10-K 1 avir-10k_20201231.htm 10-K avir-10k_20201231.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-39661

 

ATEA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

46-0574869

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

125 Summer Street

Boston, MA

02110

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (857) 284-8891

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

 

AVIR

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  YES  NO 

The registrant was not a public company as of the last business day of its most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, therefore, cannot calculate the aggregate market value of its voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of such date.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 29, 2021 was 82,736,937.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which the registrant intends to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

ii

SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

iii

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

41

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

106

Item 2.

Properties

106

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

106

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

106

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

107

Item 6.

Reserved

108

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

108

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

121

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

121

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

121

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

121

Item 9B.

Other Information

121

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

122

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

122

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

122

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

122

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

122

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

123

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

124

 

 

i


 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. We make such forward-looking statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements are neither historical facts nor assurances of future performance. Instead, they are based on our current beliefs, expectations and assumptions regarding the future of our business, future plans and strategies, our clinical results and other future conditions. The words “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” "on track," “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

 

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

 

our expectations relating to clinical trials for our product candidates, including projected costs, study designs or the timing for initiation, recruitment, completion, or reporting top-line data;

 

the potential therapeutic benefits of our product candidates and the potential indications and market opportunities therefor;

 

the safety profile and related adverse events of our product candidates;

 

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates;

 

the potential benefits of our collaboration with Roche or any future collaboration we may enter into with Roche or others;

 

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we may receive marketing approval;

 

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

our estimates regarding future revenue, expenses and results of operations;

 

the progress of, timing of and amount of expenses associated with our research, development and commercialization activities;

 

our future financial position, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

our business strategy;

 

developments relating to our competitors, competing treatments and vaccines and our industry;

 

our expectations regarding federal, state and foreign laws and regulations;

 

our ability to attract, motivate, and retain key personnel; and

 

the impact of COVID-19 on our business, including our preclinical studies and clinical trials.

 

These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations. These statements are neither promises nor guarantees, but involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include the initiation, execution and completion of clinical trials, uncertainties surrounding the timing of availability of data from our clinical trials, ongoing discussions with and actions by regulatory authorities, our development activities and those other factors we discuss in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors.” You should read these factors and the other cautionary statements made in this report as being applicable to all related forward-looking statements wherever they appear in this report. These risk factors are not exhaustive and other sections of this report may include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Given these uncertainties, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Company” refer to Atea Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its subsidiary.  All brand names or trademarks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.

ii


SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

 

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:

 

 

There is significant uncertainty around our development of AT-527 as a potential treatment for COVID-19.

 

We are highly dependent on our management, directors and other key personnel.

 

We may expend resources in anticipation of potential clinical trials and commercialization of AT-527, which we may not be able to recover if AT-527 is not approved for the treatment of COVID-19 or we are not successful at commercializing AT-527.

 

The market for therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 may be reduced, perhaps significantly, if vaccines are effective and widely accepted.

 

AT-527 may face significant competition from other treatments for COVID-19 that are currently marketed or are in development.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our other business opportunities and financial results.

 

We have a limited operating history and no history of successfully developing or commercializing any approved antiviral products, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess the prospects for our future viability.

 

We have incurred significant losses since inception. We expect our expenditures will increase for the foreseeable future. We have no products that have generated any commercial revenue and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

We will require substantial additional financing, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.

 

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

 

Our business is highly dependent on the success of our most advanced product candidates. If these product candidates fail in preclinical or clinical development, do not receive regulatory approval or are not successfully commercialized, or are significantly delayed in doing so, our business will be harmed.

 

The regulatory approval processes of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, expensive, time-consuming, and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be seriously harmed. Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us, our current collaboration partner, Roche, or any future collaboration partners from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of any product candidate we develop.

 

Clinical development is lengthy and uncertain. We may encounter substantial delays and costs in our clinical trials, or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical trials on the timelines we expect, if at all.

 

Our product candidates may be associated with serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or have other properties that could halt their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

iii


 

We currently conduct clinical trials, and may in the future choose to conduct additional clinical trials, of our product candidates in sites outside the United States, and the FDA may not accept data from trials conducted in foreign locations.

 

Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

 

We may not be successful in our efforts to identify and successfully develop additional product candidates.

 

Risks related to healthcare laws and other legal compliance matters may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

Risks related to commercialization may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

Risks related to manufacturing and our dependence on third parties may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

Risks related to intellectual property may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results, including if we are unable to obtain, maintain, enforce and adequately protect our intellectual property rights with respect to our technology and product candidates, or if the scope of the patent or other intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize technology and products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully develop and commercialize our technology and product candidates may be adversely affected.

 

We have only a limited number of employees which may be inadequate to manage and operate our business.

 

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of system failures, deficiencies or intrusions.

 

We will need to expand our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth, which could disrupt our operations.

 

We may engage in acquisitions or strategic partnerships that could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders, reduce our financial resources, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.

 

We or the third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by natural disasters or other unforeseen events resulting in business interruptions and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from such business interruptions.

 

Litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could result in additional liabilities.

 

Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and share price.

 

Risks related to our common stock may materially and adversely affect our stock price.

 

If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and effective disclosure controls and procedures, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner or prevent fraud, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company.

 

We could be subject to securities class action litigation.

 

 

iv


 

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing antiviral therapeutics to improve the lives of patients suffering from difficult to treat, life-threatening viral infections. Our current focus is on the development of product candidates to treat COVID-19, dengue, chronic hepatitis C (“HCV”), and respiratory syncytial virus (“RSV”).

Utilizing our team’s expertise from decades of developing innovative antiviral treatments we are advancing oral product candidates that are designed to be potent and selective, which we derived from our proprietary nucleotide platform that combine unique nucleotide scaffolds with novel double prodrugs for the purpose of inhibiting the enzymes central to viral replication. We believe that utilizing this double prodrug moiety approach allows us to maximize formation of the active metabolite, potentially resulting in oral antiviral product candidates that are selective for and highly effective at preventing replication of single stranded RNA (“ssRNA”), viruses while avoiding toxicity to host cells.

Our Development Pipeline

The following table summarizes our orally administered product candidate pipeline. All of our product candidates have been discovered and developed internally and we retain full global rights to commercialize our product candidates, other than certain ex-U.S. rights for our product candidate AT-527 licensed to F. Hoffmann-LaRoche Ltd. and Genentech, Inc. (together, “Roche”), under the License Agreement we entered into with Roche in October 2020 (the “Roche License Agreement”). We retain the right to commercialize all our product candidates in the United States.

 

 

1 Ex-US development and commercialization rights (other than for certain hepatitis C virus uses) licensed to Roche.

2 Rights to develop and manufacture globally and to commercialize in the US for dengue, among other viruses, retained.  Ex-US commercialization of AT-752 for dengue is subject to agreement with Roche.

3 AT-787 is our selected product candidate for the treatment of HCV.

 

1


Our Technology Platform and Nucleosides Role in Antiviral Therapy

We have produced a large library of nucleoside and nucleotide prodrugs specifically designed to target viral RNA polymerase, a key enzyme that is encoded in the viral genome. All ssRNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, dengue and HCV, depend on viral RNA polymerase for replication and transcription and, since viral RNA polymerase is not present in the host cell, it is an ideal target to inhibit virus replication.

Over the last 40 years, nucleoside and nucleotide (together, “nucleos(t)ide”) analogs have been developed to mimic naturally occurring nucleic acids and block viral replication by inhibiting enzymes involved in RNA and DNA viral growth cycles. Nucleos(t)ide analogs have become the backbone of therapies that treat life-threatening viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”) hepatitis B virus (“HBV”) and HCV.

 

COVID-19  

The global pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has created significant disruption to public health and economic activity worldwide.  As of March 29, 2021 there have been over 126.9 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 2.8 million deaths worldwide.  Given our current expectation that SARS-CoV-2 is likely to become an endemic human coronavirus that has the potential to circulate in the human population for years, we believe that multiple COVID-19 preventive and therapeutic options will be needed.

At approximately one year into the pandemic, significant progress has been made with multiple vaccine and treatment options available. The treatment options include Veklury, or remdesivir, and dexamethasone, which are administered parenterally and have demonstrated benefit in hospitalized patients, and monoclonal antibody combinations, which are administered intravenously in high-risk patients.  

Despite these advances, substantial need remains for new treatment options, particularly for orally administered treatments which would be more practical, convenient and efficient for use in the early stages of disease in an outpatient setting. We believe this is particularly true for patients with mild to moderate symptoms, which is the most frequent clinical presentation of the disease. Further, we believe that this need will continue for years, given that we expect there will be subsets of the population who will either refuse or fail to respond to available vaccines, or individuals for whom a vaccine is contraindicated, and who need treatment options to be available. An oral, direct acting antiviral that could be readily and easily administered in the outpatient setting would have the potential to significantly reduce disease burden and duration, prevent progression of disease or hospitalization, and have a significant impact on health systems globally.  Additionally, an oral, direct acting antiviral with a mechanism of action that targets the inhibition of viral RNA polymerase, which is a highly conserved target site, could also be of particular value since the antiviral activity is expected to remain even in the presence of newly emerging variants.  

Our product candidate for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 is AT-527, an orally administered, novel, direct acting antiviral.  We, together with our collaborator Roche, anticipate initiating a Phase 3 clinical trial to study AT-527 in adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 in the outpatient setting in the second quarter of 2021.  Currently, we are evaluating AT-527 for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 in two Phase 2 clinical trials. The first trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in approximately 190 adult patients with moderate COVID-19 and one or more risk factors for poor outcomes in a hospitalized setting. We dosed our first patient in September 2020 and expect to report interim virology data from this clinical trial in the second quarter of 2021.  The second trial, which is being conducted in collaboration with Roche, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in up to 220 adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 in an outpatient setting.  The first patient in this trial was dosed in February 2021.  We expect to report interim virology data from this trial in the second quarter of 2021.  In addition, several Phase 1 clinical trials in healthy volunteers are planned in addition to the one currently being conducted and the one recently completed for which positive results have been announced.

 

2


Dengue

 

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that infects up to 400 million people a year, causing substantial public health and economic burden worldwide. Dengue, which is life threatening in severe cases, was traditionally considered a tropical disease, endemic to countries located mostly in the tropical regions of Asia, Latin America, the Pacific, and across Africa. However, in recent decades the incidence of the disease has been spreading globally.  While a vaccine to prevent dengue is approved in some countries, it is indicated only for persons with confirmed prior dengue infection and its product label use is highly restricted. Currently there are no antiviral therapies approved by either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”).

To address this unmet medical need, we are developing AT-752, an oral, purine nucleotide prodrug for the treatment of dengue.  AT-752 targets the inhibition of the dengue viral polymerase and, in preclinical studies, AT-752 showed potent in vitro activity against all serotypes tested, as well as potent in vivo antiviral activity in a small animal model. In March 2021, we initiated a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1a clinical trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics (“PK”), of different dosages of AT-752 in healthy adults. Following the completion of this Phase 1a clinical trial, we expect to initiate a Phase 1b clinical trial in the second half of 2021 to evaluate the antiviral activity, safety and PK of AT-752 in adult patients with dengue virus infection.

Hepatitis C

Despite significant recent advances in treatment, HCV remains a global health burden due to the limitations of currently available treatment options.

For the treatment of chronic HCV infection, we have created a novel combination of AT-527 with AT-777, an investigational nonstructural protein 5A (“NS5A”), inhibitor that we will coformulate into a single, oral, pan-genotypic fixed-dose combination product candidate, AT-787. We believe that AT-787 has the potential to offer a short duration protease-sparing regimen for HCV-infected patients with or without cirrhosis. For patients with decompensated cirrhosis, a life-threatening stage of liver disease, AT-787 has the potential to treat these patients without the co-administration of ribavirin. In March 2020 we paused clinical development in our HCV program due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the second half of 2021, we expect to re-initiate a Phase 1/2a clinical trial, which will be designed to evaluate the safety and PK of different dosages of AT-777 in healthy adults and to evaluate the combination of AT-527 and AT-777 in HCV infected patients.

RSV

RSV is a seasonal respiratory virus that is responsible for significant health and economic burden worldwide. RSV is a common virus that causes severe respiratory disease in infants, which often leads to hospitalization. Up to 70% of infants are infected by the age of one and virtually all infants will have been infected by their third year of life. As protective immunity wanes, RSV reinfection in children and adults, is common. While these reinfections tend to be milder, RSV is a well established cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the immunocompromised and other high-risk patients. There is also an increased awareness of the long-term consequences of RSV primary infection that have been linked to prolonged wheezing and an increased risk of developing asthma.  There are no approved vaccines. The only approved drugs are ribavirin, which has safety concerns and questionable efficacy and Synagis, a monoclonal antibody which is indicated not for treatment but only for protection against RSV in a high risk pediatric population.

 

We are evaluating AT-889, an investigational, second-generation nucleoside pyrimidine prodrug and other compounds for the treatment of RSV. AT-889 is designed to inhibit RNA polymerase through both initiation of viral replication and viral transcription and showed potent in vitro activity in several cell based assays against RSV. In the second half of 2021, we expect to nominate a lead product candidate and initiate investigational new drug application (“IND”) enabling studies.

 

3


Our Team

Our management team has significant experience discovering, developing and commercializing antiviral therapies for life-threatening viral infections. Our Founder, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer, Jean-Pierre Sommadossi, Ph.D., has over 30 years of scientific, operational, strategic, and management experience in the biopharmaceutical industry.  Dr. Sommadossi has authored over 180 peer-reviewed publications and holds more than 60 U.S. patents related to the treatment of antiviral therapeutics and cancer.  Dr. Sommadossi was the principal founder of Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Idenix”), which was acquired by Merck & Co., Inc. (“Merck”), in 2014, and a co-founder of Pharmasset, Inc. (“Pharmasset”), which was acquired by Gilead Sciences, Inc. in 2012.

We have assembled an experienced management and scientific team with a track record of success in the field of antiviral drug development, many of whom have worked together previously. Our team has significant expertise in nucleos(t)ide chemistry, biochemistry and virology and has applied that expertise towards the discovery and development of innovative antiviral treatments, including Epivir, Sovaldi, Tyzeka, Valtrex, Wellferon, Videx, Reyataz, Sustiva, Mavyret, Xofluza, Relenza and Zerit. Members of our team have held senior positions at AstraZeneca plc, Merck, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Chiron, Novartis International AG, Biogen, F. Hoffmann La Roche, Abbvie, Bristol Myers Squibb, Shire, Biohaven Pharma, Pharmasset, Idenix, Valeant Pharmaceuticals International and Alnylam Pharmaceuticals.

Our Strategy

Our goal is to become a global leader in the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel antiviral therapies for severe or life-threatening viral infections. We intend to achieve this goal by pursuing the following strategies:

 

Rapidly complete development and obtain approval for our lead product candidate, AT-527, an oral drug for the treatment of COVID-19. In collaboration with Roche, we intend to initiate a global Phase 3 clinical trial of AT-527 in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 in the outpatient setting in the second quarter of 2021.  Currently, we are evaluating AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19 in two Phase 2 clinical trials and a Phase 1 clinical trial.  We are working closely with the FDA and other regulatory authorities as we plan and implement our clinical trials to align on the most efficient regulatory pathway.

Deploy our medicinal chemistry expertise and proprietary nucleotide platform against severe ssRNA viruses with high unmet need. We are developing additional small molecule antiviral product candidates for the treatment of other severe viral diseases, including AT-752 for the treatment of dengue, which, if successfully developed and approved, we believe has the potential to become the first approved treatment for dengue fever – a disease that infects up to 400 million people each year; AT-787, a co-formulated, oral, pan-genotypic fixed dose combination of AT-527 and AT-777, for the treatment of HCV which we believe has the potential to shorten treatment duration compared to existing therapies, cure difficult-to-treat populations not currently served by existing therapies, and eliminate the need for ribavirin in patients suffering from decompensated cirrhosis; and AT-889, an investigational, second-generation nucleoside pyrimidine prodrug, and other compounds for the treatment of RSV which, if successfully developed and approved, we believe could be the first therapy in over 30 years to be approved specifically for the treatment of RSV.

Focus on excellent clinical and regulatory execution. We believe that building a successful antiviral-focused company requires very specific expertise in the areas of clinical study design and conduct and regulatory strategy. We have assembled a team with a successful track record of managing global clinical development activities in an efficient manner, and with multinational experience in obtaining regulatory approvals for antiviral therapeutics.

4


Maximize the value of our product candidates. We generally intend to retain global commercialization rights to our product candidates, which we believe will allow us to retain the greatest potential value of our product portfolio. However, we may opportunistically enter into license agreements or collaborations where we believe there is an opportunity, particularly outside the United States, to maximize the value and accelerate the development of our product candidates and potential commercialization of any products. For example, in October 2020 we entered into the Roche License Agreement under which we granted an exclusive license for certain development and commercialization rights related to AT-527 outside of the United States to Roche. Currently, we plan to establish our own commercial organization in the United States, and we may build additional commercial organizations in other selected markets for any of our product candidates that are approved.

Maintain our entrepreneurial outlook, scientifically rigorous approach, and culture of tireless commitment to patients. The patients we seek to treat suffer from life-threatening viral infections for which there are no approved therapies or the therapies that are approved have significant drawbacks which may include limited efficacy, or issues with safety and/or tolerability. Members of our team have dedicated their lives to discovering, developing, and commercializing novel antiviral therapies for severe or life-threatening viral infections. We intend to continue building our team of qualified individuals who share our commitment to collaborate and apply scientific rigor in the development of novel antiviral therapies that have the potential to treat or cure some of the world’s most severe viral diseases.

Antiviral therapy

Background on viruses

Viruses are cellular parasites that can only replicate using a host cell’s replication processes, as viruses lack the machinery required to survive and replicate on their own. Unlike living organisms that use DNA as the basis for their genetic material, viruses can use either DNA or RNA. Approximately 70% of all viruses are RNA viruses.

Viruses have two primary components: nucleic acid (single or double stranded RNA or DNA) and a protective shell (the capsid). Some viruses may also have a lipid bilayer (the envelope) surrounding the capsid, an additional membrane derived from host cell membranes that contains viral proteins.

The viral replication process begins when a virus attaches itself to a specific receptor site on the host-cell membrane through attachment proteins. The replication mechanism is dependent upon whether the virus is an RNA or DNA virus. DNA viruses use host cell proteins and enzymes to make additional DNA that is used to copy the viral genome or is transcribed to messenger RNA (“mRNA”). RNA viruses use their RNA as a template for synthesis of viral genomic RNA and mRNA. The mRNA then instructs the host cell to assemble viral structural proteins. Finally, the newly created virus particles (“virions”), are released from the host cell in order to repeat the infection and replication cycle. RNA viruses can be particularly challenging to treat, as the error rates around the viral RNA polymerase directed RNA synthesis cause high mutation rates during reproduction, creating variants and resistance challenges for antiviral therapies.

Background of ssRNA viruses

RNA viruses can be single stranded (ssRNA) viruses or double-stranded (dsRNA), viruses, depending on the type of RNA used as the genetic material. A virus encased within a lipid bilayer is known as an enveloped virus, while a virus without this bilayer is called a non-enveloped virus. Enveloped ssRNA viruses are the more prevalent cause of severe human viral diseases. Studies from the last decade have placed RNA viruses as primary etiological agents of many emerging human pathogens, representing up to 50% of all emerging infectious diseases. Types of enveloped and non-enveloped ssRNA viruses and some of the diseases they cause are shown in the table below, with the types of ssRNA viruses that we are currently targeting with our product candidates highlighted in yellow.

5


 

 

Over the last 40 years, a great deal of progress has been made in the treatment of some of the most severe viral infections. However, many highly pathogenic ssRNA viruses, including dengue virus and newly emerging viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 continue to cause severe viral diseases which still remain inadequately treated or not treated at all.

Viral polymerase as an antiviral target

From the discovery and approval of the first antiviral drug in 1963, there have been more than 100 antiviral drugs approved in the United States for the treatment of nine different human viral diseases. A historical challenge with the treatment of intracellular viruses has been selectivity or discovering drug targets that can completely inhibit viral replication without harming the host cells, leading to toxic side effects. Advances in technology and high throughput screening in recent years have driven the discovery of more selective antiviral product candidates. The viral polymerase, which is the single protein present in all RNA viruses, is a key enzyme in the replication of viruses, making for an ideal drug target as its core structural features are highly conserved across different viruses. There are four types of viral polymerase, depending upon the virus and its genomic makeup:

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (“RdRp”): All ssRNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 and HCV, depend on the RdRp, encoded in the viral genome, for replication and transcription. Since these enzymes are not present in the host cell, this facilitates the design of selective inhibitors of viral replication, which target viral but not host cell polymerases.

DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (“DdDP”): DdDP is used by DNA viruses to replicate their genome.

RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (“reverse transcriptase”): Reverse transcriptase is used by certain DNA or RNA viruses, such as HBV and HIV-1, to replicate their genomes.

DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (“DdRP”): DdRP is used by DNA viruses to transcribe mRNA from DNA templates during replication.

As viral RNA polymerase based synthesis does not occur in human host cells, antiviral drug development for RNA viruses focuses on identifying selective drug-like molecules that target viral RNA polymerase. Advances in technology have enabled intensive structural and functional studies of viral RNA polymerase including the identification in the case of SARS-CoV-2 of nidovirus RdRp associated nucleotidyltranferase (“NiRAN”), and have opened avenues for the development of new and more effective antiviral therapies.

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Viral resistance and Variants

A major obstacle to antiviral therapy is viral resistance. Resistance is a function of a virus’ ability to genetically mutate, which, in the case of RNA viruses, is substantially higher than DNA viruses, as most RdRp lack proofreading abilities. The rate of mutation of RNA viruses can occur at six orders of magnitude greater than the rate of mutation of host cells. The ability of viruses to evolve makes the design of ssRNA-directed therapies challenging, as these viral strains continue to mutate and become more resistant to certain antiviral therapies over time. Since all the enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways of AT-527 and AT-752 to their active triphosphate are designed to be essentially ubiquitous host cell enzymes and not virally encoded proteins, we believe that the high rate of viral mutation does not affect the activation of the prodrug.

At times, combination therapy has been used to combat viral resistance for specific types of human viral infections. The guiding principles to decide when combination therapy may be needed, include: the in vitro inhibitory potency and human pharmacology of the antiviral; viral replication kinetics in patients; viral polymerase error rate; and whether the viral disease is an acute or a chronic infection. With RNA viruses, the treatment of acute infection, such as influenza, is monotherapy (e.g., Tamiflu), as compared to the treatment of chronic infection, such as HCV, which is combination therapy (e.g., Epclusa). COVID-19, dengue and RSV are each the result of acute RNA viral infections.

Another consequence of viral mutations is the emergence of new variants. For example, each year the genetic mutations accumulated in the influenza virus cause antigen drift that could significantly impact immune recognition, thus the flu vaccines have to be reviewed and updated.  SARS-CoV-2, despite the fact that it does have a proof-reading function with the nsp14 exonuclease, has proven to be able to mutate quickly as well. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants are circulating globally. For example, variants that have emerged since fall 2020, include B.1.1.7 (also known as 501Y.V1, VOC 202012/01) in the U.K., B.1.351 (501Y.V2) in South Africa, P.1 (20J/501Y.V3) in Brazil, and B.1.526 in New York. Some of these variants not only appear to transmit faster and cause more serious illness but may also reduce the efficacy of current vaccines and antibodies, and thus present an even greater health challenge.

Nucleos(t)ide analogs and prodrugs

Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), which comprise human and viral genetic material, are composed of natural chemical compounds termed nucleosides and nucleotides. Nucleos(t)ide analogs, which are synthetic compounds that mimic the structure of naturally occurring nucleosides and nucleotides, target the viral polymerase directly so that it mistakenly incorporates these analogs into nascent nucleic acids, causing inhibition of viral replication. Nucleos(t)ide analogs, compared to other classes of antiviral therapies, have a high barrier to viral resistance due to the conservation of the structure of the polymerase that is required to produce viable virions.

Prodrugs of nucleos(t)ide analogs have become the backbone of therapies to treat life threatening viral infections, including HIV, HBV, and HCV. Prodrugs are employed to bypass rate limiting activation steps and to improve the oral bioavailability and permeation of cell membranes by the nucleos(t)ide analog.

Our Platform

Leveraging our deep understanding of antiviral drug development, nucleos(t)ide chemistry, biochemistry and virology, we have built a proprietary purine nucleotide prodrug platform to develop novel treatments for life threatening diseases caused by ssRNA viral infections.

