SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934|
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021
|☐||Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934|
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-06395
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of|
incorporation or organization)
| ||(I.R.S. Employer|
200 Flynn Road, Camarillo, California, 93012-8790
(Address of principal executive offices, Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (805) 498-2111
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)|| ||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Stock par value $0.01 per share||SMTC|| ||The Nasdaq Global Select Market|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large Accelerated Filer|| ||☒|| ||Accelerated filer|| ||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer|| ||☐|| ||Smaller reporting company|| ||☐|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based upon the closing sale price of $51.69 on The Nasdaq Global Select Market) as of July 26, 2020 was approximately $2.6 billion. Stock held by directors, officers and stockholders owning 10% or more of the outstanding common stock (as reported by stockholders on Schedules 13D and 13G) were excluded as they may be deemed affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for any other purpose.
Number of shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding at March 19, 2021: 65,239,537.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement in connection with registrant’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held on June 10, 2021 to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JANUARY 31, 2021
Unless the context otherwise requires, the use of the terms "Semtech," "the Company," "we," "us" and "our" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refers to Semtech Corporation and, as applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries. This Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain references to the Company’s trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other company.
Regarding Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, based on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our operations, industry, financial condition, performance, operating results, and liquidity. Forward-looking statements are statements other than historical information or statements of current condition and relate to matters such as future financial performance, future operational performance, the anticipated impact of specific items on future earnings, and our plans, objectives and expectations. Statements containing words such as "may," "believe," "anticipate," "expect," "intend," "plan," "project," "estimate," "should," "will," "designed to," "projections," or "business outlook," or other similar expressions constitute forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those projected. Potential factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: the uncertainty surrounding the impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on global economic conditions and on the Company's business and results of operations; competitive changes in the marketplace including, but not limited to, the pace of growth or adoption rates of applicable products or technologies; downturns in the business cycle; decreased average selling prices of the Company’s products; the Company’s reliance on a limited number of suppliers and subcontractors for components and materials; changes in projected or anticipated end-user markets; export restrictions and laws affecting the Company's trade and investments including with respect to Huawei and certain of its affiliates, and tariffs or the occurrence of trade wars; and the Company's ability to forecast and achieve anticipated net sales and earnings estimates in light of periodic economic uncertainty, including impacts arising from Asian, European and global economic dynamics.
Additionally, forward-looking statements should be considered in conjunction with the cautionary statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including, without limitation, information under the captions "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Risk Factors" and additional factors that accompany the related forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in the Company's other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), and in material incorporated herein and therein by reference. In light of the significant risks and uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking information included herein that may cause actual performance and results to differ materially from those predicted, any such forward-looking information should not be regarded as representations or guarantees by the Company of future performance or results, or that its objectives or plans will be achieved, or that any of its operating expectations or financial forecasts will be realized. Reported results should not be considered an indication of future performance. Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking information contained herein, which reflect management's analysis only as of the date hereof. Except as required by law, the Company assumes no obligation to publicly release the results of any update or revision to any forward-looking statement that may be made to reflect new information, events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated or future events, or otherwise.
The factors noted above, and the risks included in our SEC filings, may be increased or intensified as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic ultimately impacts our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. In addition to regarding forward-looking statements with caution, you should consider that the preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires us to draw conclusions and make interpretations, judgments, assumptions and estimates with respect to certain factual, legal, and accounting matters. Our consolidated financial statements might have been materially impacted if we had reached different conclusions or made different interpretations, judgments, assumptions or estimates.
Item 1. Business
We are a leading global supplier of high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductors and advanced algorithms and were incorporated in Delaware in 1960. We design, develop, manufacture and market a wide range of products for commercial applications, the majority of which are sold into the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets.
Infrastructure: data centers, passive optical networks ("PON"), base stations, optical networks, servers, carrier networks, switches and routers, cable modems, wireless local area network ("LAN") and other communication infrastructure equipment.
High-End Consumer: smartphones, tablets, wearables, desktops, notebooks, and other handheld products, wireless charging, set-top boxes, digital televisions, monitors and displays, digital video recorders and other consumer equipment.
Industrial: Internet of Things ("IoT"), analog and digital video broadcast equipment, video-over-IP solutions, automated meter reading, smart grid, wireless charging, military and aerospace, medical, security systems, automotive, industrial and home automation and other industrial equipment.
Our end customers are primarily original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") that produce and sell electronics.
Overview of the Semiconductor Industry
The semiconductor industry is broadly divided into analog and digital semiconductor products. Analog semiconductors condition and regulate "real world" functions such as temperature, speed, sound and electrical current. Digital semiconductors process binary information, such as that used by computers. Mixed-signal devices incorporate both analog and digital functions into a single chip and provide the ability for digital electronics to interface with the outside world.
The market for analog and mixed-signal semiconductors differs from the market for digital semiconductors. The analog and mixed-signal industry is typically characterized by longer product life cycles than the digital industry. In addition, analog semiconductor manufacturers tend to have lower capital investment requirements for manufacturing because their facilities tend to be less dependent than digital producers on state-of-the-art production equipment to manufacture leading edge process technologies. The end-product markets for analog and mixed-signal semiconductors are more varied and more specialized than the relatively standardized digital semiconductor product markets.
Another difference between the analog and digital markets is the amount of available talented labor. The analog industry relies more heavily than the digital industry on design and applications talent to distinguish its products from one another. Digital expertise is extensively taught in universities due to its overall market size, while analog and mixed-signal expertise tends to be learned over time based on experience and hands-on training. Consequently, personnel with analog training are scarcer than digital trained engineers. This has historically made it more difficult for new suppliers in the analog market to quickly develop products and gain significant market share.
Advancements in digital signal processing technology typically drive the need for corresponding advancements in analog and mixed-signal solutions. We believe that the diversity of our applications allows us to take advantage of areas of relative market strength and reduces our vulnerability to competitive pressure in any one area.
Our objective is to be a leading supplier of high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductors and advanced algorithms to the fastest growing segments of our target markets. We intend to leverage our pool of skilled technical personnel to develop new products or, where appropriate, use strategic acquisitions or small strategic investments to either accelerate our position in the fastest growing areas or to gain entry into these areas. In order to capitalize on our strengths in analog and mixed-signal processing design, development and marketing, we intend to pursue the following strategies:
Leverage our rare analog and mixed-signal design expertise
We have developed a strategy to invest heavily in human resources needed to define, design and market high-performance analog and mixed-signal platform products. We have built a team of experienced engineers who combine industry expertise with advanced semiconductor design expertise to meet customer requirements and enable our customers to get their products to market rapidly. We intend to leverage this strategy to achieve new levels of integration, power reduction and performance, enabling our customers to achieve differentiation in their end systems.
Continue to release proprietary new products, achieve new design wins and cross-sell products
We are focused on developing unique, new, and proprietary products that bring value to our target customers in our target markets. These products are typically differentiated in performance but are priced competitively. We also focus on achieving design wins for our products with current and future customers. Design wins are indications by the customer that they intend to
incorporate our products into their product designs. Although we believe that a design win is an indicator of future potential growth, it does not inevitably result in us being awarded business or receiving a purchase commitment. Our technical talent works closely with our customers in securing design wins, defining new products and in implementing and integrating our products into their systems. We also focus on selling our complete portfolio of products to our existing customers, as we believe the technical expertise of our marketing and sales teams allows us to identify and capitalize on cross-selling opportunities.
Focus on fast-growing market segments and regions
We have chosen to target the analog and mixed-signal sub-segments of some of the most exciting and fastest growing end markets. We participate in these markets by focusing on specific product areas within the analog and mixed-signal market, including products for infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. All of these markets are characterized by their need for leading-edge, high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductor technologies.
The infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets we supply are characterized by several trends that we believe drive demand for our products. The key trends that we believe are significant for our future growth include:
•Increasing bandwidth over high-speed networks, fueling growth in high speed multimedia transmission, as well as better connectivity;
•Demand for smaller, lighter, more highly integrated and feature-rich mobile devices; and
•Increasing demands for cloud and internet connectivity to low power sensors, enabling a more connected, intelligent and sustainable planet.
Our products address these market trends by providing solutions that are ultra-low power thereby extending battery life, small form factor enabling smaller more mobile devices, highly integrated enabling more functionality within devices, and high-performance enabling product differentiation within our customer base. Additionally, as communications functions are increasingly integrated into a range of systems and devices, these products require analog sensing, processing and control capabilities, which increases the number and size of our targeted end markets.
Leverage outsourced semiconductor fabrication capacity
We outsource most of our manufacturing in order to focus more of our resources on designing, developing and marketing our products. A significant amount of our third-party subcontractors and suppliers, including third-party foundries that supply silicon wafers, are located in the United States ("U.S."), Taiwan, China and Israel. We believe that outsourcing provides us numerous benefits including, capital efficiency, the flexibility to adopt and leverage emerging process technologies without significant investment risk, and a more variable cost of goods, which provides us with greater operating flexibility.
Products and Technology
We design, develop, manufacture and market high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductors and advanced algorithms. We currently operate and account for results in one reportable segment through three product lines: Signal Integrity, Wireless and Sensing, and Protection.
Signal Integrity. We design, develop and market a portfolio of optical data communications and video transport products used in a wide variety of infrastructure and industrial applications. Our comprehensive portfolio of integrated circuits ("ICs") for data centers, enterprise networks, PON, and wireless base station optical transceivers and high-speed interfaces ranges from 100Mbps to 400Gbps and supports key industry standards such as Fibre Channel, Infiniband, Ethernet, PON and synchronous optical networks. Our video products offer advanced solutions for next generation high-definition broadcast applications, as well as highly differentiated video-over-IP technology for professional audio video ("Pro AV") applications.
Wireless and Sensing. We design, develop and market a portfolio of specialized radio frequency products used in a wide variety of industrial, medical and communications applications, and specialized sensing products used in industrial and consumer applications. Our wireless products, which include our LoRa® devices and wireless radio frequency technology ("LoRa Technology"), feature industry leading and longest range industrial, scientific and medical radio, enabling a lower total cost of ownership and increased reliability in all environments. This makes these products particularly suitable for machine to machine and IoT applications. Our unique sensing technology enables proximity sensing and advanced user interface solutions for our mobile and consumer products. Our wireless and sensing products can be found in a broad range of applications in the industrial, medical, and consumer markets. We also design, develop, and market power product devices that control, alter, regulate, and condition the power within electronic systems focused on the LoRa and IoT infrastructure segment. The highest volume product types within this category are switching voltage regulators, combination switching and linear regulators, smart regulators, isolated switches, and wireless charging.
Protection. We design, develop and market high-performance protection devices, which are often referred to as transient voltage suppressors ("TVS"). TVS devices provide protection for electronic systems where voltage spikes (called transients), such as electrostatic discharge, electrical over stress or secondary lightning surge energy, can permanently damage sensitive ICs. Our portfolio of protection solutions include filter and termination devices that are integrated with the TVS device. Our
products provide robust protection while preserving signal integrity in high-speed communications, networking and video interfaces. These products also operate at very low voltage. Our protection products can be found in a broad range of applications including smart phones, LCD and organic light-emitting diode TVs and displays, set-top boxes, monitors and displays, tablets, computers, notebooks, base stations, routers, automobile and industrial instruments.
Our net sales by product line were as follows:
|Signal Integrity||$||255,640 ||$||222,846 ||$||276,040 |
|Wireless and Sensing||177,534 ||167,454 ||190,589 |
|Protection||161,943 ||157,212 ||182,068 |
Other: Warrant Shares (1)
|— ||— ||(21,501)|
|Total||$||595,117 ||$||547,512 ||$||627,196 |
(1) On October 5, 2016, we issued a warrant (the "Warrant") to Comcast Cable Communications Management LLC ("Comcast") to purchase up to 1,086,957 shares of our common stock. The Warrant was issued in connection with an agreement between the parties regarding the intended trial deployment by Comcast of a low-power wide-area Network ("LPWAN") in the U.S., based on our LoRa Technology. As of January 27, 2019, the Warrant was fully vested and exercisable for a total of 869,565 shares, with no additional costs to be recognized in future periods. The Warrant was fully exercised and no longer outstanding as of March 15, 2019.
On December 11, 2018, we, through our subsidiary Semtech (International) AG, a Swiss corporation, completed our acquisition of all of the outstanding equity interests of Trackio International AG, a Swiss corporation, and its subsidiaries (collectively, "TrackNet"), for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $8.5 million. TrackNet is a provider of LoRa-based end-to-end solutions for the IoT market and provides expertise and intellectual property that will be integrated into our business to support our goal of enabling the growing ecosystem around our LoRa Technology.
On May 2, 2018, we acquired substantially all of the assets of IC Interconnect, Inc. (“ICI”) for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $7.4 million. The addition of ICI is intended to enhance our U.S. research and development capabilities for our next-generation Z-Pak™ platform.
Semtech End Markets
Our products are sold primarily to customers in the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. Our net sales by major end market as a percentage of total net sales are detailed below:
|(percentage of net sales)||2021||2020||2019|
|Infrastructure||42 ||%||38 ||%||43 ||%|
|High-End Consumer||27 ||%||29 ||%||28 ||%|
|Industrial||31 ||%||33 ||%||32 ||%|
|Other: Warrant Shares||— ||%||— ||%||(3)||%|
|Total||100 ||%||100 ||%||100 ||%|
We believe that our diversity in end markets provides stability to our business and opportunity for growth.
The following table depicts our main product lines and their end market and product applications:
|Typical End Product Applications|
|Product Groups||Infrastructure|| ||High-End Consumer|| ||Industrial|
|Signal Integrity||Optical module ICs supporting up to 400Gb/s for Ethernet, Fibre Channel protocols in data center and access applications, 4G/5G/LTE wireless applications, Telecom applications and Backplane CDRs and signal conditioners|
| || ||Serial Digital Interconnect interface ICs for Broadcast Video, Video over IP technology for Pro AV applications|
|Wireless and Sensing||Smartphones, media players, tablets, digital/still video cameras, wearables||Automated meter readers, industrial automation, IoT, keyless entry, hearing aids|
|Protection||Servers, workstations, desktop PC/notebooks, ultrabooks, optical modules, printers, copiers, 4G/5G/LTE base stations, 1/10 Gb/s Ethernet|| ||Smartphones, tablets, wearables, cameras, TVs, set top boxes|| ||Industrial automation, measurement & instrumentation, automotive, IoT|
Seasonality has not historically had a material impact on our business segments or results of operations.
Sales and Marketing
Net sales made directly to customers during fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, were approximately 18%, 28% and 32% of total net sales, respectively. The remaining 82%, 72% and 68% of net sales were made through independent distributors. The decline in direct sales is due to customers electing to leverage the value of distribution to better manage their supply chain. We have direct sales personnel located throughout the U.S., Europe, and Asia who manage the sales activities of independent sales representative firms and independent distributors. We expense our advertising costs as they are incurred.
We operate internationally through our foreign subsidiaries. Semtech (International) AG serves the European and Asian markets from its headquarters in Rapperswil, Switzerland, and through its wholly-owned subsidiaries based in the United Kingdom ("U.K.") and Japan. Semtech (International) AG also maintains branch offices, either directly or through one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries, in multiple countries including China, Taiwan and South Korea. Semtech Canada Corporation serves the Canadian market for most of the products from our Signal Integrity Products Group from its headquarters in Burlington, Ontario. Independent representatives and distributors are also used to serve customers throughout the world. Some of our distributors and sales representatives also offer products from our competitors, as is customary in the industry.
Customers, Sales Data and Backlog
As a result of the breadth of our products and markets, we have a broad and balanced range of customers.
Representative Customers by End Markets:
|Alphabet Inc.||Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.||Honeywell Inc.|
|Cisco Systems, Inc.||LG Electronics Inc.||Itron, Inc.|
|Ericsson||Quanta Computer||Panasonic Corp|
|Hewlett-Packard||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Raytheon Company|
|Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.||Sharp Corporation||Rockwell Automation|
|LuxNet Corp||Sharp Corporation|
|Lumentum Holdings Inc.||Sonova International|
|Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Sony Corp|
Our customers include major OEMs and their subcontractors in the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. Our products are typically purchased by these customers for their performance, price and/or technical support, as compared to our competitors.
In fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, sales in the U.S. represented 10%, 9% and 11% of our sales, respectively, while foreign sales represented 90%, 91% and 89% of our sales, respectively. Sales to customers located in China (including Hong Kong) and South Korea comprised 60% and 7% of our sales, respectively, in fiscal year 2021. No other foreign country comprised more than 5% of our sales in fiscal year 2021.
Concentration of Net Sales - Significant Customers
The following table sets forth the concentration of sales among the customers that accounted for more than 10% of our net sales in at least one of the fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019:
|(percentage of net sales)||2021||2020||2019|
|Trend-tek Technology Ltd. (and affiliates)||17 ||%||13 ||%||14 ||%|
|Frontek Technology Corporation (and affiliates)||16 ||%||11 ||%||11 ||%|
|CEAC International Ltd. (and affiliates)||11 ||%||8 ||%||8 ||%|
|Arrow Electronics (and affiliates)||9 ||%||9 ||%||10 ||%|
|Samsung Electronics (and affiliates)||2 ||%||4 ||%||8 ||%|
Premier Technical Sales Korea, Inc. (and affiliates) (1)
|6 ||%||7 ||%||4 ||%|
(1) Premier is a distributor with a concentration of sales to Samsung Electronics (and affiliates). The above percentages represent our estimate of the sales activity related to Samsung Electronics (and affiliates) that is passing through this distributor.
Concentration of Accounts Receivable - Significant Customers
The following table shows customers that had an outstanding receivable balance that represented at least 10% of total net receivables as of one or more of the dates indicated:
|(percentage of net receivables)||January 31, 2021||January 26, 2020|
|Trend-tek Technology Ltd. (and affiliates)||14 ||%||13 ||%|
|CEAC International Ltd. (and affiliates)||14 ||%||11 ||%|
|Frontek Technology Corporation (and affiliates)||10 ||%||11 ||%|
Our backlog of orders as of the end of fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 was approximately $161.4 million, $93.0 million and $72.6 million, respectively. The majority of our backlog is typically requested for delivery within six months. In markets where the end system life cycles are relatively short, customers typically request delivery in four to eight weeks. A backlog analysis at any given time gives little indication of our future business except on a short-term basis, principally within the next 45 days. We do not have any significant backlog with deliveries beyond 18 months.
Our strategy is to outsource most of our manufacturing functions to third-party foundries and assembly and test contractors. The third-party foundries fabricate silicon wafers, while the assembly and test contractors package and test our products. We believe this outsourcing permits us to take advantage of the best available technology, leverage the capital investment of others and reduce our operating costs associated with manufacturing assets.
We perform a limited amount of internal probe and final test activities at our facilities in Camarillo, Irvine and San Diego in California, Neuchâtel in Switzerland, and Reynosa in Mexico. These activities accommodate situations in which tight coupling with product design is desirable or where there are unique requirements. A majority of our very small form factor protection devices are packaged at our facilities in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Our packaged discrete rectifier products are packaged and tested in-house in Reynosa, Mexico. Almost all of our other products are packaged and tested by outside subcontractors.
In keeping with our mostly "fabless" business model, we have no wafer fabrication facilities except for our operation in Reynosa, Mexico. For fiscal year 2021, the Reynosa facility provided almost all of the silicon for our packaged discrete rectifier products, which were approximately 2% of our end product net sales. The remaining end products representing 98% of our net sales were supported with finished silicon wafers purchased from third-party wafer foundries primarily located in the U.S., Taiwan, China and Israel. We anticipate that substantially all of the silicon wafers we require will come from third-party foundries in fiscal year 2022.
Despite our use of third-party wafer foundries for sourcing a majority of our silicon needs, we do maintain internal process development capabilities. Our process engineers work closely with our third-party foundries on the improvement and development of process capabilities. In fiscal year 2021, we used various manufacturing processes, including Bipolar, CMOS, RF-CMOS and Silicon Germanium ("SiGe") BiCMOS processes.
While we do have some redundancy of fabrication processes by using multiple third-party foundries, any interruption of supply by one or more of these foundries could materially impact us. As a result, we maintain some amount of business interruption insurance in part to help reduce the financial risk associated with a wafer supply interruption, but we are not fully insured against this risk.
Although our products are made from basic materials (principally silicon, metals and plastics), all of which are available from a number of suppliers, capacity at wafer foundries sometimes becomes constrained. The limited availability of certain materials, such as silicon wafer substrates, may impact our suppliers’ ability to meet our demand needs or impact the price we are charged. The prices of certain other basic materials, such as metals, gases and chemicals used in the production of ICs can exhibit price volatility depending on the changes in demand for these basic commodities. In most cases, we do not procure these materials ourselves, but we are nevertheless reliant on these materials for producing our products because our third-party foundry and package and test subcontractors must procure them. To help minimize risks associated with constrained capacity, we use multiple foundries and have taken other steps to prevent supply interruptions at certain foundries and subcontractors.
In addition to our development and production facilities in Colorado Springs, Colorado, which provide assembly services for a majority of our very small form factor protection devices, we use third-party subcontractors to perform almost all of our other assembly and test operations. A majority of our offshore assembly and test activity is conducted by third-party subcontractors based in China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea and the Philippines. We have operations offices located in the Philippines, Malaysia and China that support and coordinate some of the worldwide shipment of products. We have installed our own test equipment at some of our packaging and testing subcontractors in order to ensure a certain level of capacity, assuming the subcontractor has ample employees to operate the equipment. We are monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our suppliers and third-party subcontractors and cannot determine the extent of the impact it may continue to have on our operations. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Production Operations - We rely on a limited number of suppliers and subcontractors, many of which are foreign-based entities, for many essential components and materials and certain critical manufacturing services and any interruption or loss of supplies or services from these entities could significantly interrupt our business operations and the production of our products.”
Our arrangements with both third-party wafer foundries and package and test subcontractors are designed to provide some assurance of capacity but are not expected to assure access to all the manufacturing capacity we may need in the future.
The analog and mixed-signal semiconductor and advanced algorithms industries are highly competitive, and we expect competitive pressures to continue. Our ability to compete effectively and to expand our business will depend on our ability to continue to recruit and retain key engineering talent, our ability to execute on new product developments, and our ability to persuade customers to design these new products into their applications.
Our industry is characterized by decreasing average unit selling prices over the life of a product as the volumes typically increase. However, price decreases can sometimes be quite rapid and faster than the rate of increase of the associated product volumes. We believe we compete effectively based upon our ability to capitalize on efficiencies and economies of scale in production and sales, and our ability to maintain or improve our productivity and product yields to reduce manufacturing costs. Our industry is also characterized by rapid technological change, and design and other technological obsolescence. We believe we compete effectively based on our success in developing new products that implement new technologies, protection of our trade secrets and know-how and maintaining high product quality and reliability.
We are in direct and active competition, with respect to one or more of our product lines, with numerous manufacturers of varying size, technical capability and financial strength. A number of these competitors are dependent on semiconductor products as their principal source of income, and some are much larger and better resourced than we are. The number of competitors has grown due to expansion of the market segments in which we participate. Additionally, there has been a trend toward consolidation in our industry as companies attempt to strengthen or hold their market positions in an evolving industry. Such consolidations may make it more difficult for us to compete effectively, including on the basis of price, sales and marketing programs, channel coverage, technology or product functionality. We also expect that the trend among large OEMs to seek to develop their own semiconductor solutions will continue and expand. As we move into new markets, we may face competition from larger competitors with longer histories in these markets. Certain of our customers and suppliers also have divisions that produce products competitive with ours, and other customers may seek to vertically integrate competitive solutions in the future.
Intellectual Property and Licenses
We have been granted 203 U.S. patents and 112 foreign patents and have numerous patent applications pending with respect to our products and to technologies associated with our business. The expiration dates of issued patents range from 2021 to 2039. Although we consider patents to be helpful in maintaining a competitive advantage, we do not believe they create definitive competitive barriers to entry. There can be no assurance that our patent applications will lead to issued patents, that others will not develop or patent similar or superior products or technologies, or that our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented by others. We have no material revenue associated with patents that expire in calendar years 2021, 2022 or 2023.
We have registered many of our trademarks in the U.S. and in various foreign jurisdictions. Registration generally provides rights in addition to basic trademark protections and is typically renewable upon proof of continued use. We have registered, or are in the process of registering, our SEMTECH trademark in many jurisdictions. In one location use of this trademark is prohibited, but we are permitted to use our Semtech International trade name. This restriction has not had a material impact on our business to date and we do not anticipate it will have a material impact in the future.
We also have registered certain materials in which we have copyright ownership, which provides additional protection for this intellectual property.
Intellectual Capital and Product Development
The development of intellectual property ("IP") and the resulting proprietary products is a critical success factor for us. Recruiting and retaining key technical talent is the foundation for designing, developing, and marketing our IP in the form of new proprietary products in the global marketplace. Our ability to recruit and retain our engineering talent is one of the keys to maintaining our competitive advantage. Historically, we have been successful in retaining our key engineering staff and recruiting new talent. One of our strategies to recruit talent is the establishment of multiple design center locations. As a result, we have design centers throughout the world.
Circuit design engineers, layout engineers, product and test engineers, application engineers, and field application engineers are our most valuable employees. Together they perform the critical tasks of design and layout of ICs, turning these circuits into silicon devices, and conferring with customers about designing these devices into their applications. The majority of our engineers fit into one of these categories. Most of these engineers have many years of experience in the design, development, and layout of circuits targeted for use in protection, advanced communications and power management, multimedia and data communications, and wireless and sensing applications. We also employ a number of software engineers and systems engineers that specialize in the development of software and systems architecture, who enable us to develop systems oriented products in select markets.
We occasionally enter into agreements with customers that allow us to recover certain costs associated with product design and engineering services. Recovery for these services could potentially lag behind the period in which we recognize the related
expense, causing a difference in recognition timing that could potentially create volatility in our reported product development and engineering expenses.
As of January 31, 2021, we had 1,394 full-time employees worldwide, of whom 1,027 employees were based outside of the U.S. There were 547 employees in research and development, 267 employees in sales, marketing and field services, and 198 employees in general and administrative functions. The remaining employees support operational activities, including product and test engineering, assembly, manufacturing, distribution and quality functions. Our focus on innovation gives us a unique appreciation to the importance of recruitment, retention and the professional development of our employees. We continue to focus on building a pipeline of talented individuals and creating an even more diverse and inclusive workforce. Through our established set of core values and principles, we also are focused on understanding and benefiting from the strengths that come from our diversity that should continue to contribute to our future success. Supporting and improving the local communities in which our employees are located is an important part of our culture. We seek to provide various philanthropic avenues for our employees to participate in, as well as corporate sponsored initiatives. We also strive to offer competitive total compensation and benefits packages across the 19 countries in which we are located.
Our talent strategy involves our efforts to achieve an optimal balance of internal development, supplemented by external hires. We believe this approach contributes to and enhances our employee loyalty and commitment. Furthermore, we expect our new employees to bring fresh ideas that should contribute to help drive our innovative way of thinking. We believe that our average employee tenure of 7.9 years, as of the end of fiscal year 2021, reflects the strong engagement of our employees.
Our recruiting efforts leverage both internal and external resources to recruit and attract highly skilled and talented workers across the globe, and we encourage our employees to provide referrals for open positions. We have a performance management framework which includes quarterly business and functional reviews, along with annual employee performance discussions meant to provide feedback and help with long-term employee development. We also support and develop our employees through global training and development programs targeted at building and strengthening our employees’ leadership and professional skills. These programs include the library suite of professional third party trainings spanning more than 16,000 courses. In addition, Semtech offers a comprehensive annual and new hire compliance training that focuses on diversity, anti-harassment and code of conduct.
Our compensation program is designed to attract, reward and retain those highly-talented individuals who possess the critical skills necessary to support our business objectives, assist in the achievement of our annual strategic goals and create long-term value for our stockholders. We provide compensation packages that include a competitive base salary, annual incentive bonuses, and long-term equity awards, where permitted. We believe that a compensation program that rewards employees both for short-term and long-term performance aligns employee’s and our stockholders' interests. We believe our pay-for-performance philosophy further incentivizes the achievement of our business and individual performance goals by integrating specific compensation elements into our business plans and motivating our employees to help achieve company objectives.
Health and Wellbeing
The success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people. We are committed to the health, safety and wellness of our employees. We provide our employees and their families with access to a variety of flexible and convenient health and welfare programs, including benefits that support their physical and mental health through tools and resources to help them improve or maintain their health status. We believe our plans and tools provide flexible choices to meet the diverse needs of our employees and their families globally. We plan to introduce additional valuable benefits that will help our employees focus on other areas such as their financial well-being.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented significant operating environment changes that we believed were in the best interest for the safety of our employees, and which comply with the local or regional governmental regulations. This includes having the vast majority of our employees work from home, while implementing additional safety measures for employees continuing critical, on-site work.
Diversity and Inclusion
We are committed in our efforts to increase diversity and foster an inclusive work environment that supports our global workforce and helps us provide innovative and disruptive solutions for our customers. We aim to continue improving our hiring, development, advancement and retention of diverse talent and our overall diversity representation.
We strive to promote inclusion through our stated core values and principles. We provide training to all employees to improve their understanding of behaviors that can be perceived as discriminatory, exclusionary, and/or harassing, and encourage employees to report such behaviors to management or via an anonymous hotline.
We aim to contribute to the communities where we live and work, and believe that this commitment helps in our efforts to attract and retain employees. We offer our employees the opportunity to give back to their local communities or contribute to charities and provide opportunities to facilitate participation by our employees in these initiatives.
We are required to comply, and it is our policy to comply, with numerous government regulations that are normal and customary to businesses in our industry and that operate in our markets and operating locations.
Our sales that serve the military and aerospace markets primarily consist of high-reliability products that are offered within our Wireless and Sensing product line that have been qualified to be sold in these markets by the U.S. Department of Defense ("DOD"). In order to maintain these qualifications, we must comply with certain specifications promulgated by the DOD. As part of maintaining these qualifications, we are routinely audited by the DOD. Based on current specifications, we believe we can maintain our qualifications for the foreseeable future. However, these specifications could be modified by the DOD in the future or we could become subject to other government requirements, which could make the manufacturing of these products more difficult and thus could adversely impact our profitability in the Wireless and Sensing operating segment. In fiscal year 2021, our sales that serve military and aerospace markets comprised 2% of our sales. A small number of special assemblies from the Wireless and Sensing product line are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations ("ITAR"). We have a Technical Assistance Agreement in place that permits us to assemble certain of these products in Mexico. International shipments of products subject to ITAR require a State Department license.
As a global company, we are required to comply with various governmental trade law and export restrictions imposed by the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions. For example, the U.S. Department of Commerce has placed Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ("Huawei") and certain of its affiliates on the "Entity List" for actions contrary to the national security and foreign policy interests of the U.S. On August 17, 2020, the Department of Commerce issued a final rule that amended the Export Administration Regulations ("EAR") to expand the controls on foreign-produced direct products based on certain U.S. software and technology and sold to or for Huawei, which has further impacted our ability to ship to Huawei, as well as to certain other customers who we believe incorporate our products into their products sold to Huawei. To mitigate the adverse impact of these restrictions, we have filed for several export licenses, some of which have already been granted. Sales of our products to Huawei accounted for less than 10% of our net sales during fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019.
For discussion related to environmental matters, see Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
General information about us can be found on our website at www.semtech.com. The information on our website is for informational purposes only and should not be relied on for investment purposes. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report filed with the SEC.
We make available free of charge, either by direct access on our website or a link to the SEC website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Our reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available directly at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider and evaluate all of the information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the risk factors listed below. If any of these risks actually occur, our business could be materially harmed. If our business is harmed, the trading price of our common stock could decline. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking and Cautionary Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks Relating to Macroeconomic and Industry Conditions
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting, and is expected to continue to adversely affect, our operations, and those of our customers, distributors, suppliers, third-party foundries and subcontractors thereby adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted our financial results by decreasing sales, driven by supply chain interruptions, which primarily impacted the first half of fiscal year 2021. For example, in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, some shipments of our products were delayed due to COVID-19 related shutdowns of our plant in Reynosa, Mexico, as well as some subcontractors in Malaysia. In addition, some of our suppliers have experienced temporary reductions or closures, impacting our ability and the ability of our subcontractors to receive certain raw materials, including silicon wafers, which are essential to the manufacturing of our products. In some cases, the disruption has resulted in reduced production of our products and delays for delivery of our products to our customers. We believe the general supply chain constraints in the industry may be motivating certain customers to increase their inventory to protect against the supply risk. To the extent that this is occurring, we could experience a decrease in future demand as potential excess inventory in the supply chain is worked down.
