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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________________ to ___________________
Commission file number: 001-36204
efr-20201231_g1.jpg
ENERGY FUELS INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Ontario,Canada98-1067994
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
225 Union Blvd., Suite 600 
Lakewood,Colorado80228
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(303) 974-2140
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common shares, no par valueUUUUNYSE American
EFRToronto Stock Exchange
Warrants to purchase common sharesUUUU-WTNYSE American




Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

    Large Accelerated Filer                         Accelerated Filer        
    
    Non-Accelerated Filer                            Smaller Reporting Company                 
    
    Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes      No

State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $280.94 million.

The number of common shares of the Registrant outstanding as of March 18, 2021 was 140,565,924.








ENERGY FUELS INC.
FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBPARTS
ITEM I: CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS3
ITEM II: CAUTIONARY NOTE TO UNITED STATES INVESTORS CONCERNING DISCLOSURE OF MINERAL RESOURCES 7
ITEM III: GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS9
ITEM IV: GLOSSARY OF REGULATORY AGENCIES AND EXCHANGES11
 PART I
 ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS13
 ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS30
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS47
 ITEM 2. DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTIES48
ITEM 2A. OVERVIEW49
ITEM 2B. SUMMARY OF MINERAL RESERVES AND RESOURCES51
ITEM 2C. THE NICHOLS RANCH PROJECT55
ITEM 2D. THE ALTA MESA PROJECT65
ITEM 2E. THE WHITE MESA MILL73
ITEM 2F. THE PINYON PLAIN MINE79
ITEM 2G. THE ROCA HONDA PROJECT87
ITEM 2H. THE SHEEP MOUNTAIN PROJECT94
ITEM 2I. THE HENRY MOUNTAINS COMPLEX101
ITEM 2J. THE LA SAL PROJECT107
ITEM 2K. THE DANEROS PROJECT115
ITEM 2L. NON-MATERIAL MINERAL PROPERTIES121
 ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS128
 ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE129
 PART II
 ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES130
 ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA133
 ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS135
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK149
 ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA151
ITEM 8A. REPORTS OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM152
ITEM 8B. CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS154
ITEM 8C. CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS155
ITEM 8D. CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY156
ITEM 8E. CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS 158
ITEM 8F. NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR THE THREE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020160
ITEM 8F(1). THE COMPANY AND DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS160
ITEM 8F(2). BASIS OF PRESENTATION 160
ITEM 8F(3). SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES160
1


ITEM 8F(4). MARKETABLE SECURITIES166
ITEM 8F(5). RECEIVABLES167
ITEM 8F(6). INVENTORIES167
ITEM 8F(7). INVESTMENTS ACCOUNTED FOR AT FAIR VALUE 167
ITEM 8F(8). PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT AND MINERAL PROPERTIES167
ITEM 8F(9). IMPAIRMENTS 168
ITEM 8F(10). ASSET RETIREMENT OBLIGATIONS AND RESTRICTED CASH168
ITEM 8F(11). LOANS AND BORROWINGS169
ITEM 8F(12). CAPITAL STOCK170
ITEM 8F(13). BASIC AND DILUTED LOSS PER COMMON SHARE171
ITEM 8F(14). SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS172
ITEM 8F(15). LEASES175
ITEM 8F(16). INCOME TAXES176
ITEM 8F(17). SUPPLEMENTAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION178
ITEM 8F(18). COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES178
ITEM 8F(19). UNAUDITED SUPPLEMENTARY QUARTERLY INFORMATION181
ITEM 8F(20). FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING181
ITEM 8F(21). REVENUE RECOGNITION AND CONTRACTS WITH CUSTOMERS182
ITEM 8F(22). RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS183
ITEM 8F(23). SUBSEQUENT EVENTS183
 ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE184
 ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES184
 ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION184
 PART III
 ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE185
 ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION192
 ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS222
 ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE226
 ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES228
 PART IV
 ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES229
ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY232
 SIGNATURES233


2


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report and the exhibits attached hereto (the “Annual Report”) contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of applicable United States (“U.S.”) and Canadian securities laws, which include but are not limited to statements with respect to Energy Fuels Inc.’s (the “Company” or “Energy Fuels”) anticipated results and progress of the Company’s operations in future periods, planned exploration, if warranted, development of its properties, plans related to its business, including its rare earth element (“REE”) initiatives, and other matters that may occur in the future, any expectation related to the proposed establishment of a uranium reserve for the United States (the “U.S. Uranium Reserve”) pursuant to the COVID-Relief and Omnibus Spending Bill, which includes $75 million for the establishment of a strategic U.S. Uranium Reserve, and was signed into law on December 27, 2020, any expectation related to any additional or future recommendations of the United States Nuclear Fuel Working Group (the “U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group” or “Working Group”), any plans the Company may have to evaluate the ramp up of production at any of its properties, and the expected costs of production of any properties that may be ramped up. These statements relate to analyses and other information that are based on forecasts of future results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable and assumptions of management.

Any statements that express or involve discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, schedules, assumptions, future events, or performance (often, but not always, using words or phrases such as “plans,” “expects” or “does not expect,” “is expected,” “is likely,” “budgets,” “scheduled,” “estimates,” “forecasts,” “intends,” “anticipates” or “does not anticipate,” “continues,” or “believes,” and similar expressions or variations of such words and phrases or statements stating that certain actions, events or results “may,” “could,” “would,” “might” or “will” be taken, occur or be achieved) are not statements of historical fact and may be forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements are based on the opinions and estimates of management as of the date such statements are made. Energy Fuels believes that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, but no assurance can be given that these expectations will prove to be correct, and such forward-looking statements included in, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report should not be unduly relied upon. This information speaks only as of the date of this Annual Report.

Readers are cautioned that it would be unreasonable to rely on any such forward-looking statements and information as creating any legal rights, and that the statements and information are not guarantees and may involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, and that actual results are likely to differ (and may differ materially) and objectives and strategies may differ or change from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements or information as a result of various factors. Such risks and uncertainties include global economic risks such as the occurrence of a pandemic, risks associated with our planned production of REE carbonate commencing in 2021, and risks generally encountered in the exploration, development, operation, and closure of mineral properties and processing and recovery facilities, as well as risks related to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve, and risks related to any additional or future recommendations of the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group not benefiting the Company in any material way. Forward-looking statements are subject to a variety of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which could cause actual events or results to differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation:

global economic risks, including the occurrence of unforeseen or catastrophic events, such as the emergence of a pandemic or other widespread health emergency (or concerns over the possibility of such an emergency), which could create economic and financial disruptions and require the Company to reduce or cease operations at some or all of its facilities for an indeterminate period of time, and which could have a material impact on the Company’s business, operations, personnel and financial condition;
risks associated with mineral reserve and resource estimates, including the risk of errors in assumptions or methodologies;
risks associated with changes to applicable mineral reserve and resource estimates disclosure rules and regulations;
risks associated with estimating mineral extraction and recovery, forecasting future price levels necessary to support mineral extraction and recovery, and the Company’s ability to increase mineral extraction and recovery in response to any increases in commodity prices or other market conditions;
uncertainties and liabilities inherent to conventional mineral extraction and recovery and/or in-situ uranium recovery operations;
risks associated with our planned entry into commercial production of REE carbonate in 2021, including: the risk that we may not be able to produce REE carbonate that meets commercial specifications at commercial levels or at all, or at acceptable cost levels; the risk of not being able to secure adequate supplies of uranium and REE bearing ores in the future at satisfactory costs to us; the risk of not being able to increase our sources of uranium and REE bearing ores to meet future planned production goals; the risk of not being able to sell the REE carbonate we produce at acceptable prices to us; the risk of not being able to successfully construct and operate an REE separation facility, and potentially
3


other downstream REE activities, including metal-making and alloying, in the future, which are currently being evaluated; and the risk of legal and regulatory challenges and delays;
risks associated with any additional recommendations of the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group not benefiting the Company in any material way;
risks associated with the change in administration, and the new administration not supporting mining, uranium mining, nuclear energy or other aspects of our business, including not supporting the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve included in the COVID-Relief and Omnibus Spending Bill passed by the U.S. Congress in December 2020, or any or all of the other recommendations of the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group;
geological, technical and processing problems, including unanticipated metallurgical difficulties, less than expected recoveries, ground control problems, process upsets, and equipment malfunctions;
risks associated with the depletion of existing mineral resources through mining or extraction, without replacement with comparable resources;
risks associated with identifying and obtaining adequate quantities of alternate feed materials and other feed sources required for operation of our White Mesa Mill in Utah (the “White Mesa Mill” or the “Mill”);
risks associated with labor costs, labor disturbances, and unavailability of skilled labor;
risks associated with the availability and/or fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and consumables used in the Company’s production processes;
risks and costs associated with environmental compliance and permitting, including those created by changes in environmental legislation and regulation, and delays in obtaining permits and licenses that could impact expected mineral extraction and recovery levels and costs;
actions taken by regulatory authorities with respect to mineral extraction and recovery activities;
risks associated with the Company’s dependence on third parties in the provision of transportation and other critical services;
risks associated with the ability of the Company to obtain, extend or renew land tenure, including mineral leases and surface use agreements, on favorable terms or at all;
risks associated with the ability of the Company to negotiate access rights on certain properties on favorable terms or at all;
risks associated with potential information security incidents, including cybersecurity breaches, which could have negative impacts on the Company;
risks associated with the Company potentially not being able to successfully develop, attract and retain qualified management personnel in the future, given that the number of individuals with significant experience in the uranium industry is relatively small;
the adequacy of the Company’s insurance coverage;
uncertainty as to reclamation and decommissioning liabilities;
the ability of the Company’s bonding companies to require increases in the collateral required to secure reclamation obligations;
the potential for, and outcome of, litigation and other legal proceedings, including potential injunctions pending the outcome of such litigation and proceedings;
the ability of the Company to meet its obligations to its creditors;
the ability of the Company to access credit facilities on favorable terms;
risks associated with the Company’s relationships with our business and joint venture partners;
failure to obtain industry partner, government, and other third-party consents and approvals, when required;
competition for, among other things, capital, mineral properties, and skilled personnel;
failure to complete and integrate proposed acquisitions and incorrect assessments of the value of completed acquisitions;
risks posed by fluctuations in share price levels, exchange rates and interest rates, and general economic conditions;
risks inherent in the Company’s and industry analysts’ forecasts or predictions of future uranium, vanadium, copper and REE price levels, including the prices for REE carbonates, REE oxides, REE metals and REE metal alloys;
fluctuations in the market prices of uranium, vanadium, copper and REEs, which are cyclical and subject to substantial price fluctuations;
risks associated with the Company’s uranium sales, if any, being required to be made at spot prices, unless the Company is able to enter into new long-term contracts at satisfactory prices in the future;
risks associated with the Company’s vanadium sales, if any, generally being required to be made at spot prices;
risks associated with our proposed REE carbonate sales, if any, being tied in whole or in part to REE spot prices;
failure to obtain suitable uranium sales terms at satisfactory prices in the future, including spot and term sale contracts;
failure to obtain suitable vanadium sales terms at satisfactory prices in the future;
failure to obtain suitable copper or REE sales terms at satisfactory prices in the future;
risks associated with any expectation that the Company will be successful in helping the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Navajo Nation address historic abandoned uranium mines;
risks associated with asset impairment as a result of market conditions;
risks associated with lack of access to markets and the ability to access capital;
4


the market price of Energy Fuels’ securities;
public resistance to nuclear energy or uranium extraction and recovery;
governmental resistance to nuclear energy or uranium extraction or recovery;
risks associated with inaccurate or nonobjective media coverage of the Company’s activities and the impact such coverage may have on the public, the market for the Company’s securities, government relations, permitting activities and legal challenges, as well as the costs to the Company of responding to such coverage;
uranium industry competition, international trade restrictions and the impacts on world commodity prices of foreign state subsidized production;
risks associated with foreign governmental actions, policies, laws, rules and regulations, and foreign state subsidized enterprises, with respect to REE production and sales, which could impact REE prices available to us and impact our access to world and domestic markets for the supply of REE-bearing ores and the sale of REE carbonate and other REE products and services to world and domestic markets;
risks associated with the Company’s involvement in industry petitions for trade remedies and the extension of the Russian Suspension Agreement, including the costs of pursuing such remedies and the potential for negative responses or repercussions from various interest groups, consumers of uranium, and participants in other phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, both domestically and abroad;
risks associated with governmental actions, policies, laws, rules and regulations with respect to nuclear energy or uranium extraction and recovery;
risks related to potentially higher than expected costs related to any of the Company’s projects or facilities; risks related to the Company’s ability to recover copper from our Pinyon Plain uranium project ores;
risks related to securities regulations;
risks related to stock price and volume volatility;
risks related to the Company’s ability to maintain our listing on the NYSE American and TSX;
risks related to the Company’s ability to maintain our inclusion in various stock indices;
risks related to dilution of currently outstanding shares, from additional share issuances, depletion of assets or otherwise;
risks related to the Company’s lack of dividends;
risks related to recent market events;
risks related to the Company’s issuance of additional common shares (the “Common Shares”) under our At-the-Market (“ATM”) program or otherwise to provide adequate liquidity in depressed commodity market circumstances;
risks related to acquisition and integration issues;
risks related to defects in title to the Company’s mineral properties;
risks related to the Company’s securities; and
risks related to any material weakness that may be identified in our internal controls over financial reporting. If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

Such statements are based on a number of assumptions which may prove to be incorrect, including, but not limited to, the following assumptions: that there is no material deterioration in general business and economic conditions; that there is no unanticipated fluctuation of interest rates and foreign exchange rates; that the supply and demand for, deliveries of, and the level and volatility of prices of uranium, vanadium, REEs and the Company’s other primary metals and minerals develop as expected; that uranium, vanadium and REE prices required to reach, sustain or increase expected or forecasted production levels are realized as expected; that the Company’s proposed REE carbonate production or any other REE activities will be technically or commercially successful; that the Company receives regulatory and governmental approvals for the Company’s development projects and other operations on a timely basis; that the Company is able to operate its mineral properties and processing facilities as expected; that the Company is able to implement new process technologies and operations as expected; that existing licenses and permits are renewed as required; that the Company is able to obtain financing for the Company’s development projects on reasonable terms; that the Company is able to procure mining equipment and operating supplies in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis; that engineering and construction timetables and capital costs for the Company’s development and expansion projects and restarting projects on standby, are not incorrectly estimated or affected by unforeseen circumstances; that costs of closure of various operations are accurately estimated; that there are no unanticipated changes in collateral requirements for surety bonds; that there are no unanticipated changes to market competition; that the Company’s reserve and resource estimates are within reasonable bounds of accuracy (including with respect to size, grade and recoverability) and that the geological, operational and price assumptions on which these are based are reasonable; that environmental and other administrative and legal proceedings or disputes are satisfactorily resolved; that there are no significant changes to regulatory programs and requirements that would materially increase regulatory compliance costs, bonding costs or licensing/permitting requirements; and that the Company maintains ongoing relations with its employees and with its business and joint venture partners.

5


This list is not exhaustive of the factors that may affect our forward-looking statements. Some of the important risks and uncertainties that could affect forward-looking statements are described further under the section headings: Item 1. Description of the Business; Item 1A. Risk Factors; and Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Annual Report. Although we have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, believed, estimated, or expected. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to subsequently revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events. Statements relating to “Mineral Reserves” or “Mineral Resources” are deemed to be forward-looking statements, as they involve the implied assessment, based on certain estimates and assumptions that the Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources described may be profitably extracted in the future.

We qualify all the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report by the foregoing cautionary statements.
6


CAUTIONARY NOTE TO UNITED STATES INVESTORS CONCERNING
DISCLOSURE OF MINERAL RESOURCES
The Company is a U.S. Domestic Issuer for United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) purposes, most of its shareholders are U.S. residents, the Company is required to report its financial results under U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and its primary trading market is the NYSE American. However, because the Company is incorporated in Canada and also listed on the TSX, this Annual Report contains or incorporates by reference certain disclosure that satisfies the additional requirements of Canadian securities laws, which differ from the requirements of United States’ securities laws. Unless otherwise indicated, all reserve and resource estimates included in this Annual Report, and in the documents incorporated by reference herein, have been prepared in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”) and the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (“CIM”) classification system. NI 43-101 is a rule developed by the Canadian Securities Administrators (the “CSA”) which establishes standards for all public disclosure an issuer makes of scientific and technical information concerning mineral projects.
Canadian standards, including NI 43-101, differ significantly from the requirements of SEC Industry Guide 7, as defined in the Glossary of Technical Terms. Thus, reserve and resource information contained herein, or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report, and in the documents incorporated by reference herein, may not be comparable to similar information disclosed by companies reporting “reserve” and resource information under SEC Industry Guide 7. In particular, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the term “resource” does not equate to the term “reserve” under SEC Industry Guide 7. Under SEC Industry Guide 7 standards, mineralization may not be classified as a “reserve” unless the determination has been made that the mineralization could be economically and legally produced or extracted at the time the reserve determination is made. Under SEC Industry Guide 7 standards, a “final” or “bankable” feasibility study is required to report “reserves”; the three-year historical average price, to the extent possible, is used in any “reserve” or cash flow analysis to designate “reserves”; and the primary environmental analysis or report must be filed with the appropriate governmental authority.
SEC Industry Guide 7 disclosure standards historically have not permitted the inclusion of information concerning “Measured Mineral Resources,” “Indicated Mineral Resources” or “Inferred Mineral Resources” or other descriptions of the amount of mineralization in mineral deposits that do not constitute “reserves” by SEC Industry Guide 7 standards. United States investors should also understand that “Inferred Mineral Resources” have a great amount of uncertainty as to their existence and as to their economic and legal feasibility. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of an “Inferred Mineral Resource” will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Under Canadian rules, estimated “Inferred Mineral Resources” may not form the basis of feasibility or pre-feasibility studies. United States investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of Measured or Indicated Mineral Resources will ever be converted into mineral “reservesas defined by SEC Industry Guide 7. Investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of an “Inferred Mineral Resource” exists or is economically or legally mineable.
Disclosure of “contained pounds” or “contained ounces” in a resource estimate is permitted and typical disclosure under Canadian regulations; however, SEC Industry Guide 7 historically only permitted issuers to report mineralization that does not constitute “reserves” by SEC standards as in-place tonnage and grade without reference to unit measures. The requirements of NI 43-101 for identification of reserves are also not the same as those of SEC Industry Guide 7, and reserves reported by the Company in compliance with NI 43-101 may not qualify as “reserves” under SEC Industry Guide 7 standards. Accordingly, information concerning mineral deposits set forth herein may not be comparable to information made public by companies that report in accordance with SEC Industry Guide 7 standards.
On October 31, 2018, the SEC adopted the Modernization of Property Disclosures for Mining Registrants (the “New Rule”), introducing significant changes to the existing mining disclosure framework to better align it with international industry and regulatory practice, including NI 43-101. The New Rule became effective as of February 25, 2019, and issuers are required to comply with the New Rule as of the annual report for their first fiscal year beginning on or after January 1, 2021, and earlier in certain circumstances. The Company does not anticipate needing to comply with the New Rule until the filing of our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021 and, at this time, the Company does not know the full effect of the New Rule on its mineral resources and reserves and, therefore, the disclosure related to the Company’s mineral resources and reserves may be significantly different when computed using the requirements set forth in the New Rule.
All reserves reported in this Form 10-K are estimated in accordance with the definitions set forth in NI 43-101 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company does not have any mineral “reserves” within the meaning of SEC Industry Guide 7.

7


CIM and NI 43-101 Definitions:
Feasibility Study: A “feasibility study” is a comprehensive technical and economic study of the selected development option for a mineral project that includes appropriately detailed assessments of applicable modifying factors, together with any other relevant operational factors and detailed financial analysis that are necessary to demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that extraction is reasonably justified (economically mineable). The results of the study may reasonably serve as the basis for a final decision by a proponent or financial institution to proceed with, or finance, the development of the project. The confidence level of the study will be higher than that of a pre-feasibility study.
Indicated Mineral Resource:1 An “indicated mineral resource” is that part of a mineral resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics are estimated with sufficient confidence to allow the application of modifying factors in sufficient detail to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. Geological evidence is derived from adequately detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing and is sufficient to assume geological and grade or quality continuity between points of observation. An indicated mineral resource has a lower level of confidence than that applied to a measured mineral resource and may only be converted to a probable mineral reserve.
Inferred Mineral Resource:2 An “inferred mineral resource” is that part of a mineral resource for which quantity and grade or quality are estimated on the basis of limited geological evidence and sampling. Geological evidence is sufficient to imply, but not verify, geological and grade or quality continuity. An inferred mineral resource has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an indicated mineral resource and must not be converted to a mineral reserve. It is reasonably expected that the majority of inferred mineral resources could be upgraded to “indicated mineral resources” with continued exploration.
Measured Mineral Resource:3 A “measured mineral resource” is that part of a mineral resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics are estimated with confidence sufficient to allow the application of modifying factors to support detailed mine planning and final evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. Geological evidence is derived from detailed and reliable exploration, sampling, and testing and is sufficient to confirm geological and grade or quality continuity between points of observation. A measured mineral resource has a higher level of confidence than that applied to either an indicated mineral resource or an inferred mineral resource. It may be converted to a proven mineral reserve or to a probable mineral reserve.
Mineral Reserve:4 A “mineral reserve” is the economically mineable part of a measured and/or indicated mineral resource. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which may occur when the mineral is mined or is extracted and is defined by studies at pre-feasibility or feasibility level as appropriate that include application of modifying factors. Such studies demonstrate that, at the time of reporting, extraction could reasonably be justified. The reference point at which mineral reserves are defined, usually the point where the ore is delivered to the processing plant, must be stated. It is important that, in all situations where the reference point is different, such as for a saleable product, a clarifying statement is included to ensure that the reader is fully informed as to what is being reported. The public disclosure of a mineral reserve must be demonstrated by a pre-feasibility study or feasibility study.
Mineral Resource:5 A “mineral resource” is a concentration or occurrence of solid material of economic interest in or on the Earth’s crust in such form, grade or quality and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade or quality, continuity and other geological characteristics of a mineral resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge, including sampling.
Modifying Factors: “Modifying factors” are considerations used to convert mineral resources to mineral reserves. These include, but are not restricted to, mining, processing, metallurgical, infrastructure, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social, and governmental factors.
PEA: A Preliminary Economic Assessment performed in accordance with NI 43-101. A Preliminary Economic Assessment is a study, other than a pre-feasibility study or feasibility study, which includes an economic analysis of the potential viability of mineral resources.
Pre-Feasibility Study: A “pre-feasibility study” is a comprehensive study of a range of options for the technical and economic viability of a mineral project that has advanced to a stage where a preferred mining method, in the case of underground mining, or the pit configuration, in the case of an open pit, is established and an effective method of mineral processing is determined. It includes a financial analysis based on reasonable assumptions on the modifying factors and the evaluation of any other relevant factors which are sufficient for a qualified person, acting reasonably, to determine if all or part of the mineral resource may be converted to a mineral reserve at the time of reporting. A pre-feasibility study is at a lower confidence level than a feasibility study.
____________________________

1 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not recognize the designation of a deposit as an “Indicated Mineral Resource.”

2 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not recognize the designation of a deposit as an “Inferred Mineral Resource.”
8


Probable Mineral Reserve:6 A “probable mineral reserve” is the economically mineable part of an indicated, and in some circumstances, a measured mineral resource. The confidence in the modifying factors applied to a probable mineral reserve is lower than that applied to a proven mineral reserve.
Proven Mineral Reserve:7 A “proven mineral reserve” is the economically mineable part of a measured mineral resource. A proven mineral reserve implies a high degree of confidence in the modifying factors.
Qualified Person:8 A “qualified person” is an individual who: (a) is an engineer or geoscientist with a university degree, or equivalent accreditation, in an area of geoscience or engineering, relating to mineral exploration or mining; (b) has at least five years of experience in mineral exploration, mine development or operation, or mineral project assessment, or any combination of these, that is relevant to his or her professional degree or area of practice; (c) has experience relevant to the subject matter of the mineral project and technical report; (d) is in good standing with a professional association; and (e) in the case of a professional association in a non-Canadian jurisdiction, has a membership designation that (i) requires attainment of a position of responsibility in his or her profession that requires the exercise of independent judgment; and (ii) requires (A) a favorable confidential peer evaluation of the individual’s character, professional judgment, experience, and ethical fitness; or (B) a recommendation for membership by at least two peers, and demonstrated prominence or expertise in the field of mineral exploration or mining.
SEC Industry Guide 7 Definitions:
Exploration Stage: Includes all issuers engaged in the search for mineral deposits (reserves) which are not in either the development or production stage.
Development Stage: Includes all issuers engaged in the preparation of an established commercially mineable deposit (reserves) for its extraction which are not in the production stage.
Probable (Indicated) Reserves: Reserves for which quantity and grade and/or quality are computed from information similar to that used for proven (measured) reserves, but the sites for inspection, sampling and measurement are farther apart or are otherwise less adequately spaced. The degree of assurance, although lower than that for proven (measured) reserves, is high enough to assume continuity between points of observation.
Production Stage: Includes all issuers engaged in the exploitation of a mineral deposit (reserve).
Proven (Measured) Reserves: Reserves for which (a) quantity is computed from dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, working, or drill holes; grade and/or quality are computed from the results of detailed sampling and (b) the sites for inspection, sampling and measurement are spaced so closely and the geological character is so well defined that size, shape, depth, and mineral content of reserves are well-established.
Reserve: That part of a mineral deposit which could be economically and legally extracted or produced at the time of the reserve determination.
Note: As the Company does not have any mineral “reserves” within the meaning of SEC Industry Guide 7, it is considered to be in an Exploration Stage, regardless of its uranium recovery activities.

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
The following defined technical terms are used in this Annual Report:
% U3O8 Eq: equivalent uranium grade calculated by combining uranium content and copper content by taking into account commodity price and recovery factors.

____________________________
3 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not recognize the designation of a deposit as a “Measured Mineral Resource.”
4 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not recognize “reserves” calculated in accordance with NI 43-101.

5 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not recognize the designation of a deposit as a “Mineral Resource.”

6 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not recognize “reserves” calculated in accordance with NI 43-101. SEC Industry Guide 7 requires a “final” or “bankable” feasibility study for the designation of a deposit as a “reserve” that must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic, and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction is justified. Further, all necessary permits must have been filed with the appropriate regulatory authorities including the primary environmental analysis or report.

7 Id.
9


APP: An Aquifer Protection Permit, issued by ADEQ.
Assay: The testing of a metal or ore to determine its ingredients and quality.
Breccia: A rock in which angular fragments are surrounded by a mass of fine-grained materials.
CAP: A Corrective Action Plan.
Copper: A red-brown metal, the chemical element of atomic number 29.
Cut-off or cut-off grade: When determining economically viable mineral reserves, the lowest grade of mineralized material that can be mined economically. When determining mineral resources, the lowest grade of mineralized material included in the resource estimate.
EA: Environmental Assessment prepared under NEPA for a mineral project.
EIS: Environmental Impact Statement prepared under NEPA for a mineral project.
eU3O8: This term refers to equivalent U3O8 grade derived by gamma logging of drill holes.
Extraction: The process of physically extracting mineralized material from the ground. Exploration continues during the extraction process and, in many cases, mineralized material is expanded during the life of the extraction activities as the exploration potential of the deposit is realized.
FONSI: Finding of No Significant Impact under NEPA, as defined below, for a mineral project.
Formation: A distinct layer of sedimentary or volcanic rock of similar composition.
Grade: Quantity or percentage of metal per unit weight of host rock.
GWDP: A groundwater discharge permit, issuable by UDEQ.
Host Rock: The rock containing a mineral or an ore body.
In-situ recovery or ISR: The recovery, by chemical means, of the uranium component of a deposit without the physical extraction of uranium-bearing material from the ground. ISR utilizes injection of appropriate oxidizing chemicals into a uranium-bearing sandstone deposit by injection wells, with the uranium-bearing solution being removed by extraction wells; also referred to as “solution mining.”
Mineral: A naturally formed chemical element or compound having a definite chemical composition and, usually, a characteristic crystal form.
Mineralization: A natural occurrence, in rocks or soil, of one or more metal yielding minerals.
Mineralized material: Material that contains mineralization (e.g., uranium, vanadium and/or copper) and that is not included in an SEC Reserve as it does not meet all of the criteria for adequate demonstration of economic or legal extraction.
Monazite: a phosphate mineral with a chemical composition of (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4. It is a naturally occurring uranium- and rare earth-bearing mineral.
National Instrument 43-101 or NI 43-101: The National Instrument regarding Canadian standards of disclosure for mineral projects.
NEPA: The United States National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended.
NOI: A Notice of Intent, filed by Energy Fuels to a regulatory agency as a part of a licensing or permitting action related to a mineral project.
Open Pit: Surface mineral extraction in which the mineralized material is extracted from a pit or quarry.