Our proprietary nucleotide prodrug platform, as illustrated below, is comprised of the following critical components:

specific modifications at the 6-position of the purine base, acting as a prodrug, are designed to prevent the toxic effects of other such modifications and enhance cell membrane permeability, resulting in an intermediate metabolite that maximizes formation of the triphosphate active metabolite in cells;

stereospecific phosphoramidate, acting as a prodrug, designed to bypass the first rate-limiting phosphorylation enzyme in the intracellular activation pathway;

specific modifications in the sugar moiety of the purine nucleotide scaffold, producing potent antiviral activity with a high degree of selectivity; and

highly specific salt form to enhance solubility and drug bioavailability.

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Atea’s purine nucleotide prodrug platform

 

 

We believe that product candidates derived from our platform, which combines unique purine nucleotide scaffolds with a novel double prodrug strategy, have the following potential advantageous characteristics and features:

enhanced antiviral activity and selectivity, as well as well-established pharmacology and animal models to predict clinical activity;

favorable safety profile;

convenience of once- or twice-daily oral administration; and

efficient, predictable, scalable, and reproducible manufacturing, as well as long shelf life for potential stockpiling.

 

 

Development Programs

 

 

AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19

Although vaccines have an important role in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic, we believe that there will be a continuing need for treatment options to stay ahead of the virus and the emergence of variants. While there are parenterally or intravenously administered therapeutics available for use in the hospital setting, oral treatments would be more practical and efficient for use in the early stages of disease in an outpatient setting, including for patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Thus we believe that a significant and urgent unmet medical need remains for orally administered, direct acting antivirals with broad utility for the treatment of COVID-19.

COVID-19 is an acute viral infection. We believe antiviral therapeutics should be most effective against COVID-19 within the first stage of the infection when the viral load is at its maximum, which is consistent with rapid viral replication initially in nasal cells, throat cells and ultimately pulmonary cells. As shown in the illustration below, we believe that the use of a potent, safe, oral antiviral therapeutic to treat SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals in the early stage of infection will mitigate the onset of severe COVID-19 and avert hospitalization.

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SARS-CoV-2

Background

 

SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus, belonging to the Coronaviridae family, and is an enveloped virus with a positive sense ssRNA genome which encodes 29 viral proteins. It is one of six other human coronaviruses that exist, with four responsible for one third of common cold infections.

SARS-CoV-2 is structurally similar to two other life-threatening coronaviruses: SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (“MERS-CoV-1”). SARS-CoV-2 impairs respiratory function and spreads primarily from person to person via respiratory droplets among close contacts. Symptoms, which may include fever, cough, shortness of breath and fatigue, generally appear two to twelve days after exposure. Severe complications include pneumonia, multi-organ failure, and death.

SARS-CoV-2 is a spherical virus that carries four different structural proteins: spike protein, envelope protein, membrane glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein. As shown in the illustration below, the infection cycle begins when the spike proteins bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 cellular receptor (“ACE2”), on the surface of the target cells. A second cell surface protein, transmembrane serine protease 2 (“TMPRSS2”), enables the virion to enter the cell, where it releases its RNA. Some of this RNA is translated into new proteins using the host cell’s machinery—these proteins include the four structural proteins, as well as a number of non-structural proteins (“nsps”), that form the replication complex. Within this complex, RdRps catalyze the synthesis of the approximately 30,000-nucleotide RNA viral genome. The proteins and RNA are then assembled into a new virion in the Golgi and released through exocytosis.

SARS-CoV-2 replication process

 

 

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COVID-19

 

Current vaccine and treatment landscape  

Several vaccines have been recently authorized for emergency use and additional vaccines and drug candidates are being developed to prevent infection and to create herd immunity, with the aim of preventing disease and reducing the amount of virus circulating within the community. Antiviral therapies are complementary to vaccines, and we anticipate that antivirals will continue to be essential because of uncertainties around the level of immunity that the vaccines will be able to generate, the durability of such immunity and the emergence of new variants of the virus that could change and potentially lessen the effectiveness of vaccines.

As of March 29, 2021, the FDA has granted emergency-use authorizations for certain monoclonal antibody regimens for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 and for convalescent plasma.  Antibody therapies, including those that are currently authorized for emergency use as well as those in development, may have application in prevention as well as treatment.  However, the antibodies currently in use and in development require parenteral administration and are historically more complex than small molecules to manufacture. We believe that these two factors will impact and limit the use of antibodies for the treatment of patients, particularly outpatients with COVID-19.  

Remdesivir, an antiviral that is a RdRp inhibitor, is approved by the FDA for treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. The limited bioavailability of remdesivir requires administration via intravenous infusion, which we believe is likely to limit its use to hospitalized patients.

Clinical drug candidates in development include small molecules designed to work as direct acting antivirals, which may be administered for both treatment and potentially prophylaxis.  In addition to our antiviral candidate, AT-527, other antiviral drug candidates currently in development include molnupiravir, a nucleoside analog that incorporates into the viral RNA leading to lethal accumulation of mistakes or “error catastrophe” and PF-0083521, a protease inhibitor.

In addition to treatments directed at the virus, there are other immunomodulatory therapies such as interleukin-6 inhibitors, steroids, JAK inhibitors, and anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies which are being developed to treat the host inflammatory response to the disease.

 

Our approach

We, together with our collaboration partner, Roche, are developing AT-527, an orally administered, novel antiviral product candidate, for the treatment of COVID-19. AT-527 uniquely inhibits viral RNA polymerase including both NiRAN and RdRp functional domains.

 

Targeting SARS-COV-2 NiRAN/RdRp to treat COVID-19

The RNA polymerase complex of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 supports the transcription and replication of their approximately 30,000-nucleotide viral RNA genomes. It is the largest and most complex RNA synthesis machinery among RNA viruses. As shown in the illustration below, the multi-subunit SARS-CoV polymerase complex is composed of a number of nsps including viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), processivity factors (nsp7, nsp8), a proofreading exonuclease, a N7-methyl transferase (nsp14), and a helicase (nsp13). The nsp12 protein contains two domains, a RdRp core, which is the catalytic subunit incorporating ribonucleotides into RNA templates, and a N-terminal NiRAN domain, the function of which was previously unknown.  

SARS-CoV RNA Polymerase

 

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We have investigated the mechanism by which SARS-CoV initiates viral RNA synthesis and have discovered that there are two distinct pathways: one protein-primed and mediated by the NiRAN through the UMPylation of nsp8, and the other through de novo synthesis of dinucleotide primers in a NiRAN-independent manner. Importantly, both functions can be inhibited by AT-9010, the active triphosphate metabolite of the prodrug AT-527. Furthermore, we have obtained a 2.98 Å cryo-EM quaternary structure of nsp12/7/8/RNA/AT-9100, which confirms that AT-9010 not only bound to the NiRAN active site but also was incorporated by the RdRp and functions as a chain terminator.  We believe this unique dual mechanism of AT-527 may create a potentially higher barrier to resistance compared to other direct acting antiviral inhibitors. We expect that AT-527 will maintain its antiviral activity even against the recently emerged variants with mutations in the spike (S) protein responsible for the receptor recognition and host cell membrane fusion process. These variants may affect the efficacy of vaccines and antibodies due to the mutations in the viral spike protein.

 

It is also conceivable that the proofreading exonuclease activity of nsp14 could remove the terminating analog nucleotide from the RdRp core and experiments to demonstrate this are ongoing.  However, the NiRAN function has no exonuclease activity.

Preclinical Studies

AT-511, the free base of AT-527, has shown in vitro antiviral activity against multiple ssRNA viruses, including human flaviviruses and coronaviruses.

We assessed the in vitro potency of AT-511 against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The data observed is summarized in the table below.

The activity against SARS-CoV was assessed after exposure of Huh-7 cells to virus and serial dilutions of test compound by determining the effective concentration required to reduce secretion of infectious virus into the culture medium by 90% (EC90) after a 3-day incubation using a standard endpoint dilution CCID50 assay to determine virus yield reduction (VYR). Half-maximal cytotoxicity (CC50) was measured by neutral red staining of compound-treated duplicates in the absence of virus.

Since Huh-7 cells were unable to support infection by and replication of SARS-CoV-2, normal human airway epithelial (“HAE”) cell preparations were used to assess the activity of AT-511 against this virus, using the same method as described above. Cytotoxicity was assessed by visual inspection of the cells at the end of the 5-day incubation period.

In Vitro Activity of AT-511 (free base of AT-527) Against Human Coronaviruses

 

Virus
(genus)

Cell line

Compound

Cytopathic
Effect Assay
CC50 (µM)

Virus Yield
Reduction
Assay EC90
(µM)(n)

SARSCoV
(beta)

Huh7

AT511

>86

0.34

SARSCoV2
(beta)

HAE

AT511

molnupiravir

remdesivir

>86a

>19a

>8.3a

0.47 ± 0.012 (5)

2.8 ± 1.0 (3)

0.002 to 0.27 (5)

 

aCytotoxicity assessed by visual inspection of cell monolayers

Huh7, human hepatocyte carcinoma cell line (established ability to form triphosphate from AT511)

HAE, human airway epithelial cell culture (established ability to form triphosphate from AT511)

 

The EC90 values for AT-511 against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were 0.34 µM and an average of 0.5 µM from five independent experiments. The concentration of AT-511 required to exhibit CC50 of the host cells used in these assays to support viral infection and propagation was consistently greater than the highest concentration tested (>86 µM). The sub-micromolar EC90 values, in combination with the lack of

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toxicity observed in the host cells, suggests the potential for high potency and selectivity of AT-511 in vivo against these SARS coronaviruses.

The EC90 for remdesivir, which was included in all SARS-CoV-2 assays as a positive control and was included as a blinded test article in two independent assays, ranged from 0.002-0.27 µM. The potency of remdesivir, however, is likely a combination of its antiviral activity and cytotoxicity since dying and dead cells cannot support efficient viral replication. The CC50 for remdesivir, determined by neutral red staining in the SARS-CoV assay conducted in human cells (Huh-7; less precise visual assessments without staining were used to determine cytotoxicity in the HAE assays) ranged from 5-11 µM. Similar in vitro cytotoxicity of remdesivir (1.7-36 µM CC50) has been reported in other cell lines.

We also assessed the in vitro potency of N4-hydroxycytidine, the nucleoside formed from the oral prodrug molnupiravir currently being developed by Ridgeback/Merck for the treatment of COVID-19. N4-hydroxycytidine was five to eight times less potent than AT-511 against SARS-CoV-2 in the same experiment. We also assessed the antiviral activity of sofosbuvir and found that it did not inhibit SARS-CoV replication in BHK-21 cells at concentrations as high as 100 µM and was a poor inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 with an estimated EC90 of about 8 µM in HAE cells.

In addition to assessing the in vitro potency of AT-511 against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, we evaluated the formation and intracellular half-life of AT-9010, the active triphosphate metabolite of AT-527, in primary human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells. Also, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and intracellular half-life of AT-9010 in tissues of non-human primates after oral administration of AT-527.

Substantial levels of the active triphosphate of AT-527 were formed in normal human bronchial and nasal epithelial cells incubated in vitro with 10 µM AT-511. After an 8-hour incubation, intracellular concentrations of the triphosphate were 698 and 236 µM in the bronchial and nasal cells, respectively. After replacement of the culture medium at 8 hours with fresh medium without AT-511, the half-life of the active triphosphate was determined to be 39 and 38 hours in the respective cell incubations. The accumulation and half-life of remdesivir triphosphate has been reported in the same type of human bronchial epithelial cells incubated with 1 µM remdesivir. After similar eight hour incubations, the concentration of remdesivir triphosphate, normalized to a dose of 10 µM, is at least 7-fold lower than the observed concentration of AT-9010 in the same cell type. In similar incubations of 1 µM remdesivir with human bronchial epithelial cells for two hours followed by washout of drug and continued incubation for 30 hours, the initial half-life of remdesivir triphosphate was less than 8 hours which is at least 4 times shorter than the half-life of AT-9010 in the same primary human lung cells, suggesting the accumulation of higher levels of AT-9010 leading to a potentially greater antiviral effect after twice daily oral administration of 550 mg AT-527 versus daily intravenous administration of remdesivir (200 mg loading + 100 mg maintenance doses).

In non-human primates (“NHPs”) administered AT-527 orally for three days in the form of a loading dose (60 mg/kg) followed by five maintenance doses (30 mg/kg each) 12 hours apart, intracellular concentrations of the active triphosphate metabolite in lung, kidney and liver tissue 12 hours after the last dose (steady-state trough levels with respect to twice daily dosing) were 0.14, 0.13 and 0.09 µM, respectively. Since the NHP maintenance doses were allometrically scaled to be equivalent to the initially intended clinical maintenance doses for COVID-19 subjects (550 mg AT-527 given orally twice daily), predicted trough concentrations of AT-9010 in lung cells in prospective COVID-19 subjects were obtained from the plasma pharmacokinetics of AT-273 (surrogate for intracellular triphosphate concentrations) obtained from COVID-19 subjects given twice-daily oral doses of 550 mg AT-527.These values were adjusted by either the 1.6-fold greater triphosphate lung versus liver concentrations or the 1.2-fold greater lung triphosphate versus plasma AT-273 concentrations observed at 12 hours after the last dose in NHPs. These predictions of the trough human lung concentrations (0.9 and 0.7 µM, respectively) were based on the established close pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship between plasma AT-273 concentrations and the antiviral effect in HCV-infected patients. We believe both predictions suggest that trough levels of the active triphosphate in COVID-19 patients during treatment with AT-527 should exceed the EC90 of 0.5 µM for AT-511 against SARS-CoV-2 replication. Moreover, we believe both predictions likely underestimate triphosphate trough levels in human lung since neither account for the extended intracellular half-life (39 hours) of the triphosphate observed exclusively in human lung epithelial cells in vitro.

 

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Clinical Development History

AT-527 was initially developed for the treatment of chronic HCV, and we have completed two clinical trials of AT-527 in HCV. See –Hepatitis C virus (HCV)—Clinical development. By utilizing data that we obtained in our HCV clinical trials of AT-527, we were able to initiate our clinical development program of AT-527 for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Ongoing clinical trials include a Phase 2 clinical trial in hospitalized patients, a Phase 2 clinical trial in the outpatient setting and a Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers.

 

 

Ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in hospitalized patients

We are currently conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, global Phase 2 clinical trial of AT-527, which is expected to enroll approximately 190 COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Patients eligible for enrollment in this Phase 2 clinical trial are aged 18 to 80 years with moderate COVID-19 illness and at least one risk factor suggestive of poor outcome (such as obesity, hypertension, a history of diabetes, or a history of asthma). Moderate severity is defined as having at least one symptom of lower respiratory infection consistent with COVID-19, as well as oxygen saturation below 93% on room air or requiring 2L/min oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation in excess of 93%. The primary efficacy endpoint is the change in level of respiratory insufficiency, assessed on an ordinal 6-category scale of respiratory support levels, as compared to placebo, where a statistically significant finding would be reflected by a significantly lower probability for AT-527-treated subjects to exhibit a worsening of respiratory insufficiency (requiring 2 level higher respiratory support) during the study compared to placebo recipients. The six categories of the ordinal scale are: (1) no respiratory support; (2) low-level passive O2 supplementation (up to 2 L/min) by mask or nasal cannula; (3) higher O2 supplementation (>2 L/min); (4) any non-invasive form of positive-pressure oxygenation/ventilation; (5) invasive respiratory support; and (6) death. We believe the most important outcomes to be assessed in this trial are the effect of AT-527 versus placebo on the viral kinetics of the infection and the elucidation of the safety and tolerability of the drug at the dose of 550mg administered twice daily.

Trial participants are being randomized 1:1 (AT-527: placebo). The first 40 patients (20 AT-527, 20 placebo) received a dose of either 550 mg of AT-527 or placebo twice daily for five days in addition to supportive standard of care. In accordance with the protocol, an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (“DSMB”), conducted safety reviews after the first cohort of 20 patients, and again after the second cohort of 20 patients, and approved continued enrollment of patients in the trial.

There are additional planned pauses and DSMB reviews at each of the 50% and 75% enrollment levels.

We expect to report interim virology data from this Phase 2 clinical trial in the second quarter of 2021.

 

Ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in an outpatient setting

 

In addition to the Phase 2 clinical trial in hospitalized patients, we, together with our collaborator, Roche, are conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of AT-527 in adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, with and without risk factors, in an outpatient setting (MOONSONG). There are multiple cohorts included in this clinical trial. The initial cohort is receiving 550 mg of AT-527 administered twice daily.  With additional cohorts we may investigate dosing regimens in addition to the 550 mg twice-daily dose. The study may enroll up to 220 patients in the U.K., Ireland and other countries.

 

We expect to report interim virology data from this Phase 2 clinical trial in the second quarter of 2021.

Phase 1 clinical trials

In addition to the Phase 2 clinical trials, we, in collaboration with Roche, are conducting a Phase 1 clinical trial of AT-527 in healthy volunteers and we are planning several additional Phase 1 clinical trials, including clinical pharmacology studies required to support applications for regulatory approval.

 

On March 6, 2021 we announced favorable results from a Phase 1 clinical trial that evaluated 20 healthy volunteers who were randomized 1:1 to receive oral AT-527 550 mg twice daily (BID) or matching placebo for 5 days. The results demonstrated that AT-527 was well tolerated. In this Phase 1 clinical trial, there were no discontinuations, serious adverse events, clinically significant changes in vital signs, or electrocardiograms observed. The data also demonstrated that AT-511, the free base of AT-527, was

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rapidly absorbed, followed by fast and extensive stepwise metabolic activation ultimately to the active triphosphate metabolite AT-9010, reflected by plasma AT-273.  AT-527 550 mg BID led to fast attainment of steady-state levels of AT-273 within two days of dosing. Plasma levels of AT-273 were further used to predict lung concentrations of AT-9010 using a scaling factor of 1.2X which was previously determined based on in vivo tissue distribution of the triphosphate metabolite observed in cynomolgus monkeys. Beginning as early as three hours after the first dose, and maintained thereafter throughout the five days of dosing, predicted lung AT-9010 levels were consistently above the EC90 level of 0.5 µM that was required for in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in cynomolgus monkeys.

 

Planned Phase 3 Global Clinical Development Program

 

Phase 3 Registrational Clinical Trial

We, together with Roche, are currently engaging with regulatory authorities in order to open a Phase 3 clinical trial of AT-527 in an outpatient setting (MORNINGSKY). This clinical trial is expected to enroll patients aged 18 years and older with mild or moderate COVID-19. The primary objective of the trial is expected to be evaluation of the efficacy of AT-527 compared to placebo by measuring the time to alleviation of symptoms (“TAS”), in patients with SARS-CoV-2 virus infection with mild or moderate disease. The primary endpoint of TAS is defined as the time when all COVID-19 symptoms are assessed and self-reported by the patient as none or mild for a duration of at least 24 hours. Patients will assess the severity of disease on a 4-point scale (with 0 indicating no symptoms, 1 mild symptoms, 2 moderate symptoms, and 3 severe symptoms).  We expect to enroll approximately 1,500 patients in this clinical trial.

Post-exposure Prophylaxis Clinical Trial

We, together with Roche, are also planning to conduct a randomized, double-blind, post-exposure prophylaxis Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the reduction of direct transmission from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (index case) to contacts.  In this outpatient clinical trial, we expect to enroll approximately 3,000 patients aged 18 years or older. Pending additional discussions with regulatory authorities, the primary endpoint is expected to be the proportion of participants who test positive by RT-PCR at predetermined timepoints.

Regulatory Strategy

To align on the most efficient regulatory pathway for AT-527 in COVID-19, we and Roche are engaging in discussions with the FDA and other regulatory authorities as we plan and implement the clinical trials described above.

Clinical Trial Material

We and Roche are currently conducting manufacturing campaigns at third-party contract manufacturers that are expected to result, when combined with our current drug tablet inventory, in an inventory of AT-527 275 mg and 550 mg tablets and matching placebo that is expected to satisfy the clinical trial material requirements for currently planned COVID-19 clinical trials. Additionally, we, together with Roche, are engaged, through our contract manufacturers, in the optimization of the synthetic process and formulation for commercial scale manufacture of AT-527 275 mg tablets. We are targeting availability of initial commercial supply of AT-527 beginning in 2022.

AT-752 for the Treatment of

Dengue

Background

Dengue, which is caused by a positive sense ssRNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne viral infection. Dengue causes flu-like symptoms in both children and adults and is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. There are five dengue viral serotypes, and infection with one serotype does not produce immunity to another serotype. Thus, a person could be infected with dengue multiple times and reinfection typically results in a more severe disease. Symptoms include fever, eye pain, headache, swollen glands, rash, muscle pain, bone pain, nausea, vomiting, and joint pain, and last two to seven days post-infection.

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Globally, three billion people, or roughly 40% percent of the world’s population, live in high-risk dengue areas, while up to 400 million are infected each year, resulting in 500,000 hospitalizations. The WHO has called dengue the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Although dengue rarely occurs in the continental United States, it is endemic in Puerto Rico, Southeast Asia, Latin America and the Pacific Islands, as shown in the map below. Seventy percent of the global disease burden for dengue is in Asia.

 

 

According to the Center for Disease Control (“CDC”), 5% of infected patients develop a life-threatening form of dengue called severe dengue. Those who develop severe dengue may have some or all of the following complications: severe abdominal pain, fatigue, severe bleeding, organ impairment, and plasma leakage. The mortality rate of severe dengue ranges between 12% and 44%, if left untreated. The global economic cost burden of dengue was estimated at $8.9 billion in 2013, with nearly 50% of the costs associated with hospitalizations.

Current treatment landscape

There are no FDA or EMA approved therapies indicated for the treatment of dengue. Current treatment protocols involve supportive care, including analgesics, judicious fluid replacement, and bed rest. In 2019, a vaccine, Dengvaxia developed by Sanofi Pasteur Inc. (“Sanofi”), was approved by the FDA for the prevention of disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in children ages nine to 16 with laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and living in endemic areas.

Takeda Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd, (“Takeda”), is also advancing a dengue vaccine, TAK-003, which is in Phase 3 development. Primary endpoint analysis of its ongoing Phase 3 trial in children ages four to 16 years showed protection against virologically-confirmed dengue.

Our approach

We are developing AT-752, an oral, purine nucleoside prodrug product candidate for the treatment of dengue. AT-752 has shown potent activity against all serotypes tested in preclinical studies. AT-752 is designed to target the inhibition of the dengue viral polymerase. We also intend to explore the potential development of AT-752 as a prophylactic treatment for dengue, which we believe, if approved, could be directed at the travelers’ market. As a part of the Roche License Agreement, we agreed that we would not commercialize AT-752 outside the United States unless we enter into a separate commercialization agreement with Roche to do so.  We retain global rights to develop and manufacture AT-752 for the treatment of dengue.

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Preclinical development

We have conducted preclinical studies of AT-752 in which we pre-treated AG129 mice with AT-752 (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) for four hours before subcutaneous inoculation with D2Y98P dengue strain and subsequent dosing of AT-752 twice daily (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days, starting one hour post inoculation. This disease model, which ultimately resulted in fatal central nervous system sequelae, showed notable differences in overall health, survival, and viremia between AT-752-treated mice and mice that were treated with vehicle. As shown in the graphs below, viral RNA in serum was statistically significantly lower than control by day 6 and below the limit of detection (“LOD”) (LOD: 50 copies per m/L) on day 8, after seven days of drug treatment.

 

 

The antiviral activity of AT-281, the free base of AT-752, was evaluated under contract with the National Institutes of Health and Infectious Disease against a variety of flaviviruses. Huh-7 cells were infected with individual viral strains and exposed to serial dilutions of AT-281. A virally induced cytopathic effect (“CPE”), assay using a neutral red dye uptake endpoint or a virus yield reduction measurement using a standard endpoint dilution CCID50 assay was used to measure the antiviral EC50 or EC90 value, respectively. Uninfected cell controls concurrently exposed to drug were used to determine cytotoxicity (CC50) using the CPE assay. AT-281 demonstrated sub-micromolar potencies against all flaviviruses tested (summarized in the table below), with an EC90 of 0.64 µM against Dengue type 2 and an EC50 of 0.77 µM against Dengue type 3. No toxicity was detected for AT-281 up to the highest concentration tested (172 µM).

 

 

Selectivity index (CC50/EC90 or CC50/EC50)

EC50

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Clinical development

Phase 1 Clinical Trial

We have initiated a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1a trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics (“PK”) of several different dosages of AT-752 in 50 to 60 healthy adult subjects.

