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Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission file number: 001-36388

Peoples Financial Services Corp.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Pennsylvania

23-2391852

State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

150 North Washington Avenue,

Scranton, PA 18503

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(570346-7741

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common stock, $2.00 par value

PFIS

The Nasdaq Stock Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

  

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes    No   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2020 was $280,041,771 (based on the closing sales price of the registrant’s common stock on that date).

The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 28, 2021 was 7,203,101.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed in connection with solicitation of proxies for its 2021 annual meeting of shareholders, within 120 days of the end of registrant’s fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Peoples Financial Services Corp.

Form 10-K

For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page
Number 

PART I

 

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

18

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

29

Item 2.

Properties

29

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

29

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

29

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

29

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

32

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

33

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

74

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

76

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

133

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

133

Item 9B.

Other Information

135

PART III

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

135

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

135

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

135

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

135

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

135

PART IV

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

135

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

135

SIGNATURES

138

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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. These statements are based on assumptions and may describe future plans, strategies and expectations of Peoples Financial Services Corp. and its subsidiaries. These forward-looking statements are generally identified by use of the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project” or similar expressions. All statements in this report, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements.

The ability of Peoples Financial Services Corp. to predict results or the actual effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: the unfolding of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) crisis and the governmental responses to the crisis; risks associated with business combinations; changes in interest rates; economic conditions, particularly in our market area; legislative and regulatory changes and the ability to comply with the significant laws and regulations governing the banking and financial services business; monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. government, including policies of the U.S. Department of Treasury and the Federal Reserve System; credit risk associated with lending activities and changes in the quality and composition of our loan and investment portfolios; demand for loan and other products; deposit flows; competition; changes in the values of real estate and other collateral securing the loan portfolio, particularly in our market area; changes in relevant accounting principles and guidelines; inability of third party service providers to perform; and our ability to prevent, detect and respond to cyberattacks. Additional factors that may affect our results are discussed in Item 1A to this Annual Report on Form 10-K titled “Risk Factors”.

These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. Except as required by applicable law or regulation, we do not undertake, and specifically disclaim any obligation, to release publicly the result of any revisions that may be made to any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of the statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events.

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Part I

Item  1.

Business.

General

Peoples Financial Services Corp., a bank holding company incorporated under the laws of Pennsylvania, provides a full range of financial services through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Peoples Security Bank and Trust Company.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, all references in this annual report to the “Peoples,” “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Peoples Financial Services Corp. and its subsidiaries. Peoples Security Bank and Trust Company is sometimes referred to as “Peoples Bank.”

Peoples Bank is a state-chartered bank and trust company under the jurisdiction of the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or “FDIC.” Peoples Bank’s twenty-six community banking offices, all similar with respect to economic characteristics, share a majority of the following aggregation criteria: products and services; operating processes; customer bases; delivery systems; and regulatory oversight. Accordingly, they are aggregated into a single operating segment.

Market Areas

Our principal market area consists of Bucks, Lackawanna, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Monroe, Montgomery, Northampton, Susquehanna, Wayne and Wyoming Counties in Pennsylvania and Broome County in New York. In addition, parts of Bradford and Schuylkill Counties in Pennsylvania are also considered part of the market area. Approximately half of our offices are located in and around Scranton, the largest city in Lackawanna County.

Specifically, we conduct the majority of our business in our legacy market of Binghamton and the southern tier of New York and northeastern Pennsylvania. Our recent growth strategy expanded our operations into the Greater Lehigh Valley, King of Prussia and the Greater Delaware Valley of southeastern Pennsylvania and suburban Philadelphia, and south central Pennsylvania.

Peoples commenced a growth strategy during the fourth quarter of 2014 with the opening of a community banking office in the Lehigh County market. During 2017, the Company added two additional branch offices, one in Allentown, Lehigh County and one in Bethlehem, Northampton County to continue our strategic expansion initiative into the Greater Lehigh Valley market. This market has a greater population than the other counties served, with Bethlehem being the second largest city within Lehigh County.

In 2015, the Company entered the King of Prussia market, which includes parts of Bucks and Montgomery counties of Pennsylvania and suburban Philadelphia, with the establishment of a loan production office and a team of experienced lenders. During the fourth quarter of 2016, a retail branch office was established, replacing the loan production office, and staffed by personal bankers and our experienced lenders. Montgomery and Bucks counties are two of the wealthiest counties in Pennsylvania. Significant types of employment industries include pharmaceuticals, health care, electronics, computer services, insurance, industrial machinery, retailing, schools and meat processing.

In 2019, the Company entered the south central Pennsylvania market with the establishment of a full-service branch in Lebanon County. A team of experienced lenders in this market was recruited to serve the Lancaster, Lebanon, and Harrisburg market. In 2020, the bank expanded further into the Greater Delaware Valley by opening a branch office in Doylestown, Bucks County and recruiting an experienced lending team.

In 2020, the Company permanently closed its Duryea, Gouldsboro, and South Scranton branches which had been temporarily closed during the pandemic. Each of the branches were consolidated into branches within close proximity and we re-allocated the operating expenses to the markets identified in our growth strategy.

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The Marcellus Shale formation located in the heart of our northern market area has provided economic benefits to the communities served and as a result to us. Natural gas producers have invested billions of dollars in Pennsylvania in lease and land acquisition, new well drilling, infrastructure development and community partnerships.

COVID-19

As the COVID-19 events continue to unfold, our continued priority is the health and safety of our employees and customers.  Our management team continues to implement its pandemic plan by modifying and enhancing strategies and protocols intended to protect our workforce and customers, maintain services for customers, assure the functional continuity of our operating systems, controls and processes, and mitigate financial risks posed by changing market conditions.  We have followed the recommendations of our state governments by imposing business travel restrictions, implementing quarantine and work from home protocols and physically separating, to the extent possible, the critical operations site workforce that are unable to work remotely. As of March 1, 2021, we have re-opened the majority of our branch lobbies to the public with safety protocols in place. Our remaining branches are operating with drive-up services, with lobby access available by appointment only. We have also maintained active communications with our primary regulatory agencies and critical vendors in an effort to keep all mission-critical activities and functions performing in line with regulatory expectations and the Company’s service standards.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is fluid and continues to evolve, adversely affecting many of the Bank’s clients. The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated impacts on trade (including supply chains), travel, employee productivity, unemployment, consumer spending, and other economic activities have resulted in less economic activity and significant volatility and disruption in financial markets, and has had an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The ultimate extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations is currently uncertain and will depend on various developments and other factors, including, among others, the duration and scope of the pandemic, as well as governmental, regulatory and private sector responses to the pandemic, and the associated impacts on the economy, financial markets and our customers, employees and vendors. Our business, financial condition and results of operations generally rely upon the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, the value of collateral underlying our secured loans, and demand for loans and other products and services we offer, which are highly dependent on the business environment in our primary markets where we operate and in the United States generally.

We have participated as a lender in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act"), Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”), a $350 billion specialized low-interest loan program funded by the U.S. Treasury Department and administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”). The PPP provides borrower guarantees for lenders, as well as loan forgiveness incentives for borrowers that utilize the SBA loan proceeds to cover employee compensation related business operating costs. Our loan officers guided our commercial customers through the application process and now are guiding them through the forgiveness process and the second round of PPP. During 2020, we approved 1,450 PPP loans totaling $217.5 million. Substantially all of the loans were made to existing customers, funded under the two year PPP loan program, and the loan proceeds initially were deposited with our institution. At origination, loan fee income totaled $7.0 million and is being earned primarily over the 24-month duration of the loans as a part of the loan yield. PPP loan forgiveness commenced during the fourth quarter of 2020 with $27.8 million of forgiveness being received by our borrowers. We expect the majority of the remaining $189.7 million of PPP loans to be forgiven during 2021. At December 31, 2020, $4.0 million of fees remain to be earned in future periods and may be accelerated based on the timing of forgiveness of PPP loans by the SBA. In addition, the Company is participating in the 2021 second round of PPP lending and has received approval by the SBA on 605 applications totaling $80.7 million. The loans closed during January and February.

From a credit risk perspective, we took actions to identify and assess our COVID-19 related credit exposures based on asset class and borrower type. From the onset of the crisis, we worked to proactively monitor our loan portfolio by contacting many of our borrowers to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on them, their businesses and the underlying collateral for our loans. The Company implemented a customer payment deferral program to assist both consumer and business borrowers that may be experiencing financial hardship due to COVID-19 related challenges. For borrowers who received a loan payment deferral we worked with the borrowers to evaluate the potential for further deterioration of

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credit quality at the end of the deferral period. We evaluated our commercial loan and commercial real estate loan portfolios to identify those loans in industries that are most at risk or where other information indicates the borrower may be significantly impacted by the effects of COVID-19. The Company granted payment deferral requests for up to six months to a total of 481 commercial loans with outstanding loan balances of $306.9 million and to 505 consumer loans with outstanding balances of $23.3 million. At December 31, 2020, the majority of loans are no longer in deferral as borrowers have begun to make their regular payments. Outstanding loan balances remaining in deferral at December 31, 2020 totaled $6.1 million, a decrease of $324.0 million from the $330.1 million in deferral at June 30, 2020. As a percentage of total loan balances, excluding PPP loans, loans in deferral represented 0.6% of loans outstanding at December 31, 2020 compared to 16.7% of loans outstanding at June 30, 2020. At December 31, 2020, commercial loan balances remaining in deferral total $5.8 million while consumer loans total $0.3 million. Loan deferrals and modifications have been executed consistent with the guidelines of the CARES Act.

Human Capital Resource

Staffing. At December 31, 2020, our 352 full-time employees and 32 part-time employees are the keys to the success of Peoples. We are committed to attracting, retaining and promoting top quality talent regardless of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, age, disability or genetic information. We strive to identify and select the best candidates for all open positions based on qualifying factors for each job. We are dedicated to providing a workplace for our employees in which they are treated with dignity, decency and respect; that is inclusive, supportive, and free of any form of discrimination or harassment; rewarding and recognizing our employees based on their individual results and performance; and recognizing and respecting all of the characteristics and differences that make each of our employees unique.

Core values. We strive to meet our core values of integrity, excellence, teamwork and efficiency. Integrity is our foundation, the basis of everything we do, to be professional, honest, trustworthy, confidential and respectful at all times. We work together for a common good, engage our customers, coworkers, and partners. We work together to exceed our customers’ expectations as we pro-actively help them achieve their goals, to create a dynamic environment that promotes life-long learning and personal growth of our employees, and to help to make our communities better places to live and work by being an important contributor of time, talent, and resources.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. Peoples is committed to fostering, cultivating and preserving a culture of diversity and inclusion. Our human capital is the most valuable asset we have. The collective sum of the individual differences, life experiences, knowledge, inventiveness, innovation, self-expression, unique capabilities and talent that our employees invest in their work represents a significant part of not only our culture, but our reputation and company’s achievement as well.

We embrace and encourage our employees’ differences in age, color, disability, ethnicity, family or marital status, gender identity or expression, language, national origin, physical and mental ability, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, veteran status, and other characteristics that make our employees unique.

Health & Safety. Our health and safety policies, procedures and guidelines mandate all tasks be conducted in a safe and efficient manner complying with all local, state and federal safety and health regulations, and special safety concerns. Our policies and procedures encompass all facilities and operations and addresses on-site emergencies, injuries and illnesses, evacuation procedures, cell phone usage and general safety rules.

As the COVID-19 crisis unfolded throughout 2020, the safety and well-being of our employees and families, customers, and communities were our top priority. We implemented our pandemic plan and executed various strategies and protocols intended to protect our employees, maintain services for customers, assure functional continuity of the Company’s operating systems, controls and processes, and mitigate financial risks posed by changing market conditions. We directed and enabled approximately 46% of our workforce to work remotely, imposed business travel restrictions, implemented quarantine protocols and physically separated, to the extent possible, the critical operations site workforce that are unable to work remotely. To limit the risk of virus spread, the Company implemented drive-thru only and by

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appointment operating protocols for its bank branch network. We followed the recommendations of our state and local governments as to conducting business.

Benefits. We are committed to offering a competitive total compensation package. We regularly compare compensation and benefits with peer companies and market data, making adjustments as needed to ensure compensation stays competitive. We also offer a wide array of benefits for our workforce and their families, including:

•Comprehensive medical, dental, and vision benefits, as well as group life insurance, accidental death and dismemberment insurance, voluntary life insurance, and short-term and long-term disability insurance for all eligible employees

•Employee Assistance Program

•401(k) Profit Sharing Plan

•Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

•Disaster pay

•Paid time off (PTO), holidays and bank holidays

•Unpaid leave of absence

•Internal training and online development courses

•Tuition reimbursement for eligible associates

Products and Services

Our primary products are loans to small- and medium-sized businesses. Other lending products include one-to-four family residential mortgages and consumer loans. We fund our loans, primarily, by offering deposits to commercial enterprises and individuals. Our deposit products include certificates of deposits and various demand deposit accounts.

We generate interest income from our loan and securities portfolios. Other income is generated primarily from merchant transaction fees, trust and wealth management fees, fees generated from commercial loan interest rate swap transactions and service charges on deposit accounts. Our primary costs are interest paid on deposits and borrowings and general operating expenses. We provide a variety of commercial and retail banking services to business, non-profits, governmental, municipal agencies and professional customers, as well as retail customers, on a personalized basis. Our primary lending products are real estate, commercial and consumer loans. We also offer ATM access, credit cards, active investment accounts, trust department services and other various lending, depository and related financial services. Our primary deposit products are savings and demand deposit accounts and certificates of deposit.