____________________________
8 SEC Industry Guide 7 does not require designation of a qualified person.
10


Ore: Mineral bearing rock that can be mined, processed and concentrated profitably under current or immediately foreseeable economic conditions. Under SEC Industry Guide 7, a company may only refer to reserves (as that term is defined in SEC Industry Guide 7) as “ore.”
Ore body: A mostly solid and fairly continuous mass of in-ground mineralization estimated to be economically mineable.
Outcrop: That part of a geologic formation or structure that appears at the surface of the Earth.
PEA or Preliminary Economic Assessment: A Preliminary Economic Assessment performed in accordance with NI 43-101. A Preliminary Economic Assessment is a study, other than a pre-feasibility study or feasibility study, which includes an economic analysis of the potential viability of mineral resources.
PO: Plan of Operations for a mineral project prepared in accordance with applicable United States Bureau of Land Management or United States Forest Service regulations.
Rare Earth Elements or REEs: a group of seventeen metallic elements consisting of the fifteen lanthanide elements along with scandium and yttrium.
Reclamation: The process by which lands disturbed as a result of mineral extraction activities are modified to support beneficial land use. Reclamation activity may include the removal of buildings, equipment, machinery, and other physical remnants of mining activities, closure of tailings storage facilities, leach pads, and other features, and contouring, covering and re-vegetation of waste rock, and other disturbed areas.
RoD or Record of Decision: The final approval issued by a public land management agency for a PO.
SEC Industry Guide 7: U.S. reporting guidelines that apply to registrants engaged, or to be engaged, in significant mining operations.
Uranium: a heavy, naturally radioactive, metallic element of atomic number 92. Uranium in its pure form is a heavy metal. Its two principal isotopes are U-238 and U-235, of which U-235 is the necessary component for the nuclear fuel cycle. However, “uranium” used in this Annual Report refers to triuranium octoxide, also called “U3O8” and the primary component of “yellowcake,” and is produced from uranium deposits. It is the most actively traded uranium-related commodity.
Uranium concentrate: a yellowish to yellow-brownish powder obtained from the chemical processing of uranium-bearing material. Uranium concentrate typically contains 70% to 90% U3O8 by weight. Uranium concentrate is also referred to as “yellowcake.”
V2O5: Vanadium pentoxide, or the form of vanadium typically produced at the White Mesa Mill, also called “black flake.”
Yellowcake: Another name for Uranium Concentrate.

GLOSSARY OF REGULATORY AGENCIES AND EXCHANGES

ADEQ: The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.
BLM: The U.S. Bureau of Land Management, an agency of the United States Department of the Interior.
CRA: The Canada Revenue Agency, of the Government of Canada.
DOC: The U.S. Department of Commerce, an executive department of the federal government.
DOE: The U.S. Department of Energy, a cabinet-level department of the United States Government.
DOI: The U.S. Department of Interior, a federal executive department of the United States Government.
DWQ: The Utah Division of Water Quality.
EIA: The U.S. Energy Information Administration, a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System.
EPA: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an independent agency of the United States government.
MSHA: The Mine Safety and Health Administration, an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor.
NRC: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an independent agency of the United States government.
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NYSE American: A U.S. stock exchange based in New York City, NY, formerly known as the American Stock Exchange.
OSHA: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
SEC: The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, an independent agency of the United States federal government.
TCEQ: The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.
TSX: The Toronto Stock Exchange, a stock exchange located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
UDAQ: The Utah Division of Air Quality.
UDEQ: The Utah Department of Environmental Quality.
UDOGM: The Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining.
USACE: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense.
USFS: The U.S. Forest Service, an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture.
USFW: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
WDEQ: The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality.
WDEQ-AQD: The Air Quality Division of the WDEQ.
WDEQ-LQD: The Land Quality Division of the WDEQ.
WDEQ-WQD: The Water Quality Division of the WDEQ.
WSEO: The Wyoming State Engineer’s Office
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PART I
ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
General Development of the Business
Corporate Structure
The Company is an Ontario corporation with its corporate offices located in Lakewood, Colorado (a city in the Denver metropolitan area). It was incorporated on June 24, 1987 in the Province of Alberta under the name “368408 Alberta Inc.” In October 1987, 368408 Alberta Inc. changed its name to “Trevco Oil & Gas Ltd.” In May 1990, Trevco Oil & Gas Ltd. changed its name to “Trev Corp.” In August 1994, Trev Corp. changed its name to “Orogrande Resources Inc.” In April 2001, Orogrande Resources Inc. changed its name to “Volcanic Metals Exploration Inc.” On September 2, 2005, the Company was continued under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario). On March 26, 2006, Volcanic Metals Exploration Inc. acquired 100% of the outstanding shares of “Energy Fuels Resources Corporation.” On May 26, 2006, Volcanic Metals Exploration Inc. changed its name to “Energy Fuels Inc.” On November 5, 2013, the Company amended its Articles to consolidate its issued and outstanding Common Shares on the basis of one post-consolidation Common Share for every 50 pre-consolidation Common Shares (the “Consolidation”).
All of the Company’s assets, management and employees are located in the western United States. The Company’s assets, which include uranium, vanadium and REE extraction, recovery, permitting, evaluation and exploration assets, are held directly and indirectly, as the case may be, by the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries Energy Fuels Holdings Corp. (“EF Holdings”) and Strathmore Minerals Corp. (“Strathmore”). All of the Company’s employees are employed by its subsidiary Energy Fuels Resources (USA) Inc. (“EFUSA”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of EF Holdings, which also serves as operator of all of the Company’s properties. A diagram depicting the organizational structure of the Company and its active subsidiaries, including the name, U.S. state or Canadian province of incorporation, and proportion of ownership interest of each, is included as Exhibit 21.1 to this Annual Report. Energy Fuels also owns a number of inactive subsidiaries which have no material assets or liabilities and do not engage in any material business activities.
Each of the Company’s subsidiaries has its principal place of business and corporate office at 225 Union Blvd., Suite 600, Lakewood, Colorado 80228, USA, though additional support offices are located onsite or in close proximity to the Mill and ISR facilities. The registered office of EFUSA and principal place of business for the Company is at 225 Union Blvd., Suite 600, Lakewood, Colorado 80228, USA, and the registered office of the Company is located at 82 Richmond Street East, Suite 308 Toronto, Ontario, M5C 1P1, Canada. The Company’s website address is www.energyfuels.com.
The primary trading market for Energy Fuels’ common shares (the “Common Shares”) is the NYSE American under the trading symbol “UUUU,” and the Company’s Common Shares are also listed on the TSX under the trading symbol “EFR.” Energy Fuels is a U.S. domestic issuer for SEC reporting purposes and, in addition, is a reporting issuer in all of the Canadian provinces. Certain warrants issued by the Company are listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “UUUU-WT” and are also listed on the TSX under the symbol “EFR.WT.” Options on Energy Fuels’ Common Shares are traded on The Chicago Board Options Exchange. The Designated Primary Market Maker for the options is Group One Trading, LP. Citadel Securities is the Company’s Market Maker on the NYSE American.
In addition, the Company holds 9,439,857 shares of Virginia Energy Resources Inc. (TSXV:VUI; OTCQX:VEGYF) currently representing an approximate 16.5% equity interest in that company.
Business Overview
Energy Fuels is engaged in conventional and ISR uranium extraction and recovery, along with the exploration, permitting, and evaluation of uranium properties in the United States. The Company also extracts and recovers vanadium as market conditions warrant and is also planning to commence the commercial production of REE carbonate in 2021, another byproduct of the uranium recovery process. Energy Fuels owns the Nichols Ranch Uranium Recovery Facility in Wyoming (the “Nichols Ranch Project”), which is a uranium recovery facility with a licensed capacity of 2 million pounds of U3O8 per year, and the Alta Mesa Project in Texas (the “Alta Mesa Project”), which is a fully-permitted ISR uranium production facility with a licensed capacity of 1.5 million pounds of U3O8 per year, both of which are currently on standby. In addition, Energy Fuels owns the White Mesa Mill, which is the only conventional uranium and vanadium recovery facility operating in the United States with a licensed capacity of over 8 million pounds of U3O8 per year. In addition to uranium, the Mill can also recover vanadium as a co-product of mineralized material produced from certain of its projects in Colorado and Utah and from time to time from solutions in its tailings impoundment system, as market conditions warrant, as well as an REE carbonate from various uranium- and REE-bearing ores. The Company also owns uranium and uranium/vanadium properties and projects in various stages of exploration, permitting, and evaluation, as well as fully-permitted uranium and uranium/vanadium projects on standby. In addition, Energy Fuels recovers uranium from other uranium-bearing materials not derived from conventional material, referred to as “alternate feed materials,” at its White Mesa Mill.
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ISR Operations
The Company conducts its ISR activities through (i) its Nichols Ranch Project in northeast Wyoming, which it acquired in June 2015 through its acquisition of Uranerz Energy Corporation (“Uranerz”), and (ii) its Alta Mesa Project in south Texas, which the Company acquired in June 2016 through its acquisition of Mesteña Uranium, LLC (“Mesteña), which is now named EFR Alta Mesa LLC (“EFR Alta Mesa”).
The Nichols Ranch Project includes: (i) a licensed and operating ISR processing facility (the “Nichols Ranch Plant”); (ii) licensed and operating ISR wellfields (the “Nichols Ranch Wellfields”); (iii) additional licensed ISR wellfields planned for future production (the “Jane Dough Property”), and; (iv) a licensed satellite ISR uranium project (the “Hank Project”), which will include an ISR satellite processing plant (the “Hank Satellite Plant”) that, when constructed, will produce loaded-resin, and associated planned wellfields (the “Hank Property”). See “The Nichols Ranch ISR Project” under Item 2 below. Also through the acquisition of Uranerz, the Company acquired the West North Butte property (the “West North Butte Property”), the North Rolling Pin property (the “North Rolling Pin Property”), and the Reno Creek property (the “Reno Creek Property”), as well as the Arkose Mining Venture (the “Arkose Mining Venture”), which is a joint venture of Wyoming ISR properties held 81% by Energy Fuels. The Company subsequently sold the Reno Creek Property to Uranium Energy Corp. in May 2018. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties - Other ISR Projects” under Item 2, below.
The Nichols Ranch Project is an ISR facility currently on standby that recovers uranium through a series of injection and recovery wells. Using groundwater fortified with oxygen and sodium bicarbonate, uranium is dissolved within a deposit. The uranium-bearing groundwater is then collected in a series of recovery wells and pumped to the Nichols Ranch Plant where the uranium is extracted from the water. The Nichols Ranch Plant creates a yellowcake slurry that is transported by truck to the White Mesa Mill, where it is dried and packaged into drums that are shipped to uranium conversion facilities.

Construction of the Nichols Ranch Plant, other than the elution, drying and packaging circuits, was completed in 2013, and it commenced uranium recovery activities in the second quarter of 2014. In September of 2015, the Company commenced construction of an elution circuit at the Nichols Ranch Plant, which was completed and began operations in February 2016. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recovered approximately 6,000 pounds of U3O8 from the Nichols Ranch Project. The Company expects to recover limited quantities of U3O8 from the Nichols Ranch Project in 2021. See “Outlook: ISR Activities.
The Alta Mesa Project is a fully licensed, permitted and constructed ISR processing facility that has an operating capacity of 1.5 million pounds of uranium per year and comprises a total of 195,501 contiguous acres of land. The Alta Mesa Project is currently on standby and ready to resume production as market conditions warrant. It is expected to be able to reach commercial production levels with limited required capital within approximately twelve months of a production decision. See “The Alta Mesa Project” under Item 2, below.
Conventional Operations
The Company conducts its conventional uranium, REE and vanadium extraction and recovery activities through its White Mesa Mill, which is the only operating conventional uranium, REE and vanadium processing facility in the United States. The White Mesa Mill located near Blanding, Utah, is centrally located such that it can be fed by a number of the Company’s uranium and uranium/vanadium projects in Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico, as well as by ore purchases or toll milling arrangements with third parties in the region as market conditions warrant.

The White Mesa Mill is licensed to process 2,000 tons of mineralized material per day. It is primarily a uranium recovery facility but can also recover REEs and vanadium. In addition, the Mill can recycle other uranium-bearing materials not derived from conventional ore, referred to as “alternate feed materials,” for the recovery of uranium, alone or in combination with other metals. In this regard, the Company is currently evaluating a number of potential alternate feed materials for the recovery of REEs in addition to uranium.

The White Mesa Mill has historically operated on a campaign basis, whereby mineral processing occurs as mill feed, contract requirements, as market conditions warrant. Over the years, the Company’s own, and third-party owned, conventional uranium properties in Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico have been both active and on standby in response to changing market conditions. From 2007 through 2014, running on a campaign basis, the White Mesa Mill recovered on average over 1 million pounds of U3O8 per year from conventional sources, including its La Sal Project, Daneros Project, and Tony M property in Utah; its Arizona 1 Project and Pinenut Project (which is currently almost fully reclaimed) in Arizona; and alternate feed materials. During 2016, the Mill recovered a total of 680,000 pounds of U3O8, of which 433,000 pounds were recovered from conventional materials from the Company’s Pinenut Project and 248,000 pounds from processing alternate feed materials. During 2017, the Mill recovered 310,000 pounds of U3O8 from processing pond solutions and 1,000,000 pounds from processing alternate feed materials, of which a total of 360,000 pounds were for the Company’s account and 950,000 pounds
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were for the account of third parties. During 2018, the Mill recovered 215,719 pounds of U3O8 from processing pond solutions and 561,628 pounds from processing alternate feed materials, of which a total of 82,709 pounds were for the Company’s account and 448,919 pounds were for the account of third parties under a tolling arrangement. In late 2018, the White Mesa Mill shifted to producing vanadium from pond solutions and, during 2019, 1,807,732 pounds of V2O5 were produced from pond solutions for its own account, and no uranium was produced at the Mill. During 2020, the Company recovered approximately 190,500 pounds of U3O8 at the White Mesa Mill from in-circuit uranium inventories extracted from the recent vanadium pond-return campaign, and from alternate feed materials, as well as approximately 67,000 pounds of V2O5 from in-process solutions from the recent vanadium pond-return campaign. In addition, the Company produced, using its existing infrastructure and pursuant to its existing Radioactive Materials License and Groundwater Discharge Permit, an REE carbonate concentrate on a pilot scale at the Mill from a sample of monazite sands from a third-party supplier – the first such initiative in North America in over 20 years. See “Outlook: Conventional Extraction and Recovery Activities.

During 2021, the Company expects to recover approximately 46,400 pounds of U3O8 at the White Mesa Mill, including uranium recovered through the processing of REE- and uranium-bearing natural monazite ore. The Company also expects to commence commercial production of a mixed REE carbonate in 2021 and to produce approximately 3,000 tons of mixed REE carbonate at the Mill. Subject to successfully ramping-up production of a salable product during 2021, the Company expects to sell some or all of this intermediate REE product to REE separation facilities outside the U.S. To the extent not sold, the Company expects to stockpile mixed REE carbonate at the Mill for future separation and other downstream REE processing at the Mill or elsewhere. See “Outlook: Rare Earth Sales.”

In addition, the Company currently has approximately 126,800 pounds of U3O8 contained in stockpiled alternate feed material and ore inventory that can be recovered in the future for the proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve or as general market conditions warrant. In addition, there remains an estimated 1.5-3 million pounds of solubilized recoverable V2O5 inventory remaining in the tailings facility awaiting future recovery, as market conditions may warrant. See “Outlook: Conventional Extraction and Recovery Activities.

The Company continues to receive and process alternate feed materials at the White Mesa Mill, including low-grade ore from the cleanup of a conventional mine in northwest New Mexico. At the Company’s permitted Pinyon Plain Project (formerly, the “Canyon Project”), standby and environmental compliance activities continued during 2020, including submission of an application to replace the Company’s existing General Permit with an Individual Permit, as issued by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. The timing to extract and process mineralized material from the Pinyon Plain Project will be based on market conditions, available financing, and sales requirements. The Company’s Pinenut Project, where mineral extraction activities occurred until September 2015, is now depleted and has been almost fully reclaimed, with only a two-acre disturbance associated with a monitor well still remaining. The Company also pursued a small-scale test mining campaign targeting vanadium at its La Sal Complex in 2018 and early 2019, along with rehabilitation of existing mine workings, which ceased in early 2020. All of the Company’s other conventional properties and projects are currently in the permitting process or on standby pending improvements in market conditions. No third-party conventional properties are active at this time.

The Company also owns the Sheep Mountain Project (the “Sheep Mountain Project”), which is a conventional uranium extraction project located in Wyoming. Due to its distance from the White Mesa Mill, the Sheep Mountain Project is not expected to be a source of feed material for the Mill. The Sheep Mountain Project consists of permitted open pit and underground extraction components (the “Sheep Mountain Extraction Operation”) and a planned processing facility to process extracted mineralized material (the “Sheep Mountain Processing Operation”), which has not yet been permitted.
The Company’s principal conventional properties include the following:

the White Mesa Mill, a 2,000 ton per day uranium and vanadium processing facility located near Blanding, Utah, held through the Company’s subsidiary EFR White Mesa LLC. See “The White Mesa Mill” under Item 2, below;
the Arizona Strip uranium properties located in north central Arizona, including: the Pinyon Plain Project, which is a fully-permitted uranium project with all surface facilities and a shaft in place (see “The Pinyon Plain Project” under Item 2, below);
the Wate project (the “Wate Project”), which is a uranium deposit in the permitting stage; the Arizona 1 project (the “Arizona 1 Project”), which is a fully-permitted uranium project on standby; and the EZ properties (“EZ Properties”), which are uranium deposits in the exploration and evaluation stage. All of the Company’s Arizona Strip properties are held by the Company’s subsidiary EFR Arizona Strip LLC, with the exception of the Wate Project, which is held by the Company’s subsidiary Wate Mining Company LLC. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties – Other Conventional Projects – Arizona Strip” under Item 2, below;
the Roca Honda Uranium Project (the “Roca Honda Project”), which is located near the town of Grants, New Mexico, held by the Company’s subsidiaries Strathmore Resources (US), Ltd. and Roca Honda Resources LLC. See “The Roca Honda Project” under Item 2, below;
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the Sheep Mountain Project, which is a uranium project located near Jeffrey City, Wyoming, including permitted open pit and underground components held by the Company’s subsidiary Energy Fuels Wyoming Inc. See “The Sheep Mountain Project” under Item 2, below;
the Henry Mountains Complex of uranium projects (the “Henry Mountains Complex”), which is located in south central Utah near the town of Ticaboo, which is comprised of the Tony M Property (the “Tony M Property”) and the Bullfrog Property (the “Bullfrog Property”), and which are held by the Company’s subsidiary EFR Henry Mountains LLC. See “The Henry Mountains Complex” under Item 2, below;
the La Sal complex of uranium and uranium/vanadium projects (the “La Sal Project”) (see “The La Sal Project” under Item 2, below), the Whirlwind uranium/vanadium project (the “Whirlwind Project”), and the Sage Plain uranium/vanadium project (the “Sage Plain Project”), all of which are located near the Colorado/Utah border (the “Colorado Plateau”) and, in addition to nearby exploration properties, are held by the Company’s subsidiary EFR Colorado Plateau LLC. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties – Other Conventional Projects – Colorado Plateau” under Item 2, below;
the Daneros Uranium Project (the “Daneros Project”) located in the White Canyon District in southeastern Utah, which is held by the Company’s subsidiary EFR White Canyon Corp. See “The Daneros Project” under Item 2, below; and
a number of non-core uranium properties, which are held in various of the Company’s subsidiaries. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties” under Item 2, below.

Mineral Exploration

Energy Fuels holds a number of exploration properties in the Colorado Plateau, White Canyon, Grants, Arizona Strip, and Powder River Basin Districts. Energy Fuels conducted intermittent exploration drilling on numerous projects in the period from February 2007 through December 2013. Several of those projects have been abandoned or sold. No further exploration drilling has been performed at these properties since 2013. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties” under Item 2, below.

Potential Sale of Certain Non-Core Assets

The Company is in discussions with several parties to potentially sell certain of its non-core assets, including the Tony M Mine, Daneros Mine and Rim Mine, although there are currently no binding offers, and there can be no assurance at this time that a sale will be completed.

The Company’s Rare Earth Elements Business

On December 14, 2020, the Company announced it entered into a three-year supply agreement with The Chemours Company (NYSE: CC) (“Chemours”) to acquire a minimum of 2,500 tons per year of natural monazite sands, one of the highest-grade REE ores in the world, from Chemours’ Offerman Mineral Sand Plant located in Georgia. The Company expects to process this monazite at the Mill, starting in 2021, to recover the contained uranium and to produce a marketable mixed REE carbonate as a step toward re-establishing a fully-integrated U.S. REE supply chain.

On March 1, 2021, the Company and Neo Performance Materials (“Neo”) jointly announced that they had entered into an agreement in principle, subject to completion of definitive agreements, under which Energy Fuels will process natural monazite sands into an REE Carbonate beginning in March or April 2021 and ship a portion of that production to Neo's rare earth separations facility in Sillamäe, Estonia ("Silmet"). Neo will then process the REE Carbonate into separated rare earth materials for use in rare earth permanent magnets and other rare earth-based advanced materials. Silmet is the only operational rare earth separations facility in Europe and has been separating rare earths into commercial value-added products for more than 50 years. Implementation of this initiative is subject to successful ramp-up to commercial-scale operations, execution of definitive agreements, and optimization of the companies' production processes.

Upon a successful ramp-up of this program, the Company will be the first U.S. company in several years to produce a marketable mixed REE concentrate ready for separation on a commercial scale. The Company estimates that the amount of REEs contained in the monazite sands to be supplied by Chemours will equal close to 10% of total current U.S. REE demand, as contained in end-use products.

The Company expects to recover uranium from the monazite sands and produce a commercially salable mixed REE carbonate containing approximately 71% total rare earth oxide (“TREO”) on a dry basis. This REE product will be ready for REE separation, which is the next step in producing usable REE products. The Company is also in discussions with other entities to acquire additional supplies of natural monazite sands and is working with the U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) to evaluate
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the potential to process other types of REE and uranium bearing ores at the Mill produced from coal-based resources. Because the Company is obtaining monazite from existing mining facilities in Georgia (and potentially elsewhere) and utilizing its existing Mill, it will avoid the significant time and cost required to license and develop new facilities, which the Company believes may, in time, result in among the lowest-cost REE production in the western world. In addition, since the monazite sands are currently being separated from other mineral sands in Georgia and elsewhere, the Company will only incur the cost to acquire the monazite, thereby avoiding mining costs and associated risks. The Company expects to sell some or all of its mixed REE carbonate to Neo and to potentially other buyers in Europe and/or Asia until an REE separation facility is established in the U.S., after which it expects to sell its REE carbonate to buyers in both the U.S. and Europe. The Company is also evaluating the potential to perform REE separation, and potentially other downstream REE activities, including metal-making and alloying, in the future at the Mill or elsewhere in the U.S.

The Company’s mixed REE carbonate production from monazite sand ores is expected to utilize only a very small amount of the Mill’s ore production capacity. The Company expects to acquire a minimum 2,500 tons of monazite sands in 2021 from Chemours, alone, and has a goal to increase production in the future to approximately 15,000 tons or more of monazite sands per year. For comparison, the Mill is licensed and designed to process 2,000 tons of ore per day on average, or 720,000 tons of ore per year. Therefore, 2,500 tons of monazite per year represents less than 0.4% of the Mill’s ore throughput capacity, and 15,000 tons would represent approximately 2% of its capacity. If the Company is successful in securing 15,000 tons of ore similar to the Chemours monazite, the Company would be able to produce approximately 50% of current U.S. REE demand in a mixed REE carbonate. Furthermore, since monazite is typically comprised of approximately 55% recoverable uranium and REEs, the total volume of resulting waste is significantly lower than for most other Mill feeds. The Company currently has 1.5 million tons of existing capacity in its fully-constructed 1,000-year design tailings impoundments. Therefore, the annual waste streams from monazite ore processing are expected to represent less than 1% of existing tailings capacity.

REEs are a group of 17 chemical elements (the 15 elements in the lanthanum series, plus yttrium and scandium) that have a variety of industrial, energy, and defense uses, including automotive components, communications technology, clean energy production, consumer electronics, defense systems, advanced magnets, lasers and numerous other applications.

Typical natural monazite sands from the southeast U.S. average about 55% TREO and 0.20% uranium, which is the typical grade of uranium found in uranium mines that have historically fed the Mill. Of the 55% TREO typically found in the monazite sands, the neodymium and praseodymium (“NdPr”) comprise approximately 22% of the TREO. NdPr are among the most valuable of the REEs, as they are the key ingredient in the manufacture of high-strength permanent magnets which are essential to the lightweight and powerful motors required in electric vehicles (“EVs”) and permanent magnet wind turbines used for renewable energy generation, as well as to an array of other modern technologies, including mobile devices and defense applications. The Company is primarily focused on NdPr and, to a lesser extent, La, Ce and Sm.

The REE supply chain starts at the mine. REEs are mined both as a primary target and as a byproduct, which is the case for Chemours’ Offerman Mineral Sand Plant, where the natural monazite sands are physically separated from the other mined sands mined by Chemours. Mining creates an ore, which in the case of the Chemours material is the natural monazite sands that are physically separated from the other mined mineral sands. The ore will then go through a process of cracking and cleaning at the Mill that may include acids or caustic solutions, elevated temperature, and pressure to recover the uranium and free the REEs from the mineral matrix. After removal of the uranium, which will be sold into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle for the creation of carbon-free nuclear energy, this solution will be cleaned from any remaining deleterious elements (including remaining radioactive elements) and made into an REE carbonate, which will be in a form acceptable as a solvent extraction (“SX”) feedstock ready for separation. Solvent extraction facilities will then use solvents and a series of mixer-settlers for the separation of the rare earths in the REE carbonate from each other and to create the desired purified REEs (often as oxides) for the market or particular end user. REE oxides are typically sold to various markets, depending on the use. REE oxides can be made into REE metals and metal alloys, which are used for magnets and other applications. At this time, the Mill intends to produce an REE carbonate, which it intends to sell to Neo and potentially other third-party separation facilities for separation into individual REEs. The Mill is evaluating the potential to perform REE separation, and potentially other downstream REE activities, including metal-making and alloying, in the future at the Mill or elsewhere in the United States.

According to a 2017 report by the United States Geological Survey (“USGS”), China has controlled more than 90% of the global supply of REEs since the late 1990s and has placed restrictions on REE exports since 2010. While China consumes the most REEs in its manufacturing industries, much of it is consumed in the manufacture of end-use goods for export and by non-Chinese companies operating within China. REE separation facilities are additionally located in Vietnam, India, as well as Silmet in Estonia and use a variety of feedstocks and sources, with small-scale or experimental operational facilities located elsewhere (Russia included). The REE industry was primarily based on material extracted from monazites from 1891-1965, and
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monazites continued to provide substantial material through the late 1990s. The subsequent decline in monazite production stemmed from increased environmental concerns related to handling radioactivity and the resulting waste, with facilities struggling to adequately address the ore’s uranium and thorium content and stringent licensing requirements. The Mill, however, is licensed to process uranium and thorium-bearing materials and does not face those issues.

More recently, China began importing monazite and recovering its uranium as a feed source for the nuclear industry, while concurrently producing REE concentrate as a feed source for the REE industry. The Company sees its production of REE carbonate as the first step in an effort to restore the rare earth supply chain in the U.S., where one currently does not exist. Multiple potential domestic sources of mined mineral sands, including monazites, exist in North America and are potential feedstocks for the Mill; in addition, there is one producer of REEs from hard rock mining in California, which currently ships its material to China. On a global level, there is a potential to acquire natural monazite sands from the following locations: Australia, South Africa, Madagascar, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Russia, and others.

There are a number of risks inherent to the Company’s REE activities. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” under Item 1A, below.

Development of the Business -- Major Transactions over the Past Five Years

Over the past five years, the Company has completed the following major transactions:

In June 2015, the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of Uranerz. Under that transaction, the Company acquired the Nichols Ranch Project, the Hank Project, the Reno Creek Property, the West North Butte Property, the North Rolling Pin Property, the Company’s interest in the Arkose Mining Venture, uranium sales contracts, and other assets, as well as the shares of Uranerz, which holds those assets;
In two separate transactions in February and November of 2015, the Company acquired 100% ownership of the Wate Project through the acquisition of Wate Mining Company LLC;
In June 2016, the Company acquired EFR Alta Mesa and its primary asset, the Alta Mesa Project;
In May 2018, the Company sold its non-core Reno Creek Property to Uranium Energy Corp.; and
In August 2018, the Company acquired royalties on the Nichols Ranch Project, along with royalties on several operating, standby and advanced-stage ISR projects in Wyoming owned and operated by Power Resources, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cameco Corporation.
2020 Corporate Developments
On February 10, 2020, the federal executive Budget was published for fiscal year 2021 (October 1, 2020 through September 30, 2021). The Budget “Supports Nuclear Fuel Cycle Capabilities,” and stated that “[o]n July 12, 2019, the President determined that ‘...the United States uranium industry faces significant challenges in producing uranium domestically and that this is an issue of national security.’ The President’s Budget establishes a U.S. Uranium Reserve to provide additional assurances of availability of uranium in the event of a market disruption.” Table 25-1 of the Budget sought congressional appropriations of $150 million per year over the next 10 years (totaling $1.5 billion over that time frame) for uranium purchases. For fiscal 2021 (October 1, 2020 through September 30, 2021), the Budget sought an appropriation of $150 million, “to remain available until expended,” as the appropriation for the first year of this 10-year program. On December 27, 2020, the U.S. Congress signed into law the COVID-Relief and Omnibus Spending Bill, which includes $75 million for the establishment of a strategic U.S. Uranium Reserve. Because the U.S. Uranium Reserve has yet to be established for the United States at this time, however, there can be no certainty as to the outcome of a U.S. Uranium Reserve, if any, including the process for and details of its development, or for any further evaluations by the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group established in July 2019 to “develop recommendations for reviving and expanding domestic nuclear fuel production.”

