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Table of Contents

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____ to ____

Commission file no. 333-94288

THE FIRST BANCSHARES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Mississippi

  

64-0862173

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

Incorporation or Organization)

 

 

 

 

 

6480 U.S. Hwy. 98 West, Suite A

 

 

Hattiesburg, Mississippi

 

39402

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Issuer’s telephone number:

(601) 268-8998

 

Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

 

 

Name of Each Exchange on

Title of Each Class

   

Trading Symbol(s) 

   

Which Registered

Common Stock, $1.00 par value

FBMS 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes                    No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.

Yes                    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes                    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes                    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “non-accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

Based on the price at which the registrant’s Common Stock was last sold on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s  Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was  $458.3 million.

On March 3, 2021, the registrant had outstanding 21,018,319 shares of common stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain portions of the Registrant’s proxy statement to be filed for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 20, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Other than those portions of the proxy statement specifically incorporated by reference pursuant to Items 10-14 of Part III hereof, no other portions of the proxy statement shall be deemed so incorporated.

Table of Contents

THE FIRST BANCSHARES, INC.

FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

 

 

PART I

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

5

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

17

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

27

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

27

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

28

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

28

PART II

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

29

ITEM 6.

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

31

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

31

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

56

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

58

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

114

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

114

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

115

PART III

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

116

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

116

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

116

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

116

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

116

PART IV

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

117

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

120

SIGNATURES

121

Table of Contents

THE FIRST BANCSHARES, INC.

FORM 10-K

PART I

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information incorporated by reference herein, contains statements which constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements are statements that include projections, predictions, expectations, or beliefs about future events or results or otherwise are not statements of historical fact, and may include statements relating to our projected growth, anticipated future financial performance, financial condition, credit quality and management’s long-term performance goals, as well as statements relating to the anticipated effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations from expected developments or events, our business, growth and strategies. Such statements are often characterized by the use of qualifying words (and their derivatives) such as “may,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “predict,” “project,” ”seek,” “potential,” “aim,” “continue,” “assume,” “believe,” “intend,” “plan,” “forecast,” “goal,” “estimate,” or other statements concerning opinions or judgments of the Company, the Bank, and management about possible future events or outcomes.

These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based upon current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. The inclusion of these forward-looking statements should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that such expectations, estimates and projections will be achieved. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and that are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date of this Annual Report, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:

Factors that could influence the accuracy of such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, competitive pressures among financial institutions increasing significantly; economic conditions, either nationally or locally, in areas in which the Company conducts operations being less favorable than expected; interest rate risk; legislation or regulatory changes which adversely affect the ability of the consolidated Company to conduct business combinations or new operations; financial success or changing strategies of the Bank’s customers or vendors; actions of government regulators; and the risk that anticipated benefits from the recent acquisitions are not realized in the time frame anticipated or at all as a result of changes in general economic and market conditions.

Potential risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in any forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:

the negative impacts and disruptions resulting from the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) on the economies and communities we serve, which has had and may continue to have an adverse impact on our business operations and performance, and could have a negative impact on our credit portfolio, stock price, borrowers and the economy as a whole both globally and domestically;
government or regulatory responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, including additional interest rate changes by the Federal Reserve, additional quarantines, or other regulations or laws enacted to counter the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy;
the costs and effects of litigation, investigations, inquiries or similar matters, or adverse facts and developments related thereto, including the costs and effects of litigation related to our participation in government stimulus programs associated with the COVID-19 pandemic;
reduced earnings due to higher credit losses generally and specifically because losses in the sectors of our loan portfolio secured by real estate are greater than expected due to economic factors, including declining real estate values, increasing interest rates, increasing unemployment, or changes in payment behavior or other factors occurring in those areas;

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general economic conditions, either nationally or regionally and especially in our primary service areas, becoming less favorable than expected resulting in, among other things, a deterioration in credit quality;
adverse changes in asset quality and resulting credit risk-related losses and expenses;
ability of borrowers to repay loans, which can be adversely affected by a number of factors, including changes in economic conditions, adverse trends or events affecting business industry groups, reductions in real estate values or markets, business closings or layoffs, natural disasters, public health emergencies and international instability;
current or future legislation, regulatory changes or changes in monetary, tax or fiscal policy that adversely affect the businesses in which we or our customers or our borrowers are engaged, including the impact of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”), the Federal Reserve’s action with respect to interest rates, the capital requirements promulgated by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (“Basel Committee”). Potential impacts from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) of 2020, uncertainty relating to calculations of LIBOR and other regulatory responses to economic conditions;
changes in political conditions or the legislative or regulatory environment;
the adequacy of the level of our allowance for loan losses and the amount of loan loss provision required to replenish the allowance in future periods;
reduced earnings due to higher credit losses because our loans are concentrated by loan type, industry segment, borrower type, or location of the borrower or collateral;
changes in the interest rate environment which could reduce anticipated or actual margins;
increased funding costs due to market illiquidity, increased competition for funding, higher interest rates, and increased regulatory requirements with regard to funding;
results of examinations by our regulatory authorities, including the possibility that the regulatory authorities may, among other things, require us to increase our allowance for loan losses through additional loan loss provisions or write-down of our assets;
the rate of delinquencies and amount of loans charged-off;
the impact of our efforts to raise capital on our financial position, liquidity, capital, and profitability;
risks and uncertainties relating to not successfully integrating the currently contemplated or completed acquisitions within our currently expected timeframe and other terms;
significant increases in competition in the banking and financial services industries;
changes in the securities markets;
loss of consumer confidence and economic disruptions resulting from national disasters or terrorist activities;
our ability to retain our existing customers, including our deposit relationships;
changes occurring in business conditions and inflation;
changes in technology or risks related to cybersecurity;

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changes in deposit flows;
changes in accounting principles, policies, or guidelines, including the impact of the new current expected credit loss (“CECL”) standard;
our ability to maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting;
risks related to the continued use, availability and reliability of London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and other “benchmark” rates; and
other risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

We have based our forward-looking statements on our current expectations about future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in and the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that these expectations will be achieved or the assumptions will be accurate.  The Company disclaims any obligation to update such factors or to publicly announce the results of any revisions to any of the forward-looking statements included herein to reflect future events or developments.  Additional information concerning these risks and uncertainties is contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, included in Item 1A. Risk Factors and in our future filings with the SEC.  Further information on The First Bancshares, Inc. is available in its filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, available at the SEC’s website, http://www.sec.gov.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

BUSINESS OF THE COMPANY

Overview and History

The First Bancshares, Inc. (“Company”) was incorporated on June 23, 1995 to serve as a bank holding company for The First, A National Banking Association (“The First”), headquartered in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The Company is a Mississippi corporation and is a registered financial holding company. The First began operations on August 5, 1996 from our main office in the Oak Grove community, which is now incorporated within the city of Hattiesburg. As of December 31, 2020, The First operated 84 locations in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Louisiana. Our principal executive offices are located at 6480 U.S. Highway 98 West, Hattiesburg, Mississippi 39402, and our telephone number is (601) 268-8998.

The Company is a community-focused financial institution that offers a full range of financial services to individuals, businesses, municipal entities, and nonprofit organizations in the communities that it serves. These services include consumer and commercial loans, deposit accounts and safe deposit services.

We have benefitted from historically strong asset quality metrics compared to most of our peers, which we believe illustrates our historically disciplined underwriting and credit culture. As such, we benefited from our strength by taking advantage of growth opportunities when many of our peers were unable to do so. We have also focused on growing earnings per share and increasing our tangible common equity and tangible book value per share.

In recent years, we have developed and executed a regional expansion strategy to take advantage of growth opportunities through several acquisitions, which has allowed us to expand our footprint to Alabama, Florida Louisiana and Georgia. We believe the conversion and integration of these acquisitions have been successful to date, and we are optimistic that these markets will continue to contribute to our future growth and success. In addition, we continue to experience organic loan growth by continuing to strengthen our relationships with existing clients and creating new relationships.

On April 3, 2020, the Company completed its acquisition of Southwest Georgia Financial Corporation (“SWG”), and immediately thereafter merged its wholly-owned subsidiary, Southwest Georgia Bank with and into The First.  The Company paid a total consideration of $47.9 million to the SWG shareholders as consideration in the merger, which included 2,546,967 shares of Company common stock and approximately $2 thousand in cash.

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Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this report to “the Company”, “we”, “us”, “our”, or similar references, mean The First Bancshares, Inc. and our subsidiaries, including our banking subsidiary, The First, on a consolidated basis.  References to “The First” or the “Bank” mean our wholly owned banking subsidiary, The First.

Human Capital Resources

At December 31, 2020, we employed 744 full-time equivalent employees spanning 5 states and 84 locations.  

We are dedicated to providing competitive compensation and benefit programs to help attract and maintain skilled and highly trained employees.  Our compensation and benefit programs include:  a 401-K plan, with matching contributions; a Loan Incentive Plan for our lending officers; an Executive Incentive Plan; and an Employee Stock Ownership Plan.  The Company offers a Continuing Education Program for our employees to support and help them attain personal goals and professional achievements by encouraging and supporting those who pursue and participate in continuing their education.  

We endeavor to ensure that the makeup of our employees, management team and board of directors are reflective of the diversity of the communities we serve.  We believe in the importance of diversity and value the benefits that diversity can bring, and we are dedicated to fostering and maintaining an inclusive culture that solicits multiple perspectives and views and is free of conscious or unconscious bias and discrimination.  

We strive to maintain a safe and healthy working environment.  We provide our employees with access to a Grief Counseling and Confidential Assistance Program, which provides counseling services to employees on a confidential basis to ensure our employees get the help they may need.  In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken steps to ensure the safety of our employees and clients by implementing procedures and protocols concerning:  social distancing, business travel, sanitation and disinfection, encouraged employees to work remotely, improved and upgraded electronic delivery and execution of documents to limit in person exposure.  During the pandemic, we have limited lobby hours throughout our branch offices, and prioritizing drive-thru and appointment banking.

Market Areas

As of December 31, 2020, The First had 84 locations across Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida and Georgia.

Recent Developments

During the first quarter of 2020, the Company elected to delay the adoption of the CECL afforded through the CARES Act. The Company currently anticipates CECL adoption to occur as of January 1, 2021.

Banking Services

We strive to provide our customers with the breadth of products and services offered by large regional banks, while maintaining the timely response and personal service of a locally owned and managed bank. In addition to offering a full range of deposit services and loan products, we have a mortgage and private banking division.  The following is a description of the products and services we offer.

Deposit Services. We offer a full range of deposit services that are typically available in most banks and savings institutions, including checking accounts, NOW accounts, savings accounts, and other time deposits of various types, ranging from daily money market accounts to longer-term certificates of deposit. The transaction accounts and time certificates are tailored to our principal market areas at rates competitive to those offered by other banks in these areas. All deposit accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to the maximum amount allowed by law. We solicit these accounts from individuals, businesses, associations, organizations, and governmental authorities. In addition, we offer certain retirement account services, such as Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) and health savings accounts.

Loan Products. We offer a full range of commercial and personal loans. Commercial loans include both secured and unsecured loans for working capital (including loans secured by inventory and accounts receivable), business expansion (including acquisition of real estate and improvements), and purchase of equipment and machinery. Consumer loans include equity lines of credit, secured and unsecured loans for financing automobiles, home improvements, education, and personal investments. We also make real estate

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construction and acquisition loans. Our lending activities are subject to a variety of lending limits imposed by federal law. While differing limits apply in certain circumstances based on the type of loan or the nature of the borrower (including the borrower’s relationship to the bank), in general we are subject to an aggregate loans-to-one-borrower limit of 15% of our unimpaired capital and surplus.

Mortgage Loan Division. We have a residential mortgage loan division which originates conventional or government agency insured loans to purchase existing residential homes, construct new homes or refinance existing mortgages.

Private Banking Division. We have a private banking division, which offers financial and wealth management services to individuals who meet certain criteria.

Other Services. Other bank services we offer include on-line internet banking services, automated teller machines, voice response telephone inquiry services, commercial sweep accounts, cash management services, safe deposit boxes, merchant services, mobile deposit, direct deposit of payroll and social security checks, and automatic drafts for various accounts. We network with other automated teller machines that may be used by our customers throughout our market area and other regions. The First also offers credit card services through a correspondent bank.

Competition

The First generally competes with other financial institutions through the selection of banking products and services offered, the pricing of services, the level of service provided, the convenience and availability of services, and the degree of expertise and the personal manner in which services are offered. State law permits statewide branching by banks and savings institutions, and many financial institutions in our market area have branch networks. Consequently, commercial banking in Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Florida, and Georgia is highly competitive. Many large banking organizations currently operate in our market area, several of which are controlled by out-of-state ownership. In addition, competition between commercial banks and thrift institutions (savings institutions and credit unions) has been intensified significantly by the elimination of many previous distinctions between the various types of financial institutions and the expanded powers and increased activity of thrift institutions in areas of banking which previously had been the sole domain of commercial banks. Federal legislation, together with other regulatory changes by the primary regulators of the various financial institutions, has resulted in the almost total elimination of practical distinctions between a commercial bank and a thrift institution. Consequently, competition among financial institutions of all types is largely unlimited with respect to legal ability and authority to provide most financial services. Currently there are numerous other commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions operating in The First’s primary service area.