We are not dependent upon a single customer, or a few customers, the loss of one or more of which would have a material adverse effect on our operations. In the ordinary course of our business, our operations and earnings are not materially affected by seasonal changes or by compliance with federal, state or local environmental laws or regulations.

Lending Activities

We provide a full range of retail and commercial lending products designed to meet the borrowing needs of consumers and small- and medium-sized businesses in our market areas. A significant amount of our loans are to customers located within our market area. We have no foreign loans or highly leveraged transaction loans, as defined by the Federal Reserve Board. Although we participate in loans originated by other banks, we have originated the majority of the loans in our portfolio.

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Our retail lending products include the following types of loans, among others: residential real estate; automobiles; manufactured housing; personal and home equity. Our commercial lending products include the following types of loans, among others: commercial real estate; working capital; equipment and other commercial needs; construction; Small Business Administration; and agricultural and mineral rights. The terms offered on a loan vary depending primarily on the type of loan and credit-worthiness of the borrower.

Payment risk is a function of the economic climate in which our lending activities are conducted. Economic downturns in the economy generally or in a particular sector could cause cash flow problems for customers and make loan payments more difficult. We attempt to minimize this risk by not being exposed to loan concentrations of a single customer or a group of customers, the loss of any one or more of whom would have a materially adverse effect on our financial condition. One element of interest rate risk arises from our fixed rate loans in an environment of changing interest rates. We attempt to mitigate this risk by making adjustable rate commercial loans and by limiting repricing terms to five years or less for customers requiring fixed rate loans. Our lending activity also exposes us to risks that any collateral we take as security is not adequate. We attempt to manage collateral risk by avoiding loan concentrations to particular borrowers, by perfecting liens on collateral and by obtaining appraisals on property prior to extending loans. We attempt to mitigate our exposure to these and other types of risks by stratifying authorization requirements by loan size and complexity.

We offer a variety of loans including commercial, residential and consumer loans as described above. The consumer portfolio includes automobile loans, educational loans and lines of credit.

We intend to continue to evaluate commercial real estate, commercial business and governmental lending opportunities, including small business lending. We continue to proactively monitor and manage existing credit relationships.

We have not engaged in sub-prime residential mortgage lending, which is defined as mortgage loans advanced to borrowers who do not qualify for market interest rates because of problems with their credit history. We focus our lending efforts within our market area.

One-to-Four Family Residential Loans. We offer two types of residential mortgage loans: fixed-rate loans, with terms of up to 30 years, and adjustable-rate loans, with interest rates and payments that adjust annually after an initial fixed period of one, three, five or ten years. Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate loans generally are adjusted to a rate equal to a percentage above the appropriate U.S. Treasury Security Index. Our adjustable-rate single-family residential real estate loans generally have caps on increases or floors on decreases in the interest rate at any adjustment date, and a maximum adjustment limit over the life of the loan. Although we offer adjustable-rate loans with initial rates below the fully indexed rate, loans tied to the one-year constant maturity Treasury are underwritten using methods approved by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, which require borrowers to be qualified at a rate equal to 200 basis points above the discounted loan rate under certain conditions.

Borrower demand for adjustable-rate loans compared to fixed-rate loans is a function of the level of interest rates, the expectations of changes in the level of interest rates, and the difference between the interest rates and loan fees offered for fixed-rate mortgage loans as compared to the interest rates and loan fees for adjustable-rate loans, among other factors. The loan fees, interest rates and other provisions of mortgage loans are determined by us on the basis of our own pricing criteria and competitive market conditions.

Most of our residential loans are underwritten to standards established by the secondary market. We also offer mortgages partially insured by the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (“VA”) and Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) loans via a third party lending source.

While one-to-four family residential real estate loans are normally originated with up to 30-year terms, such loans typically remain outstanding for substantially shorter periods because borrowers often prepay their loans in full either upon sale of the property pledged as security or upon refinancing the original loan. Therefore, average loan maturity is a function of, among other factors, the level of purchase and sale activity in the real estate market, prevailing interest rates and the interest rates payable on outstanding loans. We do not offer loans with negative amortization or interest only loans.

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We offer home equity loans and lines of credit, typically with a maximum combined loan-to-value ratio of 80%. Home equity loans generally have fixed-rates of interest and are originated with terms of up to 15 years. Home equity lines of credit generally have variable rates and are indexed to the prime rate. Home equity lines of credit generally have draw periods with 20 year repayment periods.

We generally do not make high loan-to-value loans (defined as loans with a loan-to-value ratio in excess of 80%) without private mortgage insurance. The maximum loan-to-value ratio we generally permit is 95% with private mortgage insurance. We require all properties securing residential mortgage loans to be appraised by a board-approved independent appraiser. We generally require title insurance on all first mortgage loans. Borrowers must obtain hazard insurance, and flood insurance is required for loans on properties located in a flood zone.

Commercial Real Estate Loans. We offer commercial real estate loans secured by real estate primarily with adjustable rates. We originate a variety of commercial real estate loans generally for terms up to 25 years and payments based on an amortization schedule of up to 25 years. These loans are typically based on either the Federal Home Loan Bank borrowing rate or our own pricing criteria and adjust every three, five, seven or ten years. Commercial real estate loans also are originated for the acquisition and development of land, including development for residential use. Conditions of acquisition and development loans originated generally limit the number of model homes and homes built on speculation, and draws are scheduled against executed agreements of sale. Commercial real estate loans for the acquisition and development of land are typically based upon the prime rate. Commercial real estate loans for developed real estate and for real estate acquisition and development are originated generally with loan-to-value ratios up to 75%, while loans for the acquisition of land are originated with a maximum loan to value ratio of 65%.

Loans secured by commercial real estate generally have larger balances and involve a greater degree of risk than one-to-four family residential mortgage loans. Of primary concern in commercial real estate lending is the borrower’s and any guarantor’s creditworthiness and the feasibility and cash flow potential of the financed project. Additional considerations include: location, market and geographic concentrations, loan to value, strength of guarantors and quality of tenants. Payments on loans secured by income properties often depend on successful operation and management of the properties. As a result, repayment of such loans may be subject to a greater extent than residential real estate loans, to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. To monitor cash flows on income properties, we require borrowers and loan guarantors, if any, to provide annual consolidated financial statements on commercial real estate loans and rent rolls where applicable. In reaching a decision on whether to make a commercial real estate loan, we consider and review a cash flow analysis of the borrower and guarantor, when applicable, and consider the net operating income of the property, the borrower’s expertise, credit history and profitability and the value of the underlying property. We have generally required that the properties securing these real estate loans have debt service coverage ratios (the ratio of earnings before debt service to debt service) of at least 1.2 times. An environmental report is obtained when the possibility exists that hazardous materials may exist or have existed on the site, or the site may be or have been impacted by adjoining properties that handled hazardous materials.

Commercial Loans. We offer commercial business loans to professionals, sole proprietorships and small businesses in our market area. We offer term loans for capital improvements, equipment acquisition and long-term working capital. These loans are typically priced at short term fixed rates or variable rates based on the prime rate. These loans are secured by business assets other than real estate, such as business equipment and inventory, and, generally, are backed by personal guarantees of the owner or owners of the business. We originate lines of credit to finance the working capital needs of businesses to be repaid by seasonal cash flows or to provide a period of time during which the business can borrow funds for planned equipment purchases.

We have participated in the CARES Act, Paycheck Protection Program, a $350 billion specialized low-interest loan program funded by the U.S. Treasury Department and administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration. The PPP provides borrower guarantees for lenders, as well as loan forgiveness incentives for borrowers that utilize the loan proceeds to cover employee compensation-related business operating costs.

When making commercial business loans, we consider the consolidated financial statements of the borrower and any guarantors, the borrower’s payment history of both corporate and personal debt, the debt service capabilities of the

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borrower, the projected cash flows of the business and guarantor, the viability of the industry in which the customer operates and the value of the collateral.

Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from his or her employment or other income, and which are secured by real property, the value of which tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial business loans are of higher risk and typically are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the borrower’s business. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial business loans may depend substantially on the success of the business itself. Further, any collateral securing such loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value.

Consumer Loans. We offer a variety of consumer loans, including lines of credit, automobile loans and loans secured by savings accounts and certificates of deposit. We also offer unsecured loans.

Consumer loans may entail greater risk than do residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans that are unsecured or secured by assets that depreciate rapidly, such as motor vehicles. In the latter case, repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan and a small remaining deficiency often does not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. Consumer loan collections depend on the borrower’s continuing financial stability, and therefore are likely to be adversely affected by various factors, including job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state insolvency laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on such loans. 

Loans secured by new and used automobiles are offered, primarily indirectly through dealerships. These loans have fixed interest rates and generally have terms up to seven years. We offer automobile loans with loan-to-value ratios of up to 100% or more of the purchase price of the vehicle depending upon the credit history of the borrower and other factors.

Consumer loans secured by savings accounts and certificates of deposit held by us are offered based upon the deposit rates plus a margin with terms up to five years. We offer such loans up to 100% of the principal balance of the certificate of deposit or balance in the savings account. We also offer unsecured loans and lines of credit with terms up to five years. Our unsecured loans and lines of credit bear a substantially higher interest rate than our secured loans and lines of credit.

The procedures for underwriting consumer loans include an assessment of the applicant’s payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. Although the applicant’s creditworthiness is a primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral, if any, to the proposed loan amount.

We have adhered and continue to adhere to credit policies, which management believes are sound. Our loan policies require verification of information provided by loan applicants as well as an assessment of their ability to repay for all loans. At no time have we made loans similar to those commonly referred to as “no doc” or “stated income” loans.

While the vast majority of the loans in our loan portfolio are secured by collateral, we have made and will continue to make loans on an unsecured basis. Unsecured commercial loans are only granted to those borrowers exhibiting historically strong cash flow and capacity with seasoned management. Unsecured consumer loans are made for relatively short terms and to borrowers with strong credit histories.

Requests to modify, restructure or otherwise change the terms of loans are considered on an individual basis as circumstances and/or reasons for such changes may vary. All such changes in terms must be authorized by the appropriate approval body. Also, our credit policy prohibits the modification of loans or the extension of additional credit to borrowers who are not current on their payments. Exceptions are approved only where our position in the credit relationship is expected to be enhanced by such action.

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Adjustable-Rate Loans. While we anticipate that adjustable-rate loans will better offset the adverse effects of an increase in interest rates as compared to fixed-rate loans, an increased monthly loan payment required of adjustable-rate loan borrowers in a rising interest rate environment could cause an increase in delinquencies and defaults. The marketability of collateral also may be adversely affected in a high interest rate environment. In addition, although adjustable-rate mortgage loans make our asset base more responsive to changes in interest rates, the extent of this interest sensitivity is limited by the annual and lifetime interest rate adjustment limits on residential mortgage loans. We attempt to negotiate floors on most adjustable rate commercial loans. The commercial adjustable rate loans generally provide a fixed rate re-negotiation at the end of the initial fixed rate period. If we and the borrower are unable to agree on a new fixed rate then the rate converts to a floating rate obligation. In addition, some commercial loans adjust to a predetermined index plus a spread at the end of the initial fixed rate period, for a like period of time. To a lesser degree, we have entered into transactions with collars generally for periods of five years or less.

Loan Originations. Loan originations come from a number of sources. The primary sources of loan originations are existing customers, walk-in traffic, advertising and referrals from customers. We also purchase participations in loans from local financial institutions to supplement our lending portfolio. Loan participations are subject to the same credit analysis and loan approvals as the loans we originate. We are permitted to review all of the documentation relating to any loan in which we participate. However, in a purchased participation loan, we do not service the loan and are subject to the policies and practices of the lead lender with regard to monitoring delinquencies, pursuing collections and instituting foreclosure proceedings.

Loan Approval Procedures and Authority. Our lending activities follow written, non-discriminatory, underwriting standards and loan origination procedures established by our board of directors and management. The board of directors has granted loan approval authority to certain officers or groups of officers up to prescribed limits, based on the officer’s experience.

Loans to One Borrower. The maximum amount that we may lend to one borrower and the borrower’s related entities generally is limited, by regulation, to 15% of the capital accounts of Peoples Bank. Capital accounts include the aggregate of capital, surplus, undivided profits, capital securities and reserve for loan losses. At December 31, 2020, our regulatory limit on loans to one borrower was $46.2 million.

Deposit Activities

Our primary source of funds is the cash flow provided by our financing activities, mainly deposit gathering. Other sources of funds are provided by investing activities, including principal and interest payments on loans and investment securities, and operating activities, primarily net income. We offer a variety of deposit accounts with a range of interest rates and terms, including, among others: money market accounts; NOW accounts; savings accounts; certificates of deposit; individual retirement accounts, and demand deposit accounts. These deposits are primarily obtained from areas surrounding our branch offices. We rely primarily on marketing, product innovation, technology, service and long-standing relationships with customers to attract and retain these deposits. Other deposit related services include: remote deposit capture; automatic clearing house transactions; cash management services; automated teller machines; point of sale transactions; safe deposit boxes; night depository services; direct deposit, and official check services.

Trust, Wealth Management and Brokerage Services

Through our trust department, we offer a broad range of fiduciary and investment services. Our trust and investment services include investment management, IRA trustee services, estate administration, living trusts, trustee under will, guardianships, life insurance trusts, custodial services / IRA custodial services, corporate trusts, and pension and profit sharing plans.

