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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Date of event requiring this shell company report: Not applicable

For the transition period from ___________________________ to ___________________________

Commission file number 001-32458

 

Diana Shipping Inc.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Diana Shipping Inc.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

Republic of the Marshall Islands

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Pendelis 16, 175 64 Palaio Faliro, Athens, Greece

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Mr. Ioannis Zafirakis
Tel: + 30-210-9470-100, Fax: + 30-210-9470-101
E-mail: izafirakis@dianashippinginc.com

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 


 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value including the Preferred Stock Purchase Rights

DSX

New York Stock Exchange

8.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Shares, $0.01 par value

DSXPRB

New York Stock Exchange

 

 

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2020, there were 89,275,002 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes No

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,"accelerated filer,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. □

 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP International Financial Reporting Standards as issued Other

by the International Accounting Standards Board □

 


 

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes No

 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

5

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

7

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

7

Item 3.

Key Information

7

Item 4.

Information on the Company

46

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

71

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

71

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

91

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

97

Item 8.

Financial Information

100

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

101

Item 10.

Additional Information

102

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

112

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

113

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

114

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

114

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

114

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

115

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

115

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

116

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

116

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

116

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

118

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

118

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

119

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 17.

Financial Statements

120

Item 18.

Financial Statements

120

Item 19.

Exhibits

120

 

 


 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Matters discussed in this annual report and the documents incorporated by reference may constitute forward-looking statements. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides safe harbor protections for forward-looking statements in order to encourage companies to provide prospective information about their business. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance, underlying assumptions and other statements, which are other than statements of historical facts.

 

Diana Shipping Inc., or the Company, desires to take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and is including this cautionary statement in connection with this safe harbor legislation. This document and any other written or oral statements made by the Company or on its behalf may include forward-looking statements, which reflect its current views with respect to future events and financial performance, and are not intended to give any assurance as to future results. When used in this document, the words “believe”, “anticipate,” “intends,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “project,” “plan,” “potential,” “will,” “may,” “should,” “expect,” “targets,” “likely,” “would,” “could,” “seeks,” “continue,” “possible,” “might,” “pending,” and similar expressions, terms or phrases may identify forward-looking statements.

 

Please note in this annual report, “we”, “us”, “our” and “the Company” all refer to Diana Shipping Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated.

 

The forward-looking statements in this document are based upon various assumptions, many of which are based, in turn, upon further assumptions, including without limitation, management’s examination of historical operating trends, data contained in its records and other data available from third parties. Although the Company believes that these assumptions were reasonable when made, because these assumptions are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies which are difficult or impossible to predict and are beyond its control, the Company cannot assure you that it will achieve or accomplish these expectations, beliefs or projections.

 

Such statements reflect the Company’s current views with respect to future events and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described herein as anticipated, believed, estimated, expected or intended. The Company is making investors aware that such forward-looking statements, because they relate to future events, are by their very nature subject to many important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated.

 

In addition to these important factors and matters discussed elsewhere herein, including under the heading "Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors," and in the documents incorporated by reference herein, important factors that, in its view, could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

 

the strength of world economies;

fluctuations in currencies and interest rates;

general market conditions, including fluctuations in charter hire rates and vessel values;

changes in demand in the dry-bulk shipping industry;

changes in the supply of vessels, including when caused by new newbuilding vessel orders or changes to or terminations of existing orders, and vessel scrapping levels;

changes in the Company's operating expenses, including bunker prices, crew costs, drydocking and insurance costs;

5


 

the Company’s future operating or financial results;

availability of financing and refinancing and changes to the Company’s financial condition and liquidity, including the Company’s ability to pay amounts that it owes and obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate activities and the Company’s ability to obtain financing and comply with the restrictions and other covenants in the Company’s financing arrangements;

changes in governmental rules and regulations or actions taken by regulatory authorities;

potential liability from pending or future litigation;

compliance with governmental, tax, environmental and safety regulation, any non-compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) or other applicable regulations relating to bribery;

the impact of the discontinuance of LIBOR after 2021 on interest rates of any of the Company’s debt that reference LIBOR;

the failure of counter parties to fully perform their contracts with the Company;

the Company’s dependence on key personnel;

adequacy of insurance coverage;

the volatility of the price of the Company’s common shares;

the Company’s incorporation under the laws of the Marshall Islands and the different rights to relief that may be available compared to other countries, including the United States;

general domestic and international political conditions or labor disruptions;

acts by terrorists or acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels;

the length and severity of the recent novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and its impact in the dry-bulk shipping industry;

potential disruption of shipping routes due to accidents or political events; and

other important factors described from time to time in the reports filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE.

 

 

This report may contain assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions and beliefs about future events.These statements are intended as forward-looking statements. The Company may also from time to time make forward- looking statements in other documents and reports that are filed with or submitted to the Commission, in other information sent to the Company’s security holders, and in other written materials. The Company also cautions that assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions and beliefs about future events may and often do vary from actual results and the differences can be material. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement contained in this report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

6


 

PART I

 

Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

Not Applicable.

 

Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

Not Applicable.

 

Item 3.Key Information

 

A. Selected Financial Data

 

The following tables set forth our selected consolidated financial data and other operating data. The selected consolidated financial data in the tables as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. The following data should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”, the consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

 

As of and for the

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

2020

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

(in thousands of U.S. dollars,

 

except for share and per share data, fleet data and average daily results)

Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

Time charter revenues

$

169,733

$

220,728

$

226,189

$

161,897

$

114,259

Operating income/(loss)

 

(112,675)

 

17,622

 

38,250

 

(483,987)

 

(88,321)

Net income/(loss)

 

(134,197)

 

(10,535)

 

16,580

 

(511,714)

 

(164,237)

Dividends on series B preferred shares

 

(5,769)

 

(5,769)

 

(5,769)

 

(5,769)

 

(5,769)

Income/(loss) attributed to common stockholders

 

(139,966)

 

(16,304)

 

10,811

 

(517,483)

 

(170,006)

Earnings/(loss) per common share, basic and diluted

 

(1.62)

 

(0.17)

 

0.10

 

(5.41)

 

(2.11)

Weighted average number of common shares, basic

 

86,143,556

 

95,191,116

 

103,736,742

 

95,731,093

 

80,441,517

Weighted average number of common shares, diluted

 

86,143,556

 

95,191,116

 

104,715,883

 

95,731,093

 

80,441,517

 

7


 

 

As of and for the

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

2020

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

(in thousands of U.S. dollars,

 

except for share and per share data and average daily results)

Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

$

872,410

$

1,071,280

$

1,187,796

$

1,246,722

$

1,668,663

Capital stock

 

1,021,083

 

1,022,571

 

1,063,709

 

1,071,587

 

986,044

Total stockholders’ equity

 

428,570

 

570,064

 

627,684

 

624,758

 

1,056,589

 

Cash Flow Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities

$

17,234

$

49,882

$

79,930

$

23,413

$

(20,998)

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities

 

10,484

 

38,397

 

99,370

 

(152,333)

 

(41,619)

Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities

 

(73,097)

 

(111,398)

 

(93,702)

 

73,587

 

(9,459)

 

Fleet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average number of vessels (1)

 

40.8

 

45.0

 

49.9

 

49.6

 

45.2

Number of vessels at year-end

 

40.0

 

42.0

 

48.0

 

50.0

 

46.0

Weighted average age of vessels at year-end (in years)

 

10.2

 

9.5

 

9.1

 

8.4

 

8.2

Ownership days (2)

 

14,931

 

16,442

 

18,204

 

18,119

 

16,542

Available days (3)

 

14,318

 

16,192

 

17,964

 

17,890

 

16,447

Operating days (4)

 

14,020

 

15,971

 

17,799

 

17,566

 

16,354

Fleet utilization (5)

 

97.9%

 

98.6%

 

99.1%

 

98.2%

 

99.4%

 

Average Daily Results:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time charter equivalent (TCE) rate (6)

$

10,910

$

12,796

$

12,179

$

8,568

$

6,106

Daily vessel operating expenses (7)

 

5,750

 

5,510

 

5,247

 

4,987

 

5,196

8


 

(1) Average number of vessels is the number of vessels that constituted our fleet for the relevant period, as measured by the sum of the number of days each vessel was a part of our fleet during the period divided by the number of calendar days in the period.

 

(2) Ownership days are the aggregate number of days in a period during which each vessel in our fleet has been owned by us. Ownership days are an indicator of the size of our fleet over a period and affect both the amount of revenues and the amount of expenses that we record during a period.

 

(3) Available days are the number of our ownership days less the aggregate number of days that our vessels are off-hire due to scheduled repairs or repairs under guarantee, vessel upgrades or special surveys and the aggregate amount of time that we spend positioning our vessels for such events. The shipping industry uses available days to measure the number of days in a period during which vessels should be capable of generating revenues.

 

(4) Operating days are the number of available days in a period less the aggregate number of days that our vessels are off-hire due to any reason, including unforeseen circumstances. The shipping industry uses operating days to measure the aggregate number of days in a period during which vessels actually generate revenues.

 

(5) We calculate fleet utilization by dividing the number of our operating days during a period by the number of our available days during the period. The shipping industry uses fleet utilization to measure a company's efficiency in finding suitable employment for its vessels and minimizing the amount of days that its vessels are off-hire for reasons other than scheduled repairs or repairs under guarantee, vessel upgrades, special surveys or vessel positioning for such events.

 

(6) Time charter equivalent rates, or TCE rates, are defined as our time charter revenues less voyage expenses during a period divided by the number of our available days during the period, which is consistent with industry standards. Voyage expenses include port charges, bunker (fuel) expenses, canal charges and commissions. TCE rate is a non-GAAP measure, and management believes it is useful to investors because it is a standard shipping industry performance measure used primarily to compare daily earnings generated by vessels on time charters with daily earnings generated by vessels on voyage charters, because charter hire rates for vessels on voyage charters are generally not expressed in per day amounts while charter hire rates for vessels on time charters are generally expressed in such amounts. The following table reflects the calculation of our TCE rates for the periods presented.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

2020

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

 

(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except for

TCE rates, which are expressed in U.S. dollars, and available days)

Time charter revenues

$

169,733

$

220,728

$

226,189

$

161,897

$

114,259

Less: voyage expenses

 

(13,525)

 

(13,542)

 

(7,405)

 

(8,617)

 

(13,826)

Time charter equivalent revenues

$

156,208

$

207,186

$

218,784

$

153,280

$

100,433

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Available days

 

14,318

 

16,192

 

17,964

 

17,890

 

16,447

Time charter equivalent (TCE) rate

$

10,910

$

12,796

$

12,179

$

8,568

$

6,106

 

9


 

(7) Daily vessel operating expenses, which include crew wages and related costs, the cost of insurance, expenses relating to repairs and maintenance, the costs of spares and consumable stores, tonnage taxes and other miscellaneous expenses, are calculated by dividing vessel operating expenses by ownership days for the relevant period.

 

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not Applicable.

 

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not Applicable.

 

10


 

D.Risk Factors

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

The below bullets summarize the principal risk factors related to an investment in our Company.

 

Industry Specific Risk Factors

 

Charter hire rates for dry bulk carriers are volatile, which may adversely affect our earnings, revenue and profitability and our ability to comply with our loan covenants.

 

The current state of the global financial markets and current economic conditions may adversely impact our results of operation, financial condition, cash flows, and ability to obtain additional financing or refinance our existing and future credit facilities on acceptable terms which may negatively impact our business.

 

The U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.

 

Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

 

An over-supply of dry bulk carrier capacity may prolong or further depress the current low charter rates and, in turn, adversely affect our profitability.

 

Outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases, including COVID-19, and governmental responses thereto could adversely affect our business.

 

Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results.

 

An increase in the price of fuel may adversely affect our profits.

 

We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.

 

The operation of dry bulk carriers has certain unique operational risks which could affect our earnings and cash flow.

 

If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories that are the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government, the European Union, the United Nations, or other governmental authorities, it could lead to monetary fines or penalties and may adversely affect our reputation and the market for our securities.

 

We conduct business in China, where the legal system is not fully developed and has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protections available to us.

 

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could result in fines, criminal penalties and an adverse effect on our business.

 

Changing laws and evolving reporting requirements could have an adverse effect on our business.

11


 

 

Company Specific Risk Factors

 

The market values of our vessels have declined in recent years and may further decline, which could limit the amount of funds that we can borrow and could trigger breaches of certain financial covenants contained in our loan facilities, which could adversely affect our operating results, and we may incur a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market values.

 

We charter some of our vessels on short-term time charters in a volatile shipping industry and a decline in charter hire rates could affect our results of operations and our ability to pay dividends.

 

Our investment in Diana Wilhelmsen Management Limited may expose us to additional risks.

 

A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.

 

Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.

 

Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.

 

Our earnings may be adversely affected if we are not able to take advantage of favorable charter rates.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance indebtedness incurred under our loan facilities.

 

We are subject to certain risks with respect to our counterparties on contracts, and failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or otherwise adversely affect our business.

 

In the highly competitive international shipping industry, we may not be able to compete for charters with new entrants or established companies with greater resources, and as a result, we may be unable to employ our vessels profitably.

 

We recently underwent a transition with respect to certain of our directors and executive officers and this transition, along with the possibility that we may in the future be unable to retain and recruit qualified key executives, key employees or key consultants, may delay our development efforts or otherwise harm our business.

 

Technological innovation and quality and efficiency requirements from our customers could reduce our charterhire income and the value of our vessels.

 

We may not have adequate insurance to compensate us if we lose our vessels or to compensate third parties.

 

Our vessels may suffer damage and we may face unexpected drydocking costs, which could adversely affect our cash flow and financial condition.

 

We are exposed to U.S. dollar and foreign currency fluctuations and devaluations that could harm our reported revenue and results of operations.

 

12


 

Volatility of LIBOR and potential changes of the use of LIBOR as a benchmark could affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.

 

We depend upon a few significant customers for a large part of our revenues and the loss of one or more of these customers could adversely affect our financial performance.

 

Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.

 

We may have to pay tax on U.S. source income, which would reduce our earnings.

 

U.S. federal tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company”, which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.

 

Risks Relating to Our Common Stock

 

Our board of directors has suspended the payment of cash dividends on our common stock. We cannot assure you that our board of directors will reinstate dividend payments in the future, or when such reinstatement might occur.

 

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated widely and may fluctuate widely in the future, and there is no guarantee that there will continue to be an active and liquid public market for you to resell our common stock in the future.

 

Since we are incorporated in the Marshall Islands, which does not have a well-developed body of corporate law, you may have more difficulty protecting your interests than shareholders of a U.S. corporation.

 

Certain existing shareholders will be able to exert considerable control over matters on which our shareholders are entitled to vote.

 

Future sales of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

 

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could make it difficult for our shareholders to replace or remove our current board of directors or have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a merger or acquisition, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

Our Series B Preferred Shares are senior obligations of ours and rank prior to our common shares with respect to dividends, distributions and payments upon liquidation, which could have an adverse effect on the value of our common shares.

 

Risks Relating to Our Series B Preferred Stock

 

We may not have sufficient cash from our operations to enable us to pay dividends on our Series B Preferred Shares following the payment of expenses and the establishment of any reserves.

 

The Series B Preferred Shares represent perpetual equity interests.

 

13


 

Our Series B Preferred Shares are subordinate to our indebtedness, and your interests could be diluted by the issuance of additional preferred shares, including additional Series B Preferred Shares, and by other transactions.

 

We may redeem the Series B Preferred Shares, and you may not be able to reinvest the redemption price you receive in a similar security.

 

Market interest rates may adversely affect the value of our Series B Preferred Shares.

 

As a holder of Series B Preferred Shares you have extremely limited voting rights.

 

Some of the following risks relate principally to the industry in which we operate and our business in general. Other risks relate principally to the securities market and ownership of our securities, including our common stock and our Series B Preferred Shares. The occurrence of any of the events described in this section could significantly and negatively affect our business, financial condition, operating results, cash available for the payment of dividends on our shares and interest on our loan facilities and Bond, or the trading price of our securities.