Following the completion of the Phase 1a trial, we expect to initiate in the second half of 2021 a Phase 1b trial of AT-752 in 60 to 80 adult subjects with dengue, to evaluate antiviral activity, safety and PK. Currently, we expect that the endpoints of the Phase 1b trial will include reductions in viral load, fever and time to clearance of non-structural protein 1.

We intend to pursue FDA expedited development and review programs for AT-752. Dengue is also defined as a tropical disease under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (the “FDCA”), and therefore FDA approval of AT-752 for the treatment of Dengue may result in a tropical disease priority review voucher.

AT-787 for the Treatment of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Background

HCV is a blood-borne, positive sense, ssRNA virus, primarily infecting cells of the liver. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplants and spreads via blood transfusion, hemodialysis and needle sticks. Injection drug use accounts for approximately 60% of all new cases of HCV. Diagnosis of HCV is made through blood tests, including molecular tests that allow for the detection, quantification and analysis of viral genomes and the classification of an infection into specific viral genotypes. Hepatitis C becomes chronic Hepatitis C in 75% to 85% of cases, with an incubation period lasting from two to 26 weeks.

HCV is classified into seven genotypes and 67 subtypes, with genotype 1 responsible for more than 70% of HCV cases in the United States. Patients with HCV are also classified by liver function status: compensated cirrhosis (liver scarring) denotes those patients that do not yet have impaired liver function, while decompensated cirrhosis describes patients with moderate to severe liver function impairment.

According to the WHO, an estimated 71 million people are chronically infected with HCV, a significant portion of which are likely to develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Of those infected with HCV, only 20% are diagnosed and 2% are treated globally. The WHO estimates that 399,000 people died from HCV in 2016.

As shown in the table below, the CDC reported that new infections in the United States have increased substantially from 2011 to 2017 with the greatest increase in incidence occurring in individuals ages 20 to 39 years old.

 

 

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Despite recent advances in treatment, there remains a large underserved HCV patient population which continues to grow. The CDC estimated the incidence of HCV in 2018 increased by 50,300 cases in the United States. It is estimated that a substantial global market for HCV therapeutics will exist to 2050 and beyond.

Current treatment landscape

No vaccine exists for the prevention of HCV, but several recently introduced oral antiviral therapeutics have boosted sustained virologic response rates to over 95% in a majority of patients, with treatment durations reduced to eight to 12 weeks depending upon the regimen and patient population. There are three classes of direct acting antiviral therapeutics, defined by their mechanism of action and therapeutic target: NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B non-nucleos(t)ide polymerase inhibitors. A patient’s genotype, cirrhotic status, and prior treatment failures determine the appropriate antiviral therapeutic used in treatment. The two leading therapeutics for treatment of chronic HCV are:

Epclusa (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir): Epclusa was first approved by the FDA in 2016 for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV infection with any of genotypes one through six infection, either without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. For patients with decompensated cirrhosis, Epclusa is approved for use in combination with ribavirin. Patients on Epclusa require 12 weeks of treatment.

Mavyret (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir): Mavyret was first approved by the FDA in 2017 for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV with any of genotypes one through six infection, without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Mavyret is also approved for HCV patients with genotype 1 infection who have been previously treated with a regimen either containing an NS5A inhibitor or an NS3/4A protease inhibitor (but not both). Mavyret was the first eight-week treatment approved for HCV genotypes one through six in adult patients without cirrhosis who have not been previously treated. In 2019, the FDA approved shortening the treatment duration from 12 weeks to eight weeks in treatment-naïve, compensated cirrhotic HCV patients across all genotypes one through six. Mavyret is not approved for use in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Our approach

We are developing AT-787 for the treatment of chronic HCV infection, including patients with decompensated cirrhosis. AT-787 combines AT-527 with a second-generation NS5A inhibitor, AT-777, into a single, oral, pan-genotypic fixed-dose combination therapy. Based on our preclinical and clinical data to date, we believe that AT-787, if approved, could offer the following potential benefits over currently available treatments:

Shorten treatment duration to eight weeks in non-cirrhotic and compensated cirrhosis HCV in all genotypes. Current HCV therapies typically require longer dosing in cirrhotic patients to achieve a sustained virologic response (“SVR”), that is close to, but often proportionally lower, than the SVR achieved with shorter treatment of non-cirrhotic patients.

Equivalent antiviral potency across all genotypes, regardless of cirrhotic status, including the difficult to treat genotype-3 population.

Obviate the need for extensive pretreatment assessments required by current treatment options, including genotyping, fibroscan (if cirrhosis is present), and liver function assessment.

Eliminate the need for ribavirin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Ribavirin, an antiviral first approved in 1986, carries several FDA boxed warnings, including the risk of hemolytic anemia and teratogenicity.

Well tolerated, with low potential for drug-drug interactions. Mavyret, which carries an FDA warning for cirrhotic patient treatment, is not to be prescribed for patients on atazanavir or rifampin, while Epclusa could cause a slow heart rate when taken with amiodarone.

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Clinical development

We have completed two clinical trials of AT-527 for the treatment of chronic HCV infection.

Phase 1 clinical trial of AT-527

We conducted a Phase 1 trial to evaluate single and multiple doses of AT-527 as a single agent in healthy and HCV-infected subjects for up to seven days. All HCV-infected subjects were treatment-naïve with HCV RNA 5 log10 IU/mL. The objectives of the trial were to assess safety, tolerability, PK and antiviral activity.

The trial evaluated single oral doses of AT-527 up to 369 mg free base (400 mg salt form) in healthy subjects (Part A), single doses up to 600 mg salt form (553 mg free base) in non-cirrhotic HCV-infected subjects (Part B), and multiple doses up to 600 mg salt form (553 mg free base) once daily for seven days in non-cirrhotic genotype 1b (“GT1”), HCV-infected subjects (Part C). Additional cohorts evaluated 600 mg salt form (553 mg free base) once daily for seven days in non-cirrhotic genotype 3 (“GT3”), (Part D) and Child-Pugh A cirrhotic genotype 1b/3 (“GT1b/2”), HCV-infected subjects (Part E). The tables below show the dosage and mean maximum HCV RNA reductions for each treatment cohort.

A total of 88 subjects were dosed across all parts of the trial, with 72 subjects who received active drug and 16 subjects who received placebo. In this trial, AT-527 showed equivalent pan-genotypic antiviral activity in both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic HCV infected patients. The mean HCV reduction within 24 hours after a single dose was up to 2.4 log10 IU/mL, and the mean maximum HCV RNA reduction after seven days of dosing with AT-527 at 553 mg free base was 4.6 log10 IU/mL. Data also showed a mean maximum HCV RNA reduction of 4.4 log10 IU/mL after seven days of dosing of AT-527 at 553 mg free base in non-cirrhotic genotype 1b (“GT1b”), HCV-infected subjects, and a mean reduction of 4.5 log10 IU/mL after seven days of dosing in non-cirrhotic GT3 HCV-infected subjects. The PK data in cirrhotic subjects was similar to non-cirrhotic subjects. Emax modeling predicted that a dose of 553 mg free base of AT-527 once daily would result in maximum viral load reduction.

Maximum HCV RNA change in Part B (single dose in non-cirrhotic, GT1 HCV-infected subjects)

 

Maximum Reduction (log10 IU/mL)
AT-527 dosage (free base equivalent)

 

100 mg (92 mg)
N=3

 

300 mg (277 mg)
N=3

 

400 mg (369 mg)
N=3

 

600 mg (553 mg)
N=3

Mean ±SD*

 

0.8
±0.153

 

1.7
±0.564

 

2.2
±0.391

 

2.3
±0.255

Individual

 

0.6, 0.8, 0.9

 

1.1, 1.8, 2.2

 

1.8, 2.2, 2.5

 

2.1, 2.3, 2.6

 

Maximum HCV RNA change in Part C (multiple dose in non-cirrhotic, GT1 HCV-infected subjects)

 

Maximum Reduction (log10 IU/mL)

 

Placebo
QD** x 7 days
(N=6)

 

150 mg (138 mg)
QD x 7 days
(N=6)

 

300 mg (277 mg)
QD x 7 days
(N=6)

 

600 mg (553 mg)
QD x 7 days
(N=6)

Mean ±SD

 

0.4±0.109

 

2.6±1.073

 

4.0±0.415

 

4.4±0.712

Individual

 

0.3, 0.3, 0.4, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6

 

1.7, 1.8, 1.8, 2.7, 3.0, 4.5

 

3.4, 3.7, 3.9, 4.2, 4.2, 4.5

 

3.5, 4.0, 4.1, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3

 

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Maximum HCV RNA change in Part D (multiple dose in non-cirrhotic, GT3 HCV-infected subjects) and Part E (multiple dose in cirrhotic HCV-infected subjects)

 

Maximum Reduction
(log10 IU/mL)

 

Part D – GT3

 

Part E – Cirrhotic

 

600 mg (553 mg)
QD x 7 days
(N=6)

 

600 mg (553 mg)
QD x 7 days
(N=6)

Mean ±SD

 

4.5±0.262

 

4.6±0.485

Individual

 

4.2, 4,4, 4.4, 4.5, 4.5, 5.0

 

GT1b: 4.0, 4.0, 4.5
GT2: 5.0
GT3: 4.8, 5.2

 

*

SD = standard deviation

**

QD = once daily

Phase 2 clinical trial of AT-527 in combination with an NS5A inhibitor

We conducted a Phase 2, open-label clinical trial to evaluate AT-527 in combination with daclatasvir, an approved commercially available HCV NS5A inhibitor, in HCV-infected subjects. Ten treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic GT1 HCV-infected subjects received 553 mg free base AT-527 and 60 mg daclatasvir once daily for a period of eight or 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study was an SVR of 12, with secondary efficacy endpoints that included HCV RNA< Lower Limit Of Quantitation (“LLOQ”), and Target Not Detected (“TND”), by study visit, HCV RNA changes from baseline, alanine transaminase normalization in those who had elevated levels at baseline, virologic failure, and resistance-associated substitutions to either of the study drugs. All subjects completed the treatment period in the study, nine of whom received eight weeks of treatment and one of whom received 12 weeks of treatment. All subjects achieved an SVR of four, nine of whom received only eight weeks of treatment. As shown in the graph below, viral load decreased rapidly, with 70% of subjects achieving plasma HCV RNA < LLOQ by week 2 (and 50% achieving TND by week 2). We believe that the rapid early clearance of HCV RNA observed in this trial supports continued evaluation of AT-527 in shortened treatment regimens, ideally with a more potent, next-generation HCV NS5A inhibitor.

 

 

AT-527 Safety Results

There were no serious adverse events, dose-limiting toxicities or adverse events leading to trial discontinuation observed in our HCV Phase 1 or Phase 2 clinical trials of AT-527. The most common side

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effects observed were headache and small increases in blood lipid levels, with no consistent patterns in other reported effects. Most side effects were not severe and were not thought to be related to AT-527.

Planned clinical development

We have temporarily paused our development program for AT-787 in HCV infected patients, given industry-wide challenges in clinical studies during the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect to restart this program once the planned clinical trial sites are able to re-open and we elect to resume patient enrollment, starting with our Phase 1/2a clinical trial, which is designed to evaluate the safety and PK of different dosages of AT-777 in healthy adults and evaluate the combination of AT-527 and AT-777. We currently anticipate that this will occur in the second half of 2021. The Phase 1/2a clinical trial is comprised of two parts. Part A is a randomized, blinded, sequential-dose trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability and PK of AT-777 alone in up to 24 healthy volunteers. Part B is an open-label trial in up to 20 patients with HCV to evaluate AT-527 in combination with AT-777. The primary objectives of Part B are safety, antiviral activity and PK. Following the completion of the Phase 1/2a clinical, we anticipate commencing a Phase 2b clinical trial to further evaluate the antiviral activity and safety of AT-787, the fixed dose combination of AT-777 and AT-527.

AT-889 and Other Candidates for the Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

 

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

 

Background

 

RSV is a seasonal respiratory virus that can be serious for infants, older adults, and the immuno-compromised population. Although the virus is seasonal, the duration, peaks and severity of the virus vary each season. RSV, a negative ssRNA virus belonging to the Pneumoviridae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae family, is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs) in children in the United States. Almost all children contract the RSV infection by their third year of life.

The primary symptoms of RSV infections include coughing, wheezing, fever, decreased appetite, and runny nose. In the United States, RSV infections generally occur during fall, winter and spring, but the timing and severity can vary from year to year and from region to region. Two different strains of the virus co-circulate each season, and RSV epidemics last from four to six months.

Globally, RSV affects 64 million people, according to the National Institutes of Health (the “NIH”), with annual mortality estimated at 160,000 deaths.  Three distinct patient populations are most significantly impacted by RSV.   These patient populations are:

Elderly:    Among the elderly, the CDC estimates that RSV is responsible for 177,000 hospitalizations in the United States. An estimated 14,000 annual deaths are caused by RSV in the United States in adults older than age 65.

Immunocompromised:    Globally, there are more than 50,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplants annually. Studies suggest that there is a significant risk of hospital mortality due to respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients with lower respiratory disease.

Children:    The NIH estimates that RSV results in 75,000 to 125,000 child hospitalizations in the United States. Globally, it is estimated that RSV results in 3.2 million hospital admissions in children younger than five years of age.

Current treatment landscape

Treatment for RSV typically focuses on supportive care, which can include nasal suction, fever management, hydration, and oxygen. The FDA approved aerosolized ribavirin in 1986 for the treatment of serious RSV infections in hospitalized children. However, ribavirin, a nucleoside analog, carries several safety concerns, including potential toxicity for exposed persons. Aerosolized ribavirin has not been approved for use in the elderly or immunocompromised populations.

In addition, the FDA approved Synagis (palivizumab) in 1998 for the prevention of lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV in children at high risk of RSV disease. Synagis is administered as an injection every month during RSV season. Synagis has not been approved for treatment of RSV, nor is it indicated for use in populations other than children under 24 months of age.

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Our approach

We are evaluating AT-889, an investigational second-generation nucleoside pyrimidine prodrug, and other compounds. Our development efforts in RSV have focused on two strategies: fusion inhibitors and replication inhibitors (both nucleoside and non-nucleoside). We believe AT-889 or one of our other candidates for RSV has the potential to inhibit both the initiation of viral replication, as well as viral transcription. We plan to develop our selected product candidate in both oral and parenteral dosage formulations.

Development history

We observed the antiviral potency and selectivity of AT-889 against RSV in in vitro cell-based assays. The EC50 to inhibit replication of the RSV (strain A Long) was 0.20 µM for AT-889. The concentration of AT-889 required to exhibit a CC50 of the host cells used in these assays was greater than 50 µM.

Development strategy

Currently, we are evaluating the antiviral activity of AT-889 and other compounds in in vitro studies to inform our selection of a lead candidate. Once chosen, we will assess the in vivo antiviral activity of such lead candidate in a small animal model, and conduct IND-enabling toxicology studies. Thereafter we intend to nominate a product candidate for clinical development. We anticipate nominating our product candidate and initiating the IND-enabling studies in the second half of 2021.

Roche License Agreement

In October 2020, we entered into the Roche License Agreement, with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Genentech, Inc. in connection with AT-511, AT-527, their backup compounds (including AT-752) (the “Compounds”), products containing any Compound (the “Products”), and related companion diagnostics (the “Companion Diagnostics”).

Subject to the terms and conditions of the Roche License Agreement, we granted Roche (i) an exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide (excluding the United States) license to make, sell, import and export the Compounds, the Products and the Companion Diagnostics in all fields of use, except for certain hepatitis C virus use (the “Field”), (ii) a non-exclusive, sublicensable license to make, import and export the Compounds, the Products and the Companion Diagnostics in the Field in the United States and (iii) a non-exclusive, sublicensable license to research and develop the Compounds, the Products and the Companion Diagnostics in the United States. We also agreed that Roche would manufacture the commercial supply of AT-527. On February 22, 2021, we announced that Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in-licensed from Roche the exclusive right to develop and market AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19 in Japan.

Subject to the terms and conditions of the Roche License Agreement, Roche granted us (i) an exclusive, sublicensable license to distribute, register and sell the Compounds and the Products in the United States, (ii) a non-exclusive, sublicensable license to research, develop, use, import, export and market the Compounds and the Products in the United States and (iii) a non-exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide (excluding the United States) license to research and develop the Compounds and the Products in the Field.

Subject to the terms and conditions of the Roche License Agreement, Roche and we will jointly develop certain Products including AT-527 for COVID-19 on a worldwide-basis and equally share the costs associated with such development activities. Atea remains responsible for, and alone will bear the costs associated with the development of AT-752 for dengue and other Retained Indications, as defined below.

Subject to the terms of the Roche License Agreement, we retain the sole right at our expense to develop, manufacture and commercialize the Compounds and the Products in the United States, and to develop and manufacture the Compounds and the Products outside of the United States, in each case, for the treatment of Dengue Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever and/or Zika, or the (the “Retained Indications”). The parties will negotiate in good faith an amendment to the Roche License Agreement pursuant to which Roche may commercialize Products indicated for one or more Retained Indications outside of the United States, unless Roche offers such commercialization right to us. Neither Roche nor we may commercialize such Products outside of the United States until the parties agree to an amendment to the Roche License Agreement.

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Subject to the terms of the Roche License Agreement, we also have a one-time option to request that Roche co-promote the Products, other than for the Retained Indications, in the United States on a Product-by-Product basis, such option to be exercised by us prior to the expected regulatory approval of each applicable Product.

As partial consideration of the rights we granted to Roche under the Roche License Agreement, Roche paid us an upfront payment of $350 million in November 2020. The Roche License Agreement further provides that Roche is obligated to pay us up to $330 million in the aggregate upon the achievement of certain development or regulatory milestone events; up to $320 million in the aggregate upon the achievement of certain sales-based milestone events; and tiered royalties based on annual net sales of the Products, such royalty percentages ranging between low double-digit and mid-twenties, subject to certain adjustments. Roche’s obligation to pay us royalty payments will continue, on a country-by-country and Product-by-Product basis, until the later of (1) 10 years from the first commercial sale of a Product in a country and (2) expiration of the last to expire patent rights that we own or control containing a composition of matter claim covering such Product in such country.

 

The Roche License Agreement will remain in effect until the expiration of all payment obligations to us. Roche has the right to terminate the Roche License Agreement for convenience in its entirety or on a Product-by-Product or country-by-country basis, (x) upon three months’ prior written notice if such notice is provided prior to the first commercial sale of the first Product and the parties are not conducting a certain prophylaxis study, in each case, pursuant to the terms of the Roche License Agreement, (y) if such notice is provided while the parties are conducting such prophylaxis study, upon the earlier of six months’ prior written notice or the completion of such prophylaxis study, but in no event earlier than three months’ prior written notice and (z) upon nine months’ prior written notice if such notice is provided on or after the first commercial sale of the first Product pursuant to the terms of the Roche License Agreement. Each party has the right to terminate the Roche License Agreement (i) in its entirety or on a country-by-country basis for the other party’s material breach of the terms of the Roche License Agreement, subject to a ninety-day cure period and (ii) for insolvency-related events involving the other party. Upon termination of the Roche License Agreement by Roche for the Company’s material breach or insolvency, the rights and licenses granted by each party to the other party will terminate. Upon termination of the Roche License Agreement by Roche for convenience or by us for Roche’s material breach, all rights and licenses granted by us to Roche will terminate, however, subject to the terms of the Roche License Agreement, we have the right to continue to develop and commercialize one or more terminated Products.

The Roche License Agreement also includes customary provisions regarding, among other things, confidentiality, intellectual property ownership, patent prosecution, enforcement and defense, representations and warranties, indemnification, insurance, and arbitration and dispute resolution.

Manufacturing

We do not currently own or operate manufacturing facilities for the production of preclinical or clinical product candidates, nor do we have plans to develop or operate our own manufacturing operations in the future. Pursuant to the Roche License Agreement, we will exclusively rely on Roche to manufacture the commercial supply of AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, if approved. We currently rely upon third-party contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), to produce our product candidates for both preclinical and clinical use. Although we rely on CMOs, we also have personnel with extensive manufacturing experience that can oversee the relationship with our manufacturing partners. We believe that any materials required for the manufacture of our product candidates could be obtained from more than one source.

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Competition

As a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, we face competition from a wide array of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. These include both small companies and large companies with much greater financial and technical resources and far longer operating histories than our own. We may also compete with the intellectual property, technology, and product development efforts of academic, governmental, and private research institutions.

Our competitors may have significantly greater financial resources, established presence in the market, expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement, and marketing approved products than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, sales, marketing, and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

The key competitive factors affecting the success of any product candidates that we develop, if approved, are likely to be their efficacy, safety, convenience, price, and the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payors. Our commercial opportunity for any of our product candidates could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, and may commercialize products more quickly than we are able to.

We are aware of the following competitors in the areas that we are initially targeting:

SARS-CoV-2

Many therapies and vaccines are approved, authorized for use or being investigated for the treatment of COVID-19 in the United States, including:

Veklury, remdesivir (Gilead Sciences, Inc.), a RdRp inhibitor is approved by the FDA for the treatment of hospitalized adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older. Additionally, the FDA has granted an emergency use authorization for the treatment of hospitalized pediatric patients under the age of 12 with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

REGN-COV2 (Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), an antibody cocktail authorized for emergency use by the FDA.

LY-CoV555 and LY-CoV016 (Eli Lilly and Company), a neutralizing antibody program for which Eli Lilly received emergency use authorization from the FDA.

VIR-7831 and VIR 7832 (Vir Biotechnology Inc./GlaxoSmithKline), each an antibody designed for monotherapy currently in clinical development. An application to approve the emergency use of VIR-7831 has been submitted to the FDA.

Molnupiravir (Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP/Merck & Co., Inc.), a nucleoside analog is in Phase 2/3 clinical trials.

Ensovibep (MP04020) and MP0423 (Molecular Partners AG and Novartis AG) each multi targeted direct acting antiviral candidates in clinical development.

PF-00835321, (Pfizer Inc.), a protease inhibitor.

CPI-006 (Corvus Pharmaceuticals), an immunomodulatory antibody in clinical development.

Moderna Inc., Pfizer-BioNtech and Johnson & Johnson have each received emergency use authorization from the FDA and certain other health authorities for COVID 19 vaccines.

Additional companies working on investigational vaccines or treatments include Novavax, Inc., Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Biogen Inc., CanSino Biologics Inc., AbbVie Inc., Sanofi, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., Aligos Therapeutics, Inc., Ennanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Arbutus Biopharma Corporation and Translate Bio Inc.

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The potential treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 continues to evolve. The list above addresses the products or product candidates approved or authorized for emergency use in the United States as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K that we believe could be the most competitive with AT-527, but is not a comprehensive list of every treatment or vaccine that is in development for COVID-19.

Dengue Virus

At this time, there are no FDA- or EMA-approved treatments for dengue, and we are not aware of any potential therapeutics in development for treatment of dengue. Dengvaxia, marketed by Sanofi, was approved in 2019 by the FDA for prevention of dengue in individuals ages nine to 16 with a laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and living in endemic areas. Takeda is also advancing TAK-003, which is in Phase 3 development, as a vaccine for dengue.

HCV

FDA-approved treatments for patients with chronic HCV include Epclusa marketed by Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Mavyret, marketed by AbbVie Inc. We are also aware of an investigational agent for HCV, currently in Phase 2 testing, being developed by Cocrystal Pharma Inc.

RSV

Supportive care is the most common course of care for RSV and includes oxygen, fluid management, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids. Ribavirin, approved in 1986, is used to treat severe cases of RSV infection, but carries significant side effects and risks associated with its use, especially in infants. Synagis (palivizumab), marketed by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB in the United States and AstraZeneca plc outside of the United States, is an FDA-approved, seasonal monoclonal antibody injection given monthly to help protect high-risk infants from severe RSV. Synagis is not approved as a treatment for RSV.

At this time, we are aware of investigational agents for the treatment of RSV being developed by Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc., ReViral Ltd, and Ark Biosciences Inc.

Commercialization

Given the stage of development of our lead asset, we have not yet invested in a commercial infrastructure or distribution capabilities. We believe that the commercialization of AT-527 in the United States could be achieved by a small Atea team across sales, marketing, reimbursement and other commercial activities. While we currently plan to establish our own commercial organization in the United States and potentially in other selected markets, we continue to consider and evaluate in each market the potential advantages and enhancements of our commercial capabilities that may be realized as a result of a collaboration between us and a pharmaceutical or other company, as we have recently done through the Roche License Agreement. In connection with AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, we have a one-time option to request Roche co-promote AT-527 in the United States.