We provide a comprehensive array of wealth management products and services to individuals, small businesses and nonprofit entities. These products and services include the following, among others: investment portfolio management; estate planning; annuities; business succession planning; insurances; retirement plan services; education funding strategies, and tax planning.

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We have a third party marketing agreement with a broker-dealer that allows us to offer a full range of securities, brokerage services and annuity sales to our customers. Our investor services division is located in our headquarters building and the services are offered throughout the branch system. Through this relationship, our clients have access to a wide array of financial and wealth management strategies, including services such as professional money management, retirement and education planning, and investment products including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, annuities and insurance products.

Merchant Services

We offer credit card processing and a variety of other products and services to our merchant customers, through a marketing and sales agreement with an industry leader in payment processing services. Services include small business checking accounts, merchant money market accounts, online banking, telephone banking, business credit cards, merchant line of credit and financial checkup.

Competition

We compete primarily with commercial banks, online financial institutions, thrift institutions and credit unions, many of which are substantially larger in terms of assets and available resources. Certain of these institutions have significantly higher lending limits than we do, and may provide various services for their customers that we presently do not. In addition, we experience competition for deposits from mutual funds and security brokers, while consumer discount, mortgage and insurance companies compete for various types of loans. Credit unions, finance companies and mortgage companies enjoy certain competitive advantages over us, as they are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions and taxations as commercial banks. Principal methods of competing for bank products, permitted nonbanking services and financial activities include price, nature of product, quality of service and convenience of location.

In our market area, we expect continued competition from these financial institutions in the foreseeable future. With the continued acceptance of internet banking by our customers and consumers generally, competition for deposits has increased from institutions operating outside of our market area as well as from insurance companies.

We believe that our most significant competitive advantage originates from our business philosophy which includes offering direct access to senior management and other officers and providing friendly, informed and courteous service, local and timely decision making, flexible and reasonable operating procedures and consistently applied credit policies. In addition, our success has been, and will continue to be, a result of our emphasis on community involvement and customer relationships. With consolidation continuing in the financial industry, and particularly in our market area, community banks like us are gaining opportunities and market share as larger institutions reduce their emphasis on or exit our market area.

Seasonality

Generally, our operations are not seasonal in nature.

Supervision and Regulation

We are extensively regulated under federal and state laws. Generally, these laws and regulations are intended to protect consumers, not shareholders. The following is a summary description of certain provisions of law that affect the regulation of bank holding companies and banks. This discussion is qualified in its entirety by reference to applicable laws and regulations. Changes in law and regulation may have a material effect on our business and prospects.

Peoples is a bank holding company within the meaning of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, and is subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, referred to as the “Federal Reserve Board” or the “FRB.” We are required to file annual and quarterly reports with the FRB and to provide the FRB with such additional information as the FRB may require. The FRB also conducts examinations of Peoples.

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With certain limited exceptions, we are required to obtain prior approval from the FRB before acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of any voting securities or substantially all of the assets of a bank or bank holding company, or before merging or consolidating with another bank holding company. Additionally, with certain exceptions, any person or entity proposing to acquire control through direct or indirect ownership of 25% or more of our voting securities is required to give 60 days’ written notice of the acquisition to the FRB, which may prohibit the transaction, and to publish notice to the public.

Peoples Bank is regulated by the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities (the “Department of Banking”) and the FDIC. The Department of Banking may prohibit an institution over which it has supervisory authority from engaging in activities or investments that the agency believes constitute unsafe or unsound banking practices. Federal banking regulators have extensive enforcement authority over the institutions they regulate to prohibit or correct activities that violate law, regulation or a regulatory agreement or which are deemed to constitute unsafe or unsound practices.

Enforcement actions may include:

the appointment of a conservator or receiver;
the issuance of a cease and desist order;
the termination of deposit insurance, the imposition of civil money penalties on the institution, its directors, officers, employees and institution affiliated parties;
the issuance of directives to increase capital;
the issuance of formal and informal agreements and orders;
the removal of or restrictions on directors, officers, employees and institution-affiliated parties; and
the enforcement of any such mechanisms through restraining orders or any other court actions.

We are subject to certain restrictions on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, principal shareholders or any related interests of such persons which generally require that such credit extensions be made on substantially the same terms as are available to third persons dealing with us, and not involving more than the normal risk of repayment. Other laws tie the maximum amount that may be loaned to any one customer and its related interests to our capital levels. Other laws restrict or prohibit transactions between Peoples Bank and its affiliates.

Limitations on Dividends and Other Payments

Our ability to pay dividends is largely dependent upon the receipt of dividends from Peoples Bank. Both federal and state laws impose restrictions on our ability and the ability of Peoples Bank to pay dividends. Under such restrictions, Peoples Bank may only declare and pay dividends out of accumulated net earnings, including accumulated net earnings acquired as a result of a merger within seven years. Further, Peoples Bank may not declare or pay any dividends unless Peoples Bank’s surplus would not be reduced by the payment of the dividend below 100% of our capital stock. Pennsylvania law requires that each year Peoples Bank set aside as surplus, a sum equal to not less than 10 percent of its net earnings if surplus does not equal at least 100 percent of our capital stock. In addition to these specific restrictions, bank regulatory agencies, in general, also have the ability to prohibit proposed dividends by a financial institution that would otherwise be permitted under applicable regulations if the regulatory body determines that such distribution would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.

Permitted Non-Banking Activities

A bank holding company that the FRB has determined to be well capitalized and well managed and that has well capitalized and well managed subsidiary banks may engage in certain nonbanking activities closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks, on a de novo basis, by providing notice to the FRB after commencing the activities. Such a bank holding company proposing to engage in other permissible nonbanking activities either de novo, or through the acquisition of an existing company, must provide prior notice to the FRB. For transactions that do not qualify for the post or expedited prior notice procedures, a bank holding company must file a notice for prior FRB approval.

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Subsidiary banks of a bank holding company are subject to certain quantitative and qualitative restrictions on extensions of credit to the bank holding company or its subsidiaries, and on the use of their securities as collateral for loans to any borrower. These regulations and restrictions may limit our ability to obtain funds from Peoples Bank for our cash needs, including funds for the payment of dividends, interest and operating expenses. Further, subject to certain exceptions, a bank holding company and its subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with any extension of credit, lease or sale of property or furnishing of services.

A bank holding company is required to act as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary banks and to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank, and the FRB may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to a subsidiary bank when required. A required capital injection may be called for at a time when the holding company does not have the resources to provide it. In addition, depository institutions insured by the FDIC can be held liable for any losses incurred by, or reasonably anticipated to be incurred by, the FDIC in connection with the default of or assistance provided to, a commonly controlled FDIC-insured depository institution. Accordingly, in the event that any insured subsidiary of a bank holding company causes a loss to the FDIC, other insured subsidiaries of a bank holding company could be required to compensate the FDIC by reimbursing it for the estimated amount of such loss. Such cross guarantee liabilities generally are superior in priority to the obligation of the depository institutions to its shareholders due solely to their status as shareholders and obligations to other affiliates.

Pennsylvania Law

As a Pennsylvania incorporated bank holding company, Peoples is subject to various restrictions on its activities as set forth in Pennsylvania law. This is in addition to those restrictions set forth in federal law. Under Pennsylvania law, a bank holding company that desires to acquire a bank or bank holding company that has its principal place of business in Pennsylvania must obtain permission from the Department of Banking.

Financial Institution Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (“FIRREA”)

FIRREA was enacted into law in order to address the financial condition of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, to restructure the regulation of the thrift industry, and to enhance the supervisory and enforcement powers of the federal bank and thrift regulatory agencies. As the primary federal regulator of Peoples Bank, the FDIC, in conjunction with the Department of Banking, is responsible for its supervision. When dealing with capital requirements, those regulatory bodies have the flexibility to impose supervisory agreements on institutions that fail to comply with regulatory requirements. The imposition of a capital plan, termination of deposit insurance, and removal or temporary suspension of an officer, director or other institution-affiliated person may cause enforcement actions.

There are three levels of civil penalties under FIRREA, with the amount of the penalty varying based on the action penalized.

During most of 2020, civil money penalties could range from very low amounts up to the lesser of $2.5 million or 1% of an institution’s total assets per violation. These penalties are subject to inflation adjustment procedures prescribed under applicable law. Penalties for continuing violations can be substantially higher.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”)

FDICIA provides for, among other things:

publicly available annual financial condition and management reports for financial institutions, including audits by independent accountants;
the establishment of uniform accounting standards by federal banking agencies;
the establishment of a “prompt corrective action” system of regulatory supervision and intervention, based on capitalization levels, with more scrutiny and restrictions placed on depository institutions with lower levels of capital;
additional grounds for the appointment of a conservator or receiver; and
restrictions or prohibitions on accepting brokered deposits, except for institutions which significantly exceed minimum capital requirements.

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A central feature of FDICIA is the requirement that the federal banking agencies take “prompt corrective action” with respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. Pursuant to FDICIA, the federal bank regulatory authorities have adopted regulations setting forth a five-tiered system for measuring the capital adequacy of the depository institutions that they supervise. Under these regulations, a depository institution is classified in one of the following capital categories:

“well capitalized”;
“adequately capitalized”;
“under capitalized”;
“significantly undercapitalized”; and
“critically undercapitalized”.

Peoples Bank was “well capitalized” based on its actual capital position at December 31, 2020. However, an institution may be deemed by the regulators to be in a capitalization category that is lower than is indicated by its actual capital position if, among other things, it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to asset quality, management, earnings or liquidity.

FDICIA generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distributions including payment of a cash dividend or paying any management fees to its holding company, if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. Undercapitalized depository institutions are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit capital restoration plans. If a depository fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized”. Significantly undercapitalized depository institutions may be subject to a number of other requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets and stop accepting deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator; generally within 90 days of the date such institution is determined to be critically undercapitalized.

FDICIA provides the federal banking agencies with significantly expanded powers to take enforcement action against institutions that fail to comply with capital or other standards. Such actions may include the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC or the appointment of a receiver or conservator for the institution. FDICIA also limits the circumstances under which the FDIC is permitted to provide financial assistance to an insured institution before appointment of a conservator or receiver.

Under FDICIA, each federal banking agency is required to prescribe, by regulation, non-capital safety and soundness standards for institutions under its authority. In addition to adopting information security standards, the federal banking agencies, including the FDIC, have adopted standards covering:

internal controls;
information systems and internal audit systems;
loan documentation;
credit underwriting;
interest rate exposure;
asset growth; and
compensation fees and benefits.

Any institution that fails to meet these standards may be required to develop an acceptable plan, specifying the steps that the institutions will take to meet the standards. Failure to submit or implement such a plan may subject the institution to regulatory sanctions. Peoples believes that it meets substantially all the standards that have been adopted. Before establishing new branch offices, Peoples Bank must meet certain minimum capital stock and surplus requirements and must obtain state approval from the Department of Banking.

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Risk-Based Capital Requirements

The federal banking regulators have adopted certain risk-based capital guidelines to assist in assessing capital adequacy of a banking organization’s operations for both transactions reported on the balance sheet as assets and transactions, such as letters of credit, and recourse agreements, which are recorded as off-balance sheet items. Under these guidelines, nominal dollar amounts of assets and credit-equivalent amounts of off-balance sheet items are multiplied by one of several risk adjustment percentages, which range from 0% for assets with low credit risk, such as certain U.S. Treasury securities, to 150% for assets with relatively high credit risk, such as business loans.

A banking organization’s risk-based capital ratios are obtained by dividing its qualifying capital by its total risk adjusted assets. The regulators measure risk-adjusted assets, which include off-balance-sheet items, against both total qualifying capital, Common Equity Tier 1 capital, and Tier 1 capital.

“Common Equity Tier 1 Capital” includes common equity and minority interest in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries, less goodwill and other intangibles, subject to certain exceptions, and retained earnings.
“Tier 1”, or core capital, includes common equity, non-cumulative preferred stock and minority interest in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries, less goodwill and other intangibles, subject to certain exceptions.
“Tier 2”, or supplementary capital, includes, among other things, limited life preferred stock, hybrid capital instruments, mandatory convertible securities, qualifying subordinated debt, and the allowance for loan and lease losses, subject to certain limitations and less restricted deductions. The inclusion of elements of Tier 2 capital is subject to certain other requirements and limitations of the federal banking agencies.

Current rules, which implemented the Basel III regulatory capital reforms and changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act, call for the following capital requirements:

A minimum ratio of common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 4.5%.
A minimum ratio of tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 6%.
A minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of 8%.
A minimum leverage ratio of 4%.

In addition, the current rules provide for a common equity tier 1 capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of risk-weighted assets. If a banking organization fails to hold capital above the minimum capital ratios and the capital conservation buffer, it will be subject to certain restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments.

Accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) is included in a banking organization’s common equity tier 1 capital. The rules, however, allowed community banks to make a one-time election not to include components of AOCI in regulatory capital and instead exclude most AOCI components from regulatory capital. Peoples Bank made that one-time election to “opt-out” of the inclusion of components of AOCI in regulatory capital.

The rules grandfather non-qualifying capital instruments (such as trust preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock) issued before May 19, 2010 for inclusion in the tier 1 capital of banking organizations with total consolidated assets less than $15 billion as of December 31, 2009 and banking organizations that were mutual holding companies as of May 19, 2010.