We face increased competition from both federally-chartered and state-chartered financial and thrift institutions, as well as credit unions, consumer finance companies, insurance companies, and other institutions in the Company’s market area. Some of these competitors are not subject to the same degree of regulation and restriction imposed upon the Company. Many of these competitors also have broader geographic markets and substantially greater resources and lending limits than the Company and offer certain services such as trust banking that the Company does not currently provide. In addition, many of these competitors have numerous branch offices located throughout the extended market areas of the Company that may provide these competitors with an advantage in geographic convenience that the Company does not have at present.

We also compete with numerous financial and quasi-financial institutions for deposits and loans, including providers of financial services over the internet, and financial technology, or fintech companies. Recent technology advances and other changes have allowed parties to effect financial transactions that previously required the involvement of banks. For example, consumers can maintain funds in brokerage accounts or mutual funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks.

Available Information

Pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) we are required to file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and other filings pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, and amendments to such filings. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains the reports, proxy statements, and other filings we electronically file with the SEC. Such information is also available free of charge on

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or through our website www.thefirstbank.com as soon as reasonably practicable after each is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Information appearing on the Company’s website is not part of any report that it files with the SEC.

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

The Company and The First are subject to state and federal banking laws and regulations which impose specific requirements or restrictions on and provide for general regulatory oversight with respect to virtually all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect depositors, the deposit insurance fund ("DIF") of the FDIC and the stability of the U.S. banking system as a whole, rather than for the protection of our shareholders and non-deposit creditors. To the extent that the following summary describes statutory or regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions. Any change in applicable laws or regulations may have a material effect on the business and prospects of the Company.

Beginning with the enactment of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 and following with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 ("FDICIA"), and now most recently the sweeping Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), numerous regulatory requirements have been placed on the banking industry in the recent years. A significant number of financial services regulations required by the Dodd-Frank Act have not yet been finalized by banking regulators, Congress continues to consider legislation that would make significant changes to the law and courts are addressing significant litigation arising under the Dodd-Frank Act, making it difficult to predict the ultimate effect of the Dodd-Frank Act on our business. The operations of the Company and The First may be affected by legislative changes and the policies of various regulatory authorities.  We are unable to predict the nature or the extent of the effect on our business and earnings that fiscal or monetary policies, economic control, or new federal or state legislation may have in the future.

Bank Holding Company Regulation

The Company is registered with the Federal Reserve as a bank holding company and is subject to extensive regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”) pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “Bank Holding Company Act”). As such, the Company and its subsidiaries are subject to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the Bank Holding Company Act and the regulations of the Federal Reserve.  In addition, the Company is registered with the SEC and is subject to its regulation with respect to our securities, financial reporting and certain governance matters. Our securities are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, and we are subject to Nasdaq rules for listed companies. We file quarterly reports and other information with the Federal Reserve and SEC.

The Bank Holding Company Act generally prohibits a corporation that owns a federally insured financial institution (“bank”) from engaging in activities other than banking and managing or controlling banks or other subsidiaries engaging in permissible activities. Also prohibited is acquiring or obtaining control 5% or more of the voting interests of any company that engages in activities other than those activities determined by the Federal Reserve to be so closely related to banking, managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. In determining whether a particular activity is permissible, the Federal Reserve considers whether the performance of the activity can reasonably be expected to produce benefits to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects. Examples of activities that the Federal Reserve has determined to be permissible are making, acquiring or servicing loans; leasing personal property; providing certain investment or financial advice; performing certain data processing services; acting as agent or broker in selling credit life insurance; and performing certain insurance underwriting activities. The Bank Holding Company Act does not place territorial limits on permissible bank-related activities of bank holding companies. Even with respect to permissible activities, however, the Federal Reserve has the power to order a holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or its control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable cause to believe that continuation of such activity or control of such subsidiary would pose a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary of that holding company.

The Bank Holding Company Act requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before it: (1) acquires ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank if, after such acquisition, such bank holding company will own or control 5% or more of the voting shares of such bank, (2) causes any of its non-bank subsidiaries to acquire all of the assets of a bank, (3) merges with any other bank holding company, or (4) engages in permissible non-banking activities. In reviewing a proposed covered acquisition, the Federal Reserve considers a bank holding company’s financial, managerial and competitive posture. The future prospects of the companies and banks concerned and the convenience and needs of the community to be served are also considered. The Federal Reserve also reviews any indebtedness to be incurred by a bank holding company in connection with the proposed acquisition to ensure that the bank holding company can service such indebtedness without adversely affecting its ability, and the ability of its

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subsidiaries, to meet their respective regulatory capital requirements. The Bank Holding Company Act further requires that consummation of approved bank holding company or bank acquisitions or mergers must be delayed for a period of not less than 15 or more than 30 days following the date of Federal Reserve approval. During such 15 to 30-day period, the Department of Justice has the right to review the competitive aspects of the proposed transaction. The Department of Justice may file a lawsuit with the relevant United States District Court seeking an injunction against the proposed acquisition.

The Federal Reserve has adopted capital adequacy guidelines for use in its examination and regulation of bank holding companies and financial holding companies. The regulatory capital of a bank holding company or financial holding company under applicable federal capital adequacy guidelines is particularly important in the Federal Reserve’s evaluation of the overall safety and soundness of the bank holding company or financial holding company and are important factors considered by the Federal Reserve in evaluating any applications made by such holding company to the Federal Reserve. If regulatory capital falls below minimum guideline levels, a financial holding company may lose its status as a financial holding company and a bank holding company or bank may be denied approval to acquire or establish additional banks or non-bank businesses or to open additional facilities.  Additionally, each bank subsidiary of a financial holding company as well as the holding company itself must be well capitalized and well managed as determined by the subsidiary bank’s primary federal regulator, which in the case of The First, is the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”). To be considered well managed, the bank and holding company must have received at least a satisfactory composite rating and a satisfactory management rating at its most recent examination. The Federal Reserve rates bank holding companies through a confidential component and composite 1-5 rating system, with a composite rating of 1 being the highest rating and 5 being the lowest. This system is designed to help identify institutions requiring special attention. Financial institutions are assigned ratings based on evaluation and rating of their financial condition and operations. Components reviewed include capital adequacy, asset quality, management capability, the quality and level of earnings, the adequacy of liquidity and sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations. As of December 31, 2020, the Company and The First were both well capitalized and well managed.

A financial holding company that becomes aware that it or a subsidiary bank has ceased to be well capitalized or well managed must notify the Federal Reserve and enter into an agreement to cure the identified deficiency. If the deficiency is not cured timely, the Federal Reserve may order the financial holding company to divest its banking operations. Alternatively, to avoid divestiture, a financial holding company may cease to engage in the financial holding company activities that are unrelated to banking or otherwise impermissible for a bank holding company.  See “Capital Requirements” below for more information.

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 established a comprehensive framework that permits affiliations among qualified bank holding companies, commercial banks, insurance companies, securities firms, and other financial service providers by revising and expanding the Bank Holding Company Act framework to permit a holding company to engage in a full range of financial activities through a financial holding company.

Federal Reserve Oversight

The Company is required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of the Company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove such a transaction if it determines that the proposed redemption or stock purchase would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice, would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order or directive or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve.

The Federal Reserve has issued its “Policy Statement on Cash Dividends Not Fully Covered by Earnings” (the “Policy Statement”) which sets forth various guidelines that the Federal Reserve believes a bank holding company should follow in establishing its dividend policy. In general, the Federal Reserve stated that bank holding companies should pay dividends only out of current earnings. The Federal Reserve also stated that dividends should not be paid unless the prospective rate of earnings retention by the holding company appears consistent with its capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition.

The Company is required to file annual and quarterly reports with the Federal Reserve, and such additional information as the Federal Reserve may require pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act. The Federal Reserve may examine a bank holding company or any of its subsidiaries.

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Source of Strength Doctrine

Under the Dodd-Frank Act, bank holding companies must be well-capitalized and well-managed to engage in interstate transactions. In the past, only the subsidiary banks were required to meet those standards. The Federal Reserve Board’s “source of strength doctrine” has now been codified, mandating that bank holding companies such as the Company serve as a source of strength for their subsidiary banks, such that the bank holding company must be able to provide financial assistance in the event the subsidiary bank experiences financial distress.

Capital Requirements

Federal banking regulators have adopted a system using risk-based capital guidelines to evaluate the capital adequacy of banks and bank holding companies that is based upon the 1988 capital accord of the Bank for International Settlements’ Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”), a committee of central banks and bank regulators from the major industrialized countries that coordinates international standards for bank regulation. Under the guidelines, specific categories of assets and off-balance-sheet activities such as letters of credit are assigned risk weights, based generally on the perceived credit or other risks associated with the asset. Off-balance-sheet activities are assigned a credit conversion factor based on the perceived likelihood that they will become on-balance-sheet assets. These risk weights are multiplied by corresponding asset balances to determine a “risk weighted” asset base which is then measured against various measures of capital to produce capital ratios.

An organization’s capital is classified in one of two tiers, Core Capital, or Tier 1, and Supplementary Capital, or Tier 2. Tier 1 capital includes common stock, retained earnings, qualifying non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, minority interests in the equity of consolidated subsidiaries, a limited amount of qualifying trust preferred securities and qualifying cumulative perpetual preferred stock at the holding company level, less goodwill and most intangible assets. Tier 2 capital includes perpetual preferred stock and trust preferred securities not meeting the Tier 1 definition, mandatory convertible debt securities, subordinated debt, and allowances for loan and lease losses. Each category is subject to a number of regulatory definitional and qualifying requirements.

The Basel Committee in 2010 released a set of international recommendations for strengthening the regulation, supervision and risk management of banking organizations, known as Basel III. In July 2013, the Federal Reserve published final rules for the adoption of the Basel III regulatory capital framework (the “Basel III Capital Rules”). The Basel III Capital Rules became effective for us on January 1, 2015, with certain transition provisions phasing in over a period that ended on January 1, 2019. The Basel III Capital Rules established a new category of capital measure, Common Equity Tier 1 capital ("CET1"), which includes a limited number of capital instruments from the existing definition of Tier 1 Capital, as well as raised minimum thresholds for Tier 1 Leverage capital (100 basis points), and Tier 1 Risk-based capital (200 basis points).

The Basel III Capital Rules established the following minimum capital ratios: 4.5 percent CET1 to risk-weighted assets; 6.0 percent Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets; 8.0 percent total capital to risk-weighted assets; and 4.0 percent Tier 1 leverage ratio to average consolidated assets. In addition, the Basel III Capital Rules also introduced a minimum “capital conservation buffer” equal to 2.5% of an organization’s total risk-weighted assets, which exists in addition to these new required minimum CET1, Tier 1, and total capital ratios. The “capital conservation buffer,” which must consist entirely of CET1, is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. The Basel III Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1, which include the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences that could not be realized through net operating loss carrybacks and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1. Under this guidance banking institutions with a CETI, Tier 1 Capital Ratio and Total Risk Based Capital above the minimum regulatory adequate capital ratios but below the capital conservation buffer will face constraints on their ability to pay dividends, repurchase equity and pay discretionary bonuses to executive officers, based on the amount of the shortfall.

The Company and The First elected in 2015 to exclude the effects of accumulated other comprehensive income items included in stockholders’ equity from the determination of regulatory capital under the Basel III Capital Rules. Based on estimated capital ratios using Basel III definitions, the Company and The First currently exceed all capital requirements of the new rule, including the fully phased-in conservation buffer.

In the first quarter of 2020, U.S. federal regulatory authorities issued an interim final rule that provides banking organizations that adopt CECL during the 2020 calendar year with the option to delay for two years the estimated impact of CECL on regulatory

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capital relative to regulatory capital determined under the prior incurred loss methodology, followed by a three-year transition period to phase out the aggregate amount of the capital benefit provided during the initial two-year delay (i.e., a five-year transition in total).

Certain regulatory capital ratios of the Company and The First, as of December 31, 2020, are shown in the following table:

Capital Adequacy Ratios

 

Regulatory

 

Minimums

 

Regulatory

to be Well

The First

 

    

Minimums

    

Capitalized

    

Bancshares, Inc.

    

The First

 

Common Equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio

 

4.5

%  

6.5

%  

13.5

%  

15.8

%

Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio

 

6.0

%  

8.0

%  

14.0

%  

15.8

%

Total risk-based capital ratio

 

8.0

%  

10.0

%  

19.1

%  

16.9

%

Leverage ratio

 

4.0

%  

5.0

%  

9.2

%  

10.4

%

The essential difference between the leverage capital ratio and the risk-based capital ratios is that the latter identify and weight both balance sheet and off-balance sheet risks. Tier 1 capital generally includes common equity, retained earnings, qualifying minority interests (issued by consolidated depository institutions or foreign bank subsidiaries), accounts of consolidated subsidiaries and an amount of qualifying perpetual preferred stock, limited to 50% of Tier 1 capital. In calculating Tier 1 capital, goodwill and other disallowed intangibles and disallowed deferred tax assets and certain other assets are excluded. Tier 2 capital is a secondary component of risk-based capital, consisting primarily of perpetual preferred stock that may not be included as Tier 1 capital, mandatory convertible securities, certain types of subordinated debt and an amount of the allowance for loan losses (limited to 1.25% of risk weighted assets).