Intellectual Property

Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our nucleotide therapeutic products for viral diseases, including our purine nucleotide compounds for SARS-CoV-2, dengue fever and HCV. We seek to protect our proprietary compounds and methods of treatment for viral diseases using our nucleotide compounds, alone and in combination with other therapeutic agents, in addition to dosage forms, dosing regimens and formulations for their administration. We also seek protection on the manufacturing process for the production of our nucleotide compounds. Our success also depends on our ability to operate without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating on the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our proprietary rights.

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Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by filing U.S. and foreign patent applications covering our proprietary technologies, inventions, and improvements that are important to the development and implementation of our business. In addition, we currently plan to seek patent term adjustments, restorations, and/or patent term extensions where applicable in the United States, Europe and other jurisdictions. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how, continuing technological innovation and potential in-licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary position. Additionally, we expect to benefit, where appropriate, from statutory frameworks in the United States, Europe and other countries that provide a period of regulatory data exclusivity to compensate for the time required for regulatory approval of our drug products.

As of December 31, 2020, we are the sole owner of nine patent families covering our product candidates and proprietary nucleotide compounds, which include composition of matter, pharmaceutical compositions, methods of use, and processes of manufacture as described in more detail below. Our owned patent estate as of  December 31, 2020, on a worldwide basis, includes 132 granted or pending patent applications with ten issued U.S. patents, four allowed U.S. non-provisional application, five pending U.S. non-provisional applications, 14 pending U.S. provisional applications, one pending international patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (“PCT”), and 98 pending or granted patent applications that have entered the national phase of prosecution in countries outside the United States.

The exclusivity terms of our patents depend upon the laws of the countries in which they are obtained. In the countries in which we currently file, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest date of filing of a non-provisional patent application. The term of a U.S. patent may be extended to compensate for the time required to obtain regulatory approval to sell a drug (a patent term extension) or by delays encountered during patent prosecution that are caused by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (referred to as patent term adjustment). For example, the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Act, permits a patent term extension for FDA-approved new chemical entity drugs of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review and diligence during the review process. Patent term extensions in the United States cannot extend the term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent covering an approved drug or its method of use may be extended, and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. A similar kind of patent extension, referred to as a Supplementary Protection Certificate, is available in Europe. Legal frameworks are also available in certain other jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent. We currently intend to seek patent term extensions on any of our issued patents in any jurisdiction where we have a qualifying patent and the extension is available; however, there is no guarantee that the applicable regulatory authorities, including the FDA in the United States, will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and even if granted, the length of such extensions. Further, even if our patent is extended, the patent, including the extended portion of the patent, may be held invalid or unenforceable by a court of final jurisdiction in the United States or a foreign country.

Current issued patents and patent applications covering the composition of matter for our present clinical candidates AT-511, AT-527, AT-281 (the free base of AT-752), and AT-752 will expire on dates ranging from 2036 to 2038, if the applications are issued and held valid by a court of final jurisdiction if challenged. Current patent applications covering the use of AT-511 and AT-527 for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 will expire on dates ranging from 2037 to 2041, if the applications (including non-provisional applications filed on the basis of provisional applications) are issued and held valid by a court of final jurisdiction if challenged. Current issued patents and patent applications covering the use of AT-511 and AT-527 for the treatment of HCV will expire on dates ranging from 2036 to 2039, if the applications are issued and held valid by a court of final jurisdiction if challenged. Current patent applications covering the use of AT-281 and AT-752 for the treatment of dengue fever will expire on a date in 2037, if the applications are issued and held valid by a court of final jurisdiction if challenged.

Current patent applications covering the composition of matter for our present HCV combination drug clinical candidate AT-787 will expire on a date in 2039, if the applications are issued and held valid by a court of final jurisdiction if challenged. Current patent applications covering the use of AT-787 for the treatment of HCV will expire on dates ranging from 2036 to 2039, if the applications are issued and held valid by a court of final jurisdiction if challenged.

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However, any of our patents, including patents that we may rely on to protect our market for approved products, may be held invalid or unenforceable by a court of final jurisdiction. Alternatively, we may decide that it is in our interest to settle a litigation in a manner that affects the term or enforceability of our patent. Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States and other jurisdictions may diminish our ability to protect our inventions and enforce our intellectual property rights. Accordingly, we cannot predict the breadth or enforceability of claims that have been or may be granted on our patents or on third-party patents. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Our ability to obtain and maintain our proprietary position for our nucleotide compounds and the use of these compounds will depend on our success in enforcing patent claims that have been granted or may grant. We do not know whether any of the pending patent applications that we have filed or may file or license from third parties will result in the issuance of any additional patents. The issued patents that we own or may receive in the future may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, and the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. Furthermore, our competitors may be able to independently develop and commercialize drugs with similar mechanisms of action and/or duplicate our methods of treatments or strategies without infringing our patents. Because of the extensive time required for clinical development and regulatory review of a drug we may develop, it is possible that, before any of our drugs can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of any such patent. For more information regarding risks relating to intellectual property, see Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Intellectual Property.”

Our patent families, as of December 31, 2020, are further described below.

AT-511 and AT-527

We own a first patent family that describes AT-511 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof (for example, AT-527), pharmaceutical compositions of AT-511 or the pharmaceutical salts thereof, and methods to treat HCV using AT-511 or a salt thereof. This family consists of eight issued U.S. patents (U.S. Pat. Nos. 9,828,410; 10,000,523; 10,005,811; 10,239,911; 10,815,266; 10,870,672; 10,870,673; 10,875,885; ) and one pending U.S. application covering AT-511 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and its pharmaceutical compositions. This patent family is now also in the national stage of prosecution in the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (“ARIPO”), Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, the Eurasian Patent Office (“EAPO”), Egypt, the European Patent Office (“EPO”), Georgia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Macao, Malaysia, Nigeria, New Zealand, the Philippines, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Ukraine, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates. The expected year of expiration for this patent family, where issued, valid and enforceable, is 2036, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under national law.

We also own a second patent family that specifically covers AT-527, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods to treat HCV using AT-527. This family includes issued U.S. patent (U.S. Pat. No. 10,519,186), two allowed applications (US 2020-0087339 and US 2020-0331954), and one pending U.S. application covering AT-527, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods to treat HCV using AT-527. This family is currently in the national phase of prosecution in Argentina, ARIPO, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, the EAPO, the EPO, Georgia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Malaysia, Nigeria, New Zealand, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and South Africa. The expected year of expiration for this patent family, if issued, valid and enforceable, is 2038, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws.

We own a third patent family that discloses methods for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 using AT-511 or AT-527. This family includes seven provisional U.S. applications. The expected year of expiration for patents issued from non-provisional patent applications filed on the basis of these provisional patent applications, if valid and enforceable, is 2041, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws. We also filed a U.S. normal application with the U.S. PTO under its COVID-19 Prioritized Examination Pilot Program to advance out of turn patent applications covering methods to treat COVID-19 that are currently under review by the FDA. This patent granted as U.S. Patent No. 10,874,687 on December 29, 2020. A continuation application claiming priority to the ‘687 patent is pending. The expected year of expiration for patents issued from non-provisional patent applications filed on the basis of U.S. Patent No. 10,874,687, if valid

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and enforceable, is 2040, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws.

We own a fourth patent family that discloses the use of AT-511 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for the treatment or prevention of a positive-stranded RNA virus infection, including a Coronaviridae viral infection. This family consists of two allowed applications (US 2019-0201433 and US 2020-0222442) and is currently in the national phase of prosecution in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the EAPO, the EPO, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and South Africa. The expected year of expiration for this patent family, if issued, valid and enforceable, is 2037, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws.

We own a fifth patent family that discloses the use of AT-511 and AT-527 for the treatment of HCV in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. This family includes one pending U.S. application. This family is currently in the national phase of prosecution in China, the EPO, Japan, Korea, Russia, and Taiwan. The expected year of expiration for this patent family, if issued, valid and enforceable, is 2039, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws.

We own a sixth patent family that describes methods to treat SARS-CoV-2 virus. This family consists of one U.S. application. The expected year of expiration for patents issued from non-provisional patent applications filed on the basis of this patent application, if valid and enforceable, is 2041, without regard to adjustments of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws. We also own a seventh patent family that discloses methods for manufacturing AT-511 and AT-527. This family consists of two provisional U.S. applications. The expected year of expiration for patents issued from non-provisional patent applications filed on the basis of these provisional patent applications, if valid and enforceable, is 2041, without regard to adjustments of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws.

We also own an eighth patent family that discloses new commercial scale processes for the manufacture of AT-511 and AT-527. This family consists of four U.S. provisional applications. The expected year of expiration for patents issuing from these non-provisional patent applications, if valid and enforceable, is 2041, without regard to any adjustments of term that may be available under U.S. or other national law.

 

AT-787

We own a ninth patent family that discloses the combination of AT-511 or AT-527 and AT-777 (i.e., AT-787) for the treatment of HCV. This family includes one pending U.S. application, one international application filed under the PCT (PCT/US19/64522), one patent application in Taiwan, and one patent application in Argentina. The expected year of expiration for this patent family, if issued, valid and enforceable, is 2039, without regard to any extensions, adjustments, or restorations of term that may be available under U.S. or other national laws.

AT-281 and AT-752

The first patent family described above also describes AT-281, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof (for example, AT-752) and pharmaceutical compositions of AT-281 or a pharmaceutical salt thereof and their use to treat HCV infection.

The second patent family described above also describes AT-752 and pharmaceutical compositions of AT-752. One of these pending U.S. application in this patent family covers AT-752 and pharmaceutical compositions of AT-752.

The fourth patent family described above also includes a disclosure of the use of AT-281 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for the treatment or prevention of an RNA viral infection, including dengue fever, yellow fever, and Zika virus in addition to the treatment and prevention of a Coronaviridae viral infection. Therefore, we have three patent families that describe AT-281 or AT-752 and methods of treatment for viral infections using AT-281 or AT-752.

Government Regulation and Product Approval

Government authorities in the United States, at the federal, state and local level, and other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution,

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marketing and export and import of products such as those we are developing. A new drug must be approved by the FDA through the new drug application (“NDA”), process before it may be legally marketed in the United States.

U.S. Drug Development Process

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the FDCA and its implementing regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources.

The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies in accordance with FDA’s good laboratory practice requirements and other applicable regulations;

submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

approval by an independent institutional review board (“IRB”), or ethics committee at each clinical site before each trial may be initiated;

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with good clinical practice requirements (“GCPs”) to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug for its intended use;

submission to the FDA of an NDA after completion of all pivotal trials;

satisfactory completion of an FDA advisory committee review, if applicable;

satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug is produced to assess compliance with current good manufacturing practice (“cGMP”), requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity, and of selected clinical investigation sites to assess compliance with GCPs; and

FDA review and approval of the NDA to permit commercial marketing of the product for particular indications for use in the United States.

Prior to beginning the first clinical trial with a product candidate in the United States, a sponsor must submit an IND to the FDA. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an IND product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general investigational plan and the protocol(s) for clinical studies. The IND also includes results of animal and in vitro studies assessing the toxicology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the product; chemistry, manufacturing, and controls information; and any available human data or literature to support the use of the investigational product. An IND must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. Once submitted, the IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA, within the 30- day time period, raises safety concerns or questions about the proposed clinical trial. In such a case, the IND may be placed on clinical hold and the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns or questions before the clinical trial can begin. Submission of an IND therefore may or may not result in FDA authorization to begin a clinical trial.

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with GCPs, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical study. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. A separate submission to the existing IND must be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development and for any subsequent protocol amendments. Furthermore, an independent IRB for each site proposing to conduct the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial and its informed consent form before the clinical trial begins at that site and must monitor the study until completed. Some studies also include oversight by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical study sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board, which provides authorization for whether or not a

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study may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the study and may halt the clinical trial if it determines that there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy. Depending on its charter, this group may determine whether a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the trial. The FDA or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.  

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined:

Phase 1:    The product candidate is initially introduced into healthy human subjects, in some cases, patients with the target disease or condition. These studies are designed to test the safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism and distribution of the investigational product in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness.

Phase 2:    The product candidate is administered to a limited patient population with a specified disease or condition to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, optimal dosages and dosing schedule and to identify possible adverse side effects and safety risks. Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more expensive Phase 3 clinical trials.

Phase 3:    The product candidate is administered to an expanded patient population to further evaluate dosage, to provide statistically significant evidence of clinical efficacy and to further test for safety, generally at multiple geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit ratio of the investigational product and to provide an adequate basis for product approval.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 studies, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval of an NDA.

The FDA or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.

During the development of a new drug, sponsors are given opportunities to meet with the FDA at certain points. These points may be prior to submission of an IND, at the end of Phase 2, and before an NDA is submitted. Meetings at other times may be requested. These meetings can provide an opportunity for the sponsor to share information about the data gathered to date, for the FDA to provide advice, and for the sponsor and the FDA to reach agreement on the next phase of development. Sponsors typically use the meetings at the end of the Phase 2 trial to discuss Phase 2 clinical results and present plans for the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials that they believe will support approval of the new drug.

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final drug. In addition, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

While the IND is active and before approval, progress reports summarizing the results of the clinical trials and nonclinical studies performed since the last progress report must be submitted at least annually to the FDA, and written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and investigators for serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, findings from other studies suggesting a significant risk to

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humans exposed to the same or similar drugs, findings from animal or in vitro testing suggesting a significant risk to humans, and any clinically important increased incidence of a serious suspected adverse reaction compared to that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure.

U.S. Review and Approval Process

Assuming successful completion of all required testing in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements, the results of product development, preclinical and other non-clinical studies and clinical trials, along with descriptions of the manufacturing process, analytical tests conducted on the chemistry of the drug, proposed labeling and other relevant information are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA requesting approval to market the product. The submission of an NDA is subject to the payment of substantial user fees; a waiver of such fees may be obtained under certain limited circumstances. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on NDAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.

The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe and effective for its intended use and whether its manufacturing is cGMP-compliant to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”), guidelines that are currently in effect, the FDA has a goal of ten months from the date of “filing” of a standard NDA for a new molecular entity to review and act on the submission. This review typically takes twelve months from the date the NDA is submitted to FDA because the FDA has approximately two months to make a “filing” decision after it the application is submitted. The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs within the first 60 days after submission, before accepting them for filing, to determine whether they are sufficiently complete to permit substantive review The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the NDA must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application also is subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.

The FDA may refer an application for a novel drug to an advisory committee. An advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, that reviews, evaluates and provides a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA will typically inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving a NDA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCPs. If the FDA determines that the application, manufacturing process or manufacturing facilities are not acceptable, it will outline the deficiencies in the submission and often will request additional testing or information. Notwithstanding the submission of any requested additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.

After the FDA evaluates an NDA, it will issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A Complete Response Letter usually describes the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA and may require additional clinical data, such as an additional clinical trials or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, nonclinical studies or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the sponsor must resubmit the NDA or, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval.

If regulatory approval of a product is granted, such approval will be granted for particular indications and may entail limitations or restrictions on the indicated uses for which such product may be marketed. For example, the FDA may approve the NDA with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”), to ensure the benefits of the product outweigh its risks. A REMS is a safety strategy to manage a known or potential serious risk associated with a medicine and to enable patients to have continued access to such

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medicines by managing their safe use, and could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, and other risk minimization tools. The FDA also may condition approval on, among other things, changes to proposed labeling or the development of adequate controls and specifications. Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with pre- and post-marketing requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace. The FDA may also require one or more Phase 4 post-market studies and surveillance to further assess and monitor the product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-marketing studies. In addition, new government requirements, including those resulting from new legislation, may be established, or the FDA’s policies may change, which could impact the timeline for regulatory approval or otherwise impact ongoing development programs.

In addition, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (“PREA”), requires a sponsor to conduct pediatric clinical trials for most drugs, for a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration. Under PREA, original NDAs and supplements must contain a pediatric assessment unless the sponsor has received a deferral or waiver. The required assessment must evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The sponsor or FDA may request a deferral of pediatric clinical trials for some or all of the pediatric subpopulations. A deferral may be granted for several reasons, including a finding that the drug is ready for approval for use in adults before pediatric clinical trials are complete or that additional safety or effectiveness data needs to be collected before the pediatric clinical trials begin. The FDA must send a non-compliance letter to any sponsor that fails to submit the required assessment, keep a deferral current or fails to submit a request for approval of a pediatric formulation.

Emergency Use Authorization

An Emergency Use Authorization (“EUA”), is a mechanism to facilitate the availability and use of medical countermeasures, during public health emergencies, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Under an EUA, FDA may allow the use of unapproved medical products, or unapproved uses of approved medical products in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions when certain statutory criteria have been met, including that there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives. Once submitted, FDA will evaluate an EUA request and determine whether the relevant statutory criteria are met, taking into account the totality of the scientific evidence about the drug that is available to FDA. EUAs can be terminated, revoked or reissued, depending on the state of the public health emergency and new data about the drug.

Expedited Development and Review Programs

The FDA offers a number of expedited development and review programs for qualifying product candidates. For example, the FDA Fast Track program is intended to expedite or facilitate the process for reviewing product candidates that meet certain criteria. Specifically, new drugs are eligible for Fast Track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the disease or condition. With regard to a fast track product, the FDA may consider for review sections of the NDA on a rolling basis before the complete application is submitted, if the sponsor provides a schedule for the submission of the sections of the NDA, the FDA agrees to accept sections of the NDA and determines that the schedule is acceptable, and the sponsor pays any required user fees upon submission of the first section of the NDA.

Any marketing application for a drug submitted to the FDA for approval, including a product with a Fast Track designation, may also be eligible for other types of FDA programs intended to expedite development and review, such as priority review and accelerated approval. A drug is eligible for priority review if it is designed to treat a serious condition, and if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness compared to marketed products. The FDA will attempt to direct additional resources to the evaluation of an application for a new drug designated for priority review in an effort to facilitate the review. The FDA endeavors to review applications with priority review designations within six months of the filing date as compared to ten months for review of new molecular entity NDAs under its current PDUFA review goals.

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In addition, a product candidate may be eligible for accelerated approval. Product candidates intended to treat serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions may be eligible for accelerated approval upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical trials to verify the predicted clinical benefit. Products receiving accelerated approval may be subject to expedited withdrawal procedures if the sponsor fails to conduct the required clinical trials, or if such trials fail to verify the predicted clinical benefit. In addition, the FDA currently requires pre-approval of promotional materials as a condition for accelerated approval, which could adversely impact the timing of the commercial launch of the product.

The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act established a category of drugs referred to as “Breakthrough Therapies” that may be eligible to receive Breakthrough Therapy designation. A sponsor may seek FDA designation of a product candidate as a “Breakthrough Therapy” if the product is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other products, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. The designation includes all of the fast track program features, as well as more intensive FDA interaction and guidance. The Breakthrough Therapy designation is a distinct status from both accelerated approval and priority review, which can also be granted to the same drug if relevant criteria are met. If a product is designated as Breakthrough Therapy, the FDA will work to expedite the development and review of such drug.

Fast Track designation, Breakthrough Therapy designation, priority review and accelerated approval do not change the standards for approval but may expedite the development or approval process. Even if a product qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher Program

In 2007, Congress authorized the FDA to award priority review vouchers (“PRVs”), to sponsors of certain tropical disease product applications. The FDA’s Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher Program is designed to encourage development of new drug and biological products for the prevention and treatment of certain tropical diseases affecting millions of people throughout the world. Under this program, a sponsor who receives an approval for a drug or biologic for the prevention or treatment a tropical disease that meets certain criteria may qualify for a PRV that can be redeemed to receive priority review of a subsequent NDA or Biologics License Application (“BLA”), for a different product. The sponsor of a topical disease drug product receiving a priority review voucher may transfer (including by sale) the voucher to another sponsor of an NDA or BLA. The FDCA does not limit the number of times a priority review voucher may be transferred before the voucher is used.

For a product to qualify for a PRV, (i) the sponsor must request approval of the product for the prevention or treatment of a “tropical disease” listed in Section 524 of the FDCA, (ii) the product must otherwise qualify for priority review, and (iii) the product must contain no active ingredient (including any salt or ester of an active ingredient) that has been approved by the FDA in any other NDA or BLA. The Food and Drug Administration Reauthorization Act of 2017 made further changes to the eligibility criteria for receipt of a tropical disease PRV under this program. Specifically, applications submitted after September 30, 2017 must also contain reports of one or more new clinical investigations (other than bioavailability studies) that were essential to the approval of the application and conducted or sponsored by the sponsor. We are currently developing AT-752 for the treatment of Dengue, which is listed in Section 524 of the FDCA as a disease qualifying for a tropical disease PRV. Accordingly, if AT-752 is approved by the FDA for the prevention or treatment of Dengue, we may receive a tropical disease PRV, provided that AT-752 otherwise meets the statutory criteria for receipt.

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Post-approval Requirements

Any products manufactured or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to record-keeping, reporting of adverse experiences, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, and advertising and promotion of the product. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications or other labeling claims, are subject to prior FDA review and approval. There also are continuing, annual program fees for any marketed products.

Drug manufacturers and their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP, which impose certain procedural and documentation requirements upon drug manufacturers. Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated, and, depending on the significance of the change, may require prior FDA approval before being implemented. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP and impose reporting requirements upon us and any third-party manufacturers that we may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMP and other aspects of regulatory compliance.

The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information, imposition of post-market studies or clinical studies to assess new safety risks, or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;

fines, warning letters, or untitled letters;

clinical holds on clinical studies;

refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;

product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products;

consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, debarment or exclusion from federal healthcare programs;

mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and the issuance of corrective information;

the issuance of safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases and other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product; or

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA closely regulates the marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of drug products. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy, purity and potency that are approved by the FDA and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off label uses. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in, among other things, adverse publicity, warning letters, corrective advertising and potential civil and criminal penalties. Physicians may prescribe, in their independent professional medical judgment, legally available products for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested and approved by the FDA. Physicians may believe that such off-label uses are the best treatment for many patients in varied circumstances. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, restrict marketers’ communications on the subject of off-label use of their products. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion of off-label use and has enjoined companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA and other regulatory agencies have

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also required that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. However, companies may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s FDA-approved labelling.

Marketing exclusivity

Marketing exclusivity provisions authorized under the FDCA can delay the submission or the approval of certain marketing applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to obtain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not approve or even accept for review an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”), or an NDA submitted under Section 505(b)(2) (“505(b)(2) NDA”), submitted by another company for another drug based on the same active moiety, regardless of whether the drug is intended for the same indication as the original innovative drug or for another indication, where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement to one of the patents listed with the FDA by the innovator NDA holder.

The FDCA alternatively provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the modification for which the drug received approval on the basis of the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs or 505(b)(2) NDAs for drugs containing the active agent for the original indication or condition of use. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to any preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of marketing exclusivity available in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity provides for an additional six months of marketing exclusivity attached to another period of exclusivity if a sponsor conducts clinical trials in children in response to a written request from the FDA. The issuance of a written request does not require the sponsor to undertake the described clinical trials. In addition, orphan drug exclusivity, as described above, may offer a seven-year period of marketing exclusivity, except in certain circumstances.

Other Healthcare Laws

Pharmaceutical companies are subject to additional healthcare regulation and enforcement by the federal government and by authorities in the states and foreign jurisdictions in which they conduct their business. Such laws include, without limitation, U.S. federal and state anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, pricing reporting, and physician payment transparency laws and regulations as well as similar foreign laws in the jurisdictions outside the United States. Violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply may result in significant penalties, including, without limitation, administrative civil and criminal penalties, damages, disgorgement fines, additional reporting requirements and oversight obligations, contractual damages, the curtailment or restructuring of operations, exclusion from participation in governmental healthcare programs and/ or imprisonment.

Coverage and Reimbursement

Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of any product candidate for which we may seek regulatory approval. Sales in the United States will depend, in part, on the availability of sufficient coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, which include government health programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, TRICARE and the Veterans Administration, as well as managed care organizations and private health insurers. Prices at which we or our customers seek reimbursement for our product candidates can be subject to challenge, reduction or denial by third-party payors.

The process for determining whether a third-party payor will provide coverage for a product is typically separate from the process for setting the reimbursement rate that the payor will pay for the product. In the United States, there is no uniform policy among payors for coverage or reimbursement. Decisions

35


regarding whether to cover any of a product, the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided are made on a plan-by-plan basis. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies, but also have their own methods and approval processes. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that can require manufacturers to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of a product to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to their safety and efficacy. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could further limit sales of any product that receives approval. Third-party payors may not consider our product candidates to be medically necessary or cost-effective compared to other available therapies, or the rebate percentages required to secure favorable coverage may not yield an adequate margin over cost or may not enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in drug development. Additionally, decreases in third-party reimbursement for any product or a decision by a third-party payor not to cover a product could reduce physician usage and patient demand for the product.