Banking organizations may use the existing gross-up approach to assign securitization exposures to a risk weight category or choose to assign such exposures a 1,250 percent risk weight.

Mortgage servicing assets (MSAs) and certain deferred tax assets (DTAs) are subject to stricter limitations than those applicable to other assets under the capital rules.

Failure to meet applicable capital guidelines could subject a banking organization to a variety of enforcement actions including:

limitations on its ability to pay dividends;

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the issuance by the applicable regulatory authority of a capital directive to increase capital, and in the case of depository institutions, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, as well as to the measures described under FDICIA as applicable to undercapitalized institutions.

In addition, future changes in regulations or practices could further reduce the amount of capital recognized for purposes of capital adequacy. Such a change could affect the ability of Peoples Bank to grow and could restrict the amount of profits, if any, available for the payment of dividends to Peoples.

At December 31, 2020, Peoples met its capital requirements with a ratio of common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 13.73%; its ratio of tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 13.73%; its ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of 14.98%; and its leverage ratio of 10.08%.

A qualifying community banking organization (defined to have, among other things, total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion) that has made an election to use the community bank leverage ratio framework will be considered to have met the minimum capital requirements, the capital ratio requirements, and any other capital or leverage requirements to which the qualifying community banking organization would be subject, if it has a leverage ratio of greater than 9 percent.

Interest Rate Risk

Regulatory agencies include, in their evaluations of a bank’s capital adequacy, an assessment of the bank’s interest rate risk exposure. The standards for measuring the adequacy and effectiveness of a banking organization’s interest rate risk management includes a measurement of board of directors and senior management oversight, and a determination of whether a banking organization’s procedures for comprehensive risk management are appropriate to the circumstances of the specific banking organization. We utilize interest rate risk models to measure and monitor interest rate risk. In addition, we employ an independent consultant to provide a quarterly assessment of our interest rate risk. Finally, regulatory agencies, as part of the scope of their periodic examinations, evaluate our interest rate risk.

Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”)

The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 is designed to create a system for bank regulatory agencies to evaluate a depository institution’s record in meeting the credit needs of its community. The CRA regulations establish performance-based standards for use in examining for compliance. Peoples Bank had its last CRA compliance examination in 2020 and received a “satisfactory” rating.

USA Patriot Act of 2001

The Patriot Act contains anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws and imposes various regulations, including standards for verifying client identification at account opening, and rules to promote cooperation among financial institutions, regulators and law enforcement entities in identifying parties that may be involved in terrorism or money laundering.

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank)

In 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was signed into law. Dodd-Frank is intended to effect a fundamental restructuring of federal banking regulation. Among other things, Dodd-Frank created the Financial Stability Oversight Council to identify systemic risks in the financial system and gives federal regulators authority to take control of and liquidate financial firms. Dodd-Frank additionally created an independent federal regulator to administer federal consumer protection laws. Dodd-Frank has and is expected to continue to have a significant impact on our business operations as its provisions take effect. Among the provisions that affect us are the following:

Holding Company Capital Requirements. Dodd-Frank requires the FRB to apply consolidated capital requirements to bank holding companies that are no less stringent than those currently applied to depository institutions. Dodd-Frank additionally requires that bank regulators issue countercyclical capital requirements so that the required amount of capital increases in times of economic expansion, consistent with safety and soundness.

Deposit Insurance. Dodd-Frank permanently increases the maximum deposit insurance amount for banks, savings institutions and credit unions to $250,000 per depositor. Dodd-Frank also broadens the base for FDIC insurance assessments. Further, Dodd-Frank eliminated the federal statutory prohibition against the payment of interest on business

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checking accounts. Assessments for institutions such as Peoples Bank (assets of less than $10 billion), are based on initial assessment rates that are adjusted by combining supervisory ratings with financial ratios to determine a total assessment rate. For most institutions, assessment rates are based on weighted-average supervisory ratings of banking operation components and six financial ratios. The financial ratios are: the leverage ratio; loans past due 30-89 days/gross assets; nonperforming assets/gross assets; net loan charge-offs/gross assets; net income before taxes/risk-weighted assets; and the adjusted brokered deposit ratio. In addition, an institution's assessment rate may be lowered if the institution holds long-term unsecured debt and raised if it holds long-term unsecured debt that is issued by another depository institution.

Corporate Governance. Dodd-Frank requires publicly-traded companies to give stockholders a non-binding vote on executive compensation at least every three years, a non-binding vote regarding the frequency of the vote on executive compensation at least every six years, and a non-binding vote on “golden parachute” payments in connection with approvals of mergers and acquisitions unless previously voted on by stockholders. Additionally, Dodd-Frank directs the federal banking regulators to promulgate rules prohibiting excessive compensation paid to executives of depository institutions and their holding companies with assets of $1.0 billion or more, regardless of whether the company is publicly traded. Dodd-Frank also gives the SEC authority to prohibit broker discretionary voting on elections of directors and executive compensation matters.

Limits on Interstate Acquisitions and Mergers. Dodd-Frank precludes a bank holding company from engaging in an interstate acquisition–the acquisition of a bank outside its home state–unless the bank holding company is both well capitalized and well managed. Furthermore, a bank may not engage in an interstate merger with another bank headquartered in another state unless the surviving institution will be well capitalized and well managed.

Limits on Interchange Fees. Dodd-Frank amended the Electronic Fund Transfer Act to, among other things, give the Federal Reserve the authority to establish rules regarding interchange fees charged for electronic debit transactions by payment card issuers having assets of $10 billion or more and to enforce a statutory requirement that such fees be reasonable and proportional to the actual cost of a transaction to the issuer. Issuers with less than $10 billion in assets, like us, are exempt from debit card interchange fee standards.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Dodd-Frank created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), which is granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets. Smaller institutions are subject to rules promulgated by the CFPB, but continue to be examined and supervised by federal banking regulators for consumer compliance purposes. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products. Dodd-Frank authorizes the CFPB to establish certain minimum standards for the origination of residential mortgages including a determination of the borrower’s ability to repay. In addition, Dodd-Frank allows borrowers to raise certain defenses to foreclosure if they receive any loan other than a “qualified mortgage” as defined by the CFPB. Dodd-Frank permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations.

Ability to Repay and Qualified Mortgage Rule. Mortgage lenders are required to make a reasonable and good faith determination based on verified and documented information that a consumer applying for a mortgage loan has a reasonable ability to repay the loan according to its terms. Mortgage lenders are required to determine consumers’ ability to repay in one of two ways. The first alternative requires the mortgage lender to consider, at a minimum, the following eight underwriting factors when making the credit decision:

current or reasonably expected income or assets;
current employment status;
the monthly payment on the covered transaction;
the monthly payment on any simultaneous loan;
the monthly payment for mortgage-related obligations;

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current debt obligations, alimony, and child support;
the monthly debt-to-income ratio or residual income; and
credit history.

Alternatively, the mortgage lender can originate “qualified mortgages,” which are entitled to a presumption that the creditor making the loan satisfied the ability-to-repay requirements. In general, a “qualified mortgage” is a mortgage loan without negative amortization, interest-only payments, balloon payments, or terms exceeding 30 years. In addition, to be a qualified mortgage, the points and fees paid by a consumer cannot exceed 3% of the total loan amount. Loans which meet these criteria will be considered qualified mortgages, and as a result generally protect lenders from fines or litigation in the event of foreclosure. Qualified mortgages that are “higher-priced” (e.g. subprime loans) garner a rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ability-to-repay rules, while qualified mortgages that are not “higher-priced” (e.g. prime loans) are given a safe harbor of compliance.

Future Legislation

Proposed legislation is introduced in almost every legislative session that would dramatically affect the regulation of the banking industry. We cannot predict if any such legislation will be adopted nor if adopted how it would affect our business. Past history has demonstrated that new legislation or change to existing laws or regulations usually results in greater compliance burden and therefore generally increases the cost of doing business.

Availability of Securities Filings

We maintain an Internet website at www.psbt.com. We make available free of charge through the “Investor Relations” link on our Internet website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Item 1A.

Risk Factors.

In addition to the other information set forth in this report, one should carefully consider the factors discussed below, which could materially affect our business, financial condition or future results. The risks described below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be insignificant also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and/or operating results.

Risks Relating to Peoples and Its Business

The outbreak of the coronavirus ("COVID-19"), or an outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease, could adversely affect our business activities, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is dependent upon the willingness and ability of our customers to conduct banking and other financial transactions. The spread of a highly infectious or contagious disease, such as COVID-19, could cause severe disruptions in the U.S. economy, which could in turn disrupt the business, activities, and operations of our customers, as well as our business and operations. Moreover, since the beginning of January 2020, the coronavirus outbreak has caused significant disruption in the financial markets both globally and in the United States. The spread of COVID-19, or an outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease, may result in a significant decrease in business and/or cause our customers to be unable to meet existing payment or other obligations to us, particularly in the event of a spread of COVID-19 or an outbreak of an infectious disease in our market area. Although we maintain contingency plans for pandemic outbreaks, a spread of COVID-19, or an outbreak of another contagious disease, could also negatively impact the availability of key personnel necessary to conduct our business activities. Such a spread or outbreak could also negatively impact the business and operations of third-party service providers who perform critical services for us. If COVID-19, or another highly infectious or contagious disease, spreads or the response to contain COVID-19 is unsuccessful, we could experience a material adverse effect to our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our capital, liquidity, and other financial positions and on our business, results of operations, and prospects will depend on a number of evolving factors, including:

The duration, extent, and severity of the pandemic. COVID-19 has not been contained and could affect significantly more households and businesses. The uncertain duration and severity of the pandemic continues.

The response of governmental authorities. Many of the actions taken by the national and state governmental authorities have been directed at curtailing personal and business activity to contain COVID-19 while simultaneously deploying fiscal-and monetary-policy measures to assist in mitigating the adverse effects on individuals and businesses. These actions are not consistent across jurisdictions but, in general, have been rapidly expanding in scope and intensity.

The effect on our customers, counterparties, employees, and third-party service providers. COVID-19 and its associated consequences and uncertainties may affect individuals, households, and businesses differently and unevenly. Our credit, operational, and other risks are generally expected to increase.

The effect on economies and markets. Whether the actions of governmental authorities will be successful in mitigating the adverse effects of COVID-19 is unclear. National, regional, and local economies and markets could suffer lasting disruptions.

The success of relief efforts to bridge the gap to reopening the economy. The U.S. government has implemented programs to directly compensate individuals and grant or loan money to businesses in an effort to provide funding while the economy is shut down. Many banks, including Peoples, have implemented hardship relief programs that include payment deferral options. The success of these programs could mute the effect on the Company's credit losses, which may be difficult to determine.

The duration of these business interruptions and related impacts on our business and operations, which will depend on future developments, are highly uncertain and cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. The pandemic could cause us to experience higher credit losses in our lending portfolio, impairment of our goodwill and other financial assets, reduced demand for our products and services, and other negative impacts on our financial position, results of operations, and prospects.

We are subject to credit risk in connection with our lending activities, and our financial condition and results of operations may be negatively impacted by economic conditions and other factors that adversely affect our borrowers.

Lending money is a significant part of the banking business and interest income on our loan portfolio is the principal component of our revenue. Our financial condition and results of operations are affected by the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, and in a timely manner. Borrowers, however, do not always repay their loans. The risk of non-payment is assessed through our underwriting and loan review procedures based on several factors including credit risks of a particular borrower, changes in economic conditions, the duration of the loan and in the case of a collateralized loan, uncertainties as to the future value of the collateral and other factors. Despite our efforts, we do and will experience loan and lease losses, and our financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected. Our loans which were between 30 and 89 days delinquent on December 31, 2020 totaled $3.5 million. Our non-performing assets were approximately $10.5 million on December 31, 2020. Our allowance for loan and lease losses was approximately $27.3 million on December 31, 2020.

Our emphasis on the Eastern Pennsylvania and the Southern Tier of New York market area exposes us to a risk of loss associated with the region.

At December 31, 2020, $277.4 million or 12.7%, of our loan portfolio consisted of residential mortgage loans and $1.1 billion or 52.3%, of our loan portfolio consisted of commercial real estate loans. A majority of these loans are made to borrowers or secured by properties located in Eastern Pennsylvania and the southern tier of New York. Deterioration in economic conditions in this market area, particularly in the industries on which this geographic area depend, or a general

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decline in economic conditions may adversely affect the quality of our loan portfolio (including the level of non-performing assets, charge offs and provision for loan losses) and demand for our products and services, and, accordingly, our results of operations. Future declines in real estate values in the region could also cause some of our mortgage and commercial real estate loans to be inadequately collateralized, which would expose us to a greater risk of loss if we seek to recover on defaulted loans by selling the real estate collateral.

We make commercial and industrial, construction, and commercial real estate loans, which present greater risks than other types of loans.