The risk-based capital guidelines are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies, to take into account off-balance sheet exposure and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Under the risk-based capital guidelines, assets are assigned to one of four risk categories: 0%, 20%, 50% and 100%. For example, U.S. Treasury securities are assigned to the 0% risk category while most categories of loans are assigned to the 100% risk category. Off-balance sheet exposures such as standby letters of credit are risk-weighted and all or a portion thereof are included in risk-weighted assets based on an assessment of the relative risks that they present. The risk-weighted asset base is equal to the sum of the aggregate dollar values of assets and off-balance sheet items in each risk category, multiplied by the weight assigned to that category.

The Company has elected to delay its adoption of ASU 2016-13, as provided by the CARES Act. The Company currently anticipates CECL adoption to occur as of January 1, 2021. In the first quarter of 2020, U.S. federal regulatory authorities issued an interim final rule that provides banking organizations that adopt CECL during the 2020 calendar year with the option to delay for two years the estimated impact of CECL on regulatory capital relative to regulatory capital determined under the prior incurred loss methodology, followed by a three-year transition period to phase out the aggregate amount of the capital benefit provided during the initial two-year delay (i.e., a five-year transition in total).

Prompt Corrective Action and Undercapitalization

The FDICIA established a system of prompt corrective action regulations and policies to resolve the problems of undercapitalized insured depository institutions. Under this system, insured depository institutions are ranked in one of five capital categories as described below. Regulators are required to take mandatory supervisory actions and are authorized to take other discretionary actions of increasing severity with respect to insured depository institutions in the three undercapitalized categories. The five capital categories for insured depository institutions under the prompt corrective action regulations consist of:

Well capitalized - equals or exceeds a 10% total risk-based capital ratio, 8% Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, and 5% leverage ratio and is not subject to any written agreement, order or directive requiring it to maintain a specific level for any capital measure;
Adequately capitalized - equals or exceeds an 8% total risk-based capital ratio, 6% Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, and 4% leverage ratio;

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Undercapitalized - total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8%, or a Tier 1 risk-based ratio of less than 6%, or a leverage ratio of less than 4%;
Significantly undercapitalized - total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, or a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4%, or a leverage ratio of less than 3%; and
Critically undercapitalized - a ratio of tangible equity to total assets equal to or less than 2%.

The prompt corrective action regulations provide that an institution may be downgraded to the next lower category if its regulator determines, after notice and opportunity for hearing or response, that the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition or has received and not corrected a less-than-satisfactory rating for any of the categories of asset quality, management, earnings or liquidity in its most recent examination.

Federal bank regulatory agencies are required to implement arrangements for prompt corrective action for institutions failing to meet minimum requirements to be at least adequately capitalized. FDICIA imposes an increasingly stringent array of restrictions, requirements and prohibitions as an organization’s capital levels deteriorate. A bank rated "adequately capitalized" may not accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits. A "significantly undercapitalized" institution is subject to mandated capital raising activities, restrictions on interest rates paid and transactions with affiliates, removal of management and other restrictions. The OCC has only very limited discretion in dealing with a "critically undercapitalized" institution and generally must appoint a receiver or conservator (the FDIC) if the capital deficiency is not corrected promptly.

Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”), “critically undercapitalized” banks may not, beginning 60 days after becoming critically undercapitalized, make any payment of principal or interest on their subordinated debt (subject to certain limited exceptions). In addition, under Section 18(i) of the FDIA, banks are required to obtain the advance consent of the FDIC to retire any part of their subordinated notes. Under the FDIA, a bank may not pay interest on its subordinated notes if such interest is required to be paid only out of net profits, or distribute any of its capital assets, while it remains in default on any assessment due to the FDIC.

Federal bank regulators may set capital requirements for a particular banking organization that are higher than the minimum ratios when circumstances warrant. Federal Reserve and OCC guidelines provide that banking organizations experiencing significant growth or making acquisitions will be expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets. Concentration of credit risks, interest rate risk (imbalances in rates, maturities or sensitivities) and risks arising from non-traditional activities, as well as an institution’s ability to manage these risks, are important factors taken into account by regulatory agencies in assessing an organization’s overall capital adequacy.

The OCC and the Federal Reserve also use a leverage ratio as an additional tool to evaluate the capital adequacy of banking organizations. The leverage ratio is a company’s Tier 1 capital divided by its average total consolidated assets. A minimum leverage ratio of 3.0% is required for banks and bank holding companies that either have the highest supervisory rating or have implemented the appropriate federal regulatory authority’s risk-adjusted measure for market risk. All other banks and bank holding companies are required to maintain a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%, unless a different minimum is specified by an appropriate regulatory authority. In order to be considered well capitalized the leverage ratio must be at least 5.0%.

Our Bank’s leverage ratio was 10.4% at December 31, 2020 and, as a result, it is currently classified as “well capitalized” for purposes of the OCC’s prompt corrective action regulations.

The risk-based and leverage capital ratios established by federal banking regulators are minimum supervisory ratios generally applicable to banking organizations that meet specified criteria, assuming that they otherwise have received the highest regulatory ratings in their most recent examinations. Banking organizations not meeting these criteria are expected to operate with capital positions in excess of the minimum ratios. Regulators can, from time to time, change their policies or interpretations of banking practices to require changes in risk weights assigned to our Bank’s assets or changes in the factors considered in order to evaluate capital adequacy, which may require our Bank to obtain additional capital to support existing asset levels or future growth or reduce asset balances in order to meet minimum acceptable capital ratios.

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Additional Regulatory Issues

In June 2010, the Federal Reserve, the OCC and the FDIC issued joint guidance on executive compensation designed to help ensure that a banking organization’s incentive compensation policies do not encourage imprudent risk taking and are consistent with the safety and soundness of the organization. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act required those agencies, along with the SEC, to adopt rules to require reporting of incentive compensation and to prohibit certain compensation arrangements. The objective of the guidance is to assure that incentive compensation arrangements (i) provide incentives that do not encourage excessive risk-taking, (ii) are compatible with effective internal controls and risk management and (iii) are supported by strong corporate governance, including oversight by the board of directors. In 2016, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC proposed rules that would, depending upon the assets of the institution, directly regulate incentive compensation arrangements and would require enhanced oversight and recordkeeping. As of December 31, 2020, these rules have not been implemented.

The Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from The First. There are various restrictions that limit the ability of The First to finance, pay dividends or otherwise supply funds to the Company or other affiliates. In addition, subsidiary banks of holding companies are subject to certain restrictions under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act on any extension of credit to the bank holding company or any of its subsidiaries, on investments in the stock or other securities thereof and on the taking of such stock or securities as collateral for loans to any borrower. Further, a bank holding company and its subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with extensions of credit, leases or sales of property, or furnishing of services.

Stress Testing

The Dodd-Frank Act requires stress testing of certain bank holding companies and banks. On May 24, 2018 the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (the “Regulatory Relief Act”) was signed into law, which amended portions of the Dodd-Frank Act and immediately raised the asset threshold for stress testing from $10 billion to $100 billion for bank holding companies. On December 18, 2018, the OCC proposed regulations that would raise the stress testing threshold for national banks from $10 billion to $250 billion. Because the consolidated assets of the Company and The First are less than these threshold levels, the stress test requirements are not currently applicable to the Company or to The First.

The First, A National Banking Association

OCC Regulation. The First operates as a national banking association incorporated under the laws of the United States and subject to supervision, inspection and examination by the OCC. The OCC regulates or monitors virtually all areas of The First’s operations, including security devices and procedures, adequacy of capitalization and loan loss reserves, loans, investments, borrowings, deposits, mergers, issuances of securities, payment of dividends, interest rates payable on deposits, interest rates or fees chargeable on loans, establishment of branches, corporate reorganizations, maintenance of books and records, and adequacy of staff training to carry on safe lending and deposit gathering practices. The OCC imposes limitations on The First’s aggregate investment in real estate, bank premises, and furniture and fixtures. The First is required by the OCC to prepare quarterly reports on its financial condition and to conduct an annual audit of its financial affairs in compliance with minimum standards and procedures prescribed by the OCC.

Safe and Sound Banking Practices; Enforcement.   Banks and bank holding companies are prohibited from engaging in unsafe and unsound banking practices. Bank regulators have broad authority to prohibit and penalize activities of bank holding companies and their subsidiaries which represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or which constitute violations of laws, regulations or written directives of or agreements with regulators. Regulators have considerable discretion in identifying what they deem to be unsafe and unsound practices and in pursuing enforcement actions in response to them.

Under FDICIA, all insured institutions must undergo regular on-site examinations by their appropriate banking agency. The cost of examinations of insured depository institutions and any affiliates may be assessed by the appropriate agency against each institution or affiliate as it deems necessary or appropriate. Insured institutions are required to submit annual reports to the FDIC and the appropriate agency. FDICIA also directs the FDIC to develop with other appropriate agencies a method for insured depository institutions to provide supplemental disclosure of the estimated fair market value of assets and liabilities, to the extent feasible and practicable, in any balance sheet, financial statement, report of condition, or any other report of any insured depository institution. FDICIA also requires the federal banking regulatory agencies to prescribe, by regulation, standards for all insured depository institutions and depository institution holding companies relating, among other things, to: (i) internal controls, information systems, and audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate risk exposure; and (v) asset quality.

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National banks and their holding companies which have been chartered or registered or undergone a change in control within the past two years or which have been deemed by the OCC or the Federal Reserve Board, respectively, to be troubled institutions must give the OCC or the Federal Reserve Board, respectively, thirty days prior notice of the appointment of any senior executive officer or director. Within the thirty-day period, the OCC or the Federal Reserve Board, as the case may be, may approve or disapprove any such appointment.

Deposit Insurance. The FDIC establishes rates for the payment of premiums by federally insured banks and thrifts for deposit insurance. Deposits in The First are insured by the FDIC up to a maximum amount (generally $250,000 per depositor, subject to aggregation rules). The DIF is maintained by the FDIC for commercial banks and thrifts and funded with insurance premiums from the industry that are used to offset losses from insurance payouts when banks and thrifts fail. Since 1993, insured depository institutions like The First have paid for deposit insurance under a risk-based premium system. Assessments are calculated based on the depository institution’s average consolidated total assets, less its average amount of tangible equity.

Transactions With Affiliates and Insiders. The First is subject to Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act, which places limits on the amount of loans to, and certain other transactions with, affiliates, as well as on the amount of advances to third parties collateralized by the securities or obligations of affiliates. The aggregate of all covered transactions is limited in amount, as to any one affiliate, to 10% of The First’s capital and surplus and, as to all affiliates combined, to 20% of The First’s capital and surplus. Furthermore, within the foregoing limitations as to amount, each covered transaction must meet specified collateral requirements.

The First is also subject to Section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, which prohibits an institution from engaging in certain transactions with affiliates unless the transactions are on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to such institution, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with nonaffiliated companies. The First is subject to certain restrictions on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, certain principal shareholders, and their related interests. Such extensions of credit (i) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with third parties and (ii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features.

Change in Control. With certain limited exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with regulations promulgated thereunder, prohibit a person or company or a group of persons deemed to be “acting in concert” from, directly or indirectly, acquiring more than 10% (5% if the acquirer is a bank holding company) of any class of our voting stock or obtaining the ability to control in any manner the election of a majority of our directors or otherwise direct the management or policies of our company without prior notice or application to and the approval of the Federal Reserve.

Dividends. The principal source of funds from which we pay cash dividends are the dividends received from our bank subsidiary, The First. Federal banking laws and regulations restrict the amount of dividends and loans a bank may make to its parent company. A national bank may not pay dividends from its capital. All dividends must be paid out of undivided profits then on hand, after deducting expenses, including reserves for losses and bad debts. In addition, a national bank is prohibited from declaring a dividend on its shares of common stock until its surplus equals its stated capital, unless the bank has transferred to surplus no less than one-tenth of its net profits of the preceding two consecutive half-year periods (in the case of an annual dividend). The approval of the OCC is required if the total of all dividends declared by a national bank in any calendar year exceeds the total of its net profits for that year combined with its retained net profits for the preceding two years, less any required transfers to surplus. In addition, under FDICIA, the banks may not pay a dividend if, after paying the dividend, the bank would be undercapitalized. See "Capital Requirements" above.

Interstate Branching and Acquisitions. National banks are required by the National Bank Act to adhere to branch office banking laws applicable to state banks in the states in which they are located. Formerly, under the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994, a bank’s ability to branch into a particular state was largely dependent upon whether the state “opted in” to de novo interstate branching. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, de novo interstate branching by national banks is permitted if, under the laws of the state where the branch is to be located, a state bank chartered in that state would be permitted to establish a branch. Further, a bank headquartered in one state is authorized to merge with a bank headquartered in another state, as long as neither of the states have opted out of such interstate merger authority, and subject to any state requirement that the target bank shall have been in existence and operating for a minimum period of time, not to exceed five years and certain deposit market-share limitations. Under current Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Florida and Georgia law, The First may open branches or acquire existing banking operations throughout these states with the prior approval of the OCC. The Dodd-Frank Act permits out of state acquisitions by bank holding companies (subject to veto by new state law), interstate branching by banks if allowed by state law, interstate merging by banks, and de novo branching by national

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banks if allowed by state law. All branching in which The First may engage remains subject to regulatory approval and adherence to applicable legal and regulatory requirements.

