and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business could be, and in certain cases, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, has been materially and adversely affected by the outbreak of widespread health epidemics or pandemics, such as swine flu, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Zika, Ebola and the
COVID-19
outbreak. The occurrence of such health epidemics or pandemics, prolonged outbreak of an epidemic illness or other adverse public health developments in China or elsewhere in the world could materially disrupt our business and operations. Such events could significantly impact our industry and cause severe travel restrictions in China or elsewhere in the world as well as temporary or prolonged closures of the facilities we use for our operations and disruptions to public transportation, which would severely disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Such events may also indirectly and materially adversely impact our operations by negatively impacting the outlook, growth or business sentiment in the global, regional or local economy. See also “— The
COVID-19
pandemic has had, and will likely to continue to have, a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations”.
Several countries, including Japan, South Korea and Vietnam, have registered cases of avian flu since the end of 2020. Fully effective avian flu vaccines have not been developed and there is evidence that the H5N1 virus is constantly evolving so we cannot assure you that an effective vaccine can be discovered or commercially manufactured in time to protect against the potential avian flu pandemic. In the first half of 2003, certain countries in Asia experienced an outbreak of SARS, a highly contagious form of atypical pneumonia, which seriously interrupted economic activities and caused the demand for goods and services to plummet in the affected regions.
In addition to the ongoing outbreak of
COVID-19,
there can be no assurance that an outbreak of swine flu, avian influenza, SARS, MERS, Zika, Ebola or other contagious disease or any measures taken by the governments of affected countries against such potential outbreaks will not seriously interrupt our gaming operations. The perception that an outbreak of any health epidemic or contagious disease may occur may also have an adverse effect on the economic conditions of countries in Asia. In addition, our operations could be disrupted if any of our facilities or employees or others involved in our operations were suspected of having
COVID-19,
swine flu, avian influenza, SARS, MERS, Zika or Ebola as this could require us to quarantine some or all of such employees or persons or disinfect the facilities used for our operations. Furthermore, any future outbreak may restrict economic activities in affected regions, which could result in reduced business volume and the temporary closure of our facilities or otherwise disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations. Our revenues and profitability could be materially reduced to the extent that a health epidemic or other outbreak harms the global or PRC economy in general.
Health and safety or food safety incidents at our properties may lead to reputational damage and financial exposures.
We provide goods and services to a significant number of customers on a daily basis at our properties in Macau, Manila and Cyprus. In particular, with attractions, entertainment and food and beverage offerings at our properties, there are risks of health and safety incidents or adverse food safety events. While we have a number of measures and controls in place aimed at managing such risks, we cannot guarantee that our insurance is adequate to cover all losses, which may result in us incurring additional costs or damages, and negatively impact our financial performance. Such incidents may also lead to reduced customer flow and reputational damage to our properties. See “— We are subject to risks relating to litigation, disputes and regulatory investigations which may adversely affect our profitability, financial condition and prospects.”
 