As of December 31, 2020, approximately 83.4% of our loan portfolio consisted of commercial and industrial, construction, and commercial real estate loans. These types of loans are generally viewed as having more risk of default than residential real estate loans or consumer loans. These types of loans are also typically larger than residential real estate loans and consumer loans. Because our loan portfolio contains a significant number of commercial and industrial, construction, and commercial real estate loans some of which have large balances, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans could cause a significant increase in non-performing loans. An increase in non-performing loans could result in a net loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses, and an increase in loan charge-offs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The commercial real estate market is cyclical and poses risks of loss to us because of the concentration of commercial real estate loans in our loan portfolio, and the lack of diversity in risk associated with such a concentration. Banking regulators have been giving and continue to give commercial real estate lending greater scrutiny, and banks with larger commercial real estate loan portfolios are expected by their regulators to implement improved underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies and portfolio stress-testing practices to manage risks associated with commercial real estate lending. Additional losses or regulatory requirements related to our commercial real estate loan concentration could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to absorb actual loan losses, and we may be required to make further provisions for loan losses and charge off additional loans in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

We attempt to maintain an allowance for loan losses, established through a provision for loan losses accounted for as an expense, which is adequate to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio. If our allowance for loan losses is inadequate, it may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The determination of the allowance for loan losses involves a high degree of subjectivity and judgment and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. Increases in non-performing loans have a significant impact on our allowance for loan losses. Our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to absorb actual loan losses. If conditions in our regional real estate markets decline, we could experience increased delinquencies and credit losses, particularly with respect to real estate construction and land acquisition and development loans and one-to-four family residential mortgage loans. Moreover, if the economy slows, the negative impact to our market areas could result in higher delinquencies and credit losses. As a result, we will continue to make provisions for loan losses and to charge off additional loans in the future, which could materially adversely affect our financial conditions and results of operations.

In addition to our internal processes for determining loss allowances, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase the provision for loan losses, to recognize further loan charge-offs, or to take other actions, based on judgments that differ from those of our management. If loan charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan losses, we will need to increase our allowance for loan losses. Furthermore, growth in our loan portfolio would generally lead to an increase in the provision for loan losses. Provisions for loan losses will result in a decrease in net income and capital, and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, and results of operations and cash flows.

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Changes in interest rates could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to generate net income substantially depends upon our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income earned on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and the interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Certain assets and liabilities react differently to changes in market interest rates. Further, interest rates on some types of assets and liabilities may fluctuate prior to changes in broader market interest rates, while rates on other types of assets may lag behind. Additionally, some assets such as adjustable-rate mortgages have features, and rate caps, which restrict changes in their interest rates.

Factors such as monetary policy, inflation, recession, unemployment, money supply, global disorder, terrorist activity, instability in domestic and foreign financial markets, global pandemic, and other factors beyond our control, may affect interest rates. Changes in market interest rates will also affect the level of voluntary prepayments on loans and the receipt of payments on mortgage-backed securities, resulting in the receipt of proceeds that may have to be reinvested at a lower rate than the loan or mortgage-backed security being prepaid. Although we pursue an asset-liability management strategy designed to manage our risk from changes in market interest rates, changes in interest rates can still have a material adverse effect on our profitability.

The Company may be required to transition from the use of the LIBOR interest rate index in the future.

 

The Company has certain loans and derivative instruments whose interest rate is indexed to the London InterBank Offered Rate (LIBOR). The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which is responsible for regulating LIBOR, has announced that the publication of one week and two month U.S. dollar (USD) LIBOR settings is not guaranteed beyond December 31, 2021 and the remaining USD LIBOR settings beyond June 30, 2023. At this time, no consensus exists as to what reference rate or rates or benchmarks may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR, although the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (a group of private-market participants convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York) has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as the recommend alternative to LIBOR. Uncertainty as to the adoption, market acceptance or availability of SOFR or other alternative reference rates may adversely affect the value of LIBOR-based loans in the Company’s portfolio and may impact the availability and cost of hedging instruments and borrowings. The language in the Company’s LIBOR-based contracts and financial instruments has developed over time and may have various events that trigger when a successor index to LIBOR would be selected. If a trigger is satisfied, contracts and financial instruments may give the Company or the calculation agent, as applicable, discretion over the selection of the substitute index for the calculation of interest rates. The implementation of a substitute index for the calculation of interest rates under the Company’s loan agreements may result in the Company incurring significant expenses in effecting the transition and may result in disputes or litigation with customers over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute index, any of which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.

Changes in interest rates could affect our investment values and impact comprehensive income and stockholders’ equity.

At December 31, 2020, we had approximately $295.9 million of securities available-for-sale. These securities are carried at fair value on our consolidated balance sheets. Unrealized gains or losses on these securities, that is, the difference between the fair value and the amortized cost of these securities, are reflected in stockholders’ equity, net of deferred taxes. As of December 31, 2020, our available-for-sale securities had an unrealized gain, net of taxes, of $7.7 million. The fair value of our available-for-sale securities is subject to interest rate change, which would not affect recorded earnings, but would increase or decrease comprehensive income and stockholders’ equity.

Our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected by other-than-temporary impairment charges relating to our investment portfolio.

Numerous factors, including the lack of liquidity for re-sales of certain investment securities, the absence of reliable pricing information for investment securities, adverse changes in the business climate, adverse regulatory actions or unanticipated changes in the competitive environment, could have a negative effect on our investment portfolio in future periods. Investments are evaluated periodically to determine whether a decline in their value is other than temporary.

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Management utilizes criteria such as the magnitude and duration of the decline, in addition to the reasons underlying the decline, to determine whether the loss in value is other than temporary. The term “other than temporary” indicates that the prospects for a near term recovery of value are not necessarily favorable, or that there is a lack of evidence to support fair values equal to, or greater than, the carrying value of the investment.

Once a decline in value is determined to be other than temporary, the value of the security is reduced and a corresponding charge to earnings is recognized. If an impairment charge is significant enough, it could affect our ability to pay dividends, which could materially adversely affect us and our ability to pay dividends to shareholders. Significant impairment charges could also negatively impact our regulatory capital ratios and result in us not being classified as “well-capitalized” for regulatory purposes.

The requirement to record certain assets and liabilities at fair value may adversely affect our financial results.

We report certain assets, including available-for-sale investment securities, at fair value. Generally, for assets that are reported at fair value we use quoted market prices or valuation models that utilize market data inputs to estimate fair value. Because we record these assets at their estimated fair value, we may incur losses even if the asset in question presents minimal credit risk. The level of interest rates can impact the estimated fair value of investment securities. Disruptions in the capital markets may require us to recognize other-than-temporary impairments in future periods with respect to investment securities in our portfolio. The amount and timing of any impairment recognized will depend on the severity and duration of the decline in fair value of our investment securities and our estimation of the anticipated recovery period.

Changes in the value of goodwill and intangible assets could reduce our earnings.

We account for goodwill and other intangible assets in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”), which, in general, requires that goodwill not be amortized, but rather that it be tested for impairment at least annually at the reporting unit level using the two step approach. Testing for impairment of goodwill and intangible assets is performed annually and involves the identification of reporting units and the estimation of fair values. The estimation of fair values involves a high degree of judgment and subjectivity in the assumptions used. At December 31, 2020, we completed a qualitative goodwill impairment test to determine if it is more likely than not (that is, a likelihood of more than 50%) that the fair value of the Company is less than its carrying value, including goodwill, as described by the GAAP methodology. Based on this analysis, we concluded it is more likely than not that the fair value of the Company, as of December 31, 2020, is higher than its carrying value, and, therefore, goodwill is not considered impaired and no further testing is required. Changes in the local and national economy, the federal and state legislative and regulatory environments for financial institutions, the stock market, interest rates and other external factors (such as global pandemics or natural disasters) may occur from time to time, often with great unpredictability, and may materially impact the fair value of publicly traded financial institutions and could result in an impairment charge at a future date.

Changes in U.S. or regional economic conditions could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company’s business activities and earnings are affected by general business conditions in the United States and in the Company’s local market area. These conditions include short-term and long-term interest rates, inflation, unemployment levels, consumer confidence and spending, fluctuations in both debt and equity capital markets, and the strength of the economy in the United States generally and, in particular, the Company’s market area. A favorable business environment is generally characterized by, among other factors, economic growth, efficient capital markets, low inflation, low unemployment, high business and investor confidence, and strong business earnings. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity or investor or business confidence; limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital; increases in inflation or interest rates; high unemployment; global pandemics, natural disasters; or a combination of these or other factors. Economic pressure on consumers and uncertainty regarding continuing economic improvement may result in changes in consumer and business spending, borrowing and savings habits. Elevated levels of unemployment, declines in the values

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of real estate, extended federal government shutdowns, or other events that affect household and/or corporate incomes could impair the ability of the Company’s borrowers to repay their loans in accordance with their terms and reduce demand for banking products and services.

Strong competition within our market area may limit our growth and profitability.

Competition in the banking and financial services industry is intense. We compete actively with other Pennsylvania and southern New York financial institutions, many larger than us, as well as with financial and non-financial institutions headquartered elsewhere. Commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and money market funds actively compete for deposits and loans. Such institutions, as well as consumer finance, insurance companies and brokerage firms, may be considered competitors with respect to one or more services they render. Many of the institutions with which we compete have substantially greater resources and lending limits and may offer certain services that we do not or cannot provide. Our profitability depends upon our ability to successfully compete in our market area.

Increased needs for disbursement of funds on loans and deposits can affect our liquidity.

We manage our liquidity with an objective of maintaining a balance between sources and uses of funds in such a way that the cash requirements of customers for loans and deposit withdrawals are met in the most economical manner. If we do not properly manage our liquidity, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.

Our future pension plan costs and contributions could be unfavorably impacted by the factors that are used in the actuarial calculations.

We maintain a non-contributory defined benefit pension plan, which was frozen in 2008. The costs for this legacy pension plan are dependent upon a number of factors, such as the rates of return on plan assets, discount rates, the level of interest rates used to measure the required minimum funding levels of the plans, future government regulation and required or voluntary contributions made to the plans. Without sustained growth in the pension investments over time to increase the value of our plan assets and depending upon the other factors impacting net income as listed above, we could be required to fund the plan with higher amounts of cash than are anticipated by our actuaries. Such increased funding obligations could have a material impact on our liquidity by reducing our cash flows.

Our holding company is dependent for liquidity on payments from Peoples Bank, which payments are subject to restrictions.

We depend on dividends, distributions and other payments from Peoples Bank to fund dividend payments to our shareholders, if any, and to fund all payments on obligations of our holding company. Peoples Bank is subject to laws that restrict dividend payments or authorize regulatory bodies to block or reduce the flow of funds from Peoples Bank to us. Restrictions or regulatory actions of that kind could impede our access to funds that we may need to make payments on our obligations or dividend payments, if any. In addition, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends if and when declared from time to time by our board of directors in its sole discretion out of funds legally available for that purpose.

We need to continually attract and retain qualified personnel for our operations.

Our ability to provide high-quality customer service and to operate efficiently and profitably is dependent on our ability to attract and retain qualified individuals for key positions within the organization. We rely heavily on our executive officers and employees. The loss of certain executive officers or employees could have an adverse effect on us because, as a community bank, the executive officers and employees typically have more responsibility than would be typical at a larger financial institution with more employees. In addition, due to our size as a community bank, we have fewer management-level and other personnel who are in position to succeed to and assume the responsibilities of certain

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existing executive officers and employees. If we expand geographically or expand to provide non-banking services, current management may not have the necessary experience for successful operation in these new areas. There is no guarantee that management would be able to meet these new challenges or that we would be able to retain new officers or personnel with the appropriate background and expertise.

Our financial performance may suffer if our information technology is unable to keep pace with growth or industry developments.

Effective and competitive delivery of our products and services is increasingly dependent upon information technology resources and processes, both those provided internally as well as those provided through third party vendors. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables us to reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services to enhance customer convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have greater resources to invest in technological improvements. Additionally, as technology in the financial services industry changes and evolves, keeping pace becomes increasingly complex and expensive for us. There can be no assurance that we will be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services, which could reduce our ability to compete effectively.

A failure in or a breach of our information systems or infrastructure, including as a result of cyber-attacks, could disrupt our business, damage our reputation, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In the ordinary course of our business activities, including the ongoing maintenance of deposits, loan and other account relationships for our customers, receiving instructions and effecting transactions for those customers and other users of our products and services, we regularly collect, process, transmit and store significant amounts of confidential information regarding our customers, employees and others. In addition to confidential information regarding our customers, employees and others, we, and in some cases a third party, compile, process, transmit and store proprietary, non-public information concerning our business, operations, plans and strategies.

Information security risks have significantly increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists and other external parties. We rely on digital technologies, computer and email systems, software, and networks to conduct secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential information. In addition, to access our products and services, our customers may use personal smart phones, tablet PCs and other mobile devices that are beyond our control systems. Our technologies, systems, networks and our customers’ devices have been subject to, and are likely to continue to be the target of, cyber-attacks, computer viruses, malicious code, phishing attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized use, loss or destruction of our or our customers’ or third parties’ confidential information, or otherwise disrupt our or our customers’ or other third parties’ business operations.

In addition to cyber-attacks or other security breaches involving the theft of sensitive and confidential information, hackers have engaged in attacks against large financial institutions, particularly denial of service attacks, that are designed to disrupt key business services, such as customer-facing web sites. We are not able to anticipate or implement effective preventive measures against all security breaches of these types, especially because the techniques used change frequently and because attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources.

Although we use a variety of physical, procedural and technological safeguards to protect confidential information from mishandling, misuse or loss, these safeguards cannot provide assurance that mishandling, misuse or loss of the information will not occur, and that if mishandling, misuse or loss of the information did occur, those events will be promptly detected and addressed. A failure in or breach of our operational or information security systems, or those of a third-party service provider, as a result of cyber-attacks or information security breaches or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business, damage our reputation, increase our costs and/or cause significant losses. As information security risks and cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend substantial resources to

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further enhance our information security measures and/or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.