U.S. Healthcare Reform

In the United States, there has been, and continues to be, several legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities, and affect the profitable sale of product candidates.

Among policy makers and payors in the United States, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives. In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, the “ACA”) was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly affected the pharmaceutical industry. The ACA increased the minimum level of Medicaid rebates payable by manufacturers of brand name drugs from 15.1% to 23.1%; required collection of rebates for drugs paid by Medicaid managed care organizations; required manufacturers to participate in a coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D; imposed a non-deductible annual fee on pharmaceutical manufacturers or importers who sell certain “branded prescription drugs” to specified federal government programs, implemented a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted, or injected; expanded eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs; created a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research; and established a Center for Medicare Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending.

There remain judicial and political challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“Tax Act”) includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate.” On December 14, 2018, a U.S. District Court Judge in the Northern District of Texas (the “Texas District Court Judge”), ruled that the individual mandate is a critical and inseverable feature of the ACA, and therefore, because it was repealed as part of the Tax Act, the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. On December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit affirmed the District Court’s decision that the individual mandate was unconstitutional but remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. On March 2, 2020, the United States Supreme Court granted the petitions for writs of certiorari to review this case, although

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it remains unclear how and when the Court will make a decision. In addition, it is unclear how any other efforts to repeal, replace or challenge the ACA will impact the law.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, including the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2021, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In addition, on January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

Moreover, there has recently been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for pharmaceutical products. The likelihood of success of these and other measures initiated by the former Trump administration is uncertain.

Individual states in the United States have also become increasingly active in implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine which drugs and suppliers will be included in their healthcare programs Furthermore, there has been increased interest by third party payors and governmental authorities in reference pricing systems and publication of discounts and list prices.

Government Regulation Outside of the United States

In addition to regulations in the United States, we will be subject to a variety of regulations in other jurisdictions governing, among other things, clinical trials of drug products as well as the approval, manufacture and distribution of our product candidates. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product candidate, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in foreign countries prior to the commencement of clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. The requirements and process governing the conduct of clinical studies, approval process, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country. Failure to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecution.

 

Human Capital Resources

 

As of March 29, 2021, we had 39 full-time employees, including 13 employees with M.D. or Ph.D. degrees. Of these full-time employees, 25 employees are engaged in research and development activities. None of our employees is represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

 

Our human capital resource priorities include attracting, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees. The principal purpose of our competitive equity and cash compensation and benefits programs is to promote and support these priorities. We consider our human capital resources strategy to be comprehensive and built to foster our core way of working which is grounded on the principles of scientific rigor in a collaborative, entrepreneurial, and results-oriented manner. We plan to continue to evaluate our suite of human capital resources as we grow.

 

Organization

 

Atea Pharmaceuticals, Inc. was incorporated in July 2012 and began principal operations in March 2014. The Company is located in Boston, Massachusetts. Atea Pharmaceuticals Securities Corporation, a

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Massachusetts corporation incorporated in 2016, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Atea Pharmaceuticals, Inc

 

Available Information

 

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov. We make available on our website at https://ateapharma.com, under “Investors,” free of charge, copies of these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing or furnishing these reports with the SEC.

Executive Officers and Directors

The following table sets forth the name, age and position of each of our executive officers and directors as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

Name

  

Age

 

    

Position

 

 

 

Executive Officers

  

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

Jean-Pierre Sommadossi, Ph.D.

  

 

65

 

    

President and Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors

 

 

 

Andrea Corcoran

  

 

58

 

    

Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President, Legal and Secretary

 

 

 

Janet Hammond, M.D., Ph.D.

  

 

61

 

    

Chief Development Officer

 

 

 

Maria Arantxa Horga, M.D.

  

 

52

 

    

Chief Medical Officer

 

 

 

John Vavricka

  

 

57

 

    

Chief Commercial Officer

 

 

 

Wayne Foster

  

 

52

 

    

Senior Vice President, Finance and Administration

 

 

 

Directors

  

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

Franklin Berger (1)(2)

  

 

71

 

    

Director (Lead Director)

 

 

 

Isaac Cheng, M.D.

  

 

45

 

    

Director

 

 

 

Barbara Duncan (1)(3)

  

 

56

 

    

Director

 

 

 

Andrew Hack, M.D., Ph.D. (1)

  

 

47

 

    

Director

 

 

 

Bruno Lucidi (2)

  

 

61

 

    

Director

 

 

 

Polly A. Murphy, D.V.M., Ph.D. (3)

  

 

56

 

    

Director

 

 

 

Bruce Polsky, M.D. (2)(3)

  

 

66

 

    

Director

 

 

 

(1)

Member of the audit committee.

 

(2)

Member of the compensation committee.

 

(3)

Member of the nominating and corporate governance committee.

 

Executive Officers

Jean-Pierre Sommadossi, Ph.D., is the founder of our company and has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer and as Chairman of our Board since July 2012. Prior to that, he co-founded and held several roles at Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from 1998 to 2010, including Principal Founder and Chief Executive Officer and Chairman. Dr. Sommadossi also co-founded Pharmasset, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, in 1998. Dr. Sommadossi also serves on the board of directors of ABG Acquisition Corporation since February 2021 and as the Chairman of the

38


board of directors of Kezar Life Sciences, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, since June 2015, Chairman of the board of directors of Panchrest, Inc., a marketing authorized representative in healthcare, since 2013, Chairman of the board of directors of Biothea Pharma, Inc., a biotechnology company since 2015.  Dr. Sommadossi also serves as a member of the board of directors of The BioExec Institute since 2004 and as member of the Harvard Medical School Discovery Council since 2010.   Previously, Dr. Sommadossi served as Vice Chair of the board of directors of Rafael Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from October 2016 to November 2020 and as Chair of the board of directors of PegaOne, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company from September 2020 to January 2021.  Dr. Sommadossi received his Ph.D. and Pharm.D. degrees from the University of Marseilles in France. We believe that Dr. Sommadossi’s extensive scientific, operational, strategic and management experience in the biotech industry qualifies him to serve on our Board.

Andrea Corcoran has served as our Chief Financial Officer since October 2020, our corporate Secretary since September 2014 and our Executive Vice President, Legal and Administration since December 2013. Prior to joining us, Ms. Corcoran served as Senior Vice President, Strategy and Finance at iBio, Inc., a biotechnology company, from 2011 to 2012, as General Counsel and Secretary at Tolerx, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from 2007 to 2011, and as Executive Vice President of Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from 1998 to 2007. Ms. Corcoran received her J.D. from Boston College Law School and her B.S. from Providence College.

Janet Hammond, M.D., Ph.D., has served as our Chief Development Officer since August 2020. Prior to joining us, Dr. Hammond served at AbbVie, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from November 2016 to August 2020 as Vice President and Therapeutic Area Head for General Medicine and Infectious Disease Development and at F. Hoffmann-La Roche from March 2011 to November 2016 as Senior Vice President, Global Head of Infectious Diseases and Head of Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development China. Dr. Hammond received her M.D. and Ph.D. from the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and her Sc.M. in Clinical Investigation from Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health.

Maria Arantxa Horga, M.D., has served as our Chief Medical Officer since January 2021 and previously served as our Acting Chief Medical Officer since October 2020 and as Executive Vice President, Clinical Sciences since August 2020. Prior to joining us, Dr. Horga served as Vice President, Pharmacovigilance and Medical Affairs at Biohaven Pharmaceuticals from October 2019 to August 2020. Prior to that, Dr. Horga served as Vice President, Global Head of Clinical Program Execution, Site Head of the Roche NY Innovation Center from July 2017 to August 2019, and as Global Head of Translational Medicine, Infectious Diseases at F. Hoffmann-La Roche from 2012 to 2016. Dr. Horga received her M.D. from the Santander School of Medicine, and completed her residency in Pediatrics and a fellowship in Pediatric Infectious Diseases at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

John Vavricka has served as our Chief Commercial Officer since October 2018. Prior to joining us, Mr. Vavricka cofounded Biothea Pharma, Inc., a biotechnology company, in 2015, and was the Founder, Chief Executive Officer and President of Iroko Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a global pharmaceuticals company, from 2007 to 2015. Mr. Vavricka received his B.S. from Northwestern University.

Wayne Foster has served as our Senior Vice President, Finance and Administration since December 2019. Prior to joining us, Mr. Foster served as Vice President of Finance at Mersana Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from January 2012 to September 2019. Mr. Foster received his B.B.A. from the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

 

Directors

Franklin Berger has served as a member of our Board since September 2019. Mr. Berger is a consultant to biotechnology industry participants, including major biopharmaceutical firms, mid-capitalization biotechnology companies, specialist asset managers and venture capital companies, providing business development, strategic, financing, partnering, and royalty acquisition advice. Mr. Berger is also a biotechnology industry analyst with experience in capital markets and financial analysis

39


and a Founder and Managing Director at FMB Research. Mr. Berger also serves on the board of directors of BELLUS Health, Inc. since May 2010, ESSA Pharma Inc. since March 2015, Proteostasis Therapeutics, Inc. since February 2016, Kezar Life Sciences, Inc. since January 2016, and Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc. since October 2014. Mr. Berger previously served on the board of directors of Tocagen, Inc. from October 2014 to December 2020. Mr. Berger received his B.A. and M.A. from Johns Hopkins University and his M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. We believe that Mr. Berger’s financial background and experience as an equity analyst in the biotechnology industry combined with his experience serving on the boards of directors of multiple public companies qualifies him to serve on our Board.

Isaac Cheng, M.D., has served as a member of our Board since March 2019. Dr. Cheng is an investment professional at the Morningside Technology Advisory, LLC, which advises as to venture capital and private equity opportunities. Dr. Cheng served on the board of directors of NuCana PLC from May 2017 to March 2020 and Liquidia Technologies, Inc., from January 2010 to January 2018. Dr. Cheng received his M.D. and B.S. from the Tufts University School of Medicine. We believe Dr. Cheng is qualified to serve on our Board due to his financial expertise, experience as a venture capitalist, industry experience and his experience in serving on the board of directors of public and private life sciences companies.

Barbara Duncan has served as a member of our Board since October 2020. Ms. Duncan served at Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer from May 2009 to June 2016. Ms. Duncan serves as Chair of the board of directors of Fusion Pharmaceuticals Inc. since November 2021 and on the board of directors of Jounce Therapeutics, Inc. since June 2016, Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc since June 2016, ObsEva S.A. since November 2016, and Ovid Therapeutics, Inc. since June 2017. Previously, Ms. Duncan served on the boards of directors of Immunomedics, Inc. from March 2019 to October 2020, Innoviva, Inc., from November 2016 through April 2018, and Aevi Genomic Medicine, Inc., from June 2015 through January 2020. Ms. Duncan received her B.A. from Louisiana State University and her M.B.A. from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. We believe Ms. Duncan is qualified to serve on our Board due to her experience in the biotechnology industry and with public companies.

Andrew Hack, M.D., Ph.D., has served on our Board since May 2020. Dr. Hack is a Partner and Managing Director of Bain Capital Life Sciences, a private equity fund that invests in biopharmaceutical, specialty pharmaceutical, medical device, diagnostics, and enabling life science technology companies globally. From July 2015 to March 2019, Dr. Hack served as Chief Financial Officer of Editas Medicine, Inc. From May 2011 to June 2015, Dr. Hack was a portfolio manager at Millennium Management LLC, an institutional asset manager, where he ran a healthcare fund focused on biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medical device companies. From December 2008 to May 2011, Dr. Hack was a healthcare analyst at HealthCor Management, L.P., a registered investment advisor. Prior to December 2008, Dr. Hack served as a healthcare analyst for hedge fund Carlyle-Blue Wave Partners and as principal of the MPM BioEquities Fund, a hedge fund that was affiliated with MPM Capital. Dr. Hack began his investment career covering the biotechnology sector at investment banks Banc of America Securities LLC and Rodman & Renshaw, LLC.  Previously, Dr. Hack was Director of Life Sciences and co-founder of Reify Corporation, a life science tools and drug discovery company. Dr. Hack also serves as a director of Affinivax, Inc., Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc., BCLS Acquisition Corp., Dynavax Technologies, Inc., Imperative Care, Inc., JenaValve Technology, Inc., Mersana Therapeutics, Inc. and Xilio Therapeutics, Inc. Dr. Hack received his B.A. in biology with special honors from the University of Chicago, where he also received his M.D. and Ph.D. We believe Dr. Hack is qualified to serve on our Board due to his extensive financial and investment experience in the life sciences industry.

Bruno Lucidi has served as a member of our Board since September 2014. Mr. Lucidi is a Life Sciences Expert at Wallonia Trade and Foreign Investment Agency. From October 2017 to September 2019, Mr. Lucidi was Chief Executive Officer at AgenTus Therapeutics, a pre-clinical stage biopharmaceutical company. Mr. Lucidi was trained in Oncology at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France, in Marketing and Strategic Management of Companies at the Ecole Superieure de Commerce, Paris,

40


France, and in Finance, Merger and Acquisitions at the Investment Banking Institute in New York. We believe Mr. Lucidi is qualified to serve on our Board due to his extensive experience in the life sciences industry.

Polly A. Murphy, D.V.M., Ph.D. has served as a member of our Board since August 2020. Dr. Murphy has served    as Chief Business Officer at UroGen Pharma, Inc. since August 2020. Since September 2008, Dr. Murphy has served at Pfizer, Inc., most recently as Vice President and Head of Commercial Development Pfizer Oncology Business Unit from January 2019 to August 2020, Vice President and Head of Global Marketing and Commercial Development Pfizer Oncology Business Unit from June 2017 to December 2018 and as Vice President and Head of Strategy and Business Development for Pfizer China from November 2013 to May 2018. Dr. Murphy received her D.V.M. and Ph.D. from Iowa State University. We believe Dr. Murphy is qualified to serve on our Board due to her experience in the pharmaceutical industry in business development and commercialization.

Bruce Polsky, M.D., has served as a member of our Board since November 2014. Dr. Polsky is the chair of the Department of Medicine at NYU Langone Hospital – Long Island in Mineola, New York, where he has practiced since 2015. He also serves as professor and Chair of the Department of Medicine at NYU Long Island School of Medicine and as an Associate Dean at NYU Long Island School of Medicine. Dr. Polsky is a leading clinical virologist who played an active role in clinical investigations of HIV/AIDS, HBV, HCV and other viral infections. From 1998 to 2015, Dr. Polsky was at Mount Sinai St. Luke’s and Mount Sinai Roosevelt Hospitals, where he served as Chair of the Department of Medicine and as Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, among other positions. Dr. Polsky received his M.D. from Wayne State University. We believe Dr. Polsky is qualified to serve on our Board due to his extensive clinical experience in the life sciences industry.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, as well as the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition.” Our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially and adversely affected if any of these risks occurs, and as a result, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth below.

Risks Related to COVID-19

There is significant uncertainty around our development of AT-527 as a potential treatment for COVID-19.

Our development of AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19 is in its early stages, and we may not be successful in our development of AT-527 as a potential treatment for COVID-19.  We, together with our collaborator Roche, anticipate initiating a Phase 3 clinical trial in the second quarter of 2021 to study AT-527 in adult patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 in the outpatient setting.  Currently, we are evaluating AT-527 for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 in two Phase 2 clinical trials.  Additionally, we are conducting a Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy volunteers and have additional Phase I clinical trials planned.  We have committed and plan to continue to commit significant financial and personnel resources to the development of AT-527 as a potential treatment for COVID-19. If we are unable to successfully develop AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, we will have taken resources away from other development programs and will not be able to recuperate the resources dedicated to developing AT-527 as a potential treatment for COVID-19, which could have a material adverse impact on our business. If the data from our Phase 2 clinical trials are not supportive of further development of AT-527 as a treatment for COVID-19 or the investor community has a negative reaction to the data, the demand for our common stock could decrease significantly, and the price of our common stock could decline substantially, which could result in significant losses for our stockholders.

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Further, while there is currently an urgent need for a treatment for COVID-19, the longevity and extent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain and it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 will become an endemic human coronavirus that may circulate in the human population after the current pandemic has subsided.  If the pandemic were to dissipate, whether due to a significant decrease in new infections, due to the availability of vaccines, or otherwise, the need for a treatment could decrease significantly. If the need for a treatment decreases before or soon after commercialization of AT-527, if approved, or other treatments for COVID-19 are developed before AT-527, our business could be adversely impacted.

We may expend resources in anticipation of clinical trials and potential commercialization of AT-527, which we may not be able to recover if AT-527 is not approved for the treatment of COVID-19 or we are not successful at commercializing AT-527.

We believe that there is an urgent unmet need for effective orally administered COVID-19 treatments particularly for patients in the outpatient setting. Accordingly, if the data from our ongoing and planned clinical trials of AT-527 in COVID-19 patients are positive, we may pursue certain expedited development, review and approval programs offered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) to sponsors of drugs designed to treat serious diseases and conditions. These programs may offer the potential for a more rapid approval and commercialization process than traditional FDA review pathways. In order to prepare for the possibility that we may be required to develop and rapidly commercialize AT-527, we may enter into agreements with, and make payments to contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), third parties we are engaging to assist us in the potential commercialization of AT-527, and other third parties prior to obtaining any approval to market AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19. As a result, we may not be able to recover these costs if AT-527 is not approved for the treatment of COVID-19, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We currently expect that the market for a treatment for COVID-19 will be large, and we cannot be certain that Roche, our exclusive supplier of AT-527 commercial product for COVID-19, will be able to satisfy commercial demand for AT-527, if approved. If AT-527 is approved and we are unable to meet commercial demand, we may not be able to fully capitalize on our development of AT-527, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

Furthermore, we have never commercialized a product and may not be successful in establishing the capabilities required for commercialization. In order to commercialize AT-527, we are developing commercial capabilities. If we do not obtain approval for AT-527, we will have expended those resources prematurely, and our business could be adversely affected.

There has also been significant media coverage regarding the pricing of any vaccine or treatment for COVID-19. For example, Gilead Sciences, Inc. came under scrutiny regarding its pricing of Veklury (remdesivir), after having donated the initial supply of the drug. Pricing for drugs to treat COVID-19 continues to evolve, and we cannot be certain of the factors that will determine the sales price of AT-527, if approved. If we are unable to sell AT-527 at a sufficient price point, our ability to commercialize AT-527, if approved, may be adversely affected.

AT-527 may face significant competition from vaccines and other treatments for COVID-19 that are in development.

Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies are developing treatments for COVID-19 or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Many of these companies, which include large pharmaceutical companies, have greater resources for development and established commercialization capabilities. For example, in October 2020, the FDA approved the antiviral drug Veklury (remdesivir), a direct acting antiviral marketed by Gilead Sciences for the treatment of COVID-19 for certain patients requiring hospitalization and in November 2020 the FDA granted Regeneron an emergency use authorization for the use of casirivimab and imdevimab, administered together, for the treatment of mild to moderate coronavirus COVID-19 in adult and certain pediatric patients with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing who are at high risk for progressing to severe COVID-19 and/or hospitalization. In the same month, FDA granted Eli Lily emergency use authorization for bamlanivimab for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adult and certain pediatric patients.  In addition to therapeutics, vaccines indicated for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 have been recently authorized for emergency use.  In December 2020, the FDA granted authorization for emergency use for vaccines from Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech and Moderna, Inc. each of which announced clinical trial results showing that their respective vaccine candidate was found to be more than 90% effective in preventing COVID-19 during such trials and in February 2021, the FDA granted emergency use authorization to a vaccine developed by Janssen

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Pharmaceutical Company. Additional vaccines and therapeutics are in development by other pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies. For example, molnupirvir, an orally administered direct-acting antiviral, which is being developed by Merck and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics is currently in Phase 2/3 development in both outpatient and hospital settings.   Given the products currently approved or authorized for use as well as those in development by others, any treatment we may develop could face significant competition. If any other company develops treatments more rapidly or effectively than we do, develops a treatment that becomes the standard of care, develops a treatment at a lower cost, or is more successful at commercializing an approved treatment, we may not be able to successfully commercialize AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, even if approved, or compete with other treatments or vaccines, which could adversely impact our business and operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 surfaced in China. Since then, COVID-19 has spread globally. In the United States, travel bans and government stay-at-home orders caused widespread disruption in business operations and economic activity. Governmental authorities around the world implemented measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19. These measures, including suggested or mandated “shelter-in-place” orders, have adversely affected workforces, customers, consumer sentiment, economies, and financial markets, and, along with decreased consumer spending, have contributed to an economic downturn in the United States. In response to the public health directives and orders and to help minimize the risk of COVID-19 for our employees, we have taken precautionary measures, including implementing work-from-home policies for all our employees. Many of our third-party collaborators, such as our CMOs, clinical research organizations (“CROs”), suppliers and others, have taken similar precautionary measures. These measures have disrupted our business and delayed certain of our clinical programs and timelines. For example, our Phase 1/2a clinical trial of AT-787 for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (“HCV”) was paused when clinical trial sites closed due to COVID-19 precautions by the countries and medical facilities where the trial was to be conducted. As certain countries have reopened, they have experienced a new surge of infection and have in some areas reinstated stay at home and other containment measures. Efforts to re-open are likely to take a significant amount of time, require additional resources to implement social-distancing and other containment measures, or may not be successful.

The impact to our operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic could be severe and could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risk factors described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as those relating to our clinical trial timelines, our ability to enroll subjects for clinical trials and obtain materials that are required for the production of our product candidates, and our ability to raise capital.

The COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our clinical trials.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience additional disruptions that could severely impact our clinical trials, including:

delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in a clinical trial, including rapidly evolving treatment paradigms, and patients that may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services;

delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators, and clinical site staff, or the overwork of existing investigators and staff;

diversion or prioritization of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials and towards the COVID-19 pandemic, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials;

interruptions or delays in preclinical studies due to restricted or limited operations at research and development laboratory facilities;

interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal, state or provincial governments, employers and others;

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the risk that participants enrolled in our non-COVID-19-related clinical trials will contract COVID-19 while the clinical trial is ongoing, which could impact the results of the clinical trial, including by increasing the number of observed adverse events;

limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;

delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials;

delays in clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials;

interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product;

changes in local regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 outbreak that may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, which may result in unexpected costs, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether;

delays in necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees; and

the refusal of the FDA to accept data from clinical trials in these affected geographies.

For example, our HCV program was delayed when clinical trial sites conducting our Phase 1/2a trials closed, and our other development programs may be delayed or otherwise negatively impacted. As a result, the expected timeline for data readouts of our clinical trials and certain regulatory submissions will likely be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect and delay our ability to seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates, increase our operating expenses, and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pathogen, and information regarding the emergence of viral variants, and the symptoms, progression, and transmission of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve, which may present additional challenges for the conduct of our clinical trials in COVID-19 patients. For example, COVID-19 patients have presented with a wide range of symptoms and side effects, which may make it more difficult for clinical trial investigators to determine whether any adverse events observed in our clinical trials are related to AT-527 or are consistent with the underlying disease. Any increase in the severity or incidence of adverse events deemed to be related to AT-527 could delay or prevent its regulatory approval, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

We have a limited operating history and no history of successfully developing or commercializing any approved antiviral products, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess the prospects for our future viability.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company. Our operations to date have been limited to financing and staffing our company, developing our technology and identifying and developing our product candidates. Our prospects must be considered in light of the uncertainties, risks, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered by biopharmaceutical companies in their early stages of operations. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to complete any late-stage or pivotal clinical trials, obtain marketing approval, manufacture a commercial-scale product, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization, or arrange for third parties to do these activities on our behalf. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing, obtaining marketing approval for and commercializing antiviral therapies.

In addition, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown obstacles. If we successfully develop a product candidate, we will eventually need to transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in this transition. For example, we may need to rapidly develop our commercialization capabilities if AT-527 is approved for the treatment of COVID-19.

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As we continue to build our business, we expect our financial condition and operating results may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, you should not rely upon the results of any particular quarterly or annual period as indications of future operating performance.

We have incurred significant losses since inception and expect to incur significant additional losses for the foreseeable future. We have no products that have generated any commercial revenue and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception, including operating losses of $11.0 million, $14.6 million and $9.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $65.2 million. In addition, we have not commercialized any products and have never generated any revenue from product sales. We have devoted almost all of our financial resources to research and development, including our clinical trials and preclinical development activities.

