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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from      to

Commission file number 001-33493

Greenlight Capital Re, Ltd.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Cayman IslandsN/A
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. employer identification no.)
65 Market Street
Suite 1207, Jasmine Court
P.O. Box 31110
Camana Bay
Grand Cayman
Cayman IslandsKY1-1205
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 345-943-4573

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of exchange
Class A ordinary shares GLRE
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of ‘‘large accelerated filer,’’ ‘‘accelerated filer,’’ ‘‘smaller reporting company’’ and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer   Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No 

The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting Class A ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was $180,157,934 based on the closing price of the registrant’s Class A ordinary shares reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Solely for the purpose of this calculation and for no other purpose, the non-affiliates of the registrant are assumed to be all shareholders of the registrant other than (i) directors of the registrant, (ii) executive officers of the registrant who are identified as ‘‘named executives’’ pursuant to Item 11 of this Form 10-K, (iii) any shareholder that beneficially owns 10% or more of the registrant’s common shares and (iv) any shareholder that has one or more of its affiliates on the registrant’s board of directors. Such exclusion is not intended, nor shall it be deemed, to be an admission that such persons are affiliates of the registrant.
Class A Ordinary Shares, $0.10 par value28,260,075
Class B Ordinary Shares, $0.10 par value6,254,715
(Class)Outstanding as of March 5, 2021

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE 

Portions of the proxy statement for the registrant’s 2021 annual meeting of shareholders, to be filed subsequently with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, pursuant to Regulation 14A, under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, relating to the registrant’s annual general meeting of shareholders scheduled to be held on May 4, 2021 are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

1


GREENLIGHT CAPITAL RE, LTD.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
EXHIBIT INDEX


2

Link to Table of Contents
PART I
Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements

Certain statements in Management’s Discussion and Analysis, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believe,” “project,” “predict,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements. A detailed discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included in the section entitled “Risk Factors” (refer to Part I, Item 1A) and include but are not limited to:

The impact of disruptions to commerce, reduced economic activity and other consequences of a pandemic, including the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) is unknown;
A.M. Best may downgrade or withdraw either of our ratings; 
Our results of operations will likely fluctuate from period to period and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects; 
Under our investment management structure, we have limited control over Solasglas Investments, LP (“SILP”);
SILP may be concentrated in a few large positions, which could result in large losses;
Competitors with greater resources may make it difficult for us to effectively market our products or offer our products at a profit;
If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be significantly and negatively affected;
We may face risks from future strategic transactions such as acquisitions, dispositions, mergers or joint ventures;
The effect of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business is uncertain;
The property and casualty reinsurance market may be affected by cyclical trends; 
Loss of key executives could adversely impact our ability to implement our business strategy; and 
Currency fluctuations could result in exchange rate losses and negatively impact our business.   

We caution that the foregoing list of important factors is not intended to be and is not exhaustive. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise and all subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or individuals acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this paragraph. If one or more risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially from what we projected. Any forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K reflect our current view with respect to future events and are subject to these and other risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, results of operations, growth, strategy and liquidity. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements which speak only to the dates on which they were made.

We intend to communicate certain events that we believe may have a material adverse impact on our operations or financial position, including property and casualty catastrophic events and material losses in our investment portfolio, in a timely manner through a public announcement. Other than as required by the Exchange Act, we do not intend to make public announcements regarding reinsurance or investment events that we do not believe, based on management’s estimates and current information, will have a material adverse impact on our operations or financial position.


3

Link to Table of Contents
Item 1. BUSINESS 

Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this annual report on Form 10-K to “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our”, and similar expressions are references to Greenlight Capital Re, Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this annual report to entity names are as set forth in the following table:
 
ReferenceEntity’s legal name
Greenlight Capital ReGreenlight Capital Re, Ltd.
Greenlight ReGreenlight Reinsurance, Ltd.
GRIL Greenlight Reinsurance Ireland, Designated Activity Company
VerdantVerdant Holding Company, Ltd.
Greenlight Re UKGreenlight Re Marketing (UK) Limited

We have included a Glossary of Selected Reinsurance Terms at the end of “Part 1, Item 1. Business” of this Form 10-K.

Company Overview
 
Greenlight Capital Re is a holding company incorporated in July 2004 under the laws of the Cayman Islands. In August 2004, we raised gross proceeds of $212.2 million from private placements of Greenlight Capital Re’s Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares, or, collectively, the ordinary shares. On May 24, 2007, Greenlight Capital Re raised proceeds of $208.3 million, net of underwriting fees, in an initial public offering of Class A ordinary shares, as well as an additional $50.0 million from a private placement of Class B ordinary shares.
 