If information security is breached, despite the controls we and our third-party vendors have instituted, information can be lost or misappropriated, resulting in financial loss or costs to us or damages to others. These costs or losses could materially exceed the amount of insurance coverage, if any, which would adversely affect our earnings. In addition, our reputation could be damaged which could result in loss of customers, greater difficulty in attracting new customers, or an adverse effect on the value of our common stock.

Our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting may not achieve their intended objectives.

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures designed to ensure that we timely report information as specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We also maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting. These controls may not achieve their intended objectives. Control processes that involve human diligence and compliance, such as our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, are subject to lapses in judgment and breakdowns resulting from human failures. Controls can also be circumvented by collusion or improper management override. Because of such limitations, there are risks that material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected and that information may not be reported on a timely basis. If our controls are not effective, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and market for our common stock, and could subject us to regulatory scrutiny.

We are exposed to environmental liabilities with respect to real estate.

We currently operate 26 branch offices, and own additional real estate. In addition, a significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. In the course of our business, we may foreclose, accept deeds in lieu of foreclosure, or otherwise acquire real estate, and in doing so could become subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may become responsible to a governmental agency or third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by those parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean-up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with environmental investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, as the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. Although we have policies and procedures to perform an environmental review before acquiring title to any real property, these may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards. If we were to become subject to significant environmental liabilities, it could materially and adversely affect us.

The soundness of other financial services institutions may adversely affect our credit risk.

We rely on other financial services institutions through trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We maintain limits and monitor concentration levels of our counterparties as specified in our internal policies. Our reliance on other financial services institutions exposes us to credit risk in the event of default by these institutions or counterparties. These losses could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our operations could be interrupted if certain external vendors on which we rely experience difficulty, terminate their services or fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

We depend to a significant extent on relationships with third party service providers. Specifically, we utilize third party core banking services and receive credit card and debit card services, branch capture services, Internet banking services and services complementary to our banking products from various third party service providers. If these third party service providers experience difficulties or terminate their services and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, our operations could be interrupted. It may be difficult for us to replace some of our third party vendors, particularly vendors providing our core banking, credit card and debit card services, in a timely manner if they were unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future for any reason. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of

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operations. Even if we are able to replace them, it may be at higher cost to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, if a third party provider fails to provide the services we require, fails to meet contractual requirements, such as compliance with applicable laws and regulations, or suffers a cyber-attack or other security breach, our business could suffer economic and reputational harm that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our use of third party vendors and our other ongoing third party business relationships are subject to regulatory requirements and attention.

We regularly use third party vendors as part of our business. We also have substantial ongoing business relationships with other third parties. These types of third party relationships are subject to demanding regulatory requirements and attention by our bank regulators. Banking regulations requires us to perform due diligence, ongoing monitoring and maintain control over our third party vendors and other ongoing third party business relationships. We expect that our regulators will hold us responsible for deficiencies in our oversight and control of our third party relationships and in the performance of the parties with which we have these relationships. As a result, if our regulators conclude that we have not exercised adequate oversight and control over our third party vendors or other ongoing third party business relationships or that such third parties have not performed appropriately, we could be subject to enforcement actions, including civil money penalties or other administrative or judicial penalties or fines as well as requirements for customer remediation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Our ability to pay dividends or repurchase shares is subject to limitations.

Our ability to pay dividends on or repurchase shares of our stock depends upon our receipt of dividends from Peoples Bank. Additionally, our ability to pay dividends is limited by Pennsylvania corporate law and by federal banking regulations. Under Pennsylvania law, we may not pay a dividend if, after payment, we could not pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than our total liabilities. The Federal Reserve Board has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve Board’s view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the company’s net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition.

As a state-chartered bank, Peoples Bank is subject to regulatory restrictions on the payment and amounts of dividends under the Pennsylvania Banking Code. Further, Peoples Bank’s ability to pay dividends is also subject to its profitability, financial condition, capital expenditures and other cash flow requirements. There is no assurance that Peoples Bank will be able to pay dividends. Our failure to pay dividends could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

Proxy contests and shareholder litigation may adversely affect our results of operations.

Proxy contests or shareholder litigation could cause us to use resources, both in expense and in the time and attention of our management, which could otherwise be used in operating our business. Accordingly, our results of operations may be adversely effected.

Risks Related to Potential Future Transactions

Future acquisitions by us could dilute existing shareholders’ ownership of Peoples and may cause us to become more susceptible to adverse economic events.

We may issue shares of our common stock in connection with future acquisitions and other investments, which would dilute existing shareholders’ ownership interests in Peoples. While there is no assurance that these transactions will occur, or that they will occur on terms favorable to us, future business acquisitions could be material to us, and the

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degree of success achieved in acquiring and integrating these businesses could have a material effect on the value of our common stock. In addition, these acquisitions could require us to expend substantial cash or other liquid assets or to incur debt, which could cause us to become more susceptible to economic downturns and competitive pressures.

Our governing documents, Pennsylvania law, and current policies of our board of directors contain provisions which may reduce the likelihood of a change in control transaction that may otherwise be available and attractive to shareholders.

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain certain anti-takeover provisions that may make it more difficult or expensive or may discourage a tender offer, change in control or takeover attempt that is opposed by our board of directors. In particular, the articles of incorporation and bylaws: classify our board of directors into three groups, so that shareholders elect only approximately one-third of the board each year; require our shareholders to give us advance notice to nominate candidates for election to the board of directors or to make shareholder proposals at a shareholders’ meeting; and require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of our common stock to approve amendments to our bylaws or to approve certain business combinations that have not received the support of two-thirds of our board of directors. These provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control, even though a majority of our shareholders may consider such proposals desirable. Such provisions could also make it more difficult for third parties to remove and replace the members of our board of directors. Moreover, these provisions could diminish the opportunities for shareholders to participate in certain tender offers, including tender offers at prices above the then-current market value of our common stock, and may also inhibit increases in the trading price of our common stock that could result from takeover attempts or speculation.

In addition, anti-takeover provisions in Pennsylvania law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us. These provisions could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and could reduce the amount that shareholders might receive if we are sold. For example, Pennsylvania law may restrict a third party’s ability to obtain control of Peoples and may prevent shareholders from receiving a premium for their shares of our common stock. Pennsylvania law also provides that our shareholders are not entitled by statute to propose amendments to our articles of incorporation.

Our ability to make opportunistic acquisitions is subject to significant risks, including the risk that regulators will not provide the requisite approvals.

We may make opportunistic whole or partial acquisitions of other banks, branches, financial institutions, or related businesses from time to time that we expect may further our business strategy. Any possible acquisition will be subject to regulatory approval, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner or at all. Even if we obtain regulatory approval, these acquisitions could involve numerous risks, including lower than expected performance or higher than expected costs, difficulties related to integration, diversion of management’s attention from other business activities, changes in relationships with customers, and the potential loss of key employees. In addition, we may not be successful in identifying acquisition candidates, integrating acquired institutions, or preventing deposit erosion or loan quality deterioration at acquired institutions. Competition for acquisitions can be highly competitive, and we may not be able to acquire other institutions on attractive terms. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in completing or will even pursue future acquisitions, or if such transactions are completed, that we will be successful in integrating acquired businesses into operations. Our ability to grow may be limited if we choose not to pursue or are unable to successfully make acquisitions in the future.

Risks Related to Government Regulation

We operate in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations.

We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by certain state and federal agencies including the FDIC, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Pennsylvania Department of Banking. Such regulation and supervision govern the activities in which we may engage and are intended primarily to ensure the safety and soundness of financial institutions. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the imposition of restrictions on operations, the classification of assets and

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determination of the level of the allowance for loan losses. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation or supervisory action, may have a material impact on us and our operations. There also are several federal and state statutes which regulate the obligation and liabilities of financial institutions pertaining to environmental issues. In addition to the potential for attachment of liability resulting from our own actions, we may be held liable under certain circumstances for the actions of our borrowers, or third parties, when such actions result in environmental problems on properties that collateralize loans held by us. Further, the liability has the potential to far exceed the original amount of a loan.

We may be subject to more stringent capital and liquidity requirements in the future, which may adversely affect our net income and future growth.

Future increases, if any, in minimum capital requirements could adversely affect our net income. Furthermore, our failure to comply with the minimum capital requirements could result in our regulators taking formal or informal actions against us which could restrict our future growth or operations.

The regulations issued by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau have increased and may continue to increase our costs of operations.

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has broad powers to supervise and enforce consumer protection laws and broad rule-making authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all banks and savings institutions, including the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau considers whether additional rules are needed and has direct examination and enforcement authority over all banks and savings institutions with more than $10 billion in assets. Banks with $10 billion or less in assets, like us, are examined for compliance with these consumer laws by their primary bank regulators. The Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations.

Increases in FDIC insurance premiums may adversely affect our earnings.

Our deposits are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, we are subject to FDIC deposit insurance assessments. Should our supervisory rating be lowered or our unsecured debt increase, we may be required to pay an increased assessment. More generally, should the designated reserve ratio of the FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund be raised or the fund suffer losses, we may be required to pay an increased assessment. An increase in the assessment we pay may adversely impact our earnings.

Regulations relating to privacy, information security and data protection could increase our costs, affect or limit how we collect and use personal information and adversely affect our business opportunities.

We are subject to various privacy, information security and data protection laws, including requirements concerning security breach notification, and we could be negatively impacted by these laws. For example, our business is subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act which, among other things: (i) imposes certain limitations on our ability to share nonpublic personal information about our customers with nonaffiliated third parties; (ii) requires that we provide certain disclosures to customers about our information collection, sharing and security practices and afford customers the right to “opt out” of any information sharing by us with nonaffiliated third parties (with certain exceptions) and (iii) requires that we develop, implement and maintain a written comprehensive information security program containing safeguards appropriate based on our size and complexity, the nature and scope of our activities, and the sensitivity of customer information we process, as well as plans for responding to data security breaches. Various state and federal banking regulators and states have also enacted data security breach notification requirements with varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory or law enforcement notification in certain circumstances in the event of a security breach. Moreover, legislators and regulators in the United States are increasingly adopting or revising privacy, information security and data protection laws that potentially could have a significant impact on our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, our collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer or employee information, and some of our current or planned business activities. This could also increase our costs of compliance and business operations and could reduce income from certain business initiatives. This includes increased privacy-related enforcement activity at the federal level, by the Federal Trade Commission, as well as at the state level, such as with regard to mobile applications.

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Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws (including those regarding security breach notification) affecting customer or employee data to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations. Our failure to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws could result in potentially significant regulatory or governmental investigations or actions, litigation, fines, sanctions, increased insurance cost and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Item  1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2.

Properties.

Our corporate headquarters is located at 150 N. Washington Avenue, Scranton, Pennsylvania, which houses our finance and planning, trust, commercial lending, human resources and investor services divisions, as well as our executive offices. Our operations division is located at 82 Franklin Avenue, Hallstead, Pennsylvania.

We operate 26 full-service community banking offices located within the Lackawanna, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Monroe, Montgomery, Northampton, Susquehanna and Wyoming Counties of Pennsylvania and Broome County of New York. Seven offices are leased and the balance are owned by Peoples Bank.

We lease several remote ATM locations throughout our market area. All branches and ATM locations are equipped with closed circuit television monitoring.

We consider our properties to be suitable and adequate for our current and immediate future purposes.

Item  3.

Legal Proceedings.

There are no material pending legal proceedings, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to our business, as to which we are a party or of which any of our property is subject.

Item  4.

Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

Part II

Item  5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

As of February 28, 2021 there were approximately 3,794 holders of our common stock, $2.00 par value, including individual participants in security position listings. Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “PFIS.”

Peoples has paid cash dividends since its incorporation in 1986. It is the present intention of the Board of Directors to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends, however, the payment of future dividends must necessarily depend upon earnings, financial position, appropriate restrictions under applicable laws and other factors relevant at the time our board of directors considers any declaration of dividends. The Board declared on January 29, 2021 a first quarter dividend of $0.37 per share payable March 15, 2021. For information on dividend restrictions on the Company and Peoples Bank, refer to Part I, Item 1 “Supervision and Regulation – Limitations on Dividends and Other Payments” to this report and

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refer to the consolidated financial statements and notes to these statements filed at Item 8 to this report and incorporated in their entirety by reference under this Item 5.

The following table presents information with respect to purchases made by or on behalf of the Company or any “affiliated purchaser,” as defined in the Exchange Act Rule 10b-18(a)(3), of the Company’s common stock during each of the three months ended December 31, 2020:

 

    

    

    

Total Number of

    

Maximum Number

 

Shares Purchased

of Shares that may

 

as Part of Publicly

yet be Purchased

 

Total Number of

Average Price

Announced

Under the

 

Month Ending 

    

Shares Purchased

    

Paid Per Share

    

Programs

    

Programs

 

October 31, 2020

19,483

$

35.98

188,388

51,040

November 30, 2020

3,904

$

37.40

192,292

47,136

December 31, 2020

3,736

$

37.18

196,028

43,400

On February 28, 2020, our board of directors authorized a common stock repurchase plan whereby we were authorized to repurchase up to 225,000 shares of our outstanding common stock through open market purchases. That plan expired on December 31, 2020. On January 29, 2021, our board of directors authorized a new common stock repurchase plan whereby we are authorized to repurchase up to 4.9 percent of our outstanding common stock, or 353,422 shares.