We expect to continue to incur significant additional operating losses for the foreseeable future as we seek to advance product candidates through clinical development, continue preclinical development, expand our research and development activities, develop new product candidates, complete preclinical studies and clinical trials, seek regulatory approval and, if we receive regulatory approval, commercialize our products. In order to obtain FDA approval to market any product candidate in the United States, we must submit to the FDA a New Drug Application (“NDA”) demonstrating to the FDA’s satisfaction that the product candidate is safe and effective for its intended use(s). This demonstration requires significant research and extensive data from animal tests, which are referred to as nonclinical or preclinical studies, as well as human tests, which are referred to as clinical trials. Furthermore, the costs of advancing product candidates into each succeeding clinical phase tend to increase substantially over time. The total costs to advance any of our product candidates to marketing approval in even a single jurisdiction would be substantial and difficult to accurately predict. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of drug products, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to begin generating revenue from the commercialization of products or achieve or maintain profitability. Our expenses will also increase substantially if or as we:

initiate additional clinical trials of our most advanced product candidate, AT-527, including our anticipated Phase 3 global clinical development program and progress our ongoing Phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of patients with moderate COVID-19 and our current and planned Phase 1 clinical trials in healthy volunteers;

advance the development of our other product candidates, including resuming our Phase 1/2a clinical trial of AT-787 for the treatment of HCV, which has been delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and a Phase 1 clinical trial of AT-752 for the treatment of dengue, and the preclinical development of our other product candidates, including AT-899 and other product candidates for the treatment of RSV;

continue to discover and develop additional product candidates;

seek regulatory and marketing approvals for product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, if any;

establish manufacturing and supply chain capacity sufficient to provide commercial quantities of any product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval, if any;

establish a sales, marketing, internal systems and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain regulatory approval, if any, in geographies in which we plan to commercialize our products ourselves or with co-promotion collaborators;

maintain, expand, protect and enforce our intellectual property portfolio;

hire additional staff, including clinical, scientific, technical, regulatory, operational, financial, commercial and support personnel, to execute our business plan and support our product development and potential future commercialization efforts;

more extensively utilize external vendors for support with respect to research, development, manufacturing, commercialization, regulatory, pharmacovigilance and other functions;

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acquire or in-license commercial products, additional product candidates and technologies;

make royalty, milestone or other payments under any future in-license agreements; and

incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses in operating our business as a public company.

Furthermore, our ability to successfully develop, commercialize and license any products and generate product revenue is subject to substantial additional risks and uncertainties. Each of our product candidates will require additional preclinical and/or clinical development, regulatory approval in not less than one jurisdiction, the securing of manufacturing supply, capacity, distribution channels and expertise, the use of external vendors, the building of a commercial organization, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenue from product sales. As a result, we expect to continue to incur operating losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future. These operating losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital.

The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. We have no products that have generated any commercial revenue, do not expect to generate revenues from the commercial sale of products in the foreseeable future until we have successfully developed one or more product candidates, and might never generate revenues from the sale of products. Our ability to generate product revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things, successful completion of the clinical development of our product candidates; obtaining necessary regulatory approvals from the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities; establishing manufacturing and sales capabilities; market acceptance of our products, if approved, and establishing marketing infrastructure to commercialize our product candidates for which we obtain approval; and raising sufficient funds to finance our activities. We might not succeed at any of these undertakings. If we are unsuccessful at some or all of these undertakings, our business, prospects, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

We will require substantial additional financing, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. A failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts.

Our operations have incurred substantial expenses since inception. We expect to continue to incur substantial expenses to continue the clinical development of AT-527, AT-752 and AT-787, for future clinical trials for our other product candidates and to continue to identify new product candidates.

We will continue to need additional capital to fund future clinical trials and preclinical development, which we may raise through equity offerings, debt financings, marketing and distribution arrangements and other collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements or other sources. Additional sources of financing might not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If we do not succeed in raising additional funds on acceptable terms, we might be unable to initiate or complete planned clinical trials or seek regulatory approvals of any of our product candidates from the FDA, or any foreign regulatory authorities, and could be forced to discontinue product development. In addition, attempting to secure additional financing may divert the time and attention of our management from day-to-day activities and harm our product candidate development efforts.

Based on our current operating plan, we believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2020, will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through at least 2023. This estimate is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. We will require significant additional funds in order to launch and commercialize our current and any future product candidates to the extent that such launch and commercialization are not the responsibility of a collaborator. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise in the course of our development efforts. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any product candidate we develop.

Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

the scope, progress, results and costs of our preclinical studies and clinical trials;

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the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining marketing approvals for our current and future product candidates in regions where we choose to commercialize any products;

the number of future product candidates and potential additional indications that we may pursue and their development requirements;

the stability, scale, yield and cost of manufacturing our product candidates for clinical trials, in preparation for regulatory approval and in preparation for commercialization;

the costs of commercialization activities for any approved product candidate to the extent such costs are not the responsibility of any collaborators, including the costs and timing of establishing product sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities;

revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our product candidates, should any of our product candidates receive marketing approval;

the costs and timing of changes in pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement infrastructure;

subject to receipt of regulatory approval and revenue, if any, received from commercial sales for any approved indications for any of our product candidates;

our ability to compete with other therapies in the indications we target;

the extent to which we in-license or acquire rights to other products, product candidates or technologies;

our headcount growth and associated costs as we expand our research and development capabilities and establish a commercial infrastructure;

the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications and maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights, including enforcing and defending intellectual property-related claims; and

the costs of operating as a public company.

We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts, on terms acceptable to us, or on a timely basis, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of our product candidates or other research and development initiatives.

We have not generated any revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.

Our ability to become profitable depends upon our ability to generate revenue from product sales. Prior to the execution of the Roche License Agreement, we had not generated any revenue and do not expect to generate product revenue unless or until we successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval of, and then successfully commercialize, at least one of our product candidates. Our product candidates are in varying stages of development which may necessitate additional preclinical studies in some cases and in all cases will require additional clinical development as well as regulatory review and approval, substantial investment, access to sufficient commercial manufacturing capacity and significant marketing efforts before we can generate any revenue from product sales. Our ability to generate revenue depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to:

timely initiation and completion of our clinical trials of AT-527, AT-787 and AT-752, our preclinical studies and our future clinical trials, which may be significantly slower or more costly than we currently anticipate and will depend substantially upon the performance of third-party contractors;

our ability to complete additional investigational new drug application (“IND”), enabling studies and successfully submit INDs or comparable applications to allow us to initiate clinical trials for our product candidates;

whether we are required by the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities to conduct additional clinical trials or other studies beyond those planned to support the approval and commercialization of our product candidates or any future product candidates;

our ability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities the safety and efficacy of our product candidates or any future product candidates;

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the prevalence, duration and severity of potential side effects or other safety issues experienced with our product candidates or future product candidates, if any;

the timely receipt of necessary marketing approvals from the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities;

the willingness of physicians, operators of clinics and patients to utilize or adopt any of our product candidates or future product candidates as potential antiviral therapies;

our ability and the ability of third parties with whom we contract to manufacture adequate clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates or any future product candidates, remain in good standing with regulatory authorities and develop, validate and maintain commercially viable manufacturing processes that are compliant with current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”);

our ability to successfully develop a commercial strategy and thereafter commercialize our product candidates or any future product candidates in the United States and internationally, if licensed for marketing, reimbursement, sale and distribution in such countries and territories, whether alone or in collaboration with others; and

our ability to establish, maintain, protect and enforce intellectual property rights in and to our product candidates or any future product candidates.

Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control, and could cause us to experience significant delays or prevent us from obtaining regulatory approvals or commercialize our product candidates. Even if we are able to commercialize our product candidates, we may not achieve profitability soon after generating product sales, if ever. If we are unable to generate sufficient revenue through the sale of our product candidates or any future product candidates, we may be unable to continue operations without continued funding.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of December 31, 2020, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”), of $53.2 million, which may be available to offset future taxable income, if any, of which $27.5 million begin to expire in 2033 and of which $25.7 million do not expire but are limited in their usage (for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020) to an annual deduction equal to 80% of annual taxable income. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, we had state NOLs of $52.5 million, which may be available to offset future taxable income, if any, and begin to expire in 2033. As of December 31, 2020, we also had federal and state research and development credit carryforwards of $1.6 million and $0.3 million, respectively, which begin to expire in 2033. In general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50% change by value in its equity ownership over a three-year period, is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs and its research and development credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income. Our existing NOLs and research and development credit carryforwards may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and if we undergo an ownership change, our ability to utilize NOLs and research and development credit carryforwards could be further limited by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership, some of which might be beyond our control, could result in an ownership change under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of the NOLs or research and development credit carryforwards even if we attain profitability.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development, Preclinical and Clinical Testing, Manufacturing and Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidates

Our business is highly dependent on the success of our most advanced product candidates, particularly AT-527, each of which will require significant additional clinical testing before we can seek regulatory approval and potentially launch commercial sales. If these product candidates fail

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in clinical development, do not receive regulatory approval or are not successfully commercialized, or are significantly delayed in doing so, our business will be harmed.

A substantial portion of our business and future success depends on our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and successfully commercialize our most advanced product candidates, AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, AT-787 for the treatment of HCV, and AT-752 for the treatment of dengue fever. We currently have no products that are approved for commercial sale and have not completed the development of any of our product candidates, and we may never be able to develop marketable products. Other than our development of AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, for which we expect to expend resources in the near term, we expect that a substantial portion of our efforts and expenditures over the next few years will be devoted to our most advanced product candidates, which will require additional clinical development, management of clinical, medical affairs and manufacturing activities, obtaining regulatory approvals in multiple jurisdictions, securing of manufacturing supply, building of a commercial organization, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we can generate any revenues from any commercial sales from any product candidate, if approved. We cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will be successful in clinical trials, receive regulatory approval or be successfully commercialized even if we receive regulatory approval. Further, our development of any product candidate may be delayed, which may affect our ability to successfully commercialize such product. For example, enrollment in our Phase 1/2a trial of AT-787 for the treatment of HCV has been delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, if our competitors develop products to treat COVID-19, HCV, RSV, dengue, or any other diseases which our current or future product candidates are being developed to treat, before we are able to successfully develop a product candidate, or if our competitors develop any products that are superior to our product candidates, our potential market share could become smaller or non-existent. Even if we receive approval to market these product candidates from the FDA or other regulatory bodies, we cannot be certain that our product candidates will be as or more effective than other commercially available alternatives, successfully commercialized or widely accepted in the marketplace.  Nor can we be certain that, if approved, the safety and efficacy profile of our product candidates will be consistent with the results observed in clinical trials. If we are not successful in the clinical development of our most advanced product candidates, the required regulatory approvals for these product candidates are not obtained, there are significant delays in the development or approval of these product candidates, or any approved products are not commercially successful, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially harmed.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, expensive, time-consuming, and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be seriously harmed.

We are not permitted to commercialize, market, promote or sell any product candidate in the United States without obtaining marketing approval from the FDA. Foreign regulatory authorities impose similar requirements. The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. Although we believe that our ongoing and planned Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials of AT-527 in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, if successful, may enable us to submit an NDA seeking approval of AT-527 for the treatment of mild or moderate COVID-19, there is no guarantee that the FDA will agree with any strategy we may propose. We have not submitted an NDA for, or obtained regulatory approval of, any product candidate. We must complete additional preclinical or nonclinical studies and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in humans to the satisfaction of the regulatory authorities before we will be able to obtain these approvals, and it is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may seek to

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develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval. Applications for our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including but not limited to the following:

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or interpretation of results of our clinical trials;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our product candidates are not safe and effective, only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use of our products;

the population studied in the clinical program may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

we may be unable to demonstrate to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures and specifications, or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our or our collaborators’ clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of the results of clinical trials, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, which would seriously harm our business. In addition, even if we or our collaborators were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our product candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may impose significant limitations in the form of narrow indications, warnings, or a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”). Regulatory authorities may not approve the price we or our collaborators intend to charge for products we may develop, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate. Any of the foregoing scenarios could seriously harm our business.

Clinical development is lengthy and uncertain. We may encounter substantial delays and costs in our clinical trials, or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical trials on the timelines we expect, if at all.

Before obtaining marketing approval from the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we must complete preclinical development and extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates. Clinical testing is expensive, time-consuming and subject to uncertainty. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of the process, and the outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their drugs. To date, we have not completed any late-stage or pivotal clinical trials for any of our product candidates. We cannot guarantee that any of our planned or ongoing clinical trials will be initiated or conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. We also cannot be sure that submission of any future IND or similar application will result in the FDA or other regulatory authority, as applicable, allowing future clinical trials to begin in a timely manner, if at all. Moreover, even if these trials begin, issues may arise that could cause regulatory authorities to suspend or terminate such clinical trials. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing, and our future clinical trials may not

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be successful. Events that may prevent successful or timely initiation or completion of clinical trials include:

inability to generate sufficient preclinical, toxicology, or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical trials;

delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory authorities on study design or implementation of the clinical trials;

delays or failure in obtaining regulatory authorization to commence a trial;

delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among CROs and clinical trial sites;

delays in identifying, recruiting and training suitable clinical investigators;

delays in obtaining required institutional review board (“IRB”) or ethics committee, approval at each clinical trial site;

delays in recruiting suitable patients to participate in our clinical trials;

delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating or importing/exporting sufficient stable quantities of our product candidates for use in clinical trials or the inability to do any of the foregoing;

insufficient or inadequate supply or quality of product candidates or other materials necessary for use in clinical trials, or delays in sufficiently developing, characterizing or controlling a manufacturing process suitable for clinical trials;

imposition of a temporary or permanent clinical hold by regulatory authorities for a number of reasons, including after review of an IND or amendment or equivalent foreign application or amendment; as a result of a new safety finding that presents unreasonable risk to clinical trial participants; or a negative finding from an inspection of our clinical trial operations or study sites;

developments on trials conducted by competitors for related technology that raises FDA or foreign regulatory authority concerns about risk to patients of the technology broadly, or if the FDA or a foreign regulatory authority finds that the investigational protocol or plan is clearly deficient to meet its stated objectives;

delays in recruiting, screening and enrolling patients and delays caused by patients withdrawing from clinical trials or failing to return for post-treatment follow-up, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic;

difficulty collaborating with patient groups and investigators;

failure by our CROs, other third parties or us to adhere to clinical trial protocols; failure to perform in accordance with the FDA’s or any other regulatory authority’s good clinical practice requirements (“GCPs”), or applicable regulatory guidelines in other countries;

occurrence of adverse events associated with the product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits, or occurrence of adverse events in trial of the same class of agents conducted by other companies;

changes to the clinical trial protocols;

clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols;

changes in the standard of care on which a clinical development plan was based, which may require new or additional trials;

selection of clinical endpoints that require prolonged periods of observation or analyses of resulting data;

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the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates being greater than we anticipate;

clinical trials of our product candidates producing negative or inconclusive results, which may result in our deciding, or regulators requiring us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon development of such product candidates;

transfer of manufacturing processes to larger-scale facilities operated by a CMO and delays or failure by our CMOs or us to make any necessary changes to such manufacturing process; and

third parties being unwilling or unable to satisfy their contractual obligations to us.

In addition, disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the likelihood that we encounter difficulties or delays in initiating, enrolling, conducting or completing our planned and ongoing clinical trials. For example, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our Phase 1/2a clinical trial of AT-787 for the treatment of HCV was paused until our clinical sites are able to re-open and we elect to resume enrollment, which has not yet occurred. Any inability to successfully initiate or complete clinical trials could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenue from product sales. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates, we may be required to or we may elect to conduct additional studies to bridge our modified product candidates to earlier versions. Clinical trial delays could also shorten any periods during which any approved products have patent protection and may allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may seriously harm our business.

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the data safety monitoring board (“DSMB”), for such trial, or by the FDA or any other regulatory authority, or if the IRBs or ethics committees of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted suspend or terminate the participation of their clinical investigators and sites subject to their review. Such authorities may suspend or terminate a clinical trial due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a product candidate, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Further, conducting clinical trials in foreign countries, as we are doing for our COVID-19 and dengue product candidates, and as we expect to resume for our HCV product candidate, presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the failure of enrolled patients in foreign countries to adhere to clinical protocol as a result of differences in healthcare services or cultural customs, managing additional administrative burdens associated with foreign regulatory schemes, as well as political and economic risks relevant to such foreign countries.

Moreover, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of the study. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority, as the case may be, and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of one or more of our product candidates.

Delays in the completion of any clinical trial of our product candidates will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and delay or potentially jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate product revenue. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates. Any delays to our clinical trials that occur as a result could shorten any period during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates and our competitors may be able to bring products to market before we do, which could

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significantly reduce the commercial viability of our product candidates. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Our product candidates may be associated with serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or have other properties that could halt their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

Adverse events or other undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us, our collaborators, any DSMB for a trial, or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

During the conduct of clinical trials, patients report changes in their health, including illnesses, injuries, and discomforts, to their study doctor. Often, it is not possible to determine whether or not the product candidate being studied caused these conditions. It is possible that as we test our product candidates in larger, longer and more extensive clinical trials, or as use of these product candidates becomes more widespread if they receive regulatory approval, illnesses, injuries, discomforts and other adverse events that were observed in previous trials, as well as conditions that did not occur or went undetected in previous trials, will be reported by patients. Many times, side effects are only detectable after investigational products are tested in large-scale clinical trials or, in some cases, after they are made available to patients on a commercial scale following approval.

If any serious adverse events occur, clinical trials or commercial distribution of any product candidates or products we develop could be suspended or terminated, and our business could be seriously harmed. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment and the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential liability claims. Regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of, deny approval of, or require us to cease selling any product candidates or products for any or all targeted indications. If we are required to delay, suspend or terminate any clinical trial or commercialization efforts, the commercial prospects of such product candidates or products may be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from them or other product candidates that we develop may be delayed or eliminated. Additionally, if one or more of our product candidates receives marketing approval and we or others later identify undesirable side effects or adverse events caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including but not limited to:

regulatory authorities may suspend, limit or withdraw approvals of such product, or seek an injunction against its manufacture or distribution;

regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, including “boxed” warnings, or issue safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product;

we may be required to change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical trials or post-approval studies;

we may be required to create a REMS which could include a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

we may be subject to fines, injunctions or the imposition of criminal penalties;

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and could seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may develop future product candidates in combination with other therapies, which exposes us to additional risks.

We may develop future product candidates in combination with other product candidates or existing therapies. Even if any product candidate we develop was to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with our product candidate or that safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these existing therapies. Combination therapies are commonly used in antiviral treatments, and we would be subject to similar risks if we develop any of our product candidates for use in combination with other drugs or for indications other than currently anticipated. This could result in our own products being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

We may also evaluate our product candidates in combination with one or more other therapies that have not yet been approved for marketing by the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities. We will not be able to market and sell the product candidates we develop in combination with any such unapproved therapies that do not ultimately obtain marketing approval.

If the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities do not approve these other drugs or revoke their approval of, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing, or supply issues arise with, the drugs we choose to evaluate in combination with our product candidates, we may be unable to obtain approval of or market the product candidates we develop.

If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the trial until its conclusion. The enrollment of patients depends on many factors, including:

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;

the size of the target disease population;

the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

the proximity of patients to trial sites;

the design of the trial;

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new products that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents;

the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before trial completion; and

other factors outside of our control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic which has, among other things, created substantial burdens on healthcare providers who may be required to prioritize immediate critical patient care over clinical research.

For example, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our Phase 1/2a trial of AT-787 for the treatment of HCV was paused until our clinical sites are able to re-open and we elect to resume enrollment, which has not yet occurred. In addition, our clinical trials will compete with other clinical trials for product candidates that are in the same therapeutic areas as our product candidates or similar areas, and this competition will reduce the number and types of patients available to us because some patients who might have opted to enroll in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors. Since the number of qualified clinical investigators is limited, we expect to conduct some of our clinical trials at the

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same clinical trial sites that some of our competitors use, which will reduce the number of patients who are available for our clinical trials at such clinical trial sites.

Delays in patient enrollment may result in increased costs or may affect the timing or outcome of our ongoing and planned clinical trials, which could prevent completion or commencement of these trials and adversely affect our ability to advance the development of our product candidates.

We currently conduct clinical trials, and may in the future choose to conduct additional clinical trials, of our product candidates in sites outside the United States, and the FDA may not accept data from trials conducted in foreign locations.

We currently conduct, and may in the future choose to conduct, clinical trials outside the United States for our product candidates. Although the FDA may accept data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States, acceptance of this data is subject to certain conditions imposed by the FDA. For example, the clinical trial must be conducted in accordance with GCP, and the FDA must also be able to validate the data from the study through an on-site inspection if necessary. In general, the patient population for any clinical trials conducted outside of the United States must be representative of the population for which we intend to seek approval for the product in the United States. In addition, while these clinical trials are subject to the applicable local laws, the FDA acceptance of the data will be dependent upon its determination that the trials also complied with all applicable U.S. laws and regulations. There can be no assurance the FDA will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States. If the FDA does not accept the data from our clinical trials of our product candidates, it would likely result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay or permanently halt our development of our product candidates.

In addition, there are risks inherent in conducting clinical trials in multiple jurisdictions, inside and outside of the United States, such as:

regulatory and administrative requirements of the jurisdiction where the trial is conducted that could burden or limit our ability to conduct our clinical trials;

foreign exchange fluctuations;

manufacturing, customs, shipment and storage requirements;

cultural differences in medical practice and clinical research; and

the risk that the patient populations in such trials are not considered representative as compared to the patient population in the target markets where approval is being sought.

Interim, “topline” and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary or top-line data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, which is based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data.  Consequently, the top-line or preliminary data that we report may differ from final results reported from the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such preliminary or topline data, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Top-line data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final results being materially different from the preliminary or topline data we previously published. As a result, top-line data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available.

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From time to time, we may also disclose interim data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available or as patients from our clinical trials continue other treatments for their disease. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final results could significantly harm our business prospects. Further, disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate or product and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is based on what is typically extensive information, and you or others may not agree with what we determine is material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure. If the interim, top-line, or preliminary data that we report differ from actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, our product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition.

We may not be successful in our efforts to identify and successfully develop additional product candidates.

Part of our strategy involves identifying novel product candidates. The process by which we identify novel product candidates may fail to yield product candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons, including those discussed in these risk factors and also:

we may not be able to assemble sufficient resources to acquire or discover additional product candidates;

competitors may develop alternatives that render our potential product candidates obsolete or less attractive;

potential product candidates we develop may nevertheless be covered by third-parties’ patent or other intellectual property or exclusive rights;

potential product candidates may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will receive marketing approval or achieve market acceptance, if approved;

potential product candidates may not be effective in treating their targeted diseases or symptoms;

the market for a potential product candidate may change so that the continued development of that product candidate is no longer reasonable;

a potential product candidate may not be capable of being produced in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all; or

the regulatory pathway for a potential product candidate is highly complex and difficult to navigate successfully or economically.

If we are unable to identify and successfully commercialize additional suitable product candidates, this would adversely impact our business strategy and our financial position.

We may focus on potential product candidates that may prove to be unsuccessful and we may have to forego opportunities to develop other product candidates that may prove to be more successful.

We may choose to focus our efforts and resources on a potential product candidate that ultimately proves to be unsuccessful, or to license or purchase a marketed product that does not meet our financial expectations. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities, be required to forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or other diseases that may later prove to have greater commercial potential.

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Furthermore, we have limited financial and personnel resources and are placing significant focus on the development of our lead product candidates, particularly AT-527, and as such, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities with other future product candidates that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and other future product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable future product candidates. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular future product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to those future product candidates through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such future product candidates.

A Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA, even if granted for any of our product candidates, may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that our product candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may seek a Breakthrough Therapy designation for our product candidates if the clinical data support such a designation for one or more product candidates. A Breakthrough Therapy is defined as a drug or biologic that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs or biologics, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For product candidates that have been designated as Breakthrough Therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development. Drugs designated as Breakthrough Therapies by the FDA may also be eligible for priority review, if the relevant criteria are met.

Designation as a Breakthrough Therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe one of our product candidates meets the criteria for designation as a Breakthrough Therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. In any event, the receipt of a Breakthrough Therapy designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA review procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if one or more of our product candidates qualify as breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

We may attempt to secure FDA approval of certain product candidates through the use of the accelerated approval pathway. If we are unable to obtain such approval, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials beyond those that we contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, and delay the receipt of, necessary marketing approvals. Even if we receive accelerated approval from the FDA, if our confirmatory trials do not verify clinical benefit, or if we do not comply with rigorous post-marketing requirements, the FDA may seek to withdraw accelerated approval.