While we cannot predict the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 virus on our business at this time, the pandemic and related efforts to mitigate the pandemic could impact our business in a number of ways, including but not limited to decreasing demand and pricing for our products as a result of the economic impact of the pandemic; disrupting our manufacturing processes, as has already occurred with the temporary reductions or closures of our facilities, third-party foundries and contractors, and the delay of supplies being received; disrupting freight infrastructure, thereby delaying shipment from vendors to assembly and test sites and shipments of our final product to customers; disrupting the manufacturing process of our customers that use our components in their products, impacting demand for our products; adversely impacting the business of our suppliers, which could result in, among other things, price increases and delays for delivery of raw materials and components needed for the production of our products; impacting our ability to maintain our workforce during this uncertain time; increasing employee absenteeism due to recommendations and/or mandates from authorities, infection or the fear of infection; possible lawsuits or additional regulatory actions due to COVID-19 spread in the workplace and potential increases in costs to implement health safety measures; suffering from reputational risk if we experience COVID-19 spread in our workplace; and adversely impacting the productivity of management and our employees that are working remotely. Additionally, there is an increased risk that we may experience cybersecurity-related events such as COVID-19 themed phishing attacks and other security challenges as a result of most of our employees and our service providers working remotely from non-corporate managed networks during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and potentially continuing working remotely even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided.
In addition, the pandemic has impacted the operations of our distributors and direct customers. Because a significant majority of our net sales is through authorized distributors, the financial health of our distributors is critical to our success. Some of our distributors are small organizations with limited working capital. Our distributors have experienced disruptions to their operations during the pandemic, including temporary reductions or closures during which they have diminished ability or are unable to sell our products. If our distributors suffer material economic harm during the pandemic, the distributors may no longer be able to continue in business or may continue in a reduced capacity. Our direct customers have also experienced, and may continue to or again experience, reductions or closures of their manufacturing facilities or an inability to obtain other components, either of which could negatively impact demand for our products that are incorporated into our customers' devices and solutions.
The ultimate magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the extent of its impact on our financial condition and results of operations, which could be material, will depend on all of the factors noted above, including other factors that we may not be able to foresee at this time.
Our future results may fluctuate, fail to match past performance or fail to meet expectations as a result of conditions beyond our control, such as general economic conditions in the markets we compete, cyclical and other conditions unique to our industry and the financial health and viability of our suppliers and customers.
Our results may fluctuate in the future, may fail to match our past performance or fail to meet our expectations and the expectations of analysts and investors as a result of conditions beyond our control. Our results and related ratios, such as gross margin, operating income percentage and effective tax rate may fluctuate as a result of general economic conditions in the countries where we sell our products; the availability of adequate supply commitments from our outside suppliers; the timing of new product introductions by us, our customers and our competitors; seasonality and variability in the computer market and our other end markets; product obsolescence; the scheduling, rescheduling or cancellation of orders by our customers; the cyclical
nature of demand for our customers’ products; our ability to predict and meet evolving industry standards and consumer preferences; our ability to develop new process technologies and achieve volume production; changes in manufacturing yields; capacity utilization; product mix and pricing; movements in exchange rates, interest rates or tax rates; our ability to integrate and realize synergies from acquisitions; the manufacturing and delivery capabilities of our subcontractors; and litigation and regulatory matters.
Uncertainty about global economic conditions can pose a risk to the overall economy by causing fluctuations to and reductions in consumer and commercial spending. Demand for our products could be different from our expectations due to many factors including changes in business and economic conditions, conditions in the credit market that affect consumer confidence, customer acceptance of our products, changes in customer order patterns, including order cancellations, and changes in the level of inventory held by vendors.
The semiconductor industry is also highly cyclical and has experienced significant downturns, which are characterized by reduced product demand, production overcapacity, increased levels of inventory, industry-wide fluctuations in the demand for semiconductors and the significant erosion of average selling prices. The cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry may cause us to experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results.
The average selling prices of products in our markets have historically decreased rapidly and will likely do so in the future, which could harm our revenue and gross margins.
As is typical in the semiconductor industry, the average selling price of a particular product has historically declined significantly over the life of the product. In the past, we have reduced the average selling prices of our products in anticipation of future competitive pricing pressures, new product introductions by us or our competitors and other factors. We expect that we will have to similarly reduce prices in the future for older generations of products. Reductions in our average selling prices to one customer could also impact our average selling prices to all customers. A decline in average selling prices would harm our gross margins for a particular product. If not offset by sales of other products with higher gross margins, our overall gross margins may be adversely affected. Our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects will suffer if we are unable to offset any reductions in our average selling prices by increasing our sales volumes, reducing our costs and developing new or enhanced products on a timely basis, with higher selling prices or gross margins.
Risks Relating to Production Operations
We rely on a limited number of suppliers and subcontractors, many of which are foreign-based entities, for many essential components and materials and certain critical manufacturing services and any interruption or loss of supplies or services from these entities could significantly interrupt our business operations and the production of our products.
Our reliance on a limited number of subcontractors and suppliers for wafers, packaging, testing and certain other processes involves several risks, including potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of required components and reduced control over the price, timely delivery, reliability and quality of components. These risks are attributable to several factors, including limitations on resources, labor problems, equipment failures or the occurrence of natural disasters. The good working relationships we have established with our suppliers and subcontractors could be disrupted, and our supply chain could suffer, if a supplier or subcontractor were to experience a change in control. There can be no assurance that problems will not occur in the future with suppliers or subcontractors. Disruption or termination of our supply sources or subcontractors could significantly delay our shipments and harm our business. Delays could also damage relationships with current and prospective customers. Any prolonged inability to obtain timely deliveries or quality manufacturing or any other circumstances that would require us to seek alternative sources of supply or to manufacture or package certain components internally could limit our growth and harm our business.
Many of our third-party subcontractors and suppliers, including third-party foundries that supply silicon wafers, are located in foreign countries including Taiwan, China and Israel. While our utilization of multiple third-party foundries does create some redundancy of fabrication processes, any interruption of supply by one or more of these foundries could materially impact us.
A majority of our package and test operations are performed by third-party contractors based in China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea and the Philippines. Our international business activities, in general, are subject to a variety of potential risks resulting from political and economic uncertainties. Any political turmoil or trade restrictions in these countries, particularly China, could limit our ability to obtain goods and services from these suppliers and subcontractors. The effect of an economic crisis or political turmoil on our suppliers located in these countries may impact our ability to meet the demands of our customers. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in extended shutdowns of certain of our businesses. This public health crisis or any further political developments or health concerns in markets in which our third-party contractors and suppliers are based could result in social, economic and labor instability, adversely affecting the supply of our products and, in turn, our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we find it necessary to transition the goods and services received from our existing suppliers or subcontractors to other firms, we would likely experience an increase in production costs and a delay in production associated with such a transition, both of which could have a significant negative effect on our operating results, as these risks are substantially uninsured.
Our ability to increase product sales and revenue may be constrained by the manufacturing capacity of our suppliers.
Although we provide our suppliers with rolling forecasts of our production requirements, their ability to provide wafers to us is limited by the available capacity. For example, we believe the strong increase in industry-wide demand for electronic equipment for remote work arrangements as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted, and will continue to result, in capacity shortages of our suppliers. As a result, this lack of capacity has at times constrained our product sales and revenue growth. In addition, an increased need for capacity to meet internal demands or demands of other customers could cause our suppliers to reduce capacity available to us. Our suppliers may also require us to pay amounts in excess of contracted or anticipated amounts for wafer deliveries or require us to make other concessions in order to acquire the wafer supply necessary to meet our customer requirements. If our suppliers extend lead times, limit supplies or the types of capacity we require, or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors, our revenue and gross margin may materially decline. We may also be required to increase the prices of our products in order to remain profitable, which could result in a loss of customers. In addition, if we experience supply delays or limitations, our customers may reduce their purchase levels with us and/or seek alternative solutions to meet their demand, which could materially and adversely impact our business and results of operations. Delays in increasing third-party manufacturing capacity may also limit our ability to meet customer demand.
Our products may be found to be defective, product liability claims may be asserted against us and we may not have sufficient liability insurance.
Manufacturing semiconductors is a highly complex and precise process, requiring production in a tightly controlled, clean environment. Minute impurities in our manufacturing materials, contaminants in the manufacturing environment, manufacturing equipment failures, and other defects can cause our products to be non-compliant with customer requirements or otherwise nonfunctional. We face an inherent business risk of exposure to warranty and product liability claims in the event that our products fail to perform as expected or such failure of our products results, or is alleged to result, in bodily injury or property damage (or both). Since a defect or failure in our product could give rise to failures in the goods that incorporate them (and consequential claims for damages against our customers from their customers), we may face claims for damages that are disproportionate to the revenues and profits we receive from the products involved.
Our general warranty policy provides for repair or replacement of defective parts. In some cases, a refund of the purchase price is offered. In certain instances, we have agreed to other warranty terms, including some indemnification provisions, which could prove to be significantly more costly than repair, replacement or refund. We attempt to limit our liability through our standard terms and conditions and negotiation of sale and other customer contracts, but there is no assurance that such limitations will be accepted or effective. While we maintain some insurance for such events, a successful warranty or product liability claim against us in excess of our available insurance coverage, if any, and established reserves, or a requirement that we participate in a product recall, would have adverse effects (that could be material) on our business, operating results and financial condition. Additionally, in the event that our products fail to perform as expected, our reputation may be damaged, which could make it more difficult for us to sell our products to existing and prospective customers and could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Obsolete inventories as a result of changes in demand for our products and change in life cycles of our products could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
The life cycles of some of our products depend heavily upon the life cycles of the end-products into which our products are designed. End-market products with short life cycles require us to manage closely our production and inventory levels. Inventory may also become obsolete because of adverse changes in end-market demand. We may in the future be adversely affected by obsolete or excess inventories, which may result from unanticipated changes in the estimated total demand for our products or the estimated life cycles of the end-products into which our products are designed. In addition, some customers restrict how far back the date of manufacture for our products can be and certain customers may stop ordering products from us and go out of business due to adverse economic conditions; therefore, some of our product inventory may become obsolete and, thus, adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Business interruptions, such as natural disasters, acts of violence and the outbreak of contagious diseases, could harm our business and have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Earthquakes and other natural disasters, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts, wars and other acts of violence, and other national or international crisis, calamity or emergency, including the outbreak of pandemic or contagious disease, such as COVID-19, may result in interruption to the business activities of us, our suppliers and our customers and overall disruption of the economy at many levels. These events may directly impact our physical facilities or those of our customers and suppliers. Additionally, these events may cause some of our customers or potential customers to reduce the level of expenditures on their services and products that ultimately may reduce our revenue. The consequences of these reductions are unpredictable, and we may not be able to foresee events that could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our corporate headquarters, a portion of our assembly and research and development activities, and certain other critical business operations are located near major earthquake fault lines. We do not maintain earthquake insurance and our business
could be harmed in the event of a major earthquake. We generally do not maintain flood coverage, including for our Asian locations where certain of our operations support and sales offices are located. Such flood coverage has become very expensive; as a result we have elected not to purchase this coverage. If one of these locations were to experience a major flood, our business may be harmed.
We operate a manufacturing facility in Reynosa, Mexico. Historically, certain regions in Mexico have experienced high levels of violence. Any significant disruption of our operations at this facility could materially affect our ability to generate revenues for certain products within our Wireless and Sensing operating segment. Some of the products that we produce at this facility require certification by the Defense Contract Audit Agency ("DCAA"). Failure to secure or maintain the required certification, either directly through the DCAA or through a qualifying third party would materially affect our authorization to manufacture applicable products at this facility, and our revenue for certain products within our Wireless and Sensing products line could materially decline.
Our business could also be harmed if natural disasters, acts of violence, national or international crises or other calamities or emergencies interrupt the production of wafers by our suppliers, the assembly and testing of products by our subcontractors, or the operations of our distributors and direct customers. We rely on third-party freight firms for nearly all of our shipments from vendors to assembly and test sites, primarily in Asia, and for shipments of our final product to customers. This includes ground and air transportation. Any significant disruption of such freight business globally or in certain parts of the world, particularly where our operations are concentrated, could materially and adversely affect our ability to generate revenues.
The ultimate impact of business interruption events, both in terms of direct impact on us and our supply chain, as well as on our end customers (to include their own supply chain issues as well as end-market issues), may not be known for a considerable period of time following the event. We maintain some business interruption insurance to help reduce the effect of business interruptions, but we are not fully insured against such risks. Also as a result of these events, insurance premiums for businesses may increase and the scope of coverage may be decreased. Consequently, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage for our business and properties. Further, any loss of revenue due to a slowdown or cessation of end customer demand is uninsured. Accordingly, any of these disruptions could significantly harm our business.
Risks Relating to Research and Development, Engineering, Intellectual Property and New Technologies
We may be unsuccessful in developing and selling new products, which is central to our objective of maintaining and expanding our business.
We operate in a dynamic environment characterized by price erosion, rapid technological change, and design and other technological obsolescence. Our competitiveness and future success depend on our ability to predict and adapt to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner by designing, developing, manufacturing, marketing and providing support for our own new products and technologies. A failure to achieve design wins, to introduce these new products in a timely manner, or to achieve market acceptance for these products on commercially reasonable terms could harm our business.
The introduction of new products presents significant business challenges because product development commitments and expenditures must be made well in advance of product sales. The success of a new product depends on accurate forecasts of long-term market demand and future technological developments, as well as on a variety of specific implementation factors, including: timely and efficient completion of technology, product and process design and development; timely and efficient implementation of manufacturing, assembly, and test processes; the ability to secure and effectively utilize fabrication capacity in different geometries; product performance; product quality and reliability; and effective marketing, sales and service.
The efforts to achieve design wins typically are lengthy and can require us to both incur design and development costs and dedicate scarce engineering resources in pursuit of a single customer opportunity. We may not prevail in the competitive selection process, and even if we are able to develop products and achieve design wins, the design wins may never generate revenues if end-customer projects are unsuccessful in the marketplace or the end-customer terminates the project, which may occur for a variety of reasons. Mergers and consolidations among customers may lead to termination of certain projects before the associated design win generates revenue. If design wins do generate revenue, the time lag between the design win and meaningful revenue can be uncertain and could be significant. If we fail to develop products with required features or performance standards or experience even a short delay in bringing a new product to market, or if our customers fail to achieve market acceptance of their products, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely impacted.
Our customers require our products to undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of product sales.
Prior to purchasing our products, many of our customers require that our products undergo an extensive qualification process, which involves testing of the products in the customer's system as well as rigorous reliability testing. This qualification process may continue for six months or longer. However, qualification of a product by a customer does not ensure any sales of the product to that customer. Even after successful qualification and sales of a product to a customer, a subsequent revision to the
product or software, changes in the manufacturing process or the selection of a new supplier by us may require a new qualification process, which may result in delays and in us holding excess or obsolete inventory. After our products are qualified, it can take an additional six months or more before the customer commences volume production of components or devices that incorporate our products. Despite these uncertainties, we devote substantial resources, including design, engineering, sales, marketing and management efforts, toward qualifying our products with customers in anticipation of sales. If we are unsuccessful or delayed in qualifying any of our products with a customer, such failure or delay would preclude or delay sales of such product to the customer, which may impede our growth and cause our business to suffer.
Our products may fail to meet new industry standards or requirements and the efforts to meet such industry standards or requirements could be costly.
Many of our products are based on industry standards that are continually evolving. Our ability to compete in the future will depend in part on our ability to anticipate, identify and ensure compatibility or compliance with these evolving industry standards. The emergence of new industry standards could render our products incompatible with products developed by our customers and potential customers. As a result, we could be required to invest significant time and effort and to incur significant expense to redesign our products to ensure compliance with relevant standards. If our products are not in compliance with prevailing industry standards or requirements, we could miss opportunities to achieve crucial design wins which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial conditions.
We may be unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights.
We pursue patents for some of our new products and unique technologies, but we rely primarily on trade secret protections through a combination of nondisclosure agreements and other contractual provisions, as well as our employees’ commitment to confidentiality and loyalty, to protect our know-how and processes. We intend to continue protecting our proprietary technology, including through trademark and copyright registrations and patents. Despite this intention, we may not be successful in achieving adequate protection. Our failure to adequately protect our material know-how and processes could harm our business. There can be no assurance that the steps we take will be adequate to protect our proprietary rights, that our patent applications will lead to issued patents, that others will not develop or patent similar or superior products or technologies, or that our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented by others. Furthermore, the laws of the countries in which our products are or may be developed, manufactured or sold may not protect our products and intellectual property rights to the same extent as laws in the U.S.