 

Industry Specific Risk Factors

 

Charter hire rates for dry bulk carriers are volatile, which may adversely affect our earnings, revenue and profitability and our ability to comply with our loan covenants.

 

The dry bulk shipping industry is cyclical with attendant volatility in charter hire rates and profitability. The degree of charter hire rate volatility among different types of dry bulk carriers has varied widely, and charter hire rates for Panamax and Capesize dry bulk carriers have declined significantly from historically high levels. Because we charter some of our vessels pursuant to short-term time charters, we are exposed to changes in spot market and short-term charter rates for dry bulk carriers and such changes may affect our earnings and the value of our dry bulk carriers at any given time. In addition, about half of our vessels are scheduled to come off of their current charters in 2021, based on their earliest redelivery date, for which we may be seeking new employment. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully charter our vessels in the future or renew existing charters at rates sufficient to allow us to meet our obligations or pay any dividends in the future. Fluctuations in charter rates result from changes in the supply of and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply of and demand for the major commodities carried by water internationally. Because the factors affecting the supply of and demand for vessels are outside of our control and are unpredictable, the nature, timing, direction and degree of changes in industry conditions are also unpredictable. A significant decrease in charter rates would affect asset values and adversely affect our profitability, cash flows and may cause asset values to decline, and we may have to record an impairment charge in our consolidated financial statements which could adversely affect our financial results.

 

Factors that influence demand for dry bulk vessel capacity include:

 

supply of and demand for energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;

 

changes in the exploration or production of energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;

 

the location of regional and global exploration, production and manufacturing facilities;

 

14


 

the location of consuming regions for energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;

 

the globalization of production and manufacturing;

 

global and regional economic and political conditions, including armed conflicts, terrorist activities, embargoes, strikes, tariffs and “trade wars,”

 

economic slowdowns caused by public health events such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak;

 

natural disasters and other disruptions in international trade;

 

disruptions and developments in international trade;

 

changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns, including the distance cargo is transported by sea and trade patterns;

 

environmental and other regulatory developments;

 

currency exchange rates; and

 

weather.

 

Factors that influence the supply of dry bulk vessel capacity include:

 

the number of newbuilding orders and deliveries, including slippage in deliveries;

 

the number of shipyards and ability of shipyards to deliver vessels;

 

port and canal congestion;

 

the scrapping rate of older vessels;

 

speed of vessel operation;

 

vessel casualties;

 

the number of vessels that are out of service, namely those that are laid-up, dry-docked, awaiting repairs or otherwise not available for hire; and

 

sanctions (in particular, sanctions on Iran and Venezuela, amongst others).

 

In addition to the prevailing and anticipated freight rates, factors that affect the rate of newbuilding, scrapping and laying-up include newbuilding prices, secondhand vessel values in relation to scrap prices, costs of bunkers and other operating costs, costs associated with classification society surveys, normal maintenance and insurance coverage costs, the efficiency and age profile of the existing dry bulk fleet in the market and government and industry regulation of maritime transportation practices, particularly environmental protection laws and regulations. These factors

15


 

influencing the supply of and demand for shipping capacity are outside of our control, and we may not be able to correctly assess the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions.

 

We anticipate that the future demand for our dry bulk carriers will be dependent upon economic growth in the world's economies, including China and India, seasonal and regional changes in demand, changes in the capacity of the global dry bulk carrier fleet and the sources and supply of dry bulk cargo transported by sea. While there has been a general decrease in new dry bulk carrier ordering since 2014, the capacity of the global dry bulk carrier fleet could increase and economic growth may not resume in areas that have experienced a recession or continue in other areas. Adverse economic, political, social or other developments could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

 

The dry bulk carrier charter market remains significantly below its high in 2008, which has had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our revenues, earnings and profitability, and may affect our ability to comply with our loan covenants.

 

The abrupt and dramatic downturn in the dry bulk charter market, from which we derive substantially all of our revenues, has severely affected the dry bulk shipping industry and has adversely affected our business. The Baltic Dry Index, or the BDI, a daily average of charter rates for key dry bulk routes published by the Baltic Exchange Limited, has long been viewed as the main benchmark to monitor the movements of the dry bulk vessel charter market and the performance of the entire dry bulk shipping market. The BDI declined 94% in 2008 from a peak of 11,793 in May 2008 to a low of 663 in December 2008 and has remained volatile since then, reaching a record low of 290 in February 2016. In 2020, the BDI ranged from a low of 393 in May to a high of 2097 in October and remains at comparatively low levels relative to historical highs and there can be no assurance that the dry bulk charter market will not decline further. The decline and volatility in charter rates is due to various factors, including the lack of trade financing for purchases of commodities carried by sea, which has resulted in a significant decline in cargo shipments, and the excess supply of iron ore in China, which has resulted in falling iron ore prices and increased stockpiles in Chinese ports. The decline and volatility in charter rates in the dry bulk market also affects the value of our dry bulk vessels, which follows the trends of dry bulk charter rates, and earnings on our charters, and similarly, affects our cash flows, liquidity and compliance with the covenants contained in our loan agreements.

 

The decline in the dry bulk carrier charter market has had and may continue to have additional adverse consequences for our industry, including an absence of financing for vessels, no active secondhand market for the sale of vessels, charterers seeking to renegotiate the rates for existing time charters, and widespread loan covenant defaults in the dry bulk shipping industry. Accordingly, the value of our common shares could be substantially reduced or eliminated.

 

The current state of the global financial markets and current economic conditions may adversely impact our results of operation, financial condition, cash flows, and ability to obtain additional financing or refinance our existing and future credit facilities on acceptable terms which may negatively impact our business.

 

Global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and continue to be, volatile. Beginning in February 2020, due in part to fears associated with the spread of COVID-19 (as more fully described below), global financial markets, and starting in late February, financial markets in the U.S., experienced even greater relative volatility and a steep and abrupt downturn, which volatility and downturn may continue as COVID-19 continues to spread. Credit markets and the debt and equity capital markets have been distressed and the uncertainty surrounding the future of the global credit markets has resulted in reduced access to credit worldwide, particularly for the shipping industry. These issues, along with significant write-offs in the financial services sector, the repricing of credit risk and the current weak economic conditions, have made, and will likely continue to make, it difficult to obtain additional financing. The current state of global financial markets and current economic conditions might adversely impact our

16


 

ability to issue additional equity at prices that will not be dilutive to our existing shareholders or preclude us from issuing equity at all. Economic conditions may also adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

 

Also, as a result of concerns about the stability of financial markets generally and the solvency of counterparties specifically, the availability and cost of obtaining money from the public and private equity and debt markets has become more difficult. Many lenders have increased interest rates, enacted tighter lending standards, refused to refinance existing debt at all or on terms similar to current debt and reduced, and in some cases ceased, to provide funding to borrowers and other market participants, including equity and debt investors, and some have been unwilling to invest on attractive terms or even at all. Due to these factors, we cannot be certain that additional financing will be available if needed and to the extent required, or that we will be able to refinance our existing and future credit facilities, on acceptable terms or at all. If financing or refinancing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due or we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due or we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

 

Credit markets in the United States and Europe have in the past experienced significant contraction, deleveraging and reduced liquidity, and there is a risk that the U.S. federal government and state governments and European authorities continue to implement a broad variety of governmental action and/or new regulation of the financial markets. Global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and continue to be, disrupted and volatile. We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, and instability in the banking and securities markets around the world, among other factors. Major market disruptions may adversely affect our business or impair our ability to borrow amounts under our credit facilities or any future financial arrangements. In the absence of available financing, we also may be unable to take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures.

 

We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, and instability in the banking and securities markets around the world, among other factors. We cannot predict how long the current market conditions will last. However, these recent and developing economic and governmental factors, together with the concurrent decline in charter rates and vessel values, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and may cause the price of our common shares to decline.

 

If economic conditions throughout the world continue to deteriorate or become more volatile, it could impede our operations.

 

The world economy faces a number of challenges, including the effects of volatile oil prices, trade tensions between the United States and China and between the United States and the European Union, continuing turmoil and hostilities in the Middle East, the Korean Peninsula, North Africa, Venezuela, Iran and other geographic areas and countries, continuing threat of terrorist attacks around the world, continuing instability and conflicts and other recent occurrences in the Middle East and in other geographic areas and countries, continuing economic weakness in the European Union, or the E.U., and stabilizing growth in China, as well as continued uncertainty regarding global economic impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Our ability to secure funding is dependent on well-functioning capital markets and on an appetite to provide funding to the shipping industry. If global economic conditions worsen or lenders for any reason decide not to provide debt financing to us, we may, among other things, not be able to secure additional financing to the extent required, on acceptable terms or at all. If additional financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due, or we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

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In Europe, large sovereign debts and fiscal deficits, low growth prospects and high unemployment rates in a number of countries have contributed to the rise of Eurosceptic parties, which would like their countries to leave the Euro. The exit of the United Kingdom, or the U.K., from the European Union, or the EU, as described more fully below, and potential new trade policies in the United States further increase the risk of additional trade protectionism.

 

In China, a transformation of the Chinese economy is underway, as China transforms from a production-driven economy towards a service or consumer-driven economy. The Chinese economic transition implies that we do not expect the Chinese economy to return to double digit GDP growth rates in the near term. The quarterly year-over-year growth rate of China's GDP decreased to 6.1% for the year ending December 31, 2019 as compared to 6.6% for the year ending December 31, 2018 and continues to remain below pre-2008 levels. The Chinese economy was significantly and adversely affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic. We cannot assure you that the Chinese economy will continue to grow in the future.

 

While the recent developments in Europe and China have been without significant immediate impact on our charter rates, an extended period of deterioration in the world economy could reduce the overall demand for our services. Such changes could adversely affect our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

 

Further, governments may turn and have turned to trade barriers to protect their domestic industries against foreign imports, thereby depressing shipping demand. In particular, leaders in the United States and China have implemented certain increasingly protective trade measures. The results of the 2020 presidential election in the United States have created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States, China and other exporting countries, including with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. However, it is not yet clear how the new United States administration under President Biden may deviate from the former administration’s protectionist foreign trade policies. Protectionist developments, or the perception that they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade.

 

Prospective investors should consider the potential impact, uncertainty and risk associated with the development in the wider global economy. Further economic downturn in any of these countries could have a material effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

 

The U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.

 

In June 2016, a majority of voters in the U.K. elected to withdraw from the EU in a national referendum (informally known as “Brexit”), a process that the government of the U.K. formally initiated in March 2017. Since then, the U.K. and the EU have been negotiating the terms of a withdrawal agreement, which was approved in October 2019 and ratified in January 2020. The U.K. formally exited the EU on January 31, 2020, although a transition period remained in place until December 2020, during which the U.K. was subject to the rules and regulations of the EU. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the EU entered into a trade and cooperation agreement (the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement”), which was applied on a provisional basis from January 1, 2021. While the new economic relationship does not match the relationship that existed during the time the U.K. was a member state of the EU, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement sets out preferential arrangements in certain areas such as trade in goods and in services, digital trade and intellectual property. Negotiations between the U.K. and the EU are expected to continue in relation to other areas which are not covered by the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. The long term effects of Brexit will depend on the effects of the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement and any other relevant agreements between the U.K. and EU. Brexit has also given rise to calls for the governments of other EU member states to consider withdrawal. These developments and uncertainties, or the perception that any of them

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may occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and may significantly reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. Any of these factors could depress economic activity and restrict our access to capital, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and our ability to pay distributions. Additionally, Brexit or similar events in other jurisdictions, could impact global markets, including foreign exchange and securities markets; any resulting changes in currency exchange rates, tariffs, treaties and other regulatory matters could in turn adversely impact our business and operations.

 

Brexit contributes to considerable uncertainty concerning the current and future economic environment. Brexit could adversely affect European or worldwide political, regulatory, economic or market conditions and could contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets.

 

Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

 

The IMO has imposed updated guidelines for ballast water management systems specifying the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged from a vessel’s ballast water. Depending on the date of the International Oil Pollution Prevention ('IOPP') renewal survey, existing vessels constructed before September 8, 2017 must comply with the updated D-2 Discharge Performance Standard ('D-2 standard') on or after September 8, 2019. For most vessels, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ships constructed on or after September 8, 2017 are to comply with the D-2 standards on or after September 8, 2017. We currently have 11 vessels that do not comply with the updated guideline and costs of compliance may be substantial and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

 

Furthermore, United States regulations are currently changing. Although the 2013 Vessel General Permit (“VGP”) program and U.S. National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”) are currently in effect to regulate ballast discharge, exchange and installation, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), which was signed into law on December 4, 2018, requires that the EPA develop national standards of performance for approximately 30 discharges, similar to those found in the VGP within two years. By approximately 2022, the U.S. Coast Guard must develop corresponding implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations regarding ballast water. The new regulations could require the installation of new equipment, which may cause us to incur substantial costs.

 

An over-supply of dry bulk carrier capacity may prolong or further depress the current low charter rates and, in turn, adversely affect our profitability.

 

The market supply of dry bulk carriers has increased materially since 2009 due to a high level of new deliveries in the last few years. Although dry bulk newbuilding deliveries have tapered off since 2014, newbuildings continued to be delivered through the end of 2018. While vessel supply will continue to be affected by the delivery of new vessels and the removal of vessels from the global fleet, either through scrapping or accidental losses, an over-supply of dry bulk carrier capacity could prolong the period during which low charter rates prevail. Currently, about half of our vessels are scheduled to come off of their current charters in 2021, based on their earliest redelivery date, for which we may be seeking new employment.

 

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Risks associated with operating ocean-going vessels could affect our business and reputation, which could adversely affect our revenues and stock price.

 

The operation of ocean-going vessels carries inherent risks. These risks include the possibility of:

 

marine disaster;

 

acts of God;

 

terrorism;

 

environmental accidents;

 

cargo and property losses or damage;

 

business interruptions caused by mechanical failures, grounding, fire, explosions and collisions, human error, war, terrorism, piracy and other circumstances or events. In addition, changing economic, regulatory and political conditions in some countries, including political and military conflicts, have from time to time resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways, piracy, terrorism, labor strikes or adverse weather conditions; and

 

piracy.

 

These hazards may result in death or injury to persons, loss of revenues or property, the payment of ransoms, environmental damage, higher insurance rates, damage to our customer relationships, and market disruptions, delay or rerouting, which may also subject us to litigation. If our vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility. The costs of drydock repairs and maintenance are unpredictable and may be substantial. We may have to pay drydocking costs that our insurance does not cover in full. The loss of revenues while these vessels are being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, may adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, space at drydocking facilities is sometimes limited and not all drydocking facilities are conveniently located. We may be unable to find space at a suitable drydocking facility or our vessels may be forced to travel to a drydocking facility that is not conveniently located to our vessels’ positions. The loss of earnings while these vessels are forced to wait for space or to travel to more distant drydocking facilities may adversely affect our business and financial condition. Further, the total loss of any of our vessels in an environmental disaster may also harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator. If we are unable to adequately maintain or safeguard our vessels, we may be unable to prevent any such damage, costs, or loss which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and available cash.

 

In addition, international shipping is subject to various security and customs inspection and related procedures in countries of origin and destination and trans-shipment points. Inspection procedures can result in the seizure of the cargo and/or our vessels, delays in the loading, offloading or delivery and the levying of customs duties, fines or other penalties against us. It is possible that changes to inspection procedures could impose additional financial and legal obligations on us. Furthermore, changes to inspection procedures could also impose additional costs and obligations on our customers and may, in certain cases, render the shipment of certain types of cargo uneconomical or impractical. Any such changes or developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and available cash.