On February 20, 2020, the Company closed a bought deal public offering of Common Shares made pursuant to an underwriting agreement dated February 13, 2020 between the Company and a syndicate of underwriters led by Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. as lead underwriter and sole book-runner, and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, Eight Capital, Haywood Securities Inc. and Roth Capital Partners, LLC (the “Offering”). Pursuant to the Offering, the Company issued an aggregate of 11,300,000 Common Shares at a price of $1.47 per share for gross proceeds of $16.61 million. The Company received net proceeds, after commissions and fees, of $15.14 million from the Offering.

On February 28, 2020, the Company filed an updated technical report, including a Preliminary Feasibility Study (“PFS”), for its Sheep Mountain Project in Fremont County, Wyoming on SEDAR in accordance with National Instrument 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects and in accordance with Canadian Institute Mining’s (“CIM”) Best Practice Guidelines for the Estimation of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves. The technical report, entitled Sheep Mountain Uranium Project, Fremont County, Wyoming, USA, Updated Preliminary Feasibility Study, National Instrument 43-101
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Technical Report, Amended and Restated and dated February 28, 2020, was authored by Douglas L. Beahm, P.E., P.G., Principal Engineer of BRS Inc., who is independent of the Company and a Qualified Person pursuant to NI 43-101. The updated PFS incorporated recent changes in CIM mineral resource requirements and changes in the Sheep Mountain Project mine plan.

On May 6, 2020, the Company announced that it has entered into an agreement to acquire from GeoInstruments Logging LLC all of its Prompt Fission Neutron (“PFN”) technology and equipment, including all of its related intellectual property, which will give Energy Fuels the exclusive right to use, license, and service this particular PFN technology globally. PFN is critical to successful uranium production particularly from many ISR deposits, as it more accurately measures downhole in-situ U3O8 ore grade versus traditional Total Gamma and Spectral Gamma methods. The acquisition closed in late July 2020.

On July 14, 2020, the Company redeemed Cdn$10.43 million principal amount of the Cdn$20.86 million Convertible Debentures. The Convertible Debentures were redeemable for an amount equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, up to but excluding July 14, 2020. On October 6, 2020, the Company redeemed the remaining Cdn$10.43 million principal amount of the Cdn$10.43 million Convertible Debentures outstanding. The Convertible Debentures were redeemable for an amount equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, up to but excluding October 6, 2020. The Convertible Debentures were measured at fair value based on the closing price on the TSX (a Level 1 measurement) and changes were recognized in earnings. As a result of the final redemption, no Convertible Debentures remain outstanding. The Convertible Debentures are no longer subject to the terms of the Indenture, and cease to be listed on the TSX. The Company currently has no other remaining short- or long-term debt.

On August 20, 2020, the Company announced a number of changes to its management team in order to reduce costs, flatten the organizational structure, and focus on the ongoing growth of a new generation of U.S. uranium and RE professionals, including: i) the departure of Paul Goranson as Chief Operating Officer, effective August 31, 2020; ii) the departure of Matthew Tarnowski as Chief Accounting Officer, effective October 31, 2020; iii) the promotion of Scott Bakken to Vice President, Regulatory Affairs, effective September 1, 2020; iv) the promotion of Dee Ann Nazarenus to Vice President, Human Resources and Administration, effective September 1, 2020; and v) the hiring of Sarai Luksch as Controller, effective September 1, 2020.

On September 21, 2020, the Company announced that it had been advised by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory that Energy Fuels was awarded a contract, working with a team from the Pennsylvania State University (“Penn State”), to evaluate and develop a conceptual design to allow for the commercial production of mixed rare earth oxides from coal-based resources in an environmentally benign fashion. The award includes an option, at the DOE’s election, for Energy Fuels to complete a feasibility study on this initiative.

On November 3, 2020, the Company announced that it had produced at the Company’s White Mesa Mill, using its existing infrastructure and pursuant to its existing Radioactive Materials License and Groundwater Discharge Permit, an REE carbonate concentrate on a pilot scale from a sample of monazite sands from a third-party supplier – the first such initiative in North America in over 20 years. Then, on December 14, 2020, the Company announced that it had entered into a three-year supply agreement with Chemours to acquire a minimum of 2,500 tons per year of natural monazite sands, which the Company plans to process at the Mill starting in 2021 to recover the contained uranium and produce a marketable mixed REE carbonate, as a key effort toward re-establishing a fully-integrated U.S. REE supply chain (see “ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS: The Company’s Rare Earth Elements Business”).

On December 21, 2020, the Company announced the publication of its first Sustainability Report, along with its Climate Change Policy, Human Rights Policy and Vendor Code of Conduct, which together with its other policies describe the Company’s ongoing commitment to the environment, worker health, public safety and social responsibility, including its important role in combating global climate change through producing and recycling carbon-free energy resources.

On December 31, 2020, the Company announced that it filed with the SEC a prospectus supplement to its effective U.S. registration statement on Form S-3 in order to renew its ATM program. Under the renewed ATM program the Company may, at its discretion from time to time, sell up to an additional $35 million of common shares, with sales only being made on the NYSE American at then-prevailing market prices, or any other existing trading market of the common shares in the United States.

Effective March 18, 2021, the Company filed a new base shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC allowing the Company to issue common shares, warrants, subscription receipts, preferred shares, debt securities, or any combination of such securities as units, in amounts, and at prices, and on terms to be determined based on market conditions at the time of sale, and as set forth in an accompanying prospectus supplement, for an aggregate offering amount of up to US$300 million during the
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36-month period that the statement remains effective. On March l6, 2021, the Company received a receipt for a corresponding base shelf prospectus in Canada for an aggregate offering amount in Canada of up to US$300 million.

2021 Corporate Developments

From January 1, 2021 through March 18, 2021, the Company issued 5.50 million Common Shares at an average price of $5.53 for net proceeds of $29.70 million using the ATM.

On March 1, 2021, the Company and Neo Performance Materials (“Neo”) jointly announced that they had entered into an agreement in principle, subject to completion of definitive agreements, under which Energy Fuels will process natural monazite sands into an REE Carbonate beginning in March or April 2021 and ship a portion of that production to Neo's rare earth separations facility in Sillamäe, Estonia ("Silmet"). Neo will then process the REE Carbonate into separated rare earth materials for use in rare earth permanent magnets and other rare earth-based advanced materials. Silmet is the only operational rare earth separations facility in Europe and has been separating rare earths into commercial value-added products for more than 50 years. Implementation of this initiative is subject to successful ramp-up to commercial-scale operations, execution of definitive agreements, and optimization of the companies' production processes (see “ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS: The Company’s Rare Earth Elements Business”).
Company Strategy
Energy Fuels intends to continue to strengthen its position as a leading uranium extraction and recovery company in the United States, supporting that goal through uranium recovery, alternate feed materials processing, third-party processing, and potential land clean-up work. In addition, the Company produces vanadium along with uranium from certain of its properties, as market conditions warrant. The Company also expects to commence commercial production of an REE carbonate in 2021, along with uranium from monazite sands, as well as uranium from alternate feed materials and other ores. See “The Rare Earth Element Market,” below. Through the operating White Mesa Mill, the Nichols Ranch Project and Alta Mesa Project, which are both currently on standby, the Company’s large uranium and vanadium resource base, and existing conventional projects on standby, under construction, and in permitting, the Company’s strategy is to maintain and increase its ability to increase uranium production in improved market conditions.

As a result of the foregoing, we intend to engage in the following activities:

In response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve, the Company intends to evaluate activities aimed towards increasing uranium production at all or some of our production facilities, including the currently operating White Mesa Mill, as well as the Nichols Ranch ISR Facility, Alta Mesa ISR Facility, La Sal Complex, and the Pinyon Plain Mine, all of which are currently on standby, as market conditions may warrant. The Company may commence these activities prior to such establishment, recognizing that there can be no guarantee that the U.S. Uranium Reserve will ever come to fruition or that the implementation details, if they occur, will be satisfactory, and that the outcomes of this process are therefore uncertain.

Continue to pursue U.S. government support for U.S. uranium production, such as the Company’s recent efforts to help secure a renewal of the Russian Suspension Agreement, including support for the establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve and any future recommendations from the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group or other remedies;

Continue the Company’s ongoing REE initiatives for the production of a REE carbonate concentrate from monazite sands sourced from third-party suppliers, with the potential to enter into one or more joint ventures for the construction of an onsite REE separation facility at the Company’s Mill site and the development of a fully-integrated U.S. REE supply chain (see “ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS: The Company’s Rare Earth Elements Business), above;

Defer further wellfield development at Nichols Ranch until uranium prices improve;

Continue alternate feed processing, as well as pursue additional alternate feed materials (including potential rare-earth bearing alternate feed materials), third-party processing and other sources of feed for the Mill (including potential material generated from land cleanup work) and, when market conditions warrant, pursue the recovery of uranium and/or vanadium dissolved in the Mill’s pond solutions;

Subject to any actions the Company may take in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve and ongoing or new regulatory requirements, continue to carry out engineering, procurement and construction management activities at the Pinyon Plain Project in 2021, and maintain the property on standby until uranium prices improve;
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Subject to any actions the Company may take in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve, continue to maintain standby projects and facilities (including the Pinyon Plain Project, Alta Mesa Project, the La Sal Project and the Daneros Project) in a state of readiness for the purpose of restarting mining activities, as market conditions may warrant. At this time, subject to any actions the Company may take in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve, all of the Company’s conventional projects are expected to remain on standby until market conditions warrant restarting mining activities, or are in the evaluation or permitting process;

Continue permitting activities for the Roca Honda Project through the end of 2021;

Continue to evaluate the sale of non-core assets that the Company does not believe contribute to shareholder value in order to reduce costs and/or receive sales proceeds; and

Continue to pursue additional cost cutting measures.

Uranium Sales

As a result of current uranium market conditions, both ISR and conventional uranium recovery have been maintained at reduced levels until such time as market conditions improve sufficiently, either as a result of any actions the Company may take in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve or through improved market fundamentals.

The Company has not entered into uranium sales commitments for 2021 as of the date of this Annual Report; therefore, subject to any actions the Company may take in response to the proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve or improved market conditions, all 2021 uranium production is expected to be added to existing inventories. Energy Fuels’ significant uranium inventory provides the Company with financial flexibility, and the Company believes its existing inventories and new production may be worth significantly more in the future as a result of government uranium purchases for the proposed Uranium Reserve or otherwise. However, if suitable uranium price increases are observed in 2021, or if cash needs arise, the Company may elect to complete some discretionary uranium sales in 2021.

Overview of Uranium Market

The primary commercial use of uranium is to fuel nuclear power plants for the generation of carbon- and emission-free electricity.

According to the World Nuclear Association (“WNA”), as of January 2021, there were 442 operable nuclear reactors world-wide, which required approximately 177 million pounds of U3O8 fuel at full operation. Worldwide, there are currently 53 new reactors under construction with an additional 98 reactors on order or in the planning stage and 326 which have been proposed.

According to data from TradeTech LLC (“TradeTech”), the world continues to require more uranium than it produces from primary extraction. The gap between demand and primary supply is filled by stockpiled inventories and secondary supplies.

According to the WNA, the United States currently has 94 operating reactors, two reactors under construction, and another 21 reactors on order, planned or proposed. According to the Nuclear Energy Institute (“NEI”), in 2019 the United States produced approximately 19.7% of its electricity from nuclear technology, while achieving an average capacity factor of 93%, leading all other carbon-free sources by a wide margin. In addition, in 2019, nuclear energy avoided 476 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (“EIA”), U.S. utilities purchased approximately 48.3 million pounds of U3O8 in 2019. However, through March 31,2020 (the latest data available), the U.S. only produced approximately 8,098 pounds of U3O8; June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 data were withheld due to confidentiality concerns, which the Company believes are the result of low production figures.

Uranium is not traded on an open market or organized commodity exchange such as the London Metal Exchange, although the New York Mercantile Exchange provides financially-settled uranium futures contracts. Typically, buyers and sellers negotiate transactions privately and directly. Spot uranium transactions typically involve deliveries that occur immediately and up to 12 months in the future. Term uranium transactions typically involve deliveries that occur more than 12 months in the future, with long-term transactions involving delivery terms of at least three years. Uranium prices, both spot and term, are published by two independent market consulting firms, TradeTech and The Ux Consulting Company (“Ux”), on a weekly and monthly basis. Other brokers, including Uranium Markets LLC, Evolution Markets Inc. and Numerco Ltd., also publish daily broker average uranium prices.

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The spot and term prices of uranium are influenced by a number of global factors. For example, both the spot and term prices of uranium were negatively impacted by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant in March 2011. The events at Fukushima created heightened concerns regarding the safety of nuclear plants and led to both temporary and permanent closures of nuclear plants around the world. The Fukushima incident has created downward pressure on uranium prices over the past nine years, which is still being felt today. In contrast, China is pursuing an aggressive nuclear program, with 49 units now operating, 16 new units under construction, 39 units which are planned, and 168 units that have been proposed, according to January 2021 WNA data.

Historically, most nuclear utilities have sought to purchase a portion of their uranium needs through mid- and long-term supply contracts, while other portions are bought on the spot market. According to EIA data, in 2019, U.S. utilities purchased 22% of their uranium on the spot market with the remaining 78% purchased under mid- and long-term contracts. Buyers seek to balance the security of supply with the opportunity to take advantage of lower prices. For this reason, both buyers and sellers track current spot and term prices for uranium carefully, make considered projections as to future prices, and negotiate with one another on transactions which each deems favorable to their respective interests.

The graph, below, shows the monthly spot (blue line) and long-term (red line) uranium price from August 1969 until January 2021 (table labeled in 2-year increments, so 2021 does not appear on the axis, though its data is incorporated) as reported by TradeTech (not adjusted for inflation):
efr-20201231_g2.jpg
To give a more recent perspective, the graph below shows the monthly spot (blue line) and long-term (red line) uranium price from January 2016 until January 2021 as reported by TradeTech (not adjusted for inflation):
efr-20201231_g3.jpg
According to monthly price data from TradeTech, uranium prices during 2020 were up $5.55, or 22% for the year. Monthly spot prices began the year at $24.85 per pound of U3O8 on December 31, 2019 and ended the year at $30.40 per pound, reaching a high of $33.85 per pound for the month of May 2020 and a low of $24.85 per pound at the beginning of the year (as of December 31, 2019). According to Trade Tech, the spot price was $27.40 per pound on March 12, 2021. TradeTech price
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data also indicated that long-term U3O8 prices began 2019 at $33.00 per pound and ended 2020 at $37.00 per pound. The high long-term price for 2020 was $39.00 per pound for the months of May and June, and the low long-term price was $33.00 per pound for the months of January and February. The long-term price at March 12, 2021 was $35.00 per pound. The Company believes the weak uranium markets are the result of excess uranium supplies caused by large quantities of state-owned uranium extraction in Kazakhstan and elsewhere, secondary uranium extraction and excess inventories, the availability of low-priced spot material, excess enrichment causing underfeeding and tails re-enrichment, insufficient production cut-backs especially from state-owned and state-subsidized uranium and uranium fuel entities, premature reactor closures, and continued weak uranium demand.
Uranium Market Outlook and Uranium Marketing Strategy
World demand for clean, reliable, and affordable baseload electricity is growing. As a result of the expected growth of nuclear energy and the depletion of existing uranium mines, the Company believes the long-term fundamentals of the uranium industry remain positive. The Company believes prices must rise to higher levels to support the new primary production that will be required to meet the increasing demand we expect to see as more nuclear units are constructed around the world, and as primary mine production drops due to depletion of resources, low prices, and temporary shutdowns caused by the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic. According to TradeTech, world uranium requirements continue to exceed primary mine production, with the gap being bridged by secondary supplies and excess uranium inventories in various forms that have already been mined. In addition, it is the Company's belief that additional mine production cutbacks will be required to bring the market into balance in the short and medium terms. However, a large portion of global uranium production is state-owned and state-subsidized, and therefore not subject to normal market fundamentals. It is for this reason that the Company supports the creation of the proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve to ensure the U.S. has sufficient uranium mining capacity to meet national security and energy security needs. The Company estimates that, for 2020, well less than 1% of U.S. reactor demand was met by new production from U.S. uranium mines. The Company has believed for several years that market forces will cause uranium prices, and long-term contracting levels in particular, to return to levels that are sufficient to incentivize new mine production. However, it is the Company’s belief that secondary supplies, inventories, and non-free market forces have delayed this recovery.

The Company believes prices likely hit a bottom in 2016, and despite continued market uncertainty in 2020, the lows of 2016 have not been repeated since. During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic caused uranium prices to rise significantly as several large mines temporarily ceased operations, including Cameco Corporation's Cigar Lake and mines in Kazakhstan. Uranium spot prices began the year at $24.85 per pound, and prices were relatively flat for the first two months of the year with the price on February 29, 2020 having risen $0.05 to $24.90 per pound (TradeTech, The Nuclear Review, December 2020). By March, the COVID-19 pandemic caused “widespread security of supply concerns … as several producers took preventative action to forestall the spread of the novel coronavirus through their businesses,” including Kazatomprom (Kazakhstan), Cameco (Canada), and China National Nuclear Corporation (Namibia). By April 30, 2020, the spot price had risen over 35% versus February levels to $33.75 per pound (Ibid). According to TradeTech, “the trajectory had its roots in a supply and demand picture that saw existing and emerging annual production levels decline well below reactor requirements” (Ibid). By May and into the second and third quarters, the spot price volatility subsided, and the monthly spot price of uranium sat at $29.90 per pound at the end of October 2020 (TradeTech, NMR, October 31, 2020). According to TradeTech, 2020 spot volumes reached near-record levels, totaling almost 62.5 million pounds of uranium. In other developments, U.S. uranium production dropped a further 76% to only 190,000 pounds in 2019 versus 2018 and BHP abandoned Olympic Dam expansion plans (TradeTech, The Nuclear Review, December 2020). In addition, Rio Tinto ceased production at its Ranger mine in early January 2021 (Mining.com, Australia’s Ranger uranium mine ceased production, January 7, 2020). On the policy front, the U.S. Congress funded $75 million for fiscal year 2021 for the establishment of a national uranium reserve, which was signed into law by the President in late-December (TradeTech, The Nuclear Review, December 2020). In addition, the U.S. and Russia agreed to extend the Russian Suspension Agreement which limits the amount of Russian uranium that can enter the U.S. (Ibid).

The Company believes that certain uranium supply and demand fundamentals are pointing to higher prices in the future, including significant production cuts and increased demand from utilities, financial entities, traders, and producers. However, the Company also believes that while uranium market conditions have improved in 2020, they still remain weak primarily as a result of excess uranium supplies caused by large quantities of secondary uranium supplies, excess inventories, and thus far insufficient primary production cut-backs, particularly from state-owned enterprises.

In the short- and medium-terms, market challenges remain. The world continues to be oversupplied with uranium, and there remains a great deal of uncertainty in uranium prices regarding the timing and level of the recovery, as fundamental, political, technical, and other factors could cause prices to be significantly above or below currently expected ranges.

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The Company’s marketing strategy is to seek a base of earnings and cash flow through sales of a portion of its uranium into term contracts, to the extent such contracts are available at satisfactory prices, which has not been the case in recent years. To gain exposure to increasing uranium prices, the Company seeks to sell a portion of its planned uranium extraction into contracts with market-related formulas, if available at satisfactory prices, and through future spot and term sales. Further exposure to increasing uranium prices can be generated through the Company’s ability to bring additional uranium extraction online in the future in response to increasing prices, which can be sold on a market-related or fixed basis at then prevailing prices.

During 2020, the Company did not complete any material uranium sales. It has maintained its uranium inventory for future sales, in anticipation of higher uranium prices in the future, either as a result of U.S. government purchases for the proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve or due to improved market fundamentals.

The Company completed the remaining uranium deliveries under all its long-term contracts in 2018. Therefore, all of the Company’s current uranium production and inventory is 100% unhedged, and all uranium sales in 2021 and beyond will be made on the spot market or pursuant to new long-term contracts to the extent such contracts may be available on satisfactory terms. While the Company does not currently forecast the need to complete any spot sales in 2021 for cash generation purposes, uranium inventories, along with expected uranium production in 2021, are expected to provide the Company with the flexibility to complete spot sales in 2021 in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve, or otherwise if market conditions warrant.

The Rare Earth Element Market

In 2020, the Company began evaluating the potential to process REEs at the White Mesa Mill. By October, the Company had produced a mixed REE carbonate, ready for separation, on a pilot scale from natural monazite ore. In December 2020, the Company announced that it had entered into an agreement with Chemours to acquire a minimum quantity of 2,500 tons of natural monazite ore per year for three years starting in 2021. The Company is currently evaluating selling all or a portion of the resulting carbonate to a buyer in Europe and/or stockpiling it for future separation at the Mill.

REEs are used in a variety of clean energy and advanced technologies. According to Roskill, most demand for REE’s is in the form of separated REEs, “as most end-use applications require only one or two separated rare earth compounds or products.” (Roskill, Rare Earths, Outlook to 2030, 20th Edition). The REE market is dominated by China, and according to 2018 data, controlled 68% of global primary production, 100% of global secondary production, and nearly all production of the “heavy” REEs, including terbium and dysprosium (Adames Intelligence).

The main uses for REEs include: (i) battery alloys; (ii) catalysts; (iii) ceramics, pigments and glazes; (iv) glass polishing powders and additives; (v) metallurgy and alloys; (vi) permanent magnets; (vii) phosphors; and (viii) others (Adames Intelligence). By volume, REEs permanent magnets (neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), dysprosium (Dy), and terbium (Tb)) and catalysts (cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) comprised 60% of total consumption, but over 90% of the value consumed.

REEs are comprised of 15 chemical elements, plus scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y). Plus, each individual REE may transact in a number of forms. Therefore, there is no single price for REEs, but numerous prices for individual REE oxides and compounds. The primary value that the Company expects to generate in the short- to medium-term will come from NdPr, Ce, and La. According to data from Asian Metal, NdPr oxide mid-point prices in China rose approximately 45% during 2020 from 282,500 RMB per metric tonne to 411,500 RMB per metric tonne. Ce oxide prices in Europe dropped 9% from $2.30/kg to $2.10/kg. La oxide prices in China dropped 18% from $1,830 per metric tonne to $1,495 per metric tonne.

As demand for clean energy technologies, including electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, and batteries, along with other advanced technologies, increases in the coming years, the Company expects demand and prices for REEs, particularly the ones mentioned above, to increase. Expected increases in supply sources for REEs are also expected to increase with expected rising REE prices, which is expected to have a moderating impact on price increases.
The Vanadium Market
The White Mesa Mill has historically recovered vanadium along with uranium from certain of its properties on the Colorado Plateau, including from the La Sal Project and Rim Mine, as well as from properties owned by third-parties on the Colorado Plateau through toll milling and similar arrangements, when the price of vanadium has been high enough to justify its recovery.
In December 2018, the Company commenced a campaign to recover V2O5 from existing tailings pond solutions at the Company’s White Mesa Mill, which resulted from past mineral processing operations. In early January 2019, the Company produced its first batches of vanadium concentrate, also known as “black flake.” This was Energy Fuels’ first vanadium
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production since 2013, and the first time the Company recovered vanadium from tailings pond solutions at the Mill. The Company produced vanadium through the end of 2019, recovering approximately 1.8 million pounds of high-quality V2O5 under this campaign, at which point production ceased due to weak vanadium market conditions. The Company did not sell material quantities of vanadium during 2020, and as of December 31, 2020, the Company holds approximately 1,672,000 pounds of vanadium in inventory.

Vanadium is a metallic element that, when converted into ferrovanadium (FeV) (an alloy of vanadium and iron), is used primarily as an additive to strengthen and harden steel. According to market consultant Roskill, over 90% of FeV is used in the steel industry. In addition, vanadium is used in the aerospace and chemical industries, and continues to see interest in energy storage technologies, including vanadium redox flow batteries. China is the largest global producer of vanadium, with additional production coming from Russia, South Africa, and Brazil (Roskill). Following a dramatic spike in prices in 2018, vanadium (as V2O5) prices were down sharply in 2019, with mid-point spot prices in Europe beginning the year at $15.50 per pound, and ending the year at $5.33 per pound, reaching a high of $17.38 per pound in February 2018 (Metal Bulletin) and a low of $4.73 per pound in October 2019. During 2020, vanadium prices rose slightly to $5.40 by the end of the year. The high spot price for the year was $7.13 per pound on February 14, 2020, and the low price for vanadium in 2020 was $5.10 per pound on November 6, 2020. As at March 12, 2021, Vanadium prices were $8.33 per pound.

According to Metal Bulletin, vanadium prices rose dramatically in the second half of 2018 due to anticipated increased demand in China which implemented new standards requiring increased quantities of vanadium in rebar. However, in late-2018, prices began to drop sharply “when market participants realized the enforcement of the revised rebar policy was not as stringent as had been expected and after steel mills increased their use of ferro-niobium to reduce consumption of more costly vanadium.” (Metal Bulletin, January 20, 2020). According to Roskill, 2020 was “characterized by an economic de-synchronisation between China and the rest of the world, with a wide divergence in terms of steel consumption and production.” (Roskill, Vanadium, niobium: Markets in 2020 – a China story, December 22, 2020). China’s steel production reached an all-time high due to stimulus and infrastructure spending, while the rest of the world suffered under COVID lockdowns (Ibid). Vanadium prices were supported in China due to “reverse substitution away from niobium.” (Ibid). Further Roskill projects tighter supply and higher demand for vanadium in 2021 and into 2022 as lockdowns are relaxed and vaccines become more widely distributed (Ibid).

During January 2020, Energy Fuels produced approximately 67,000 pounds of vanadium, as production was wound down from 2019. The Company did not sell any quantities of vanadium in 2020. The Company held approximately 1,672,000 pounds of vanadium in inventory at the end of 2020. Vanadium markets can be volatile; therefore, the Company expects to hold and sell this inventory into stronger markets in the future, or as cash requirements arise.
Competition
The uranium industry is highly competitive. The Company competes with mining and exploration companies for uranium sales, the acquisition of uranium mineral properties, and the procurement of equipment, materials and personnel necessary to explore, develop, and extract uranium from such properties. There is competition for a limited number of uranium acquisition opportunities, including competition with other companies having substantially greater financial resources, staff and facilities than the Company. As a result, the Company may encounter challenges in acquiring attractive properties, and exploring and advancing properties currently in the Company’s portfolio. In addition, Energy Fuels competes with other uranium recovery companies, along with traders, brokers, financial institutions, converters, enrichers, and other market actors, including some that are state-owned and state-subsidized, for uranium sales. Due to the Company’s limited capital and personnel and the relative size of its operations, the Company may be at a competitive disadvantage compared to some other companies with regards to exploration and, if warranted, development of mining properties and securing uranium sales. The Company believes that competition for acquiring mineral prospects and completing uranium sales will continue to be intense in the future.
The availability of funds for exploration, evaluation, permitting and construction of uranium projects is limited, and the Company may find it difficult to compete on an international scale with larger and more established uranium exploration and production companies for capital. The Company’s inability to continue exploration, advancement, and the acquisition of new properties due to lack of funding could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s future operations and financial position.

However, the Company believes it has a competitive advantage over its peers in the U.S. domestic uranium space to the extent it has diversified business opportunities, including its ability to produce vanadium as market conditions may warrant, its ability to recycle uranium through its alternate feed materials processing business, and its ability to recover REE carbonate, along with uranium, from monazite sand ores.


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Government Regulation
The Company’s properties and facilities are subject to extensive laws and regulations which are overseen and enforced by multiple federal, state and local authorities. These laws govern exploration, construction, extraction, recovery, processing, exports, various taxes, labor standards, occupational health and safety, waste disposal, protection and remediation of the environment, protection of endangered and protected species, toxic and hazardous substances, and other matters. Uranium minerals exploration, extraction, recovery, and processing are also subject to risks and liabilities associated with the perceived potential for impacts to the environment and disposal of waste products occurring as a result of such activities.
Compliance with these laws and regulations may impose substantial costs on the Company and will subject the Company to significant potential liabilities. Changes in these regulations could require the Company to expend significant resources to comply with new laws or regulations or changes to current requirements and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business operations. However, compliance with government regulations generally, including but not limited to environmental regulations, is an integral part of the Company’s day-to-day business and impacts virtually all of the Company’s capital expenditure and operating decisions at its facilities, as the Company’s facilities and operations must comply with this extensive array of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. The costs of compliance with these laws and regulations are therefore well understood and assumed by the Company in all of its capital budgeting decisions, project analyses and cost and earnings projections. As all of the Company’s competitors in the uranium mining industry in the U.S. face the same or similar regulatory requirements, the Company does not believe its need to comply with this extensive array of laws and regulations materially affects the Company’s competitive position within the U.S. uranium mining industry.
Environmental Regulations
Exploration, development, and extraction activities are subject to environmental regulations which may prevent or delay the continuance of our activities. In general, our exploration, evaluation, and extraction activities are subject to federal and state laws and regulations relating to environmental quality and pollution control. Such laws and regulations increase the costs of these activities and may prevent or delay the commencement or continuance of a given operation. Specifically, we are subject to legislation regarding emissions into the environment, water discharges, and storage and disposition of hazardous wastes. In addition, legislation has been enacted which requires facility sites to be reclaimed in accordance with such legislation. Compliance with these laws and regulations has not had a material effect on our operations or financial condition to date.
Uranium milling in the U.S. is primarily regulated by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (the “NRC”) pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Its primary function is to ensure the protection of employees, the public, and the environment from radioactive materials, and it also regulates most aspects of the uranium recovery process. The NRC regulations pertaining to uranium recovery facilities are codified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
On August 16, 2004, the State of Utah became an Agreement State for the regulation of uranium mills. This means that the primary regulator for the White Mesa Mill is now the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality (“UDEQ”) rather than the NRC. At that time, the Mill’s NRC Source Material License was transferred to the State of Utah and became a Radioactive Materials License (the “Radioactive Materials License”), which was renewed in January 2018 as Amendment #8 (Renewal), then reissued as a Revised Renewal on February 16, 2018, by UDEQ’s Division of Waste Management and Radiation Control (“DWMRC”). On April 15, 2020, the DWMRC reissued the License as Amendment #9 with an amended Condition 9.7, which was revised for the purpose of incorporating into the Radioactive Materials License applicable State of Utah requirements relating to antiquities, historic site and Native American grave protections and repatriation, as these requirements had previously been expressed in terms of equivalent provisions of federal law. Two alternate feed Applications for Amendment are currently pending approval by the DWMRC. The State of Utah incorporates, through its own regulations or by reference, all aspects of Title 10 pertaining to uranium recovery facilities. When the State of Utah became an Agreement State, it required that a Groundwater Discharge Permit (“GWDP”) be put in place for the White Mesa Mill. The GWDP is required for all similar facilities in the State of Utah, and specifically tailors the implementation of the state groundwater regulations to the Mill site. The State of Utah requires that every operating uranium mill have a GWDP, regardless of whether the facility discharges to groundwater. The GWDP for the Mill was finalized and implemented in March 2005, then renewed in January 2018 and modified as of March 8, 2021. The White Mesa Mill also maintains a permit approval for air emissions with the UDEQ, Division of Air Quality.