We may suffer losses and business interruption if our products infringe the intellectual property rights of others.
The semiconductor industry is characterized by frequent claims of infringement and litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Due to the number of competitors, intellectual property infringement is an ongoing risk since other companies in our industry could have intellectual property rights that may not be identifiable when we initiate development efforts. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights and we may have to defend ourselves against infringement claims. Any such litigation could be very costly and may divert our management’s resources. If one of our products is found to infringe on a third party’s rights, we may have liability for past infringement and may need to seek a license to use such intellectual property going forward. If a license is not available or if we are unable to obtain a license on terms acceptable to us, we would either have to change our product so that it does not infringe or stop making the product.
We must commit resources to product production prior to receipt of purchase commitments and could lose some or all of the associated investment.
Sales are made primarily on a current delivery basis, pursuant to purchase orders that may be revised or cancelled by our customers without penalty, rather than pursuant to long-term contracts. Some contracts require that we maintain inventories of certain products at levels above the anticipated needs of our customers. As a result, we must commit resources to the production of products without binding purchase commitments from customers. Our inability to sell products after we devote significant resources to them could harm our business.
While we intend to continue to invest in research and development, we may be unable to make the substantial investments that are required to remain competitive in our business.
The semiconductor industry requires substantial investment in research and development in order to bring to market new and enhanced solutions. Our research and development expense was $117.5 million, $107.4 million and $109.0 million, which represent 20%, 20% and 17% of net sales, respectively, in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We expect to strategically increase our research and development expenditures as compared to prior periods. We are unable to predict whether we will have sufficient resources to maintain the level of investment in research and development required to remain competitive. The added costs could prevent us from being able to maintain a technology advantage over larger competitors that have significantly more resources to invest in research and development. In addition, we cannot assure you that the technologies which are the focus of our research and development expenditures will become commercially successful or generate any revenue.
Certain software we use is from open source code sources, which, under certain circumstances, may lead to unintended consequences and, therefore, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We use open source software in connection with certain of our products and services, and we intend to continue to use open source software in the future. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their products or services or alleging that these companies have violated the terms of an open source license. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or alleging that we have violated the terms of an open source license. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our solutions. In addition, if we were to combine our proprietary software solutions with open source software in certain manners, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to publicly release the source code of our proprietary software solutions. If we inappropriately use open source software, we may be required to re-engineer our solutions, discontinue the sale of our solutions, release the source code of our proprietary software to the public at no cost or take other remedial actions. There is a risk that open source licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We may need to transition to smaller geometry process technologies and achieve higher levels of design integration to remain competitive and may experience delays in this transition or fail to efficiently implement this transition.
In order to remain competitive, we expect to continue to transition our products to increasingly smaller geometries. This transition requires us to modify the manufacturing processes for our products, to design new products to more stringent standards and to redesign some existing products. In some instances, we depend on our relationship with our third-party foundries to transition to smaller geometry processes successfully. Our foundries may not be able to effectively manage the transition or we may not be able to maintain our foundry relationships. If our foundries or we experience significant delays in this transition or fail to efficiently implement this transition, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. As smaller geometry processes become more prevalent, we expect to continue to integrate greater levels of functionality into our products. However, we may not be able to achieve higher levels of design integration or deliver new integrated products on a timely basis or at all.
Risks Relating to International Operations
We are subject to export restrictions and laws affecting trade and investments, which may limit our ability to sell to certain customers.
As a global company headquartered in the U.S., we are subject to U.S. laws and regulations that limit and restrict the export of some of our products and services and may restrict our transactions with certain customers, business partners and other persons, including, in certain cases, dealings with or between our U.S. employees and subsidiaries. In certain circumstances, export control and economic sanctions regulations may prohibit the export of certain products, services and technologies, and in other circumstances we may be required to obtain an export license or other authorization before entering into a transaction or transferring a controlled item. We maintain an economics sanction and export compliance program but there are risks that the compliance controls could be circumvented, exposing us to legal liabilities. We must also comply with export restrictions and laws imposed by other countries affecting trade and investments. These restrictions and laws have significantly restricted our operations in the recent past and may continue to do so in the future.
For example, in 2019, the U.S. Department of Commerce placed Huawei and certain of its affiliates to the "Entity List" for actions contrary to the national security and foreign policy interests of the U.S. In 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce amended the EAR to expand the controls on foreign-produced direct products based on certain U.S. software and technology and sold to or for Huawei, which further impacted our ability to ship to Huawei, as well as to certain other customers who we believe incorporate our products into their products sold to Huawei. Sales of our products to Huawei accounted for less than 10% of our net sales during fiscal year 2021. As of the date of this report, we are unable to predict the duration of the export restrictions imposed on Huawei and the corresponding future effects on our business.
These actions by the U.S. Department of Commerce or future regulatory activity may materially interfere with our ability to make sales to Huawei or other foreign customers. Huawei and other foreign customers affected by future U.S. government export control measures or sanctions or threats of export control measures or sanctions may respond by developing their own solutions to replace our products or by adopting our foreign competitors’ solutions. In addition, our association with customers that are or become subject to U.S. regulatory scrutiny or export restrictions could subject us to actual or perceived reputational harm among current or prospective investors, suppliers or customers, customers of our customers, other parties doing business with us, or the general public. Any such reputational harm could result in the loss of investors, suppliers or customers, which could harm our business, financial condition, operating results or prospects.
We sell and trade with foreign customers, which subjects our business to increased risks.
Sales to foreign customers accounted for approximately 90% of net sales for fiscal year 2021. Sales to our customers located in China (including Hong Kong) and South Korea constituted 60% and 7%, respectively, of net sales for fiscal year 2021. International sales are subject to certain risks, including unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, tariffs and other barriers, political and economic instability, difficulties in accounts receivable collection, difficulties in managing distributors and representatives, difficulties in staffing and managing foreign subsidiary and branch operations and potentially adverse tax consequences. Other risks include local business and cultural factors that may differ from our domestic standards and practices, including business practices from which we are prohibited from engaging by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations, laws of certain foreign countries that may not protect our products, assets or intellectual property rights to the same extent as do U.S. laws, and difficulties enforcing contracts in such foreign countries generally. These factors may harm our business. Our use of the Semtech name may be prohibited or restricted in some countries, which may negatively impact our sales efforts.
A substantial portion of our sales is derived from China and adverse changes to general economic conditions in China could have a material and adverse impact on our sales and financial results.
In fiscal year 2021, sales to customers in China comprised 60% of our net sales. The economic slowdown in China could adversely affect our sales to customers in China and consequently, our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, there are risks that the Chinese government may, among other things, require the use of local suppliers, compel companies that do business in China to partner with local companies to conduct business, or provide incentives to government-backed local customers to buy from local suppliers rather than companies like ours, all of which could adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition. Further, changes in U.S. and global social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing trade with China could adversely affect our business.
We and our manufacturing partners are or will be subject to extensive Chinese government regulation, and the benefit of various incentives from Chinese governments that we and our manufacturing partners receive may be reduced or eliminated, which could increase our costs or limit our ability to sell products and conduct activities in China.
Many of our manufacturing partners are located in China. The Chinese government has broad discretion and authority to regulate the technology industry in China. Additionally, China’s government has implemented policies from time to time to regulate economic expansion in China. It exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.
Any additional new regulations or the amendment or modification of previously implemented regulations could require us and our manufacturing partners to change our business plans, increase our costs, or limit our ability to sell products and conduct activities in China, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
The Chinese government and provincial and local governments also have provided, and continue to provide, various incentives to encourage the development of the semiconductor industry in China. Such incentives include tax rebates, reduced tax rates, favorable lending policies and other measures, some or all of which may be available to our manufacturing partners and to us with respect to our facilities in China. Any of these incentives could be reduced or eliminated by governmental authorities at any time. Any such reduction or elimination of incentives currently provided to us and our manufacturing partners could adversely affect our business and operating results.
Our foreign currency exposures may change over time as the level of activity in foreign markets grows and could have an adverse impact upon financial results.
As a global enterprise, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. Certain of our assets, including certain bank accounts, exist in non-U.S. Dollar-denominated currencies, which are sensitive to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. The non-U.S. Dollar-denominated currencies are principally the Swiss Franc, Euro, Canadian Dollar, Mexican Peso, Japanese Yen and Great British Pound. We also have a significant number of employees that are paid in foreign currency, the largest groups being United Kingdom-based employees who are paid in Great British Pound, Switzerland-based employees who are paid in Swiss Francs, Canada-based employees who are paid in Canadian Dollars, China-based employees who are paid in Chinese Renminbi and Mexican nationals who are paid in Mexican Pesos.
If the value of the U.S. Dollar weakens relative to these specific currencies, as it has done in recent years, the cost of doing business in terms of U.S. Dollars rises. Whereas if the value of the U.S. Dollar strengthens relative to these specific currencies, it could make the pricing of our products less competitive and affect demand for our products. With the growth of our international business, our foreign currency exposures may grow and under certain circumstances, could harm our business. As a means of managing our foreign exchange exposure, we routinely convert U.S. Dollars into foreign currency in advance of the expected payment. We regularly assess whether or not to hedge foreign exchange exposure.
We may be subject to increased tax liabilities and an increased effective tax rate if we need to remit funds held by our foreign subsidiaries.
As of January 31, 2021, our foreign subsidiaries held $825.9 million of unremitted foreign earnings. With the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”), all post-1986 previously unremitted earnings for which no U.S. deferred tax liability had been accrued were subject to U.S. tax. Notwithstanding the U.S. taxation of these amounts, we have determined that $547.9 million of foreign earnings (“Reinvested Funds”) will continue to be reinvested indefinitely outside of the U.S. As a result, we have not recorded a provisional income tax expense for these amounts because we believe that we currently have the ability to keep those earnings indefinitely invested and we have specific plans for reinvestment of these undistributed foreign earnings. In connection with the enactment of the Tax Act, we elected to remit approximately $240.0 million of foreign earnings, which was completed in fiscal year 2021. In the second quarter of fiscal year 2021, we determined that an additional $50 million will not be permanently reinvested. As a result, we have established a deferred income tax liability for the Swiss withholding tax that will be due upon distribution of these earnings. If we needed to remit all or a portion of our Reinvested Funds to the U.S. for investment in our domestic operations, any such remittance could result in increased tax liabilities and a higher effective tax rate.
Risks Relating to Sales, Marketing and Competition
We receive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and the loss of any one of these customers or failure to collect a receivable from them could adversely affect our business.
Our largest customers have varied from year to year. Historically, we have had significant customers that individually accounted for 10% or more of consolidated revenues in certain quarters or years or represented 10% or more of net accounts receivables at any given date. Sales to our customers are generally made on open account, subject to credit limits we may impose, and the receivables are subject to the risk of being uncollectible.
We believe that our operating results for the foreseeable future will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers and end customers. We may not be able to maintain or increase sales to some of our top customers for a variety of reasons, including that our agreements with our customers do not require them to purchase a minimum quantity of our products; some of our customers can stop incorporating our products into their own products with limited notice to us and suffer little or no penalty; and many of our customers have pre-existing or concurrent relationships with our current or potential competitors that may affect the customers’ decisions to purchase our products. The loss of a major customer, a reduction in sales to any major customer or our inability to attract new significant customers could seriously impact our revenue and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The volatility of customer demand limits our ability to predict future levels of sales and profitability.
We primarily conduct our sales on a purchase order basis, rather than pursuant to long-term contracts. The loss of any significant customer, any material reduction in orders by any of our significant customers, the cancellation of a significant customer order or the cancellation or delay of a customer’s significant program or product could harm our business.
Semiconductor suppliers can rapidly increase production output in response to slight increases in demand, leading to a sudden oversupply situation and a subsequent reduction in order rates and revenues as customers adjust their inventories to account for shorter lead times. Conversely, when circumstances create longer lead times customers may order in excess of what they need to ensure availability, then cancel orders if lead times are reduced. A rapid and sudden decline in customer demand for products or cancellation of orders can result in excess quantities of certain products relative to demand. Should this occur, our operating results may be adversely affected as a result of charges to reduce the carrying value of our inventory to the estimated demand level or market price. Our quarterly revenues are highly dependent upon turns fill orders (orders booked and shipped in the same quarter). The short-term and volatile nature of customer demand makes it extremely difficult to accurately predict near term revenues and profits.
Most of our authorized distributors, which collectively represent more than half of our net sales, can terminate their contract with us with little or no notice. The termination of a distributor could negatively impact our business, including net sales and accounts receivable.
In fiscal year 2021, authorized distributors accounted for approximately 82% of our net sales. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our distributors and most can terminate their agreement with us with little or no notice. For fiscal year 2021, our largest distributors were based in Asia. The termination of any of our distributor relationships could impact our net sales and limit our access to certain end-customers. It could also result in the return of excess inventory of our product held by that distributor. Since many distributors simply resell finished products, they generally operate on very thin profit margins. If a distributor were to terminate an agreement with us or go out of business, our accounts receivable from the particular distributor would be subject to significant collection risk. Our reliance on distributors also subjects us to a number of additional risks, including: write-downs in inventories associated with stock rotation rights and increases in provisions for price adjustments granted to certain distributors; potential reduction or discontinuation of sales of our products by distributors; failure to devote
resources necessary to sell our products at the prices, in the volumes and within the time frames that we expect; dependence upon the continued viability and financial resources of these distributors, some of which are small organizations with limited working capital and all of which depend on general economic conditions and conditions within the semiconductor industry; dependence on the timeliness and accuracy of shipment forecasts and resale reports from our distributors; and management of relationships with distributors, which can deteriorate as a result of conflicts with efforts to sell directly to our end customers. If any significant distributor becomes unable or unwilling to promote and sell our products, or if we are not able to renew our contracts with the distributors on acceptable terms, we may not be able to find a replacement distributor on reasonable terms or at all and our business could be harmed.
Our inability to effectively control the sales of our products on the gray market could have a material adverse effect on us.
We market and sell our products directly to OEMs and through authorized third-party distributors. From time to time, it is possible our products could be diverted from our authorized distribution channels and customers may purchase products from the unauthorized "gray market." Gray market products result in shadow inventory that is not visible to us, thus making it difficult to forecast demand accurately. Also, when gray market products enter the market, we and our distribution channels compete with these discounted gray market products, which adversely affects demand for our products and negatively impacts our margins. In addition, our inability to control gray market activities could result in customer satisfaction issues because when products are purchased outside of our authorized distribution channels there is a risk that our customers are buying products that may have been altered, mishandled or damaged, or are used products represented as new.
Risks Relating to Governmental Regulations
Changes in government trade policies could have an adverse impact on our business or the business of our customers, which may materially adversely affect our business operations, sales or gross margins.
The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that have led to, and may lead to, further changes to U.S. and international trade policies, including tariffs affecting certain products exported by a number of U.S. trading partners, including China. In response, many U.S. trading partners, including China, have imposed or proposed new or higher tariffs on U.S. products. The tariffs imposed by the U.S. on products imported from China include parts and materials used in semiconductor manufacturing and could have the effect of increasing the cost of materials we use to manufacture certain products, which could result in lower margins. The U.S. government has also taken actions targeting exports of certain technologies to China which could lead to additional restrictions on the export of products that include or enable certain technologies, including products we provide to China-based customers. In addition, the geopolitical headwinds driven by export restrictions and tariffs imposed by the U.S. government may weaken demand for our products.
We cannot predict what further actions may ultimately be taken with respect to tariffs or trade relations between the U.S. and other countries, what products may be subject to such actions, or what actions may be taken by the other countries in retaliation. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict exactly how, and to what extent, such actions may impact our business, or the business of our customers, partners or vendors. Any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may further affect the demand for our products, increase the cost of components, delay production, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from being able to sell products in certain countries, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Any resulting trade wars could have a significant adverse effect on world trade and global economic conditions and could adversely impact our revenues, gross margins and business operations.
We are subject to government regulations and other standards that impose operational and reporting requirements.