 

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World events could affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Continuing conflicts and recent developments in the Middle East, including increased tensions between the U.S. and Iran, which in January 2020 escalated into a U.S. airstrike in Baghdad that killed a high-ranking Iranian general, as well as the Ukraine and other geographic countries and areas, geopolitical events such as Brexit, terrorist or other attacks, and war (or threatened war) or international hostilities, such as those between the United States and North Korea, may lead to armed conflict or acts of terrorism around the world, which may contribute to further economic instability in the global financial markets, and international commerce. Additionally, any further escalations of tension between the U.S. and Iran could result in retaliation from Iran that could potentially affect the shipping industry, through increased attacks on vessels in the Strait of Hormuz (which already experienced an increased number of attacks on and seizures of vessels in 2019). These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. In the past, political conflicts have also resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt international shipping, particularly in the Arabian Gulf region. Acts of terrorism and piracy have also affected vessels trading in regions such as the South China Sea, the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia and, in particular the Gulf of Guinea region off Nigeria, which experienced increased incidents of piracy in 2019, which have declined during 2020. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our operating results. Additionally, Brexit, or similar events in other jurisdictions, could impact global markets, including foreign exchange and securities markets; any resulting changes in currency exchange rates, tariffs, treaties and other regulatory matters could in turn adversely impact our business and operations.

 

Outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases, including COVID-19, and governmental responses thereto could adversely affect our business.

 

Global public health threats, such as COVID-19 (as described more fully below), influenza and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, including China, could adversely impact our operations, as well as the operations of our customers. The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 that began in China and subsequently spread to other parts of the world has, among other things, caused delays and uncertainties relating to newbuildings, drydockings and other functions of shipyards.

 

The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), a virus causing potentially deadly respiratory tract infections first identified in China, has already caused severe global disruptions and may negatively affect economic conditions regionally as well as globally and otherwise impact our operations and the operations of our customers and suppliers. Governments in affected countries are imposing travel bans, quarantines and other emergency public health measures. In response to the virus, many countries have implemented lockdown measures, and other countries and local governments may enact similar policies. Companies are also taking precautions, such as requiring employees to work remotely, imposing travel restrictions and temporarily closing businesses. These restrictions, and future prevention and mitigation measures, are likely to have an adverse impact on global economic conditions, which could materially and adversely affect our future operations. Uncertainties regarding the economic impact of the COVID-19 outbreak is likely to result in sustained market turmoil, which could also negatively impact our business, financial condition and cash flows. As a result of these measures, our vessels may not be able to call on ports, or may be restricted from disembarking from ports, located in regions affected by the outbreak. In addition we may experience severe operational disruptions and delays, unavailability of normal port infrastructure and services including limited access to equipment, critical goods and personnel, disruptions to crew change, quarantine of ships and/or crew, counterparty solidity, closure of ports and custom offices, as well as disruptions in the supply chain and industrial production, which may lead to reduced cargo demand, amongst other potential consequences attendant to epidemic and pandemic diseases.

 

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The COVID-19 pandemic and measures to contain its spread have negatively impacted regional and global economies and trade patterns in markets in which we operate, the way we operate our business, and the businesses of our charterers and suppliers. These negative impacts could continue or worsen, even after the pandemic itself diminishes or ends. Companies, including us, have also taken precautions, such as requiring employees to work remotely and imposing travel restrictions, while some other businesses have been required to close entirely. Moreover, we face significant risks to our personnel and operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our crews face risk of exposure to COVID-19 as a result of travel to ports in which cases of COVID-19 have been reported. Our shore-based personnel likewise face risk of such exposure, as we maintain offices in areas that have been impacted by the spread of COVID-19.

 

Measures against COVID-19 in a number of countries have restricted crew rotations on our vessels, which may continue or become more severe. As a result, in 2020, we experienced and may continue to experience disruptions to our normal vessel operations caused by increased deviation time associated with positioning our vessels to countries in which we can undertake a crew rotation in compliance with such measures. Delays in crew rotations have led to issues with crew fatigue and may continue to do so, which may result in delays or other operational issues. We have had and expect to continue to have increased expenses due to incremental fuel consumption and days in which our vessels are unable to earn revenue in order to deviate to certain ports on which we would ordinarily not call during a typical voyage. We may also incur additional expenses associated with testing, personal protective equipment, quarantines, and travel expenses such as airfare costs in order to perform crew rotations in the current environment. In 2020, delays in crew rotations have also caused us to incur additional costs related to crew bonuses paid to retain the existing crew members on board and may continue to do so.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic and measures in place against the spread of the virus have led to a highly difficult environment in which to dispose of vessels given difficulty to physically inspect vessels. The impact of COVID-19 has also resulted in reduced industrial activity in China with temporary closures of factories and other facilities, labor shortages and restrictions on travel. We believe these disruptions along with other seasonal factors, including lower demand for some of the cargoes we carry such as iron ore and coal, have contributed to lower drybulk rates in 2020.

 

Epidemics may also affect personnel operating payment systems through which we receive revenues from the chartering of our vessels or pay for our expenses, resulting in delays in payments. Organizations across industries, including ours, are rightly focusing on their employees’ well-being, while making sure that their operations continue undisrupted and at the same time, adapting to the new ways of operating. As such employees are encouraged or even required to operate remotely which significantly increases the risk of cyber security attacks.

 

At present, it is not possible to ascertain the overall impact of COVID-19 on our business. However, the occurrence of any of the foregoing events or other epidemics or an increase in the severity or duration of the COVID-19 or other epidemics could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, value of our vessels, and ability to pay dividends.

 

The extent of the COVID-19 outbreak’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the outbreak, any resurgence or mutation of the virus, the availability of vaccines and their global deployment, the development of effective treatments, the imposition of effective public safety and other protective measures and the public’s response to such measures. There continues to be a high level of uncertainty relating to how the pandemic will evolve, how governments and consumers will react and progress on the approval and distribution of vaccines, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving landscape. As a result, the ultimate severity of the COVID-19 outbreak is uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the impact it may have on our future operations, which impact could be material and adverse, particularly if the pandemic continues to evolve into a severe worldwide health crisis.

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Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business.

 

Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in regions of the world such as the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea and in particular the Gulf of Guinea region off Nigeria, which experienced increased incidents of piracy in 2019. Although the frequency of sea piracy worldwide has generally decreased since 2013, sea piracy incidents continue to occur. Acts of piracy could result in harm or danger to the crews that man our vessels. In addition, if these piracy attacks occur in regions in which our vessels are deployed that insurers characterized as "war risk" zones or Joint War Committee "war and strikes" listed areas, premiums payable for such coverage could increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain. In addition, crew costs, including due to employing onboard security guards, could increase in such circumstances. Furthermore, while we believe the charterer remains liable for charter payments when a vessel is seized by pirates, the charterer may dispute this and withhold charterhire until the vessel is released. A charterer may also claim that a vessel seized by pirates was not "on-hire" for a certain number of days and is therefore entitled to cancel the charter party, a claim that we would dispute. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, any detention hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost, or unavailability, of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and earnings.

 

Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results.

 

We operate our vessels in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in demand and, as a result, in charter hire rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our operating results. The dry bulk carrier market is typically stronger in the fall and winter months in anticipation of increased consumption of coal and other raw materials in the northern hemisphere during the winter months. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and supplies of certain commodities. As a result, our revenues may be weaker during the fiscal quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and, conversely, our revenues may be stronger in fiscal quarters ended December 31 and March 31. While this seasonality will not directly affect our operating results, it could materially affect our operating results to the extent our vessels are employed in the spot market in the future.

 

An increase in the price of fuel may adversely affect our profits.

 

While we generally will not bear the cost of fuel or bunkers for vessels operating on time charters, fuel is a significant factor in negotiating charter rates. As a result, an increase in the price of fuel beyond our expectations may adversely affect our profitability at the time of charter negotiation. Fuel is also a significant, if not the largest, expense in shipping when vessels are under voyage charter. The price and supply of fuel is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geopolitical developments, supply of and demand for oil and gas, actions by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC and other oil and gas producers, war and unrest in oil producing countries and regions, regional production patterns and environmental concerns and regulations. In March 2020 the price of oil decreased significantly due to economic conditions and an increase in oil production. However, fuel prices have increased since then and may continue to increase in the future, including as a result of the continuing impact new regulations mandating a reduction in sulfur emissions to 0.5% as of January 2020. An increase in oil price in the future may reduce the profitability and competitiveness of our business versus other forms of transportation, such as truck or rail. Other future regulations may have a similar impact.

 

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We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.

 

Our business and the operations of our vessels are materially affected by environmental regulation in the form of international conventions, national, state and local laws and regulations in force in the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate, as well as in the country or countries of their registration, including those governing the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of oil spills and other contamination, air emissions (including greenhouse gases), water discharges and ballast water management. These regulations include, but are not limited to, European Union regulations, the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990, requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard, or USCG and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 (including its amendments of 1977 and 1990) , the U.S. Clean Water Act, and the U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, and regulations of the IMO, including the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969, the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships of 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978, collectively referred to as MARPOL 73/78 or MARPOL, including designations of Emission Control Areas, thereunder, SOLAS, the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966, the International Convention of Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, and the ISM Code. Because such conventions, laws, and regulations are often revised, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with such requirements or the impact thereof on the re-sale price or useful life of any vessel that we own or will acquire. Additional conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of our doing business and which may materially adversely affect our operations. Government regulation of vessels, particularly in the areas of safety and environmental requirements, continue to change, requiring us to incur significant capital expenditures on our vessels to keep them in compliance, or even to scrap or sell certain vessels altogether. In addition, we may incur significant costs in meeting new maintenance and inspection requirements, in developing contingency arrangements for potential environmental violations and in obtaining insurance coverage.

 

In addition, we are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses, certificates, approvals and financial assurances with respect to our operations. Our failure to maintain necessary permits, licenses, certificates, approvals or financial assurances could require us to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of the vessels in our fleet, or lead to the invalidation or reduction of our insurance coverage.

 

Environmental requirements can also affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, require a reduction in cargo capacity, ship modifications or operational changes or restrictions, lead to decreased availability of insurance coverage for environmental matters or result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports, or detention in certain ports. Under local, national and foreign laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including for cleanup obligations and natural resource damages, in the event that there is a release of petroleum or hazardous substances from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations. We could also become subject to personal injury or property damage claims relating to the release of hazardous substances associated with our existing or historic operations. Violations of, or liabilities under, environmental requirements can result in substantial penalties, fines and other sanctions, including in certain instances, seizure or detention of our vessels.

 

Increased inspection procedures, tighter import and export controls and new security regulations could increase costs and disrupt our business.

 

International shipping is subject to various security and customs inspection and related procedures in countries of origin, destination and trans-shipment points. These security procedures may result in cargo seizure, delays in the loading, offloading, trans-shipment or delivery and the levying of customs duties, fines or other penalties against us.

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It is possible that changes to inspection procedures could impose additional financial and legal obligations on us. Changes to inspection procedures could also impose additional costs and obligations on our customers and may, in certain cases, render the shipment of certain types of cargo uneconomical or impractical. Any such changes or developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and earnings.

 

The operation of dry bulk carriers has certain unique operational risks which could affect our earnings and cash flow.

 

The international shipping industry is an inherently risky business involving global operations. Our vessels and their cargoes are at risk of being damaged or lost because of events such as marine disasters, bad weather, mechanical failures, human error, environmental accidents, war, terrorism, piracy and other circumstances or events. In addition, transporting cargoes across a wide variety of international jurisdictions creates a risk of business interruptions due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities, labor strikes and boycotts, the potential for changes in tax rates or policies, and the potential for government expropriation of our vessels. Any of these events may result in loss of revenues, increased costs and decreased cash flows to our customers, which could impair their ability to make payments to us under our charters.

 

Furthermore, the operation of vessels, such as dry bulk carriers, has certain unique risks. With a dry bulk carrier, the cargo itself and its interaction with the vessel can be an operational risk. By their nature, dry bulk cargoes are often heavy, dense, easily shifted, and react badly to water exposure. In addition, dry bulk carriers are often subjected to battering treatment during unloading operations with grabs, jackhammers (to pry encrusted cargoes out of the hold) and small bulldozers. This treatment may cause damage to the vessel. Vessels damaged due to treatment during unloading procedures may be more susceptible to breach to the sea. Hull breaches in dry bulk carriers may lead to the flooding of the vessels' holds. If a dry bulk carrier suffers flooding in its forward holds, the bulk cargo may become so dense and waterlogged that its pressure may buckle the vessel's bulkheads leading to the loss of a vessel. If we are unable to adequately repair our vessels after such damages, we may be unable to prevent these events. Any of these circumstances or events could negatively impact our business, financial condition, earnings, and ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future, and interest on our Bond. In addition, the loss of any of our vessels could harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be adequately insured against all risks or that we will be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates for our vessels in the future. For example, in the past more stringent environmental regulations have led to increased costs for, and in the future may result in the lack of availability of, insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. Additionally, our insurers may refuse to pay particular claims. Any significant loss or liability for which we are not insured could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

 

If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories that are the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government, the European Union, the United Nations, or other governmental authorities, it could lead to monetary fines or penalties and may adversely affect our reputation and the market for our securities.

 

If our vessels call on ports or operate in countries subject to sanctions and embargoes imposed by the U.S. government or other governmental authorities (“Sanctioned Jurisdictions”) in violation of sanctions or embargoes laws, such activities may result in a sanctions violation and we could be subject to monetary fines, penalties, or other sanctions, and our reputation and the market for our ordinary shares could adversely affected. Although we endeavor to take precautions reasonably designed to mitigate such risks, it is possible that, in the future, our vessels may call on ports located in Sanctioned Jurisdictions on charterer’s instructions and/or without our consent. If such activities

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result in a violation of sanctions or embargo laws, we could be subject to monetary fines, penalties, or other sanctions, and our reputation and the market for our securities could be adversely affected.

 

The U.S. and other sanctions and embargo laws and regulations vary in their application, as they do not all apply to the same covered persons or proscribe the same activities, and such sanctions and embargo laws and regulations may be amended or expanded over time. Current or future counterparties of ours may be affiliated with persons or entities that are or may be in the future the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the governments of the U.S., the EU, and/or other international bodies. If we determine that such sanctions require us to terminate existing or future contracts to which we, or our subsidiaries, are party or if we are found to be in violation of such applicable sanctions, our results of operations may be adversely affected or we may suffer reputational harm.

 

Although we believe that we have been in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations. Any such violation could result in fines, penalties or other sanctions that could negatively impact our ability to access U.S. capital markets and conduct our business, and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in us. In addition, certain institutional investors may have investment policies or restrictions that prevent them from holding securities of companies that have contracts with countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. The determination by these investors not to invest in, or to divest from, our common stock may adversely affect the price at which our common stock trades. Moreover, our charterers may violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations as a result of actions that do not involve us or our vessels, and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation. In addition, our reputation and the market for our securities may be adversely affected if we engage in certain other activities, such as entering into charters with individuals or entities that are not controlled by the governments of countries or territories that are the subject of certain U.S. sanctions or embargo laws, or engaging in operations associated with those countries or territories pursuant to contracts with third parties that are unrelated to those countries or territories or entities controlled by their governments. Investor perception of the value of our common stock may be adversely affected by the consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest and governmental actions in the countries or territories that we operate in.

 

The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.

 

We expect that our vessels will call in ports in areas where smugglers attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face governmental or other regulatory claims which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

 

Maritime claimants could arrest or attach our vessels, which would interrupt our business or have a negative effect on our cash flows.

 

Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo, lenders, and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against that vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lien holder may enforce its lien by arresting or attaching a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could interrupt our business or require us to pay large sums of funds to have the arrest or attachment lifted, which would have a negative effect on our cash flows.

 

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In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the "sister-ship" theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel that is subject to the claimant's maritime lien and any "associated" vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert "sister-ship" liability against one vessel in our fleet for claims relating to another of our ships.

 

We conduct business in China, where the legal system is not fully developed and has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protections available to us.

 

Some of our vessels may be chartered to Chinese customers and from time to time on our charterers' instructions, our vessels may call on Chinese ports. Such charters and voyages may be subject to regulations in China that may require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and may require that we pay to the Chinese government new taxes or other fees. Applicable laws and regulations in China may not be well publicized and may not be known to us or to our charterers in advance of us or our charterers becoming subject to them, and the implementation of such laws and regulations may be inconsistent. Changes in Chinese laws and regulations, including with regards to tax matters, or changes in their implementation by local authorities could affect our vessels if chartered to Chinese customers as well as our vessels calling to Chinese ports and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in a loss of earnings.