We are a global specialty property and casualty reinsurer, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, with a reinsurance and investment strategy that we believe differentiates us from our competitors. We conduct our reinsurance operations through two licensed and regulated reinsurance entities: Greenlight Re, based in the Cayman Islands, and GRIL, based in Dublin, Ireland. Greenlight Re provides multi-line property and casualty reinsurance globally, while GRIL focuses mainly on the European market. Our goal is to build long-term shareholder value by providing risk management products and services to the insurance, reinsurance, and other risk marketplaces. We focus on delivering risk solutions to clients and brokers who value our expertise, analytics, and customer service offerings.
 
We aim to complement our underwriting results with a non-traditional investment approach to achieve higher rates of return over the long term than reinsurance companies that exclusively employ more traditional investment strategies. Our investment portfolio is managed according to a value-oriented philosophy, in which our investment advisor takes long positions in perceived undervalued securities and short positions in perceived overvalued securities.

From time to time, we make long-term strategic investments in insurance companies and general agents to complement our strategy and strengthen our client relationships. In certain instances, we utilize Verdant to facilitate strategic investments in property and casualty insurers, general agents and other entities domiciled in the United States.

In 2020, we established a UK marketing Company, Greenlight Re UK, to increase our London market presence. The London market specialty business is now central to our underwriting portfolio and we believe Greenlight Re UK will facilitate continued growth in this market.
 
Description of Business

Greenlight Re is licensed and regulated by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (“CIMA”) to write property and casualty reinsurance business as well as long term business (e.g., life insurance, long term disability, long term care, etc.) To date, we have not written any long term business. GRIL is licensed and regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland (“CBI”) to write property and casualty reinsurance business. Currently, we have one operating segment: property and casualty reinsurance. Within that segment, we employ a two-pillar strategy:

1. Traditional property and casualty reinsurance
We offer excess of loss and quota share products across a range of classes in the property and casualty market. Our underwriting approach varies by class and type of opportunity:
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where we have domain-specific expertise and a high level of market access, we may seek to act as the lead underwriter to achieve greater influence in negotiating pricing, terms and conditions;
where our expertise is sufficient to evaluate the risk thoroughly, we will generally seek to participate in syndicated placements that have been negotiated and priced by another party that we judge to have market-leading expertise in the class, or as a quota share retrocessionaire of a market-leading reinsurer.
2. Risk innovation and strategic partnerships
We seek to develop a range of risk products, via strategic partnerships and other methods to gain access to fee income, a stream of underwriting business, and investment upside potential. We refer to this pillar as Greenlight Re Innovations (“Innovations”).
In evaluating Innovations opportunities, we generally ensure that each investment meets at least one of the following criteria:
the value we add to a partnership primarily comes from the application of our risk expertise, not solely capital or reinsurance support;
the partnership adds expertise to our company, in specific risk areas, technology, product innovation, and/or other areas;
the partnership provides access to a pool of capital, to products or to distribution;
overall, the partnership creates a combined effort that generates durable strategic and/or competitive position in one or more markets, and increases our opportunity for revenue growth and margin expansion opportunities.

Our investment strategy, like our reinsurance strategy, is designed to maximize returns over the long term while minimizing the risk of capital loss. Unlike the investment strategies of many of our traditional competitors, which invest primarily in fixed-income securities either directly or through fixed-fee arrangements with one or more investment managers, our investment strategy is to invest (directly or indirectly) in long and short positions primarily in publicly-traded equity and corporate debt instruments.

We measure our success by long-term growth in book value per share, which we believe is the most comprehensive gauge of our performance. Accordingly, we design our incentive compensation plan to align employee and shareholder interests.

We seek to grow and diversify our underwriting portfolio. Our allocation of risk will vary based on our perception of the opportunities available in each line of business at each point in time. As our focus on certain lines fluctuates based upon market conditions, we may only offer or underwrite a limited number of lines in any given period. We seek to:  
target markets and lines of business where we believe an appropriate risk/reward profile exists;
attract and retain clients with expertise in their respective lines of business;
employ strict underwriting discipline; and
select reinsurance opportunities with anticipated favorable returns on capital over the contract’s term.