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Conventional uranium extraction is subject to regulation by a number of agencies including: (1) local county and municipal government agencies; (2) the applicable state divisions responsible for mining and protecting the environment within Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Wyoming; (3) the Bureau of Land Management (the “BLM”) and the United States Forest Service (the “USFS”) on public lands under their jurisdiction; (4) the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (“MSHA”); (5) the United States Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”) for radon emissions from underground mines; and (6) other federal agencies, including without limitation the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (“USFW”), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (“USACE”), and United States Department of Energy (“DOE”), where certain conditions exist. In addition, a uranium processing facility at the Sheep Mountain Project, if and when constructed, will be subject to regulation under the NRC, as a uranium processing facility and for permanent disposal of the resulting tailings.
The provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations that are applicable to uranium milling also apply to our ISR facilities in Wyoming and Texas. The Nichols Ranch Project and the Alta Mesa Project each have a Source Material License. The Nichols Ranch Source Material License was originally issued by the NRC; however, the State of Wyoming became an NRC Agreement State on September 30, 2018 and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (“WDEQ”) - Land Quality Division (“WDEQ-LQD”) subsequently assumed all management and oversight functions. Texas, an NRC Agreement State since 1963, issued the Alta Mesa Source Material License through its Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (“TCEQ”). ISR facilities are also regulated by the State of Wyoming and State of Texas, respectively, and the EPA under the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In addition, ISR wellfields require an Underground Injection Control (“UIC”) Permit under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as administered by the EPA. ISR operations are subject to regulations by the U.S. Occupational, Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”), rather than MSHA.

Reclamation bonds or the equivalent have been posted for each of the Company’s material properties that have structures or facilities. Energy Fuels is required to have export licenses issued by the NRC for its uranium exports, unless otherwise permissible pursuant to the White Mesa Mill’s existing Radioactive Materials License due to the nature of the material in question. Such licenses are obtained by the Company as required.
Land Tenure
The Company’s land holdings are held either by leases from the fee simple owners (private parties or the State) or unpatented mining claims located on property owned and managed by the U.S. Federal Government. Annual fees must be paid to maintain unpatented mining claims, but work expenditures are not required. Holders of unpatented mining claims are generally granted surface access to conduct mineral exploration and extraction activities. However, additional permits and plans are generally required prior to conducting exploration or mining activities on such claims.
On July 9, 2009, BLM issued a Notice of Proposed Withdrawal (“2009 Notice”) under which it proposed that a total of approximately one million acres of public lands around the Grand Canyon National Park be withdrawn from location and entry under the Mining Law of 1872 (the “Mining Law”), subject to valid existing rights. In the 2009 Notice, BLM stated that the purpose of the withdrawal, if determined to be appropriate, would be to protect the Grand Canyon watershed from any adverse effects of locatable hardrock mineral exploration and mining. The 2009 Notice segregated the lands from location and entry under the mining laws for up to two years to allow time for various studies and analyses, including appropriate NEPA analysis. In order to allow more time for BLM to complete its NEPA analysis, the U.S. Department of the Interior (the “DOI”) published Public Land Order 7773 on June 21, 2011, which effected a six-month emergency withdrawal of the area. The emergency withdrawal prevented the lands from being open to location and entry under the Mining Law upon expiration of the two-year segregation while the DOI completed the decision–making process on the proposed withdrawal. The emergency withdrawal was effective from July 21, 2011 to January 20, 2012. During the two-year segregation and six-month emergency withdrawal, the BLM, along with its cooperating agencies, completed various studies and analyses of resources in the withdrawal area, including an Environmental Impact Statement (“EIS”) under the National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”). These studies and analyses were undertaken to provide the basis for the final decision regarding whether to proceed with the proposed withdrawal or to select an alternative action. Based on this analysis, on January 9, 2012, the DOI announced its final decision to withdraw from location and entry under the Mining Law, subject to valid existing rights, the total of approximately one million acres of lands originally proposed in the 2009 Notice (the “Withdrawn Lands”), for a 20-year period. Lawsuits challenging this decision were filed by various industry groups and interested parties. In addition, legislation has been proposed in both the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate, which would make the withdrawal permanent, subject to preexisting rights. The Company will track the progress of this legislation.
As a result of the 2009 withdrawal from location and entry, no new mining claims may be staked on the Withdrawn Lands and no new Plans of Operations may be approved, other than Plans of Operations on mining claims that were valid at the time of withdrawal and that remain valid at the time of plan approval. Case law indicates that a miner establishes valid Congressionally provided rights under the Mining Law through certain unilateral acts, and that such acts are presumptively recognized as valid claims in which the holder has valid existing rights unless and until the DOI or U.S. Federal Courts declare otherwise.
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However, the Bureau of Land Management (the “BLM”) and USFS, each at their discretion, may perform a mineral examination and Mineral Report, which involves an economic evaluation of a project, in order to reflect an agency’s belief about certain mining claims that may be used in support of a future mining claim contest on the validity of existing rights. All the Company’s properties located on the Arizona Strip, with the exception of its Wate property and certain exploration properties held by the Company’s subsidiary, Arizona Strip Partners LLC, are located within the Withdrawn Lands. A mineral examination on the Company’s EZ Project will need to be completed by BLM, in conjunction with its review of the Company’s proposed Plan of Operations for that project. Mineral examinations were not required for the Company’s Arizona 1 and Pinenut projects, which had previously approved Plans of Operations and were previously active. Although the Company’s Pinyon Plain Project also has an approved Plan of Operations, and a mineral examination is not required, the USFS voluntarily performed a mineral examination on that Project in 2012 in order to clarify the agency’s own position on the underlying claims and concluded that the Pinyon Plain Project’s claims constituted valid existing rights (“VERs”). The USFS also concluded that no additional approvals were required on the Pinyon Plain Project that would trigger any further NEPA analysis as a major federal action.
The Company believes that all its material projects within the Withdrawn Lands are on valid mining claims that will each withstand a mineral examination. However, market conditions may postpone or prevent the performance of mineral examinations on certain properties and, if a mineral examination is performed on a property, there can be no guarantee that the mineral examination would not result in one of more of the Company’s mining claims being deemed invalid and/or that ongoing litigation challenging the validity of a VER determination would not result in the overturn of such determination, either of which could prevent a project from proceeding.

Former President Obama additionally designated the Bears Ears National Monument by executive order in December of 2016, which comprised 1.35 million acres of land in San Juan County, Utah. The designated land included a portion of County Road 258, which the Company relies on for access to its Daneros Project, and a property boundary that abutted the boundary of the White Mesa Mill and encompassed two water sampling sites the Company monitors for the Mill. In December 2017, former President Trump issued a Proclamation that amended former President Obama’s 2016 Proclamation and reduced the monument to two parcels encompassing a total of 201,876 acres, releasing 1.15 million acres. That Proclamation has been challenged in Federal Court. The closest boundaries of the reduced monument to any of the Company’s operations are approximately 6 miles from the White Mesa Mill and approximately 15 miles from the Daneros Project. On December 23, 2017, the Company issued a press release reiterating its past and present support of Bears Ears National Monument, and clarifying that the Company sought only minor adjustments to the original boundaries of the monument to prevent the boundary from directly abutting some of its existing operations, which were very minor adjustments, insignificant compared to the original size of the monument, and not a reflection of now former President Trump’s total reduction. However, it is possible that the Daneros Project and/or the White Mesa Mill could become subject to additional requirements, restrictions and costs if the original designation is upheld in Court, or reinstated by President Biden.
Employees
As of the date of this Annual Report, the Company and its subsidiaries have approximately 94 full-time employees, all of whom are employed through the Company’s wholly owned, indirectly held subsidiary Energy Fuels Resources (USA) Inc. We operate in established mining areas where we have found sufficient available personnel for our business plans.

The Company is dependent on key personnel and qualified and experienced employees to conduct its business, given its diversified business opportunities, including its ability to produce vanadium as market conditions may warrant, its ability to recycle uranium through its alternate feed materials processing business, and its ability to recover REE carbonate, along with uranium, from monazite sand ores, all of which businesses are currently unique to the Company among its peers. The Company’s compensation plans, including its Omnibus Equity Incentive Compensation Plan are designed to address the attraction and retention of personnel, through the grant of equity incentives, in addition to cash salaries. This allows the Company to provide attractive incentive packages to its employees, while at the same time preserving its cash resources during times of low commodity prices and standby operations at a number of its facilities. Further, under these plans, all equity compensation granted to employees vests over time, thereby providing a retention incentive for key employees. The Company also has a succession plan designed to identify and address gaps and risks associated with succession of key employees. In addition, as part of the Company’s ongoing efforts to develop and retain key employees, on August 20, 2020, the Company announced a number of changes to its management team in order to reduce costs, flatten the organizational structure, and focus on the ongoing growth of a new generation of U.S. uranium and REE professionals (See “2020 Corporate Developments”).
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Available Information
Detailed information about us is or will be contained in our annual reports on Form 10-K, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other reports, and amendments to those reports, that we file with or furnish to the SEC. The Company is a U.S. Domestic Issuer for SEC purposes, most of its shareholders are U.S. residents, the Company is required to report its financial results under U.S. GAAP and its primary trading market is the NYSE American. However, prior to January 1, 2016, we were a foreign private issuer subject to limited periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), so we did not file Forms 10-K or 10-Q prior to January 2016. All such Forms 10-K and 10-Q filed after January 1, 2016 are available free of charge on our website, www.energyfuels.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with or furnish such reports to the SEC. However, our website and any contents thereof should not be considered to be incorporated by reference into this document. In addition, all public filings, including Insider Reports, of the Company can be found on the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (“EDGAR”) platform, and on the Ontario Securities Commission’s System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval (“SEDAR”) and System of Electronic Disclosure by Insiders (“SEDI”). We will furnish copies of such reports free of charge upon written request to our Investor Relations department. You can contact our Investor Relations department at:
Energy Fuels Inc.
225 Union Blvd., Suite 600
Lakewood, Colorado, 80228
Tel: 303.974.2140
Fax: 303.974.2141
Toll Free: 1.888.864.2125
E-mail: investorinfo@energyfuels.com
Additionally, our Code of Ethics, Corporate Governance Manual, Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws, Charters of the Audit, Compensation, Governance & Nominating, and Environment, Health & Safety Committees, and certain Company policies are available on our website. We will furnish copies of such information free of charge upon written request to our Investor Relations department.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The following information pertains to the outlook and conditions currently known to Energy Fuels that could have a material impact on the financial condition of Energy Fuels. Other factors may arise in the future that are currently not foreseen by management of Energy Fuels that may present additional risks in the future, including risks which the Company currently feels are immaterial. Current and prospective security holders of Energy Fuels should carefully consider these risk factors.
Our failure to successfully address any of the risks and uncertainties described below could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or results of operations, and the trading price of our Common Shares may fluctuate widely. We cannot assure you that we will successfully or fully address these risks or other unknown risks that may affect our business.
Risks Related to our Industry
We are subject to the risks normally encountered by companies in the mineral extraction industry.
We are subject to the risks normally encountered by companies in the mineral extraction industry, such as:
the discovery of unusual, or unexpected geological formations;
accidental fires, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters;
unplanned power outages and water shortages;
controlling water and other similar mining hazards;
operating labor disruptions and labor disputes;
the ability to obtain suitable or adequate machinery, equipment, or labor;
our liability for potential pollution or other hazards; and
other known and unknown risks involved in the conduct of exploration, development, and operation of mines, extraction and recovery facilities, and mills, along with the market for uranium and vanadium.
The development of mineral properties is affected by many factors, including, but not limited to: the cost of operations; variations in the grade of mineralized material; fluctuations in metal markets; costs of extraction and processing equipment; availability of equipment and labor; labor costs and possible labor strikes; government regulations, including without limitation, regulations relating to taxes, royalties, allowable extraction or production, importing and exporting of minerals; foreign exchange; employment; worker safety; transportation; and environmental protection.
Our results of operations are significantly affected by the market price of uranium, vanadium and rare earth elements, which are cyclical and subject to substantial price fluctuations.
Our earnings and operating cash flow are and will be particularly sensitive to the long- and short-term changes in the market price of uranium, vanadium and REEs. Among other factors, these prices also affect the value of our resources, reserves, and inventories, as well as the market price of our Common Shares.

Market prices are affected by numerous factors beyond our control. With respect to uranium, such factors include, among others: demand for nuclear power; political and economic conditions in uranium producing and consuming countries; public and political response to a nuclear incident; reprocessing of used reactor fuel, the re-enrichment of depleted uranium tails and the enricher practice of underfeeding; sales of excess civilian and military inventories (including from the dismantling of nuclear weapons; the premature decommissioning of nuclear power plants; and from the build-up of Japanese utility uranium inventories as a result of the Fukushima incident) by governments and industry participants; uranium supply, including the supply from other secondary sources; production levels and costs of production, and government actions such as, potentially, those planned in the 2021 Budget and those taken pursuant to the 2021 Omnibus Spending Bill that appropriates funding for the proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve. With respect to vanadium, such factors include, among others: demand for steel; the potential for vanadium to be used in advanced battery technologies; political and economic conditions in vanadium producing and consuming countries; world production levels; and costs of production. With respect to REEs, such factors include, among others: demand for REEs; political and economic conditions in REE producing and consuming countries; REE-bearing ore supply from secondary sources; international interest in the purchase of REE carbonate, absent a U.S.-based separation facility; public and political response to REE initiatives at the White Mesa Mill; governmental investment in domestic REE infrastructure; world production levels; costs of production; risks associated with foreign governmental actions, policies, laws, rules and regulations, and foreign state subsidized enterprises, with respect to REE production and sales, which could impact REE prices available to the Company and impact our access to world and domestic markets for the supply of REE-bearing ores and the sale of REE carbonate and other REE products and services to world and domestic markets; and other government actions, including licensing and import requirements.

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Other factors relating to the price of uranium, vanadium and REEs include: levels of supply and demand for a broad range of industrial products; substitution of new or different products in critical applications for our existing products; expectations with respect to the rate of inflation; the relative strength of the U.S. dollar and of certain other currencies; interest rates; global or regional political or economic crises; regional and global economic conditions; and sales of uranium, vanadium and REE carbonate by holders in response to such factors. If prices are below our cash costs of extraction or recovery and remain at such levels for any sustained period, we may determine that it is not economically feasible to continue commercial extraction, recovery or processing at any or all of our projects or other facilities and may also be required to look for alternatives other than cash flow to maintain our liquidity until prices recover. Our expected levels of uranium recovery and business activity are dependent on our expectation and the industry’s expectations of uranium, vanadium and REE prices, which may not be realized or may change. In the event we conclude that a significant deterioration in expected future uranium prices has occurred, we will assess whether an impairment allowance is necessary which, if required, could be material.

The recent fluctuations in the price of many commodities is an example of a situation over which we have no control, and which could materially adversely affect us in a manner for which we may not be able to compensate. There can be no assurance that the price of any minerals recovered from or processed at our properties will be such that any deposits can be operated at a profit.

Our profitability is directly related to the market price of uranium, vanadium and REEs recovered. We may, from time to time, undertake commodity and currency hedging programs, with the intention of maintaining adequate cash flows and profitability to contribute to the long-term viability of the business. We anticipate selling forward in the ordinary course of business if, and when, we have sufficient assets and recovery to support forward sale arrangements, and forward sale arrangements are available on suitable terms. There are, however, risks associated with forward sale programs. If we do not have sufficient recovered product to meet our forward sale commitments, we may have to buy or borrow (for later delivery back from recovered product) sufficient product in the spot market to deliver under the forward sales contracts, possibly at higher prices than provided for in the forward sales contracts, or potentially default on such deliveries. In addition, under forward contracts, we may be forced to sell at prices that are lower than the prices that may be available on the spot market when such deliveries are completed. Although we may employ various pricing mechanisms within our sales contracts to manage our exposure to price fluctuations, there can be no assurance that such mechanisms will be successful. There can also be no assurance that we will be able to enter into term contracts for future sales of uranium, vanadium or REE carbonate at prices or in quantities that would allow us to successfully manage our exposure to price fluctuations.

Our properties do not contain Mineral Reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7, and many of the Company’s properties, projects, and facilities are not economic at today’s commodity prices.

Our properties do not contain any mineral reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7 (see “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource Estimates”). At current uranium and vanadium prices, many of our properties, projects, and facilities are not economic for uranium or vanadium extraction, recovery, or processing. At our Pinyon Plain Project, we are currently evaluating the possibility of recovering copper as a byproduct along with uranium and the impact of any recovered copper on the economics of that project at current uranium prices. We intend to continue to hold, and in certain cases advance, a number of those properties, projects, and facilities in anticipation of possible future increases in the prices of uranium and/or vanadium, as the case may be. However, there can be no assurance that uranium and/or vanadium prices will ever, or within a reasonable time period, increase to the levels required to advance those properties or, in the case of projects or facilities on standby, to resume exploration, extraction, recovery, or processing activities at those projects or facilities. Similarly, there can be no assurance that the value of any copper recovered as a byproduct at the Pinyon Plain Project will be sufficient to advance that project without increases in the price of uranium and/or copper. We continue to hold such properties, projects, and facilities because we believe that uranium and/or vanadium prices are likely to rise to such levels within a reasonable time period and that the Company could be able to demonstrate a significant copper credit at the Pinyon Plain Project, and the ability to maintain scalability as commodity prices increase is a key component of our business strategy. However, as there is a cost associated with holding and in some cases maintaining on standby such properties, projects, or facilities, we continuously evaluate, on a case-by-case basis, such costs against the prospects for price increases, and may from time to time sell, drop or reclaim any such properties, projects, or facilities. We have currently identified a number of non-core properties and projects that we may sell, drop, or reclaim depending on current market conditions.

Exploration, development, extraction, mining, recovery and milling of minerals, and the transportation and handling of the products recovered, are subject to extensive federal, state and local laws and regulations.

These regulations govern, among other things; acquisition of the property or mineral interests; maintenance of claims; tenure; expropriation; prospecting; exploration; development; construction; extraction and mining; recovery, processing, milling and production; price controls; exports; imports; taxes and royalties; labor standards; occupational health; waste disposal; toxic
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substances; water use; land use; Native American consultations and accommodations; environmental protection and remediation; endangered and protected species; mine, mill and other facility decommissioning and reclamation; mine safety; transportation safety and emergency response; and other matters. Compliance with such laws and regulations has increased the costs of exploring, drilling, developing, constructing, operating and closing of our mines, mills, plants and other extraction, recovery and processing facilities. It is possible that, in the future, the costs, delays and other effects associated with such laws and regulations may impact our decision as to whether to operate existing mines or facilities, or, with respect to exploration, development or construction properties, whether to proceed with exploration, development or construction, or that such laws and regulations may result in our incurring significant costs to remediate or decommission properties that do not comply with applicable environmental standards at such time. We expend significant financial and managerial resources to comply with such laws and regulations. We anticipate continuing to do so as the historic trend toward stricter government regulation may continue. There can be no assurance that future changes in applicable laws and regulations will not adversely affect our activities, operations or financial condition. New laws and regulations, amendments to existing laws and regulations or more stringent implementation of existing laws and regulations, including through stricter license and permit conditions, could have a material adverse impact on us, increase costs, cause a reduction in levels of, or suspension of, extraction or recovery and/or delay or prevent the construction or development of new mineral extraction properties.

Mineral extraction is subject to potential risks and liabilities associated with impacts to the environment and the disposal of waste products occurring as a result of mineral exploration, extraction, mining, recovery and production. Environmental liability may result from mining or mineral extraction activities conducted by others prior to our ownership of a property. Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and permitting requirements may result in enforcement actions. These actions may result in orders issued by regulatory or judicial authorities causing activities or operations to cease or be curtailed, and may include corrective measures requiring capital expenditures, installation of additional equipment or remedial actions. Companies engaged in uranium exploration operations may be required to compensate others who suffer loss or damage by reason of such activities and may have civil or criminal fines or penalties imposed for violations of applicable laws or regulations. Should we be unable to fully fund the cost of remedying an environmental problem, the Company might be required to suspend activities or operations, declare bankruptcy, or enter into interim compliance measures pending completion of the required remedy, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company. To the extent that we are subject to uninsured environmental liabilities, the payment of such liabilities would reduce otherwise available earnings and could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, we do not have coverage for environmental losses generally or for certain other risks as such coverage cannot be purchased at a commercially reasonable cost. Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations requires significant expenditures and increases mine and facility, construction, development and operating costs.

While the very heart of our business – uranium production, which is the fuel for carbon-free, emission-free baseload nuclear power – and our recycling programs, help address global climate change and reduce air pollution, the world’s focus on addressing climate change will require the Company to continue to conduct all of its operations in a manner that minimizes the use of resources, including the unnecessary use of energy resources, in order to continue to minimize air emissions at our facilities, which can also increase mine and facility, construction, development and operating costs. Regulatory and environmental standards may also change over time to address global climate change, which could further increase these costs.

With the recent change in administration, there is a risk that the new administration will not support mining, uranium mining, nuclear energy or other aspects of our business, including: not supporting the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve included in the COVID-Relief and Omnibus Spending Bill passed by the U.S. Congress in December 2020, or any or all of the other recommendations of the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group; and limiting, restricting or preventing the use of public lands for mining and other activities.

Worldwide demand for uranium is directly tied to the demand for electricity produced by the nuclear power industry, which is also subject to extensive government regulation and policies. The development of mineral properties and related facilities is contingent upon governmental approvals that are complex and time consuming to obtain and which, depending upon the location of the project, involve multiple governmental agencies. The duration and success of such approvals are subject to many variables outside of our control. Any significant delays in obtaining or renewing such permits or licenses in the future could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, the international marketing of uranium is subject to governmental policies and certain trade restrictions, such as those imposed by the suspension agreement between the United States and Russia. Changes in these policies and restrictions may adversely impact our business.

Public acceptance of nuclear energy and competition from other energy sources is unknown.

Growth of the uranium and nuclear industry will depend upon continued and increased acceptance of nuclear technology as an economic means of generating electricity. Because of unique political, technological and environmental factors that affect the nuclear industry, including the risk of a nuclear incident, the industry is subject to public opinion risks that could have an
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adverse impact on the demand for nuclear power and increase the regulation of the nuclear power industry. Nuclear energy competes with other sources of energy, including oil, natural gas, coal, hydro-electricity and renewable energy sources. These other energy sources are to some extent interchangeable with nuclear energy, particularly over the longer term. Sustained lower prices of oil, natural gas, coal and hydroelectricity may result in lower demand for uranium concentrates. Increased government regulation and technical requirements may make nuclear uneconomic, resulting in lower demand for uranium concentrates. Technical advancements and government subsidies in renewable and other alternate forms of energy, such as wind and solar power, could make these forms of energy more commercially viable and put additional pressure on the demand for uranium concentrates.

Unfavorable media coverage of mining or nuclear energy could negatively affect our business.

The Company is subject to media coverage relating to mining and the production of uranium and other forms of nuclear energy, some of which can be inaccurate, non-objective or politically motivated. As a result, the Company is frequently required to address or respond to such media coverage, which can be costly and time-consuming for the Company. Such inaccurate and non-objective media coverage can also negatively impact public perception of the Company’s activities, the market for the Company’s securities, government relations, permitting activities and legal challenges.

The uranium industry is highly competitive.

The international uranium industry, including the supply of uranium concentrates, is competitive. We market uranium in direct competition with supplies available from a relatively small number of uranium mining companies, from nationalized uranium companies, from uranium produced as a byproduct of other mining operations, from excess inventories, including inventories made available from decommissioning of nuclear weapons, from reprocessed uranium and plutonium, from used reactor fuel, and from the use of excess Russian enrichment capacity to re-enrich depleted uranium tails. A large quantity of current world production is foreign state subsidized and appears to be relatively inelastic, in that uranium market prices appear to have little effect on the quantity supplied. In the case of foreign state subsidized production, uranium production may not be fully subject to market factors and may be sold at prices that may be less than the cost of production. The supply of uranium from Russia is, to some extent, impeded by a number of international trade agreements and policies. These agreements and any similar future agreements, governmental policies or trade restrictions are beyond our control and may affect the supply of uranium available in the United States and Europe.

We compete with other mining companies and individuals for capital, mineral resources and reserves, and other mining assets, which may increase the cost of acquiring suitable claims, properties and assets, and we also compete with other mining companies to attract and retain key executives, employees and consultants. In addition, there are relatively few customers for uranium. There can be no assurance that we will continue to be able to compete successfully with our competitors in acquiring such properties and assets or in attracting and retaining skilled and experienced employees.

Mining operations involve a high degree of risk.

The exploration, construction, development, operation, and other activities associated with mineral projects, along with the expansion of existing recovery operations and mining activities and restarting of projects, involve significant risks, including financial, technical, and regulatory risk. Development or advancement of any of the exploration properties in which we have an interest will only follow upon obtaining satisfactory exploration results, project permitting and licensing, and financing. The exploration, construction, development, operation and other activities associated with mineral projects involves significant financial risks over an extended period of time, which even a combination of careful evaluation, experience and knowledge may not eliminate. While discovery of a mine or other facility may result in substantial rewards, few properties which are explored are ultimately developed into producing mines or extraction or recovery facilities. Major expenses may be required to establish mineral resources and mineral reserves by drilling and to finance, permit, license, and construct extraction, mining, recovery and processing facilities. It is impossible to ensure that the current or proposed exploration, permitting, construction, or development programs on our mineral properties will result in a profitable commercial extraction, mining, or recovery operations.

Whether a mineral deposit will be commercially viable depends on a number of factors, which include, among other things: the accuracy of resource and reserve estimates; the particular attributes of the deposit, such as its size, geology and grade; the ability to economically recover commercial quantities of the minerals; proximity to infrastructure and availability of personnel; financing costs; governmental regulations, including regulations relating to prices, taxes, royalties; the potential for litigation; land use; importing and exporting; and environmental and cultural protection. The construction, development, expansion and restarting of projects are also subject to: the successful completion of engineering studies; the issuance of necessary governmental permits; the availability of adequate financing; engineering and construction timetables and capital costs being
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correctly estimated for our projects, including restarting projects on standby; and such construction timetables and capital costs not being affected by unforeseen circumstances. The effect of these factors cannot be accurately predicted, but the combination of these factors, along with others, may result in our not receiving an adequate return on invested capital.

It is possible that actual costs and economic returns of current and new extraction, mining, or recovery operations may differ materially from our best estimates. It is not unusual in the mining industry for new mining operations and facilities to experience unexpected problems during the start-up phase, take much longer than originally anticipated to bring into a recovery or producing phase, require more capital than anticipated, operate at a higher cost than expected, and/or have reclamation liabilities which are higher than expected.

There can be no assurance that as the Company mines its properties, or disposes of properties, the reduction of existing mineral resources through depletion or sales, will be replaced with new resources of comparable value.

There is uncertainty in the estimation of mineral reserves and mineral resources.

Our properties do not contain any mineral “reserves” as defined under Industry Guide 7. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource Estimates.

Mineral reserves and resources are statistical estimates of mineral content pursuant to Canadian National Instrument 43-101, based on limited information acquired through drilling and other sampling methods, and require judgmental interpretations of geology. Successful extraction requires safe and efficient mining and processing. Our mineral reserves and resources are estimates, and no assurance can be given that the estimated reserves and resources are accurate or that the indicated level of uranium or vanadium will be produced economically or otherwise. Such estimates are, in large part, based on interpretations of geological data obtained from drill holes and other sampling techniques. Actual mineralization or formations may be different from those predicted. Further, it may take many years from the initial phase of drilling before production is possible, and during that time the economic feasibility of exploiting a discovery may change.