We, our suppliers, and our customers are subject to a variety of U.S. federal, foreign, state and local governmental laws, rules and regulations, including laws, rules and regulations governing data privacy protections for personal information, and corrupt practices/anti-bribery prohibitions, that impact our business in terms of ongoing monitoring of compliance. Legislation and related regulations in the U.K. under that country’s Bribery Act could have extra-territorial application of compliance standards that may be inconsistent with comparable U.S. law, requiring us to re-evaluate and amend our compliance programs, policies and initiatives. The General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") is a comprehensive update to the data protection regime in the European Economic Area that became effective as of May 25, 2018. In addition, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which enhances privacy rights and consumer protection for residents of California, became effective as of January 1, 2020. The cost of compliance with the GDPR and the CCPA and the potential for fines and penalties in the event of a breach may have an adverse effect on our operations.
The SEC and The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC ("Nasdaq") have revised, and continue to revise, their regulations and listing standards. These developments have increased, and may continue to increase, our legal compliance and financial reporting costs. These developments also may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. This, in
turn, could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our Board of Directors, or qualified executive officers.
Failure to comply with present or future laws, rules and regulations of any kind that govern our business could result in suspension of all or a portion of production, cessation of all or a portion of operations, or the imposition of significant regulatory, administrative, civil, or criminal penalties or sanctions, any of which could harm our business.
Our failure to comply with any applicable environmental regulations could result in a range of consequences, including fines, suspension of production, excess inventory, sales limitations, and criminal and civil liabilities.
We are subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations governing the environment, including those restricting the presence of certain substances in electronic products and making producers of those products financially responsible for the collection, treatment, recycling and disposal of those products and those related to the use, storage, handling, discharge or disposal of certain toxic, volatile or otherwise hazardous chemicals and the incorporation of such substances into products available for sale. If we or our suppliers were to incur substantial additional expenses to acquire equipment or otherwise comply with environmental regulations, product costs could significantly increase, thus harming our business. If we violate or fail to comply with any of them, a range of consequences could result, including fines, import/export restrictions, sales limitations, criminal and civil liabilities or other sanctions. We could also be held liable for any and all consequences arising out of exposure to hazardous materials used, stored, released, disposed of by us or located at, under or emanating from our facilities or other environmental or natural resource damage. We have incurred, and may continue to incur, liabilities under various statutes for the cleanup of pollutants at locations we have operated and at third-party disposal and recycling sites we have used.
Environmental laws are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. For example, the E.U. and China are two among a growing number of jurisdictions that have enacted in recent years restrictions on the use of lead, among other chemicals, in electronic products. These regulations affect semiconductor packaging. There is a risk that the cost, quality and manufacturing yields of lead-free products may be less favorable compared to lead-based products or that the transition to lead-free products may produce sudden changes in demand, which may result in excess inventory. Future environmental legal requirements may become more stringent or costly and our compliance costs and potential liabilities arising from past and future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances may harm our business and our reputation.
Certain of our customers and suppliers require us to comply with their codes of conduct, which may include certain restrictions that may substantially increase our cost of doing business as well as have an adverse effect on our operating efficiencies, operating results and financial condition.
Certain of our customers and suppliers require us to agree to comply with their codes of conduct, which may include detailed provisions on labor, human rights, health and safety, environment, corporate ethics and management systems. Certain of these provisions are not requirements under the laws of the countries in which we operate and may be burdensome to comply with on a regular basis. Moreover, new provisions may be added or material changes may be made to any these codes of conduct, and we may have to promptly implement such new provisions or changes, which may substantially further increase the cost of our business, be burdensome to implement and adversely affect our operational efficiencies and operating results. If we violate any such codes of conduct, we may lose further business with the customer or supplier and, in addition, we may be subject to fines from the customer or supplier. While we believe that we are currently in compliance with our customers and suppliers’ codes of conduct, there can be no assurance that, from time to time, if any one of our customers and suppliers audits our compliance with such code of conduct, we would be found to be in full compliance. A loss of business from these customers or suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our operating results could be adversely affected as a result of changes in our effective tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or foreign tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities, or by material differences between our forecasted annual effective tax rates and actual tax rates.
Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in applicable tax laws or their interpretation. We are also subject to the examination of our tax returns and other tax matters by the Internal Revenue Service of the U.S. ("IRS") and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If our effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the U.S., Canada or Switzerland, or if the ultimate determination of taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected. See the risk factor captioned "We may be subject to increased tax liabilities and an increased effective tax rate if we need to remit funds held by our foreign subsidiaries" above.
In October 2015, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, an international association of 34 countries, including the U.S., released the final reports from its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting ("BEPS") Action Plans. The BEPS recommendations covered a number of issues, including country-by-country reporting, permanent establishment rules, transfer
pricing rules and tax treaties. Although the BEPS recommendations are not themselves changes in tax law, this guidance has resulted in unilateral action by several member countries and is also prompting possible amendment of other countries’ tax laws and regulations on a prospective and potentially retroactive basis. In October 2015, the European Commission concluded that certain member countries had granted unlawful rulings that artificially reduced tax burdens and has ordered the recovery of the unpaid taxes. Future tax law changes resulting from these developments may result in changes to long-standing tax principles, which could adversely affect our effective tax rate or result in higher cash tax liabilities.
Significant judgment is required in the calculation of our tax provision and the resulting tax liabilities as well as determination of our ability to realize our deferred tax assets. Our estimates of future taxable income and the regional mix of this income can change as new information becomes available. Any such changes in our estimates or assumptions can significantly impact our tax provision in a given period by, for example, requiring us to impair existing deferred tax assets. Such required changes could result in us having to restate our consolidated financial statements. Restatements are generally costly and could adversely impact our operating results or have a negative impact on the trading price of our common stock.
We may be subject to taxation and review of our compliance with income, value-added and other sales-type tax regulations in other jurisdictions which could negatively affect our operations.
As a global organization, we may be subject to a variety of transfer pricing or permanent establishment challenges by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. If certain of our non-U.S. activities were treated as carrying on business as a permanent establishment and therefore, subject to income tax in such jurisdiction, our operating results could be materially adversely affected.
We are required to comply with rules regarding value-added taxes and other sales-type taxes in various jurisdictions. If these taxes are not properly collected and paid, our operating results could be materially adversely affected.
We have limited experience with government contracting, which entails differentiated business risks.
Although such contracts have not constituted a material portion of our revenue in the past, we may from time-to-time derive revenue from contracts and subcontracts with agencies of, or prime or secondary contractors to, the U.S. government, including U.S. military agencies. Consequently, we are subject to certain business risks that are particular to companies that contract with U.S. government agencies. These risks include the ability of the U.S. government or related contractors to unilaterally: terminate contracts at its convenience; terminate, modify or reduce the value of existing contracts, if there are budgetary constraints or needed changes; cancel multi-year contracts and related orders, if funds become unavailable; adjust contract costs and fees on the basis of audits performed by U.S. government agencies; control and potentially prohibit the export of our products; require that we continue to supply products despite the expiration of a contract under certain circumstances; require that we fill certain types of rated orders for the U.S. government prior to filling any orders for other customers; and suspend us from receiving new contracts pending resolution of any alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations. In addition, because we may enter into defense industry contracts with respect to products that are sold both within and outside of the U.S., we are subject to the following additional risks in connection with government contracts: the need to bid on programs prior to completing the necessary design, which may result in unforeseen technological difficulties, delays and/or cost overruns; the difficulty in forecasting long-term costs and schedules and the potential obsolescence of products related to long-term fixed price contracts; and the need to transfer and obtain security clearances and export licenses, as appropriate.
Corporate responsibility, specifically related to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters, may impose additional costs and expose us to new risks.
Public ESG and sustainability reporting is becoming more broadly expected by investors, shareholders and other third parties. Certain organizations that provide corporate governance and other corporate risk information to investors and shareholders have developed, and others may in the future develop, scores and ratings to evaluate companies and investment funds based upon ESG or “sustainability” metrics. Many investment funds focus on positive ESG business practices and sustainability scores when making investments and may consider a company’s ESG or sustainability scores as a reputational or other factor in making an investment decision. In addition, investors, particularly institutional investors, use these scores to benchmark companies against their peers and if a company is perceived as lagging, these investors may engage with such company to improve ESG disclosure or performance and may also make voting decisions, or take other actions, to hold these companies and their boards of directors accountable. Board diversity is an ESG topic that is, in particular, receiving heightened attention by investors, shareholders, lawmakers and listing exchanges. Certain states have passed laws requiring companies to meet certain gender and ethnic diversity requirements on their boards of directors. We may face reputational damage in the event our corporate responsibility initiatives or objectives, including with respect to board diversity, do not meet the standards set by our investors, shareholders, lawmakers, listing exchanges or other constituencies, or if we are unable to achieve an acceptable ESG or sustainability rating from third party rating services. A low ESG or sustainability rating by a third-party rating service could also result in the exclusion of our common stock from consideration by certain investors who may elect to invest with our competition instead. Ongoing focus on corporate responsibility matters by investors and other parties as described above may impose additional costs or expose us to new risks.
Risks Relating to our Business Strategies, Personnel and Other Operations
The loss of any of our key personnel or the failure to attract or retain specialized technical and management personnel could impair our ability to grow our business.
Our future success depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified technical, marketing and managerial personnel. We are dependent on a relatively small group of key technical personnel with analog and mixed-signal expertise. Personnel with highly skilled managerial capabilities, and analog and mixed-signal design expertise, are scarce and competition for personnel with these skills is intense. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain key employees or that we will be successful in attracting, integrating or retaining other highly qualified personnel in the future. If we are unable to retain the services of key employees or are unsuccessful in attracting new highly qualified employees, our business could be harmed.
We face risks associated with companies we have acquired in the past and may acquire in the future.
We have expanded our operations through strategic acquisitions, and we may continue to expand and diversify our operations with additional acquisitions. Acquisitions may divert management attention and resources from other business objectives. Acquisitions have used and could use in the future a significant portion of our available liquid assets or we could incur debt or issue equity securities to fund acquisitions. Issuance of equity securities could be dilutive to existing stockholders. Debt financing could subject us to restrictive covenants that could have an adverse effect on our business. Although we undertake detailed reviews of proposed acquisition candidates and attempt to negotiate acquisition terms favorable to us, we may encounter difficulties or incur liabilities for which we have no recourse. We cannot provide any assurance that any acquisition will have a positive impact on our future performance.
If we are unsuccessful in integrating acquired companies into our operations or if integration is more difficult than anticipated, then we may not achieve anticipated cost savings or synergies and may experience disruptions that could harm our business. Acquisitions could have a negative impact on our future earnings by way of poor performance by the acquired company or, if we later conclude we are unable to use or sell an acquired product or technology, we could be required to write down the related intangible assets and goodwill.
We may be required to recognize additional impairment charges in the future which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We assess our goodwill, other intangible assets and our long-lived assets on an annual basis and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of our assets may not be recoverable, and as and when required by accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. ("GAAP") to determine whether they are impaired. During fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, we recorded $6.8 million, $1.2 million and $30.0 million of non-cash impairment charges and credit loss reserves on certain of our investments. Future restructuring or appraisal of our business impacting fair value of our assets or changes in estimates of our future cash flows could affect our impairment analysis in future periods and cause us to record either an additional expense for impairment of assets previously determined to be partially impaired or record an expense for impairment of other assets. Depending on future circumstances, we may never realize the full value of intangible assets. Any future determination or impairment of a significant portion of our goodwill and other intangibles could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
Restrictive covenants in the Credit Agreement governing the Credit Facility may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.
The Credit Agreement contains a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests. The Credit Agreement includes covenants restricting, among other things, our and our subsidiaries’ ability to: incur or guarantee additional debt or issue certain preferred stock; pay dividends or make distributions on our capital stock or redeem, repurchase or retire our capital stock; make certain investments and acquisitions; create liens on our or our subsidiaries’ assets; enter into transactions with affiliates; merge or consolidate with another person or sell or otherwise dispose of substantially all of our assets; make certain payments in respect of other material indebtedness; alter the business that we conduct; and make certain capital expenditures.
Under the Credit Agreement, we are required to maintain a consolidated leverage ratio and an interest expense coverage ratio. Our ability to meet such financial ratios can be affected by events beyond our control, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to meet such ratios. The Credit Agreement also contains various covenants and restrictions and a breach of any covenant or restriction could result in a default under our Credit Agreement. If any such default occurs, the lenders may elect (after the expiration of any applicable notice or grace periods) to declare all outstanding borrowings, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other amounts payable thereunder, to be immediately due and payable. Further, following an event of default under the Credit Facility, the lenders will have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that debt. If the debt under the Credit Facility were to be accelerated, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full that debt that may become due as a result of that acceleration.
We rely on certain critical information systems for the operation of our business and a disruption in our information systems, including those related to cybersecurity, could adversely affect our business operations.
We maintain and rely upon certain critical information systems for the effective operation of our business. These information systems include telecommunications, the Internet, our corporate intranet, various computer hardware and software applications, network communications, and e-mail. These information systems may be owned by us or by our outsource providers or even third parties such as vendors and contractors and may be maintained by us or by such providers or third parties. These information systems are subject to attacks, failures, and access denials from a number of potential sources including viruses, destructive or inadequate code, power failures, and physical damage to computers, hard drives, communication lines and networking equipment. To the extent that these information systems are under our control, we have implemented security procedures, such as virus protection software and emergency recovery processes, to address the outlined risks; however, security procedures for information systems cannot be guaranteed to be failsafe and our inability to use or access these information systems at critical points in time could unfavorably impact the timely and efficient operation of our business. Additionally, any compromise of our information security could result in the unauthorized publication of our confidential business or proprietary information, including potential theft of our intellectual property or trade secrets (including our proprietary technology) or the unauthorized release of customer, supplier or employee data and result in a violation of privacy or other laws, thus exposing us to litigation or damage to our reputation. To the extent that our business is interrupted or data or proprietary technology is lost, destroyed or inappropriately used or disclosed, such disruption could adversely affect our competitive position, relationship with customers, suppliers or employees or our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against or repair the damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.
The costs associated with our indemnification of certain customers, distributors, and other parties could be higher in future periods.
In the normal course of our business, we indemnify other parties, including customers, distributors, and lessors, with respect to certain matters. These obligations typically arise pursuant to contracts under which we agree to hold the other party harmless against losses arising from a breach of representations and covenants related to certain matters, such as acts or omissions of our employees, infringement of third-party intellectual property rights, and certain environmental matters. We have not incurred any significant expense as a result of agreements of this type in at least a decade, but there can be no assurances that we will not incur expense under these indemnification provisions in the future.
We have also entered into agreements with our current and former directors and certain of our current and former executives indemnifying them against certain liabilities incurred in connection with their duties. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain similar indemnification obligations with respect to our current and former directors and employees, as does the California Labor Code. We cannot estimate the amount of potential future payments, if any, that we might be required to make as a result of these agreements.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters is located in Camarillo, California where we own an approximately 88,000 square foot facility. The parcel on which our headquarters is located can accommodate substantial expansion. As of January 31, 2021, we owned or leased multiple properties. The locations and primary functions of significant properties are summarized in the following table:
In addition to the properties listed in the above table, we also lease Sales and Marketing, Research and Development, and Administrative offices at various locations in the U.S. and internationally under operating leases, none of which are material to our future cash flows. Our leases expire at various dates through 2030.
We believe that our existing leased and owned space is more than adequate for our current operations, and that suitable replacement and additional space will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms as circumstances warrant.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SMTC."
As of March 19, 2021, we had 173 holders of record of our common stock.
The payment of dividends on our common stock is within the discretion of our Board of Directors. Currently, we intend to retain earnings to finance the growth of our business. We did not pay cash dividends on our common stock during fiscal years 2021, 2020 or 2019, and our Board of Directors has not indicated an intent to declare a cash dividend on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We maintain a stock repurchase program that was initially approved by our Board of Directors and announced by us in March 2008. The stock repurchase program does not have an expiration date and our Board of Directors has authorized expansion of the program over the years. During fiscal year 2021, we repurchased $71.4 million of our common stock. As of January 31, 2021, we have repurchased $409.2 million of our common stock under the program since its inception and the remaining authorization under our stock repurchase program was $39.2 million. On March 11, 2021, our Board of Directors approved the expansion of the stock repurchase program by $350.0 million, which resulted in a remaining authorization under the program of $389.2 million as of such authorization date. Under the program, we may repurchase our common stock at any time or from time to time, without prior notice, subject to market conditions and other considerations. Our repurchases may be made through Rule 10b5-1 and/or Rule 10b-18 or other trading plans, open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, block purchases or other transactions. We intend to fund repurchases under the program from cash on hand. We have no obligation to repurchase any shares under the program and may suspend or discontinue it at any time.