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The following graph and table show the cumulative total return on the common stock of the Company over the last five years, compared with the cumulative total return of a broad stock market index (the Russell 2000 Index or “Russell 2000”), and the SNL Bank and Thrift Index. The cumulative total return on the stock or the index equals the total increase in value since December 31, 2015, assuming reinvestment of all dividends paid into the stock or the index. The graph and table were prepared assuming that $100 was invested on December 31, 2015, in the common stock and the securities included in the indexes.

Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Returns

Performance Graph of

PEOPLES FINANCIAL SERVICES CORP

Graphic

Period Ending

 

Index

12/31/2015

12/31/2016

12/31/2017

12/31/2018

12/31/2019

12/31/2020

 

Peoples Financial Services Corp.

    

100.00

    

132.04

    

130.02

    

126.65

    

149.18

    

113.04

Russell 2000 Index

 

100.00

 

121.31

 

139.08

 

123.76

 

155.35

 

186.36

SNL Bank and Thrift Index

 

100.00

 

126.25

 

148.45

 

123.32

 

166.67

 

144.61

Source: S& P Global Market Intelligence

©2021

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Item 6.

Selected Financial Data.

Consolidated Selected Financial Data

(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)

 

Year Ended December 31

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

 

Condensed statements of financial performance:

Interest income

$

94,125

$

93,381

$

84,661

$

74,242

$

68,984

Interest expense

 

14,324

 

17,868

 

13,322

 

8,698

 

7,251

Net interest income

 

79,801

 

75,513

 

71,339

 

65,544

 

61,733

Provision for loan losses

 

7,400

 

6,100

 

4,200

 

4,800

 

5,000

Net interest income after provision for loan losses

 

72,401

 

69,413

 

67,139

 

60,744

 

56,733

Noninterest income

 

16,642

 

15,120

 

13,659

 

17,186

 

15,888

Noninterest expense

 

54,868

 

55,642

 

52,487

 

51,293

 

48,030

Income before income taxes

 

34,175

 

28,891

 

28,311

 

26,637

 

24,591

Provision for income tax expense

 

4,821

 

3,155

 

3,391

 

8,180

 

5,008

Net income

$

29,354

$

25,736

$

24,920

$

18,457

$

19,583

Condensed statements of financial position:

Investment securities

$

303,274

$

338,557

$

278,334

$

281,822

$

269,927

Net loans

 

2,150,638

 

1,915,563

 

1,801,887

 

1,674,105

 

1,517,004

Other assets

 

429,890

 

221,207

 

208,772

 

213,104

 

212,511

Total assets

$

2,883,802

$

2,475,327

$

2,288,993

$

2,169,031

$

1,999,442

Deposits

$

2,437,113

$

1,971,489

$

1,875,022

$

1,719,018

$

1,588,757

Short-term borrowings

 

50,000

 

152,150

 

86,500

 

123,675

 

82,700

Long-term debt

 

14,769

 

32,733

 

37,906

 

49,734

 

58,134

Subordinated debt

33,000

Other liabilities

 

32,043

 

19,945

 

10,951

 

11,628

 

13,233

Stockholders’ equity

 

316,877

 

299,010

 

278,614

 

264,976

 

256,618

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

2,883,802

$

2,475,327

$

2,288,993

$

2,169,031

$

1,999,442

Per share data:

Net income - basic

$

4.02

$

3.48

$

3.37

$

2.50

$

2.65

Net income - diluted

4.00

3.47

3.37

2.50

2.65

Cash dividends declared

 

1.44

 

1.37

 

1.31

 

1.26

 

1.24

Stockholders’ equity

$

43.92

$

40.47

$

37.66

$

35.82

$

34.71

Cash dividends declared as a percentage of net income

 

35.83

%  

 

39.37

%  

 

38.90

%  

 

50.49

%  

 

46.83

%  

Average common shares outstanding - basic

7,304,956

7,395,429

7,397,797

7,395,837

7,396,716

Average common shares outstanding - diluted

 

7,337,843

 

7,412,369

 

7,402,900

 

7,395,837

 

7,396,716

Selected ratios (based on average balances):

Net income as a percentage of total assets

 

1.09

%  

 

1.10

%  

 

1.12

%  

 

0.90

%  

 

1.02

%  

Net income as a percentage of stockholders’ equity

 

9.48

 

8.87

 

9.21

 

7.02

 

7.64

Stockholders’ equity as a percentage of total assets

 

11.48

 

12.37

 

12.14

 

12.77

 

13.36

Tier I capital as a percentage of adjusted total assets

 

9.28

 

10.14

 

10.03

 

9.94

 

10.16

Net interest income as a percentage of earning assets

 

3.25

 

3.58

 

3.59

 

3.69

 

3.77

Loans, net, as a percentage of deposits

 

95.70

%  

 

96.83

%  

 

99.55

%  

 

96.50

%  

 

95.81

%  

Selected ratios and data (based on period end balances):

Tier I capital as a percentage of risk-weighted assets

 

12.16

%  

 

11.90

%  

 

11.95

%  

 

11.85

%  

 

12.49

%  

Total capital as a percentage of risk-weighted assets

 

15.10

 

13.04

 

13.10

 

12.95

 

13.51

Allowance for loan losses as a percentage of loans, net

 

1.26

 

1.17

 

1.17

 

1.12

 

1.04

Nonperforming loans as a percentage of loans, net

 

0.45

%  

 

0.52

%  

 

0.53

%  

 

0.67

%  

 

0.90

%  

Note: Average balances were calculated using average daily balances. Average balances for loans include nonaccrual loans. Tax-equivalent adjustments were calculated using the prevailing statutory tax rate of 21.0% for 2020, 2019, and 2018 and 35.0% for the years 2017 and 2016.

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Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis 2020 versus 2019

(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)

Management’s Discussion and Analysis appearing on the following pages should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis 2019 versus 2018 contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Forward-Looking Discussion:

In addition to the historical information contained in this document, the discussion presented may contain and, from time to time, may make, certain statements that constitute forward-looking statements. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates” and other similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as “should,” “would” and “could” are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are not historical facts, but instead represent the current expectations, plans or forecasts of Peoples Financial Services Corp. and its subsidiaries regarding its future operating results, financial position, asset quality, credit reserves, credit losses, capital levels, dividends, liquidity, service charges, cost savings, effective tax rate, impact of changes in fair value of financial assets and liabilities, impact of new accounting and regulatory guidance, legal proceedings and other matters relating to us and the securities that we may offer from time to time. These statements are not guarantees of future results or performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict, change over time and are often beyond our control. Actual outcomes and results may differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward-looking statements.

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement and should consider the uncertainties and risks discussed in the “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report, among others, and in any of our subsequent SEC filings. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect the impact of circumstances or events that arise after the date the forward-looking statement was made. Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements referred to in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) are incorporated by reference into the MD&A. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current year’s presentation.

Critical Accounting Policies:

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to establish critical accounting policies and make accounting estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during those reporting periods.

For a discussion of the recent Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) refer to Note 1 entitled “Summary of significant accounting policies — Recent accounting standards,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

An accounting estimate requires assumptions about uncertain matters that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements if a different amount within a range of estimates were used or if estimates changed from period to period. Readers of this report should understand that estimates are made considering facts and circumstances at a point in time, and changes in those facts and circumstances could produce results that differ from when those estimates were made. Significant estimates that are particularly susceptible to material change within the near term relate to the determination of allowance for loan losses, determination of other-than-temporary impairment of investment securities, fair value of financial instruments, the valuation of real estate acquired in connection with foreclosures or satisfaction of loans, the valuation of deferred tax assets, and the impairment of goodwill. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates.

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We maintain the allowance for loan losses at a level we believe adequate to absorb probable credit losses related to individually evaluated loans, as well as probable incurred losses inherent in the remainder of the loan portfolio as of the balance sheet date. The balance in the allowance for loan losses account is based on past events and current economic conditions among other things.

The allowance for loan losses account consists of an allocated element and an unallocated element. The allocated element consists of a specific portion for the impairment of loans individually evaluated and a formula portion for loss contingencies on those loans collectively evaluated. The unallocated element, if any, is used to cover inherent losses that exist as of the evaluation date, but which have not been identified as part of the allocated allowance using our impairment evaluation methodology due to limitations in the process.

We monitor the adequacy of the allocated portion of the allowance quarterly and adjust the allowance as necessary through normal operations. This ongoing evaluation reduces potential differences between estimates and actual observed losses. The determination of the level of the allowance for loan losses is inherently subjective as it requires estimates that are susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available. Accordingly, management cannot ensure that charge-offs in future periods will not exceed the allowance for loan losses or that additional increases in the allowance for loan losses will not be required, resulting in an adverse impact on operating results.

In determining the requirement to record an other-than-temporary impairment on securities owned by us, four main characteristics are considered including: (i) the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than amortized cost; (ii) the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer; (iii) whether the market decline was affected by macroeconomic conditions and (iv) whether the Company has the intent to sell the debt security or more likely than not will be required to sell the debt security before its anticipated recovery. The assessment of whether an other-than-temporary impairment exists involves a high degree of subjectivity and judgment and is based on information available to us at a point in time.

Fair values of financial instruments, in cases where quoted market prices are not available, are based on estimates using present value or other valuation techniques which are subject to change.

Real estate acquired in connection with foreclosures or in satisfaction of loans is adjusted to fair value based upon current estimates derived through independent appraisals less cost to sell. However, proceeds realized from sales may ultimately be higher or lower than those estimates.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences by applying enacted statutory tax rates to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities. The amount of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, to the amount that, based on available evidence, will more likely than not be realized. As changes in tax laws or rates are enacted, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted through the provision for income taxes.

 Goodwill is evaluated at least annually for impairment or more frequently if conditions indicate potential impairment exist. Any impairment losses arising from such testing are reported in the income statement in the current period as a separate line item within operations.

For a further discussion of our critical accounting policies, refer to Note 1 entitled, “Summary of significant accounting policies,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements to this Annual Report. Note 1 lists the significant accounting policies used by us in the development and presentation of the consolidated financial statements. This discussion and analysis, the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and other financial statement disclosures identify and address key variables and other qualitative and quantitative factors that are necessary for the understanding and evaluation of our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

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Operating Environment:

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared a coronavirus, identified as COVID-19, a global pandemic. In the United States, the rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus invoked various federal, state and local authorities to make emergency declarations and issue executive orders to limit the spread of the disease. Measures included restrictions on travel, limitations on public gatherings, implementation of social distancing protocols, school closings, orders to shelter in place and mandates to close all non-essential businesses to the public. Concerns about the spread of the disease and its anticipated negative impact on economic activity severely disrupted domestic financial markets prompting the Federal Reserve System’s FOMC to aggressively cut the target federal funds rate to a range of 0% to 0.25%, including a 50 basis point reduction in the target federal funds rate on March 3, 2020 and an additional 100 basis point reduction on March 15, 2020. In addition, the Federal Reserve rolled out various market support programs to ease the stress on financial markets which continue to be in place.

The rate cuts in March marked the fourth and fifth cut in the overnight rate in the most recent monetary easing cycle, which began in July 2019 after the most recent high for the target range for federal funds of 2.25% to 2.50% which was in December 2018. Overall inflation lags below the FOMC’s long-term desired 2% level for items other than food and energy. The consumer price index (“CPI”) registered 1.6% for the 12 months ended December 31, 2020, down from 1.7% for the 12 months ended September 30, 2020 but higher than the 1.2% reading for the 12 months ended June 30, 2020. The all items index increased 1.4% for the 12 months ending December 31, 2020, level from the 1.4% registered for the 12 months ending September 30, 2020 and up from the reading for the 12 months ending June 30, 2020 which was 0.6%. As the U.S. economy rebounded from the initial slowdown in the second quarter of 2020 that was brought on by the nation wide shutdown, Gross domestic product (“GDP”), the value of all goods and services produced in the nation, grew in the fourth quarter at a 2.1% annualized rate, in line with consensus forecasts, which followed a third quarter 2020 reading of a 33.4% annualized rate, better than the consensus forecast of 32.0% for the quarter. Personal consumption increased by 1.7% during the fourth quarter.

The employment situation deteriorated in New York and Pennsylvania and in all of the thirteen counties representing our market areas in Pennsylvania and New York from one year ago when comparing December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2019. Projections for our local market unemployment are not readily available, however the most current economic statistics as of January 31, 2021 show continuing jobless claims of over 4.5 million. This indicates a significant improvement from the peak of 17 million jobless claims from 2020, but it remains elevated as does the unemployment rate at 8.1% on a national level per the latest report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics at December 31, 2020. By comparison, the unemployment rate was 8.8% at quarter end September 30, 2020 and 13.0% at quarter end June 30, 2020. Prior to the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, the highest recorded unemployment rate in recent history was 9.9% in 2009 during the Great Recession. As the pandemic continues to remain a focus of the economic recovery, elevated unemployment rates could have an adverse effect on our credit quality and may result in increased credit losses within the loan portfolio in future periods. On a national level, as with our regional and local economies, employment conditions deteriorated in 2020. The civilian labor force decreased 4.0 million, while the number of people employed decreased 8.9 million in 2020. As a result, the annual unemployment rate for the U.S. increased in 2020 when compared to 2019.