We are developing certain product candidates for the treatment of serious and life-threatening conditions, including AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, and therefore may decide to seek approval of such product candidates under the FDA’s accelerated approval pathway. A product may be eligible for accelerated approval if it is designed to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint or intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The FDA considers a clinical benefit to be a positive therapeutic effect that is clinically meaningful in the context of a given disease, such as irreversible morbidity or mortality. For the purposes of accelerated approval, a surrogate endpoint is a marker, such as a laboratory measurement, radiographic image, physical sign, or other measure that is thought to predict clinical benefit, but is not itself a measure of clinical benefit. An intermediate clinical endpoint is a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit.

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The accelerated approval pathway may be used in cases in which the advantage of a new drug over available therapy may not be a direct therapeutic advantage, but is a clinically important improvement from a patient and public health perspective. If granted, accelerated approval is usually contingent on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct, in a diligent manner, additional post-approval confirmatory studies to verify and describe the drug’s clinical benefit. If the sponsor fails to conduct such studies in a timely manner, or if such post-approval studies fail to verify the drug’s predicted clinical benefit, the FDA may withdraw its approval of the drug on an expedited basis.

If we decide to submit an NDA seeking accelerated approval or receive an expedited regulatory designation for our product candidates, there can be no assurance that such submission or application will be accepted or that any expedited development, review or approval will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. Failure to obtain accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval for a product candidate would result in a longer time period to commercialization of such product candidate, if any, and could increase the cost of development of such product candidate, which could harm our competitive position in the marketplace.

Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us or any future collaboration partners from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of any product candidate we develop.

Any product candidates we may develop and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and by comparable authorities in other countries. Any product candidates we develop may not be effective, may be only moderately effective, or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a product candidate will prevent us from commercializing the product candidate in a given jurisdiction. Our development programs are early-stage and we have not received approval to market any product candidates from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction. It is possible that none of the product candidates we are developing or that we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval. We have no experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party CROs, suppliers, vendors or regulatory consultants to assist us in this process. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to the various regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the product candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years if numerous clinical trials are required, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. The FDA and comparable authorities in other countries have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a product candidate. Any marketing approval we ultimately obtain may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved product not commercially viable.

If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of any product candidates we may develop, the commercial prospects for those product candidates may be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenue will be materially impaired.

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Even if we obtain FDA approval of any of our product candidates, we may never obtain approval or commercialize such products outside of the United States, which would limit our ability to realize their full market potential.

In order to market any products outside of the United States, we must establish and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy. Clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries, and regulatory approval in one country does not mean that regulatory approval will be obtained in any other country. Approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and validation and additional administrative review periods. Seeking foreign regulatory approvals could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and may require additional preclinical studies or clinical trials which would be costly and time-consuming. Regulatory requirements can vary widely from country to country and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in those countries. Satisfying these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time-consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. In addition, our failure to obtain regulatory approval in any country may delay or have negative effects on the process for regulatory approval in other countries. We do not have any product candidates approved for sale in any jurisdiction, including international markets, and we do not have experience in obtaining regulatory approval in international markets. If we fail to comply with regulatory requirements in international markets or to obtain and maintain required approvals, our ability to realize the full market potential of our products will be harmed.

Even if a current or future product candidate receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

If any current or future product candidate we develop receives marketing approval, whether as a single agent or in combination with other therapies, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. For example, current approved antiviral products are well established in the medical community for the treatment of HCV, and doctors may continue to rely on these therapies. If the product candidates we develop do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of any product candidate, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;

the ability to offer our products, if approved, for sale at competitive prices;

convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;

the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

the strength of marketing and distribution support;

the ability to obtain sufficient third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement, including with respect to the use of the approved product as a combination therapy;

adoption of a companion diagnostic and/or complementary diagnostic; and

the prevalence and severity of any side effects.

Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire, retain or deploy key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new or modified products from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or at all, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review or approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, statutory, regulatory, and policy changes, the FDA’s ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the FDA have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other government agencies that fund

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research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable. Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA employees and stop critical activities.

Separately, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, on March 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to postpone most inspections of foreign manufacturing facilities and, on March 18, 2020, the FDA temporarily postponed routine surveillance inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities. Subsequently, on July 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to resume certain on-site inspections of domestic manufacturing facilities subject to a risk-based prioritization system. The FDA intends to use this risk-based assessment system to identify the categories of regulatory activity that can occur within a given geographic area, ranging from mission critical inspections to resumption of all regulatory activities. Regulatory authorities outside the United States may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health concerns continue to prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA or other regulatory authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our insurance policies are expensive and protect us only from some business risks, which leaves us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.

Though we have insurance coverage for clinical trial product liability, we do not carry insurance for all categories of risk that our business may encounter. Some of the policies we currently maintain include general liability, property, auto, workers’ compensation, umbrella, and directors’ and officers’ insurance.

Any additional product liability insurance coverage we acquire in the future may not be sufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive and in the future we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. If we obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we intend to acquire insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products; however, we may be unable to obtain product liability insurance on commercially reasonable terms or in adequate amounts. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our stock price to decline and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could adversely affect our results of operations and business, including preventing or limiting the development and commercialization of any product candidates we develop. We do not carry specific biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage, and our property, casualty and general liability insurance policies specifically exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination. Accordingly, in the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for damages or be penalized with fines in an amount exceeding our resources, and our clinical trials or regulatory approvals could be suspended.

Operating as a public company has and will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers. We do not know, however, if we will be able to maintain existing insurance with adequate levels of coverage. Any significant uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would adversely affect our cash and cash equivalents position and results of operations.

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Our business and operations would suffer in the event of system failures, deficiencies or intrusions.

Our computer systems, as well as those of our CROs and other contractors and consultants, are vulnerable to failure or damage from computer viruses and other malware, unauthorized access or other cybersecurity attacks, natural disasters (including hurricanes), terrorism, war, fire and telecommunication or electrical failures. In the ordinary course of our business, we directly or indirectly collect, store and transmit sensitive data, including intellectual property, confidential information, preclinical and clinical trial data, proprietary business information, personal data and personally identifiable health information of our clinical trial subjects and employees, in our data centers and on our networks, or on those of third parties. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or internal bad actors, or breached due to employee error, a technical vulnerability, malfeasance or other disruptions. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, level of persistence, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may also face increased cybersecurity risks due to our reliance on internet technology and the number of our employees who are working remotely, which may create additional opportunities for cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities. We may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats, nor may we be able to implement preventive measures effective against all such security threats. The techniques used by cybercriminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers, organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments or agencies. Because of this, we may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period. We cannot assure you that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology will prevent significant breakdowns, data leakages or breaches in our systems or those of our CROs and other contractors and consultants.

If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our product candidate development programs. For example, the loss of preclinical studies or clinical trial data from completed, ongoing or planned studies or trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of personal, confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development of our product candidates could be delayed. Although, to our knowledge, we have not experienced any such material security breach to date, any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen.

Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information and significant regulatory penalties, and such an event could disrupt our operations, damage our reputation and cause a loss of confidence in us and our ability to conduct clinical trials, which could adversely affect our reputation and delay our clinical development of our product candidates.

Risks Related to Healthcare Laws and Other Legal Compliance Matters

We will be subject to extensive and costly government regulation.

Our product candidates will be subject to extensive and rigorous domestic government regulation, including regulation by the FDA, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”), other divisions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Justice, state and local governments, and their respective equivalents outside of the United States. The FDA regulates the research, development, preclinical and clinical testing, manufacture, safety, effectiveness, record-keeping, reporting, labeling, packaging, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, distribution, import and export of pharmaceutical products. If our products are marketed abroad, they will also be subject to extensive regulation by foreign governments, whether or not they have obtained FDA approval for a given product and its uses. Such foreign regulation may be equally or more demanding than corresponding United States regulation.

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Government regulation substantially increases the cost and risk of researching, developing, manufacturing and selling our products. The regulatory review and approval process, which includes preclinical testing and clinical trials of each product candidate, is lengthy, expensive and uncertain. We must obtain and maintain regulatory authorization to conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials. We must obtain regulatory approval for each product we intend to market, and the manufacturing facilities used for the products must be inspected and meet legal requirements. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and other supporting information for each proposed therapeutic indication in order to establish the product’s safety and efficacy, potency and purity, for each intended use. The development and approval process takes many years, requires substantial resources, and may never lead to the approval of a product.

Even if we are able to obtain regulatory approval for a particular product, the approval may limit the indicated medical uses for the product, may otherwise limit our ability to promote, sell and distribute the product, may require that we conduct costly post-marketing surveillance, and/or may require that we conduct ongoing post-marketing studies. Material changes to an approved product, such as, for example, manufacturing changes or revised labeling, may require further regulatory review and approval. Once obtained, any approvals may be withdrawn, including, for example, if there is a later discovery of previously unknown problems with the product, such as a previously unknown safety issue.

If we, our consultants, CMOs, CROs or other vendors, fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements at any stage during the regulatory process, such noncompliance could result in, among other things, delays in the approval of applications or supplements to approved applications; refusal of a regulatory authority, including the FDA, to review pending market approval applications or supplements to approved applications; warning letters; fines; import and/or export restrictions; product recalls or seizures; injunctions; total or partial suspension of production; civil penalties; withdrawals of previously approved marketing applications or licenses; recommendations by the FDA or other regulatory authorities against governmental contracts; and/or criminal prosecutions.

Enacted and future healthcare legislation and policies may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our product candidates and could adversely affect our business.

In the United States, the EU and other jurisdictions, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes to the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our products in development, restrict or regulate post-approval activities involving any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval, impact pricing and reimbursement and impact our ability to sell any such products profitably. In particular, there have been and continue to be a number of initiatives at the U.S. federal and state levels that seek to reduce healthcare costs and improve the quality of healthcare. In addition, new regulations and interpretations of existing healthcare statutes and regulations are frequently adopted.

In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“ACA”), was enacted, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among the provisions of the ACA, those of greatest importance to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries include the following:

an annual, non-deductible fee payable by any entity that manufactures or imports certain branded prescription drugs and biologic agents (other than those designated as orphan drugs), which is apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;

a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;

an increase in the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to 23.1% and 13.0% of the average manufacturer price for branded and generic drugs, respectively;

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a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected;

extension of a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;

expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to certain individuals with income at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, thereby potentially increasing a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability;

a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research; and

establishment of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at CMS to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending.

Since its enactment, there have been judicial, Congressional and executive challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, and we expect there will be additional challenges and amendments to the ACA in the future. By way of example, in 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“the Tax Act”) was signed into law, which included a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the ACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate”. On December 14, 2018, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas ruled that the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the penalty imposed by the individual mandate, which was deemed an integral part of the ACA, was reduced to $0 and effectively nullified by Congress as part of the Tax Act. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. The U.S. Supreme Court is currently reviewing this case, although it remains unclear how and when the Supreme Court will rule. On June 14, 2018, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruled that the federal government was not required to pay more than $12 billion in ACA risk corridor payments to third-party payors who argued that these payments were owed to them. This was appealed to the Supreme Court, who reversed the Federal Circuit’s decision on April 27, 2020, and ruled that the government must make risk corridor payments. It is unclear how other efforts to challenge, repeal or replace the ACA will impact the ACA or our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 included aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, effective April 1, 2013 which, due to subsequent legislative amendments, will stay in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2021, unless additional congressional action is taken. In addition, in January 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. Additionally, the orphan drug tax credit was reduced as part of a broader tax reform. These new laws or any other similar laws introduced in the future may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could negatively affect our customers and accordingly, our financial operations.

Moreover, payment methodologies may be subject to changes in healthcare legislation and regulatory initiatives. For example, CMS may develop new payment and delivery models, such as outcomes-based reimbursement. In addition, recently there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, and review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs. We expect that additional U.S. federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that the U.S. federal government will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our product candidates or additional pricing pressures.

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Individual states in the United States have also increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access, and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Legally mandated price controls on payment amounts by third-party payors or other restrictions could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This could reduce the ultimate demand for our product candidates or put pressure on our product pricing.

In the EU, similar political, economic and regulatory developments may affect our ability to profitably commercialize our product candidates, if approved. In addition to continuing pressure on prices and cost containment measures, legislative developments at the EU or member state level may result in significant additional requirements or obstacles that may increase our operating costs. The delivery of healthcare in the EU, including the establishment and operation of health services and the pricing and reimbursement of medicines, is almost exclusively a matter for national, rather than EU, law and policy. National governments and health service providers have different priorities and approaches to the delivery of healthcare and the pricing and reimbursement of products in that context. In general, however, the healthcare budgetary constraints in most EU member states have resulted in restrictions on the pricing and reimbursement of medicines by relevant health service providers. Coupled with ever-increasing EU and national regulatory burdens on those wishing to develop and market products, this could prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to commercialize our product candidates, if approved.

In markets outside of the United States and the EU, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly by country, and many countries have instituted price ceilings on specific products and therapies.

In addition, in the United States, legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA’s regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our product candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action in the United States, the EU or any other jurisdiction. If we or any third parties we may engage are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we or such third parties are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, our product candidates may lose any regulatory approval that may have been obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, our products will remain subject to regulatory scrutiny and post-marketing requirements.

Any regulatory approvals that we may receive for our product candidates will require the submission of reports to regulatory authorities and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate, may contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, and may include burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements. For example, the FDA may require a REMS in order to approve our product candidates, which could entail requirements for a medication guide, physician training and communication plans or additional elements to ensure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. In addition, if one of our product candidates is approved, it will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, conduct of post-marketing studies and submission of safety, efficacy, and other post- market information, including both federal and state requirements in the United States and requirements of comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Manufacturers and manufacturers’

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facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authority requirements, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMP regulations. As such, we and our contract manufacturers will be subject to continual review and inspections to assess compliance with cGMP and adherence to commitments made in any approved marketing application. Accordingly, we and others with whom we work must continue to expend time, money and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production and quality control.

If the FDA or another regulatory authority discovers previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, or disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of a product, such regulatory authorities may impose restrictions on that product or us, including requiring withdrawal of the product from the market. If we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory authority or enforcement authority may, among other things:

issue warning letters;

impose civil or criminal penalties;

suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;

suspend any of our clinical trials;

refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications submitted by us;

impose restrictions on our operations, including closing our contract manufacturers’ facilities; or

seize or detain products, or require a product recall.

Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity. Any failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements may adversely affect our ability to commercialize and generate revenue from our products. If regulatory sanctions are applied or if regulatory approval is withdrawn, our business will be seriously harmed.

Moreover, the policies of the FDA and of other regulatory authorities may change, and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may be subject to enforcement action, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.

If any of our product candidates are approved and we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses of those products, we may become subject to significant liability. The FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription products, such as our product candidates, if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. If we receive marketing approval for a product candidate, physicians may nevertheless prescribe it to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability. The U.S. federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion of off-label use and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of our product candidates, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

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Our business operations and current and future relationships with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers will be subject to applicable healthcare regulatory laws, which could expose us to penalties.

Our business operations and current and future arrangements with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers, may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations. These laws may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct our operations, including how we research, market, sell and distribute our product candidates, if approved. Such laws include:

the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which makes it illegal for any person to knowingly and willfully solicit, offer, receive, pay or provide any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or certain rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of, any good, facility, item or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under U.S. federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

the U.S. federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the civil False Claims Act (the “FCA”), which prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the U.S. federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false, fictitious or fraudulent, knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim, or from knowingly making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the U.S. federal government. Manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payors if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. The government may deem manufacturers to have “caused” the submission of false or fraudulent claims by, for example, providing inaccurate billing or coding information to customers or promoting a product off-label. Companies that submit claims directly to payors may also be liable under the FCA for the direct submission of such claims. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA. The FCA also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging violations of the FCA and to share in any monetary recovery. When an entity is determined to have violated the FCA, the government may impose civil fines and penalties for each false claim, plus treble damages, and exclude the entity from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs;

the federal civil monetary penalties laws, which impose civil fines for, among other things, the offering or transfer of remuneration to a Medicare or state healthcare program beneficiary if the person knows or should know it is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of a particular provider, practitioner or supplier of services reimbursable by Medicare or a state healthcare program, unless an exception applies;

the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, (“HIPAA”), and its implementing regulations, which created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters. Similar to the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

the U.S. federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”), which prohibits, among other things, the adulteration or misbranding of drugs, biologics and medical devices;

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the U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act and its implementing regulations, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies that are reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the government information related to certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors), certain other healthcare providers starting in 2022, and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by the physicians described above and their immediate family members;

federal price reporting laws, which require manufacturers to calculate and report complex pricing metrics to government programs, where reported prices may be used in the calculation of reimbursement and/or discounts on approved products;

federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;

analogous U.S. state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to our business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information, which requires tracking gifts and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; and state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and

similar healthcare laws and regulations in the EU and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers.

Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices, including our relationships with physicians and other healthcare providers, some of whom are compensated in the form of stock or stock options for services provided to us and may be in the position to influence the ordering of or use of our product candidates, if approved, may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid or similar programs in other countries or jurisdictions, integrity oversight and reporting obligations to resolve allegations of non-compliance, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs and imprisonment, which could affect our ability to operate our business. Further, defending against any such actions can be costly, time-consuming and may require significant personnel resources. Therefore, even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired.

We are subject to governmental regulation and other legal obligations, particularly related to privacy, data protection and information security, and we are subject to consumer protection laws that regulate our marketing practices and prohibit unfair or deceptive acts or practices. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.

We are subject to diverse laws and regulations relating to data privacy and security, including, in the United States, HIPAA, and, in the EU, Regulation 2016/679, known as the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”). New privacy rules are being enacted in the United States and globally, and existing ones are being updated and strengthened. For example, on June 28, 2018, California enacted

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the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA creates individual privacy rights for California consumers, increases the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain personal information, requires new disclosures to California individuals and affording such individuals new abilities to opt out of certain sales of personal information, and provides for civil penalties for violations as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) recently passed in California. The CPRA will impose additional data protection obligations on covered businesses, including additional consumer rights processes, limitations on data uses, new audit requirements for higher risk data, and opt outs for certain uses of sensitive data. It will also create a new California data protection agency authorized to issue substantive regulations and could result in increased privacy and information security enforcement. The majority of the provisions will go into effect on January 1, 2023, and additional compliance investment and potential business process changes may be required. In the event that we are subject to or affected by HIPAA, the CCPA, the CPRA or other domestic privacy and data protection laws, any liability from failure to comply with the requirements of these laws could adversely affect our financial condition.

Complying with these numerous, complex and often changing regulations is expensive and difficult, and failure to comply with any privacy laws or data security laws or any security incident or breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized processing, use or disclosure of sensitive or confidential patient, consumer or other personal information, whether by us, one of our CROs or business associates or another third party, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including but not limited to: investigation costs; material fines and penalties; compensatory, special, punitive and statutory damages; litigation; consent orders regarding our privacy and security practices; requirements that we provide notices, credit monitoring services and/or credit restoration services or other relevant services to impacted individuals; adverse actions against our licenses to do business; reputational damage; and injunctive relief.

The privacy laws in the EU have been significantly reformed in recent years. On May 25, 2018, the GDPR entered into force and became directly applicable in all EU member states. The GDPR and related implementing laws in individual EU Member States govern the collection and use of personal health data and other personal data in the EU including the personal data processed by companies outside the EU in connection with the offering of goods or services to individuals in the EU or the monitoring of their behavior (including in the context of clinical trials). The GDPR rules are also applicable in the European Economic Area (“EEA”), which consists of the 27 EU Member States plus Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland. The GDPR implements more stringent operational requirements than its predecessor legislation. For example, the GDPR requires us to make more detailed disclosures to data subjects, requires disclosure of the legal basis on which we can process personal data, makes it harder for us to obtain valid consent for collecting and processing personal data, requires the appointment of data protection officers when sensitive personal data, such as health data, is processed on a large scale, provides more robust rights for data subjects, introduces mandatory data breach notification through the EU, imposes additional obligations on us when contracting with service providers and requires us to adopt appropriate privacy governance, including policies, procedures, training and data audit. The GDPR provides that EU member states may establish their own laws and regulations limiting the processing of personal data, including genetic, biometric or health data, which could limit our ability to use and share personal data or could cause our costs to increase.

Among other requirements, the GDPR regulates transfers of personal data subject to the GDPR to third countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data, including the United States, and the efficacy and longevity of current transfer mechanisms between the EU and the United States remains uncertain. For example, in 2016, the EU and United States agreed to a transfer framework for data transferred from the EU to the United States, called the Privacy Shield, but the Privacy Shield was invalidated in July 2020 by the Court of Justice of the European Union.

In addition, from January 1, 2021, we are subject to the GDPR and also the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) GDPR (“U.K. GDPR”), which, together with the amended U.K. Data Protection Act 2018, retains the GDPR in U.K. national law. The relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear, and it is unclear how U.K. data protection laws and regulations will develop in the medium to longer term, and for example how data transfers to and

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from the U.K. will be regulated in the long term, which exposes us to further compliance risk. These changes will lead to additional costs and increase and expose us to two parallel regimes each with the power to fine up to the greater of either €20 million (for the EU) or £17,500,000 (for the U.K.), or 4% of global turnover for violations. Currently there is a four to six-month grace period agreed in the EU and U.K. Trade and Cooperation Agreement, ending June 30, 2021 at the latest, while the parties discuss an adequacy decision. The European Commission published a draft adequacy decision on February 19, 2021. If adopted, the decision will enable data transfers from EU member states to the U.K. for a four-year period, subject to subsequent extensions. In addition, we may be the subject of litigation and/or adverse publicity, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We cannot assure you that our CROs or other third-party service providers with access to our or our customers’, suppliers’, trial patients’ and employees’ personally identifiable and other sensitive or confidential information in relation to which we are responsible will not breach contractual obligations imposed by us, or that they will not experience data security breaches or attempts thereof, which could have a corresponding effect on our business, including putting us in breach of our obligations under privacy laws and regulations and/or which could in turn adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that our contractual measures and our own privacy and security-related safeguards will protect us from the risks associated with the third-party processing, use, storage and transmission of such information. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We face potential liability related to the privacy of health information we obtain from clinical trials sponsored by us.

Most healthcare providers in the US, including research institutions from which we obtain patient health information, are subject to privacy and security regulations promulgated under HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. We do not believe that we are currently acting as a covered entity or business associate under HIPAA and thus are not directly subject to its requirements or penalties. However, any person may be prosecuted under HIPAA’s criminal provisions either directly or under aiding-and-abetting or conspiracy principles. Consequently, depending on the facts and circumstances, we could face substantial criminal penalties if we knowingly receive individually identifiable health information from a HIPAA-covered healthcare provider or research institution that has not satisfied HIPAA’s requirements for disclosure of individually identifiable health information. Even when HIPAA does not apply, according to the Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”), failing to take appropriate steps to keep consumers’ personal information secure constitutes unfair acts or practices in or affecting commerce in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. The FTC expects a company’s data security measures to be reasonable and appropriate in light of the sensitivity and volume of consumer information it holds, the size and complexity of its business, and the cost of available tools to improve security and reduce vulnerabilities. Individually identifiable health information is considered sensitive data that merits stronger safeguards.

In addition, we may maintain sensitive personally identifiable information, including health information, that we receive throughout the clinical trial process, in the course of our research collaborations. As such, we may be subject to state laws, requiring notification of affected individuals and state regulators in the event of a breach of personal information, which is a broader class of information than the health information protected by HIPAA. Our clinical trial programs outside the United States may implicate international data protection laws, including the U.K. GDPR, GDPR and legislation of the EU member states implementing it.

Our activities outside the United States impose additional compliance requirements and generate additional risks of enforcement for noncompliance. Failure by our CROs and other third-party contractors to comply with the strict rules on the transfer of personal data outside of the EU into the United States may result in the imposition of criminal and administrative sanctions on such collaborators, which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, certain health privacy laws, data breach notification laws, consumer protection laws and genetic testing laws may apply directly to our operations and/or those of our collaborators and may impose restrictions on our collection, use and dissemination of individuals’ health information.

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Moreover, patients about whom we or our collaborators obtain health information, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may have statutory or contractual rights that limit our ability to use and disclose the information. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to ensure ongoing compliance with applicable privacy and data security laws. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time-consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm our business.