Mineral reserve and resource estimates for properties that have not commenced extraction, production or recovery are based, in many instances, on limited and widely spaced drill-hole information, which is not necessarily indicative of the conditions between and around drill holes. Accordingly, such mineral resource and reserve estimates may require revision as more drilling information becomes available or as actual extraction, production or recovery experience is gained. It should not be assumed that all or any part of our mineral resources constitutes, or will be converted into, “reserves.” Market price fluctuations of uranium or vanadium as applicable, as well as increased production and capital costs or reduced recovery rates, may render our proven and probable reserves unprofitable to develop at a particular site or sites for periods of time or may render mineral reserves containing relatively lower grade mineralization uneconomic.

Opposition to mining may disrupt our business activities.

In recent years, governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, individuals, communities and courts have become more vocal and active with respect to their opposition to certain mining and business activities including with respect to production and uranium recovery at our facilities, such as the White Mesa Mill and the Pinyon Plain Project. This opposition may take on forms such as road blockades, applications for injunctions seeking to cease certain construction, development, extraction, mining and/or milling or recovery activities, refusals to grant access to lands or to sell lands on commercially viable terms, lawsuits for damages or to revoke or modify licenses and permits, issuances of unfavorable laws and regulations, and other rulings contrary to our interests. These actions can occur in response to current activities or in respect of mines or facilities that are decades old. In addition, these actions can occur in response to our activities or the activities of other unrelated entities. Opposition to our activities may also result from general opposition to nuclear energy and mining. Opposition to our business activities are beyond our control. Any opposition to our business activities may cause a disruption to our business activities and may result in increased costs, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We are subject to technical innovation and obsolescence in the uranium industry.

Requirements for our products and services may be affected by technological changes in nuclear reactors, enrichment, and used uranium fuel reprocessing. These technological changes could reduce the demand for uranium. The cost competitiveness of our operations may be impacted through the development and commercialization of other uranium mining, milling, processing and other technologies. As a result, our competitors may adopt technological advancements that give them an advantage over the Company.

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Mining, extraction, recovery, processing, construction, development, and exploration activities depend, to a substantial degree, on adequate infrastructure.

Reliable roads, bridges, power sources, and water supply are important determinants affecting capital and operating costs. We consider the existing infrastructure to be adequate to support our proposed operations and activities. However, unusual or infrequent weather phenomena including drought, sabotage, government, or other interference in the maintenance or provision of such infrastructure could adversely affect our operations and activities, financial condition and results of operations.

Mining, mineral extraction, recovery and milling are subject to a high degree of risk, and we are not insured to cover against all potential risks.

Our operations and activities are subject to all of the hazards and risks normally incidental to exploration, construction, development, extraction and mining of mineral properties, and recovery, processing and milling, including: environmental hazards; industrial accidents; labor disputes, disturbances and unavailability of skilled labor; encountering unusual or unexpected geologic formations; rock bursts, pressures, cave-ins, flooding; periodic interruptions due to inclement or hazardous weather conditions; technological and processing problems, including unanticipated metallurgical difficulties, ground control problems, process upsets and equipment malfunctions; the availability and/or fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and consumables used in our production and recovery processes; the ability to procure mining and other equipment and operating and other supplies in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis; and other extraction, mining, recovery, milling, and processing risks, as well as risks associated with our dependence on third parties in the provision of transportation and other critical services. Many of the foregoing risks and hazards could result in damage to, or destruction of, our mineral properties or processing or recovery facilities, personal injury or death, environmental damage, delays in or interruption of or cessation of extraction, mining, production and recovery from our mines or processing facilities or in our exploration, construction or development activities, delay in or inability to receive regulatory approvals to transport our uranium concentrates, or costs, monetary losses and potential legal liability and adverse governmental action. In addition, due to the radioactive nature of the materials handled in uranium extraction, mining, recovery, and processing, additional costs and risks are incurred by us on a regular and ongoing basis.

While we may obtain insurance against certain risks in such amounts as we consider adequate, the nature of these risks are such that liabilities could exceed policy limits or could be excluded from coverage. There are also risks against which we cannot insure or against which we may elect not to insure. The potential costs which could be associated with any liabilities not covered by insurance or in excess of insurance coverage or compliance with applicable laws and regulations may cause substantial delays and require significant capital outlays, adversely affecting our future earnings, financial position and competitive position. No assurance can be given that such insurance will continue to be available or will be available at economically feasible premiums or that it will provide sufficient coverage for losses related to these or other risks and hazards. This lack of insurance coverage could result in material economic harm to us.

Risks associated with our REE business.

There are a number of risks inherent to our REE activities, which include the following:

The risk of achieving and maintaining an adequate supply of monazite sands for processing at the White Mesa Mill. The Company does not currently own its own monazite-bearing mines and is completely dependent on contractual arrangements for its REE feed sources. There can be no guarantee that the Company will be able to secure adequate monazite supply over the long-term at suitable prices. In addition, the price the Company may be required to pay for monazite sands is subject to the risk of influence by foreign policy and/or foreign state-owned enterprises. We will evaluate potential joint ventures with mine owners but there can be no guarantee that any joint ventures can be realized on acceptable terms. Further, to the extent the Company is required to purchase monazite ore sources and rely on REE separation facilities located outside the United States, we may be at a transportation cost disadvantage compared to processing facilities in China or elsewhere that may be closer to potential ore sources and/or REE separation facilities;
The risk of being able to contract to sell the White Mesa Mill’s REE product at satisfactory prices. The Company intends to secure potential sales contracts with one or more REE separation facilities for the sale of the REE carbonate produced at the Mill, but there can be no guarantee that any such contracts will be entered into on satisfactory terms, or at all, in the future. If the Company is not able to secure adequate contracts for the sale of its REE carbonate, we may be required to hold our carbonate in inventory until it can be sold at reasonable prices, which would require the commitment of the Company’s cash resources while the REE product is being held in inventory. We would also bear the risk that the REE product may not be able to be sold at reasonable prices in the future, either due to a lack of a market for the purchase of our REE carbonate, and/or a reduction in REE commodity prices and hence a reduction in the value of the carbonate. We anticipate that the U.S. government may take steps to support the development of a U.S.
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supply chain for REEs through price support or other mechanisms, but there can be no guarantee that any such support will be given, or if given, would benefit the Company.
The risk of process failures in the production of REE carbonates such as the ability of the Company to produce REE Carbonate to meet commercial specifications on a commercial scale at acceptable costs, which could delay the expected commencement of commercial production of REE carbonate at the Mill in 2021 or prevent the commercial production of REE carbonate cost-competitively or at all;
The risk that we may not be able to increase our sources of natural monazite sands or other ores in amounts sufficient to result in cost competitive production of REE carbonate at the Mill;
The inability of the Company to successfully or cost-competitively process other types of REE and uranium bearing ores at the Mill produced from coal-based resources;
The inability of the Company to construct and operate an REE separation facility, and potentially other downstream REE activities, including metal-making and alloying, in the future at the Mill or elsewhere in the United States; and
The risk of permit and license challenges or the failure to obtain any needed permit or license amendments. The Mill can produce REE carbonate, along with uranium, from natural uranium- and REE-bearing monazite sand ores, but additional licensing may be required to permit and construct a separation facility and potential REE metal and metal alloy facilities at the Mill. The existing licensing regime and any new permits or licenses or amendments that may be required are subject to challenge, which could delay or prevent existing production or any new construction, as well as any separation and other activities.

Risks Relating to our Regulatory Environment

The SEC’s adoption of the “Modernization of Property Disclosures for Mining Registrants” creates uncertainty related to the Company’s existing NI 43-101 reserves and resources and may result in increased compliance costs for the Company.

The New Rule will rescind Industry Guide 7 when all registrants are required to comply with the new rules. The New Rule will require the Company to disclose specific information related to its material mining operations including concerning its mineral resources and mineral reserves. While the New Rule has similarities with NI 43-101, the Company may be required to update or revise all existing technical reports which may result in revisions (either upward or downward) to the Company’s reserves and resources. In addition, the New Rule is subject to unknown interpretations, which could require the Company to incur substantial costs associated with compliance. If the Company fails to come into compliance with the New Rule, it could be subject to enforcement actions by the SEC. The Company cannot predict the nature of any future enforcement, interpretation, or application of the New Rule. Any further revisions to, or interpretations of, the New Rule could result in the Company incurring unforeseen costs associated with compliance.

We are a “smaller reporting company” and, therefore, certain reduced disclosure and other requirements are available to us.

Currently, we are a “smaller reporting company” meaning we have (i) less than $100 million in annual revenues and our public float is less than $700 million or (ii) we have a public float less than $250 million. As a “smaller reporting company,” we may provide certain scaled disclosures, although the Company has elected not to avail itself of all of the scaled disclosure options available to “smaller reporting companies” at this time.

Our future business and results of operations face uncertainties as a result of any action or inaction of the U.S. Government pursuant to the 2021 Omnibus Spending Bill that appropriates funding for a proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve, and any further evaluations by the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group.

On December 27, 2020, the COVID-Relief and Omnibus Spending Bill, which includes $75 million for the proposed establishment of a strategic U.S. Uranium Reserve, was signed into law. Because the U.S. Uranium Reserve has yet to be established at this time, however, there can be no certainty as to the outcome of a Uranium Reserve, if any, including the process for and details of its development, or for any further evaluations of the U.S. Nuclear Fuel Working Group established in July 2019 to “develop recommendations for reviving and expanding domestic nuclear fuel production.” If the required appropriations passed by Congress are deferred, or if they are implemented in a way that does not provide the required support for the Company’s activities, and uranium and vanadium markets do not improve and/or the Company’s REE initiatives are not adequate to otherwise sustain the Company’s other business activities, we may further reduce our operational activities and monetize certain non-core conventional mining assets as required in order to minimize our cash expenditures while preserving our core asset base for increased production in the future as market conditions may warrant.



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Participation in Industry Trade Petition and related activities could have negative repercussions.

The Company previously participated in the filing of a Petition for Relief with the U.S. Department of Commerce (“DOC”) under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (as amended) From Imports of Uranium Products that Threaten U.S. National Security (the “Section 232 Petition”), which resulted in the establishment of the Working Group on July 12, 2019 to study U.S. nuclear fuel production, including uranium mining, in order “to develop recommendations for reviving and expanding domestic nuclear fuel production” and to “reinvigorate the entire nuclear fuel supply chain, consistent with United States national security and nonproliferation goals.” Based on recommendations from the Working Group, the U.S. Congress included in its COVID-Relief and Omnibus Spending Bill, which was signed into law on December 27, 2020, $75 million for the proposed establishment of a strategic U.S. Uranium Reserve. See “Proposed Establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve and Working Group Update.”

Although the Company believes this bipartisan appropriation is a significant accomplishment that will ultimately strengthen the U.S. uranium mining industry, bolster national defense, and improve supply diversification for U.S. utilities and their customers, there is a risk that such funds will not be allocated in a way that benefits the Company, a risk that the proposed U.S. Uranium Reserve will not be established, or will see a delay in its establishment, and the potential for negative responses or repercussions to these activities from various special interest groups, government entities, consumers of uranium and participants in other phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, both domestically and abroad, which could have a negative impact on the Company and its operations. In addition, the costs of pursuing such actions have been and could continue to be significant. It should also be noted that there can be no certainty as to the any further recommendations of the Working Group, and therefore its influence on the U.S. Congress and uranium industry going forward is uncertain.

Participation in the renewal of the Russian Suspension Agreement and related activities could have negative repercussions.

In October 2020, the DOC and State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, on behalf of the Government of the Russian Federation, signed an amendment (the “Amendment”) to the “Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Uranium from the Russian Federation” (the “Agreement”), thereby extending limitations on the import of Russian low-enriched uranium into the U.S. for use as fuel for nuclear reactors until the year 2040 and tightening restrictions in order to close loopholes identified in the original Agreement. The Company participated with the DOC in its efforts to secure the Amendment as an advocate for domestic uranium producers, which has the potential for negative responses or repercussions to these activities from various special interest groups, government entities, consumers of uranium and participants in other phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, both domestically and abroad, which could have a negative impact on the Company and its operations.

Our business is subject to extensive environmental regulations that may make exploring, mining, or related activities expensive, and which may change at any time.

We are required to comply with environmental protection laws and regulations and permitting requirements promulgated by federal agencies and various states and counties in which we operate and conduct our activities, in connection with extraction, mining, recovery and milling operations. The uranium industry is subject not only to the worker health and safety and environmental risks associated with all mining activities, but also to additional risks uniquely associated with uranium extraction, mining, recovery, and milling. We expend significant resources, both financial and managerial, to comply with these laws and regulations. The possibility of more stringent regulations exists in the areas of worker health and safety, storage of hazardous materials, standards for heavy equipment used in extraction, mining, recovery or milling, the disposition of wastes, the decommissioning and reclamation of exploration, extraction, mining, recovery, milling and in-situ sites, climate change and other environmental matters, each of which could have a material adverse effect on the cost or the viability of a particular project.

We cannot predict what environmental legislation, regulations or policies will be enacted or adopted in the future or how future laws and regulations will be administered or interpreted. The recent trend in environmental legislation and regulation is generally toward stricter standards, and this trend is likely to continue in the future. This recent trend includes, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to air and water quality, mine and other facility reclamation, waste handling and disposal, the protection of certain species and the preservation of certain lands. These regulations may require the acquisition of permits or other authorizations for certain activities. These laws and regulations may also limit or prohibit activities on certain lands. Compliance with more stringent laws and regulations, as well as potentially more vigorous enforcement policies, stricter interpretation of existing laws and stricter permit and license conditions, may necessitate significant capital outlays, may materially affect our results of operations and business or may cause material changes or delays in our intended activities. There can be no assurance of our continued compliance or ability to meet stricter environmental laws and regulations and permit or license conditions. Delays in obtaining permits and licenses could impact expected production levels or increases in expected uranium extraction levels.
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Our operations may require additional analysis in the future including environmental, cultural, and social impact and other related studies. Certain activities require the submission and approval of environmental impact assessments. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to obtain or maintain all necessary permits that may be required to continue operations or exploration and development of our properties or, if feasible, to commence construction, development, operation or other activities relating to mining facilities at such properties on terms that enable operations or activities to be conducted at economically justifiable costs. If we are unable to obtain or maintain, licenses, permits or other rights for construction or development of our properties, or otherwise fail to manage adequately future environmental issues, our uranium recovery operations and mining activities could be materially and adversely affected.

In December 2016, former President Obama designated the Bears Ears National Monument by executive order, which comprises 1.35 million acres of land in San Juan County, Utah. As originally mapped, the monument boundary was on the western property line of the White Mesa Mill, and the western monument boundary was very close to the permit boundary of the Daneros Mine, which could impact access to the mine. A National Monument created on land where our projects are sited, or near the Company’s projects, along with any resulting changes to rules or regulations, could significantly adversely impact any of our material projects and could have a material adverse impact on the Company.

The former Trump administration subsequently modified the designation of the Bears Ears National Monument on December 4, 2017 through Presidential Proclamation, which took effect on February 2, 2018. The revised boundaries have been moved well away from the White Mesa Mill property boundary as well as the Daneros Mine permit boundary. This revision of the monument boundaries is currently under legal challenge, but the Company does not expect that action to interfere with its operations or activities. Under the current administration, there is a risk that the boundaries of the monument may be changed, including changed to their original locations abutting the White Mesa Mill property boundary and close to the permit boundary of the Daneros Mine, which could adversely impact those properties.

The new or lasting impacts of the USMCA (formerly NAFTA) on the Company remain unclear, and any action by President Biden to withdraw from or materially modify certain other international trade agreements in the future could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, to the extent dependent on the jurisdiction of our incorporation.

Although our primary trading market is the NYSE American, we have a majority of U.S. resident shareholders, are a U.S. Domestic Issuer for SEC purposes, and all of our assets, operations and employees are in the U.S., the Company is incorporated in Ontario, Canada. On September 30, 2018, trade representatives acting on behalf of the U.S., Mexico and Canada renegotiated the terms of the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) in what is known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (“USMCA”), which entered into force on July 1, 2020 after being approved by the U.S. Congress. At this time, the new or lasting impacts of the USMCA on the Company remain unclear. In addition, if President Biden takes action to withdraw from or materially modify certain other international trade agreements, and such actions depend on the jurisdiction of our incorporation, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could possibly be adversely affected, depending on the nature of the action.

Possible amendments to the General Mining Law could make it more difficult or impossible for us to execute our business plan.

Members of the United States Congress have repeatedly introduced bills which would supplant or alter the provisions of the United States Mining Law of 1872, as amended. Such bills have proposed, among other things, to (i) either eliminate or greatly limit the right to a mineral patent; (ii) significantly alter the laws and regulations relating to uranium mineral development and recovery from unpatented and patented mining claims; (iii) impose a federal royalty on production from unpatented mining claims; (iv) impose time limits on the effectiveness of plans of operation that may not coincide with mine or facility life; (v) impose more stringent environmental compliance and reclamation requirements on activities on unpatented mining claims; (vi) establish a mechanism that would allow states, localities and Native American tribes to petition for the withdrawal of identified tracts of federal land from the operation of the U.S. general mining laws; and (vii) allow for administrative determinations that mining or similar activities would not be allowed in situations where undue degradation of the federal lands in question could not be prevented. If enacted, such legislation could change the cost of holding unpatented mining claims and could significantly impact our ability to develop locatable mineral resources on our patented and unpatented mining claims. Although it is impossible to predict at this point what any legislated royalties might be, enactment could adversely affect the potential for construction and development and the economics of existing operating mines and facilities. Passage of such legislation could adversely affect our financial performance.

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In addition to the withdrawal noted in the previous risk factor, there are currently other designated or proposed withdrawals of federal lands for the purposes of mineral location and development and proposed designations of national monuments which would have a similar effect as a withdrawal. While such proposals are not yet final and would require further federal action, if they were to occur, it is uncertain whether any such withdrawals or designations would affect in any manner our current mineral projects.

Risks Related to Our Business

Because the probability of an individual prospect ever having “reserves” as defined by the SEC Industry Guide 7 is not known, our properties may not contain any “reserves,” and any funds spent on exploration may be lost.

We have no “reserves” as defined by SEC Industry Guide 7. Because the probability of an individual prospect ever having “reserves” as defined by SEC Industry Guide 7 is uncertain, our properties may not contain any “reserves,” and any funds spent on exploration, construction, development, extraction, and recovery may be lost. We do not know with certainty that economically recoverable uranium exists on any of our properties as defined by SEC Industry Guide 7. Further, although we are undertaking uranium extraction activities at our White Mesa Mill, our lack of established reserves means that we are uncertain as to our ability to continue to generate revenue from our operations. We may never discover uranium in commercially exploitable quantities and any identified deposit may never qualify as a commercially mineable “reserve.” We will continue to attempt to acquire the surface and mineral rights on lands that we think are geologically favorable or where we have historical information in our possession that indicates uranium mineralization might be present.

The exploration and, if warranted, construction relating to or development of mineral deposits involves significant financial and other risks over an extended period of time, which even a combination of careful evaluation, experience and knowledge may not eliminate. Few properties which are explored are ultimately developed into producing mines. Major expenditures are required to establish reserves by drilling and to construct mining and processing facilities at a site. Our uranium properties are all classified under SEC Industry Guide 7 to be at the “exploration” stage and do not contain any “reserves” at this time. It is impossible to ensure that the current or proposed exploration programs and other activities on properties in which we have an interest will result in the delineation of mineral “reserves” or in profitable commercial operations. Our operations and activities are subject to the hazards and risks normally incident to exploration and production of uranium, precious and base metals, any of which could result in damage to life or property, environmental damage and possible legal liability for such damage. While we may obtain insurance against certain risks, the nature of these risks is such that liabilities could exceed policy limits or could be excluded from coverage. There are also risks against which we cannot insure or against which we may elect not to insure. The potential costs which could be associated with any liabilities not covered by insurance, or in excess of insurance coverage, or compliance with applicable laws and regulations may cause substantial delays and require significant capital outlays, adversely affecting our future earnings and competitive position and, potentially our financial viability.

The White Mesa Mill has historically been run on a campaign basis as sufficient feed materials are available, and there can be no assurance that sufficient mill feed will be available in the future to sustain future campaigns.

The White Mesa Mill has historically operated on a campaign basis, whereby mineral processing occurs as mill feed, cash needs, contract requirements, and/or market conditions may warrant. Each milling campaign is subject to receipt of sufficient mill feed that would allow us to operate the Mill on a profitable basis and/or recover a portion of its standby costs.

At current uranium and vanadium prices, none of the Company’s conventional mines were active in 2020; all such conventional properties are either on standby, in the evaluation and permitting phase, or inactive, and no third-party conventional properties are operating to provide mill feed. In times of depressed commodity prices, when conventional mine production is on standby, the Mill has relied primarily on processing alternate feed materials. The Company continuously seeks to identify and secure additional alternate feed materials and other sources of mill feed, such as materials from the clean-up of abandoned uranium mine sites. The Company is also in the process of ramping up for the planned commercial production of REE carbonate at the Mill in 2021. However, there can be no assurance that sufficient conventional ores, alternate feed materials, suitable tailings pond solutions and/or other sources of mill feed will be available in the future, or that our planned production of REE carbonate will be successful, so as to allow us to operate the White Mesa Mill on a profitable basis and/or recover a portion of the Mill’s standby costs at any time.

Our prior term sales contracts for a portion of our recovered uranium have expired, with no new long-term contracts for the sale of uranium or vanadium made in 2020 or to date in 2021, and there can be no guarantee that we will be able to enter into new term sales contracts in the future on suitable terms and conditions.

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All the Company’s existing long-term sales contracts for a portion of our recovered uranium expired following the Company’s final April 1, 2018 deliveries. The Company did not enter into any new long-term contracts for the sale of uranium or vanadium in 2019, 2020 or, as of the date of this Form 10-K, in 2021, and there can be no guarantee that the Company will be able to enter into long-term contracts for the delivery of a sufficient amount of uranium, vanadium or REE carbonate at satisfactory prices in the future. The failure to enter into new term sales contracts on suitable terms could adversely impact our operations and mining activity decisions and resulting cash flows and income.

Vanadium mineral resource estimates for the La Sal Complex are based in part on the Company’s White Mesa Mill production records.

For the Company’s La Sal Complex uranium-vanadium property, vanadium assay results are not available for all drill holes such that the vanadium mineral resource estimate is in part based on a ratio of vanadium to uranium supported by actual mill production records from the Company’s White Mesa Mill. There is a risk that the use of a ratio based on mill production records may increase the potential uncertainty in vanadium grades.

We may be unable to timely pay our outstanding debt obligations, which may result in us losing some of our assets covered by mortgage and/or other security arrangements, and which may adversely affect our assets, results of operations, and future prospects.

We may from time to time enter into arrangements to borrow money in order to fund our operations and expansion plans, and such arrangements may include covenants that restrict our business in some way. We may also from time to time acquire properties whereby certain payment obligations owed to the seller are paid by us over time, with the seller’s sole remedy for non-payment by us being re-acquisition of the property. Events may occur in the future, including events out of our control that would cause us to fail to satisfy our debt or financing instruments. In such circumstances, or if we were to default on our obligations under such debt or financing instruments, the amounts drawn in accordance with the underlying agreements may become due and payable before the agreed maturity date, and we may not have the financial resources to repay such amounts when due.

Although most, but not all, of our reclamation obligations are bonded, and cash and other assets have been reserved to secure a portion but not all of this bonded amount, to the extent the bonded amounts are not fully collateralized, we will be required to provide additional cash to perform our reclamation obligations when they occur. In addition, the bonding companies have the right to require increases in collateral at any time, failure of which would constitute a default under the bonds. In such circumstances, we may not have the financial resources to perform such reclamation obligations or to increase such collateral when due.

We may need additional financing in connection with the implementation of our business and strategic plans from time to time.

The exploration, construction and development of mineral properties and the ongoing operation of mines and other facilities requires a substantial amount of capital and may depend on our ability to obtain financing through joint ventures, debt financing, equity financing or other means. We may accordingly need further capital in order to take advantage of further opportunities or acquisitions. Our financial condition, general market conditions, volatile uranium and vanadium markets, volatile interest rates, legal claims against us, a significant disruption to our business or operations, or other factors may make it difficult to secure financing necessary for the expansion of mining activities or to take advantage of opportunities for acquisitions. Further, continuing volatility in the credit markets may increase costs associated with debt instruments due to increased spreads over relevant interest rate benchmarks, or may affect our ability, or the ability of third parties we seek to do business with, to access those markets. Continued volatility in equity markets, specifically including energy and commodity markets, may increase the costs associated with equity financings due to a low share price, and the potential need to offer higher discounts and other value (e.g., warrants). There is no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining required financing as and when needed on acceptable terms, if at all.

We have experienced negative cash flows from operations and may need additional financing in connection with the implementation of our business and strategic plans from time to time.

The Company has had negative cash flow from operations in prior years, and at low commodity prices a number of our mining properties will be on standby, making it less likely that the Company will be able to generate positive cash flows from operations. If the Company cannot generate positive cash flows from operations, its ability to fund its operations and implement its business plans may depend on its ability to obtain financing through joint ventures, debt financing, equity financing or other means. There can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve and maintain positive cash flow from operations to fund our
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financing needs. Further, if cash flows from operations are negative, there is no assurance that the Company will be able to raise additional funds, if needed, or that if any such additional funds are raised, that the Company will be able to raise such funds on commercially attractive terms. If we do not achieve positive cash flows or are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may not be able to continue to fund our operations.

We are subject to costs associated with decommissioning and reclamation of our properties.

As owner and operator of the White Mesa Mill, the Nichols Ranch Project, the Alta Mesa Project, and numerous uranium and uranium/vanadium projects and other facilities located in the United States and certain permitting, construction, development and exploration properties, and for so long as we remain an owner thereof, we are obligated to eventually reclaim or participate in the reclamation of such properties. Most, but not all, of our reclamation obligations are bonded, and cash and other assets have been reserved to secure a portion, but not all, of this bonded amount. Although our financial statements will record a liability for the asset retirement obligation, and the bonding requirements are generally periodically reviewed by applicable regulatory authorities, there can be no assurance or guarantee that the ultimate cost of such reclamation obligations will not exceed the estimated liability to be provided on our financial statements. Further, to the extent the bonded amounts are not fully collateralized, we will be required to come up with additional cash to perform our reclamation obligations when they occur.

Decommissioning plans for our properties have been filed with applicable regulatory authorities. These regulatory authorities have accepted the decommissioning plans in concept, not upon a detailed performance forecast, which has not yet been generated. Over time, further regulatory review of the decommissioning plans may result in additional decommissioning requirements, associated costs and the requirement to provide additional financial assurances, including as our properties approach or go into decommissioning. It is not possible to predict what level of decommissioning and reclamation (and financial assurances relating thereto) may be required in the future by regulatory authorities.

Our mineral properties may be subject to defects in title.

We have investigated our rights to explore and exploit all of our material properties and, to the best of our knowledge, those rights are in good standing. However, no assurance can be given that such rights will not be revoked, or significantly altered, to our detriment. There can also be no assurance that our rights will not be challenged or impugned by third parties, including by governments, surface owners, and non-governmental organizations.

The validity of unpatented mining claims on U.S. public lands is sometimes difficult to confirm and may be contested. Due to the extensive requirements and associated expense required to obtain and maintain mining rights on U.S. public lands, our properties are subject to various title uncertainties which are common to the industry with the attendant risk that there may be defects in title. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior has withdrawn certain lands around the Grand Canyon National Park from location and entry under the Mining Laws. All of our material Arizona Strip properties, other than the Wate Property, are located on these withdrawn lands. No new mining claims may be filed on the withdrawn lands and no new plans of operations may be approved, other than plans of operations on mining claims that were valid at the time of withdrawal and that remain valid at the time of plan approval. Whether or not a mining claim is valid must be determined by a mineral examination conducted by BLM or USFS, as applicable. The mineral examination, which involves an economic evaluation of a project, must demonstrate the existence of a locatable mineral resource and that the mineral resource constitutes discovery of a valuable mineral deposit. We believe that all of our material Arizona Strip projects are on valid mining claims that would withstand a mineral examination. Further, our Arizona 1 Project has an approved PO which, absent modification, would not require a mineral examination. Although our Pinyon Plain Project also has an approved PO, which, absent modification, would not require a mineral examination, the USFS performed a mineral examination at that mine in 2012, and concluded that the underlying mining claims are valid existing rights (a decision which is involved in a current court challenge). However, market conditions may postpone or prevent the performance of mineral examinations on certain other properties and, if a mineral examination is performed on a property, there can be no guarantee that the mineral examination would not result in one or more of our mining claims being considered invalid, which could prevent a project from proceeding.

Certain of our properties, or significant portions thereof, are mineral leases that have fixed terms, both with State and private parties. Certain of our properties are subject to other agreements that may affect our ability to explore, permit, develop and operate them, including surface use, access and other agreements. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to renew or extend such leases and agreements on favorable terms or at all. The failure to renew any such leases or agreements could have a material adverse effect on our operations.



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Because we may be unable to secure access rights to certain of our properties, we may be unable to explore and/or advance such properties.

We are currently in the process of negotiating and clarifying access rights to certain of our properties, such as the Roca Honda Project and the Wate Project, with private landholders. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to negotiate or clarify such access rights on favorable terms, or at all. The failure to negotiate or clarify such access rights on suitable terms could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

We are subject to foreign currency risks.

Our operations are subject to foreign currency fluctuations. Our operating expenses and revenues are primarily incurred in U.S. dollars, while some of our cash balances and expenses are measured in Canadian dollars. The fluctuation of the Canadian dollar in relation to the U.S. dollar will consequently have an impact on our profitability and may also affect the value of our assets and shareholders’ equity. In addition, any strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies makes our mineral extraction and recovery less competitive in relation to similar activities in other countries. Any strengthening of the U.S. dollar in relation to the currencies of other countries can have a material impact on our cash flows and profitability and affect the value of our assets and shareholders’ equity.