 

A government could requisition one or more of our vessels for title or for hire. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes her owner, while requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes her charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during periods of war or emergency, although governments may elect to requisition vessels in other circumstances. Although we would be entitled to compensation in the event of a requisition of one or more of our vessels, the amount and timing of payment would be uncertain. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels may negatively impact our revenues and reduce the amount of cash we may have available for distribution as dividends to our shareholders, if any such dividends are declared.

 

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could result in fines, criminal penalties and an adverse effect on our business.

 

We may operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including countries suspected to have a risk of corruption. We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have adopted measures designed to ensure compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”). We are subject, however, to the risk that we, our affiliated entities or our or their respective officers, directors, employees and agents may take actions determined to be in violation of such anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our business, earnings or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.

 

Changing laws and evolving reporting requirements could have an adverse effect on our business.

 

Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to reporting requirements, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, may create additional compliance requirements for us.

 

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GDPR broadens the scope of personal privacy laws to protect the rights of European Union citizens and requires organizations to report on data breaches within 72 hours and be bound by more stringent rules for obtaining the consent of individuals on how their data can be used. GDPR has become enforceable on May 25, 2018 and non-compliance may expose entities to significant fines or other regulatory claims which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operations.

 

Company Specific Risk Factors

 

The market values of our vessels have declined in recent years and may further decline, which could limit the amount of funds that we can borrow and could trigger breaches of certain financial covenants contained in our loan facilities, which could adversely affect our operating results, and we may incur a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market values.

 

The market values of our vessels, which are related to prevailing freight charter rates, have declined significantly in recent years. While the market values of vessels and the freight charter market have a very close relationship as the charter market moves from trough to peak, the time lag between the effect of charter rates on market values of ships can vary.

 

The market values of our vessels have generally experienced high volatility, and you should expect the market values of our vessels to fluctuate depending on a number of factors including:

 

the prevailing level of charter hire rates;

 

general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry;

 

competition from other shipping companies and other modes of transportation;

 

the types, sizes and ages of vessels;

 

the supply of and demand for vessels;

 

applicable governmental or other regulations;

 

technological advances;

 

the need to upgrade vessels as a result of charterer requirements, technological advances in vessel design or equipment or otherwise; and

 

the cost of newbuildings.

 

The market values of our vessels are at low levels compared to historical averages and if the market values of our vessels were to decline further, we may not be in compliance with certain covenants contained in our current and future loan facilities and we may not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing or incur debt on terms that are acceptable to us or at all. As at December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with all of the covenants in our loan facilities. If we are not able to comply with the covenants in our loan facilities or are unable to obtain waivers or amendments or otherwise remedy the relevant breach, our lenders could accelerate our debt and foreclose on our vessels.

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Furthermore, if we sell any of our owned vessels at a time when prices are depressed, our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition could be adversely affected. Moreover, if we sell a vessel at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be at less than the vessel's carrying amount in our financial statements, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings. In addition, if vessel values persist or decline further, we may have to record an impairment adjustment in our financial statements which could adversely affect our financial results.

 

We charter some of our vessels on short-term time charters in a volatile shipping industry and a decline in charter hire rates could affect our results of operations and our ability to pay dividends.

 

Although significant exposure to short-term time charters is not unusual in the dry bulk shipping industry, the short-term time charter market is highly competitive and spot market charter hire rates (which affect time charter rates) may fluctuate significantly based upon available charters and the supply of, and demand for, seaborne shipping capacity. While the short-term time charter market may enable us to benefit in periods of increasing charter hire rates, we must consistently renew our charters and this dependence makes us vulnerable to declining charter rates. As a result of the volatility in the dry bulk carrier charter market, we may not be able to employ our vessels upon the termination of their existing charters at their current charter hire rates or at all. The dry bulk carrier charter market is volatile, and in the recent past, short-term time charter and spot market charter rates for some dry bulk carriers declined below the operating costs of those vessels before rising. We cannot assure you that future charter hire rates will enable us to operate our vessels profitably, or to pay dividends.

 

Rising crew costs could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Due to an increase in the size of the global shipping fleet, the limited supply of and increased demand for crew has created upward pressure on crew costs. Continued higher crew costs or further increases in crew costs could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Our investment in Diana Wilhelmsen Management Limited may expose us to additional risks.

 

During 2015 we invested in a 50/50 joint venture with Wilhelmsen Ship Management which provides management services to a limited number of vessels in our fleet and to affiliated companies, but our eventual goal is to provide fleet management services to unaffiliated third party vessel operators. While this joint venture may provide us in the future with a potential revenue source, it may also expose us to risks such as low customer satisfaction, increased operating costs compared to those we would achieve for our vessels, and inability to adequately staff our vessels with crew that meets our expectations or to maintain our vessels according to our standards, which would adversely affect our financial condition. As of December 31, 2020, our investment in Diana Wilhelmsen Management Limited, or DWM, turned to a liability due to increased costs incurred by DWM in relation to a pollution incident of one of the managed vessels.

 

A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.

 

We rely on information technology systems and networks in our operations and administration of our business. Information systems are vulnerable to security breaches by computer hackers and cyber terrorists. We rely on industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches. Our business operations could be targeted by individuals or groups seeking to sabotage or disrupt our information technology systems and networks, or to steal data. A successful cyber-attack could materially disrupt

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our operations, including the safety of our operations, or lead to unauthorized release of information or alteration of information in our systems. Any such attack or other breach of our information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, the unavailability of the information systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and could result in decreased performance and increased operating costs, causing our business and results of operations to suffer. Any significant interruption or failure of our information systems or any significant breach of security could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Our systems were the subject of a malicious attack in September 2020 that resulted in disruptions to our computer networks for a period of several days. Although, we were able to successfully fully restore our systems with interruption to our business or operations, we have upgraded our security infrastructure and reformed network architecture and security policies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully thwart all future attacks with causing material and adverse effect on our business.

 

Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.

 

Due to concern over the risk of climate change, a number of countries and the IMO have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, regulatory frameworks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These regulatory measures may include, among others, adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. More specifically, on October 27, 2016, the International Maritime Organization’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (“MEPC”) announced its decision concerning the implementation of regulations mandating a reduction in sulfur emissions from 3.5% currently to 0.5% as of the beginning of January 1, 2020. Additionally, in April 2018, nations at the MEPC 72 adopted an initial strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The initial strategy identifies ―levels of ambition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including (1) decreasing the carbon intensity from ships through implementation of further phases of the EEDI for new ships; (2) reducing carbon dioxide emissions per transport work, as an average across international shipping, by at least 40% by 2030, pursuing efforts towards 70% by 2050, compared to 2008 emission levels; and (3) reducing the total annual greenhouse emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 while pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely.

 

Since January 1, 2020, ships have to either remove sulfur from emissions or buy fuel with low sulfur content, which may lead to increased costs and supplementary investments for ship owners. The interpretation of "fuel oil used on board" includes use in main engine, auxiliary engines and boilers. Shipowners may comply with this regulation by (i) using 0.5% sulfur fuels on board, which are available around the world but at a higher cost; (ii) installing scrubbers for cleaning of the exhaust gas; or (iii) by retrofitting vessels to be powered by liquefied natural gas, which may not be a viable option due to the lack of supply network and high costs involved in this process. Costs of compliance with these regulatory changes may be significant and may have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

 

In addition, although the emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping currently are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which required adopting countries to implement national programs to reduce emissions of certain gases, or the Paris Agreement (discussed further below), a new treaty may be adopted in the future that includes restrictions on shipping emissions. Compliance with changes in laws, regulations and obligations relating to climate change could increase our costs related to operating and maintaining our vessels and require us to install new emission controls, acquire allowances or pay taxes related to our greenhouse gas emissions or administer and manage a greenhouse gas emissions program. Revenue generation and strategic growth opportunities may also be adversely affected.

 

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Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.

 

Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. The increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may hinder access to capital, as investors and lenders may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of a company’s ESG practices. Companies which do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry shareholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such a company could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may face increasing pressures from investors, lenders and other market participants, who are increasingly focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. As a result, we may be required to implement more stringent ESG procedures or standards so that our existing and future investors and lenders remain invested in us and make further investments in us. If we do not meet these standards, our business and/or our ability to access capital could be harmed.

 

Additionally, certain investors and lenders may exclude companies, such as us, from their investing portfolios altogether due to environmental, social and governance factors. These limitations in both the debt and equity capital markets may affect our ability to grow as our plans for growth may include accessing the equity and debt capital markets. If those markets are unavailable, or if we are unable to access alternative means of financing on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be unable to implement our business strategy, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our indebtedness. Further, it is likely that we will incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with wide ranging ESG requirements. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

 

The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board inspection of our independent accounting firm, could lead to findings in our auditors’ reports and challenge the accuracy of our published audited consolidated financial statements.

 

Auditors of U.S. public companies are required by law to undergo periodic Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, inspections that assess their compliance with U.S. law and professional standards in connection with performance of audits of financial statements filed with the SEC. For several years certain European Union countries, including Greece, did not permit the PCAOB to conduct inspections of accounting firms established and operating in such European Union countries, even if they were part of major international firms. Accordingly, unlike for most U.S. public companies, the PCAOB was prevented from evaluating our auditor’s performance of audits and its quality control procedures, and, unlike stockholders of most U.S. public companies, we and our stockholders were deprived of the possible benefits of such inspections. Since 2015, Greece has agreed to allow the PCAOB to conduct inspections of accounting firms operating in Greece. In the future, such PCAOB inspections could result in findings in our auditors’ quality control procedures, question the validity of the auditor’s reports on our published consolidated financial statements and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, and cast doubt upon the accuracy of our published audited financial statements.

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Our earnings may be adversely affected if we are not able to take advantage of favorable charter rates.

 

We charter our dry bulk carriers to customers pursuant to short, medium or long-term time charters. However, as part of our business strategy, the majority of our vessels are currently fixed on short to medium-term time charters. We may extend the charter periods for additional vessels in our fleet, including additional dry bulk carriers that we may purchase in the future, to take advantage of the relatively stable cash flow and high utilization rates that are associated with long-term time charters. While we believe that long-term charters provide us with relatively stable cash flows and higher utilization rates than shorter-term charters, our vessels that are committed to long-term charters may not be available for employment on short-term charters during periods of increasing short-term charter hire rates when these charters may be more profitable than long-term charters.

 

Investment in derivative instruments such as forward freight agreements could result in losses.

 

From time to time, we may take positions in derivative instruments including forward freight agreements, or FFAs. FFAs and other derivative instruments may be used to hedge a vessel owner's exposure to the charter market by providing for the sale of a contracted charter rate along a specified route and period of time. Upon settlement, if the contracted charter rate is less than the average of the rates, as reported by an identified index, for the specified route and period, the seller of the FFA is required to pay the buyer an amount equal to the difference between the contracted rate and the settlement rate, multiplied by the number of days in the specified period. Conversely, if the contracted rate is greater than the settlement rate, the buyer is required to pay the seller the settlement sum. If we take positions in FFAs or other derivative instruments and do not correctly anticipate charter rate movements over the specified route and time period, we could suffer losses in the settling or termination of the FFA. This could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.

 

We may have difficulty effectively managing any growth, which may adversely affect our earnings.

 

Since the completion of our initial public offering in March 2005, we have increased our fleet to 51 vessels in operation in 2017, and decreased it to 38, as of the date of this annual report. The significant increase in the size of our fleet has imposed significant additional responsibilities on our management and staff. We may grow our fleet further in the future and this may require us to increase the number of our personnel. We may also have to increase our customer base to provide continued employment for the new vessels.

 

Any future growth will primarily depend on our ability to:

 

locate and acquire suitable vessels;

 

identify and consummate acquisitions or joint ventures;

 

enhance our customer base;

 

manage our expansion; and

 

obtain required financing on acceptable terms.

 

Growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks, such as undisclosed liabilities and obligations, the possibility that indemnification agreements will be unenforceable or insufficient to cover potential losses and difficulties associated with imposing common standards, controls, procedures and policies, obtaining additional

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qualified personnel, managing relationships with customers and integrating newly acquired assets and operations into existing infrastructure. We cannot give any assurance that we will be successful in executing any future growth plans or that we will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection with our future growth.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to borrow amounts under our loan facilities and restrictive covenants in our loan facilities impose financial and other restrictions on us.

 

We have entered into several loan agreements to finance vessel acquisitions and the construction of newbuildings. As of December 31, 2020, we had $423.1 million outstanding under our facilities and bond. Our ability to borrow amounts under our facilities is subject to the execution of customary documentation relating to the facility, including security documents, satisfaction of certain customary conditions precedent and compliance with terms and conditions included in the loan documents. Prior to each drawdown, we are required, among other things, to provide the lender with acceptable valuations of the vessels in our fleet confirming that the vessels in our fleet have a minimum value and that the vessels in our fleet that secure our obligations under the facilities are sufficient to satisfy minimum security requirements. To the extent that we are not able to satisfy these requirements, including as a result of a decline in the value of our vessels, we may not be able to draw down the full amount under the facilities without obtaining a waiver or consent from the lender. We will also not be permitted to borrow amounts under the facilities if we experience a change of control.

 

The loan facilities also impose operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may limit our ability to, among other things:

 

pay dividends if we do not repay amounts drawn under our loan facilities, if there is a default under the loan facilities or if the payment of the dividend would result in a default or breach of a loan covenant;

 

incur additional indebtedness, including through the issuance of guarantees;

 

change the flag, class or management of our vessels;

 

create liens on our assets;

 

sell our vessels;

 

enter into a time charter or consecutive voyage charters that have a term that exceeds, or which by virtue of any optional extensions may exceed a certain period;

 

merge or consolidate with, or transfer all or substantially all our assets to, another person; and

 

enter into a new line of business.

 

Therefore, we may need to seek permission from our lenders in order to engage in some corporate actions. Our lenders’ interests may be different from ours and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain our lenders' permission when needed. This may limit our ability to finance our future operations, make acquisitions or pursue business opportunities.

 

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We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance indebtedness incurred under our loan facilities.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance our indebtedness with equity offerings or otherwise, on terms that are acceptable to us or at all. If we are not able to refinance these amounts with the net proceeds of equity offerings or otherwise, on terms acceptable to us or at all, we will have to dedicate a greater portion of our cash flow from operations to pay the principal and interest of this indebtedness than if we were able to refinance such amounts. If we are not able to satisfy these obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans. The actual or perceived credit quality of our charterers, any defaults by them, and the market value of our fleet, among other things, may materially affect our ability to obtain alternative financing. In addition, debt service payments under our loan facilities or alternative financing may limit funds otherwise available for working capital, capital expenditures and other purposes. If we are unable to meet our debt obligations, or if we otherwise default under our loan facilities or an alternative financing arrangement, our lenders could declare the debt, together with accrued interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable and foreclose on our fleet, which could result in the acceleration of other indebtedness that we may have at such time and the commencement of similar foreclosure proceedings by other lenders.

 

Purchasing and operating secondhand vessels may result in increased operating costs and reduced operating days, which may adversely affect our earnings.

 

While we have the right to inspect previously owned vessels prior to our purchase of them and we usually inspect secondhand vessels that we acquire, such inspections do not provide us with the same knowledge about their condition that we would have if these vessels had been built for, and operated exclusively by, us. A secondhand vessel may have conditions or defects that we were not aware of when we bought the vessel and which may require us to incur costly repairs to the vessel. These repairs may require us to put a vessel into drydock, which would reduce our operating days. Furthermore, we usually do not receive the benefit of warranties on secondhand vessels.

 

We are subject to certain risks with respect to our counterparties on contracts, and failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or otherwise adversely affect our business.