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The following table sets forth our gross premiums written by line of business, further broken down by class of business:
 Year ended December 31
202020192018
 ($ in thousands)
Property
Commercial$11,190 2.3 %$14,165 2.7 %$10,487 1.8 %
Motor33,054 6.9 59,402 11.3 76,425 13.5 
Personal14,219 3.0 12,390 2.4 14,118 2.5 
Total Property58,463 12.2 85,957 16.4 101,030 17.8 
Casualty
General Liability4,228 0.9 2,401 0.5 1,429 0.3 
Motor Liability127,379 26.5 233,591 44.6 291,690 51.4 
Professional Liability (1)
204 — (448)(0.1)3,068 0.5 
Workers' Compensation82,189 17.1 50,369 9.6 24,101 4.3 
Multi-line 88,237 18.4 76,461 14.6 57,497 10.1 
Total Casualty302,237 63.0 362,374 69.2 377,785 66.6 
Other
Accident & Health56,284 11.7 39,175 7.5 69,605 12.2 
Financial23,231 4.8 23,087 4.4 16,611 2.9 
Marine770 0.2 160 — 394 0.1 
Other Specialty38,806 8.1 13,224 2.5 2,106 0.4 
Total Other119,091 24.8 75,646 14.4 88,716 15.6 
$479,791 100.0 %$523,977 100.0 %$567,531 100.0 %
(1) Negative balances reflect premium adjustments and premium returned upon contract’s termination, novation or commutation.

The following table sets forth our gross premiums written by the geographic area of the risk insured:
Year ended December 31
202020192018
($ in thousands)
U.S. and Caribbean$390,000 81.3 %$435,458 83.1 %$507,705 89.5 %
Worldwide (1)
84,204 17.5 84,728 16.2 59,366 10.5 
Europe (2)
— — (13)— 506 — 
Asia (2)
5,587 1.2 3,804 0.7 (46)— 
$479,791 100.0 %$523,977 100.0 %$567,531 100.0 %
(1) “Worldwide” is composed of contracts that reinsure risks in more than one geographic area and may include risks in the U.S.
(2) Negative balances reflect premium adjustments and premium returned upon contract’s termination, novation or commutation.

Additional information about our business is set forth in “Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”.

Marketing and Distribution

Business transacted using intermediaries

We source a majority of our business through reinsurance brokers. Brokerage distribution channels provide us with access to an efficient, variable cost and global distribution system without the significant time and expense that would be incurred in creating a wholly-owned distribution network. In some cases, intermediaries also provide other valuable services, including risk analytics, processing, and clearing.
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We aim to build and strengthen long-term relationships with global reinsurance brokers. Our management team has relationships with most primary and specialty broker intermediaries in the reinsurance marketplace. We believe that by maintaining close relationships with brokers we will continue to obtain access to a broad range of reinsurance clients and opportunities.
 
We seek to strengthen our broker relationships and become the preferred choice of brokers and clients by providing, where applicable:
 customized solutions that address the specific business needs of our clients;  
demonstrated expertise in the underlying reinsured exposures and the operation of the contracts;
rapid responses to risk submissions; 
timely claims payments;  
financial security; and 
a clear indication of risks we will and will not underwrite.

We focus on the quality and financial strength of any brokerage firm with which we do business. Brokers do not have the authority to bind us to any reinsurance contract. Reinsurance brokers receive a brokerage commission that is usually a percentage of gross premiums written.

The following table sets forth the premiums generated through our largest brokers and their subsidiaries and affiliates: 
Year ended December 31
 202020192018
  ($ in thousands)
Guy Carpenter (Marsh)$195,274 40.7 %$297,150 56.7 %$376,696 66.4 %
Trean Re112,659 23.5 85,323 16.3 45,446 8.0 
Willis Re31,970 6.7 21,094 4.0 9,501 1.7 
Aon Benfield29,032 6.0 41,071 7.8 70,554 12.4 
Total of largest brokers368,935 76.9 444,638 84.8 502,197 88.5 
All other brokers and direct placements110,856 23.1 79,339 15.2 65,334 11.5 
Total$479,791 100.0 %$523,977 100.0 %$567,531 100.0 %

We meet frequently in the Cayman Islands, Ireland and elsewhere with brokers and senior representatives of clients and prospective clients. We review and (when we deem appropriate) approve all contract submissions in our offices in the Cayman Islands or Ireland. Due to our dependence on brokers, the inability to obtain business from them could adversely affect our business strategy. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — The inability to obtain business provided from brokers could materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy and results of operations.” We may assume a degree of the credit risk of our reinsurance brokers. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — We are subject to the credit risk of our brokers, cedents, agents and other counterparties.