Purchases by the Company of our common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2021 were as follows:
|Fiscal Month/Year||Total Number of|
|Average Price Paid|
|Total Number of Shares|
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced Program
|Approximate Dollar Value |
of Shares That May Yet
Be Purchased Under
|November 2020 (10/26/20-11/22/20)||— ||$||— ||— ||$||44.2 || million|
|December 2020 (11/23/20-12/20/20)||29,700 ||$||70.74 ||29,700 ||$||42.1 || million|
|January 2021 (12/21/20-01/31/21)||39,570 ||$||73.26 ||39,570 ||$||39.2 || million|
|Total fourth quarter activity||69,270 ||$||72.18 ||69,270 |
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
See the information set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not make any sales of unregistered securities during fiscal year 2021 that have not been previously reported.
This chart and graph show the value of a $100 cash investment on the last day of fiscal year 2016 in (i) the Company’s common stock, (ii) the NASDAQ Composite Index, and (iii) the Philadelphia ("PHLX") Semiconductor Index. Note that historic stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
|PHLX SEMICONDUCTOR SECTOR||$100||$157||$225||$209||$314||$470|
The information contained in this Item 5 under the heading "Performance Graph" (i) is being furnished and shall not be deemed "filed" for the purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and (ii) shall not be incorporated by reference into any registration statement or other document pursuant to the Exchange Act, or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing to this Item 5 Performance Graph information.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and operating results should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking and Cautionary Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are a leading global supplier of high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductors and advanced algorithms and were incorporated in Delaware in 1960. We design, develop, manufacture, and market a broad range of products that are sold principally into applications within the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. Infrastructure end market includes data centers, PON, base stations, optical networks, servers, carrier networks, switches and routers, cable modems, wireless LAN and other communication infrastructure equipment. High-end consumer end market includes smartphones, tablets, wearables, desktops, notebooks, and other handheld products, wireless charging, set-top boxes, digital televisions, monitors and displays, digital video recorders and other consumer equipment. Industrial end market includes IoT, analog and digital video broadcast equipment, video-over-IP solutions, automated meter reading, smart grid, wireless charging, military and aerospace, medical, security systems, automotive, industrial and home automation and other industrial equipment. Our end customers are primarily OEMs that produce and sell electronics.
We report results on the basis of 52 and 53 week periods and our fiscal year ends on the last Sunday in January. The fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 consisted of 53 weeks and the fiscal years ended January 26, 2020 and January 27, 2019, each consisted of 52 weeks. Therefore, while not specifically quantifiable, the extra week of business activity in fiscal year 2021 contributed to slightly higher revenue and expenses. We operate and account for our results in one reportable segment. See Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for segment information.
Despite the challenges of the pandemic, we remained focused on furthering our role as a leading provider of disruptive platforms that enable our customers to deliver solutions to create a smarter planet. We continued to invest in secular trends that enable a smarter, more sustainable planet; enable higher bandwidth; and enable greater mobility. As a result, we expect these markets and our associated products’ sales to grow rapidly over the next several years. The increasing adoption of our LoRa® technology for low power wide-area networks (“LPWAN”) is providing connectivity solutions that enable Internet of Things (“IoT”) networks to make a smarter, more connected planet. Additionally, our portfolio of optical connectivity solutions continue to address the demand for greater bandwidth and higher performance, while using less power by our global hyper-scale data center customers. Additionally, the unexpected pivot to online learning and work from home (“WFH”) during the pandemic exposed the fragile nature of many global networks that struggled under the spike in demand. This has driven infrastructure suppliers around the world to accelerate their investments in high speed connectivity using 5G wireless and PON technology where we are an industry leader. Finally, the increasing demand for smaller, lower-powered higher performance mobile platforms with more enjoyable organic light-emitting diode (“OLED”) displays has benefited our protection and proximity sensing solutions that protect these mobile devices and their users from dangerous radio frequency (“RF”) signals.
During the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we also maintained our strategy of smaller, targeted investments focused mainly on minority positions in support of the developing LoRa ecosystem and the many new IoT solutions we are introducing. In addition to these strategic investments, we took further actions to help ensure the supply of products from our vendors and suppliers. After the initial onset of the pandemic, the semiconductor industry experienced a significant increase in demand that led to tighter capacity. We believe our investments in fiscal year 2021 position us well to support our expectations of future growth.
Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected health and economic conditions throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world including Asia, where a significant percentage of our customers, suppliers, third party foundries and subcontractors are located. As a result of the pandemic, certain of our facilities and the third-party foundries and assembly and test contractors which we outsource our manufacturing functions to, have had to periodically reduce or suspend operations. The disruption experienced during such closures has resulted in reduced production of our products, delays for delivery of our products to our customers, and reduced ability to receive supplies, which have had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our results. For example, in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, certain shipments of our products were delayed due to COVID-19 related shutdowns of our plant in Reynosa, Mexico, as well as certain subcontractors in Malaysia. Our customers have also experienced and may continue to or again experience, reductions or closures of their manufacturing facilities or inability to obtain other components, either of which could negatively impact demand for our products, which are incorporated into our customers' devices and solutions. We cannot assure you that such facilities will not have to reduce or suspend operations again, and such reductions or closures could extend for a longer term than the prior shutdown of such facilities, thereby causing a disruption to the manufacturing and shipping of our products.
Because a significant majority of our net sales is through authorized distributors, the financial health of our distributors is critical to our success. Our authorized distributors have experienced disruptions to their operations, including temporary
reductions or closures during which they have diminished ability or are unable to sell our products. The ability of our distributors to purchase our products may be materially impacted depending on the length and severity of the pandemic, including the impact on general economic conditions. Further, if credit conditions worsen in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our customers may ask for extension of payment terms and are more likely to default, thereby increasing risk of receivables being uncollectible.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to evaluate the impact on long-lived assets, such as goodwill and intangible assets for possible impairment. We did not record a goodwill impairment charge during fiscal year 2021. We recorded $6.8 million of investment impairments and credit loss reserves during fiscal year 2021, some of which were in part due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our investees.
We expect the COVID-19 pandemic to persist into fiscal year 2022, which could potentially adversely impact our results of operations. We believe, however, that our strong liquidity position will allow us to withstand some of the uncertainties in the current environment. As of January 31, 2021, we had $268.9 million of cash and cash equivalents and $419.0 million of undrawn capacity on our credit facility. In addition, we operate a predominantly fabless business model, resulting in low capital spending requirements, which enhances our ability to preserve our overall liquidity. We also have continued strong backlog and bookings, which we believe will help us to navigate through these uncertain times.
Factors Affecting Our Performance
Most of our sales to customers are made on the basis of individual customer purchase orders. Many customers include cancellation provisions in their purchase orders. Trends within the industry toward shorter lead-times and "just-in-time" deliveries have resulted in our reduced ability to predict future shipments. As a result, we rely on orders received and shipped within the same quarter for a significant portion of our sales. Sales made directly to customers during fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 were approximately 18%, 28% and 32% of net sales, respectively. The remaining 82%, 72% and 68% of net sales, respectively, were made through independent distributors. The decline in direct sales is due to customers electing to leverage the value of distribution to better manage their supply chain.
Our business relies on foreign-based entities. Many of our third-party subcontractors and suppliers, including third-party foundries that supply silicon wafers, are located in foreign countries including Taiwan, China and Israel. Foreign sales for fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 constituted approximately 90%, 91% and 89%, respectively, of our net sales. Approximately 80%, 77% and 76% of net sales in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, were to customers located in the Asia-Pacific region. The remaining foreign sales were primarily to customers in Europe, Canada and Mexico. Doing business in foreign locations also subjects us to export restrictions and trade laws, which may limit our ability to sell to certain customers. For example, the U.S. Department of Commerce expanded its restrictions on certain technology sold to or for Huawei in 2020, which adversely impacted our sales to this customer.
We use several metrics as indicators of future potential growth. The indicators that we believe best correlate to potential future sales growth are design wins and new product releases. There are many factors that may cause a design win or new product release to not result in sales, including a customer decision not to go to system production, a change in a customer’s perspective regarding a product’s value or a customer’s product failing in the end market. As a result, although a design win or new product introduction is an important step towards generating future sales, it does not inevitably result in us being awarded business or receiving a purchase commitment.
We derive our revenue primarily from the sale of semiconductor products into various end markets. Revenue is recognized when control of these products is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for these products. Control is generally transferred when products are shipped and, to a lesser extent, when the products are delivered. Recovery of costs associated with product design and engineering services are recognized during the period in which services are performed and are reported as a reduction to product development and engineering expense. Historically, these recoveries have not exceeded the cost of the related development efforts. We include revenue related to granted technology licenses as part of "Net sales" in the Statements of Income. Historically, revenue from these arrangements has not been significant though it is part of our recurring ordinary business.
We determine revenue recognition through the following five steps:
•Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
•Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
•Determination of the transaction price
•Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
•Recognition of revenue when, or as, performance obligations are satisfied
We account for a contract when it has approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
Our revenue contracts generally represent a single performance obligation to sell our products to trade customers. Net sales reflect the transaction prices for contracts, which include units shipped at selling prices reduced by variable consideration. Determination of variable consideration requires judgment by us. Variable consideration includes expected sales returns and other price adjustments. Variable consideration is estimated using the expected value method considering all reasonably available information, including our historical experience and our current expectations, and is reflected in the transaction price when sales are recorded. Sales returns are generally accepted at our discretion or from distributors with such rights. Our contracts with trade customers do not have significant financing components or non-cash consideration. We record net sales excluding taxes collected on our sales to our trade customers.
We provide an assurance type warranty, which is typically not sold separately and does not represent a separate performance obligation. Our payment terms are generally aligned with shipping terms.
On October 5, 2016, we issued a Warrant to Comcast to purchase up to 1,086,957 Warrant Shares. The cost of the Warrant Shares is recognized as an offset to net sales. On April 27, 2018, we accelerated the vesting of the remaining 586,956 unvested shares from the Warrant ("Acceleration Event"), resulting in the full recognition of the previously unrecognized costs. For the fiscal year ended January 27, 2019, the net sales offset reflects the cost associated with the Warrant Shares of $21.5 million, including $15.9 million related to the Acceleration Event. As of January 27, 2019, the Warrant was fully vested and exercisable for a total of 869,565 shares, with no additional costs to be recognized in future periods. The Warrant was fully exercised and no longer outstanding as of March 15, 2019.
Gross profit is equal to our net sales less our cost of sales. Our cost of sales includes materials, depreciation on fixed assets used in the manufacturing process, shipping costs, direct labor and overhead. The majority of the Company's manufacturing is outsourced, resulting in relatively low fixed manufacturing costs and variable costs that highly correlate with volume. We determine the cost of inventory by the first-in, first-out method.
Our operating costs and expenses generally consist of selling, general and administrative, product development and engineering costs, costs associated with acquisitions, restructuring charges, and other operating related charges.
Results of Operations
A discussion of our results of operations for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020 and year-to-year comparisons between fiscal years 2021 and 2020 appear below. A discussion of our results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 27, 2019 and year-to-year comparisons between fiscal years 2020 and 2019 have been omitted from this Annual Report on Form 10-K, but may be found in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 26, 2020, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2020 and is incorporated herein by reference.
Fiscal Year 2021 Compared with Fiscal Year 2020
Reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to the current classification and all periods presented in the following summary of net sales by major end market reflect our current classification methodology:
|(in thousands, except percentages)||2021||2020|
|Net Sales||% Net Sales||Net Sales||% Net Sales||Change|
|Infrastructure||$||245,549 ||42 ||%||$||209,936 ||38 ||%||17 ||%|
|High-End Consumer||162,342 ||27 ||%||158,394 ||29 ||%||2 ||%|
|Industrial||187,226 ||31 ||%||179,182 ||33 ||%||4 ||%|
|Total||$||595,117 ||100 ||%||$||547,512 ||100 ||%||9 ||%|
Net sales for fiscal year 2021 were $595.1 million, an increase of 9% compared to $547.5 million for fiscal year 2020. During fiscal year 2021, the infrastructure end market increased by $36 million driven by a $20 million increase in PON sales and a $17 million increase in data center demand. The industrial end market increased by $8 million due to a $14 million increase in LoRa-enabled product sales, partially offset by a $6 million decrease in broadcast revenue due to the adverse impact of COVID-19 on large venue events. In the high-end consumer end market, the sales increase was driven by strength in proximity sensing products. Net sales also benefited from the extra week in the fiscal year, as noted above.
Entering fiscal year 2022, customer demand remains strong and supply tight, with many of our suppliers running at or near capacity and our customers competing for the limited supply. While we believe we have good visibility going into the first quarter of fiscal year 2022, it is unknown how much of this demand strength reflects real end market consumption or just the customers' goal to increase their inventory levels over fear of the global supply chain constraints. To the extent that the increase in demand is driven by the latter, we and the industry could experience a period of slower future demand as the potential excess inventories are worked down. Based on booking trends and backlog entering the quarter, we estimate net sales for the first quarter of fiscal year 2022 to be between $164.0 million to $172.0 million.
Gross profit was $363.5 million and $336.7 million in fiscal years 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our gross margin was 61.1% in fiscal year 2021, compared to 61.5% in fiscal year 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by a less favorable product mix and higher charges for inventory reserves. The majority of the Company's manufacturing is outsourced, resulting in relatively low fixed manufacturing costs and variable costs that highly correlate with volume.
Despite the capacity constraints within the industry, we expect overall gross margins for the first quarter of fiscal year 2022 to remain consistent with our fiscal year 2021 performance. We have increased our inventory levels to meet the strong backlog of orders and higher demand, as well as to minimize the impact of potential supply shortages.
Operating Costs and Expenses
|(in thousands, except percentages)||2021||2020|
|Cost/Exp.||% Net Sales||Cost/Exp.||% Net Sales||Change|
|Selling, general and administrative||$||162,832 ||27 ||%||$||163,106 ||30 ||%||— ||%|
|Product development and engineering||117,529 ||20 ||%||107,368 ||20 ||%||9 ||%|
|Intangible amortization||8,265 ||1 ||%||16,546 ||3 ||%||(50)||%|
|Changes in the fair value of contingent earn-out obligations||(33)||— ||%||(2,345)||(1)||%||(99)||%|
|Total operating costs and expenses ||$||288,593 ||48 ||%||$||284,675 ||52 ||%||1 ||%|
Selling, General & Administrative Expenses
SG&A expenses for fiscal year 2021 decreased by $0.3 million primarily driven by $4.3 million lower travel costs and the absence of $2.2 million in restructuring charges recorded in fiscal year 2020, partially offset by an increase of $5.9 million in staffing-related costs. The extra week in fiscal year 2021 slightly increased costs compared to fiscal year 2020.
Product Development and Engineering Expenses
Product development and engineering expenses for fiscal years 2021 and 2020 were $117.5 million and $107.4 million, respectively, or an increase of 9%. This increase reflects higher staffing costs of $8.7 million, including $5.8 million in variable bonus and share-based compensation expense driven by our strong financial performance. The increase also reflects the timing of development activities and certain pre-production start-up costs associated with our manufacturing facility in Colorado. The extra week in fiscal year 2021 slightly increased costs compared to fiscal year 2020.
The levels of product development and engineering expenses reported in a fiscal period can be significantly impacted by the number of new product tape-outs and by the timing of recoveries from non-recurring engineering services, which are typically recorded as a reduction to product development and engineering expense.
Intangible amortization was $8.3 million and $16.5 million in fiscal years 2021 and 2020, respectively. This decrease was primarily due to certain finite-lived intangible assets associated with the acquisitions of Gennum Corporation, Triune Systems, LLC, and AptoVision Technologies, Inc. that had become fully amortized during fiscal years 2020 and 2021.
Changes in the Fair Value of Contingent Earn-out Obligations
The change in the fair value of contingent earn-out obligations in fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020 reflects the difference between the final earn-out targets achieved for Cycleo SAS in fiscal year 2021 and the forecast achievement level at the end of fiscal year 2020.