 

We enter into, among other things, charter parties with our customers. Such agreements subject us to counterparty risks. The ability and willingness of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the maritime and offshore industries, the overall financial condition of the counterparty, charter rates received for specific types of vessels, and various expenses. Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us, we could sustain significant losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

In addition, in depressed market conditions, our charterers may no longer need a vessel that is currently under charter or may be able to obtain a comparable vessel at lower rates. As a result, charterers may seek to renegotiate the terms of their existing charter agreements or avoid their obligations under those contracts. If our charterers fail to meet their obligations to us or attempt to renegotiate our charter agreements, it may be difficult to secure substitute employment for such vessels, and any new charter arrangements we secure may be at lower rates. As a result, we could sustain significant losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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In the highly competitive international shipping industry, we may not be able to compete for charters with new entrants or established companies with greater resources, and as a result, we may be unable to employ our vessels profitably.

 

We employ our vessels in a highly competitive market that is capital intensive and highly fragmented. Competition arises primarily from other vessel owners, some of whom have substantially greater resources than we do. Competition for the transportation of dry bulk cargo by sea is intense and depends on price, location, size, age, condition and the acceptability of the vessel and its operators to the charterers. Due in part to the highly fragmented market, competitors with greater resources than us could enter the dry bulk shipping industry and operate larger fleets through consolidations or acquisitions and may be able to offer lower charter rates and higher quality vessels than we are able to offer. If we are unable to successfully compete with other dry bulk shipping companies, our results of operations may be adversely impacted.

 

We recently underwent a transition with respect to certain of our directors and executive officers and this transition, along with the possibility that we may in the future be unable to retain and recruit qualified key executives, key employees or key consultants, may delay our development efforts or otherwise harm our business.

 

Effective March 1, 2021, our board of directors has appointed Mrs. Semiramis Paliou as our Chief Executive Officer. Accordingly, she no longer serves in her previous positions as Chief Operating Officer and Deputy Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Simeon Palios’ position as Chairman of the Board of Directors remains unchanged and he serves in such capacity as non-executive Chairman. Mr. Ioannis Zafirakis, who served as an interim Chief Financial Officer since February 2020, has been appointed Chief Financial Officer on a permanent basis. Mr. Zafirakis also remains the Chief Strategy Officer, Treasurer and Secretary of the Company. Mr. Eleftherios Papatrifon has joined the Company and has been appointed to the position of Chief Operating Officer.

 

Our future development and prospects depend to a large degree on the experience, performance and continued service of our senior management team. Retention of these services or the identification of suitable replacements in case of future vacancies cannot be guaranteed. There can be no guarantee that the services of the current directors and senior management team will be retained, or that suitably skilled and qualified individuals can be identified and employed, which may adversely impact our ability to commercial and financial performance. The loss of the services of any of the directors or other members of the senior management team and the costs of recruiting replacements may have a material adverse effect on our commercial and financial performance as well. If we are unable to hire, train and retain such personnel in a timely manner, our operations could be delayed and our ability to grow our business will be impaired and the delay and inability may have a detrimental effect upon our performance.

 

We may be unable to attract and retain key management personnel and other employees in the shipping industry, which may negatively impact the effectiveness of our management and results of operations.

 

Our success depends to a significant extent upon the abilities and efforts of our management team. We have entered into employment contracts with our Chief Executive Officer Mrs. Semiramis Paliou; our President, Mr. Anastasios Margaronis; our Chief Financial Officer, Chief Strategy Officer, Treasurer and Secretary Mr. Ioannis Zafirakis and our Chief Operating Officer Mr. Eleftherios Papatrifon. Our success will depend upon our ability to retain key members of our management team and to hire new members as may be necessary. The loss of any of these individuals could adversely affect our business prospects and financial condition. Difficulty in hiring and retaining replacement personnel could have a similar effect. We do not currently, nor do we intend to, maintain “key man” life insurance on any of our officers or other members of our management team.

 

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Technological innovation and quality and efficiency requirements from our customers could reduce our charterhire income and the value of our vessels.

 

Our customers, have a high and increasing focus on quality and compliance standards with their suppliers across the entire supply chain, including the shipping and transportation segment. Our continued compliance with these standards and quality requirements is vital for our operations. The charterhire rates and the value and operational life of a vessel are determined by a number of factors including the vessel’s efficiency, operational flexibility and physical life. Efficiency includes speed, fuel economy and the ability to load and discharge cargo quickly. Flexibility includes the ability to enter harbors, utilize related docking facilities and pass through canals and straits. The length of a vessel’s physical life is related to its original design and construction, its maintenance and the impact of the stress of operations. If new vessels are built that are more efficient or more flexible or have longer physical lives than our vessels, competition from these more technologically advanced vessels could adversely affect the amount of charterhire payments we receive for our vessels and the resale value of our vessels could significantly decrease. This could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

 

We may not have adequate insurance to compensate us if we lose our vessels or to compensate third parties.

 

We procure insurance for our fleet against risks commonly insured against by vessel owners and operators. Our current insurance includes hull and machinery insurance, war risks insurance and protection and indemnity insurance (which includes environmental damage and pollution insurance). We can give no assurance that we are adequately insured against all risks or that our insurers will pay a particular claim. Even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to timely obtain a replacement vessel in the event of a loss. Furthermore, in the future, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates for our fleet. We may also be subject to calls, or premiums, in amounts based not only on our own claim records but also the claim records of all other members of the protection and indemnity associations through which we receive indemnity insurance coverage for tort liability. Our insurance policies also contain deductibles, limitations and exclusions which, although we believe are standard in the shipping industry, may nevertheless increase our costs.

 

Our vessels may suffer damage and we may face unexpected drydocking costs, which could adversely affect our cash flow and financial condition.

 

If our vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and can be substantial. The loss of earnings while a vessel is being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs not covered by our insurance, would decrease our earnings and available cash. We may not have insurance that is sufficient to cover all or any of the costs or losses for damages to our vessels and may have to pay drydocking costs not covered by our insurance.

 

The aging of our fleet may result in increased operating costs in the future, which could adversely affect our earnings.

 

In general, the cost of maintaining a vessel in good operating condition increases with the age of the vessel. Currently, our fleet consists of 38 vessels in operation, having a combined carrying capacity of 4.8 million dead weight tons, or dwt, and a weighted average age of 10.2 years as of the date of this report. As our fleet ages, we will incur increased costs. Older vessels are typically less fuel efficient and more costly to maintain than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine technology. Cargo insurance rates increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers. Governmental regulations and safety or other equipment standards related to the age of vessels may also require expenditures for alterations or the addition of new equipment to our vessels and may restrict the type of activities in which our vessels may engage. We cannot assure you that, as our vessels age,

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market conditions will justify those expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels profitably during the remainder of their useful lives.

 

We are exposed to U.S. dollar and foreign currency fluctuations and devaluations that could harm our reported revenue and results of operations.

 

We generate all of our revenues in U.S. dollars but incur around half of our operating expenses and our general and administrative expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, primarily the Euro. Because a significant portion of our expenses is incurred in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, our expenses may from time to time increase relative to our revenues as a result of fluctuations in exchange rates, particularly between the U.S. dollar and the Euro, which could affect the amount of net income that we report in future periods. While we historically have not mitigated the risk associated with exchange rate fluctuations through the use of financial derivatives, we may employ such instruments from time to time in the future in order to minimize this risk. Our use of financial derivatives would involve certain risks, including the risk that losses on a hedged position could exceed the nominal amount invested in the instrument and the risk that the counterparty to the derivative transaction may be unable or unwilling to satisfy its contractual obligations, which could have an adverse effect on our results.

 

Volatility of LIBOR and potential changes of the use of LIBOR as a benchmark could affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.

 

The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms and other pressures may cause LIBOR to be eliminated or to perform differently than in the past. On November 30, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”), the administrator of LIBOR, with the support of the United States Federal Reserve and the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, announced plans to consult on ceasing publication of U.S. Dollar LIBOR on December 31, 2021 for only the one-week and two-month U.S. Dollar LIBOR tenors, and on June 30, 2023 for all other U.S. Dollar LIBOR tenors. The United States Federal Reserve concurrently issued a statement advising banks to stop new U.S. Dollar LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. Such announcements indicate that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis will not be guaranteed after 2021.

 

The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, but could include an increase in the cost of our variable rate indebtedness and obligations. LIBOR has been volatile in the past, with the spread between LIBOR and the prime lending rate widening significantly at times. Because the interest rates borne by a majority of our outstanding indebtedness fluctuate with changes in LIBOR, significant changes in LIBOR would have a material effect on the amount of interest payable on our debt, which in turn, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

 

Furthermore, the calculation of interest in most financing agreements in our industry has been based on published LIBOR rates. Due in part to uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process, in recent years, as discussed above it is likely that LIBOR will be phased out in the future. As a result, lenders have insisted on provisions that entitle the lenders, in their discretion, to replace published LIBOR as the base for the interest calculation with their cost-of-funds rate. If we are required to agree to such a provision in future financing agreements, our lending costs could increase significantly, which would have an adverse effect on our profitability, earnings and cash flow. In addition, the banks currently reporting information used to set LIBOR will likely stop such reporting after 2021, when their commitment to reporting information ends. The Alternative Reference Rate Committee, a committee convened by the Federal Reserve that includes major market participants, has proposed an alternative rate to replace U.S. Dollar LIBOR: the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or “SOFR.” The impact of such a transition from LIBOR to SOFR could be significant for us.

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In order to manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, we may use interest rate derivatives to effectively fix some of our floating rate debt obligations. No assurance can however be given that the use of these derivative instruments, if any, may effectively protect us from adverse interest rate movements. The use of interest rate derivatives may affect our results through mark to market valuation of these derivatives. Also, adverse movements in interest rate derivatives may require us to post cash as collateral, which may impact our free cash position. Interest rate derivatives may also be impacted by the transition from LIBOR to SOFR or other alternative rates.

 

We depend upon a few significant customers for a large part of our revenues and the loss of one or more of these customers could adversely affect our financial performance.

 

We have historically derived a significant part of our revenues from a small number of charterers. During 2020, 2019, and 2018, approximately 34%, 60% and 56%, respectively, of our revenues were derived from two, four and four charterers, respectively. If one or more of our charterers chooses not to charter our vessels or is unable to perform under one or more charters with us and we are not able to find a replacement charter, we could suffer a loss of revenues that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are a holding company, and we depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations.

 

We are a holding company and our subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and own all of our operating assets. We have no significant assets other than the equity interests in our subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to satisfy our financial obligations depends on our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute funds to us. If we are unable to obtain funds from our subsidiaries, we may not be able to satisfy our financial obligations.

 

Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.

 

We are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, the majority of our directors and officers are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of the assets of these non-residents are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for someone to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States if they believe that their rights have been infringed under securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Marshall Islands and of other jurisdictions may prevent or restrict them from enforcing a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors or officers.

 

The international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and we conduct operations in countries around the world. Consequently, in the event of any bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or similar proceeding involving us or any of our subsidiaries, bankruptcy laws other than those of the United States could apply. If we become a debtor under U.S. bankruptcy law, bankruptcy courts in the United States may seek to assert jurisdiction over all of our assets, wherever located, including property situated in other countries. There can be no assurance, however, that we would become a debtor in the United States, or that a U.S. bankruptcy court would be entitled to, or accept, jurisdiction over such a bankruptcy case, or that courts in other countries that have jurisdiction over us and our operations would recognize a U.S. bankruptcy court’s jurisdiction if any other bankruptcy court would determine it had jurisdiction.

 

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If we expand our business further, we may need to improve our operating and financial systems and will need to recruit suitable employees and crew for our vessels.

 

Our current operating and financial systems may not be adequate if we further expand the size of our fleet and our attempts to improve those systems may be ineffective. In addition, if we expand our fleet further, we will need to recruit suitable additional seafarers and shoreside administrative and management personnel. While we have not experienced any difficulty in recruiting to date, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to continue to hire suitable employees if we expand our fleet. If we or our crewing agents encounter business or financial difficulties, we may not be able to adequately staff our vessels. If we are unable to grow our financial and operating systems or to recruit suitable employees should we determine to expand our fleet, our financial performance may be adversely affected, among other things.

 

We may have to pay tax on U.S. source income, which would reduce our earnings.

 

Under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, 50% of the gross shipping income of a vessel-owning or chartering corporation, such as ourselves and our subsidiaries, that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States is characterized as U.S. source shipping income and such income is generally subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax without allowance for deductions, unless that corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under Section 883 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

We expect that we and each of our subsidiaries qualify for this statutory tax exemption for the 2020 taxable year and we will take this position for U.S. federal income tax return reporting purposes. However, there are factual circumstances beyond our control that could cause us to lose the benefit of this tax exemption in future years and thereby become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our U.S. source shipping income. For example, in certain circumstances we may no longer qualify for exemption under Code Section 883 for a particular taxable year if shareholders, other than “qualified shareholders”, with a five percent or greater interest in our common shares owned, in the aggregate, 50% or more of our outstanding common shares for more than half the days during the taxable year. Due to the factual nature of the issues involved, we can give no assurances on our tax-exempt status or that of any of our subsidiaries.

 

If we or our subsidiaries are not entitled to this exemption under Section 883 of the Code for any taxable year, we or our subsidiaries would be subject for those years to a 4% U.S. federal income tax on our gross U.S.-source shipping income. The imposition of this taxation could have a negative effect on our business and would result in decreased earnings available for distribution to our shareholders, although, for the 2020 taxable year, we estimate our maximum U.S. federal income tax liability to be immaterial if we were subject to this U.S. federal income tax. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation" for a more comprehensive discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations.

 

U.S. federal tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company”, which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.

 

A foreign corporation will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company”, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income” or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation's assets produce or are held for the production of those types of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, gains from the sale or exchange of investment property, and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income.” U.S. shareholders of a PFIC

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are subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.

 

Based on our current and proposed method of operation, we do not believe that we will be a PFIC with respect to any taxable year. In this regard, we intend to treat the gross income we derive or are deemed to derive from our time chartering activities as services income, rather than rental income. Accordingly, we believe that our income from our time chartering activities does not constitute “passive income,” and the assets that we own and operate in connection with the production of that income do not constitute assets that produce or are held for the production of “passive income”.

 

There is substantial legal authority supporting this position consisting of case law and U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or “IRS”, pronouncements concerning the characterization of income derived from time charters and voyage charters as services income for other tax purposes. However, it should be noted that there is also authority which characterizes time charter income as rental income rather than services income for other tax purposes. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the IRS or a court of law will accept this position, and there is a risk that the IRS or a court of law could determine that we are a PFIC. Moreover, no assurance can be given that we would not constitute a PFIC for any future taxable year if the nature and extent of our operations changed.

 

If the IRS or a court of law were to find that we are or have been a PFIC for any taxable year, our U.S. shareholders would face adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. Under the PFIC rules, unless those shareholders make an election available under the Code (which election could itself have adverse consequences for such shareholders), such shareholders would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the then prevailing U.S. federal income tax rates on ordinary income plus interest upon excess distributions and upon any gain from the disposition of our common stock, as if the excess distribution or gain had been recognized ratably over the shareholder's holding period of our common stock. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation–United States Taxation of U.S. Holders–PFIC Status and Significant Tax Consequences" for a more comprehensive discussion of the U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our common stock if we are or were to be treated as a PFIC.

 

Risks Relating to Our Common Stock

 

Our board of directors has suspended the payment of cash dividends on our common stock. We cannot assure you that our board of directors will reinstate dividend payments in the future, or when such reinstatement might occur.

 

In order to position us to take advantage of market opportunities in a then-deteriorating market, our board of directors, beginning with the fourth quarter of 2008, suspended our common stock dividend. Our dividend policy will be assessed by our board of directors from time to time. We believe that this suspension has enhanced our flexibility by permitting cash flow that would have been devoted to dividends to be used for opportunities that have arisen, and may continue to arise in the marketplace, such as funding our operations, acquiring vessels and servicing our debt.