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Unfavorable fluctuations in the currency exchange rates of the H.K. dollar, U.S. dollar, or the Pataca, the Philippine peso or the Euro and other risks related to foreign exchange and currencies, including restrictions on conversions and/or repatriation of foreign currencies, could adversely affect our indebtedness, expenses, profitability and financial condition.
Our exposure to foreign exchange rate risk is associated with the currency of our operations and our indebtedness and as a result of the presentation of our financial statements in U.S. dollar. The majority of our current revenues are denominated in H.K. dollar, given the H.K. dollar is the predominant currency used in gaming transactions in Macau and is often used interchangeably with the Pataca in Macau. Our current expenses are denominated predominantly in Pataca, H.K. dollar and the Philippine peso. In addition, we have revenues, assets, debt and expenses denominated in the Philippine peso and in the Euro relating to our businesses in the Philippines and Cyprus, respectively. We also have subsidiaries, branch offices and assets in various countries, including Taiwan, which are subject to foreign exchange fluctuations and local regulations that may impose, among others, limitations, restrictions or approval requirements on conversions and/or repatriation of foreign currencies. In addition, a significant portion of our indebtedness, including the Melco Resorts Finance Notes and Studio City Notes, and certain expenses, are or will be denominated in U.S. dollar, and the costs associated with servicing and repaying such debt will be denominated in U.S. dollar.
The value of the H.K. dollar, the Pataca, the Philippine peso and the Euro against the U.S. dollar may fluctuate and may be affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions. While the H.K. dollar is pegged to the U.S. dollar within a narrow range and the Pataca is in turn pegged to the H.K. dollar, and the exchange rates between these currencies has remained relatively stable over the past several years, we cannot assure you that the current peg or linkages between the U.S. dollar, H.K. dollar and Pataca will not be
de-pegged,
de-linked or otherwise
modified and subject to fluctuations. Any significant fluctuations in exchange rates between the H.K. dollar, the Pataca, the Philippine peso or the Euro to the U.S. dollar may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and financial condition. For example, to the extent that we are required to convert U.S. dollar financings into H.K. dollar or Pataca for our operations, fluctuations in exchange rates between the H.K. dollar or Pataca against the U.S. dollar could have an adverse effect on the amounts we receive from the conversion.
While we maintain a certain amount of our operating funds in the same currencies in which we have obligations in order to reduce our exposure to currency fluctuations, we have not engaged in hedging transactions with respect to foreign exchange exposure of our revenues and expenses
in our day-to-day operations
during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. In addition, we may face regulatory, legal and other risks in connection with our assets and operations in certain jurisdictions that may impose limitations, restrictions or approval requirements on conversions and/or repatriation of foreign currencies. We will consider our overall procedure for managing our foreign exchange risk from time to time, but we cannot assure you that any such procedures will enable us to obtain and achieve effective hedging of our foreign exchange risk, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Furthermore, China has tightened currency exchange controls and restrictions on the export and conversion of the Renminbi in recent years. Restrictions on the export of the Renminbi, as well as the increased effectiveness of such restrictions, may impede the flow of gaming patrons from mainland China to Macau, the Philippines or outside of Asia, inhibit the growth of gaming in those markets and negatively impact our gaming operations.
We may undertake mergers, acquisitions, strategic transactions or investments that are not realized or result in operating difficulties, distractions from our current businesses or a material and adverse effect on our business and financial condition and subject us to regulatory and legal inquiries and proceedings or investigations.
We have made, and may in the future make, acquisitions, investments, divestments or strategic transactions in companies or projects to expand or complement our existing operations. From time to time, we
 