Underwriting and Risk Management

We have established an underwriting platform composed of experienced underwriters and actuaries. We have underwriting operations in two locations, Cayman Islands and Dublin, Ireland, that respectively provide proximity to key markets in the U.S. and Europe. Our experienced team allows us to deploy our capital in a variety of lines of business and capitalize on opportunities that we believe offer favorable returns on equity over the long term. Our underwriters and actuaries have expertise in multiple lines of business, and we also look to outside consultants on a fee-for-service basis to help us with niche areas of expertise when we deem it appropriate. We generally apply the following underwriting and risk management principles:

Economics of Results

Our primary underwriting goal is to build a reinsurance portfolio that maximizes profitability, subject to risk and volatility constraints.

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Underwriting Analysis
Our approach to underwriting analysis begins at the class-of-business level. This analysis includes identifying and assessing the structural drivers of risk and emerging loss trends, and understanding the market participants and results, capacity conditions for supply and demand, and other factors. Our underwriting professionals specialize in business lines and our quantitative professionals assist in evaluating all risks we underwrite. Combined with cross-line management, we believe this approach enables us to build and deploy expertise and insight into the business line’s risk dynamics and external risk factors that will affect each transaction.
We assign a deal team composed of underwriting and quantitative professionals to evaluate each potential transaction’s pricing and structure. Before committing capital to any transaction, the deal team must obtain approval from the Chief Executive Officer/Chief Underwriting Officer. In seeking this approval, the deal team presents the key components of the proposed transaction, including assumptions and threats, market and individual deal risk factors, market capacity dynamics, transaction structure and pricing, maximum downside, and other factors.
We spend a significant amount of time with our current and prospective clients and brokers to understand the risks associated with each potential transaction and structure each contract based on this understanding. Where appropriate, we conduct or contract for on-site audits or reviews of the clients’ underwriting files, systems and operations. We usually obtain substantial amounts of data from our clients to conduct a thorough actuarial modeling analysis. As part of our pricing and underwriting process, we assess, among other factors:
 the client’s and industry’s historical loss data;
the expected duration for claims to fully develop;
the client’s pricing and underwriting strategies;
the geographic areas in which the client is doing business and its market share;
the reputation and financial strength of the client and its management and underwriting teams;
the reputation and expertise of the broker;
the likelihood of establishing a long-term relationship with the client and the broker; and
reports provided by independent industry specialists.
We have developed and use proprietary quantitative models, and also use several commercially available tools to price our business. Our models consider conventional underwriting and risk metrics, and incorporate various class-specific and market-specific aspects from our line-of-business analyses. Using models, we consider the quantitative work’s quality and predictive power and undertake a detailed assessment of the data quality. We place greater weight on scenarios that result in higher losses.
Underwriting Authorities

The Underwriting Committee of our Board of Directors, which we refer to as the Underwriting Committee, sets parameters for aggregate property catastrophic caps and limits for maximum loss potential under any individual contract. The Underwriting Committee must approve any exceptions to the established limits. The Underwriting Committee may amend the maximum underwriting authorities periodically and to align with our capital base. The Underwriting Committee designs our underwriting authorities to ensure the underwriting portfolio is appropriate on a risk-adjusted basis.
 
Retrocessional Coverage

We selectively purchase retrocessional coverage for one or more of the following reasons: to manage our overall catastrophe events exposure, to reduce our net liability on individual risks, to obtain additional underwriting capacity and to balance our underwriting portfolio.
 
The amount of retrocessional coverage that we purchase varies based on numerous factors, including the inherent volatility and risk accumulation of the portfolio of business we write and our capital base. Our portfolio, and by extension our
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gross risk position, will change in size from year to year depending on market opportunities, so it is impossible to predict the level of retrocessional coverage that we will purchase in any future year. 

We generally purchase uncollateralized retrocessional coverage from reinsurers with a minimum financial strength rating of “A- (Excellent)” from A.M. Best Company, Inc. (“A.M. Best”) or an equivalent rating from a recognized rating service. For lower-rated or non-rated reinsurers, we endeavor to obtain and monitor collateral in the form of cash, funds withheld, letters of credit, regulatory trusts, or other collateral in the form of guarantees. As of December 31, 2020, the aggregate amount due from reinsurers from retrocessional coverages represents 3.4% (December 31, 2019: 5.9%) of our gross loss reserves. For further details please see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements. We regularly evaluate the financial condition of our reinsurers to assess their ability to honor their obligations. At December 31, 2020, the Company had recorded an allowance for expected credit losses of $0.1 million (December 31, 2019: nil).