 

Our policy, prior to suspension of our dividend, was to declare quarterly distributions to shareholders by each February, May, August and November substantially equal to our available cash from operations during the previous quarter after accounting for cash expenses and reserves for scheduled drydockings, intermediate and special surveys and other purposes as our board of directors may from time to time determine are required, and after taking into account contingent liabilities, the terms of our loan facilities, our growth strategy and other cash needs and the

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requirements of Marshall Islands law. The declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will always be subject to the discretion of our board of directors. The timing and amount of any dividends declared will depend on, among other things, our earnings, financial condition and cash requirements and availability, our ability to obtain debt and equity financing on acceptable terms as contemplated by our growth strategy and provisions of Marshall Islands law affecting the payment of dividends. In addition, other external factors, such as our lenders imposing restrictions on our ability to pay dividends under the terms of our loan facilities, may limit our ability to pay dividends. Further, under the terms of our loan agreements, we may not be permitted to pay dividends that would result in an event of default or if an event of default has occurred and is continuing.

 

Our growth strategy contemplates that we will finance the acquisition of additional vessels through a combination of debt and equity financing on terms acceptable to us. If financing is not available to us on acceptable terms, our board of directors may determine to finance or refinance acquisitions with cash from operations, which could also reduce or even eliminate the amount of cash available for the payment of dividends.

 

Marshall Islands law generally prohibits the payment of dividends other than from surplus (retained earnings and the excess of consideration received for the sale of shares above the par value of the shares) or while a company is insolvent or would be rendered insolvent by the payment of such a dividend. We may not have sufficient surplus in the future to pay dividends. We can give no assurance that we will reinstate our dividends in the future or when such reinstatement might occur.

 

In addition, our ability to pay dividends to holders of our common shares will be subject to the rights of holders of our Series B Preferred Shares, which rank prior to our common shares with respect to dividends, distributions and payments upon liquidation. No cash dividend may be paid on our common stock unless full cumulative dividends have been or contemporaneously are being paid or provided for on all outstanding Series B Preferred Shares for all prior and the then-ending dividend periods. Cumulative dividends on our Series B Preferred Shares accrue at a rate of 8.875% per annum per $25.00 stated liquidation preference per Series B Preferred Share, subject to increase upon the occurrence of certain events, and are payable, as and if declared by our board of directors, on January 15, April 15, July 15 and October 15 of each year, or, if any such dividend payment date otherwise would fall on a date that is not a business day, the immediately succeeding business day. For additional information about our Series B Preferred Shares, please see the section entitled "Description of Registrant's Securities to be Registered" of our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on February 13, 2014 and incorporated by reference herein.

 

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated widely and may fluctuate widely in the future, and there is no guarantee that there will continue to be an active and liquid public market for you to resell our common stock in the future.

 

The market price of our common stock is volatile and has fluctuated widely since our common stock began trading on the NYSE, and may continue to fluctuate due to factors such as:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results and those of other public companies in our industry;

 

mergers and strategic alliances in the dry bulk shipping industry;

 

market conditions in the dry bulk shipping industry;

 

changes in government regulation;

 

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shortfalls in our operating results from levels forecast by securities analysts;

 

announcements concerning us or our competitors; and

 

the general state of the securities market.

 

The dry bulk shipping industry has been highly unpredictable and volatile. The market for common stock in this industry may be equally volatile. Therefore, we cannot assure you that you will be able to sell any of our common stock you may have purchased at a price greater than or equal to its original purchase price, or that you will be able to sell our common stock at all.

 

Since we are incorporated in the Marshall Islands, which does not have a well-developed body of corporate law, you may have more difficulty protecting your interests than shareholders of a U.S. corporation.

 

Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated articles of incorporation and bylaws and by the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act, or the BCA. The provisions of the BCA resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the United States. However, there have been few judicial cases in the Marshall Islands interpreting the BCA. The rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under the laws of the Marshall Islands are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in the United States. The rights of shareholders of the Marshall Islands may differ from the rights of shareholders of companies incorporated in the United States. While the BCA provides that it is to be interpreted according to the laws of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions, there have been few, if any, court cases interpreting the BCA in the Marshall Islands and we cannot predict whether Marshall Islands courts would reach the same conclusions as U.S. courts. Thus, you may have more difficulty in protecting your interests in the face of actions by the management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a U.S. jurisdiction which has developed a relatively more substantial body of case law.

 

Certain existing shareholders will be able to exert considerable control over matters on which our shareholders are entitled to vote.

 

As of the date of this annual report, Mrs. Semiramis Paliou, our Chief Executive Officer and Director, beneficially owns 16,062,285 shares, or approximately 17.5% of our outstanding common stock, which is held indirectly through entities over which she exercises sole voting power. Additionally, on January 31, 2019, we issued 10,675 shares of newly designated Series C Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, to a company controlled by Mr. Palios. In September 2020, these shares were transferred to a company controlled by Mrs. Paliou. The Series C Preferred Stock vote with our common shares and each share of the Series C Preferred Stock entitles the holder thereof to 1,000 votes on all matters submitted to a vote of the common stockholders of the Issuer. Through her beneficial ownership of common shares and shares of Series C Preferred Stock, Mrs. Paliou controls 26.2% of the vote of any matter submitted to the vote of the common shareholders. Please see "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—A. Major Shareholders." While Mrs. Paliou and the entities controlled by Mrs. Paliou have no agreement, arrangement or understanding relating to the voting of their shares of our common stock, they are able to influence the outcome of matters on which our shareholders are entitled to vote, including the election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control, merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination. This concentration of ownership could also discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, which could in turn have an adverse effect on the market price of our shares. So long as our Chief Executive Officer continues to own a significant amount of our equity, even though the amount held by her represents

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less than 50% of our voting power, she will continue to be able to exercise considerable influence over our decisions. The interests of these shareholders may be different from your interests.

 

Future sales of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

 

Our amended and restated articles of incorporation authorize us to issue up to 200,000,000 shares of common stock, of which, as of December 31, 2020, 89,275,002 shares were outstanding. The number of shares of common stock available for sale in the public market is limited by restrictions applicable under securities laws and agreements that we and our executive officers, directors and principal shareholders have entered into.

 

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, may depress the market price for our common stock. These sales could also impair our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of our equity securities in the future.

 

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could make it difficult for our shareholders to replace or remove our current board of directors or have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a merger or acquisition, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

Several provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and bylaws could make it difficult for our shareholders to change the composition of our board of directors in any one year, preventing them from changing the composition of management. In addition, the same provisions may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition that shareholders may consider favorable.

 

These provisions include:

 

authorizing our board of directors to issue “blank check” preferred stock without shareholder approval;

 

providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;

 

prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;

 

authorizing the removal of directors only for cause and only upon the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote for the directors;

 

prohibiting shareholder action by written consent;

 

limiting the persons who may call special meetings of shareholders; and

 

establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by shareholders at shareholder meetings.

 

In addition, we have adopted a Stockholders Rights Agreement, dated January 15, 2016, pursuant to which our board of directors may cause the substantial dilution of any person that attempts to acquire us without the approval of our board of directors.

 

These anti-takeover provisions, including provisions of our Stockholders Rights Agreement, could substantially impede the ability of public shareholders to benefit from a change in control and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and your ability to realize any potential change of control premium.

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Our Series B Preferred Shares are senior obligations of ours and rank prior to our common shares with respect to dividends, distributions and payments upon liquidation, which could have an adverse effect on the value of our common shares.

 

The rights of the holders of our Series B Preferred Shares rank senior to the obligations to holders of our common shares. Upon our liquidation, the holders of Series B Preferred Shares will be entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus all accrued but unpaid dividends, prior and in preference to any distribution to the holders of any other class of our equity securities, including our common shares. The existence of the Series B Preferred Shares could have an adverse effect on the value of our common shares.

 

Risks Relating to Our Series B Preferred Stock

 

We may not have sufficient cash from our operations to enable us to pay dividends on our Series B Preferred Shares following the payment of expenses and the establishment of any reserves.

 

We pay quarterly dividends on our Series B Preferred Shares only from funds legally available for such purpose when, as and if declared by our board of directors. We may not have sufficient cash available each quarter to pay dividends. The amount of dividends we can pay on our Series B Preferred Shares depends upon the amount of cash we generate from and use in our operations, which may fluctuate.

 

The amount of cash we have available for dividends on our Series B Preferred Shares will not depend solely on our profitability. The actual amount of cash we have available to pay dividends on our Series B Preferred Shares depends on many factors, including the following:

changes in our operating cash flow, capital expenditure requirements, working capital requirements and other cash needs;

restrictions under our existing or future credit facilities or any future debt securities on our ability to pay dividends if an event of default has occurred and is continuing or if the payment of the dividend would result in an event of default, or under certain facilities if it would result in the breach of certain financial covenants;

the amount of any cash reserves established by our board of directors; and

restrictions under Marshall Islands law, which generally prohibits the payment of dividends other than from surplus (retained earnings and the excess of consideration received for the sale of shares above the par value of the shares) or while a company is insolvent or would be rendered insolvent by the payment of such a dividend.

The amount of cash we generate from our operations may differ materially from our net income or loss for the period, which is affected by non-cash items, and our board of directors in its discretion may elect not to declare any dividends. As a result of these and the other factors mentioned above, we may pay dividends during periods when we record losses and may not pay dividends during periods when we record net income.

 

The Series B Preferred Shares represent perpetual equity interests.

 

The Series B Preferred Shares represent perpetual equity interests in us and, unlike our indebtedness, will not give rise to a claim for payment of a principal amount at a particular date. As a result, holders of the Series B Preferred Shares may be required to bear the financial risks of an investment in the Series B Preferred Shares for an indefinite period of time. In addition, the Series B Preferred Shares will rank junior to all our indebtedness and other liabilities,

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and to any other senior securities we may issue in the future with respect to assets available to satisfy claims against us.

 

Our Series B Preferred Shares are subordinate to our indebtedness, and your interests could be diluted by the issuance of additional preferred shares, including additional Series B Preferred Shares, and by other transactions.

 

Our Series B Preferred Shares are subordinated to all of our existing and future indebtedness. Therefore, our ability to pay dividends on, redeem or pay the liquidation preference on our Series B Preferred Shares in liquidation or otherwise may be subject to prior payments due to the holders of our indebtedness. Our existing indebtedness restricts, and our future indebtedness may include restrictions on, our ability to pay dividends on or redeem preferred shares. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation currently authorize the issuance of up to 25,000,000 preferred shares, par value $0.01 per share. Of these preferred shares, 1,000,000 shares have been designated Series A Participating Preferred Stock, 5,000,000 shares have been designated Series B Preferred Shares, and 10,675 are designated as Series C Preferred Shares. The Series B Preferred Shares are senior in rank to the Series A Participating Preferred Shares. The issuance of additional Series B Preferred Shares or other preferred shares on a parity with or senior to the Series B Preferred Shares would dilute the interests of holders of our Series B Preferred Shares, and any issuance of preferred shares senior to our Series B Preferred Shares or of additional indebtedness could affect our ability to pay dividends on, redeem or pay the liquidation preference on our Series B Preferred Shares. The Series B Preferred Shares do not contain any provisions affording the holders of our Series B Preferred Shares protection in the event of a highly leveraged or other transaction, including a merger or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all our assets or business, which might adversely affect the holders of our Series B Preferred Shares, so long as the rights of our Series B Preferred Shares are not directly materially and adversely affected.

 

We may redeem the Series B Preferred Shares, and you may not be able to reinvest the redemption price you receive in a similar security.

 

Since February 14, 2019, we may, at our option, redeem Series B Preferred Shares, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time. We may have an incentive to redeem Series B Preferred Shares voluntarily if market conditions allow us to issue other preferred shares or debt securities at a rate that is lower than the dividend on the Series B Preferred Shares. If we redeem Series B Preferred Shares, then from and after the redemption date, your dividends will cease to accrue on your Series B Preferred Shares, your Series B Preferred Shares shall no longer be deemed outstanding and all your rights as a holder of those shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price plus accumulated and unpaid dividends, if any, payable upon redemption. If we redeem the Series B Preferred Shares for any reason, you may not be able to reinvest the redemption price you receive in a similar security.

 

Market interest rates may adversely affect the value of our Series B Preferred Shares.

 

One of the factors that may influence the price of our Series B Preferred Shares is the dividend yield on the Series B Preferred Shares (as a percentage of the price of our Series B Preferred Shares) relative to market interest rates. An increase in market interest rates, which are currently at low levels relative to historical rates, may lead prospective purchasers of our Series B Preferred Shares to expect a higher dividend yield, and higher interest rates would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Accordingly, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our Series B Preferred Shares to decrease.

 

As a holder of Series B Preferred Shares you have extremely limited voting rights.

 

Your voting rights as a holder of Series B Preferred Shares are extremely limited. Our common shares are the only outstanding class or series of our shares carrying full voting rights. Holders of Series B Preferred Shares have no voting

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rights other than the ability, subject to certain exceptions, to elect one director if dividends for six quarterly dividend periods (whether or not consecutive) payable on our Series B Preferred Shares are in arrears and certain other limited protective voting rights.

 

Our ability to pay dividends on and to redeem our Series B Preferred Shares is limited by the requirements of Marshall Islands law.

 

Marshall Islands law provides that we may pay dividends on and redeem the Series B Preferred Shares only to the extent that assets are legally available for such purposes. Legally available assets generally are limited to our surplus, which essentially represents our retained earnings and the excess of consideration received by us for the sale of shares above the par value of the shares. In addition, under Marshall Islands law we may not pay dividends on or redeem Series B Preferred Shares if we are insolvent or would be rendered insolvent by the payment of such a dividend or the making of such redemption.

 

The amount of your liquidation preference is fixed and you will have no right to receive any greater payment regardless of the circumstances.

 

The payment due upon a liquidation is fixed at the redemption preference of $25.00 per share plus accumulated and unpaid dividends to the date of liquidation. If, in the case of our liquidation, there are remaining assets to be distributed after payment of this amount, you will have no right to receive or to participate in these amounts. Furthermore, if the market price for your Series B Preferred Shares is greater than the liquidation preference, you will have no right to receive the market price from us upon our liquidation.

 

Item 4.Information on the Company

 

A.History and development of the Company

 

Diana Shipping Inc. is a holding company incorporated under the laws of Liberia in March 1999 as Diana Shipping Investments Corp. In February 2005, the Company’s articles of incorporation were amended. Under the amended and restated articles of incorporation, the Company was renamed Diana Shipping Inc. and was re-domiciled from the Republic of Liberia to the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our executive offices are located at Pendelis 16, 175 64 Palaio Faliro, Athens, Greece. Our telephone number at this address is +30-210-947-0100. Our agent and authorized representative in the United States is our wholly-owned subsidiary, Bulk Carriers (USA) LLC, established in September 2006, in the State of Delaware, which is located at 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, Wilmington, Delaware 19808. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC's Internet site is http://www.sec.gov. The address of the Company's Internet site is http://www.dianashippinginc.com.

 

Business Development and Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

 

In July 2018, the Company signed a term loan facility with BNP Paribas (“BNP”) for up to $75 million with maturity date on July 16, 2023, secured by the vessels Alcmene, Seattle, Electra, Phaidra, Astarte, G P. Zafirakis and P.S. Palios. The proceeds from the loan facility together with available cash were used to voluntarily prepay in full the balance of $130 million of the then existing credit facility with BNP dated June 22, 2015 which had maturity date on July 24, 2020.

 

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In September 2018, the Company issued $100 million of senior unsecured bond, or the Bond, maturing in September 2023 and callable beginning three years after issuance. In addition, the Company may issue up to an additional $25 million of the Bond on one or more occasions. The Bond offering was priced with a U.S. dollar fixed-rate coupon of 9.50%. Interest is payable semi-annually in arrears in March and September of each year. Since December 4, 2018, the Bond is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “DIASH01”.

 

In September 2018, using part of the proceeds from the Bond, the Company exercised its option to redeem all of its outstanding 8.50% Senior Notes due 2020 (NYSE: DSXN), or the Notes, of which an aggregate principal amount of approximately $63.25 million was outstanding. The redemption date was October 29, 2018 and the redemption price was 100% of the principal amount of the Notes, or $25.00 per Note, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption. Following the redemption, the Notes were delisted from the New York Stock Exchange.