Community Reinvestment Act. The Community Reinvestment Act (the “CRA”) requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practice. Under the Community Reinvestment Act, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit, making investments and providing community development services to low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. Depository institutions are periodically examined for compliance with the CRA and are assigned ratings. In order for a financial holding company to commence new activity permitted by the BHCA, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. These factors are considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions, and applications to open a branch or facility.

USA Patriot Act. In 2001, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the “USA Patriot Act”) was signed into law. The USA Patriot Act broadened the application of anti-money laundering regulations to apply to additional types of financial institutions, such as broker-dealers, and strengthened the ability of the U.S. government to detect and prosecute international money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The principal provisions of Title III of the USA Patriot Act require that regulated financial institutions, including banks: (i) establish an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components; (ii) comply with regulations regarding the verification of the identity of any person seeking to open an account; (iii) take additional required precautions with non-U.S. owned accounts; and (iv) perform certain verification and certification of money laundering risk for their foreign correspondent banking relationships. The USA Patriot Act also expanded the conditions under which funds in a U.S. interbank account may be subject to forfeiture and increased the penalties for violation of anti-money laundering regulations. Failure of a financial institution to comply with the USA Patriot Act’s requirements could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution. The First has adopted policies, procedures and controls to address compliance with the requirements of the USA Patriot Act under the existing regulations and will continue to revise and update its policies, procedures and controls to reflect changes required by the USA Patriot Act and implementing regulations.

Office of Foreign Assets Control. The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) is responsible for administering and enforcing economic and trade sanctions against specified foreign parties, including countries and regimes, foreign individuals and other foreign organizations and entities. OFAC publishes lists of prohibited parties that are regularly consulted by our Bank in the conduct of its business in order to assure compliance. We are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, prohibited parties identified by OFAC, avoiding unlicensed trade and financial transactions with such parties and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with OFAC requirements could have serious legal, financial and reputational consequences for our Bank.

Consumer Protection Regulations. Interest and certain other charges collected or contracted for by The First are subject to state usury laws and certain federal laws concerning interest rates. The First’s loan operations are subject to certain federal laws applicable to credit transactions, such as the federal Truth-In-Lending Act, governing disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers; the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975, requiring financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs community it serves; the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin or other prohibited factors in extending credit; the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1978, governing the use and provision of information to credit reporting agencies; the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, concerning the manner in which consumer debts may be collected by collection agencies; and the rules and regulations of the various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing such federal laws. The deposit operations of The First also are subject to the Right to Financial Privacy Act, which imposes a duty to maintain confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records, and the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E issued by the Federal Reserve Board to implement that Act, which governs automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services.

Other Regulatory Matters

Risk-retention rules. Under the final risk-retention rules, banks that sponsor the securitization of asset-backed securities and residential-mortgage backed securities are required to retain 5% of any loan they sell or securitize, except for mortgages that meet low-risk standards to be developed by regulators.

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Changes to federal preemption. The Dodd-Frank Act created a new independent supervisory body, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) that is housed within the Federal Reserve. The CFPB is the primary regulator for federal consumer financial statutes. State attorneys general are authorized to enforce new regulations issued by the CFPB. Although the application of most state consumer financial laws to The First will continue to be preempted under the National Bank Act, OCC determinations of such preemption are made on a case-by-case basis. As a result, it is possible that state consumer financial laws enacted in the future may be held to apply to our business activities. The cost of complying with any such additional laws could have a negative impact on our financial results.

Mortgage Rules. During 2013, the CFPB finalized a series of rules related to the extension of residential mortgage loans by banks. Among these rules are requirements that a bank make a good faith determination that a borrower has the ability to repay a mortgage loan prior to extending such credit, a requirement that certain mortgage loans provide for escrow payments, new appraisal requirements, and specific rules regarding how loan originators may be compensated and the servicing of residential mortgage loans. The implementation of these new rules began in January 2014.

Volcker Rule. In December 2013, the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, the OCC, the Commission, and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission issued the “Prohibitions And Restrictions On Proprietary Trading And Certain Interests In, And Relationships With, Hedge Funds And Private Equity Funds,” commonly referred to as the Volcker Rule, which regulates and restricts investments which may be made by banks. The Volcker Rule was adopted to implement a portion of the Dodd-Frank Act and new Section 13 of the Bank Holding Company Act, which prohibits any banking entity from engaging in proprietary trading or from acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in, or sponsoring or having certain relationships with, a hedge fund or private equity fund (“covered funds”), subject to certain exemptions. The Regulatory Relief Act narrowed the “banking entity” definition under the Volcker Rule by excluding from the term “insured depository institution” an institution that does not have, and is not controlled by a company that has more than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, and does not have total trading assets and trading liabilities of more than 5% of total consolidated assets. The intended effect of narrowing the scope of the “banking entity” definition is to reduce the regulatory burden imposed by the Volcker Rule on community banks, which generally include banks such as The First with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion and limited trading activities.

Debit Interchange Fees

Interchange fees, or “swipe” fees, are fees that merchants pay to credit card companies and card-issuing banks such as The First for processing electronic payment transactions on their behalf. The maximum permissible interchange fee that an issuer may receive for an electronic debit transaction is the sum of 21 cents per transaction and 5 basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction, subject to an upward adjustment of 1 cent if an issuer certifies that it has implemented policies and procedures reasonably designed to achieve the fraud-prevention standards set forth by the Federal Reserve.

In addition, the legislation prohibits card issuers and networks from entering into exclusive arrangements requiring that debit card transactions be processed on a single network or only two affiliated networks, and allows merchants to determine transaction routing. Due to the Company’s size, the Federal Reserve rule limiting debit interchange fees has not reduced our debit card interchange revenues.

Summary

The foregoing is a brief summary of certain statutes, rules and regulations affecting the Company and The First. It is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of all statutes and regulations having an impact on the operations of such entities.

Increased regulation generally has resulted in increased legal and compliance expense.

Finally, additional bills may be introduced in the future in the U.S. Congress and state legislatures to alter the structure, regulation and competitive relationships of financial institutions. It cannot be predicted whether and in what form any of these proposals will be adopted or the extent to which the business of the Company and The First may be affected thereby.

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Effect of Governmental Monetary and Fiscal Policies

The difference between the interest rate paid on deposits and other borrowings and the interest rate received on loans and securities comprises most of a bank’s earnings. In order to mitigate the interest rate risk inherent in the industry, the banking business is becoming increasingly dependent on the generation of fee and service charge revenue.

The earnings and growth of a bank are affected by both general economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policy of the U.S. government and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve sets national monetary policy such as seeking to curb inflation and combat recession. This is accomplished by its open-market operations in U.S. government securities, adjustments in the amount of reserves that financial institutions are required to maintain and adjustments to the discount rates on borrowings and target rates for federal funds transactions. The actions of the Federal Reserve in these areas influence the growth of bank loans, investments and deposits and also affect interest rates on loans and deposits. The nature and timing of any future changes in monetary policies and their potential impact on the Company cannot be predicted.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to risk. The following discussion, along with management’s discussion and analysis and our financial statements and footnotes, sets forth the most significant risks and uncertainties that we believe could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or that management currently deems immaterial may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. There is no assurance that this discussion covers all potential risks that we face. Further, to the extent that any of the information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors set forth below also are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made herein.

Risk Factors Associated With Our Business

General economic conditions in the areas where our operations or loans are concentrated may adversely affect our financial results or liquidity.

A sudden or severe downturn in the economy in the geographic markets we serve in the states of Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida or Georgia may affect the ability of our customers to meet loan payment obligations on a timely basis. The local economic conditions in these areas have a significant impact on our commercial, real estate, and construction loans, the ability of borrowers to repay these loans and the value of the collateral securing such loans. Any deterioration in the economic conditions of these market areas could negatively impact the financial results of the Company’s banking operations, earnings, and profitability.

Our Bank requires liquidity in the form of available funds to meet its deposit, debt and other obligations as they come due, borrower requests to draw on committed credit facilities as well as unexpected demands for cash payments. Adverse economic changes may cause customers to withdraw deposit balances, thereby causing a strain on our liquidity. We have historically had access to a number of alternative sources of liquidity, but if there is an increase in volatility in the credit and liquidity markets there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain such liquidity on terms that are favorable to us, or at all.

We may be vulnerable to certain sectors of the economy, including real estate.

A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate. The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a relatively short period of time as a result of market conditions in the geographic area in which the real estate is located. If the economy deteriorates and real estate values decline materially, a significant part of our loan portfolio could become under-collateralized and losses incurred upon borrower defaults would increase. This could result in additional loan loss accruals which would negatively impact our earnings. Our ability to dispose of foreclosed real estate at prices above the respective carrying values could also be impacted, which could cause our results of operations to be adversely affected.

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Unpredictable market conditions may adversely affect the industry in which we operate.

The capital and credit markets are subject to volatility and disruption. Dramatic declines in the housing market in years past caused home prices to fall and increased foreclosures, unemployment and under-employment. These events, if they were to happen again, could negatively impact the credit performance of mortgage loans and result in significant write-downs of asset values, including government-sponsored entities as well as major commercial and investment banks. Market turmoil and tightening of credit could lead to an increased level of commercial and consumer delinquencies, lack of consumer confidence and widespread reduction of business activity. Generally a worsening of these conditions would have an adverse effect on us and others in the financial institution industry, particularly in our real estate markets, as lower home prices and increased foreclosures would result in higher charge-offs and delinquencies.

The state of the economy and various economic factors, including inflation, recession, unemployment, interest rates and the level of U.S. debt, as well as governmental action and uncertainty resulting from U.S. and global political trends, may directly and indirectly, have a destabilizing effect on our financial condition and results of operations. An unfavorable or uncertain national or regional political or economic environment could drive losses beyond those which are provided for in our allowance for loan losses and could negatively impact our results of operations.

We must maintain an appropriate allowance for loan losses.

The First, as lender, is exposed to the risk that its customers will be unable to repay their loans in accordance with their terms and that any collateral securing the payment of their loans may not be sufficient to assure repayment. Credit losses are inherent in the business of making loans and could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Credit risk with respect to our real estate and construction loan portfolio relates principally to the creditworthiness of the borrower corporations and the value of the real estate serving as security for the repayment of loans. Credit risk with respect to our commercial and consumer loan portfolio will relate principally to the general creditworthiness of the borrower businesses and individuals within our local markets.

The First makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of its loan portfolio based on a number of factors. We maintain an allowance for loan losses, which is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense each quarter, that is consistent with management’s assessment of the collectability of the loan portfolio in light of the amount of loans committed and outstanding and current economic conditions, market trends and other factors. When specific loan losses are identified, the amount of the expected loss is removed, or charged-off, from the allowance. The First believes that its current allowance for loan losses is appropriate and is consistent with our methodology. However, if our assumptions or judgments prove to be incorrect, the allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover actual loan losses. We may have to increase the allowance in the future in response to the request of one of our primary banking regulators, to adjust for changing conditions and assumptions, or as a result of any deterioration in the quality of the loan portfolio. The actual amount of future provisions for loan losses cannot be determined at this time and may vary from the amounts of past provisions. Any increase in the allowance for loan losses or in the amount of loan charge-offs required by regulatory agencies or for other factors could have a negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the Company will adopt ASU 2016 “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” as amended on January 1, 2021. This standard makes significant changes to the accounting for credit losses on financial instruments presented on an amortized cost basis such as our loans held for investment, and disclosures about them. The new CECL impairment model will require an estimate of expected credit losses, measured over the contractual life of an instrument, which considers reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions in addition to information about past events and current conditions. The standard provides significant flexibility and requires a high degree of judgement with regards to pooling financial assets with similar risk characteristics and adjusting the relevant historical loss information in order to develop an estimate of expected lifetime losses. Providing for losses over the life of our portfolio is a change to the previous method of providing allowances for loan losses that are probable and incurred. This change may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses rapidly in future periods, and greatly increases the type of data we need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of allowance for loan losses. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Company’s policies and procedures will reduce certain lending risks or that the Company’s allowance for loan losses will be adequate to cover actual losses. See Note B – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to consolidated financial statements.

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We are subject to risks related to changes in market interest rates.

Our assets and liabilities are primarily monetary in nature, and as a result we are subject to significant risks resulting from changes in interest rates. Our profitability is largely dependent upon net interest income. Unexpected movement in interest rates markedly changing the slope of the current yield curve could cause net interest margins to decrease, subsequently decreasing net interest income. In addition, such changes could adversely affect the valuation of our assets and liabilities.

The fair market value of the securities portfolio and the investment income from these securities also fluctuates depending on general economic and market conditions. In addition, actual net investment income and/or cash flows from investments that carry prepayment risk, such as mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities, may differ from those anticipated at the time of investment as a result of interest rate fluctuations.