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National, Pennsylvania, New York and our market area’s non-seasonally-adjusted annual unemployment rates in 2020 and 2019, are summarized as follows:

 

    

2020

    

2019

 

United States

 

8.1

%  

3.7

%  

New York (statewide)

 

10.0

4.0

Pennsylvania (statewide)

 

9.1

4.1

Broome County

8.3

4.6

Bucks County

8.4

3.6

Lackawanna County

 

9.9

4.6

Lebanon County

7.9

3.7

Lehigh County

 

9.5

4.3

Luzerne County

 

11.2

5.4

Monroe County

 

11.6

5.1

Montgomery County

7.8

3.3

Northampton County

9.0

4.2

Schuylkill County

9.3

5.1

Susquehanna County

 

7.5

4.1

Wayne County

 

9.5

4.4

Wyoming County

 

8.7

%  

4.6

%  

With respect to the banking industry, net income for all FDIC-insured banks in 2020 totaled $147.9 billion, a decrease of $84.9 billion or 36.5 percent from 2019. The decline was primarily attributable to the increased provisioning due to the decline in economic conditions in the first six months of 2020. Approximately 53.7 percent of all institutions reported higher net income in 2020, while only 3.9 percent reported net losses, up slightly from last year’s reported 3.6 percent unprofitable institutions. Loan loss provisions of $132.2 billion in 2020 were $77.1 billion or 140.0 percent more than banks set aside in 2019. Net interest income decreased for the first time in seven years, by $20.0 billion or 3.7 percent. Noninterest income was $15.9 billion or 6.0 percent above the level of 2019. Realized gains on sales of investments were $8.1 billion compared to $4.0 billion in 2019. Total noninterest expense increased $32.9 billion or 6.9 percent comparing 2020 and 2019. The return on average assets for 2020 was 0.72 percent compared to 1.29 percent in 2019.

Review of Financial Position:

Peoples Financial Services Corp., a bank holding company incorporated under the laws of Pennsylvania, provides a full range of financial services through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Peoples Security Bank and Trust Company (“Peoples Bank”), collectively, the “Company” or “Peoples”. The Company services its retail and commercial customers through twenty-six full-service community banking offices located within the Lackawanna, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Monroe, Montgomery, Northampton, Susquehanna and Wyoming Counties of Pennsylvania and Broome County of New York.

Peoples Bank is a state-chartered bank and trust company under the jurisdiction of the Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Peoples Bank’s primary product is loans to small- and medium-sized businesses. Other lending products include one-to-four family residential mortgages and consumer loans. Peoples Bank primarily funds its loans by offering checking accounts and money market accounts to commercial enterprises and individuals. Other deposit product offerings include certificates of deposits and various non-maturity deposit accounts.

The Company faces competition primarily from commercial banks, thrift institutions and credit unions within its Pennsylvania and New York market, many of which are substantially larger in terms of assets and capital. In addition, mutual funds and security brokers compete for various types of deposits, and consumer, mortgage, leasing and insurance companies compete for various types of loans and leases. Principal methods of competing for banking and permitted nonbanking services include price, nature of product, quality of service and convenience of location.

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The Company and Peoples Bank are subject to regulations of certain federal and state regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities, and undergo periodic examinations by such agencies.

Total assets, loans and deposits were $2.9 billion, $2.2 billion and $2.4 billion, respectively, at December 31, 2020. Total assets, loans and deposits grew 16.5 percent, 12.4 percent and 23.6 percent, respectively, compared to 2019 year-end balances.

The loan portfolio consisted of $1.8 billion of business loans, including commercial and commercial real estate loans, and $360.7 million in retail loans, including residential mortgage and consumer loans at December 31, 2020. Total investment securities were $303.3 million at December 31, 2020, including $295.9 million of investment securities classified as available-for sale and $7.2 million classified as held-to-maturity. Total deposits consisted of $622.5 million in noninterest-bearing deposits and $1.8 billion in interest-bearing deposits at December 31, 2020.

Stockholders’ equity equaled $316.9 million, or $43.92 per share, at December 31, 2020, and $299.0 million, or $40.47 per share, at December 31, 2019. Our equity to asset ratio was 11.0 percent and 12.1 percent at those respective period ends. Dividends declared for the 2020 amounted to $1.44 per share representing 35.8 percent of net income.

Nonperforming assets equaled $10.5 million or 0.48 percent of loans, net and foreclosed assets at December 31, 2020, as the balance remained the same, however, the percentage was lower when compared to $10.5 million or 0.54 percent at December 31, 2019. The allowance for loan losses equaled $27.3 million or 1.26 percent of loans, net, at December 31, 2020, compared to $22.7 million or 1.17 percent at year-end 2019. Loans charged-off, net of recoveries equaled $2.7 million or 0.13 percent of average loans in 2020, compared to $4.8 million or 0.26 percent of average loans in 2019.

 Investment Portfolio:

Primarily, our investment portfolio provides a source of liquidity needed to meet expected loan demand and generates a reasonable return in order to increase our profitability. Additionally, we utilize the investment portfolio to meet pledging requirements and reduce income taxes. At December 31, 2020, our portfolio consisted primarily of short-term U.S. Treasury and government agency securities, which provide a source of liquidity and intermediate-term, tax-exempt state and municipal obligations, which mitigate our tax burden.

Our investment portfolio is subject to various risk elements that may negatively impact our liquidity and profitability. The greatest risk element affecting our portfolio is market risk or interest rate risk (“IRR”). Understanding IRR, along with other inherent risks and their potential effects, is essential in effectively managing the investment portfolio.

Market risk or IRR relates to the inverse relationship between bond prices and market yields. It is defined as the risk that increases in general market interest rates will result in market value depreciation. A marked reduction in the value of the investment portfolio could subject us to liquidity strains and reduced earnings if we are unable or unwilling to sell these investments at a loss. Moreover, the inability to liquidate these assets could require us to seek alternative funding, which may further reduce profitability and expose us to greater risk in the future. In addition, since the majority of our investment portfolio is designated as available-for-sale and carried at estimated fair value, with net unrealized gains and losses reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity, market value depreciation could negatively impact our capital position.

During March 2020, the FOMC took aggressive actions to cut the targeted federal funds rate 150 basis points to a range of 0.00% to 0.25% in an effort to help protect the U.S. economy from COVID-19.  At their January 2021 meeting, the FOMC decided to keep the target range for the federal funds rate at 0 to 1/4 percent and expects it will be appropriate to maintain this target range until labor market conditions have reached levels consistent with the Committee's assessments of maximum employment and inflation has risen to 2 percent and is on track to moderately exceed 2 percent for some time. Furthermore, the Committee stated it is committed to using its full range of tools to support the U.S. economy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our investment portfolio consists primarily of fixed-rate bonds. As a result, changes in the velocity and magnitude of future FOMC actions can significantly influence the fair value of our portfolio.

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Specifically, the parts of the yield curve most closely related to our investments include the 2-year and 10-year U.S. Treasury security. The yield on the 2-year U.S. Treasury note affects the values of our U.S. Treasury and government agency securities, whereas the 10-year U.S. Treasury note influences the value of tax-exempt and taxable state and municipal obligations. The yield on the 2-year U.S. Treasury ranged from a low of 10 basis points to a high of 160 basis points during 2020 before ending the year at 12 basis points. The yield on the 10-year U.S. Treasury ranged from a low of 39 basis points to a high of 189 basis points while ending 2020 at 91 basis points. Since bond prices move inversely to yields, we experienced an increase in the aggregate fair value of our investment portfolio when comparing December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2019 due to lower market rates at year end 2020. The net unrealized holding gains included in our available-for-sale investment portfolio were $9.7 million at December 31, 2020 compared to a gain of $1.8 million at December 31, 2019. We reported net unrealized holding gain, included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity of $7.7 million, net of income taxes of $2.0 million, at December 31, 2020, and an unrealized holding gain of $1.4 million, net of income taxes of $0.4 million, at December 31, 2019. An increase in interest rates could negatively impact the market value of our investments and our capital position. In order to monitor the potential effects a rise in interest rates could have on the value of our investments, we perform stress test modeling on the portfolio. Stress tests conducted on our portfolio at December 31, 2020, indicated that should general market rates increase by 100, 200 or 300 basis points, we would anticipate declines of 4.8 percent, 9.9 percent and 14.9 percent in the market value of our portfolio.

The carrying values of the major classifications of investment securities and their respective percentages of total investment securities for the past three years are summarized as follows:

Distribution of investment securities (Dollars in thousands)

 

2020

2019

2018

 

December 31, 

Amount  

%  

Amount  

%  

Amount

%

 

U.S. Treasury securities

    

$

18,905

    

6.23

%  

$

24,128

    

7.13

%  

$

25,592

    

9.20

%

U.S. government-sponsored enterprises

 

65,188

 

21.49

 

87,110

 

25.73

92,818

 

33.35

State and municipals:

Taxable

 

55,366

 

18.26

 

34,898

 

10.31

 

13,853

 

4.98

Tax-exempt

 

63,843

 

21.05

 

67,015

 

19.79

 

92,809

 

33.34

Corporate debt securities

1,000

0.33

 

Residential mortgage-backed securities:

U.S. government agencies

 

3,728

 

1.23

 

8,501

 

2.51

 

12,671

 

4.55

U.S. government-sponsored enterprises

 

81,606

 

26.91

 

103,621

 

30.60

 

34,261

 

12.31

Commercial mortgage-backed securities:

U.S. government-sponsored enterprises

13,500

4.45

12,861

3.80

6,039

2.17

Common equity securities

138

0.05

423

0.13

 

291

0.10

Total

$

303,274

 

100.00

%  

$

338,557

 

100.00

%  

$

278,334

 

100.00

%

Investment securities decreased $35.3 million, to $303.3 million at December 31, 2020, from $338.6 million at December 31, 2019. At December 31, 2020, the investment portfolio consisted of $295.9 million of investment securities classified as available-for-sale and $7.2 million classified as held-to-maturity. Investment cash flow was used to fund the loan pipeline prior to the economic slowdown brought on by COVID-19 during the first quarter of 2020. For the majority of the remainder of 2020, investment cash flow was directed to overnight federal funds sold, as management focused on increasing liquidity in the uncertain economic environment. As the level of overnight funds increased, our Asset Liability Committee recommended a strategy to deploy a portion of those funds back into the investment portfolio through purchases of primarily taxable and tax-free municipal bonds and mortgage-backed securities to mitigate risk in a flat and down rate environment. Security purchases totaled $107.2 million in 2020, with purchases consisting of longer term taxable and tax-exempt municipal securities and mortgage-backed securities. Investment purchases in 2019 amounted to $124.5 million.

Repayments of investment securities totaled $85.0 million in 2020 and $58.2 million in 2019. During the first quarter of 2020, the Company sold $26.5 million of low-yielding short-term municipal bonds resulting in a gain of $267 thousand. The proceeds were used to fund higher yielding loans. Additionally, two mortgage-backed securities were sold during

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the second half of 2020 with proceeds totaling $38.3 million and gains recognized of $651 thousand due to favorable market rates. Sales of $9.7 million of low-yielding municipal securities during 2019 resulted in a gain of $23 thousand. We continually analyze the investment portfolio with respect to its exposure to various risk elements.

The composition of our investment portfolio changed during 2020 as a result of the aforementioned transactions. Short-term bullet U.S. Treasury and U.S. government-sponsored enterprise securities comprised 27.7 percent of our total portfolio at yearend 2020 compared to 32.9 percent at the end of 2019. Tax-exempt municipal obligations increased as a percentage of the total portfolio to 21.1 percent at year-end 2020 from 19.8 percent at the end of 2019, however the total balance declined as the sales of $26.5 million, maturities and bond calls offset the new purchases. Taxable municipals increased as a percentage of the total portfolio to 18.3 percent at year-end 2020 from 10.3 percent at the end of 2019 as the sector provided value opportunities. The weighted average life of the investment portfolio lengthened to 4.3 years at December 31, 2020 from 3.7 years at year end 2019, while the effective duration of the investment portfolio increased to 4.4 years at December 31, 2020 from 3.6 years at December 31, 2019.

There were no other-than-temporary impairments (“OTTI”) recognized for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. For additional information related to OTTI refer to Note 3 entitled “Investment securities” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements to this Annual Report.

Investment securities averaged $292.7 million and equaled 11.7 percent of average earning assets in 2020, compared to $279.4 million and 13.0 percent of average earning assets in 2019. The tax-equivalent yield on the investment portfolio decreased eleven basis points to 2.36 percent in 2020 from 2.47 percent in 2019. The decrease in the tax-equivalent yield is due primarily to cash flow from maturing and called bonds being reinvested into lower market rates.

At December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no securities of any individual issuer, except for U.S. government agency mortgage-backed securities, that exceeded 10.0 percent of stockholders’ equity.

The maturity distribution based on the carrying value and weighted-average, tax-equivalent yield of the investment portfolio at December 31, 2020, is summarized as follows. The weighted-average yield, based on amortized cost, has been computed for tax-exempt state and municipals on a tax-equivalent basis using the prevailing federal statutory tax rate of 21.0 percent. The distributions are based on contractual maturity. Expected maturities may differ from contractual maturities because borrowers have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties.

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Maturity distribution of investment securities (Dollars in thousands)

 

After one but

After five but

 

Within one year  

within five years  

within ten years  

After ten years  

Total  

 

December 31, 2020

Amount  

Yield  

Amount  

Yield  

Amount  

Yield  

Amount  

Yield  

Amount  

Yield  

 

U.S. Treasury securities

    

$

7,097