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of previous acquisitions.

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of acquiring: the Sheep Mountain Project in 2012; Denison Mines Corp.’s U.S. Mining Division in 2012, including the White Mesa Mill, certain of the Arizona Strip Properties, the Henry Mountains Complex, the La Sal Project, and the Daneros Project; Strathmore in 2013, including the Roca Honda Project; Uranerz in 2015, including the Nichols Ranch Project; and EFR Alta Mesa in 2016, including the Alta Mesa Project, due to integration, operational and uranium market challenges. Decreases in commodity prices have required us to place or maintain a number of acquired properties and facilities on standby and to defer permitting and construction and development activities on certain other acquired assets, until market conditions warrant otherwise, and, in some cases, we have elected to sell or abandon certain of these properties at a loss. Our success following those acquisitions will depend in large part on the success of our management in integrating the acquired assets into the Company. Our failure to achieve such integration and to mine or advance such assets could result in our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of those acquisitions and could impair our results of operations, profitability and financial results.

We prepare estimates of future uranium extraction and recovery, and there are no assurances that such estimates will be achieved.

We may from time to time prepare estimates of future uranium extraction and recovery, or increases in uranium extraction and recovery, for particular operations, or relating to our ability to increase uranium extraction and recovery in response to increases in commodity prices, as market conditions warrant or otherwise. No assurance can be given that any such extraction and recovery estimates will be achieved, nor can assurance be given that extraction or recovery increases will be achieved in a cost effective or timely manner. Failure to achieve extraction and recovery estimates or failure to achieve extraction and recovery in a cost effective or timely manner could have an adverse impact on our future cash flows, earnings, results of operations and financial condition. These estimates are based on, among other things, the following factors: the accuracy of mineral resource and reserve estimates; the accuracy of assumptions regarding ground conditions and physical characteristics of mineralized materials, such as hardness and presence or absence of particular metallurgical characteristics; the accuracy of estimated rates and costs of extraction, recovery and processing; assumptions as to future commodity prices; assumptions relating to changes in laws, regulations or policies, or lack thereof, that could impact the cost and time required to obtain regulatory approvals, licenses and permits; assumptions relating to obtaining required licenses and permits in a timely manner, including the time required to satisfy environmental analyses, consultations and public input processes; assumptions relating to challenges to or delays in the licensing and permitting process; and assumptions regarding any appeals or lack thereof, or injunctions or lack thereof, relating to any approvals, licenses or permits.

Our actual uranium extraction and recovery may vary from estimates for a variety of reasons, including, among others: actual mineralized material extracted, mined or recovered varying from estimates of grade, tonnage, dilution and metallurgical and other characteristics; short term operating factors relating to the mineral resources and reserves, such as the need for sequential construction or development of mineralized materials or deposits and the processing of new or different mineral grades; risk and hazards associated with extraction, mining and recovery; natural phenomena, such as inclement weather conditions, underground floods, earthquakes, pit wall failures and cave-ins; unexpected labor shortages or strikes; varying conditions in the commodities markets; and delays in obtaining or denial, challenges or appeals of regulatory approvals, licenses and permits or renewals of existing approvals, licenses or permits.
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In addition, the Company is evaluating recovering copper at the White Mesa Mill as a byproduct with uranium from its Pinyon Plain Project. There can be no assurance that this evaluation will result in the Mill being able to recover copper at the Mill as a byproduct on an economic basis.

We depend on the issuance of license amendments and renewals which cannot be guaranteed.

We maintain regulatory licenses and permits in order to operate our White Mesa Mill, Nichols Ranch Project and Alta Mesa Project, all of which are subject to renewal from time to time and are required in order to operate in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, depending on our business requirements, it may be necessary or desirable to seek amendments to one or more of our licenses or permits from time to time. While we have been successful in renewing our licenses and permits on a timely basis in the past and in obtaining such amendments as have been necessary or desirable, there can be no assurance that such license and permit renewals and amendments will be issued by applicable regulatory authorities on a timely basis or at all in the future.

We will need to continuously add to our mineral reserve and resource base and to our alternate feed materials.

Our properties do not contain any mineral reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource Estimates.

Our material mineral resources are located at the Nichols Ranch Project, the Alta Mesa Project, the Pinyon Plain Project, the Roca Honda Project, the Sheep Mountain Project, the Henry Mountains Complex, the La Sal Project, and the Daneros Project. These projects are our primary sources (and potential sources) of current and future uranium concentrates. Unless other mineral resources or reserves are discovered or extensions to existing resource bodies are found, our sources of extraction, production and recovery for uranium concentrates will decrease over time as our current mineral resources are depleted. There can be no assurance that our future exploration, construction, development and acquisition efforts will be successful in replenishing our mineral resources or finding or developing reserves. In addition, while we believe that many of our properties will eventually engage in extraction or mining activities, there can be no assurance that they will be placed into such activities, or that they will be able to replace current extraction or mining activities.

We also recover uranium from processing alternate feed materials at our White Mesa Mill. There can be no assurance that additional sources of alternate feed materials will be forthcoming in the future on commercially acceptable terms or otherwise, or that we will be successful in receiving all required regulatory approvals, licenses and permits on a timely basis to allow for the receipt and processing of any such alternate feed materials.

Our sales of uranium, vanadium and REE products expose us to the risk of non-payment.

Our sales of uranium, vanadium and REE products expose us to the risk of non-payment. We manage this risk by monitoring the credit worthiness of our customers and requiring prepayment or other forms of payment security from customers with an unacceptable level of credit risk. Most of the Company’s sales are to major nuclear utilities, which pose a relatively low risk of non-payment due to their large size and capitalization.

We are dependent on key personnel and qualified and experienced employees.

Our success will largely depend on the efforts and abilities of certain senior officers and key employees, some of whom are approaching retirement. Certain of these individuals have significant experience in the uranium industry. The number of individuals with significant experience in this industry is small. While we do not foresee any reason why such officers and key employees will not remain with us, other than through retirement, if for any reason they do not, we could be adversely affected. We have not purchased key person life insurance for any of these individuals, other than for our Chief Executive Officer.

Our compensation programs include cash and equity incentive compensation components designed to attract and retain qualified personnel, which, in the case of our equity incentive programs, contain vesting requirements which also help retain qualified personnel. Further, all of the Company’s current executive officers have, and all future executive officers are expected to have, employment agreements with the Company, which also serve to attract and retain qualified personnel. In addition, the Company prioritizes the development of its existing management personnel and the advancement of existing personnel to fill vacancies as they arise, which the Company believes is an important element in developing, attracting and retaining the most qualified management personnel.

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Nevertheless, our success will depend on the availability of qualified and experienced employees to work in our operations and our ability to develop, attract and retain such employees. The number of individuals with relevant mining and operational experience in this industry, especially the U.S. uranium industry, is small.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting. If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

As a public company, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be presented or detected on a timely basis. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the ‘‘Sarbanes-Oxley Act’’) requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and provide a management report on the internal controls over financial reporting. Such report must also be attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm.

In late 2019, we identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting related to the Company’s risk assessment process not adequately identifying (1) risks of misstatement due to error and fraud related to our financial reporting processes; and (2) risks related to the use of information technology (IT) systems as part of our financial reporting processes and designing adequate controls to address those risks. As a consequence of the ineffective risk assessment process, the Company did not design, implement, and maintain effective control activities at the transaction level over significant accounts to mitigate the risk of material misstatement in our financial reporting processes. With the oversight of senior management, the Company has concluded that it has remediated the underlying causes of these material weaknesses, primarily through: the development and implementation of improvements to our risk assessment process designed to ensure that risks of misstatement due to error and fraud related to our financial reporting processes are adequately identified; the development and implementation of adequate controls designed to address risks related to the use of IT systems as part of our financial reporting processes; and the development and implementation of controls responsive to the identified risks.

However, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner in the future, or if we are unable to assert in the future that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an unqualified opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting if required in the future, then future material weaknesses may be identified, and investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected.

We are dependent on business partners, government and third-party consents.

We have a number of joint ventures and other business relationships from time to time relating to our properties and projects, including key projects, such as the Arkose Mining Venture, which can restrict our ability to act unilaterally with respect to those projects in certain circumstances. There can be no assurances that we will be able to maintain relationships with our joint venture and business partners to allow for satisfactory exploration, permitting, construction, development, extraction, mining, recovery or milling relating to any such projects. Our operations and activities are also dependent from time to time on receiving government and other third-party consents and approvals. There can be no assurances that all such consents and approvals will be forthcoming when required.

Certain of our directors may be in a position of conflict of interest with respect to the Company due to their relationship with other resource companies.

Some of our directors are also directors of other companies that are similarly engaged in the business of acquiring, exploring and developing natural resource properties. Such associations may give rise to conflicts of interest from time to time. In particular, one of the consequences will be that corporate opportunities presented to a director may be offered to another company or companies with which the director is associated and may not be presented or made available to us. Our directors are required by law to act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the Company, to disclose any interest which they may have in any project or opportunity of the Company, and to abstain from voting on such matter. Conflicts of interest that arise will be subject to and governed by the procedures prescribed in our Code of Ethics and by the Business Corporations Act (Ontario).



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Our relationship with our employees may be impacted by changes in labor relations.

None of our operations or activities currently directly employ unionized workers who work under collective agreements. However, there can be no assurance that our employees or the employees of our contractors will not become unionized in the future, which may impact our operations and activities. Any lengthy work stoppages may have a material adverse impact on our future cash flows, earnings, results of operations and financial condition.

U.S. investors may have difficulty bringing actions and enforcing judgments under U.S. securities laws against an Ontario corporation.

Although our primary trading market is the NYSE American, we have a majority of U.S. resident shareholders, are a U.S. Domestic Issuer for SEC purposes, and all of our assets, operations and employees are in the U.S., the Company was incorporated in Ontario, and as a result, investors in the United States or in other jurisdictions outside of Canada may have difficulty bringing actions and enforcing judgments against us, our directors, our executive officers and some of the experts named in this Annual Report on Form 10-K based on civil liabilities provisions of the federal securities laws or other laws of the United States or any state thereof or the equivalent laws of other jurisdictions of residence.

An information security incident, including a cybersecurity breach, could have a negative impact to the Company’s business or reputation

To meet business objectives, the Company relies on both internal information technology (IT) systems and networks, and those of third parties and their vendors, to process and store sensitive data, including confidential research, business plans, financial information, process technology, intellectual property, and personal data that may be subject to legal protection. The extensive information security and cybersecurity threats, which affect companies globally, pose a risk to the security and availability of these IT systems and networks, and the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the Company’s sensitive data. The Company continually assesses these threats and makes investments to increase internal protection, detection, and response capabilities, as well as ensure the Company’s third party providers have required capabilities and controls, to address this risk. In addition, we provide confidential and proprietary information to our third-party business partners in certain cases where doing so is necessary to conduct our business. While we obtain assurances from those parties that they have systems and processes in place to protect such data, and where applicable, that they will take steps to assure the protections of such data by third parties, nonetheless those partners may also be subject to data intrusion or otherwise compromise the protection of such data. Any compromise of the confidential data of our customers, consumers, suppliers, partners, employees or ourselves, or failure to prevent or mitigate the loss of or damage to this data through breach of our information technology systems or other means could substantially disrupt our operations, harm our customers, consumers, employees and other business partners, damage our reputation, violate applicable laws and regulations, subject us to potentially significant costs and liabilities and result in a loss of business that could be material. To date, the Company has not experienced any material impact to the business or operations resulting from information or cybersecurity attacks; however, because of the frequently changing attack techniques, along with the increased volume and sophistication of the attacks, there is the potential for the Company to be adversely impacted. The Company may not maintain cybersecurity insurance in the event of an information security or cyber incident with sufficient coverage to cover all financial losses, or at all.

General Risk Factors

We are subject to global economic risks.

In the event of a general economic downturn or a recession, there can be no assurance that our business, financial condition, and results of operations would not be materially adversely affected. During the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, economic problems in the U.S. and Eurozone caused deterioration in the global economy, as numerous commercial and financial enterprises either went into bankruptcy or creditor protection or had to be rescued by governmental authorities. Access to public financing was negatively impacted by sub-prime mortgage defaults in the U.S., the liquidity crisis affecting the asset-backed commercial paper and collateralized debt obligation markets, and massive investment losses by banks with resultant recapitalization efforts. Moreover, the occurrence of unforeseen or extended catastrophic events, including in particular the COVID-19 pandemic, and the emergence of a future pandemic or other widespread health emergency (or concerns over the possibility of such an emergency), could create economic and financial disruptions. These types of challenges can impact commodity prices, including for uranium, vanadium and REEs, as well as currencies and global debt and stock markets. As a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, or in the case of a future pandemic or other widespread health emergency, quarantine or other requirements or circumstances may require the Company to change the way it conducts its business and operations, including require the Company to reduce or cease operations at some or all of its facilities for an indeterminate
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period of time. Furthermore, our critical supply chains may similarly be disrupted for an indeterminate amount of time. All of these factors could have a material impact on the Company’s business, operations, personnel and financial condition.

These types of challenges may impact our ability to obtain equity, debt, or other financing on terms commercially reasonable to us, or at all. Additionally, these types of factors, as well as other related factors, may cause decreases in asset values that are deemed to be other than temporary, which may result in impairment losses. If these types of challenges occur, or if there is a material deterioration in general business and economic conditions, our operations could be adversely impacted, and the trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.

COVID-19

The Company continues to evaluate the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business objectives, projections and workforce, To date, although the Company has made operational adjustments since the onset of the pandemic to ensure its workforce remains protected, the Company has not been required to shut down any operations as a result of COVID-19. None of these operational adjustments have been material to the Company. The Company has evaluated any potential shutdown of Company production facilities as a result of COVID-19, and has determined that any such shutdown could be accommodated by the Company in a manner consistent with a typical shutdown of Company production facilities as a result of depressed commodity prices. Nevertheless, circumstances could change in the future, which could create economic and financial disruptions and require the Company to reduce or cease operations at some or all of its facilities for an indeterminate period of time, and which could have a material impact on the Company’s business, operations, personnel and financial condition.

The price of our Common Shares is subject to volatility.

Securities of mining companies have experienced substantial volatility and downward pressure in the recent past, often based on factors unrelated to the financial performance or prospects of the companies involved. These factors include macroeconomic conditions in North America and globally, and market perceptions of the attractiveness of particular industries. The price of our securities is also likely to be significantly affected by short-term changes in uranium and vanadium prices, changes in industry forecasts of uranium and vanadium prices, other mineral prices including oil and natural gas, currency exchange fluctuation, or in our financial condition or results of operations as reflected in our periodic earnings reports. Other factors unrelated to our performance that may have an effect on the price of our securities include the following: the extent of research coverage available to investors concerning our business may be limited if investment banks with research capabilities do not follow our securities; adverse proxy voting recommendations or limited portrayals of the Company’s business, operations or executive compensation practices made to shareholders by shareholder advisory firms resulting from their use of general-purpose formulas that are not suited to the Company’s business, operations or practices, and that may counteract the Company’s substantive disclosures, which often include detailed analyses specific to the Company and which are capable of mitigating apparent market concerns; lessening in trading volume and general market interest in our securities may affect an investor's ability to trade significant numbers of our securities; the size of our public float and the exclusion from market indices may limit the ability of some institutions to invest in our securities; and a substantial decline in the price of our securities that persists for a significant period of time could cause our securities to be delisted from an exchange, further reducing market liquidity. Our exclusion from certain market indices may reduce market liquidity or the price of our securities. If an active market for our securities does not continue, the liquidity of an investor's investment may be limited, and the price of our securities may decline. If an active market does not exist, investors may lose their entire investment. As a result of any of these factors, the market price of our securities at any given point in time may not accurately reflect our long-term value. Securities class-action litigation often has been brought against companies in periods of volatility in the market price of their securities and following major corporate transactions or mergers and acquisitions. We may in the future be the target of similar litigation. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and damages and divert management's attention and resources.

The issuance of additional Common Shares may impact the trading price of our Common Shares.

In times of depressed commodity prices, such as exist at this time, the Company may be required to raise additional capital to meet its liquidity requirements, through the issuance of additional common shares under our ATM program or otherwise, and/or dispose of assets. If we raise additional funding by issuing additional equity securities or securities convertible, exercisable, or exchangeable for equity securities, such financing may substantially dilute the interests of our shareholders and reduce the value of their investment. Similar dilution could result from the sale of assets to meet liquidity requirements.



46


We are subject to litigation and other legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business and may be involved in disputes with other parties in the future which may result in litigation.

The causes of potential future litigation and legal proceedings cannot be known and may arise from, among other things, business activities, environmental laws, permitting and licensing activities, volatility in stock prices, or alleged failure to comply with disclosure obligations. The results of litigation and proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty and may include injunctions pending the outcome of such litigation and proceedings. Failure to resolve any such disputes favorably may have a material adverse impact on our financial performance, cash flow and results of operations.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report financial results or prevent fraud.

Internal controls over financial reporting are procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance that transactions are properly authorized, assets are safeguarded against unauthorized or improper use, and transactions are properly recorded and reported. Disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in reports filed with securities regulatory agencies is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported on a timely basis and is accumulated and communicated to a company’s management, including its chief executive officer and chief financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance with respect to the reliability of reporting, including financial reporting and financial statement preparation.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 2. DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTIES

Cautionary Note to United States Investors: Information contained in this item differs from the disclosure requirements of the SEC applicable to U.S.-incorporated domestic issuers. This Item 2 and other sections of this Annual Report contain the terms “measured mineral resources,” “indicated mineral resources,” “inferred mineral resources,” “proven mineral reserves,” and “probable mineral reserves” as defined in accordance with NI 43-101. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources,” at the beginning of this Annual Report for definitions and further discussion on the differences between terms under NI 43-101 and SEC Industry Guide 7.

efr-20201231_g4.jpg
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Overview

Energy Fuels is engaged in conventional and ISR uranium extraction and recovery, along with the exploration, permitting and evaluation of uranium properties in the United States.

ISR Uranium Activities

The Company conducts its ISR recovery activities through its Nichols Ranch Project in northeast Wyoming, which it acquired in June 2015 through the acquisition of Uranerz, and its Alta Mesa Project in south Texas, which it acquired in June 2016 through the acquisition of EFR Alta Mesa.

The Nichols Ranch Project includes: (i) the Nichols Ranch Plant; (ii) the Nichols Ranch Wellfields; (iii) the Jane Dough Property; and (iv) the Hank Project, which includes the permitted but not constructed Hank Satellite Plant and the Hank Property. See “The Nichols Ranch ISR Project.” The Company also acquired through the acquisition of Uranerz the Reno Creek Property (which it has since sold), the West North Butte Property, the North Rolling Pin Property, and the Arkose Mining Venture, a joint venture of ISR properties held 81% by Energy Fuels. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties - Other ISR Projects.” Nichols Ranch is currently winding down production from its existing wellfields, which are expected to be depleted by the end of the first quarter of 2021. In order for Nichols Ranch to engage in future uranium production, the Company will need to incur capital expenditures to develop additional wellfields. A decision to commence development will be made if the Company decides to take action in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve or uranium prices otherwise improve to a point where economic feasibility of the Nichols Ranch Project is realized.

The Alta Mesa Project has a fully-licensed and constructed ISR uranium recovery plant, with a design capacity of 1.5 million pounds of uranium concentrate per year. In order for Alta Mesa to engage in future uranium production, the Company will need to incur capital expenditures to develop wellfields. A decision to commence development will be made if the Company decides to take action in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve or uranium prices otherwise improve to a point where the economic feasibility of the Alta Mesa Project is realized.

Conventional Uranium Activities

The Company conducts its conventional uranium extraction and recovery activities through its White Mesa Mill, which is the only operating conventional uranium mill in the United States. The White Mesa Mill located near Blanding, Utah is centrally located such that it can be fed by a number of the Company’s uranium and uranium/vanadium projects in Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico, as well as by ore purchase or toll milling arrangements with third party miners in the region, as market conditions warrant. The Company also owns the Sheep Mountain Project in Wyoming, which is a conventional uranium project. Due to its distance from the White Mesa Mill, the Sheep Mountain Project is not expected to be a source of feed material for the Mill. The Sheep Mountain Project consists of the Sheep Mountain Extraction Operation (both open pit and underground), which is permitted, and the proposed Sheep Mountain Processing Operation (heap leach), which is not permitted at this time.

In November 2020, the Company officially changed the name of its Canyon Project to the Pinyon Plain Project. No material changes have taken place at the Pinyon Plain Project, and the land position and disclosed mineral resources remain the same. The NI 43-101 technical report that the information in this 10-K is based upon still contains Canyon Mine in the title. All references to the Project in this document have been changed from Canyon Mine to Pinyon Plain, except when directly referencing its technical report.

The Company’s principal conventional properties include the following:

the White Mesa Mill. See “The White Mesa Mill”;
the Pinyon Plain Project (formerly the Canyon Project). See “The Pinyon Plain Project”;
the Roca Honda Project. See “The Roca Honda Project”;
the Sheep Mountain Project. See “The Sheep Mountain Project”;
the Henry Mountains Complex comprised of the Tony M Property and the Bullfrog Property. See “The Henry Mountains Complex”;
the La Sal Project. See “The La Sal Project”;
the Daneros Project. See “The Daneros Project”;
the Arizona Strip uranium properties located in north-central Arizona, including: the Arizona 1 Project, the Wate Project, and EZ Project. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties – Other Conventional Projects – Arizona Strip”; and
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The Colorado Plateau uranium properties located in the Four Corners region of Colorado and Utah, including the Whirlwind Project and the Sage Plain Project. See “Non-Material Mineral Properties – Other Conventional Projects – Colorado Plateau.”

The White Mesa Mill is licensed to process 2,000 tons of mineralized material per day. It is primarily a uranium recovery facility but can also recover vanadium and REEs. In addition, the Mill can recycle other uranium-bearing materials not derived from conventional ore, referred to as “alternate feed materials,” for the recovery of uranium, alone or in combination with other metals. In this regard, the Company is currently evaluating a number of potential alternate feed materials for the recovery of uranium. The White Mesa Mill is also currently receiving low-grade mineralized material from the cleanup of a conventional mine in northwest New Mexico and is pursuing other opportunities to process mineralized materials from the clean-up of abandoned uranium mines on the Navajo Reservation and in the four corners area of the United States.

The material projects are shown on the map above and are described in further detail below. Properties that the Company does not consider material are summarized at the end of this Item 2.

Uranium and Vanadium Recovery History

The following tables show the mineralized material processed and pounds of uranium and vanadium recovered from the Company’s projects and facilities from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2020:(1)

Recovery History (1)
Project or Source20202019201820172016
Alternate Feed Materials(2)
Tons (000)
NA(2)
NA(2)
NA(2)
NA(2)
NA(2)
 Ave. % U3O8
NA(2)
NA(2)
NA(2)
18.86%27.98%
Recovered Pounds U3O8 (000)
144(3)
---
561(3)
1,004(3)
172(3)
Tailings Solution Recycle & In-Circuit Material(4)
Recovered Pounds U3O8 (000)
47---21630877
Recovered Pounds V2O5 (000)
671,807---------
Conventional Feed Materials
Tons (000)------ --- ---45
Contained Grade % U3O8
--- --- ------0.5%
Recovered Pounds U3O8 (000)
--- --- ------431
Nichols Ranch(5)
Recovered Pounds U3O8 (000)
670140259335
Alta Mesa
Recovered Pounds (000)---------------
Total Pounds of U3O8 Recovered (000)
197709171,5711,015
Total Pounds of V2O5 Recovered (000)
671,807--- --- --- 
Notes:
(1) Mineralized material is shown as being processed and pounds recovered during the year in which the materials were processed at the White Mesa Mill or at the Nichols Ranch Plant, which is not necessarily the year in which the materials were extracted from the project facilities.
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(2) All alternate feed materials were processed at the White Mesa Mill. A number of different alternate feed materials were processed during the period 2016 – 2020. The table shows the average uranium grades and the total pounds recovered from all alternate feed materials processed at the Mill during each of the years in that period. Because of the variability in uranium grades, pounds recovered is considered to be the relevant metric and tons fed is not considered to be relevant.
(3) The 144,000 pounds recovered in 2020 include nil pounds recovered for the accounts of third parties. The 561,000 pounds recovered in 2018 from alternate feed materials include 424,000 pounds recovered for the accounts of third parties. The 1,004,000 pounds recovered in 2017 include 952,000 pounds recovered for the accounts of third parties; and the 172,000 pounds recovered in 2016 include nil pounds recovered for the accounts of third parties.
(4) Pounds contained in tailings solutions containing previously unrecovered uranium and vanadium, together with in-circuit mineralized material from previous conventional mine material processing, were recovered at the White Mesa Mill, though tons and grade are not available because they cannot be tied to any specific source.
(5) Uranium recovery commenced at the Nichols Ranch Project on April 17, 2014. Because the Nichols Ranch Project uses ISR instead of conventional extraction methods, grade and tons of mineralized material are inapplicable to the Nichols Ranch Project.
Mineral Extraction

The following table shows the extraction history from 2016 to December 31, 2020 from the mineral properties currently owned by the Company:
Project(1)
20202019201820172016
Nichols Ranch
Pounds (000)670140259335
Notes:
(1) All properties reported in this table were owned by the Company on December 31, 2020 and continue to be owned by the Company. Nichols Ranch was acquired by the Company in June 2015 as part of the Uranerz acquisition. Properties sold or otherwise disposed of are not included in this table.

Summary of Mineral Reserves and Resources

Daniel Kapostasy, a Professional Geologist licensed in Wyoming (PG-6778) and in Utah (10110615-2250), employed as the Company’s Manager of Technical Services, is responsible for the disclosure of scientific or technical information concerning mineral projects in this Annual Report.

The following tables show the Company’s estimate of Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources as of December 31, 2020. NI 43-101 requires mineral companies to disclose Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources using the subcategories of Proven Mineral Reserves, Probable Mineral Reserves, Measured Mineral Resources, Indicated Mineral Resources and Inferred Mineral Resources. The Company reports Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources separately. Properties sold or otherwise disposed of, or committed to be sold or otherwise disposed of, during 2019 or 2020 are not included in the table. Except as stated below, the Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource information shown below is as reported in the various technical reports prepared in accordance with NI 43-101 (the “Technical Reports”) by qualified persons employed by Peters Geosciences, BRS Inc., SRK Consulting (U.S.) Inc., and Roscoe Postle Associates Inc. See “Mineral Projects.” The table below also reflects the Company’s adjustments to the resources as of December 31, 2020 at the properties where exploration and well installation drilling and/or extraction were in progress in 2020 – notably, at the Nichols Ranch Project. Note that the name of the Canyon Mine was changed to “Pinyon Plain Mine” in 2020. As no material changes have taken place at the Pinyon Plain as of the date of this Annual Report, the technical report has not been updated and still contains Canyon Mine in its title.

Mineral Reserve Estimates - Uranium(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Proven Mineral ReservesProbable Mineral Reserves
Tons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
Tons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
Sheep Mountain - Congo Pit---------3,955 0.115 %9,117 
Sheep Mountain - Underground---------3,498 0.132 %9,248 
Total Mineral Reserves---------7,4530.123%18,365 
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Notes:
(1)     The Mineral Reserve estimate for the Sheep Mountain Project is based on a technical report titled “Sheep Mountain Uranium Project, Fremont County, Wyoming, USA, Updated Preliminary Feasibility Study, National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report, Amended and Restated” dated February 28, 2020, prepared by Douglas L. Beahm, P.E., P.G., Principal Engineer of BRS Inc. in accordance with NI 43-101.
(2) The Mineral Reserve estimate in this table complies with the requirements of NI 43-101, and the classifications comply with CIM definition standards and do not represent reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7.
(3)     Mineral Reserves are estimated at a uranium grade x thickness (G.T.) cut-off grade of 0.10 G.T. (2 ft. of 0.05% eU3O8) for the Congo Pit and 0.45 G.T. (6 ft. of 0.075% eU3O8) for Sheep Underground.
(4) Mineral Reserves are estimated using a long-term uranium price of $60 per pound U3O8.
(5) Numbers may not add due to rounding.
(6) The Mineral Reserves are fully included in the total Mineral Resources shown below.