 

In November 2018, the Company, through, separate wholly-owned subsidiaries, entered into two Memoranda of Agreement to sell to unaffiliated third parties, the 2001-built vessel Triton for a sale price of $7.35 million before commissions and the 2001-built vessel Alcyon, for a sale price of $7.45 million before commissions. Both vessels were delivered to their new owners in December 2018.

 

In December 2018, the Company repurchased in a tender offer 4,166,666 shares of its outstanding common stock using funds available from cash and cash equivalents at a price of $3.60 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $15 million.

 

In January 2019, the Company issued 10,675 shares of its newly-designated Series C Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, to an affiliate of its Chairman, Mr. Simeon Palios, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.07 million. The Series C Preferred Stock will vote with the common shares of the Company, and each share entitles the holder thereof to 1,000 votes on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders of the Company. The Series C Preferred Stock has no dividend or liquidation rights and cannot be transferred without the consent of the Company except to the holder’s affiliates and immediate family members. The issuance of shares of Series C Preferred Stock was approved by an independent committee of the Board of Directors, which received a fairness opinion from an independent third party that the transaction was fair from a financial point of view to the issuer. In September 2020, the Series C Preferred Shares were transferred from an affiliate of Mr. Simeon Palios to an affiliate of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Mrs. Semiramis Paliou.

 

In February 2019, the Company signed, through two separate wholly-owned subsidiaries, two Memoranda of Agreement to sell to two affiliated parties, the vessels Danae and Dione, each a 2001-built dry bulk vessel for $7.2 million each. The sale of the vessels was approved by disinterested directors of the Company and the vessels were sold at a price equal to the higher of two independent broker valuations. Both vessels were delivered to their new buyers in April, 2019.

 

In March 2019, the Company purchased in a tender offer 3,889,386 shares of its outstanding common, par value of $0.01 per share, at a price of $2.80 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $10.9 million.

 

In March 2019, the Company, through two wholly owned subsidiaries, entered into a $19.0 million loan agreement with DNB Bank ASA, for working capital.

 

In April 2019, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2004-built vessel Erato, for a sale price of $7.0 million before commissions. The vessel was delivered to the buyer in June 2019.

47


 

 

In May 2019, the Company purchased in a tender offer 3,125,000 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share, at a price of $3.40 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $10.6 million.

 

In June 2019, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2004-built vessel Thetis, for a sale price of $6.4 million before commissions. The vessel was delivered to the buyer in July 2019.

 

In June 2019, the Company, through two wholly-owned subsidiaries entered into a term loan agreement with ABN AMRO Bank N.V. for a loan of $25.0 million, to refinance the vessels Selina, Ismene and Houston, for repayment in June 2024. The loan bears interest at LIBOR plus a margin of 2.25%.

 

In July 2019, the Company purchased in a tender offer 2,000,000 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share, at a price of $3.75 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $7.5 million.

 

In July 2019, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2001-built vessel Nirefs, for a sale price of $6.71 million before commissions. The vessel was delivered to the buyer in September 2019.

 

In October 2019, the Company purchased in a tender offer 2,816,900 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share, at a price of $3.55 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $10.0 million.

 

In November 2019, the Company through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary entered into a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party the vessel Clio, for a sale price of $7.4 million before commissions. The vessel was delivered to the buyer in November 2019.

 

In December 2019, the Company purchased in a tender offer 2,739,726 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share, at a price of $3.65 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of 10.0 million.

 

In December 2019, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2005-built vessel Calipso, with delivery to the buyer latest by January 30, 2020, for a sale price of $7.275 million before commissions. In February 2020, the buyers elected to exercise their right to cancel the Contract as a result of vessel’s missing the cancelling date stipulated therein, due to unforeseen events, unrelated to the condition of the vessel. In March 2020, the Company decided to withdraw the vessel from the market.

 

In January 2020, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2002-built vessel Norfolk, with delivery to the buyer latest by January 30, 2020, for a sale price of $9.35 million before commissions. In February 2020, the buyers elected to exercise their right to cancel the contract as a result of vessel’s missing the cancelling date stipulated therein, due to unforeseen events, unrelated to the condition of the vessel. In February 2020, the Company signed another Memorandum of Agreement to sell the vessel to an unaffiliated third party, for a sale price of $8.75 million before commissions. The vessel was delivered to the buyer in March 2020.

In February 2020, the Company purchased in a tender offer 3,030,303 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share at a price of $3.30 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of 10.0 million.

 

In February 2020, the Company received an offer from Performance Shipping to redeem the Series C Preferred Stock

48


 

owned by the Company for an aggregate price of $1.5 million. The Company’s Board of Directors formed a special committee to evaluate the transaction with the assistance of an independent financial advisor. The transaction was recommended by the special committee to the Board of Directors, which resolved to accept the offer. Performance Shipping acquired the shares for $1.5 million, as agreed, and the sale closed on March 27, 2020 with the receipt of the related funds by Performance Shipping.

 

In March 2020, the Company purchased through its share repurchase program 1,088,034 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share at an average price of $1.72 per share, or $1.9 million.

 

On May 7, 2020, the Company signed a term loan facility with Nordea Bank Abp, or Nordea, through eight wholly-owned subsidiaries for $55.848 million, to refinance its then outstanding loan with Nordea, so as to extend the repayment of the loan until March 2022. The Borrowers will have the option to extend the repayment of the facility by two additional years until March 2024, by providing extension requests for each additional year, subject to the acceptance by the Lender at each time.

 

On May 22, 2020, the Company signed a term loan facility with ABN AMRO Bank N.V., or ABN, through six wholly-owned subsidiaries for $52.885 million, divided into two tranches. The purpose of the loan facility was to combine the two loans outstanding with the Lender and extend the maturity of the loan maturing in March 2021 to the maturity of the other loan, maturing in June 2024.

 

On June 29, 2020, the Company signed, through two wholly-owned subsidiaries, a supplemental agreement to the existing loan agreement with BNP Paribas, to extend by 2.5 years the maturity of the existing loan facility until May 19, 2024.

 

On June 30, 2020, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2007-built vessel “Arethusa”, for a sale price of $7.85 million before commissions, delivered to the buyer in August 2020.

 

In July 2020, the Company, repurchased an aggregate amount equal to $8.0 million of the nominal amount of the Bond. Following this buyback the Company holds bonds equal to $8.0 million of the nominal amount of the outstanding Bond.

 

In September 2020, the Company signed, through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2006-built vessel Coronis, for a sale price of US$7.1 million before commissions, delivered to the buyer in January 2021. In the same month the Company, also signed through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2006-built vessel “Sideris GS”, for a sale price of US$11.5 million before commissions, delivered to the buyer in January 2021.

 

In December 2020, the Company, signed through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary, a Memorandum of Agreement to sell to an unaffiliated third party, the 2001-built vessel Oceanis, for a sale price of $5.75 million before commissions with estimated delivery to the buyer in March 2021.

 

In January 2021, the Company amended and restated its 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, or the Plan, to increase the number of common shares available for issuance under the Plan by 20 million shares. All other material provisions of the Plan remain unchanged.

 

In February 2021, the Company repurchased in the tender offer 6,000,000 shares of its outstanding common stock, par value of $0.01 per share at an average price of $2.5 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $15 million.

49


 

 

Please see "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources" for a discussion of our loan facilities.

 

B.Business overview

 

We are a global provider of shipping transportation services. We specialize in the ownership of dry bulk vessels. Each of our vessels is owned through a separate wholly-owned subsidiary.

 

As of December 31, 2020, our operating fleet consisted of 40 dry bulk carriers, of which 13 were Panamax, five were Kamsarmax, five were Post-Panamax, 13 were Capesize and four were Newcastlemax vessels, having a combined carrying capacity of approximately 5.0 million dwt and a weighted average age of 10.2 years and 10.2 years. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had agreed to sell the vessels Coronis, Sideris G.S. and Oceanis, of which as of the date of this report, Coronis and Sideris GS were delivered to their buyers in January 2021 and Oceanis is expected be delivered in March 2021. As of the date of this report our fleet consisted of 38 dry bulk carriers, of which twelve were Panamax, five were Kamsarmax, five were Post-Panamax, twelve were Capesize and four were Newcastlemax vessels, having a combined carrying capacity of approximately 4.8 million dwt and a weighted average age of 10.2 years.

 

As of December 31, 2019, our operating fleet consisted of 42 dry bulk carriers, of which 14 were Panamax, five were Kamsarmax, five were Post-Panamax, 14 were Capesize and four were Newcastlemax vessels, having a combined carrying capacity of approximately 5.2 million dwt and a weighted average age of 9.5 years.

 

As of December 31, 2018, our operating fleet consisted of 48 dry bulk carriers, of which 20 were Panamax, five were Kamsarmax, five were Post-Panamax, 14 were Capesize and four were Newcastlemax vessels, having a combined carrying capacity of approximately 5.7 million dwt and a weighted average age of 9.1 years.

During 2020, 2019 and 2018, we had a fleet utilization of 97.9%, 98.6% and 99.1%, respectively, our vessels achieved daily time charter equivalent rates of $10,910, $12,796 and $12,179, respectively, and we generated revenues of $169.7 million, $220.7 million and $226.2 million, respectively.

 

The following table presents certain information concerning the dry bulk carriers in our fleet, as of March 11, 2021.

 

 

Vessel

Sister Ships*

Gross Rate (USD Per Day)

Com**

Charterers

Delivery Date to Charterers***

Redelivery Date to Owners****

Notes

 

BUILT DWT

 

12 Panamax Bulk Carriers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

OCEANIS

 

$9,200

5.00%

Phaethon International Company AG

9-Jan-20

27-Feb-21

1,2

 

2001 75,211

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

PROTEFS

A

$9,900

5.00%

Phaethon International Company AG

30-Nov-19

8-Feb-21

 

 

 

 

$10,650

5.00%

Reachy International (HK) Co., Limited

8-Feb-21

10-Mar-22 - 20-May-22

 

 

2004 73,630

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

CALIPSO

A

$8,250

5.00%

Uniper Global Commodities SE, Düsseldorf

13-Apr-20

22-Jan-21

3

 

 

 

$10,400

5.00%

Viterra Chartering B.V., Rotterdam

22-Jan-21

1-Oct-21 - 15-Dec-21

 

50


 

 

2005 73,691

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

NAIAS

A

$10,000

5.00%

Phaethon International Company AG

26-Jan-19

27-Jan-21

 

 

 

 

$11,000

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

27-Jan-21

3-Apr-21

4

 

2006 73,546

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

CORONIS

 

$8,000

5.00%

Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

20-Feb-20

31-Dec-20

5

 

2006 74,381

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

MELIA

 

$10,000

5.00%

Ausca Shipping Limited, Hong Kong

20-Aug-20

5-Apr-21 - 20-Jun-21

6

 

2005 76,225

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

ARTEMIS

 

$10,250

5.00%

Glencore Agriculture B.V., Rotterdam

30-Nov-20

5-Jan-22 - 30-Mar-22

 

 

2006 76,942

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

LETO

 

$9,000

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

21-May-20

15-Jul-21 - 30-Sep-21

 

 

2010 81,297

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

SELINA

B

$11,000

5.00%

ST Shipping and Transport Pte. Ltd., Singapore

5-Jul-20

5-Jul-21 - 5-Sep-21

 

 

2010 75,700

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

MAERA

B

$8,600

5.00%

Ausca Shipping Limited, Hong Kong

11-Jun-20

1-Jul-21 - 30-Sep-21

 

 

2013 75,403

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

ISMENE

 

$10,800

5.00%

Phaethon International Company AG

10-Jan-20

11-Mar-21

 

 

 

 

$16,500

5.00%

Tongli Shipping Pte. Ltd.

11-Mar-21

15-Oct-21 - 15-Dec-21

 

 

2013 77,901

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

CRYSTALIA

C

$8,750

5.00%

Glencore Agriculture B.V., Rotterdam

22-May-20

1-Jul-21 - 30-Sep-21

 

 

2014 77,525

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

ATALANDI

C

$9,300

5.00%

Uniper Global Commodities SE, Düsseldorf

14-Jun-20

14-Jul-21 - 14-Oct-21

 

 

2014 77,529

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 Kamsarmax Bulk Carriers

13

MAIA

D

$11,200

5.00%

Aquavita International S.A.

31-Jan-20

31-Mar-21 - 15-Jun-21

 

 

2009 82,193

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

MYRSINI

D

$11,500

5.00%

Ausca Shipping Limited, Hong Kong

4-Dec-19

19-Mar-21

7

 

2010 82,117

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

MEDUSA

D

$11,000

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

19-Nov-20

10-Jan-22 - 20-Mar-22

 

 

2010 82,194

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

MYRTO

D

$10,000

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

3-Apr-20

1-Jul-21 - 15-Sep-21

 

 

2013 82,131

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

ASTARTE

 

$11,750

5.00%

Aquavita International S.A.

18-Jan-20

22-Mar-21 - 2-Jun-21

7

 

2013 81,513

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 Post-Panamax Bulk Carriers

51


 

18

ALCMENE

 

$8,500

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

2-Apr-20

17-Apr-21 - 2-Jul-21

 

 

2010 93,193

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

AMPHITRITE

E

$10,250

5.00%

SwissMarine Pte. Ltd., Singapore

21-Mar-20

6-Apr-21 - 21-Jun-21

 

 

2012 98,697

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

POLYMNIA

E

$12,100

5.00%

CLdN Cobelfret SA, Luxembourg

22-Nov-20

15-Oct-21 - 25-Dec-21

 

 

2012 98,704

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

ELECTRA

F

$10,250

5.00%

Oldendorff Carriers GMBH & Co. KG, Lübeck, Germany

21-Nov-19

4-Jan-21

8

 

 

 

$12,500

5.00%

SwissMarine Pte. Ltd., Singapore

4-Jan-21

30-Mar-21

 

 

2013 87,150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22

PHAIDRA

F

$9,400

5.00%

Uniper Global Commodities SE, Düsseldorf

29-May-20

29-Apr-21 - 29-Jul-21

 

 

2013 87,146

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12 Capesize Bulk Carriers

23

ALIKI

 

$11,300

5.00%

Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

23-Apr-20

19-Mar-21

9, 10

 

 

 

$20,500

5.00%

Solebay Shipping Cape Company Limited, Hong Kong

19-Mar-21

15-Jan-22 - 15-Mar-22

11

 

2005 180,235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

BALTIMORE

 

$13,000

5.00%

Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

21-Dec-20

20-Jul-21 - 5-Oct-21

 

 

2005 177,243

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

SALT LAKE CITY

 

$9,750

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

24-Mar-19

9-Jan-21

 

 

 

 

$13,000

5.00%

C Transport Maritime Ltd., Bermuda

9-Jan-21

1-Apr-22 - 30-Jun-22

 

 

2005 171,810

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

SIDERIS GS

G

$12,700

5.00%

Oldendorff Carriers GMBH & Co. KG, Lübeck, Germany

7-Mar-20

15-Jan-21

12, 13

 

2006 174,186

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26

SEMIRIO

G

$16,000

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

30-Jun-19

1-Jan-21

 

 

 

 

$13,500

5.00%

SwissMarine Pte. Ltd., Singapore

1-Jan-21

5-Oct-21 - 20-Dec-21

 

 

2007 174,261

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27

BOSTON

G

$15,300

5.00%

Oldendorff Carriers GMBH & Co. KG, Lübeck, Germany

7-Jun-19

1-Apr-21 - 30-Jun-21

 

 

2007 177,828

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28

HOUSTON

G

$12,400

5.00%

C Transport Maritime Ltd., Bermuda

13-Apr-20

1-Jul-21 - 30-Sep-21

 

 

2009 177,729

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

NEW YORK

G

$14,000

5.00%

EGPN Bulk Carrier Co., Limited, Hong Kong

29-Dec-20

16-Apr-22 - 30-Jun-22

 

 

2010 177,773

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

SEATTLE

H

$12,300

5.00%

Pacbulk Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

27-Apr-20

1-Oct-21 - 31-Dec-21

 

 

2011 179,362

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52


 

31

P. S. PALIOS

H

$12,050

5.00%

C Transport Maritime Ltd., Bermuda

24-Mar-20

9-Apr-21 - 24-Jun-21

 

 

2013 179,134

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

G. P. ZAFIRAKIS

I

$13,200

5.00%

Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

31-May-20

1-Oct-21 - 31-Dec-21

 

 

2014 179,492

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

SANTA BARBARA

I

$17,250

5.00%

Pacbulk Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

28-Dec-19

9-Jan-21

 

 

 

 

$17,250

4.75%

Cargill International S.A., Geneva

9-Jan-21

5-Jan-22 - 5-Mar-22

 

 

2015 179,426

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

NEW ORLEANS

 

$15,500

5.00%

Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha

3-Dec-20

25-Jan-22 - 25-Mar-22

 

 

2015 180,960

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 Newcastlemax Bulk Carriers

35

LOS ANGELES

J

$14,250

5.00%

Engelhart CTP Freight (Switzerland) SA

6-Jun-20

1-Oct-21 - 31-Dec-21

 

 

2012 206,104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

PHILADELPHIA

J

$14,500

5.00%

BHP Billiton Freight Singapore Pte. Ltd

5-Feb-20

5-Apr-21 - 5-Jul-21

 

 

2012 206,040

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37

SAN FRANCISCO

K

$16,000

5.00%

Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

5-Mar-19

11-Feb-21

14

 

 

 

$17,750

5.00%

Olam International Limited, Singapore

11-Feb-21

27-May-21

 

 

 

 

$24,700

5.00%

27-May-21

15-Jan-22 - 15-Mar-22

 

 

2017 208,006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38

NEWPORT NEWS

K

$18,400

5.00%

Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore

8-Sep-20

16-Oct-21 - 30-Dec-21

 

 

2017 208,021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Each dry bulk carrier is a "sister ship", or closely similar, to other dry bulk carriers that have the same letter.