At present the Company’s one-year interest rate sensitivity position is asset sensitive. As with most financial institutions, the Company’s results of operations are affected by changes in interest rates and the Company’s ability to manage this risk. The difference between interest rates charged on interest-earning assets and interest rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities may be affected by changes in market interest rates, changes in relationships between interest rate indices, and/or changes in the relationships between long-term and short-term market interest rates. A change in this difference might result in an increase in interest expense relative to interest income, or a decrease in the Company’s interest rate spread.

We may be adversely affected by changes in the method of determining the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, for our variable rate loans and the interest expense paid on our subordinated notes and our subordinated debentures.

On July 27, 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the LIBOR administration after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. It is impossible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the LIBOR administrator, whether LIBOR will cease to be published or supported before or after 2021 or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere; however, it does appear highly likely that LIBOR will be discontinued or modified by 2021.  The Alternative Reference Rate Committee has announced secured overnight financing rate (“SOFR”) as its recommended alternative to LIBOR, SOFR may not gain market acceptance or be widely used as a benchmark.

Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential changes, alternative reference rates, the replacement or disappearance of LIBOR or other reforms may adversely affect the value of and the return on our subordinated notes and our subordinated debentures, as well as the interest we pay on those securities.

At December 31, 2020, approximately 1.5% of our total loan portfolio was indexed to 30-day, 90-day, and one-year LIBOR.

Certain changes in interest rates, inflation, or the financial markets could affect demand for our products and our ability to deliver products efficiently.

Loan originations, and therefore loan revenues, could be adversely impacted by rising interest rates. Increases in market interest rates can have negative impacts on our business, including reducing our customers’ desire to borrow money from us or adversely affecting their ability to repay their outstanding loans by increasing their debt service obligations through the periodic reset of adjustable interest rate loans. If our borrowers’ ability to repay their loans is impaired by increasing interest payment obligations, our level of non-performing assets would increase, producing an adverse effect on operating results. Asset values, especially commercial real estate as collateral, securities or other fixed rate earning assets, can decline significantly with relatively minor changes in interest rates. If interest rates were to decrease, our yield on our variable rate loans and on our new loans would decrease, reducing our net interest income. In addition, lower interest rates may reduce our realized yields on investment securities, which would reduce our net interest income and cause downward pressure on net interest margin in future periods. A significant reduction in our net interest income could have a material adverse impact on our capital, financial condition and results of operations.

An unanticipated increase in inflation could cause operating costs related to salaries and benefits, technology, and supplies to increase at a faster pace than revenues.

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Evaluation of investment securities for other-than-temporary impairment involves subjective determinations and could materially impact our results of operations and financial condition.

The evaluation of impairments is a quantitative and qualitative process, which is subject to risks and uncertainties, and is intended to determine whether declines in the fair value of investments should be recognized in current period earnings. The risks and uncertainties include changes in general economic conditions, the issuers’ financial condition or future recovery prospects, the effects of changes in interest rates or credit spreads and the expected recovery period. Estimating future cash flows involves incorporating information received from third-party sources and making internal assumptions and judgments regarding the future performance of the underlying collateral and assessing the probability that an adverse change in future cash flows has occurred. The determination of the amount of other-than-temporary impairments is based upon the Company’s quarterly evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Such evaluations and assessments are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available.

Additionally, our management considers a wide range of factors about the security issuer and uses its reasonable judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the security and in assessing the prospects for recovery. Inherent in management’s evaluation of the security are assumptions and estimates about the operations of the issuer and its future earnings potential. Impairments to the carrying value of our investment securities may need to be taken in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in the policies of monetary authorities and other government action could adversely affect profitability.

The results of operations of the Company are affected by credit policies of monetary authorities, particularly the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, which we refer to as the Federal Reserve Board. The instruments of monetary policy employed by the Federal Reserve Board include open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate or the federal funds rate on bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. In view of changing conditions in the national economy and monetary policy, we cannot predict the impact of future changes in interest rates, deposit levels, loan demand or the Company’s business and earnings. Furthermore, the actions of the United States government and other governments in responding to developing situations or implementing new fiscal or trade policies may result in currency fluctuations, exchange controls, market disruption and other unanticipated economic effects. Such actions could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and profitability.

We are subject to regulation by various Federal and State entities.

The Company and The First are subject to extensive regulation by various regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve Board, the FDIC, the OCC and the CFPB. See Supervision and Regulation above for more information. New regulations issued by these agencies may adversely affect our ability to carry on our business activities. The Company is subject to various Federal and state laws and certain changes in these laws and regulations may adversely affect operations.

The Company and The First are also subject to the accounting rules and regulations of the SEC and the Financial Accounting Standards Board. Changes in accounting rules could adversely affect the reported financial statements or results of operations of the Company and may also require extraordinary efforts or additional costs to implement. Any of these laws or regulations may be modified or changed from time to time, and we cannot be assured that such modifications or changes will not adversely affect the Company.

The full impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") on us and our customers is unknown at present, creating uncertainty and risk related to our customers’ future demand for credit and our future results.

Increased economic activity expected to result from the decrease in tax rates on businesses generally could spur additional economic activity that would encourage additional borrowing. At the same time, some customers may elect to use their additional cash flow from lower taxes to fund their existing levels of activity, decreasing borrowing needs. The elimination of the federal income tax deductibility of business interest expense for a significant number of our customers effectively increases the cost of borrowing and makes equity or hybrid funding relatively more attractive. This could have a long-term negative impact on business customer borrowing. We realized an increase in our after-tax net income available to stockholders in 2018, however there is no guarantee that future years’ results will have the same benefit. Some or all of this benefit could be lost to the extent that the banks and financial services companies we compete with elect to lower interest rates and fees and we are forced to respond in order to remain competitive. Additionally, the tax

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benefits could be repealed as a result of future regulatory actions. There is no assurance that presently anticipated benefits of the Tax Act for the Company will be realized.

We may be required to pay additional insurance premiums to the FDIC, which could negatively impact earnings.

Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the limit on FDIC coverage has been permanently increased to $250,000, causing the premiums assessed to The First by the FDIC to increase. Depending upon any future losses that the FDIC insurance fund may suffer, there can be no assurance that there will not be additional premium increases in order to replenish the fund. The FDIC may need to set a higher base rate schedule or impose special assessments due to future financial institution failures and updated failure and loss projections. Potentially higher FDIC assessment rates than those currently projected could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

We are subject to industry competition which may have an adverse impact upon our success.

The profitability of the Company depends on its ability to compete successfully with other financial services companies. We operate in a highly competitive financial services environment. Certain competitors are larger and may have more resources than we do. We face competition in our regional market areas from other commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions, internet banks, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, brokerage and investment banking firms, and other financial intermediaries that offer similar services. Some of the nonbank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations that govern the Company or The First and may have greater flexibility in competing for business.

Many of these competitors also have broader geographic markets and substantially greater resources and lending limits than The First and offer certain services such as trust banking that The First does not currently provide. In addition, many of these competitors have numerous branch offices located throughout the extended market areas of The First that may provide these competitors with an advantage in geographic convenience that The First does not have at present. Currently there are numerous other commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions operating in The First’s primary service area.

We also compete with numerous financial and quasi-financial institutions for deposits and loans, including providers of financial services over the internet. Recent technology advances and other changes have allowed parties to effectuate financial transactions that previously required the involvement of banks. For example, consumers can maintain funds in brokerage accounts or mutual funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and access to lower cost deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.

We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in our customer relationship management, deposit, loan and other systems. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the failure, interruption or security breach of our information systems, there can be no assurance that we can prevent any such failures, interruptions, cyber security breaches or other security breaches or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. We have been, and likely will continue to be, subject to various forms of external security breaches, which may include computer hacking, acts of vandalism or theft, malware, computer viruses or other malicious codes, phishing, employee error or malfeasance, catastrophes, unforeseen events or other cyber-attacks. To date, we have seen no material impact on our business or operations from these attacks or events. Any future significant compromise or breach of our data security, whether external or internal, or misuse of customer, associate, supplier or Company data could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, as the regulatory environment related to information security, data collection and use, and privacy becomes increasingly rigorous, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to our business, compliance with those requirements could also result in additional costs.

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Natural disasters, public health emergencies, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could affect our ability to operate.

Our market areas are susceptible to natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornados. Natural disasters can disrupt operations, result in damage to properties that may be serving as collateral for our loan assets and negatively affect the local economies in which we operate. Climate change may be increasing the nature, severity and frequency of adverse weather conditions, making the impact from these types of natural disasters on our customers or us worse. We cannot predict whether or to what extent damage caused by future hurricanes, tornados or other natural disasters will affect operations or the economies in our market areas, but such weather events could cause a decline in loan originations, a decline in the value or destruction of properties serving as collateral for our loans and an increase in the risk of delinquencies, foreclosures or loan losses.

In addition, health emergencies, disease pandemics, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could cause disruption in our operations. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is susceptible to fraud.

Our business exposes us to fraud risk from our loan and deposit customers, the parties they do business with, as well as from our employees, contractors and vendors. We rely on financial and other data from new and existing customers which could turn out to be fraudulent when accepting such customers, executing their financial transactions and making and purchasing loans and other financial assets. In times of increased economic stress we are at increased risk of fraud losses. We believe we have underwriting and operational controls in place to prevent or detect such fraud, but we cannot provide assurance that these controls will be effective in detecting fraud or that we will not experience fraud losses or incur costs or other damage related to such fraud, at levels that adversely affect our financial results or reputation. Our lending customers may also experience fraud in their businesses which could adversely affect their ability to repay their loans or make use of our services. Our exposure and the exposure of our customers to fraud may increase our financial risk and reputation risk as it may result in unexpected loan losses that exceed those that have been provided for in our allowance for loan losses.

We may not be able to attract and retain skilled personnel.

Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to attract and retain key personnel. Competition for the best personnel in most activities we engage in can be intense, and we may not be able to hire personnel or to retain them. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel could have a material adverse impact on our business because of the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel with comparable skills, knowledge of our market, relationships in the communities we serve, and years of industry experience. Although we have employment agreements with certain of our executive officers, there is no guarantee that these officers and other key personnel will remain employed with the Company.

The failure of other financial institutions could adversely affect the Company.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and potential failures of other financial institutions. Financial institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or concerns about, one or more financial institutions or the financial services industry generally could negatively impact market-wide liquidity and could lead to losses or defaults by the Company or by other institutions.

The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our liquidity in the short term and for the foreseeable future.

In March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a novel strain of the coronavirus was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Shortly thereafter, the President of the United States declared a National Emergency throughout the United States attributable to such outbreak. The outbreak has become increasingly widespread in the United States, including in the markets in which we operate. The Company has taken a number of steps to assess the effects, and mitigate the adverse consequences to its businesses, of the outbreak; though the magnitude of the impact remains to be seen, the Company's business will likely be adversely impacted by the outbreak of COVID-19.

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The Company's operations and profitability are impacted by business and economic conditions generally, as well as those in the primary banking markets in which it operates. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in historic job losses and decreases in economic activity. While the duration and full extent of job losses and magnitude of economic dislocation are not yet known, it is clear that they may impact the ability of individuals and businesses to make payments, adversely affect the value of underlying collateral and the ability of guarantors to make payments in the case of default, which may decrease demand for the Company's products and services and otherwise adversely impact the Company's financial condition, results of operations and business.

The United States and various state and local governments have implemented various programs designed to aid individuals and businesses, but the impact of, and extent to which, these efforts will be successful cannot be determined at this time. We have participated in some of these programs, including the Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP"), and likely will continue to participate in and facilitate such programs. Such programs have been developed and implemented rapidly, often with little immediate guidance from regulatory authorities, creating uncertainty regarding the rules for participating in and facilitating these programs in a compliant manner. Since the opening of the PPP, many banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP and claims related to agent fees. We may experience losses as a result of our participation in and facilitation of PPP and similar government stimulus and relief programs, including losses arising from fraud, litigation or regulatory action.

Federal, state and local governments have mandated or encouraged financial services companies to make accommodations to borrowers and other customers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Legal and regulatory responses to concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic could result in additional regulation or restrictions affecting the conduct of our business in the future. In addition to the potential affects from negative economic conditions noted above, the Company instituted a program to help COVID-19 impacted customers. This program includes waiving NSF fees, offering payment deferment and other loan relief, as appropriate, for customers impacted by COVID-19. The Company's liquidity could be negatively impacted if a significant number of customers apply and are approved for the deferral of payments. In addition, if these deferrals are not effective in mitigating the effect of COVID-19 on the Company's customers, it may adversely affect its business and results of operations more substantially over a longer period of time.