Mineral Resource Estimates – Uranium(1)(2)(3)(4)
 Measured Mineral Resources Indicated Mineral Resources Inferred Mineral Resources
Tons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
Tons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
Tons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
ISR Properties
Nichols Ranch(5)
280 0.140% 784 2,471 0.111% 5,501 561 0.099 %1,112 
Alta Mesa(6)
1230.151%3711,5120.107%3,2466,9640.120%16,794
Other Powder River Basin Properties(7)
3100.062%3871,1980.130%3,1152,823 0.106%6,008 
ISR Subtotal  1,548   11,862   23,914 
Conventional Properties
Pinyon Plain(8)
60.43%56 1320.90%2,378 180.38%134
Roca Honda(9)
2080.48%1,9841,3030.48%12,5801,1980.47 %11,206
Sheep Mountain(10)
---------11,662 0.12%27,935 ---------
Henry Mountains(11)
---------2,4100.27%12,800 1,6100.25%8,080 
La Sal(12)
1,009 0.18%3,732 1320.14%367 1850.10%362
Daneros---------20 0.36 %142 0.37 %52 
Other Properties(13)
2400.16%7722010.28%1,122742 0.35%5,248 
Conventional Subtotal  6,544   57,324   25,082 
Total Mineral Resources (eU3O8)
  8,092    69,185    48,996 
Notes:
(1)    The Mineral Resource estimates in this table comply with the requirements of NI 43-101 and the classifications comply with CIM definition standards and do not represent reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7. Mineral resources that are not reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources.
(2)     Mineral Resources were estimated at various %eU3O8 or G.T. cut-off grades. Details regarding cut-off grade calculations for each project are given in the project’s respective section below.
(3) Mineral Resources were estimated at various long-term uranium prices. The specific long-term uranium price for each project is given in the project’s respective section below.
(4) Numbers may not add due to rounding.
(5) The numbers shown represent Energy Fuels share of the Nichols Ranch Project, which is less than 100% due to a portion that is held by the Arkose Mining Venture. The total Nichols Ranch Project Mineral Resources (100%) are shown in the Nichols Ranch section of this report, and include 0.86 million, 6.2 million, and 1.2 million pounds of measured mineral
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resources, indicated mineral resources, and inferred mineral resources, respectively. The Nichols Ranch Project is comprised of three properties: the Nichols Ranch Wellfield, the Hank Property and the Jane Dough Property. A portion of the Jane Dough Property is held through the Arkose Mining Venture, in which the Company has an 81% interest. The Mineral Resources shown in the table differ from those in the 2015 Nichols Ranch Technical Report due to adjustments made by the Company by subtracting recovered material (1,073,156 pounds) and adding additional resources discovered by drilling during well field installation (162,500 pounds). Nichols Ranch ISR began producing on April 15, 2014. Approximately 200,000 pounds were produced that year. The total production from Nichols Ranch is now 1,273,192 pounds eU3O8.
(6) Includes Alta Mesa and Mesteña Grande.
(7)     The other Powder River Basin ISR properties include: the North Rolling Pin Property, the West North Butte Property, the East North Butte property, the Willow Creek property, and the East Buck, Little Butte, Sand Rock and South Doughstick properties in the Arkose Joint Venture. The Mineral Resources for the Arkose properties are included in the table as 81% of the total, which is Energy Fuels share.
(8) The name of the Canyon Mine was changed to “Pinyon Plain Mine” in 2020.
(9)     The numbers do not include the historical resource estimate for the Adjacent Roca Honda Properties. See “The Roca Honda Project,” below.
(10) The Sheep Mountain Indicated Mineral Resource fully includes the Probable Mineral Reserves calculated in accordance with NI 43-101 of 18,365,000 pounds of eU3O8 in 7,453,000 tons at a grade of 0.123%. Such mineral resources do not constitute reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7.
(11) The Henry Mountains Complex includes the Tony M, Southwest, Indian Bench and Copper Bench properties.
(12) The La Sal Project includes the Energy Queen, Redd Block, Beaver, and Pandora properties.
(13)     This includes all conventional Non-Material properties, including: Wate, EZ Project, Whirlwind, and the retained portion of Sage Plain.

Mineral Resource Estimate – Vanadium(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
 Measured Mineral Resources Indicated Mineral Resources Inferred Mineral Resources
Tons (000)
Grade % V2O5
Pounds V2O5 (000)
Tons (000)
Grade % V2O5
Pounds V2O5 (000)
Tons (000)
Grade % V2O5
Pounds V2O5 (000)
La Sal(6)
1,009 0.97%19,596 1320.73%1,930 1850.51%1,902
Other Properties(7)
2401.32%6,3502010.94 %3,7974470.74%6,660
Total Mineral Resources (V2O5)
  25,946   5,727   8,562
Notes:
(1) The Mineral Resource estimates in this table comply with the requirements of NI 43-101 and the classifications comply with CIM definition standards and do not represent reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7. Mineral resources that are not reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources.
(2) Mineral Resources were estimated at various %U3O8 or G.T. cut-off grades. Details regarding cut-off grade calculations for each project are given in the project’s respective section below.
(3) Mineral Resources were estimated at various long-term uranium prices. The specific long-term uranium price for each project is given in the project’s respective section below.
(4) Various vanadium to uranium ratios were used to calculate the vanadium grades and pounds given in the table. The specific ratio used for each project is given in the project’s respective section below.
(5) Numbers may not add due to rounding.
(6) The La Sal Project includes the Energy Queen, Redd Block, Beaver, and Pandora properties.
(7) Other Properties includes Whirlwind and the retained portion of Sage Plain.










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Mineral Resource Estimate – Copper(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
 Measured Mineral Resources Indicated Mineral Resources Inferred Mineral Resources
Tons (000)Grade % CuPounds Cu (000)Tons (000)Grade % CuPounds Cu (000)Tons (000)Grade % CuPounds Cu (000)
Pinyon Plain69.29%1,203 945.70%10,736 55.90%570
Total Mineral Resources (Cu)  1,203   10,736   570
Notes:
(1) The Mineral Resource estimate in this table complies with the requirements of NI 43-101 and the classifications comply with CIM definition standards and do not represent reserves under SEC Industry Guide 7. Mineral resources that are not reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources.
(2) For the Main and Main-Lower zones of the Pinyon Plain Mine, a 0.36% uranium equivalent cut-off grade (% U3O8 Eq) was applied to account for both the copper and uranium mineralization. In all other zones, only uranium was reported and a 0.29% U3O8 cut-off grade was applied. (The %U3O8 Eq grade term is not the same as the eU3O8 % grade term with indicates probe rather than assay data listed elsewhere in this report. For details see the Canyon Technical Report (as defined below; now the Pinyon Plain Project)).
(3) Mineral Resources are estimated using a long-term uranium price of $60 per pound and a Copper price of $3.50 per lb.
(4) A copper to U3O8 conversion factor of 18.19 was used for converting copper grades to equivalent U3O8 grades (U3O8 Eq) for cut-off grade evaluation and reporting.
(5) Numbers may not add due to rounding.
(6) For Pinyon Plain, Mineral Resource tonnages of uranium and copper cannot be added as they overlap in the Main and Main-Lower Zones.
(7) The name of the Canyon Mine was changed to “Pinyon Plain Mine” in 2020.

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The Nichols Ranch Project

efr-20201231_g5.jpg
Unless stated otherwise, the following description of the Nichols Ranch Project is derived from a technical report titled “Nichols Ranch Uranium Project, 43-101 Technical Report, Preliminary Economic Assessment” dated February 28, 2015, prepared by Douglas L. Beahm, P.E., P.G. of BRS Inc. and Paul Goranson, P.E., former Chief Operating Officer of the Company, in accordance with NI 43-101 (the “Nichols Ranch Technical Report”). The Nichols Ranch Technical Report includes an updated NI 43-101 mineral resource estimate and the results of a Preliminary Economic Assessment (“PEA”) for the uranium resources identified to date at the Nichols Ranch Project. Each of the authors is a “qualified person” within the meaning of NI 43-101, and Mr. Beahm is “independent” of the Company within the meaning of NI 43-101. Because the independent author of the Nichols Ranch Technical Report assumed overall responsibility for all items of the technical report, the report is therefore an independent technical report under NI 43-101. The Nichols Ranch Technical Report is available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. The Nichols Ranch Project does not have known “reserves” and is therefore considered under SEC Industry Guide 7 definitions to be exploratory in nature, despite currently ongoing uranium recovery activities.

Property Description and Location

The Nichols Ranch Project is an ISR uranium recovery project, which the Company acquired in June 2015 through the acquisition of Uranerz. It is located in the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The Nichols Ranch Project includes: (i) the Nichols Ranch Plant; (ii) the Nichols Ranch Wellfield; (iii) the Jane Dough Property; and (iv) the Hank Project, which includes the planned Hank Satellite Plant and the Hank Property. The Nichols Ranch Project is an ISR project; it is not an underground or open pit project.

A map of the Nichols Ranch Project, including the Nichols Ranch Plant, the Nichols Ranch Wellfield, the Jane Dough Property and the Hank Property is shown below:
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efr-20201231_g6.jpg

The Nichols Ranch Project is a fully permitted and licensed ISR facility that recovers uranium through a series of injection and recovery wells. Using groundwater fortified with oxygen and sodium bicarbonate, uranium is dissolved within a deposit. The groundwater is then collected in a series of recovery wells and pumped to the Nichols Ranch Plant. The Nichols Ranch Plant creates a yellowcake slurry that is transported by truck to the White Mesa Mill where it is dried and packaged into drums that are later shipped to a conversion facility.

The original plan for the Nichols Ranch Project included the construction of an ISR processing facility and a second uranium recovery and extraction facility at the Hank Project. The Company’s current extraction plan for the Nichols Ranch Project is now divided into three separate areas, being (i) the Nichols Ranch Wellfield, (ii) the Jane Dough Property, and (iii) the Hank Property. The Nichols Ranch Wellfield is, and the Jane Dough Property is expected to be, directly connected to the Nichols Ranch Plant via pipeline. The Hank Project is expected to consist of a uranium extraction and recovery facility that will create a loaded resin that will be trucked to the Nichols Ranch Plant for elution. The Nichols Ranch Wellfield consists of two production areas: Production Area #1 and Production Area #2. The Nichols Ranch Wellfield also includes the two deep disposal wells that are permitted and constructed for the Nichols Ranch Project. The Jane Dough Property is adjacent to the Nichols Ranch Wellfield to the south and contains certain properties that are 100% owned by Energy Fuels and other properties that are held in the Arkose Mining Venture, in which the Company owns an 81% interest. The Jane Dough Property contains two fully licensed and permitted extraction areas. The Hank Project is 100% owned by Energy Fuels and is located approximately six miles east of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield. The Hank Satellite Plant is fully licensed and permitted to be constructed and operate as a satellite to the Nichols Ranch Plant, and the Hank Property contains two targeted extraction areas.

Construction of the Nichols Ranch Plant was substantially completed in 2013, and extraction commenced in the second quarter of 2014 after final NRC inspections were completed. The Jane Dough Property described above has two fully licensed and permitted
56


extraction areas. The Company completed construction of an elution and precipitation circuit at the Nichols Ranch Plant in early February 2016. Yellowcake slurry is now transported from the Nichols Ranch Plant to the White Mesa Mill for drying and packaging. However, the Nichols Ranch Plant is currently licensed to allow for the construction and operation of a drying and packaging circuit should conditions warrant.

The Nichols Ranch Project does not have known “reserves” under SEC Industry Guide 7 and is therefore considered under SEC Industry Guide 7 definitions to be “exploratory” in nature. During 2020, a total of approximately 6,000 pounds of U3O8 were recovered from the Nichols Ranch Project and nil pounds of mineralized material were added through drilling.

Accessibility, Local Resources, Physiography and Infrastructure

The Nichols Ranch Project site is located approximately 50 road miles southwest of Gillette, Wyoming and 76 road miles northeast of Casper, Wyoming in portions of Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming in the Townships 41 to 45 North and Ranges 73 to 77 West. It is accessed from State Highway 50 from the east or State Highway 387 from the south, and various internal gravel-surface county and private roads. The city of Casper is located along Interstate 25, approximately one hour by air from either Denver, Colorado or Salt Lake City, Utah. The Nichols Ranch Project is accessible via two-wheel drive vehicle on existing county and/or private gravel and dirt roads.

The Nichols Ranch Project is located within the Wyoming Basin physiographic province in the central portion of the Powder River Basin, within the Pumpkin Buttes Mining District. The Pumpkin Buttes are a series of small buttes rising several hundred feet above the surrounding plains. Portions of the Powder River Basin properties are located east, west and south of these buttes. The cap rocks on top of the buttes are erosional remnants of the Tertiary White River Formation that is believed to have overlain the majority of the Powder River Basin. The volcanic tuffs in the White River Formation have been cited as a source of uranium in this basin.

The area in which the Powder River Basin properties is located is a low lying plain, and elevations range from approximately 4,390 feet (1,440 meters) in the northwest to approximately 5,450 feet (1,790 meters) in the southeast. Historically and currently, the land is used for livestock and wildlife grazing. Vegetation is characteristically sagebrush grassland with some pines on elevated terrain and some deciduous trees within drainages.

The climate is semi-arid and receives an annual precipitation of approximately 9.4 inches, the most falling in the form of late autumnal to early spring snows. The summer months are usually hot, dry and clear except for infrequent heavy rains. Cold, wind and snow/blizzards can make winter exploration work in this area difficult but not impossible. The weather may limit the time periods for capital construction but should not have any significant adverse impacts on the operation of an ISR facility.

Infrastructure at the site of the Nichols Ranch Project is predominantly related to local oil, gas, and coal bed methane exploration and development. Mineralized locations could affect future siting of wellfields and processing facilities. Generally, the proximity of the Nichols Ranch Project to paved roads is beneficial with respect to transportation of equipment, supplies, personnel and product to and from the property. Power transmission lines are located on or near parts of the property. The Company has secured power from the local electrical service provider to accommodate all operational needs. Water is available from wells developed at planned facility locations, and water for ISR operations comes from the operation itself, i.e. the extracted groundwater. Therefore, the basic infrastructure (power, water and transportation) that is required to support an ISR mining operation is located within reasonable proximity to the Nichols Ranch Project.

Ownership

The Company’s property interests vary widely, and include unpatented mining claims, private and state leasehold interests and surface use rights. Some agreements renew annually, some renew automatically when mineral extraction has commenced, and some are agreements for fixed terms. For the property agreements that expire in 2021, the Company may negotiate new agreements for only those acres that are within permit boundaries or critical project areas. Leases outside of such desired project areas may be allowed to expire, although the Company may seek to negotiate new agreements for those dropped properties in the future should market conditions warrant. The Company does not expect that the expiry of any property interests in 2021 and beyond, nor the forfeiture of any unpatented mining claims in 2021, will have a material effect on the Company’s ability to continue exploration and extraction activities on these properties.

Unpatented lode mining claims are located on minerals owned by the federal government and open to location, with the surface being owned by either the federal government or private individuals. In addition, the unpatented lode mining claims are recorded in the appropriate county and filed with the state office of the BLM. The unpatented lode claims do not have an expiration date. However, affidavits must be filed annually with the BLM and respective county recorder’s offices in order to maintain the claims’ validity. All of the unpatented lode mining claims have annual filing requirements ($165 per claim) with the BLM, to be paid on or
57


before September 1 of each year. Most of the above-mentioned unpatented lode mining claims are located on Stock Raising Homestead land where the United States government has issued a patent for the surface to an individual and reserved the minerals to the United States government subject to the location rights by claimants as set forth in the federal Mining Act of 1872.

Leasehold interests are subject to the various terms as set forth in the applicable leases. The state leases and leases on fee mineral lands usually have annual payments, royalty obligations, and the terms of the leases vary, but for the most part can be extended by production (as defined in the leases). The fee surface and mineral leases apply only to uranium and other fissionable minerals and typically have a 10-year term with the right to extend the leases with production (as defined in the leases). Commingling of extraction from adjacent lands is allowable under the fee mineral leases.

Surface rights under applicable laws allow for exploration disturbance, road construction and facility siting. The claimant must first notify the surface owner of its intention to locate unpatented lode mining claims on the owner’s surface and then reach an agreement with the surface owner to pay for damages caused by the claimant’s operations. If an agreement cannot be reached, the claimant may post a bond with the BLM to cover the amount of the damages caused by the claimant’s operations. Surface use agreements were negotiated with various surface owners that provide the Company with all required surface access for the Nichols Ranch Project. The surface use agreements typically provide for reimbursement to the surface owner of actual damages resulting from operations.

Nichols Ranch Plant – 100% Energy Fuels
The Nichols Ranch Plant is located on the Nichols Ranch Project property pursuant to the surface use agreements described below.

Nichols Ranch Wellfield – 100% Energy Fuels
The Nichols Ranch Project, which includes the Nichols Ranch Plant and the Nichols Ranch Wellfield mining permit area, consists of 36 unpatented lode mining claims, two fee surface and mineral leases, and one surface use agreement encompassing approximately 920 acres. The Nichols Ranch Wellfield permit boundary encompasses approximately 1,120 acres. There is a portion of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield that includes private (fee) mineral that is subject to a royalty payable to the fee mineral owners under the fee leases. The royalty is a sliding scale of 6 to 8 percent, depending on the price of uranium. The primary term of the leases would have expired in 2017; however, they are held by production (as defined in the leases). The primary term of the surface use agreement would have expired in 2016, however the term has been held by production.

Hank Property – 100% Energy Fuels
The Hank Project, for which the Company has received a license to construct and operate a satellite plant to the Nichols Ranch Plant (known as the Hank Satellite Plant), consists of 66 unpatented lode mining claims and one surface use agreement encompassing approximately 1,393 acres. Two fee leases were allowed to expire in 2016, as they were not deemed to be significant to the project. The Hank Project permit boundary encompasses approximately 2,250 acres.

Jane Dough Property (Jane Dough/Doughstick – 100% Energy Fuels; North Jane and S. Doughstick – 100% Arkose Mining Venture, held 81% by Energy Fuels)
In 2017, the Company received its license amendment from the NRC, which includes the Jane Dough Property in the Nichols Ranch Project permit area, and combines the Jane Dough/Doughstick, North Jane and S. Doughstick properties consisting of 117 unpatented lode mining claims, 16 mineral leases, and three surface use agreements encompassing approximately 3,121 acres. Operating interests in the Jane Dough Property includes Energy Fuels’ 100% owned property and 81% from the two properties held by the Arkose Mining Venture. The Jane Dough Property permit amendment encompasses approximately 3,680 acres. The fee land in the project is covered by mineral leases some of which have annual payments and some of which are five-year paid-up leases. The mineral leases have primary terms of ten years and can be held by ongoing uranium extraction (as defined in the leases). Some of the leases expired in 2019. The fee surface is covered by three separate surface use agreements, which include damage payments paid on an annual basis. The mining leases have a variety of royalty payments based on a fixed rate, a two-tier system, or a sliding scale system.

One of the leases has a fixed royalty rate of 4% of the gross proceeds. Two of the leases have a two-tier royalty based on the price of U3O8 at the time of the sale, and they are 6% for a U3O8 price less than $75 per pound, and 8% for a U3O8 price equal to or greater than $75 per pound. Five of the leases have a sliding scale royalty that runs from a low of 2% at a U3O8 price of $25 per pound up to a high of 10% for a U3O8 price of equal to or greater than $100 per pound. Four leases have a sliding scale royalty that runs from a low of 4% at a U3O8 price of $40 per pound up to a high of 10% for a U3O8 price of equal to or greater than $100 per pound. Four of the leases have a sliding scale royalty that runs from a low of 4.5% at a U3O8 price of $49.99 up to a high of 10% for a U3O8 price of equal to or greater than $100 per pound. There are twenty (20) unpatented mining claims located in Section 32, Township 43 North, Range 76 West that have an overriding royalty interest of 0.25%. This overriding royalty interest is based on production of uranium on said claims. Two of the surface use agreements have a two-tiered royalty based on the sales price of the U3O8 received by
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Uranerz, and they are 1% for a sales price of less than $50 per pound; and 2% for a sales price of equal to or greater than $50 per pound.

Uranium Severance Tax
The Company is required to pay a standard uranium industry severance tax of approximately 4% of sales and an ad valorem tax (annual property tax based on assessed values) to the State of Wyoming, in addition to various maintenance, land impact and access fees and other consideration to surface owners.
Permitting and Licensing

Energy Fuels has received all regulatory approvals necessary to conduct extraction and uranium processing activities at the Nichols Ranch Plant and Nichols Ranch Wellfield. In December 2010, Uranerz received its Permit to Mine for the Nichols Ranch Project from the WDEQ-LQD. In July 2011, Uranerz received a Source Material License from the NRC for the Nichols Ranch Plant and Nichols Ranch Wellfield, and construction of the Nichols Ranch Plant immediately began. Effective September 30, 2018, the State of Wyoming became an Agreement State under the Atomic Energy Act (as amended) for the regulation of uranium mills and uranium ISR facilities, and regulation of the Source Material License was transferred from the NRC to WDED-LQD.

Both the state and federal agencies analyzed all environmental aspects of the Nichols Ranch Project including reclamation of the land surface following extraction operations and restoration of impacted ground water. Workplace safety and the safety of the public are also closely monitored by regulatory agencies. We have posted a reclamation bond with the regulatory agencies in an amount of $6.8 million to cover the total estimated cost of reclamation by a third party as a requirement of the licenses.

The various state and federal permits and licenses that were required and have been obtained for the Nichols Ranch Project, exclusive of the expansion to the Jane Dough Property, are summarized below:

Primary Permits and Licenses for the Nichols Ranch Project (Nichols Ranch and Hank Units Only)
Permit, License, or Approval NameAgencyStatus
Source Material LicenseNRC (2011); WDEQ-LQD (2018)Obtained
Permit to Mine (UIC Permit)WDEQ-LQDObtained
Aquifer ExemptionWDEQ-LQD; EPAObtained
Permit to Appropriate GroundwaterWSEOObtained
Wellfield AuthorizationWDEQ-LQDObtained
Class I UIC Deep Disposal Well PermitsWDEQ-WQDObtained
WYPDESWDEQ- WQDObtained
Plan of Operations (Hank Unit only)BLMObtained
Air Quality PermitWDEQ-AQDObtained
Notes:    NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
UIC - Underground Injection Control
    WDEQ-LQD - Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality Land Quality Division
    WDEQ-WQD - Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality Water Quality Division
    WDEQ-AQD - Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality Air Quality Division
    WSEO - State Engineer’s Office
    WYPDES - Wyoming Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
    
Under the licensed plan, the Nichols Ranch Plant has been built, and a satellite processing facility is licensed for the Hank Project. In 2017, the NRC approved a source material license amendment to add the Jane Dough Property to the existing license for the Nichols Ranch Project, and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality approved an amendment to our Permit to Mine to incorporate the Jane Dough Property. The Jane Dough Property is now fully licensed and permitted as part of the Nichols Ranch Project. The Jane Dough Property is adjacent to the Nichols Ranch Wellfield and is expected to share its infrastructure. We are now able to bring the Jane Dough Property into extraction operations before the Hank Project. Due to its close proximity, extracted
59


solutions from the Jane Dough Property may be delivered directly to our Nichols Ranch Plant by pipeline, thus eliminating the need for a larger capital outlay to construct a satellite plant as is planned for the Hank Project. The Jane Dough Property includes the Doughstick, South Doughstick and North Jane properties. Additional wellfields may be added to the extraction operations plan as the Company continues to assess geological data.

Geology

The Nichols Ranch Project is located in the Powder River Basin. The mineralized trends within the Nichols Ranch Project are alteration-reduction trends hosted in the Eocene age channel sands that lie at depths of approximately 300 to 1,100 feet from the surface. Roll front deposits of uranium bearing material are anticipated to occur within these properties. An alteration-reduction trend is a natural chemical boundary trend line in a sandstone aquifer where reduced (non-oxidized) sand is in contact with altered (oxidized) sand. Uranium mineralization may be found along the trend line.

The properties in the Nichols Ranch Project contain alteration-reduction trends hosted in Eocene age channel sands. Alteration-reduction trends in the Pumpkin Buttes Mining District are typically composed of multiple, stacked roll front deposits that often contain associated uranium mineralization. A stacked roll front is a type of uranium occurrence found in thick sandstone where a number of mineralization trends are stacked on top of each other. Uranium mineralization within and adjacent to the Nichols Ranch Project are found in the Eocene Wasatch Formation (“Wasatch”). The Wasatch is a fluvial deposit composed of arkosic sandstones that are typically 25% or more feldspar grains and indicates a source rock where chemical weathering was not extreme, and the sediments have not been transported far. A fluvial deposit is a deposit of uranium mineralization found in sandstones that originated from sediments laid down by streams and rivers. The arkosic sandstone is a type of sandstone that contains a high percentage of feldspar grains. The medium grain size and relatively good sorting of this sediment implies water transportation, probably in a meandering river/stream system. The Wasatch Formation is interlaid with sandstones, claystones, siltstones, carbonaceous shale, and thin coal seams that overlie the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, another fluvial sedimentary unit.

History

The Nichols Ranch Project is located within the Pumpkin Buttes Mining District, which was the first commercial uranium extraction district in Wyoming. Uranium was first discovered in the Pumpkin Buttes in 1951. Intermittent uranium extraction from about 55 small mines occurred through 1967 producing 36,737 tons of material containing 208,143 pounds of uranium. This early mining activity focused on shallow oxidized deposits exploited by small open pit mines. The material was generally transported to the Atomic Energy Commission (“AEC”) buying station in Edgemont, South Dakota. Modern mining in the district has focused on deeper reduced deposits, including facilities operated by Cameco Corporation and Uranium One Inc.

The properties included in the Nichols Ranch Project were originally part of a large exploration area encompassing Townships 33 through 50 North of Ranges 69 through 79 West, on the 6th principal meridian. In 1966, Mountain West Mines Inc. (“MWM,” subsequently known as Excalibur Industries) began a successful drilling exploration program in a portion of this area. In 1967, MWM entered into an agreement with Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company (“CCI”) for further exploration and an option if suitable resources were found. CCI exercised its option in 1976 with plans to begin underground mining operations in the vicinity of North Butte. Changing economic conditions and the introduction of ISR mining technology reportedly ended much of CCI’s interest in the area. By the late 1980’s, CCI began selling select properties or allowing them to revert to the federal government.

Between 1968 and 1980, CCI drilled 117 holes and installed 3 water wells on the Nichols Ranch Project area. Texas Eastern Nuclear Inc. in 1985 completed limited drilling and exploration on the property (approximately 28 borings) and in early 1990s Kerr McGee Corporation and Rio Algom Mining Corporation also completed limited drilling in the area.

Mineralization

The targeted mineralized zones for the Nichols Ranch Wellfield in the A Sand unit are 300 to 700 feet below the surface and occur in two long narrow trends meeting at the nose. The nose is in the northwest corner of the deposit where the two narrow trends meet to form the tip of the geochemical front. The Hank Project’s two targeted mineralized zones in the F Sand unit range from 200 to 600 feet below the ground surface depending on the topography and changes in the formation’s elevation and stratigraphic horizon. The targeted mineralization zone for the Jane Dough Property is the A Sand unit, the same as Nichols Ranch, at depths of 300 to 750 feet below the surface.
Mineral Resource Estimates

BRS prepared an updated NI 43-101 compliant Mineral Resource estimate for the Nichols Ranch Project in the Nichols Ranch Technical Report. The updated Mineral Resource estimate is effective as of January 1, 2015 and is summarized in the table below. Mineral Resources were estimated using the GT Contour method. The primary data used in evaluation are equivalent uranium
60


values as quantified by downhole geophysical logging reported as %e U3O8. Radiometric equilibrium was evaluated and a disequilibrium factor (“DEF”) of 1 was used. The minimum uranium grade included in the estimate was 0.02% eU3O8. A minimum grade of 0.02% U3O8 and GT (grade x thickness) of 0.20 were used in the resource calculations. Mineral resources are reported at a cutoff of 0.20 GT, which is the cutoff applied at the Nichols Ranch Project. The table below provides a summary of Mineral Resources by classification following CIM guidelines. There are no Mineral Reserves on the property at this time. BRS noted that it is not aware of any known environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, socioeconomic, marketing, political, or other relevant factors that could materially affect the current resource estimate.

Nichols Ranch Remaining Mineral Resources – Uranium(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
ClassificationPropertyTons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
Energy Fuels Pounds (000)(6)
Nichols Ranch Measured Resources (M)Nichols Ranch280 0.140%784 784 
Nichols Ranch Indicated Resources (I)Nichols Ranch4280.126%               1,079                 1,079
Hank4500.095%855855
Jane Dough            1,892 0.112%               4,237                 3,567
Nichols Ranch Total (M & I)3,050 0.115%6,955 6,285 
Nichols Ranch Inferred ResourcesNichols Ranch --- --- ---  ---
Hank4230.095803803
Jane Dough1700.112381309
Nichols Ranch Inferred Total5930.100%               1,184                 1,112
Notes:
(1) The Mineral Resource estimate in this table complies with the requirements of NI 43-101 and the classifications comply with CIM definition standards and do not represent “reserves” under SEC Industry Guide 7. Mineral resources that are not “reserves” do not have demonstrated economic viability. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources.
(2) Remaining Mineral Resource includes reduction for production of 1,073,156 pounds from December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2020.
(3) Nichols Ranch ISR began producing on April 15, 2014. Approximately 200,000 pounds were produced that year. The total production from Nichols Ranch is now 1,273,192 pounds eU3O8.
(4) Mineral Resources are estimated at a uranium grade x thickness (G.T.) cut-off grade of 0.20 G.T. (minimum 0.02% eU3O8).
(5) Mineral Resources are estimated using a long-term uranium price of $65 per pound.
(6) Numbers may not add due to rounding.
(7) “Energy Fuels Pounds” represent 100% of Nichols Ranch and Hank, and 81% of the Company's share of the portion of Jane Dough held by the Arkose Mining Venture.

Information shown in the table above differs from the disclosure requirements of the SEC. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources.”

Activities Subsequent to Nichols Ranch Technical Report

Subsequent to the completion of the Nichols Ranch Technical Report, the Company has continued to operate and advance the Nichols Ranch Project, as described below. The information contained in this subsection entitled “Activities Subsequent to Nichols Ranch Technical Report” was prepared by the Company and has not been reviewed or confirmed by the authors of the Nichols Ranch Technical Report.