** Total commission percentage paid to third parties.

*** In case of newly acquired vessel with time charter attached, this date refers to the expected/actual date of delivery of the vessel to the Company.

**** Range of redelivery dates, with the actual date of redelivery being at the Charterers’ option, but subject to the terms, conditions, and exceptions of the particular charterparty.

 

1 Vessel sold and expected to be delivered to her new owners at the latest by April 16, 2021.

2 Currently without an active charterparty.

3 The compensation for the overlapping period from December 31, 2020 until January 22, 2021, which is beyond the maximum contractual period, is still pending to be agreed between Owners and Uniper Global Commodities SE, Düsseldorf.

4 Redelivery date based on an estimated time charter trip duration of about 67 days.

5 "Coronis" sold and delivered to her new owners on January 13, 2021.

6 Charter includes a one time ballast bonus payment of US$500,000.

7 Based on latest information.

8 Charterers have agreed to pay the average of the daily published rates for p3a-82 route of the baltic panamax index for the days that index was published (i.e. 21/12-24/12 and 04/12) for the excess period commencing from December 21, 2020 till January 4, 2021.

9 The compensation for the overlapping period from March 15, 2021 until the actual redelivery date, which is beyond the maximum contractual period, is still pending to be agreed between Owners and Koch Shipping Pte. Ltd., Singapore.

10 Estimated redelivery date from the charterers.

11 Estimated delivery date to the charterers.

12 "Sideris GS" sold and delivered to her new owners on January 20, 2021.

53


 

13 The compensation for the overlapping period from December 31, 2020 until January 15, 2021, which is beyond the maximum contractual period, is still pending to be agreed between Owners and Oldendorff Carriers GMBH & Co. KG, Lübeck, Germany.

14 Charterers have agreed to pay US$18,000 per day, for the excess period commencing from January 20, 2021 till February 11, 2021.

 

Management of Our Fleet

 

The business of Diana Shipping Inc. is the ownership of dry bulk vessels. The parent holding company wholly owns the subsidiaries which own the vessels that comprise our fleet. The holding company sets general overall direction for the company and interfaces with various financial markets. The commercial and technical management of our fleet, as well as the provision of administrative services relating to the fleet’s operations, are carried out by our wholly-owned subsidiary, Diana Shipping Services S.A., which we refer to as DSS, and Diana Wilhelmsen Management Limited, a 50/50 joint venture with Wilhelmsen Ship Management, which we refer to as DWM. In exchange for providing us with commercial and technical services, personnel and office space, we pay DSS a commission, which is a percentage of the managed vessels’ gross revenues, a fixed monthly fee per managed vessel and an additional monthly fee for the administrative services provided to Diana Shipping Inc. Such services may include budgeting, reporting, monitoring of bank accounts, compliance with banks, payroll services and any other possible service that Diana Shipping Inc. would require to perform its operations. Similarly, in exchange for providing us with commercial and technical services, we pay, through DSS, to DWM a commission which is a percentage of the managed vessels’ gross revenues and a fixed management monthly fee for each managed vessel. The amounts deriving from the agreements with DSS are considered inter-company transactions and, therefore, are eliminated from our consolidated financial statements. The management fees and commissions deriving from the agreements with DWM are included in our statement of operations as “Management fees to related party”.

Since June 1, 2010, Steamship Shipbroking Enterprises Inc., or Steamship, a related party controlled by our Chairman of the Board, Mr. Simeon Palios, provides brokerage services to us. Brokerage fees are included in “General and Administrative expenses” in our statement of operations. The terms of this relationship are currently governed by a Brokerage Services Agreement dated July 1, 2020.

 

Our Customers

 

Our customers include regional and international companies, such as Cargill International S.A., Glencore Grain B.V., Koch Shipping Pte Ltd and Swissmarine Services S.A. During 2020, two of our charterers accounted for 34% of our revenues: Cargill (18%) and Koch (16%). During 2019, four of our charterers accounted for 60% of our revenues: Swissmarine (18%), Cargill (16%), Koch (14%), and Glencore (12%). During 2018, four of our charterers accounted for 56% of our revenues: Swissmarine (16%), Cargill (14%), Koch (15%), and Glencore (11%).

We charter our dry bulk carriers to customers pursuant to time charters. Under our time charters, the charterer typically pays us a fixed daily charter hire rate and bears all voyage expenses, including the cost of bunkers (fuel oil) and canal and port charges. We remain responsible for paying the chartered vessel's operating expenses, including the cost of crewing, insuring, repairing and maintaining the vessel. In 2020, we paid commissions that ranged from 4.75% to 5.0% of the total daily charter hire rate of each charter to unaffiliated ship brokers and to in-house brokers associated with the charterer, depending on the number of brokers involved with arranging the charter.

 

We strategically monitor developments in the dry bulk shipping industry on a regular basis and, subject to market demand, seek to adjust the charter hire periods for our vessels according to prevailing market conditions. In order to take advantage of relatively stable cash flow and high utilization rates, we fix some of our vessels on long-term time charters. Currently, the majority of our vessels are employed on short to medium-term time charters, which provides us with flexibility in responding to market developments. We continuously evaluate our balance of short- and

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long-term charters and extend or reduce the charter hire periods of the vessels in our fleet according to the developments in the dry bulk shipping industry.

 

The Dry Bulk Shipping Industry

 

The global dry bulk carrier fleet could be divided into seven categories based on a vessel's carrying capacity. These categories consist of:

 

Very Large Ore Carriers. Very large ore carriers, or VLOCs, have a carrying capacity of more than 200,000 dwt and are a comparatively new sector of the dry bulk carrier fleet. VLOCs are built to exploit economies of scale on long-haul iron ore routes.

 

Capesize. Capesize vessels have a carrying capacity of 110,000-199,999 dwt. Only the largest ports around the world possess the infrastructure to accommodate vessels of this size. Capesize vessels are primarily used to transport iron ore or coal and, to a much lesser extent, grains, primarily on long-haul routes.

 

Post-Panamax. Post-Panamax vessels have a carrying capacity of 80,000-109,999 dwt. These vessels tend to have a shallower draft and larger beam than a standard Panamax vessel with a higher cargo capacity. These vessels have been designed specifically for loading high cubic cargoes from draught restricted ports, although they cannot transit the Panama Canal.

 

Panamax. Panamax vessels have a carrying capacity of 60,000-79,999 dwt. These vessels carry coal, iron ore, grains, and, to a lesser extent, minor bulks, including steel products, cement and fertilizers. Panamax vessels are able to pass through the Panama Canal, making them more versatile than larger vessels with regard to accessing different trade routes. Most Panamax and Post-Panamax vessels are “gearless,” and therefore must be served by shore-based cargo handling equipment. However, there are a small number of geared vessels with onboard cranes, a feature that enhances trading flexibility and enables operation in ports which have poor infrastructure in terms of loading and unloading facilities.

 

Handymax/Supramax. Handymax vessels have a carrying capacity of 40,000-59,999 dwt. These vessels operate in a large number of geographically dispersed global trade routes, carrying primarily grains and minor bulks. Within the Handymax category there is also a sub-sector known as Supramax. Supramax bulk carriers are ships between 50,000 to 59,999 dwt, normally offering cargo loading and unloading flexibility with on-board cranes, or “gear,” while at the same time possessing the cargo carrying capability approaching conventional Panamax bulk carriers.

 

Handysize. Handysize vessels have a carrying capacity of up to 39,999 dwt. These vessels are primarily involved in carrying minor bulk cargoes. Increasingly, ships of this type operate within regional trading routes, and may serve as trans-shipment feeders for larger vessels. Handysize vessels are well suited for small ports with length and draft restrictions. Their cargo gear enables them to service ports lacking the infrastructure for cargo loading and unloading.

 

Other size categories occur in regional trade, such as Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. Other terms such as Seawaymax, Setouchmax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade.

 

The supply of dry bulk carriers is dependent on the delivery of new vessels and the removal of vessels from the global fleet, either through scrapping or loss. The level of scrapping activity is generally a function of scrapping prices in

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relation to current and prospective charter market conditions, as well as operating, repair and survey costs. The average age at which a vessel is scrapped was 27 years in 2020, 29 years in 2019, and 28 years in 2018.

 

The demand for dry bulk carrier capacity is determined by the underlying demand for commodities transported in dry bulk carriers, which in turn is influenced by trends in the global economy. Demand for dry bulk carrier capacity is also affected by the operating efficiency of the global fleet, along with port congestion, which has been a feature of the market since 2004, absorbing tonnage and therefore leading to a tighter balance between supply and demand. In evaluating demand factors for dry bulk carrier capacity, the Company believes that dry bulk carriers can be the most versatile element of the global shipping fleets in terms of employment alternatives.

 

Charter Hire Rates

 

Charter hire rates fluctuate by varying degrees among dry bulk carrier size categories. The volume and pattern of trade in a small number of commodities (major bulks) affect demand for larger vessels. Therefore, charter rates and vessel values of larger vessels often show greater volatility. Conversely, trade in a greater number of commodities (minor bulks) drives demand for smaller dry bulk carriers. Accordingly, charter rates and vessel values for those vessels are usually subject to less volatility.

 

Charter hire rates paid for dry bulk carriers are primarily a function of the underlying balance between vessel supply and demand, although at times other factors may play a role. Furthermore, the pattern seen in charter rates is broadly mirrored across the different charter types and the different dry bulk carrier categories. In the time charter market, rates vary depending on the length of the charter period and vessel-specific factors such as age, speed and fuel consumption.

 

In the voyage charter market, rates are, among other things, influenced by cargo size, commodity, port dues and canal transit fees, as well as commencement and termination regions. In general, a larger cargo size is quoted at a lower rate per ton than a smaller cargo size. Routes with costly ports or canals generally command higher rates than routes with low port dues and no canals to transit. Voyages with a load port within a region that includes ports where vessels usually discharge cargo or a discharge port within a region with ports where vessels load cargo also are generally quoted at lower rates, because such voyages generally increase vessel utilization by reducing the unloaded portion (or ballast leg) that is included in the calculation of the return charter to a loading area.

 

Within the dry bulk shipping industry, the charter hire rate references most likely to be monitored are the freight rate indices issued by the Baltic Exchange. These references are based on actual charter hire rates under charters entered into by market participants as well as daily assessments provided to the Baltic Exchange by a panel of major shipbrokers. The Baltic Panamax Index is the index with the longest history. The Baltic Capesize Index and Baltic Handymax Index are of more recent origin.

 

The Baltic Dry Index, or BDI, a daily average of charter rates in 20 shipping routes measured on a time charter and voyage basis and covering Capesize, Panamax, Supramax, and Handysize dry bulk carriers declined from a high of 11,793 in May 2008 to a low of 663 in December 2008. In 2018, the BDI ranged from a low of 948 in April to a high of 1,774 in July. In 2019, BDI ranged from a low of 595 in February to a high of 2,518 in September. In 2020, the BDI ranged from a low of 393 in May to a high of 2097 in October.

 

Vessel Prices

 

Dry bulk vessel values in 2020 generally were lower as compared to 2019. Consistent with these trends were the market values of our dry bulk carriers. As charter rates and vessel values remain at relatively low levels, there can be

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no assurance as to how long charter rates and vessel values will remain at their current levels or whether they will decrease or improve to any significant degree in the near future.

 

Competition

 

Our business fluctuates in line with the main patterns of trade of the major dry bulk cargoes and varies according to changes in the supply and demand for these items. We operate in markets that are highly competitive and based primarily on supply and demand. We compete for charters on the basis of price, vessel location, size, age and condition of the vessel, as well as on our reputation as an owner and operator. We compete with other owners of dry bulk carriers in the Panamax, Post-Panamax and smaller class sectors and with owners of Capesize and Newcastlemax dry bulk carriers. Ownership of dry bulk carriers is highly fragmented.

 

We believe that we possess a number of strengths that provide us with a competitive advantage in the dry bulk shipping industry:

We own a modern, high quality fleet of dry bulk carriers. We believe that owning a modern, high quality fleet reduces operating costs, improves safety and provides us with a competitive advantage in securing favorable time charters. We maintain the quality of our vessels by carrying out regular inspections, both while in port and at sea, and adopting a comprehensive maintenance program for each vessel.

Our fleet includes groups of sister ships. We believe that maintaining a fleet that includes sister ships enhances the revenue generating potential of our fleet by providing us with operational and scheduling flexibility. The uniform nature of sister ships also improves our operating efficiency by allowing our fleet manager to apply the technical knowledge of one vessel to all vessels of the same series and creates economies of scale that enable us to realize cost savings when maintaining, supplying and crewing our vessels.

We have an experienced management team. Our management team consists of experienced executives who have, on average, more than 30 years of operating experience in the shipping industry and has demonstrated ability in managing the commercial, technical and financial areas of our business.

We benefit from the experience and reputation of Diana Shipping Services S.A. and the relationship with Wilhelmsen Ship Management through the Diana Wilhelmsen Management Limited joint venture.

We benefit from strong relationships with members of the shipping and financial industries. We have developed strong relationships with major international charterers, shipbuilders and financial institutions that we believe are the result of the quality of our operations, the strength of our management team and our reputation for dependability.

We have a strong balance sheet and a relatively low level of indebtedness. We believe that our strong balance sheet and relatively low level of indebtedness provide us with the flexibility to increase the amount of funds that we may draw under our loan facilities in connection with any future acquisitions or otherwise and enable us to use cash flow that would otherwise be dedicated to debt service for other purposes.

 

Permits and Authorizations

 

We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses and certificates with respect to our vessels. The kinds of permits, licenses and certificates required depend upon several factors, including the commodity transported, the waters in which the vessel operates the nationality of the vessel's crew and the age of a vessel. We have been able to obtain all permits, licenses and certificates currently required to

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permit our vessels to operate. Additional laws and regulations, environmental or otherwise, may be adopted which could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of us doing business.

 

Disclosure Pursuant to Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syrian Human Rights Act

 

Section 219 of the U.S. Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, or the ITRA, added new Section 13(r) to the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, requiring each SEC reporting issuer to disclose in its annual and, if applicable, quarterly reports whether it or any of its affiliates have knowingly engaged in certain activities, transactions or dealings relating to Iran or with the Government of Iran or certain designated natural persons or entities involved in terrorism or the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction during the period covered by the report.

 

Pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Exchange Act, we note that none of our vessels made port calls to Iran in 2020 and to the date of this annual report.

 

Environmental and Ot