COVID-19 presents a significant risk to our loan portfolio. Timely loan repayment and the value of collateral supporting the loans are affected by the strength of our borrower's business. Concern about the spread of COVID-19 has caused and is likely to continue to cause business shutdowns, limitations on commercial activity and financial transactions, labor shortages, supply chain interruptions, increased unemployment and commercial property vacancy rates, reduced profitability and ability for property owners to make mortgage payments, and overall economic and financial market instability, all of which may cause our customers to be unable to make scheduled loan payments. If the effects of COVID-19 result in widespread and sustained repayment shortfalls on loans in our portfolio, we could incur significant delinquencies, foreclosures and credit losses, particularly if the available collateral is insufficient to cover our exposure. The future effects of COVID-19 on economic activity could negatively affect the collateral values associated with our existing loans, the ability to liquidate the real estate collateral securing our residential and commercial real estate loans, our ability to maintain loan origination volume and to obtain additional financing, the future demand for or profitability of our lending and services, and the financial condition and credit risk of our customers. Further, in the event of delinquencies, regulatory changes and policies designed to protect borrowers may slow or prevent us from making our business decisions or may result in a delay in our taking certain remediation and collection actions, such as foreclosure. Approximately 14% of our loan portfolio also includes exposure to sectors that are expected to be subject to increased risk from COVID-19, including hotels, restaurants, retail, and direct energy.

As a result of the adverse impact of COVID-19 on our customers, we have faced and may continue to face a decrease in demand for certain products, reduced access to our branches by our customers, and disruptions in the operations of its vendors. The pandemic could also result in recognition of additional credit losses in the Company's loan portfolios and increase its allowance for credit losses as both businesses and consumers are negatively impacted by the economic downturn. In addition, in future periods the Company will be required to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the carrying value of certain of its assets, including goodwill, and to conduct impairments tests on those assets, which may result in impairment charges on these assets in future periods that could be material.

Effective March 2020, the Federal Reserve lowered the primary credit rate by 150 basis points to 0.25 percent to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and to support the liquidity and stability of banking institutions as they serve the increased demand for credit. We expect a long duration of reduced interest rates to negatively impact our net interest income, margin, cost of borrowing and future profitability and to have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

In order to protect the health of our customers and employees, and to comply with applicable government restrictions, we have modified our business practices, including restricting employee travel, directing many employees to work remotely, cancelling in-person

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meetings and implementing our business continuity plans and protocols to the extent necessary. We may take further such actions that we determine are in the best interest of our employees, customers and communities or as may be required by government order. These precautions could impact demand for the Company's products and services.

As many of our employees are required to work from home, our internal controls over financial reporting could also be negatively affected as the remote working environment could necessitate new processes, procedures, and controls. The increased reliance on remote access to information systems also increases the Company's exposure to potential cybersecurity breaches and could impact the Company's productivity. Additionally, the Company's business customers are increasingly required to work remotely as well and may not have appropriately secured remote networks may be more vulnerable to cyber-attacks or phishing schemes that could also affect us. Furthermore, if a large proportion of the Company's key employees were to contract COVID-19 or be quarantined as a result of the virus, then the Company's operations could be adversely impacted and its business continuity plans may not prove effective.

Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations and business. The extent to which the pandemic impacts the Company's results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the duration of the pandemic, government and regulatory responses to the pandemic, new information which may emerge concerning its severity and the actions necessary to contain it or address its impact, among others. Behavioral changes are not fully known and may not be temporary. See the section captioned "COVID-19 Impact" in Part II. Financial Information, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations elsewhere in this report for further discussion.

Merger-Related Risks

We may engage in acquisitions of other businesses from time to time, which may adversely impact our results.

From time to time, we may engage in acquisitions of other businesses. Difficulty in integrating an acquired business or company may cause us not to realize expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, or other anticipated benefits from any acquisition. The integration could result in higher than expected deposit attrition (run-off), loss of key employees, disruption of the Company’s business or the business of the acquired company, or otherwise adversely affect the Company’s ability to maintain relationships with customers and employees or achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition. The acquired companies may also have legal contingencies, beyond those that we are aware of, that could result in unexpected costs. The Company may need to make additional investment in equipment and personnel to manage higher asset levels and loan balances as a result of any significant acquisition, which may adversely impact earnings.

We may fail to realize the anticipated cost savings and other financial benefits of recent acquisitions in the timeframe we expect, or at all.

The Company has completed three acquisitions of regional banks since the beginning of 2019, including the acquisition of Southwest Georgia Financial Corporation (“SWG”) on April 2, 2020, resulting in each bank merging with and into The First.  Achieving the anticipated cost savings and financial benefits of the mergers will depend, in part, on whether we can successfully integrate these businesses with and into the business of The First. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, and policies that adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with clients, customers, depositors, and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the mergers. In addition, the integration of certain operations following the mergers has required and will continue to require the dedication of significant management resources, which may temporarily distract management’s attention from the day-to-day business of the combined company. Any inability to realize the full extent of, or any of, the anticipated cost savings and financial benefits of the mergers, as well as any delays encountered in the integration process, could have an adverse effect on the business and results of operations of the combined company.

We have incurred and may continue to incur significant transaction and merger-related costs in connection with our recent acquisitions.

We have incurred and may continue to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with our recent acquisitions. These costs and expenses include fees paid to financial, legal and accounting advisors, severance, retention bonus and other potential employment-related costs, filing fees, printing expenses and other related charges. There are also a large number of processes, policies,

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procedures, operations, technologies and systems that must be integrated in connection with the integration of these companies’ businesses. While we have assumed that a certain level of expenses would be incurred in connection with the acquisitions, there are many factors beyond our control that could affect the total amount or the timing of the integration and implementation expenses.

There may also be additional unanticipated significant costs in connection with the acquisitions that we may not recoup. These costs and expenses could reduce the realization of efficiencies, strategic benefits and additional income we expect to achieve from the acquisitions. Although we expect that these benefits will offset the transaction expenses and implementation costs over time, the net benefit may not be achieved in the near term or at all, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.

We may incur impairment to goodwill.

We review our goodwill at least annually. Significant negative industry or economic trends, reduced estimates of future cash flows or disruptions to our business, could indicate that goodwill might be impaired. Our valuation methodology for assessing impairment requires management to make judgements and assumptions based on historical experience and to rely on projections of future operating performance. We operate in a competitive environment and projections of future operating results and cash flows may vary significantly from actual results. In addition, if our analysis results is an impairment to our goodwill, we would be required to record a non-cash charge to earnings in our financial statements during the period in which such impairment is determined to exist. Any such charge could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Risks Relating to Our Securities

The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, which may make it difficult for investors to resell shares of common stock at a time or price they find attractive.

Our stock price may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. In addition to those described in “Special Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” these factors include, among others:

actual or anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results, financial condition or asset quality;
changes in financial estimates or the publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to us or other financial institutions;
failure to declare dividends on our common stock from time to time;
failure to meet analysts’ revenue or earnings estimates;
failure to integrate acquisitions or realize anticipated benefits from acquisitions;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, restructurings, dispositions or financings;
fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors or other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
future sales of our common stock or other securities;
proposed or final regulatory changes or developments;
anticipated or pending regulatory investigations, proceedings, or litigation that may involve or affect us;
reports in the press or investment community generally relating to our reputation or the financial services industry;
domestic and international economic and political factors unrelated to our performance;

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general market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry;
adverse weather conditions, including floods, tornadoes and hurricanes;
public health emergencies, including disease pandemics; and
geopolitical conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts.

In addition, in recent years, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including for reasons unrelated to their operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect our stock price, notwithstanding our operating results. We expect that the market price of our common stock will continue to fluctuate and there can be no assurances about the levels of the market prices for our common stock.

General market fluctuations, industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions, interest rate changes or credit loss trends, could also cause our stock price to decrease regardless of operating results.

We may need to rely on the financial markets to provide needed capital.

Our common stock is listed and traded on the Nasdaq stock market. Although we anticipate that our capital resources will be adequate for the foreseeable future to meet our capital requirements, at times we may depend on the liquidity of the capital markets to raise additional capital. Our historical ability to raise capital through the sale of capital stock and debt securities may be affected by economic and market conditions or regulatory changes that are beyond our control. Adverse changes in our operating performance or financial condition could make raising additional capital difficult or more expensive or limit our access to customary sources of funding. If the market should fail to operate, or if conditions in the capital markets are adverse, our efforts to raise capital could require the issuance of securities at times and with maturities, conditions and rates that are disadvantageous, and which could have a dilutive impact on our current stockholders. Should these risks materialize, the ability to further expand our operations through organic or acquisitive growth may be limited.

Securities issued by the Company, including the Company’s common stock, are not FDIC insured.

Securities issued by the Company, including the Company’s common stock, are not savings or deposit accounts or other obligations of any bank and are not insured by the FDIC, the Deposit Insurance Fund, or any other governmental agency or instrumentality, or any private insurer, and are subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of principal.

Anti-takeover laws and certain agreements and charter provisions may adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Certain provisions of state and federal law and our articles of incorporation may make it more difficult for someone to acquire control of the Company. Under federal law, subject to certain exemptions, a person, entity, or group must notify the federal banking agencies before acquiring 10% or more of the outstanding voting stock of a bank holding company, including the Company’s shares. Banking agencies review the acquisition to determine if it will result in a change of control. The banking agencies have 60 days to act on the notice, and take into account several factors, including the resources of the acquiror and the antitrust effects of the acquisition. There also are Mississippi statutory provisions and provisions in our articles of incorporation that may be used to delay or block a takeover attempt. As a result, these statutory provisions and provisions in our articles of incorporation could result in the Company being less attractive to a potential acquiror.

The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other larger financial services companies.

Although our common stock is listed for trading on the Nasdaq Global Market, the trading volume for our common stock is low relative to other larger financial services companies, and you are not assured liquidity with respect to transactions in our common stock. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the marketplace of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock at any given time. This presence depends on the individual decisions of

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investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. Given the lower trading volume of our common stock, significant sales of our common stock, or the expectation of these sales, could cause our stock price to fall.

You may not receive dividends on our common stock.

Although we have historically declared quarterly cash dividends on our common stock, we are not required to do so and may reduce or cease to pay common stock dividends in the future. If we reduce or cease to pay common stock dividends, the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

The principal source of funds from which we pay cash dividends are the dividends received from The First. Federal banking laws and regulations restrict the amount of dividends and loans a bank may make to its parent company. Under certain conditions, dividends paid to us by The First are subject to approval by the OCC. A national bank may not pay dividends from its capital. All dividends must be paid out of undivided profits then on hand, after deducting expenses, including reserves for losses and bad debts. In addition, a national bank is prohibited from declaring a dividend on its shares of common stock until its surplus equals its stated capital, unless the bank has transferred to surplus no less than one-tenth of its net profits of the preceding two consecutive half-year periods (in the case of an annual dividend). The approval of the OCC is required if the total of all dividends declared by a national bank in any calendar year exceeds the total of its net profits for that year combined with its retained net profits for the preceding two years, less any required transfers to surplus. In addition, under The FDICIA, a bank may not pay a dividend if, after paying the dividend, the bank would be undercapitalized.

If we fail to pay dividends, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock may be the sole opportunity for gains on an investment in our common stock. In addition, in the event The First becomes unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to service our debt or pay our other obligations or pay dividends on our common stock and preferred stock. Accordingly, our inability to receive dividends from The First could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and the value of your investment in our common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our Company’s main office, which is the holding company headquarters, is located at 6480 U.S. Highway 98 West in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. As of year-end, we had 81 full service banking and financial service offices, one motor bank facility and two loan production offices across Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Louisiana. Management ensures that all properties, whether owned or leased, are maintained in suitable condition.

The following table sets forth banking office locations that are leased by the Company.

·         Bayleys Corner

·         Niceville  700 John Sims Parkway East

·         Dauphin Island

·         Niceville  750 John Sims Parkway East

·         Destin

·         Ocean Springs

·         Fairhope

·         Panama City Beach

·         Gulfport Downtown

·         Pascagoula

·         Hardy Court

·         Pensacola Downtown

·         Killern

·         Spanish Fort

·         Mary Esther

·         Tallahassee Apalachee Parkway

·         Metairie

·         The Mortgage Connection - Petal

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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time the Company and/or The First may be named as defendants in various lawsuits arising out of the normal course of business. At present, the Company is not aware of any legal proceedings that it anticipates may materially adversely affect its business.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Shares of our common stock are traded on the Nasdaq global market under the symbol “FBMS.”

There were approximately 3,244 record holders of the Company’s common stock at March 3, 2021 and 21,018,319 shares outstanding.

Subject to the approval of the Board of Directors and applicable regulatory requirements, the Company  expects to continue its policy of paying regular cash dividends on a quarterly basis. A discussion of certain limitations on the ability of the First’s to pay dividends to the Company and the ability of the Company to pay dividends on its common stock is set forth in “Part 1 – Item 1. Business – Supervision and Regulation” of this report.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table sets forth shares of our common stock we repurchased during the period ended December 31, 2020.

    

    

    

Total Number of

    

Total

Shares Purchased as

Maximum Number of

Number of

Average

Part of Publicly

Shares that May Yet

Shares

Price Paid

Announced Plans or

Be Purchased Under

Period

Purchased

Per Share

Programs

the Plans or Programs

1st   Quarter 2020

 

10,991

$

34.42

 

 

2nd  Quarter 2020

 

2,652

 

20.10

 

 

3rd   Quarter 2020

 

 

 

 

4th   Quarter 2020

 

291,349

 

27.41

 

289,302

 

251,103

Total

 

304,992

(a)

$

27.31

 

289,302

 

  

(a)Total includes 10,991 shares from 1st quarter, 2,652 shares from 2nd quarter, and 2,047 shares from 4th quarter that were withheld by the Company in order to satisfy employee tax obligations for vesting of restricted stock awards.