Interest expense was $5.3 million and $9.1 million for fiscal years 2021 and 2020, respectively. The $3.8 million decrease was primarily related to lower interest rates and to a lesser extent, lower overall debt levels. During fiscal year 2021, we entered into an interest rate swap agreement with a three-year term to hedge the variability of interest payments on the first $150.0 million
of our debt outstanding. Interest payments on $150.0 million of our debt are effectively locked in at a fixed rate of 1.9775%, based on our current leverage ratio as of January 31, 2021. Interest payments on debt outstanding in excess of $150.0 million remain variable and are tied to the one-month LIBOR rate, which was 0.14% as of January 31, 2021, plus a margin of 1.25%, based on our current leverage ratio as of January 31, 2021.
Investment Impairments and Credit Loss Reserves
In fiscal year 2021, we increased our total current expected credit loss reserve by $2.9 million for our held-to-maturity debt securities and available-for-sale debt securities consisting of our convertible debt investments in privately-held companies, in part, due to the adverse impact of COVID-19 on these early-stage companies. In addition, we tested our equity investments for other-than-temporary impairment and the results of this analysis indicated that five of our investments were other than temporarily impaired by an aggregate amount of $3.9 million. In fiscal year 2020, we had a $0.5 million write-down of a cost method investment and a $0.7 million write-down of a convertible debt investment.
Provision for Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes was $3.4 million for fiscal year 2021 compared to a provision for income taxes of $12.8 million for fiscal year 2020. The effective tax rates for fiscal years 2021 and 2020 were a tax provision rate of 5.4% and a tax provision rate of 28.7%, respectively. Our effective tax rate for fiscal year 2021 differs from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% primarily due to our regional mix of income, the impact of tax credits generated, and the recognition of excess tax benefits related to share-based compensation.
We receive a tax benefit from a tax holiday that was granted in Switzerland. The tax holiday commenced on January 30, 2017, and is effective for five years (the “Initial Term”) and can be extended for an additional five years, subject to meeting certain staffing targets. The ability to meet the requirements to extend the ruling is within our control and we do not anticipate any issues meeting the established targets. The maximum benefit under this tax holiday is CHF 500.0 million of cumulative after tax profit, which equates to a maximum potential tax savings of CHF 44.0 million. Depending on the operational performance of our Swiss operations, it is possible that we could utilize the maximum benefit during the Initial Term. Once the term of the tax holiday expires or we achieve the maximum benefit, our effective tax rate could be negatively impacted if we are unable to negotiate an extension or expansion of the tax holiday. The Swiss Tax Reform that was enacted during fiscal year 2020 reduces the Swiss Cantonal tax rate, which further increases the benefit of our Tax Holiday.
As a global organization, we are subject to audit by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. To the extent that an audit, or the closure of a statute of limitations results in adjusting our reserves for uncertain tax positions, our effective tax rate could experience extreme volatility since any adjustment would be recorded as a discrete item in the period of adjustment.
For further information on the effective tax rate and Tax Act’s impact, see Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our capital requirements depend on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the rate of increase or decrease in our existing business base; the success, timing and amount of investment required to bring new products to market; sales growth or decline; potential acquisitions; the general economic environment in which we operate; and our ability to generate cash flow from operations, which are more uncertain as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the general economy. Our liquidity needs during this uncertain time will depend on multiple factors, including our ability to continue operations and production of our products, the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on our customers, the availability of sufficient amounts of financing and our operating performance.
We believe that our cash on hand, cash available from future operations and available borrowing capacity under our Credit Facility are sufficient to meet liquidity requirements for at least the next 12 months, including funds needed for our material cash requirements as described below. As of January 31, 2021, we had $268.9 million in cash and cash equivalents and $419.0 million of undrawn capacity on our Credit Facility. Over the longer-term, we believe our strong cash generating business model will continue to provide adequate liquidity to fund our normal operations, which have minimal capital intensity. To the extent that we enter into acquisitions or strategic partnerships, we may be required to raise additional capital through debt issuances or equity offerings. In addition, we expect to refinance our Credit Facility ahead of its maturity in November 2024. While we have not had issues securing favorable financing historically, there is no assurance that we will be able to refinance or secure additional capital at favorable terms, or at all in the future.
A meaningful portion of our capital resources, and the liquidity they represent, are held by our foreign subsidiaries. As of January 31, 2021, our foreign subsidiaries held approximately $182.9 million of cash and cash equivalents, compared to $261.9 million at January 26, 2020. In connection with the enactment of the Tax Act, all historic and current foreign earnings are taxed in the U.S. and are subject to a 5% Swiss withholding tax, if repatriated. In fiscal year 2018, we determined that we would repatriate back to the U.S. approximately $240.0 million of foreign earnings, of which $83.9 million, $76.1 million and $80.0 million of foreign earnings were remitted in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In the second quarter of fiscal year 2021, we determined an additional $50.0 million of current earnings will not be permanently reinvested. As of January 31,
2021, our foreign subsidiaries had $547.9 million of unremitted earnings for which no taxes have been provided. Those historical earnings have been and are expected to continue to be permanently reinvested.
We expect our future cash uses will be for capital expenditures, repurchases of our common stock and potentially, acquisitions and other investments that support achievement of our business strategies. We expect to fund those cash requirements through our cash from operations and borrowings against our Credit Facility.
Sources of Liquidity
Operating Cash Flows
Operating cash flows over the past three years have ranged from $118.6 million to $183.6 million, which represents 20% to 29% of revenue. Our consistently solid profitability and operating cash flow are driven by our ability to value price for the differentiated technology that we provide, as well as our fabless business model, which is highly flexible to changes in customer demand.
On November 7, 2019, we, with certain of our domestic subsidiaries as guarantors, entered into an amended and restated credit agreement ("the Credit Agreement") with the lenders party thereto and HSBC Bank USA, National Association, as administrative agent, swing line lender and letter of credit issuer in order to provide a more flexible borrowing structure by expanding the borrowing capacity of the revolving loans under the secured first lien credit facility ("the Credit Facility") to $600.0 million, eliminating the term loans and extending the maturity to November 7, 2024. Up to $40.0 million of the revolving loans may be used to obtain letters of credit, up to $25.0 million of the revolving loans may be used to obtain swing line loans, and up to $40.0 million of the revolving loans may be used to obtain revolving loans and letters of credit in certain currencies other than U.S. Dollars ("Alternative Currencies"). The proceeds of the Credit Facility may be used by us for capital expenditures, permitted acquisitions, permitted dividends, working capital and general corporate purposes. A portion of the proceeds of the Credit Facility were used to repay in full all of the obligations outstanding under our then existing senior secured first lien credit facility and to pay transaction costs in connection with such refinancing.
In fiscal year 2021, we made payments that totaled $16.0 million on our Credit Facility. In fiscal year 2020, we received $201.0 million in proceeds from our revolving loans and made payments that totaled $101.0 million and $115.3 million on our revolving loans and on our previous term loans, respectively. In fiscal year 2019, we made payments that totaled $15.9 million on our previous term loans. As of January 31, 2021, we had $181.0 million of outstanding borrowings on our Credit Facility, which had $419.0 million of undrawn borrowing capacity.
The amendment of the Credit Agreement in fiscal year 2020 resulted in a loss on early extinguishment of debt totaling $0.5 million, related to the write off of unamortized discounts and loan costs, which was presented in "Non-operating income, net" in the Statements of Income.
The Credit Agreement provides that, subject to certain customary conditions, including obtaining commitments with respect thereto, we may request the establishment of one or more term loan facilities and/or increases to the revolving loans in a principal amount not to exceed (a) $300.0 million, plus (b) an unlimited amount, so long as our consolidated leverage ratio, determined on a pro forma basis, does not exceed 3.00 to 1.00. However, the lenders are not required to provide such increase upon our request.
Interest on loans made under the Credit Facility in U.S. Dollars accrues, at our option, at a rate per annum equal to (1) the Base Rate (as defined below) plus a margin ranging from 0.25% to 1.25% depending upon our consolidated leverage ratio or (2) LIBOR (determined with respect to deposits in U.S. Dollars) for an interest period to be selected by us plus a margin ranging from 1.25% to 2.25% depending upon our consolidated leverage ratio (such margin, the "Applicable Margin"). The "Base Rate" is equal to a fluctuating rate equal to the highest of (a) the prime rate of the Administrative Agent, (b) 0.50% above the federal funds effective rate published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and (c) one-month LIBOR (determined with respect to deposits in U.S. Dollars), plus 1.00%. Interest on loans made under the Credit Facility in Alternative Currencies accrues at a rate per annum equal to LIBOR (determined with respect to deposits in the applicable Alternative Currency) (other than loans made in Canadian Dollars, for which a special reference rate for Canadian Dollars applies) for an interest period to be selected by us plus the Applicable Margin. See “Interest Rate and Credit Risk” under Item 7A of this Annual Report on 10-K for a discussion of the potential impact of the discontinuation of LIBOR to our outstanding debt and financial results.
During fiscal year 2021, we entered into an interest rate swap agreement to hedge the variability of interest payments on the first $150.0 million of debt outstanding under our Credit Facility. The swap has a three-year term and based on our current leverage ratio as of January 31, 2021, interest payments on $150.0 million of our debt are fixed at 1.9775%.
All obligations of the Company under the Credit Agreement are unconditionally guaranteed by all of our direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries, other than certain excluded subsidiaries, including, but not limited to, any domestic subsidiary the primary assets of which consist of equity or debt of non-U.S. subsidiaries, certain immaterial non-wholly-owned domestic subsidiaries and subsidiaries that are prohibited from providing a guarantee under applicable law or that would require
governmental approval to provide such guarantee. The Company and the guarantors have also pledged substantially all of their assets to secure their obligations under the Credit Agreement.
No amortization is required with respect to the revolving loans and we may voluntarily prepay borrowings at any time and from time to time, without premium or penalty, other than customary "breakage costs" and fees for LIBOR-based loans.
The Credit Agreement contains customary covenants, including limitations on our ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness, create liens on assets, engage in certain fundamental corporate changes, make investments, repurchase stock, pay dividends or make similar distributions, engage in certain affiliate transactions, or enter into agreements that restrict our ability to create liens, pay dividends or make loan repayments. In addition, we must comply with financial covenants, including maintaining a maximum consolidated leverage ratio, determined as of the last day of each fiscal quarter, of 3.50 to 1.00 or less, provided that, such maximum consolidated leverage ratio may be increased to 4.00 to 1.00 for the four consecutive fiscal quarters ending on or after the date of consummation of a permitted acquisition that constitutes a "Material Acquisition" under the Credit Agreement, subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions. As of January 31, 2021, we were in compliance with the covenants in our Credit Agreement.
The Credit Agreement also contains customary provisions pertaining to events of default. If any event of default occurs, the obligations under the Credit Agreement may be declared due and payable, terminated upon written notice to us and existing letters of credit may be required to be cash collateralized.
Expected Uses of Liquidity
Capital Expenditures and Research and Development
We incur significant expenditures in order to fund the development, design and manufacture of new products. We intend to continue to focus on those areas that have shown potential for viable and profitable market opportunities, which may require additional investment in equipment and the hiring of additional design and application engineers aimed at developing new products. Certain of these expenditures, particularly the addition of design engineers, do not generate significant payback in the short-term. We plan to finance these expenditures with cash generated by our operations and our existing cash balances.
Purchases under our Stock Repurchase Program
We currently have in effect a stock repurchase program that was initially approved by our Board of Directors in March 2008. This program represents one of our principal efforts to return value to our stockholders. During fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, we repurchased shares of common stock under this program for $71.4 million, $70.2 million and $116.2 million, respectively. As of January 31, 2021, we had repurchased $409.2 million in shares of our common stock under the program since inception and the remaining authorization under the program was $39.2 million. On March 11, 2021, our Board of Directors approved the expansion of the stock repurchase program by $350.0 million, which resulted in a remaining authorization under the program of $389.2 million as of such authorization date. Our stock repurchase program has no expiration date. Purchases under the program are at management's discretion and the program may be cancelled or suspended at any time.
We have operating leases for real estate, vehicles, and office equipment with remaining lease terms of up to nine years, some of which include options to extend the leases for up to three years, and some of which include options to terminate the leases within one year. Our operating lease liabilities totaled $17.1 million and $11.5 million as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, respectively.
Capital purchase commitments and other open purchase commitments are for the purchase of plant, equipment, raw material, supplies and services. They are not recorded liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of January 31, 2021, as we have not yet received the related goods or taken title to the property. As of January 31, 2021, we had $1.6 million in open capital purchase commitments and $83.7 million in other open purchase commitments.
Compensation and Defined Benefit Plans
We maintain a deferred compensation plan for certain officers and key executives that allow participants to defer a portion of their compensation for future distribution at various times permitted by the plan. Our liability for deferred compensation under this plan was $41.0 million and $36.6 million as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, respectively, and is included in accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The plan provides for a discretionary Company match up to a defined portion of the employee’s deferral, with any match subject to a vesting period.
We have purchased whole life insurance on the lives of certain of our current and former deferred compensation plan participants. This Company-owned life insurance is held in a grantor trust and is intended to cover a majority of the costs of our
deferred compensation plan. The cash surrender value of our Company-owned life insurance was $27.6 million and $24.3 million as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, respectively.
We maintain defined benefit pension plans for the employees of our Swiss subsidiaries and French subsidiary. Expected future payments under these plans totaled $22.7 million as of January 31, 2021.
As of January 31, 2021, the liability associated with vested, but unsettled restricted stock awards that are to be settled in cash totaled $14.0 million, which was included in "Other long-term liabilities" in the Balance Sheets.
Working capital, defined as total current assets less total current liabilities, fluctuates depending on end-market demand and our effective management of certain items such as receivables, inventory and payables. In times of escalating demand, such as in fiscal year 2021, our working capital requirements may increase as we purchase additional manufacturing materials and increase production. In addition, our working capital may be affected by potential acquisitions and transactions involving our debt instruments. Although investments made to fund working capital will reduce our cash balances, these investments are necessary to support business and operating initiatives. Our working capital, excluding cash and cash equivalents, was $96.3 million and $68.8 million as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, respectively. Our working capital, including cash and cash equivalents and the current portion of long-term debt, was $365.2 million and $362.1 million as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, respectively.
One of our primary goals is to improve the cash flows from our existing business activities. Additionally, we will continue to seek to maintain or improve our existing business performance and deploy our accumulated cash balances in the most effective manner through alternatives such as capital expenditures, and potentially, acquisitions and other investments that support achievement of our business strategies. Acquisitions may be made for either cash or stock consideration, or a combination of both.
In summary, our cash flows for each period were as follows:
|Net cash provided by operating activities||$||118,930 ||$||118,616 ||$||183,563 |
|Net cash used in investing activities||(42,909)||(34,334)||(36,218)|
|Net cash used in financing activities||(100,454)||(103,078)||(143,148)|
|Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents||$||(24,433)||$||(18,796)||$||4,197 |
Net cash provided by operating activities is due to net income, adjusted for non-cash items, and fluctuations in operating assets and liabilities.
Operating cash flows for fiscal year 2021 were favorably impacted by an 8.7% increase in net sales, reduced travel costs as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and lower restructuring expenses, and were unfavorably impacted by a $14.5 million increase in net inventory. Operating cash flows for fiscal year 2020 were favorably impacted by $1.0 million of proceeds received from the HiLight Settlement and unfavorably impacted by a $9.3 million increase in net inventory. Operating cash flows for fiscal year 2019 were favorably impacted by $8.0 million of proceeds received from the HiLight Settlement.
Net cash used in investing activities is primarily attributable to capital expenditures and purchases of investments, net of proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment and proceeds from sales of investments. Investing activities are also impacted by acquisitions, net of any cash received.
Capital expenditures were $32.7 million, $23.1 million and $17.1 million in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In fiscal years 2021 and 2020, we made significant investments to update and expand our production capabilities, including the $4.0 million purchase of a manufacturing facility in Colorado.
In fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, we paid $10.9 million, $11.6 million and $9.3 million, respectively, for strategic investments, including investments in companies that are enabling the LoRa®- and LoRaWANTM-based ecosystem.
On August 17, 2018, we acquired all of the outstanding equity interests of TrackNet for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $8.5 million. On May 2, 2018, we acquired substantially all of the assets of ICI for approximately $7.4 million. We funded these purchases using cash on hand.
Net cash used in financing activities is primarily attributable to repurchases of our common stock, payments related to employee share-based compensation payroll taxes and principal payments related to our long-term debt, offset by proceeds from stock option exercises and borrowings under our Credit Agreement.