If we or third-party CMOs, CROs or other contractors or consultants fail to comply with applicable federal, state or local regulatory privacy requirements, we could be subject to a range of regulatory actions that could affect our or our contractors’ ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates and could harm or prevent sales of any affected products that we are able to commercialize, or could substantially increase the costs and expenses of developing, commercializing and marketing our products. Any threatened or actual government enforcement action could also generate adverse publicity and require that we devote substantial resources that could otherwise be used in other aspects of our business. Increasing use of social media could give rise to liability, breaches of data security or reputational damage. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, and we may become exposed to liability and substantial expenses in connection with environmental compliance or remediation activities.

Our operations, including our development, testing and manufacturing activities, are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, the controlled use, handling, release and disposal of and the maintenance of a registry for, hazardous materials and biological materials, such as chemical solvents, human cells, carcinogenic compounds, mutagenic compounds and compounds that have a toxic effect on reproduction, laboratory procedures and exposure to blood-borne pathogens. If we fail to comply with such laws and regulations, we could be subject to fines or other sanctions.

As with other companies engaged in activities similar to ours, we face a risk of environmental liability inherent in our current and historical activities, including liability relating to releases of or exposure to hazardous or biological materials. Environmental, health and safety laws and regulations are becoming more stringent. We may be required to incur substantial expenses in connection with future environmental compliance or remediation activities, in which case, the production efforts of our third-party manufacturers or our development efforts may be interrupted or delayed.

We and our employees are increasingly utilizing social media tools as a means of communication both internally and externally.

Despite our efforts to monitor evolving social media communication guidelines and comply with applicable rules, there is risk that the use of social media by us or our employees to communicate about our product candidates or business may cause us to be found in violation of applicable requirements. In addition, our employees may knowingly or inadvertently make use of social media in ways that may not comply with applicable laws and regulations, our policies and other legal or contractual requirements, which may give rise to regulatory enforcement action, liability, lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property or result in public exposure of personal information of our employees, clinical trial patients, customers and others. Furthermore, negative posts or comments about us or our product candidates in social media could seriously damage our reputation, brand image and goodwill. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition and could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Commercialization

Developments by competitors may render our products or technologies obsolete or non-competitive or may reduce the size of our markets.

Our industry has been characterized by extensive research and development efforts, rapid developments in technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. We expect our product candidates to face intense and increasing competition as new products enter the relevant markets and advanced technologies become available. We face potential competition from many different

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sources, including pharmaceutical, biotechnology and specialty pharmaceutical companies. Academic research institutions, governmental agencies and public and private institutions are also potential sources of competitive products and technologies. Our competitors may have or may develop superior technologies or approaches, which may provide them with competitive advantages. Many of these competitors may also have compounds already approved or in development in the therapeutic categories that we are targeting with our product candidates. In addition, many of these competitors, either alone or together with their collaborative partners, may operate larger research and development programs or have substantially greater financial resources than we do, as well as greater experience in:

developing product candidates;

undertaking preclinical testing and clinical trials;

obtaining NDA approval by the FDA;

comparable foreign regulatory approvals of product candidates;

formulating and manufacturing products; and

launching, marketing and selling products.

If these competitors access the marketplace before we do with safer, more effective, or less expensive therapeutics, our product candidates, if approved for commercialization, may not be profitable to sell or worthwhile to continue to develop. Technology in the pharmaceutical industry has undergone rapid and significant change, and we expect that it will continue to do so. Any compounds, products or processes that we develop may become obsolete or uneconomical before we recover any expenses incurred in connection with their development. The success of our product candidates will depend upon factors such as product efficacy, safety, reliability, availability, timing, scope of regulatory approval, acceptance and price, among other things. Other important factors to our success include speed in developing product candidates, completing clinical development and laboratory testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and manufacturing and selling commercial quantities of potential products.

Significant competition exists from approved treatments or treatments in development for the diseases that we are targeting. Many of the approved drugs are well-established therapies or products and are widely accepted by physicians, patients and third-party payors. There are pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies at various stages of development and approval of treatments for COVID-19 (or vaccines for SARS-CoV-2), HCV, dengue and RSV. There are several vaccines and drugs authorized for emergency use and one drug approved for the treatment of certain patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization, several drugs approved for the treatment of HCV, an approved vaccine for dengue and an approved drug for the treatment of RSV. Our product candidates are intended to compete directly or indirectly with existing products and products currently in development. Even if approved and commercialized, our product candidates may fail to achieve market acceptance with hospitals, physicians or patients. Hospitals, physicians or patients may conclude that our products are less safe or effective or otherwise less attractive than existing drugs. If our product candidates do not receive market acceptance for any reason, our revenue potential would be diminished, which would materially adversely affect our ability to become profitable.

Many of our competitors have substantially greater capital resources, robust product candidate pipelines, established presence in the market and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement and marketing approved products than we do. As a result, our competitors may achieve product commercialization or patent or other intellectual property protection earlier than we can. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified clinical, regulatory, scientific, sales, marketing and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, or are less expensive than any products that we may develop or that would render any products that we may develop obsolete or noncompetitive.

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The successful commercialization of our product candidates will depend in part on the extent to which governmental authorities and health insurers establish coverage, adequate reimbursement levels and pricing policies. Failure to obtain or maintain coverage and adequate reimbursement for our product candidates, if approved, could limit our ability to market those products and decrease our ability to generate product revenue.

There is significant uncertainty related to the insurance coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, third-party payors, including private and governmental payors, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, play an important role in determining the extent to which new drugs and biologics will be covered. Our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and other third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. The availability of coverage and extent of reimbursement by governmental and private payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford treatments.

Third-party payors increasingly are challenging prices charged for pharmaceutical products and services, and many third-party payors may refuse to provide coverage and reimbursement for particular drugs and biologics when an equivalent generic drug, biosimilar or a less expensive therapy is available. It is possible that a third-party payor may consider our product candidates as substitutable and only offer to reimburse patients for the less expensive product. For products administered under the supervision of a physician, obtaining coverage and adequate reimbursement may be particularly difficult because of the higher prices often associated with such drugs. Even if we show improved efficacy or improved convenience of administration with our product candidates, pricing of existing third-party therapeutics may limit the amount we will be able to charge for our product candidates. These payors may deny or revoke the reimbursement status of a given product or establish prices for new or existing marketed products at levels that are too low to enable us to realize an appropriate return on our investment in our product candidates. If reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may not be able to obtain a satisfactory financial return on our product candidates.

In the United States, third-party payors, including private and governmental payors, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, play an important role in determining the extent to which new drugs and biologics will be covered and reimbursed. The Medicare program is increasingly used as a model for how private and other governmental payors develop their coverage and reimbursement policies for new drugs. However, no uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors in the United States. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our product candidates to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance. Some third-party payors may require pre-approval of coverage for new or innovative drug therapies before they will reimburse healthcare providers who use such therapies. Furthermore, rules and regulations regarding reimbursement change frequently, in some cases on short notice, and we believe that changes in these rules and regulations are likely. We cannot predict at this time what third-party payors will decide with respect to the coverage and reimbursement for our product candidates.

Outside the United States, international operations are generally subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations, and we believe the increasing emphasis on cost-containment initiatives in the EU and other jurisdictions have and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of our product candidates. In many countries, the prices of medical products are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for medical products, but monitor and control company profits. Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for our product candidates. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for our product candidates may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenue and profits.

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Moreover, increasing efforts by governmental and third-party payors in the United States and abroad to cap or reduce healthcare costs may cause such organizations to limit both coverage and the level of reimbursement for newly approved products and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our product candidates. We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of our product candidates due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative changes. The downward pressure on healthcare costs in general, particularly prescription drugs and biologics and surgical procedures and other treatments, has become intense. As a result, increasingly high barriers are being erected to the entry of new products.

If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we may not be successful in commercializing any of our product candidates, if approved, and we may not be able to generate any product revenue.

We have limited personnel or infrastructure for the sales, marketing or distribution of products, and no experience as a company in commercializing a product candidate. The cost of building and maintaining such an organization may exceed the cost-effectiveness of doing so.

We may build our own focused sales, distribution and marketing infrastructure to market our product candidates, if approved, in the United States and other markets around the world. There are significant expenses and risks involved with building our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, including our ability to hire, retain and appropriately incentivize qualified individuals, generate sufficient sales leads, provide adequate training to sales and marketing personnel, and effectively manage a geographically dispersed sales and marketing team. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities could delay any product launch, which would adversely impact the commercialization of our product candidate, if approved. Additionally, if the commercial launch of our product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our product candidates on our own include:

our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe our future products;

our inability to equip medical and sales personnel with effective materials, including medical and sales literature to help them educate physicians and other healthcare providers regarding applicable diseases and our future products;

the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines;

our inability to develop or obtain sufficient operational functions to support our commercial activities; and

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

If we are unable or decide not to establish internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, or decide not to do so for a particular country, we may pursue collaborative arrangements. If we pursue a collaborative arrangement, our sales will largely depend on the collaborator’s strategic interest in the product and such collaborator’s ability to successfully commercialize the product. For example, we have an option to request Roche co-promote with us AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19 in the U.S. If we elect to exercise this option, we will be dependent in part on Roche’s efforts to successfully co-promote this product with us.

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If we are unable to build our own sales force or access a collaborative relationship for the commercialization of any of our product candidates, we may be forced to delay the potential commercialization of our product candidates or reduce the scope of our sales or marketing activities for such product candidates. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund commercialization activities ourselves, we will need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. We could enter into arrangements with collaborative partners at an earlier stage than otherwise would be ideal and we may be required to relinquish rights to any of our product candidates or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to us, any of which may have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and prospects.

If we are unable to establish adequate sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our other product candidates and may not become profitable and may incur significant additional losses. We will be competing with many companies that currently have extensive and well-funded marketing and sales operations. Without an internal team or the support of a third party to perform marketing and sales functions, we may be unable to compete successfully against these more established companies.

In addition, even if we do establish adequate sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, the progress of general industry trends with respect to pricing models, supply chains and delivery mechanisms, among other things, could deviate from our expectations. If these or other industry trends change in a manner which we do not anticipate or for which we are not prepared, we may not be successful in commercializing our product candidates or become profitable.

Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to penetrate foreign markets, where we would be subject to additional regulatory burdens and other risks and uncertainties.

Our future profitability may depend, in part, on our ability to commercialize our product candidates in foreign markets for which we may rely on collaboration with third parties. For example, we will depend on Roche to commercialize AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19 in markets outside the U.S. We are evaluating the opportunities for the development and commercialization of our other product candidates in foreign markets. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the applicable regulatory authority in that foreign market, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. To obtain separate regulatory approvals in other countries, we may be required to comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such countries regarding the safety and efficacy of our product candidates and governing, among other things, clinical trials and commercial sales, pricing and distribution of our product candidates, and we cannot predict success in these jurisdictions. If we obtain approval of our product candidates and ultimately commercialize our product candidates in foreign markets, we would be subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including:

our customers’ ability to obtain reimbursement for our product candidates in foreign markets;

our inability to directly control commercial activities if we are relying on third parties;

the burden of complying with complex and changing foreign regulatory, tax, accounting and legal requirements;

different medical practices and customs in foreign countries affecting acceptance in the marketplace;

import or export licensing requirements;

longer accounts receivable collection times;

our ability to supply our product candidates on a timely and large-scale basis in local markets;

longer lead times for shipping which may necessitate local manufacture of our product candidates;

language barriers for technical training and the need for language translations;

reduced protection of patent and other intellectual property rights in some foreign countries;

the existence of additional potentially relevant third-party intellectual property rights;

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foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; and

the interpretation of contractual provisions governed by foreign laws in the event of a contract dispute.

Foreign sales of our product candidates could also be adversely affected by the imposition of governmental controls, political and economic instability, trade restrictions and changes in tariffs.

If any of our product candidates is approved for commercialization, we may selectively partner with third parties to market it in certain jurisdictions outside the United States. We expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to international pharmaceutical operations, including:

different regulatory requirements for drug approvals and rules governing drug commercialization in foreign countries, including requirements specific to biologics or cell therapy products;

reduced protection for patent and other intellectual property rights;

foreign reimbursement, pricing and insurance regimes;

potential noncompliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and similar anti-bribery and anticorruption laws in other jurisdictions; and

production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad.

We have no prior experience in these areas. In addition, there are complex regulatory, tax, labor and other legal requirements imposed by both the EU and many of the individual member states in Europe with which we will need to comply. Many U.S.-based biotechnology companies have found the process of marketing their own products in Europe to be very challenging.

Certain legal and political risks are also inherent in foreign operations. There is a risk that foreign governments may nationalize private enterprises in certain countries where we may operate. In certain countries or regions, terrorist activities and the response to such activities may threaten our operations more than in the United States. Social and cultural norms in certain countries may not support compliance with our corporate policies, including those that require compliance with substantive laws and regulations. Also, changes in general economic and political conditions in countries where we may operate are a risk to our financial performance and future growth. Additionally, the need to identify financially and commercially strong partners for commercialization outside the United States who will comply with the high manufacturing and legal and regulatory compliance standards we require is a risk to our financial performance. As we operate our business globally, our success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other related risks. There can be no assurance that the consequences of these and other factors relating to our international operations will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

In some countries, particularly in Europe, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a drug. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct clinical trials that compare the cost-effectiveness of our product candidates to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

Potential product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

The use of our product candidates in clinical trials and the sale of any products for which we obtain marketing approval exposes us to the risk of product liability claims. Product liability claims might be brought against us by consumers, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our products. On occasion, large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on products that had unanticipated adverse effects. If we cannot successfully defend against product liability claims, we could incur substantial liability and costs, which may not be covered by insurance. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:

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impairment of our business reputation and significant negative media attention;

withdrawal of participants from our clinical trials;

injury to our reputation;

initiation of investigations by regulators;

significant costs to defend the claims and related litigation;

distraction of management’s attention from our primary business;

substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants;

inability to commercialize a product candidate;

product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

exhaustion of any available insurance and our capital resources;

decreased demand for a product candidate, if approved for commercial sale; and

loss of revenue.

Failure to obtain or retain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of products we develop, alone or with corporate collaborators. Although we have clinical trial insurance, our insurance policies also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts. Even if our agreements with any future corporate collaborators entitle us to indemnification against losses, such indemnification may not be available or adequate should any claim arise.

Risks Related to Manufacturing and our Dependence on Third Parties

We will rely on third parties for the manufacture of materials for our research programs, preclinical studies and clinical trials and we do not have long-term contracts with many of these parties. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of such materials, product candidates, or any therapies that we may develop and commercialize, or that such supply will not be available to us at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent, or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We expect to rely on third parties for the manufacture of materials for our clinical trials and preclinical and clinical development. We expect to rely on third parties for commercial manufacture if any of our product candidates receive marketing approval, including Roche with respect to AT-527 for COVID-19. We do not have a long-term agreement with any of the third-party manufacturers we currently use to provide preclinical and clinical trial materials, and we purchase any required materials on a purchase order basis. Certain of these manufacturers are critical to our production and the loss of these manufacturers to one of our competitors or otherwise, or an inability to obtain quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, could delay, prevent or impair our ability to timely conduct preclinical studies or clinical trials, and would materially and adversely affect our development and commercialization efforts.

We expect to continue to rely on third-party manufacturers for the commercial supply of any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval, if any. We may be unable to maintain or establish required agreements with third-party manufacturers or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

the failure of the third party to manufacture our product candidates according to our schedule, or at all, including if our third-party contractors give greater priority to the supply of other products over our product candidates or otherwise do not satisfactorily perform according to the terms of the agreements between us and them;

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the reduction or termination of production or deliveries by suppliers, or the raising of prices or renegotiation of terms;

the termination or nonrenewal of arrangements or agreements by our third-party contractors at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us;

the breach by the third-party contractors of our agreements with them;

the failure of third-party contractors to comply with applicable regulatory requirements;

the failure of the third party to manufacture our product candidates according to our specifications;

the mislabeling of clinical supplies, potentially resulting in the wrong dose amounts being supplied or active drug or placebo not being properly identified;

clinical supplies not being delivered to clinical sites on time, leading to clinical trial interruptions, or of drug supplies not being distributed to commercial vendors in a timely manner, resulting in lost sales; and

the misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of our intellectual property or other proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how.

We do not have complete control over all aspects of the manufacturing process of, and are dependent on, our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMP regulations and similar regulatory requirements for manufacturing both active drug substances and finished drug products. Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States. If our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA or others, they will not be able to secure and/or maintain authorization for their manufacturing facilities. In addition, we do not have control over the ability of our contract manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority does not authorize these facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or if it withdraws any such authorization in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for or market our product candidates, if approved. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or drugs, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our product candidates or drugs and harm our business and results of operations.

Our third-party manufacturers may be unable to successfully scale up manufacturing of our product candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, which may impair the clinical advancement and commercialization of our product candidates.

In order to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates and commercialize any approved product, our manufacturing partners need to manufacture them in large quantities. However, they may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our product candidates or products in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities, as discussed above. If we, or any manufacturing partners, are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our product candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing and clinical trials of these product candidates may be delayed or infeasible, and regulatory approval or commercial launch of any resulting products may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business. Supply sources could be interrupted from time to time and, if interrupted, it is not certain that supplies could be resumed (whether in part or in whole) within a reasonable timeframe and at an acceptable cost, or at all. If we are unable to obtain or maintain third-party manufacturing for commercial supply of our product candidates, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to develop and commercialize our product candidates successfully.

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We do not have multiple sources of supply for some of the components used in our product candidates, nor long-term supply contracts, and certain of our suppliers are critical to our production. If we were to lose a critical supplier, it could have a material adverse effect on our ability to complete the development of our product candidates. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we would need to expand the supply of their components in order to commercialize them.

We do not have multiple sources of supply for each of the components used in the manufacturing of AT-527, AT-752, AT-787 or any of our other product candidates. For commercial supply of AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, we are exclusively dependent on Roche. For our other products, we have a sole supplier located in China for our active pharmaceutical ingredients. For fill-finish work, we have a supplier located in Canada and a back-up supplier located in the United States. We do not have long-term supply agreements with any of our component suppliers. We may not be able to establish additional sources of supply for our product candidates, or may be unable to do so on acceptable terms. Manufacturing suppliers are subject to cGMP quality and regulatory requirements and similar regulatory requirements, covering manufacturing, testing, quality control and record keeping relating to our product candidates and subject to ongoing inspections by applicable regulatory authorities. Manufacturing suppliers are also subject to local, state and federal regulations and licensing requirements. Failure by any of our suppliers to comply with all applicable regulations and requirements may result in long delays and interruptions in supply.

The number of suppliers of the components of our product candidates is limited. In the event it is necessary or desirable to acquire supplies from alternative suppliers, we might not be able to obtain them on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. It could also require significant time and expense to redesign our manufacturing processes to work with another company and redesign of processes can trigger the need for conducting additional studies such as comparability or bridging studies. Additionally, certain of our suppliers are critical to our production, and the loss of these suppliers to one of our competitors or otherwise would materially and adversely affect our development and commercialization efforts.

As part of any marketing approval, regulatory authorities conduct inspections that must be successful prior to the approval of the product. Failure of manufacturing suppliers to successfully complete these regulatory inspections will result in delays. If supply from the approved supplier is interrupted, there could be a significant disruption in commercial supply. An alternative vendor would need to be qualified through a NDA amendment or supplement, which could result in further delay. The FDA or other regulatory authorities outside of the United States may also require additional studies if a new supplier is relied upon for commercial production. Switching vendors may involve substantial costs and is likely to result in a delay in our desired clinical and commercial timelines.

If we are unable to obtain the supplies we need at a reasonable price or on a timely basis, it could have a material adverse effect on our ability to complete the development of our product candidates or, if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, to commercialize them.

We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Any failure by a third party to conduct the clinical trials according to GCPs and in a timely manner may delay or prevent our ability to seek or obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates.

We are dependent on third parties to conduct critical aspects of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including our planned Phase 3 clinical trial and our ongoing Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials for AT-527 for the treatment of COVID-19, our Phase 1 clinical trial of AT-752 for the treatment of dengue and our Phase 1/2a clinical trial of AT-787 for the treatment of HCV, and we expect to rely on third parties to conduct future clinical trials and preclinical studies for our product candidates including Roche with respect to the clinical development of AT-527. Specifically, we have used and relied on, and intend to continue to use and rely on, medical institutions, clinical investigators, CROs and consultants to conduct our clinical trials in accordance with our clinical protocols and regulatory requirements. These CROs, investigators and other third parties play a significant role in the conduct and timing of these trials and subsequent collection and analysis of data. While we have agreements governing the activities of our third-party contractors, we have limited influence over their actual performance. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs and other third

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parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our CROs are required to comply with GCP requirements, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our product candidates in clinical development. Regulatory authorities enforce these GCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our CROs or trial sites fail to comply with applicable GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable, and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials or research activities complies with GCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

Any third parties conducting our clinical trials or preclinical studies are not and will not be our employees and, except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such third parties, we cannot guarantee that any such CROs, investigators or other third parties will devote adequate time and resources to such trials or perform as contractually required. If any of these third parties fail to meet expected deadlines, adhere to our clinical protocols or meet regulatory requirements, or otherwise performs in a substandard manner, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated. In addition, many of the third parties with whom we contract may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities that could harm our competitive position. In addition, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and may receive cash and cash equivalents or equity compensation in connection with such services. If these relationships and any related compensation result in perceived or actual conflicts of interest, or the FDA concludes that the financial relationship may have affected the interpretation of the trial, the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site may be questioned, and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized, which could result in the delay or rejection of any NDA we submit to the FDA. Any such delay or rejection could prevent us from commercializing our product candidates.

Our CROs have the right to terminate their agreements with us in the event of an uncured material breach. In addition, some of our CROs and substantially all our clinical trial sites have an ability to terminate their respective agreements with us if it can be reasonably demonstrated that the safety of the subjects participating in our clinical trials warrants such termination.

If any of our relationships with these third parties terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative third parties or do so on commercially reasonable terms. Switching or adding additional CROs, investigators and other third parties involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays occur, which could materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, investigators and other third parties, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We may collaborate with third parties for the development and commercialization of our candidates. We may not succeed in establishing and maintaining collaborative relationships, which may significantly limit our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates successfully, if at all.

In October 2020 we entered into the Roche License Agreement under which we granted to Roche an exclusive license related to AT-527 for certain development rights and commercialization rights outside of the United States.  Additionally, we agreed that Roche would be the exclusive global supplier of AT-527 commercial product, if approved.  As part of the Roche License Agreement we agreed with Roche that we would not commercialize AT-752 outside the United States unless we entered into a separate agreement with Roche to do so. We may seek additional collaborative relationships for the development and commercialization of our product candidates. If we enter into any additional such arrangements with any third parties, we will likely have shared or limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our

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collaborators dedicate to the development or potential commercialization of any product candidates we may seek to develop with them. Our ability to generate product revenue from these arrangements with commercial entities will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. We cannot predict the success of any collaboration that we enter into. Collaborations involving our product candidates pose the following risks to us:

collaborators generally have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce or defend intellectual property or proprietary rights relating to our product candidates or may use our proprietary information inappropriately or in such a way as to expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property-related proceedings, including proceedings challenging the scope, ownership, validity and enforceability of our intellectual property;

collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property rights covering our product candidates that result from our collaboration with them, and in such cases, we may not have the exclusive right to commercialize such intellectual property or such product candidates;

disputes may arise with respect to the ownership of intellectual property developed pursuant to collaborations;

we may need the cooperation of our collaborators to enforce or defend any intellectual property we contribute to or that arises out of our collaborations, which may not be provided to us;

collaborators may infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability;

disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;

collaborators may decide not to pursue development and commercialization of any product candidates we develop or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding or external factors, such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials, or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

collaborators with marketing and distribution rights to one or more product candidates may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product candidates;

we may lose certain valuable rights under circumstances identified in our collaborations, including if we undergo a change of control;

collaborators may undergo a change of control and the new owners may decide to take the collaboration in a direction which is not in our best interest;

collaborators may become party to a business combination transaction and the continued pursuit and emphasis on our development or commercialization program by the resulting entity under our existing collaboration could be delayed, diminished or terminated;

collaborators may become bankrupt, which may significantly delay our research or development programs, or may cause us to lose access to valuable technology, devices, materials, know-how or intellectual property of the collaborator relating to our product candidates;

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key personnel at our collaborators may leave, which could negatively impact our ability to productively work with our collaborators;

collaborations may require us to incur short- and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our stockholders, or disrupt our management and business;

collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further devel