Stock Performance Graph

The following performance graph and related information are neither “soliciting material” nor “filed’ with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent the Company specifically incorporates it by reference to such filing.

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The performance graph compares the cumulative five-year shareholder return on the Company’s common stock, assuming an investment of $100 on December 31, 2015 and the reinvestment of dividends thereafter, to that  of the common stocks of United States companies reported in the Nasdaq Composite-Total Returns Index and the common stocks of the Nasdaq OMX Banks Index.  The Nasdaq OMX Banks Index contains securities of Nasdaq-listed companies classified according to the Industry Classification Benchmark as banks.  They include banks providing a broad range of financial services, including retail banking, loans and money transmissions.

Graphic

Graphic

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following unaudited consolidated financial data is derived from The First Bancshares’ audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the five years ended December 31, 2020:

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

($ in thousands, except per share data)

December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

Earnings:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net interest income

$

152,684

$

121,806

$

84,887

$

59,160

$

40,289

Provision for loan losses

 

25,151

 

3,738

 

2,120

 

506

 

625

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Non-interest income

 

41,876

 

26,947

 

20,561

 

14,363

 

11,247

Non-interest expense

 

106,341

 

88,569

 

76,311

 

55,446

 

36,862

Net income

 

52,505

 

43,745

 

21,225

 

10,616

 

10,119

Net income available to common stockholders

 

52,505

 

43,745

 

21,225

 

10,616

 

9,666

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Per common share data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic net income per share

$

2.53

$

2.57

$

1.63

$

1.12

$

1.78

Diluted net income per share

 

2.52

 

2.55

 

1.62

 

1.11

 

1.57

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Per share data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic net income per share

$

2.53

$

2.57

$

1.63

$

1.12

$

1.86

Diluted net income per share

 

2.52

 

2.55

 

1.62

 

1.11

 

1.64

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Selected year end balances:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Total assets

$

5,152,760

$

3,941,863

$

3,003,986

$

1,813,238

$

1,277,367

Securities

 

1,049,657

 

791,777

 

514,928

 

372,862

 

255,799

Loans, net of allowance (1)

 

3,109,290

 

2,597,260

 

2,055,195

 

1,221,808

 

865,424

Deposits

 

4,215,280

 

3,076,533

 

2,457,459

 

1,470,565

 

1,039,191

Stockholders’ equity

 

644,815

 

543,658

 

363,254

 

222,468

 

154,527

(1)- Loans, net of allowance includes mortgage loans held for sale.

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following provides a narrative discussion and analysis of The First Bancshares’ financial condition and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the supplemental financial data included in Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data included elsewhere in this report.

Critical Accounting Policies

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgements that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Accounting policies considered critical to our financial results include the allowance for loan losses and related provision, income taxes, goodwill and business combinations. The most critical of these is the accounting policy related to the allowance for loan losses. The allowance is based in large measure upon management's evaluation of borrowers' abilities to make loan

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payments, local and national economic conditions, and other subjective factors. If any of these factors were to deteriorate, management would update its estimates and judgments which may require additional loss provisions.

As a result of the Company's immediate response to COVID-19, including loan modifications/payment deferral programs and the PPP, as well as acquisition and integration of SWG, and increased uncertainty related to certain judgments and estimates, the Company has elected to temporarily defer or suspend the application of two provisions of U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), as allowed by the CARES Act, which was signed into law by the President on March 27, 2020. Sections 4013 and 4014 of the CARES Act provide the Company with temporary relief from troubled debt restructurings and from CECL, which the Company believes prudent to elect in these challenging times to allow us time to provide consistent, high-quality financial information to our investors and other stakeholders.

COVID-19 IMPACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization recognized the novel COVID-19 as a pandemic. The spread of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis that has resulted in unprecedented uncertainty, volatility and disruption in financial markets and in governmental, commercial and consumer activity in the United States and globally. In response to the outbreak, federal and state authorities in the U.S. introduced various measures to try to limit or slow the spread of the virus, including travel restrictions, nonessential business closures, stay-at-home orders, and strict social distancing and shelter in place. These actions, together with responses to the pandemic by businesses and individuals, have resulted in rapid decreases in commercial and consumer activity, temporary closures of many businesses that have led to a loss of revenues and a rapid increase in unemployment, material decreases in oil and gas prices and in business valuations, disrupted global supply chains, market downturns and volatility, changes in consumer behavior related to pandemic fears, related emergency response legislation and an expectation that Federal Reserve policy will maintain a low interest rate environment for the foreseeable future. These disruptions may result in a decline in demand for banking products or services, including loans and deposits, which could impact our future financial condition, result of operations and liquidity. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy and the banking industry are rapidly evolving and the future effects are unknown at this time. The Company is working to adapt to the changing environment and proactively plan for contingencies. To that end, the Company has and is taking steps to protect the health of our employees and to work with our customers experiencing difficulties as a result of this virus. The Company has many non-branch personnel working remotely. We have also been working through loan modifications and payment deferral programs to assist affected customers, and have increased our allowance for loan and lease losses.

The pandemic is having an adverse impact on certain industries the Company serves, including hotels, restaurants, retail, and direct energy. As of December 31, 2020, the Company's aggregate outstanding exposure in these segments was $436.9 million, or 14.0% of total loans. While it is not yet possible to know the full effect that the pandemic will have on the economy, or to what extent this crisis will impact the Company, all available current industry statistics and internal monitoring of loan repayment ability and payment forgiveness across the portfolio has been analyzed in an attempt to understand the correlation with asset quality and degree of possible deterioration. This analysis of the possibility of increasing credit losses resulted in the need for a higher than normal provision expense to provide the required allowance reserve for this situation. Based on management's current assessment of the increased inherent risk in the loan portfolio, the provision for loan and leases losses as of December 31, 2020 totaled $25.2 million of which $20.5 million was related to the anticipated economic effects of COVID-19. If economic conditions continue to worsen, further funding to the allowance may be required in future periods.

On March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was signed into law. The CARES Act is a $2 trillion stimulus package that is intended to provide relief to U.S businesses and consumers struggling as a result of the pandemic. A provision in the CARES Act includes a $349 billion fund for the creation of the PPP through the Small Business Administration ("SBA") and Treasury Department. The PPP is intended to provide loans to small businesses to pay their employees, rent, mortgage interest, and utilities. The loans may be forgiven conditioned upon the client providing payroll deductions evidencing their compliant use of funds and otherwise complying with the terms of the program. The PPP was amended in April to include an additional $320 billion in funding. On June 5, 2020, President Trump signed into law the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act of 2020 ("PPPFA") that amends the CARES Act. The PPPFA extended the covered period in which to use PPP loans, extended the forgiveness period from eight weeks to a maximum of 24 weeks and increased flexibility for small businesses that have had issues with rehiring employees and attempting to fill vacant positions due to COVID-19. The program reduced the proportion of proceeds that must be spent on payroll costs from 75% to 60%. In addition, the PPPFA also extended the payment deferral period for the PPP loans until the date when the amount of loan forgiveness is determined and remitted to the lender. For PPP recipients who do not apply for forgiveness, the loan deferral period is 10 months after the applicable forgiveness period ends.

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Section 4013 of the CARES Act, "Temporary Relief from Troubled Debt Restructurings," provides banks the option to temporarily suspend certain requirements under U.S. GAAP related to troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs") for a limited period of time to account for the effects of COVID-19. To qualify for Section 4013 of the CARES Act, borrowers must have been current at December 31, 2019. All modifications are eligible as long as they are executed between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of (i) December 31, 2020, or (ii) the 60th day after the end of the COVID-19 national emergency declared by the President of the U.S. Loans that were current as of December 31, 2019 are not TDRs. In addition, under guidance from the federal banking agencies, other short-term modifications made on a good faith basis in response to COVID-19 to borrowers who were current prior to any relief are not TDRs under ASC Subtopic 310-40, "Troubled Debt Restructuring by Creditors." These modifications include short-term (e.g., up to six months) modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or delays in payment that are insignificant. Borrowers considered current are those that are less than 30 days past due on their contractual payments at the time a modification program is implemented. We began receiving requests from our borrowers for loan and lease deferrals in March. Payment modifications include the deferral of principal payments or the deferral of principal and interest payments for terms generally 90-180 days. Requests are evaluated individually and approved modifications are based on the unique circumstances of each borrower. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we have modified approximately 1,627 loans for $672.3 million, of which 1,390 loans for $512.6 million were modified to defer monthly principal and interest payments and 237 loans for $159.7 million were modified from monthly principal and interest payments to interest only. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we have approximately 2,961 PPP loans approved through the SBA for $239.7 million.

During the first quarter of 2020, the Company elected to delay the adoption of CECL afforded through the CARES Act. The Company currently anticipates CECL adoption to occur as of January 1, 2021.

Effective January 1, 2021, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Measurement of Current Expected Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“CECL”), which will modify the accounting for the allowance for loan losses from an incurred loss model to an expected loss model, as discussed more fully under “Part II – Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Note B – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of this report.

Companies are required to perform periodic reviews of individual securities in their investment portfolios to determine whether decline in the value of a security is other than temporary. A review of other-than-temporary impairment requires companies to make certain judgments regarding the materiality of the decline, its effect on the financial statements and the probability, extent and timing of a valuation recovery and the company’s intent and ability to hold the security. Pursuant to these requirements, Management assesses valuation declines to determine the extent to which such changes are attributable to fundamental factors specific to the issuer, such as financial condition, business prospects or other factors or market-related factors, such as interest rates. Declines in the fair value of securities below their cost that are deemed to be other-than-temporary are recorded in earnings as realized losses.

Goodwill is assessed for impairment both annually and when events or circumstances occur that make it more likely than not that impairment has occurred. As part of its testing, the Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company determines the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount using these qualitative factors, the Company compares the fair value of goodwill with its carrying amount, and then measures impaired loss by comparing the implied fair value of goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Other intangibles are also assessed for impairment, both annually and when events or circumstances occur, that make it more likely than not that impairment has occurred. During the first quarter of 2020, management determined that the deterioration in the general economic conditions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic represented a triggering event prompting an evaluation of goodwill impairment. Based on the analyses performed in the first quarter of 2020, we determined that goodwill was not impaired. Due to the ongoing economic uncertainty present at the end of the second quarter, the Company prepared a Step 1 goodwill impairment analysis as of June 30, 2020. In testing goodwill for impairment, the Company compared the estimated fair value of its reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. The estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its book value. In December 2020, the Company assessed the qualitative factors and determined that it was not more likely than not that fair value of the reporting unit was less than the carrying amount. As a result, we do not believe there exists any impairment to goodwill and intangible assets, long-lived assets, or available-for-sale securities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, in future periods the Company will be required to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the carrying value of certain of its assets, including goodwill, and to conduct impairments tests on those assets, which may result in impairment charges on these assets in future periods that could be material.

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Overview

The First Bancshares, Inc. (the Company) was incorporated on June 23, 1995, and serves as a bank holding company for The First, A National Banking Association (“The First”), located in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The First began operations on August 5, 1996, from its main office in the Oak Grove community, which is now incorporated within the city of Hattiesburg. Currently, the First has 84 locations in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Louisiana. The Company and The First engage in a general commercial and retail banking business characterized by personalized service and local decision-making, emphasizing the banking needs of small to medium-sized businesses, professional concerns, and individuals.

The Company’s primary source of revenue is interest income and fees, which it earns by lending and investing the funds which are held on deposit. Because loans generally earn higher rates of interest than investments, the Company seeks to employ as much of its deposit funds as possible in the form of loans to individuals, businesses, and other organizations. To ensure sufficient liquidity, the Company also maintains a portion of its deposits in cash, government securities, deposits with other financial institutions, and overnight loans of excess reserves (known as “Federal Funds Sold”) to correspondent banks. The revenue which the Company earns (prior to deducting its overhead expenses) is essentially a function of the amount of the Company’s loans and deposits, as well as the profit margin (“interest spread”) and fee income which can be generated on these amounts.

Highlights for the year ended December 31, 2020 include:

On April 2, 2020, the Company closed its acquisition of SWG, parent company of Southwest Georgia Bank, headquartered in Moultrie, GA. The acquisition added 8 full service offices servicing the areas of Moultrie, Valdosta, Albany and Tifton, Georgia.  Systems integration was completed during the second quarter of 2020.
In year-over-year comparison, net income available to common shareholders increased $8.8 million, or 20.0%, from $43.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 to $52.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Excluding the bargain purchase and the sale of land gain of $8.3 million, net of tax, and the increased provision expense of $16.5 million, net of tax, net income available to common shareholders increased $17.0 million in year-over-year comparison.
Provision for loan losses totaled $25.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to $3.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $21.4 million or 572.8%, primarily resulting from the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
On September 25, 2020, the Company announced the completion of a private placement of $65.0 million of its 4.25% fixed to floating rate subordinated notes due 2030 to certain qualified institutional buyers.
As of December 31, 2020, total COVID related modifications were $82.0 million, representing 2.6% of the loan portfolio and down from a peak of $672 million or 21% of the loan portfolio.
During the first quarter of 2020, the Company elected to delay the adoption of CECL afforded through the CARES Act.  The Company currently anticipates CECL adoption to occur as of January 1, 2021.