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engage in discussions and negotiations with companies regarding acquisitions, investments, divestments or other strategic transactions, which may be material or significant, in such companies or projects. For example, the discussions and negotiations between us and Melco International led to our acquisition of 75% ownership interest in ICR Cyprus from Melco International, through which we expanded our operations to Cyprus. With this acquisition, our business has been expanded to the European region and includes the development of the City of Dreams Mediterranean, a new integrated casino resort project in Cyprus. Our expanded operations and developments in Cyprus require significant resources and investments and we may in the future make other acquisitions, investments or strategic transactions that require significant capital commitments and resources.
Any integration process that would follow any of our acquisitions, investments or strategic transactions, including our acquisition of 75% equity interest in ICR Cyprus, may prove more difficult than anticipated. We may be subject to liabilities or claims that we are not aware of at the time of the investment or acquisition, and we may not realize the benefits anticipated at the time of the investment or acquisition. Any benefits anticipated at the time of the investment or acquisition may also not be realized, or may be impacted, due to factors beyond our control. For example, in February 2020, we announced our decision to not pursue the acquisition of an additional 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts due to the impact of the
COVID-19
outbreak, and in April 2020, we announced the sale of our 9.99% equity interest in Crown Resorts to a third party and ceased to be a shareholder of Crown Resorts following such sale. These difficulties could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees, increase our expenses and liabilities, result in losses, including in material amounts, and adversely affect our businesses, financial condition and operating results. Even if we do identify suitable opportunities, we may not be able to make such acquisitions or investments on commercially acceptable terms or adequate financing may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all, and we may not be able to consummate a proposed acquisition or investment.
We may also, from time to time, receive inquiries from regulatory and legal authorities and become subject to regulatory and legal proceedings or investigations in connection with our acquisitions, investments, divestments or strategic transactions in companies or projects, which may delay or materially impact the completion of such acquisitions, investments, divestments or strategic transactions. For example, in connection with the definitive purchase agreement we entered into with CPH Crown Holdings Pty Limited in May 2019 to acquire a total of an approximately 19.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts for the total purchase price of AUD1,759.6 million (equivalent to approximately US$1,356.5 million) and pursuant to which we acquired an approximately 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts on June 6, 2019 and were to acquire an additional 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts by September 30, 2019, as a result of the relevant Australian regulatory process, we and CPH Crown Holdings Pty Limited agreed to defer our acquisition of the additional 9.99% ownership interest in Crown Resorts. Any such regulatory and legal proceedings or investigations may materially and adversely affect our business, operations, financial condition and prospects.
We face risks relating to any expansion of our operations and entry into new markets through mergers, acquisitions, strategic transactions or investments.
We have expanded our operations and entered into new markets in the past through acquisitions and strategic transactions. See also “— We may undertake mergers, acquisitions, strategic transactions or investments that are not realized or result in operating difficulties, distractions from our current businesses or a material and adverse effect on our business and financial condition and subject us to regulatory and legal inquiries and proceedings or investigations.”
We may continue to evaluate and consider a wide array of potential strategic transactions as part of our overall business strategy. Any future expansion of our operations or our entry into new markets through mergers, acquisitions, strategic transactions or investments may subject us to:
 
   
additional costs for complying with local laws, rules, regulations and policies as well as other local practices and customs in new markets, including establishing business and regulatory compliance programs;
 
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currency exchange rate fluctuations or currency restructurings;
 
   
limitations or penalties on the repatriation of earnings;
 
   
unforeseen changes in regulatory requirements;
 
   
uncertainties as to local laws and enforcement of contract and intellectual property rights; and
 
   
changes in government, economic and political policies and conditions, political or civil unrest, acts of terrorism or the threat of international boycotts.
These factors and the impact of these factors on our business and operations are difficult to predict and may have material adverse effect on our business and prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to risks relating to litigation, disputes and regulatory investigations which may adversely affect our profitability, financial condition and prospects.
We are, and may in the future be, subject to legal actions, disputes and regulatory investigations in the ordinary course of our business. We are also subject to risks relating to legal and regulatory proceedings and investigations which we or our affiliates are or may be a party to from time to time, or which could develop in the future, as well as fines or other penalties which may be imposed on us in connection with any requisite permit, license or other approval for our business and operations. Litigation and regulatory proceedings can be costly and time-consuming and may divert management attention and resources from our operations. We could incur significant defense costs and, in the event of an adverse outcome, be required to pay damages and interest to the prevailing party and, depending on the jurisdiction of the litigation, be held responsible for the costs of the prevailing party. Our reputation may also be adversely affected by our involvement or the involvement of our affiliates in litigation and regulatory proceedings. In addition, we and our affiliates operate or have interests in a number of jurisdictions in which regulatory and government authorities have wide discretion to take procedural actions in support of their investigations and regulatory proceedings, including seizures and freezing of assets and other properties that are perceived to be connected or related to such investigations or regulatory proceedings. Given such wide discretion, regulatory or government authorities may take procedural or other actions that may affect our assets and properties in connection with any investigation or legal or regulatory proceeding involving us, any of our affiliates, or third parties, which may materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, claims and proceedings against us, i