In fiscal year 2019, we settled the AptoVision Technologies, Inc. earn-out for the performance period ended July 29, 2018. Of the total earn-out distribution for this performance period, $8.5 million was attributable to the original acquisition fair value and, therefore, presented as a financing activity.
In fiscal year 2021, we paid $21.5 million for employee share-based compensation payroll taxes and received $8.5 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options, compared to payments of $21.5 million for employee share-based compensation payroll taxes and proceeds of $6.0 million from the exercise of stock options in fiscal year 2020 and payments of $18.5 million for employee share-based compensation payroll taxes and proceeds of $16.3 million from the exercise of stock options in fiscal year 2019. We do not directly control the timing of the exercise of stock options. Such exercises are independent decisions made by grantees and are influenced most directly by the stock price and the expiration dates of stock option awards. Such proceeds are difficult to forecast, resulting from several factors which are outside our control. We believe that such proceeds will remain a nominal source of cash in the future.
Critical Accounting Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. In doing so, we have to make estimates and assumptions that affect our reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, as well as related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Accordingly, actual results could differ materially from our estimates. We consider an accounting policy to be a "critical accounting policy and estimate" if: (1) we must make assumptions that were uncertain when the judgment was made, and (2) changes in the estimate assumptions or selection of a different estimate methodology could have a significant impact on our financial position and the results that we report in our consolidated financial statements. While we believe that our estimates, assumptions, and judgments are reasonable, they are based on information available when the estimate was made. We believe the following represent our most significant accounting estimates:
•Inventories - We value our inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which requires us to make estimates regarding potential obsolescence or lack of marketability. We reduce the basis of our inventory due to changes in demand or change in product life cycles. The estimation of customer demand requires management to evaluate and make assumptions of the impact of changes in demand or changes in product life cycles on current sales levels. Our write-down to net realizable value at the end of fiscal year 2021 and 2020 represented 26.3% and 29.5% of gross inventory, respectively. Based on fiscal year 2021 ending inventory, an increase in the write-down by one percent of gross inventory would decrease net inventory and increase cost of goods sold by $1.2 million.
•Revenue recognition - Net sales reflect the transaction prices for contracts, which include units shipped at selling prices reduced by variable consideration. Determination of variable consideration requires judgment by us and includes expected sales returns and other price adjustments. Variable consideration is estimated using the expected value method considering all reasonably available information, including our historical experience and our current expectations, and is reflected in the transaction price when sales are recorded. In fiscal year 2021, net sales were reduced by $18.1 million in estimated variable consideration, or 3.0% of gross revenue. In fiscal year 2020, net sales were reduced by $21.6 million in estimated variable consideration, or 3.8% of gross revenue. If variable consideration were estimated to be one percent higher, fiscal year 2021 revenue would have decreased by $6.1 million.
•Income taxes - The identification and measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities and the provisional estimates associated with applicable tax laws require a high degree of judgement and interpretation of tax laws in the U.S. and several other foreign jurisdictions. We use judgement in estimating whether or not our deferred tax assets will ultimately be realized, expected outcomes of audits and likelihood of our tax positions being sustained, forecasted earnings and available tax planning strategies.
•Goodwill - We perform a goodwill impairment assessment on an annual basis, during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist. The analysis may include both qualitative factors, such as the industry and macro-economic environment, and quantitative assessments, both of which typically require a significant amount of judgement. For example, we use judgment in determining the level at which to test impairment, as well as estimating the carrying value of each reporting unit. Other significant estimates include market segment growth rates, assumed market share, estimated costs and discount rates based on the reporting unit's weighted average cost of capital. No impairment of goodwill has been recorded over the past three fiscal years.
New Accounting Standards
New accounting standards are discussed in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are subject to a variety of market risks, including commodity risk and the risks related to foreign currency, interest rates and market performance that are detailed below. Many of the factors that can have an impact on our market risk are external to us, and so we are unable to fully predict them.
A deterioration of global economic conditions can impact demand for our products which could result in changes in customer order patterns, including order cancellations, and changes in the level of inventory held by vendors.
We are subject to risk from fluctuating market prices of certain commodity raw materials, particularly gold, that are incorporated into our end products or used by our suppliers to process our end products. Increased commodity prices are passed on to us in the form of higher prices from our suppliers, either in the form of general price increases or a commodity surcharge. Although we generally deal with our suppliers on a purchase order basis rather than on a long-term contract basis, we generally attempt to obtain firm pricing for volumes consistent with planned production. Our gross margins may decline if we are not able to increase selling prices of our products or obtain manufacturing efficiencies to offset the increased cost. We do not enter into formal hedging arrangements to mitigate against commodity risk.
Foreign Currency Risk
Our foreign operations expose us to the risk of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates against our functional currency (the U.S. Dollar) and we may economically hedge this risk with foreign currency contracts (such as currency forward contracts). Gains or losses on these non-U.S.-currency balances are generally offset by corresponding losses or gains on the related hedging instruments. As of January 31, 2021, our largest foreign currency exposures were from the Canadian Dollar, Swiss Franc, and Great British Pound.
We considered the historical trends in foreign currency exchange rates and determined that it is reasonably possible that adverse changes in foreign exchange rates of 10% for all currencies could be experienced in the near-term. These reasonably possible adverse changes were applied to our total monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than our functional currency as of January 31, 2021, to compute the adverse impact these changes would have had (after taking into account balance sheet hedges only) on our income before taxes, to show an impact of $0.7 million.
Interest Rate and Credit Risk
We are subject to interest rate risk in connection with the portion of the outstanding debt under our Credit Facility that bears interest at a variable rate as of January 31, 2021. As of January 31, 2021, we had $181.0 million of outstanding borrowings on our Credit Facility, which had $419.0 million of undrawn capacity.
During fiscal year 2021, we entered into an interest rate swap agreement to hedge the variability of interest payments on the first $150.0 million of debt outstanding under our Credit Facility. The swap has a three-year term and based on our current leverage ratio as of January 31, 2021, interest payments on $150.0 million of our debt are fixed at 1.9775%. Borrowings under our Credit Facility in excess of $150.0 million bear interest at a rate per annum equal to (1) the Base Rate plus a margin ranging from 0.25% to 1.25% depending upon our consolidated leverage ratio or (2) LIBOR (determined with respect to deposits in U.S. Dollars) for an interest period to be selected by us plus a margin ranging from 1.25% to 2.25% depending upon our consolidated leverage ratio (such margin, the "Applicable Margin"). The Base Rate is equal to a fluctuating rate equal to the highest of (a) the prime rate of the Administrative Agent, (b) 0.50% above the federal funds effective rate published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and (c) one-month LIBOR (determined with respect to deposits in U.S. Dollars), plus 1.00%. Interest on loans made under the Credit Facility in Alternative Currencies accrues at a rate per annum equal to LIBOR (determined with respect to deposits in the applicable Alternative Currency) (other than loans made in Canadian Dollars, for which a special reference rate for Canadian Dollars applies) for an interest period to be selected by us plus the Applicable Margin. Based upon the amount of our outstanding indebtedness as of January 31, 2021, a one percentage point increase in LIBOR would not have a material impact on our annual interest expense as only $31.0 million of our outstanding debt balance remains subject to a floating rate.
The Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, has announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. That announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021, and it is possible that LIBOR could be discontinued or modified before then. However, for U.S dollar LIBOR, it now appears that the relevant date may be deferred to June 30, 2023 for certain tenors (including overnight and one, three, six and 12 months), at which time the LIBOR administrator has indicated that it intends to cease publication of U.S. dollar LIBOR. Despite this potential deferral, the LIBOR administrator has advised that no new contracts using U.S. dollar LIBOR should be entered into after December 31, 2021. Our Credit Facility provides that, if it is publicly announced that the administrator of LIBOR has ceased or will cease to provide LIBOR, if it is publicly announced by the applicable regulatory supervisor that LIBOR is no longer representative, or if
either the administrative agent or lenders holding 50% of the aggregate principal amount of our revolving commitments and term loans elect, we and the administrative agent may amend our Credit Agreement to replace LIBOR with an alternate benchmark rate. This alternative benchmark rate may include a forward-looking term rate that is based on the secured overnight financing rate, also known as SOFR, published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
Interest rates also affect our return on excess cash and investments. As of January 31, 2021, we had $268.9 million of cash and cash equivalents. A majority of our cash and cash equivalents generate interest income based on prevailing interest rates. Investments and cash and cash equivalents generated interest income of $2.5 million in fiscal year 2021. A significant change in interest rates would impact the amount of interest income generated from our cash and investments. It would also impact the market value of our investments.
Our investments are primarily subject to credit risk. Our investment guidelines prescribe credit quality, permissible investments, diversification, and duration restrictions. These restrictions are intended to limit risk by restricting our investments to high quality debt instruments with relatively short-term durations. Our investment strategy limits investment of new funds and maturing securities to U.S. Treasury, Federal agency securities, high quality money market funds and time deposits with our principal commercial banks. Outside of these investment guidelines, we also invest in a limited amount of debt securities in privately held companies that we view as strategic to our business. For example, many of these investments are in companies that are enabling the LoRa- and LoRaWAN®-based ecosystem. We evaluate the credit risk of these investments on a quarterly basis and increased our current expected credit loss reserves by $2.9 million in fiscal year 2021, related to the credit risk on our debt securities investments, resulting in a current expected credit loss reserve balance on our available-for-sale debt securities and held-to-maturity debt securities of $3.4 million as of January 31, 2021.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
The information required by Item 8 is presented in the following order:
MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
The report called for by Item 308(a) of Regulation S-K is incorporated herein by reference to the Report of Management on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting that is included in Part II, Item 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
The report called for by Item 308(b) of Regulation S-K is incorporated herein by reference to the Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting that is included in Part II, Item 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Semtech Corporation and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2021, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of January 31, 2021 and January 26, 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 24, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Change in Accounting Principle
As discussed in Note 13 to the financial statements, the Company changed its method of accounting for leases effective January 28, 2019 due to the adoption of FASB ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (ASC 842).
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Inventories – Excess Quantities and Obsolescence – Refer to Notes 2 and 6 to the financial statements.
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company maintains an inventory excess and obsolescence (“E&O”) reserve to reduce the basis of its inventory due to changes in demand or change in product life cycles. The inventory reserve serves to reduce the Company’s recorded inventory balance to the lower of its cost or net realizable value. In order to determine the reserve, management utilizes projections of demand. The estimation of customer demand requires management to evaluate and make assumptions of the impact of changes in demand or changes in product life cycles on current sales levels.
Given the subjectivity of estimating projections of future demand and the recording of inventory E&O reserves, performing audit procedures to evaluate the projections of future demand and to determine that the inventory E&O reserve was appropriately recorded required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the projections of future demand and the inventory E&O reserve included the following, among others:
•We tested the effectiveness of controls over the inventory E&O reserve review and approval process, including controls designed to review and approve the related projections of future demand.
•We selected a sample of reserved parts and performed the following for each selection:
◦To understand the assumptions behind the E&O reserve, including the related projection of future demand, we made inquiries of business unit managers as well as sales, operations, and marketing personnel about the estimated demand and historical consumption of each part selected.
◦We tested the projection of future demand by comparing internal and external information (e.g. historical sales, contracts, communications with customers, market trends, and macroeconomic conditions) with the Company’s projection of future demand.
◦Performed a retrospective review by comparing management’s prior-year projection of future demand by product with actual product sales in the current year to identify potential bias in the inventory reserve.
We recalculated the net realizable value of the inventory reserve and compared our recalculation with the recorded balance.
/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
Los Angeles, California
March 24, 2021
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2016.
SEMTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(in thousands, except per share data)
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||January 31, 2021||January 26, 2020||January 27, 2019|
|Net sales||$||595,117 ||$||547,512 ||$||627,196 |
|Cost of sales||231,568 ||210,828 ||250,174 |
|Gross profit||363,549 ||336,684 ||377,022 |
|Operating costs and expenses:|
|Selling, general and administrative||162,832 ||163,106 ||145,246 |
|Product development and engineering||117,529 ||107,368 ||109,047 |
|Intangible amortization||8,265 ||16,546 ||26,649 |
|Changes in the fair value of contingent earn-out obligations||(33)||(2,345)||(9,419)|
|Total operating costs and expenses||288,593 ||284,675 ||271,523 |
|Operating income||74,956 ||52,009 ||105,499 |
|Non-operating income, net||124 ||2,893 ||3,823 |
|Investment impairments and credit loss reserves||(6,769)||(1,211)||(30,000)|
|Income before taxes and equity in net gains (losses) of equity method investments||62,975 ||44,585 ||70,120 |
|Provision for income taxes||3,437 ||12,828 ||355 |
|Net income before equity in net gains (losses) of equity method investments||59,538 ||31,757 ||69,765 |
|Equity in net gains (losses) of equity method investments||329 ||109 ||(126)|
|Net income||59,867 ||31,866 ||69,639 |
|Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest||(36)||(5)||— |
|Net income attributable to common stockholders||$||59,903 ||$||31,871 ||$||69,639 |
|Earnings per share:|
|Basic||$||0.92 ||$||0.48 ||$||1.06 |
|Diluted||$||0.91 ||$||0.47 ||$||1.02 |
|Weighted average number of shares used in computing earnings per share:|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
SEMTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||January 31, 2021||January 26, 2020||January 27, 2019|
|Net income ||$||59,867 ||$||31,866 ||$||69,639 |
|Other comprehensive loss, net:|
|Unrealized gain (loss) on foreign currency cash flow hedges, net||602 ||59 ||(115)|
|Reclassifications of realized (gain) loss on foreign currency cash flow hedges, net to net income||(602)||(133)||189 |
|Unrealized loss on interest rate cash flow hedges, net||(1,817)||— ||— |
|Reclassifications of realized loss on interest rate cash flow hedges, net to net income||418 ||— ||— |
|Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities||140 ||2,506 ||— |
|Reclassification of realized gain on available-for-sale securities, net to net income||(757)||— ||— |
|Change in defined benefit plans, net||14 ||(4,991)||(2,481)|
|Other comprehensive loss, net||(2,002)||(2,559)||(2,407)|
|Comprehensive income||57,865 ||29,307 ||67,232 |
|Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interest||(36)||(5)||— |
|Comprehensive income attributable to common stockholders||$||57,901 ||$||29,312 ||$||67,232 |
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
SEMTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share data)
|January 31, 2021||January 26, 2020|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||268,891 ||$||293,324 |
Accounts receivable, less allowances of $721 and $633, respectively
|70,433 ||61,927 |
|Inventories||87,494 ||73,010 |
|Prepaid taxes||22,083 ||10,718 |
|Other current assets||25,827 ||21,757 |
|Total current assets||474,728 ||460,736 |
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $233,779 and $214,787, respectively
|130,934 ||124,418 |
|Deferred tax assets||25,483 ||20,094 |
|Goodwill||351,141 ||351,141 |
|Other intangible assets, net||11,746 ||20,012 |
|Other assets||88,070 ||76,032 |
|TOTAL ASSETS||$||1,082,102 ||$||1,052,433 |
|Accounts payable||$||50,189 ||$||48,009 |
|Accrued liabilities||59,384 ||50,632 |
|Total current liabilities||109,573 ||98,641 |
|Deferred tax liabilities||976 ||3,600 |
|Long term debt, less current portion||179,195 ||194,743 |
|Other long-term liabilities||93,405 ||78,249 |
|Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)|
|Common stock, $0.01 par value, 250,000,000 shares authorized, 78,136,144 issued and 65,098,379 outstanding and 78,136,144 issued and 65,758,115 outstanding, respectively||785 ||785 |
|Treasury stock, at cost, 13,037,765 shares and 12,378,029 shares, respectively||(438,798)||(387,851)|
|Additional paid-in capital||473,728 ||458,579 |
|Retained earnings||671,196 ||611,607 |
|Accumulated other comprehensive loss||(8,168)||(6,166)|
|Total stockholders’ equity||698,743 ||676,954 |
|Noncontrolling interest||210 ||246 |
|Total equity||698,953 ||677,200 |
|TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY||$||1,082,102 ||$||1,052,433 |
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
SEMTECH CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share data)
|Common Stock||Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss|
|Number of Shares Outstanding||Amount||Treasury Stock, at Cost||Additional Paid-in Capital||Retained Earnings||Stockholders’ Equity||Noncontrolling Interest||Total Equity|
|Balance at January 28, 2018||66,280,129 ||$||785 ||$||(251,974)||$||417,171 |