At December 31, 2020, the Company had approximately $5.153 billion in total assets, an increase of $1.211 billion compared to $3.942 billion at December 31, 2019.  Loans, including mortgage loans held for sale and net of the allowance for loan losses, increased to $3.109 billion at December 31, 2020 from $2.597 billion at December 31, 2019.  Deposits increased to $4.215 billion at December 31, 2020 from $3.077 billion at December 31, 2019.  Stockholders’ equity increased to $644.8 million at December 31, 2020 from $543.7 million at December 31, 2019.  The addition of Southwest Georgia Bank during 2020 contributed, at acquisition, $543.9 million, $392.3 million and $476.1 million in assets, loans, and deposits, respectively.

The First (Bank only) reported net income of $60.0 million, $51.1 million and $26.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.  For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company reported consolidated net income available to common stockholders of $52.5 million, $43.7 million and $21.2 million, respectively.  The following discussion

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should be read in conjunction with the “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and the Company's consolidated financial statements and the Notes thereto and the other financial data included elsewhere.

Results of Operations

The following is a summary of the results of operations for The First (Bank only) the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 ($ in thousands):

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

Interest income

$

179,328

$

148,503

$

99,967

Interest expense

 

21,071

 

21,805

 

11,637

Net interest income

 

158,257

 

126,698

 

88,330

 

  

 

  

 

  

Provision for loan losses

 

25,151

 

3,738

 

2,120

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net interest income after provision for loan losses

 

133,106

 

122,960

 

86,210

 

  

 

  

 

  

Non-interest income

 

40,984

 

25,885

 

18,697

Non-interest expense

 

100,966

 

82,750

 

70,724

 

  

 

  

 

  

Income tax expense

 

13,108

 

15,085

 

7,288

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net income

$

60,016

$

51,010

$

26,895

The following reconciles the above table to the amounts reflected in the consolidated financial statements of the Company at December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 ($ in thousands):

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

Net interest income:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net interest income of The First

$

158,257

$

126,699

$

88,330

Interest expense

 

(5,573)

 

(4,893)

 

(3,443)

$

152,684

$

121,806

$

84,887

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net income available to common shareholders:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net income of  The First

$

60,016

$

51,103

$

26,895

Net loss of the Company

 

(7,511)

 

(7,358)

 

(5,670)

$

52,505

$

43,745

$

21,225

Consolidated Net Income

The Company reported consolidated net income available to common stockholders of $52.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to a consolidated net income of $43.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.  Excluding the bargain purchase and sale of land gains of $8.3 million, net of tax, and the increased provision expense of $16.5 million, net of tax, net income available to common shareholders increased $17.0 million in year-over-year comparison.  Net interest income increased $30.9 million in year-over-year comparison, primarily due to interest income earned on a higher volume of loans and securities.  Non-interest income increased $6.5 million in year-over-year comparison excluding the awards and gains mentioned above.  Mortgage income increased $4.5 million and interchange fee income increased $1.4 million in the year-over-year comparison.  Non-interest expense was $106.3 million at December 31, 2020, an increase of $17.8 million in year-over-year comparison, of which $12.3 million is related to the operations of First Florida Bank (“FFB”) and SWG.

The Company reported consolidated net income available to common stockholders of $43.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to a consolidated net income of $21.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.  Operating net earnings increased $18.0 million or 59.9% from $30.0 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 to $48.0 million for the same period ended December 31, 2019.  Operating net earnings excludes merger-related costs of $4.9 million, net of tax, and financial

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assistance grants of $697 thousand, net of tax, for the year ended December 31, 2019, and merger-related costs of $10.6 million, net of tax, financial assistance grants of $1.6 million, net of tax, and gain on sale of securities of $256 thousand, net of tax, for the year ended December 31, 2018.  Net interest income increased $36.9 million in year-over-year comparison, primarily due to interest income earned on a higher volume of loans and securities.    Non-interest income was $26.9 million at December 31, 2019, an increase of $6.4 million in year-over-year comparison consisting of increases in service charges on deposit accounts, interchange fee income, mortgage income, as well as other charges and fees.   Non-interest expense was $88.6 million at December 31, 2019, an increase of $12.3 million in year-over-year comparison, of which $4.3 million is related to the operations of Southwest Banc Shares (“Southwest”), Sunshine Financial, Inc. (“Sunshine”), Farmers and Merchants Bank (“FMB”), Florida Parish Bank (“FPB”) and FFB.  The remaining increase of $8.0 million in expenses are related to increases in salaries and employee benefits of $3.7 million and increases in other expenses of $4.3 million.

See Note C – Business Combinations in the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for more information on how the Company accounts for business combinations.

Consolidated Net Interest Income

The largest component of net income for the Company is net interest income, which is the difference between the income earned on assets and interest paid on deposits and borrowings used to support such assets. Net interest income is determined by the rates earned on the Company’s interest-earning assets and the rates paid on its interest-bearing liabilities, the relative amounts of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, and the degree of mismatch and the maturity and repricing characteristics of its interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities.

Consolidated net interest income was approximately $152.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to $121.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase was the direct result of higher volume of loans and securities during 2020 as compared to 2019.  Average interest-bearing liabilities for the year 2020 were $3.902 billion compared to $2.345 billion for the year 2019.  At December 31, 2020, the fully tax equivalent (“FTE”) net interest spread, which is the difference between the yield on earning assets and the rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities, was 3.59% compared to 3.75% at December 31, 2019.  Net interest margin, which is net interest income divided by average earning assets, was 3.64% for the year 2020 compared to 4.02% for the year 2019.  At December 31, 2020, the FTE average yield on all earning assets decreased 62 basis points to 4.27% compared to 4.89% at December 31, 2019.  Rates paid on average interest-bearing liabilities decreased to 0.68% for the year 2020 compared to 1.14% for the year 2019. Interest earned on assets and interest accrued on liabilities is significantly influenced by market factors, specifically interest rates as set by Federal agencies.  Average loans comprised 71.0% of average earnings assets for the year 2020 compared to 76.5% for the year 2019.

Consolidated net interest income was approximately $121.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $84.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This increase was the direct result of higher volume of loans and securities during 2019 as compared to 2018.  Average interest-bearing liabilities for the year 2019 were $2.345 billion compared to $1.712 billion for the year 2018.  At December 31, 2019, the FTE net interest spread, which is the difference between the yield on earning assets and the rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities, was 3.75% compared to 3.75% at December 31, 2018.  Net interest margin, which is net interest income divided by average earning assets, was 4.02% for the year 2019 compared to 3.94% for the year 2018.  At December 31, 2019, the FTE average yield on all earning assets increased 26 basis points to 4.89% compared to 4.63% at December 31, 2018.  Rates paid on average interest-bearing liabilities increased to 1.14% for the year 2019 compared to 0.88% for the year 2018. Interest earned on assets and interest accrued on liabilities is significantly influenced by market factors, specifically interest rates as set by Federal agencies.  Average loans comprised 76.5% of average earnings assets for the year 2019 compared to 77.0% the year 2018.

Average Balances, Income and Expenses, and Rates. The following tables depict, for the periods indicated, certain information related to the average balance sheet and average yields on assets and average costs of liabilities. Such yields are derived by dividing income or expense by the average balance of the corresponding assets or liabilities. Average balances have been derived from daily averages.

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Table of Contents

Average Balances, Income and Expenses, and Rates

Years Ended December 31, 

 

2020

2019

2018

 

    

Average

    

Income/

    

Yield/

    

Average

    

Income/

    

Yield/

    

Average

    

Income/

    

Yield/

 

($ in thousands)

Balance

Expenses

Rate

Balance

Expenses

Rate

Balance

Expenses

Rate

 

Assets

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Earning Assets

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Loans (1)(2)

$

3,020,280

$

157,564

 

5.22

%  

$

2,341,202

$

128,857

 

5.50

%  

$

1,678,746

$

86,822

 

5.17

%

Securities (4)

 

917,858

 

23,747

 

2.59

%  

 

635,967

 

20,616

 

3.24

%  

 

442,722

 

13,521

 

3.05

%

Federal funds sold and interest bearing deposits with other banks (3)

 

317,848

 

378

 

0.12

%  

 

84,171

 

264

 

0.31

%  

 

58,900

 

631

 

1.07

%

Total earning assets

 

4,255,986

 

181,689

 

4.27

%  

 

3,061,340

 

149,737

 

4.89

%  

 

2,180,368

 

100,974

 

4.63

%

Other

 

523,412

 

 

  

 

401,614

 

  

 

  

 

248,289

 

  

 

  

Total assets

$

4,779,398

 

  

 

  

$

3,462,954

 

  

 

  

$

2,428,657

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Liabilities

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Interest-bearing liabilities

$

3,901,797

$

26,664

 

0.68

%  

$

2,344,755

$

26,723

 

1.14

%  

$

1,712,255

$

15,091

 

0.88

%

Demand deposits (1)

 

260,435

 

  

 

  

 

327,805

 

  

 

  

 

254,118

 

  

 

  

Other liabilities

 

10,056

 

  

 

  

 

331,693

 

  

 

  

 

182,525

 

  

 

  

Stockholders’ equity

 

607,110

 

  

 

  

 

458,701

 

  

 

  

 

279,759

 

  

 

  

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

4,779,398

 

  

 

  

$

3,462,954

 

  

 

  

$

2,428,657

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net interest spread

 

  

 

  

 

3.59

%  

 

  

 

  

 

3.75

%  

 

  

 

  

 

3.75

%

Net yield on interest-earning assets

 

  

$

155,025

 

3.64

%  

 

  

$

123,014

 

4.02

%  

 

  

$

85,883

 

3.94

%

(1)All loans and deposits were made to borrowers or received from depositors in the United States.  Includes nonaccrual loans of $33,774, $38,835, and $25,073 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.  Loans include held for sale loans.
(2)Includes loan fees of $9,899, $4,322, and $3,603 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
(3)Includes Excess Balance Account-Mississippi National Banker’s Bank.
(4)Fully tax equivalent yield assuming a 25.3% tax rate.

Analysis of Changes in Net Interest Income. The following table presents the consolidated dollar amount of changes in interest income and interest expense attributable to changes in volume and to changes in rate. The combined effect in both volume and rate which cannot be separately identified has been allocated proportionately to the change due to volume and due to rate.

Analysis of Changes in Consolidated Net Interest Income

Year Ended December 31, 

Year Ended December 31, 

2020 versus 2019 

2019 versus 2018 

Increase (decrease) due to

Increase (decrease) due to

($ in thousands)

    

Volume

    

Rate

    

Net

    

Volume

    

Rate

    

Net

Earning Assets

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Loans

$

37,283

$

(8,576)

$

28,707

$

34,294

$

7,737

$

42,031

Securities (1)

 

9,122

 

(5,991)

 

3,131

 

5,894

 

1,208

 

7,102

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

Federal funds sold and interest bearing deposits with other banks

 

721

 

(607)

 

114

 

270

 

(640)

 

(370)

Total interest income

 

47,126

 

(15,174)

 

31,952

 

40,458

 

8,305

 

48,763

Interest-Bearing Liabilities

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

Interest-bearing transaction accounts

 

(1,202)

 

1,835

 

633

 

1,489

 

1,821

 

3,310

Money market accounts and savings

 

1,992

 

(1,901)

 

91

 

424

 

1,828

 

2,252

Time deposits

 

1,487

 

(2,345)

 

(858)

 

1,953

 

1,579

 

3,532

Borrowed funds

 

1,443

 

(1,368)

 

75

 

2,299

 

239

 

2,538

Total interest expense

 

3,720

 

(3,779)

 

(59)

 

6,165

 

5,467

 

11,632

Net interest income

$

43,406

$

(11,395)

$

32,011

$

34,303

$

2,828

$

37,131

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Table of Contents

(1)Fully tax equivalent yield assuming a 25.3% tax rate.

Interest Sensitivity. The Company monitors and manages the pricing and maturity of its assets and liabilities in order to diminish the potential adverse impact that changes in interest rates could have on its net interest income. A monitoring technique employed by the Company is the measurement of the Company’s interest sensitivity "gap," which is the positive or negative dollar difference between assets and liabilities that are subject to interest rate repricing within a given period of time. The Company also performs asset/liability modeling to assess the impact varying interest rates and balance sheet mix assumptions will have on net interest income. Interest rate sensitivity can be managed by repricing assets or liabilities, selling securities available-for-sale, replacing an asset or liability at maturity, or adjusting the interest rate during the life of an asset or liability. Managing the amount of assets and liabilities repricing in the same time interval helps to hedge the risk and minimize the impact on net interest income of rising or falling interest rates. The Company evaluates interest sensitivity risk and then formulates guidelines regarding asset generation and repricing, funding sources and pricing, and off-balance sheet commitments in order to decrease interest rate sensitivity risk.

The following tables illustrate the Company’s consolidated interest rate sensitivity and consolidated cumulative gap position by maturity at December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 ($ in thous