Wellfield Development and Exploration Completed by Energy Fuels

Prior to its acquisition by Energy Fuels in June 2015, Uranerz drilled 257 exploration holes, including three core holes and three water wells at the Nichols Ranch Project during 2006 and 2007 and 25 exploration holes and seven wells in 2009. In addition,
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Uranerz drilled 61 exploratory holes and seven wells within the Hank Property during 2006 and 2007 and eight additional wells in 2009. There has been no new drilling activity at the Hank Project since 2009. Uranerz drilled 691 exploration holes and 29 wells for baseline monitoring at the Jane Dough Property. There has been no new drilling at the Jane Dough Property since 2010.

Uranerz drilled a total of 78 rotary drill holes on the Hank Property, Nichols Ranch Wellfield, and Jane Dough Property during 2006, with 46 holes demonstrating uranium mineralization. During 2006, environmental permitting activities also continued at the Hank Property and Nichols Ranch Wellfields with the completion of a total of five hydrogeologic test wells, and the drilling of six core holes. The core was submitted for laboratory testing to support permitting requirements as well as to define resource disequilibrium attributes.

From February 19 to December 20, 2007, Uranerz drilled a total of 486 uranium trend delineation holes and eight hydrologic sampling wells on the Nichols Ranch Project, utilizing as many as three drill rigs and one electric log probing unit. This represents a total of approximately 300,000 feet of drilling with an average depth of 617 feet per hole. A total of 214 delineation holes were drilled on Nichols Ranch in 2007. In the final months of the 2007 drilling program, exploration efforts focused on the Hank Property and Nichols Ranch Wellfield to facilitate sub-surface geologic mapping with cross sections and to refine previous geologic models delineating known trends of uranium mineralization.

During 2008, no new exploration work was undertaken at the Nichols Ranch Wellfield.

During 2009, 51 delineation holes were drilled at the Nichols Ranch Wellfield, including the Doughstick and North Nichols Ranch properties. The purpose of this drilling was primarily to prepare for the installation of baseline monitor wells for the planned Nichols Ranch Plant. Additional drilling was carried out on the Doughstick properties.

During 2011, 38 delineation holes were drilled in 2011 on the Nichols Ranch Wellfield. The purpose of this drilling was for final delineation drilling prior to beginning the monitor well and extraction well installation in Production Area #1 of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield.

During 2012, Uranerz engaged in drilling exploration efforts and wellfield installation at Production Area #1 at the Nichols Ranch Wellfield. At Production Area #1, 263 extraction wells were cased and cemented. The extraction wells were connected to header houses with buried feeder lines. It was planned that initial extraction should begin with four header houses. Three header houses were set on their foundations in 2012 and connected to individual extraction wells.

The Uranerz 2013 and 2014 drilling programs at the Nichols Ranch Wellfield were restricted to adding extraction and monitor wells. No new exploration drilling was conducted.

During 2015, Uranerz engaged in drilling delineation efforts and wellfield installation at Production Area #1 of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield, where 283 extraction wells were cased and cemented. At Production Area #2 of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield, 51 monitor wells were cased and cemented. The extraction wells were connected to header houses with buried feeder lines. Initial extraction at the Nichols Ranch Wellfield began with four header houses. In 2015, two additional header houses (#5 and #6) were set on their foundations and connected to the individual extraction wells.

In 2016, the Company completed drilling 12 delineation holes and drilling and casing of 86 extraction wells in Header Houses #7 and #8 in Production Area #1. Header House #7 was turned on in March of 2016 and Header House #8 was turned on in June of 2016. In Production Area #2, 133 extraction and injection wells were drilled and cased.

Header House #9 was completed and turned on in March of 2017. No drilling or other development activities were performed since 2017.

Current Status of Wellfields

All the currently planned and permitted wellfields are in Production Areas #1 and #2 of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield. The Nichols Ranch Wellfield is expected to have a total of 13 header-houses, with Production Area #1 comprising header-houses 1 through 8, and Production Area #2 comprising header-houses 9 through 13. Each of the two planned Nichols Ranch Wellfield Production Areas will include a number of injection wells, recovery wells, monitoring wells, header houses and associated piping and power supply. Header houses will be located within the Production Areas and will distribute recovered fluids from recovery wells to trunk lines, and injection fluids from the processing facility through the trunk lines to injection wells. See the map below illustrating Production Areas #1 and #2, and the plant.

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efr-20201231_g7.jpg

The first five header houses and their respective wellfields in Production Area #1 at the Nichols Ranch Wellfield were installed and extracting uranium at the time we acquired Uranerz in June 2015. Header house #6 was turned on in November 2015. The Company placed the 7th and 8th header-houses on-line in March and July 2016, respectively, thereby completing development of Production Area #1. In February 2017 we completed construction on our 9th header-house, marking the beginning of development in Production Area #2. Uranium recovery operations from Production Area #2 commenced in March of 2017. Nichols Ranch is
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currently on standby and is engaged in reduced uranium recovery activities in Production Area #1 and Production Area #2. In order for Nichols Ranch to engage in future uranium production, the Company will need to incur capital expenditures to develop additional wellfields.

Nichols Ranch Plant

In 2014, construction of the Nichols Ranch Plant was completed. The Nichols Ranch Plant is licensed to produce up to two million pounds of uranium per year through three major processing solution circuits: (i) a recovery and extraction circuit; (ii) an elution circuit; and (iii) a yellowcake production circuit. The Nichols Ranch Plant is currently constructed and operated with the recovery and extraction circuit and the elution circuit installed. We retain the ability to construct and operate a yellowcake drying and packaging circuit at the Nichols Ranch Plant at a later date if desired.

The Nichols Ranch Plant is currently on standby, but is still processing uranium-bearing wellfield solutions from Production Areas #1 and #2 of the Nichols Ranch Wellfield. Yellowcake slurry, produced at the Nichols Ranch Plant, is shipped by truck from the Nichols Ranch Project to the White Mesa Mill where it is dried and packaged in drums as uranium concentrate product. Prior to the completion of the elution circuit in February 2016, loaded resin was transported by truck to a third-party facility for elution, drying and packaging, under a toll processing arrangement.

In August 2020, deep disposal well #1 (NICH-DW-1) was placed back into operation after a successful work-over.

The Nichols Ranch Plant was acquired by the Company on June 18, 2015 through the acquisition of Uranerz. As of December 31, 2020, the total cost attributable to the Nichols Ranch Plant on the Company’s financial statements was $29.21 million.

The Company’s Planned Work

Nichols Ranch is currently on standby, with its existing wellfields having been depleted as of the end of the first quarter of 2020. In order for Nichols Ranch to engage in future uranium production, the Company will need to incur capital expenditures to develop additional wellfields. A decision to commence development will be made if the Company decides to take action in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve or uranium prices otherwise improve to a point where the economic feasibility of the Nichols Ranch Project is realized.

As a result of the Company’s WDEQ license and permit amendment approvals, it is now possible to expand extraction operations to the Jane Dough Property before expanding to the Hank Project.

The Hank Project, including the permitted but not constructed Hank Satellite Plant and planned Hank wellfield, is currently licensed as a satellite uranium extraction and recovery facility, with loaded resin from the satellite facility, when constructed, expected to be transported by truck to the Nichols Ranch Plant for elution. Construction activities at the Hank Project will not commence until market conditions warrant. In the future, we will consider whether to amend our current license for the Hank Project to include a pipeline to our Nichols Ranch Plant, which would replace or eliminate the currently permitted satellite ion exchange recovery facility. If market conditions warrant construction activities at the Hank Project, our extraction plan for the Hank Property will likewise target two planned extraction areas. Should market conditions warrant, the Jane Dough and Hank Properties would be expected to follow a similar construction, extraction, and restoration schedule as outlined above for the Nichols Ranch Wellfield extraction areas.

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The Alta Mesa Project

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Unless stated otherwise, the following description of the Alta Mesa Project is derived from a technical report titled, “Alta Mesa Uranium Project, Alta Mesa and Mesteña Grande Mineral Resources and Exploration Target, Technical Report National Instrument 43-101” dated July 19, 2016, prepared by Mr. Douglas Beahm, P.E., P.G. of BRS Inc. in accordance with NI 43-101 (the “Alta Mesa Technical Report”). The author is a “qualified person” within the meaning of NI 43-101, and because the sole author is “independent” of the Company within the meaning of NI 43-101 the report is therefore considered an independent technical report under NI 43-101. The Alta Mesa Technical Report is available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. The Alta Mesa Project does not have any known “reserves” and is therefore considered under SEC Industry Guide 7 definitions to be exploratory in nature, despite its history of uranium recovery activities. No current preliminary economic assessment, pre-feasibility study or feasibility study has been completed.


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Property Description and Location

The Alta Mesa Project is a fully-licensed ISR uranium recovery facility that the Company acquired in June 2016 through the acquisition of EFR Alta Mesa LLC (previously named Mesteña Uranium LLC). It is located in South Texas and is currently on standby. The Alta Mesa Project is not an underground or open pit project.

The Alta Mesa central processing facility and mine office is located at 755 CR 315, Encino, Texas 78353, in Brooks County, Texas, at approximately 26° 54’ 08” North Longitude and 98° 18’ 54” West Latitude. The site is located approximately 11 miles west of the intersection of US 281 and Ranch Road 755, which is 22 miles south of Falfurrias, Texas.

The Project is located within a portion of the private land holdings of the Jones Ranch, founded in 1897. The ranch comprises approximately 380,000 acres. The ranch holdings include surface and mineral rights including oil and gas and other minerals including uranium. Active uses of the lands in addition to uranium exploration and production activities include agricultural use (cattle), oil and gas development, and private hunting.

The Project consists of Uranium Mining Leases for uranium ISR mining (4,598 acres) and Mineral Options (195,501 acres) comprising some 200,099 total acres. The Project is defined as constituting two distinct project areas with sufficient drilling to define resources. These two areas are subdivided, as listed below and illustrated on the map on the following page:

The Alta Mesa project area, Brooks County, Texas, comprising 16,010 acres, including,
The Alta Mesa mine area and central processing facility
South Alta Mesa
Indigo Snake

The Mesteña Grande project area, Jim Hogg County, Texas, comprising 47,088 acres, including,
Mesteña Grande Goliad
Mesteña Grande North
Mesteña Grande Central
Mesteña Grande Alta Vista
El Sordo

The remaining 137,002 acres lack sufficient exploration drilling to define any resources at this time.

Accessibility, Local Resources, Physiography and Infrastructure

The Project is located primarily in Brooks and Jim Hogg counties, Texas, with the central processing facility in Brooks County. Brooks County is generally rural and according to the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,223 people living in the county. The population density was 8 people per square mile. Most of the workers for the operation are from the local area and nearby communities such as Kingsville, Texas approximately 40 miles from the site. Some staff members commute from Corpus Christi, Texas approximately 90 miles from the site.

The Project is located in the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico. Topography of the lower Gulf Coast is relatively flat, whereas the upper Gulf Coast, including most of the current and past mining operations of the South Texas Uranium Province, generally has low relief, rolling plains, except where it is locally dissected by rivers and streams. Elevations range from sea level to about 800 ft. in the southwest. Three major rivers from south to north are: the Nueces River, which flows into Corpus Christi Bay, and the San Antonio and Guadalupe Rivers, which flow into San Antonio Bay southeast of the city of Victoria.

The Project is accessible year-round. The site is located approximately 11 miles west of the intersection of US Highway 281 (paved) and Ranch Road 755 (paved), 22 miles south of Falfurrias, Texas. Commercial airlines serve San Antonio, Corpus Christi and Harligen. Many of the local communities have small airfields and there are numerous private airfields in the region.

In general, the climate is warm and dry, with hot summers and relatively mild winters. However, the region is strongly influenced by its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and, as a result, has a much more marine-type climate than the rest of Texas, which is more typically continental. Monthly mean temperatures in the region range from 55oF in January to 96oF in August. The area rarely experiences freezing conditions and, as a result, the majority of the processing facility and infrastructure is located outdoors. Wellfield piping and distribution lines do not require burial for frost protection. Annual precipitation ranges from 20 to 35 inches regionally. Primary risk for severe weather is related to heavy thunderstorms and the effects of hurricanes along the Gulf Coast.

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Local infrastructure includes electricity service, which is adequate for mine and mineral processing activities. The Alta Mesa facility also has telephone and internet service in the form of a T-1 fiber optics line. The plant has an automated control and monitoring system, which allows remote monitoring of the facility, and includes fail safe systems, which can shut down portions of the system in the event of an upset condition. The facility is fully secured with on-site and remote monitoring. Water supply for the Project is from established and permitted local wells. Liquid waste from the processing facility is disposed of via deep well injection through two permitted Class I UIC disposal wells. Solid waste from the processing facilities is disposed of off-site at licensed disposal facilities. No tailings or other related waste disposal facilities are needed.

The Project is located on an operating cattle ranch. In addition, there is significant local oil and gas development and production. The Alta Mesa area was first developed as an oilfield in the 1930s with production ongoing, primarily for natural gas. Other land uses include farming and recreational uses, such as hunting.

The area is regionally classified as a coastal sand plain. Brooks County comprises 942 square miles of brushy mesquite land. The level to undulating soils are poorly drained, dark and loamy or sandy; isolated dunes are found. In the northeast corner of the county the soils are light-colored and loamy at the surface and clayey beneath.

The mineral leases and options described below include provisions for reasonable use of the land surface for the purposes of ISR mining and mineral processing. Alta Mesa is a fully licensed, operable facility with sufficient sources of power, water, and waste disposal facilities for operations and aquifer restoration. While the current staff level has been reduced, sufficient local personnel are available for mine operations.

Ownership

Mineral ownership in Texas is a private estate. Private title to all land in Texas emanates from a grant by the sovereign of the soil (successively, Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, and the state of Texas). By a provision of the Texas Constitution the state released to the owner of the soil all mines and mineral substances therein. Under the Relinquishment Act of 1919, as subsequently amended, the surface owner is made the agent of the state for the leasing of such lands, and both the surface owner and the state receive a fractional interest in the proceeds of the leasing and production of minerals.

The Project consists of a private Uranium Solution Mining Lease (4,598 acres) and Options (195,501 acres) for uranium comprising some 200,100 total acres consisting of acreage associated with currently approved mining permits issued by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and 9 prospect areas.

The Uranium Solution Mining Lease, originally dated June 1, 2004, covers approximately 4,575 acres out of the “La Mesteñas” Ysidro Garcia Survey, A-218, Brooks County, Texas and “Las Mesteñas Y Gonzalena” Rafael Garcia Salinas Survey, A-480, Brooks County, Texas (description corrected in a later amendment). This original Uranium Solution Mining Lease has been superseded by the Amended and Restated Uranium Solution Mining Lease dated June 16, 2016, as part of the share purchase agreement between the Company and the various former holders of the Alta Mesa Project. The Lease now covers uranium, thorium, vanadium, molybdenum, other fissionable minerals, and associated minerals and materials under 4,597.67 acres. The term of the amended lease is fifteen (15) years commencing on June 16, 2016 or so long as the lessee is continuously engaged in any mining, development, production, processing, treating, restoration or reclamation operations on the leased premises. The amended lease can be extended by the Lessee for an additional 15 years upon payment of a stipulated cash payment. The lease includes provisions for royalty payments on the net proceeds (less allowable deductions) received by the Lessee. The royalty payment is 7.5% of Market Value of Product sold at a uranium price greater than $95.00 per pound, 6.25% of Market Value of Product sold at a uranium price greater than $65.00 and up to and including $95.00 per pound, and 3.125% of the Market Value of Product sold at a uranium price of $65.00 or less per pound.

The Uranium Testing Permit and Lease Option Agreement, originally dated August 1, 2006, covers all of the land containing mineral potential as identified through exploration efforts and covers uranium, thorium, vanadium, molybdenum, and all other fissionable materials, compounds, solutions, mixtures, and source materials, has been superseded by the Amended and Restated Uranium Testing and Lease Option Agreement dated June 16, 2016, as part of the share purchase agreement between the Company and the various holders of the Alta Mesa Project. It now covers some 195,501.03 acres. The term of the amended lease and option agreement is for eight years commencing June 16, 2016. The amended lease and option agreement can be extended by the grantee for an additional seven years. Certain payments by the Grantee to the Grantor are required prior to year three of the initial eight-year lease. The amended Lease Option Agreement provides for designating acreage to be leased for production by making certain payments to the Grantor (cash or stock). If acreage designation occurs within the first three years of the initial eight-year lease, the payments will be deducted from the certain payments required by year three in the lease option agreement. The Grantor then has sixty business days to execute and return the lease.
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Amended surface use agreements have been entered in to with all surface owners on the various prospect areas as part of the Membership Interest purchase agreement between the Company and the various former holders of the Alta Mesa Project. These amended agreements, unchanged from those originally entered in to on June 1, 2004, provide, among other things, for stipulated damages to be paid for certain activities related to the exploration and production of Uranium. Specifically, the agreements call for Consumer Price Index adjusted payments for the following disturbances: exploratory test holes, development test holes, monitor wells, new roads, and related surface disturbances. The lease also outlines an annual payment schedule for land taken out of agricultural use around the area of a deep disposal well, land otherwise taken out of agricultural use, and pipelines constructed outside of the production area.

Surface rights are expressly stated in the lease and in general provide the lessee with the right to ingress and egress, and the right to use so much of the surface and subsurface of the leased premises as reasonably necessary for ISR mining. Open pit and/or strip mining is prohibited by the lease.

Ad valorem tax rates per $100 of taxable value applicable to tangible property for 2016 were as follows:

Brooks County 0.743829
Brooks County Rd and Bridge 0.150000
Brooks County ISD 1.572555
Brooks County FM FC 0.098837
Brush Country Groundwater      0.026020


[See map below]
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Permitting and Licensing

The Alta Mesa Project area is fully permitted for ISR mining and recovery of uranium. The table below summarizes the current permits held by EFR Alta Mesa. Similar permits would be required for the Mesteña Grande project area depending upon the nature of operations and their integration with the Alta Mesa facility.

Primary Permits and Licenses for the Alta Mesa Project
Permit, License or Approval NameAgencyStatus
Radioactive Material LicenseTCEQObtained
Class III UIC Mine Area PermitTCEQObtained
Aquifer ExemptionTCEQObtained
Production Area AuthorizationTCEQObtained
Class I UIC Deep Disposal Well PermitsTCEQObtained
Notes:
TCEQ - Texas Commission on Environmental Quality
UIC - Underground Injection Control

The ISR processing facility at Alta Mesa has an operating capacity of 1.5 million pounds of uranium per year. Primary regulatory authority resides with the State of Texas. Financial assurance instruments are held by the state for completed wells, ISR mining, and uranium processing to ensure reclamation and restoration of the affected lands and aquifers in accordance with state regulations and permit requirements.

History

Alta Mesa was first discovered in the mid-1970s by Chevron Resources as a result of researching oil and gas logs for natural gamma geophysical signatures. Chevron controlled the Alta Mesa portion of the project through June of 1985 when they returned the mineral lease due to Chevron exiting the uranium business. Chevron reportedly drilled a total of 360 holes inclusive of exploration drilling, coring, and well completion during a four-year period from 1981 through 1984. In July of 1988 Total Minerals Incorporated (“Total”) executed a lease agreement for the Alta Mesa portion of the project. Total also engaged Uranium Resources Incorporated (“URI”) to complete a feasibility study for the project. The Total mineral lease was terminated as a result of the French Government requiring Total to sell all their uranium assets to Cogema.

Subsequently, the Project was evaluated by Cogema in 1994 and later by URI. URI held the mineral lease and obtained the Radioactive Material License during the period of 1996 through 1998. EFR Alta Mesa (previously named Mesteña Uranium LLC) was formed in 1999 and continued permitting activities in April of 2000 and completed licensing in 2003. Plant construction at Alta Mesa began in 2004 with initial production in the 4th quarter of 2005. The Project produced approximately 4.6 million pounds of uranium oxide between 2005 and 2013 via ISR mining. The facility was in production from 2005 until primary production ceased in February 2013. The Project operated in a groundwater clean-up mode until February 2015; therefore, any uranium mined since 2013 remains as in-circuit inventory.

Geology

The Alta Mesa Project is located within the Texas Gulf Coast along a belt of Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary formations. The Project is located within the South Texas Uranium Province, which is known to contain more than 100 uranium deposits that were developed in the second half of the 20th century.

Regionally, uranium deposits are hosted by four formations:
Miocene/Pliocene Goliad Formation, consisting of fluvial deposits, mostly unconsolidated sands.
Miocene Oakville Formation, consisting of fluvial deposits (sands, some clay).
Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula Formation, consisting of fluvial deposits, mostly sands, clay, and clastic volcanic rich sediments.
The Jackson Group consisting of fluvial deposits sands, silt, clay, and lignite.

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At the Alta Mesa Project, in order of importance, uranium is hosted by the Goliad, Oakville, and Catahoula formations.

South Texas uranium deposits are sandstone roll-front uranium deposits. The key components in the formation of roll-front type mineralization include:
A permeable host formation:
Sandstone units of the Goliad, Oakville, and Catahoula formations.
A source of soluble uranium:
Volcanic ash-fall tuffs coincidental with Catahoula deposition containing elevated concentration of uranium is the probable source of uranium deposits for the South Texas Uranium Province.
Oxidizing ground waters to leach and transport the uranium:
Ground waters regionally tend to be oxidizing and slightly alkaline.
Adequate reductant within the host formation:
Conditions resulting from periodic H2S gas migrating along faults and subsequent iron sulfide (pyrite) precipitation created local reducing conditions.
Time sufficient to concentrate the uranium at the oxidation/reduction interface:
Uranium precipitates from solution at the oxidation/reduction boundary (REDOX) as uraninite which is dominant (UO2, uranium oxide) or coffinite (USiO4, uranium silicate).
The geohydrologic regime of the region has been stable over millions of years with ground water movement controlled primarily by high-permeability channels within the predominantly sandstone formations of the Tertiary.

The structural map of the Gulf Coast area is dominated by an abundance of growth faults that trend with, or are slightly oblique to, stratigraphic strike, which is roughly parallel to the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, local structural features such as salt domes influence the distribution and deposition of uranium mineralization potentially through various mechanisms including effects on ground water flow and the introduction of additional reductant via the migration of H2S gas along the faulting related to the salt dome intrusion. This mechanism is thought to be of importance at Alta Mesa.

Mineralization

The Alta Mesa Project is located in the South Texas Uranium Province. Mineralization within the South Texas Uranium Province is interpreted to be dominantly roll-front type mineralization and primarily of epigenetic origin. Roll-fronts are formed along an interface between oxidizing ground water solutions, which encounter reducing conditions within the host sandstone unit. This boundary between oxidizing and reducing conditions is often referred to as the REDOX interface or front. Mineralization tends to be very continuous.

Within the Alta Mesa portion of the Project, Quaternary formations are exposed at the surface. These are conformably underlain by the Goliad Formation, the primary uranium host. Alta Mesa ISR mine units have exploited uranium mineralization in the Goliad C sands within wellfields PAA-1, PAA-2, PAA-3, PAA-4, and PAA-6. The B sand was targeted in wellfield PAA-5. Mineral resources have been estimated for the A, B, C, and D sands. Exploration targets in the South Alta Mesa area lie within successively deeper D, E, F, G, and H sands of the Goliad.

Within the Mesteña Grande portion of the project, mineralization is also present in the Goliad Formation but is dominantly found in the Oakville Formation. In the western portion of Mesteña Grande mineralization is found in the Catahoula Formation. Mineral resources have been estimated for all areas within the Mesteña Grande portion of the project.

Present Condition of the Property and Work Completed to Date

The Alta Mesa Project produced approximately 4.6 million pounds of uranium oxide between 2005 and 2013 via In Situ Recovery mining. The facility was in production from 2005 until primary production ceased in February 2013. The Project operated in a groundwater clean-up mode until February 2015; therefore, any uranium mined since 2013 remains as in-circuit inventory. The first wellfield (PAA-1) has undergone restoration, and the groundwater has been released by the State of Texas. In 2018, all of the cased wells associated with PAA-1 were plugged as per permit requirements. All other wellfields are being maintained by a small bleed (less than 100 gpm) for permit compliance. The bleed solutions are disposed of in the deep disposal wells.

Drill data is available for a total of 10,744 drill holes of which approximately 3,000 are within existing wellfields. The primary assay data for the Project is downhole geophysical log data. EFR Alta Mesa relied entirely on prompt-fission-neutron (PFN) logging for uranium grade assay and used natural gamma logging to screen intervals for PFN logging. Of the 10,744 drill holes in the Alta Mesa database, PFN logging was not available for only 7.2% of the drill holes. For the Mesteña Grande portion of the Project, all 460 drill holes were completed by EFR Alta Mesa and all gamma intercepts greater than 0.02 % eU3O8 were logged by PFN.
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For determination of uranium grade, EFR Alta Mesa LLC relied on PFN log data for 92.8% of the data, which is a direct measurement of uranium content and not an equivalent radiometric assay. As a result, assessment of disequilibrium factor (DEF) is not applicable.

In 2019, the Company performed significant surface decommissioning work in PAA-1. The Project was maintained in a standby mode during 2020.

As of December 31, 2020, the total cost attributable to the Alta Mesa Project on the Company’s financial statements was $13.63 million.

The Company’s Planned Work

Subject to any actions the Company may take in response to the proposed establishment of a U.S. Uranium Reserve and general market conditions, the Company expects to continue to keep the Alta Mesa Project on standby until such time as improvements in uranium market conditions are observed or suitable sales contracts can be procured. Alta Mesa is capable of resuming production within a relatively short period of time after a positive production decision by the Company, with only minimal capital requirements.

Mineral Resource Estimates

Mineral resources have been estimated for both the Alta Mesa and Mesteña Grande areas by Douglas Beahm of BRS Inc. in accordance with CIM standards and definitions and are summarized in the respective tables below. Mineral Resources for the Alta Mesa Project are estimated by classifications, meeting CIM standards and definitions as measured, indicated, and inferred mineral resources, at a 0.30 GT cutoff.

There are no Mineral Reserves on the property at this time. Mr. Beahm of BRS Inc. noted that he is not aware of any known environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, socioeconomic, marketing, political, or other relevant factors that could materially affect the current resource estimate.

Alta Mesa and Mesteña Grande Resource Summary

Alta Mesa and Mesteña Grande Mineral Resources – Uranium(1)(2)(3)(4)
ClassificationTons (000)
Grade % eU3O8
Pounds eU3O8 (000)
Total Measured Resources (M)(5)
1230.151%371
Alta Mesa Indicated Resources (I)1,3930.106%2,959
Mesteña Grande Indicated Resources (I)1190.120%287
Total (M & I)1,6350.111%3,617
Alta Mesa Inferred Resources1,2300.128%3,192
Mesteña Grande Inferred Resources5,7330.119%13,601 
Total Inferred Resources6,9630.121%16,793
Notes:
(1) The Mineral Resource estimate in this table complies with the requirements of NI 43-101 and the classifications comply with CIM definition standards and do not represent “reserves” under SEC Industry Guide 7. Mineral resources that are not “reserves” do not have demonstrated economic viability. See “Cautionary Note to United States Investors Concerning Disclosure of Mineral Resources,” above.
(2) Mineral Resources are estimated at a uranium grade x thickness (G.T.) cut-off grade of 0.30 G.T. (minimum 0.02% eU3O8).
(3) Mineral Resources are estimated using a long-term uranium price of $65 per pound.
(4) Numbers may not add due to rounding.
(5) The Total Measured Mineral Resource is that portion of the in-place mineral resource that is estimated to be recoverable within existing wellfields. Wellfield recovery factors have not been applied to indicated and inferred mineral resources.

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The White Mesa Mill
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General

The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed uranium and vanadium processing facility located in southeastern Utah, approximately six miles south of the city of Blanding, Utah. It is within trucking distance of the Company’s conventional properties in Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico, including the Pinyon Plain Project, the Roca Honda Project, the Henry Mountains Complex, the La Sal Project and the Daneros Project. The Mill is the only fully operational and licensed conventional uranium mill in the U.S. It is capable of functioning independently of off-site support except for commercial power from Rocky Mountain Power and as-needed supplemental water supply from the City of Blanding, Utah, and the San Juan Water Conservancy District. The White Mesa Mill is a uranium processing and recovery facility. It is not an underground or open pit project.

The Mill is licensed to process an average of 2,000 tons of ore per day and to extract over 8.0 million pounds of U3O8 per year. In addition to the conventional circuit, the Mill has a separate vanadium by-product recovery circuit.

In addition to the Mill processing equipment, which includes the grinding and leaching circuits, CCD (liquid–solid separation), solvent extraction, and precipitation and drying circuits, the Mill has several days of reagent storage for sulfuric acid, ammonia, salt, soda ash, caustic soda, ammonium sulfate, flocculants, kerosene, amines, and liquefied natural gas.

The on-site infrastructure also includes a stockpile area capable of storing up to 450,000 tons of mineralized material, and existing tailings capacity of approximately 3.5 million tons of solids. In addition, the Mill has approximately 90 acres of evaporation capacity.

Synthetic lined cells are used to contain tailings and solutions for evaporation. The Company operates two tailings cells and one or more evaporation ponds during normal operations. As each tailings cell is filled, the water is drawn off and pumped to an
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evaporation pond and the tailings solids are allowed to dry. As each tailings cell reaches final capacity, reclamation begins with the placement of interim cover over the tailings. Additional cells are excavated, and the overburden is used to reclaim previous cells. In this way, there is an ongoing reclamation process.

When in full operation, the Mill employs approximately 150 people, which is reduced to approximately 110 people when the vanadium circuit is not being operated.