Claims Management
 
Our claims management process begins upon receipt of claims notifications from our clients or third-party administrators. We review reserving and settlement authority under the individual contract requirements and, as necessary, discuss with the contract’s underwriter. Our in-house claims officer is responsible for overseeing claims reviews and providing approval for complex or large claim settlements. Claims above the claims officer’s authority are referred to the general counsel, together with the claims officer’s recommendations, for secondary approval. Our Chief Executive Officer must approve claim payments above a certain threshold. We believe that this process ensures that we pay claims in accordance with each contract's terms and conditions.

Where appropriate, we conduct or contract for on-site claims audits at cedents and third-party administrators, particularly for large accounts and for those whose performance differs from our expectations. We evaluate and monitor the third-party administrators’ and ceding companies’ organization and claims-handling practices through these audits. These practices include:

fact-finding and investigation techniques;
loss notifications;
reserving;
claims negotiation and settlement;
adherence to claims-handling guidelines.

We recognize that the fair interpretation of our reinsurance agreements and timely payment of covered claims are essential components of the service we provide to our clients.

Reserves
 
Our reserving philosophy is to set reserves that represent our best estimate of the amount we will ultimately be required to pay in connection with risks we have underwritten. Our actuarial staff performs quarterly reviews of our portfolio and provides reserving estimates according to our stated reserving philosophy. In doing so, our actuarial staff groups our portfolio of business into reserving analysis segments based primarily on homogeneity considerations. Currently, this process involves analysis at the individual client or transaction level.

We engage independent external actuaries who review and provide an opinion on these reserve estimates at least once a year. Due to the use of different assumptions and loss experience, the amount we establish as reserves with respect to individual risks, clients, transactions or business lines may be greater or less than those set by our clients or ceding companies. Reserves include claims reported but not yet paid, claims incurred but not reported and claims in the process of settlement. Additional underwriting liabilities include unearned premiums, premium deposits and profit commissions earned but not yet paid.
 
Reserves represent an estimate rather than an exact quantification. Although the methods for establishing reserves are well established, many assumptions about anticipated loss emergence patterns are subject to unanticipated fluctuation. We base our estimates on our assessment of facts and circumstances known at the time of the estimate, as well as estimates of future trends in claim severity and frequency, judicial theories of liability, and other factors, including the actions of third parties, which are beyond our control. See Note 7 of the accompanying consolidated financial statements for a reconciliation of claims reserves, loss development tables by accident year and explanations of significant prior period loss development movements. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
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Collateral Arrangements and Letter of Credit Facilities
 
We are licensed and admitted as an insurer only in the Cayman Islands and the European Economic Area. Many jurisdictions, including the United States, do not permit clients to take credit for reinsurance on their statutory financial statements if they obtain such reinsurance from unlicensed or non-admitted insurers, without appropriate collateral. As a result, our U.S. clients and a portion of our non-U.S. clients require us to provide collateral for the contracts we bind with them. We provide collateral as funds withheld, trust arrangements or letters of credit. As of December 31, 2020, we had one letter of credit facility with a limit of $275.0 million (2019: one facility with a limit of $400.0 million). In 2020, we amended the Citibank facility and reduced the maximum limit from $400.0 million to $275.0 million. As of December 31, 2020, we had issued letters of credit totaling $135.3 million (2019: $204.5 million) to clients. Additionally, as of December 31, 2020, we had pledged $607.8 million (2019: $528.7 million) as collateral through trust arrangements.

Competition
 
The reinsurance industry is highly competitive. We compete with major reinsurers, most of which are well established, have significant operating histories and strong financial strength ratings, and have developed long-standing client relationships.
 
Our competitors vary according to the individual market and situation. Generally, they include Arch Capital, Axis, Everest Re, Hamilton Re, Hannover Re, PartnerRe, RenaissanceRe, SiriusPoint, and smaller companies, other niche reinsurers and Lloyd’s syndicates and their related entities. Although we seek to provide coverage where capacity and alternatives are limited, we directly compete with these and other larger companies due to the breadth of their coverage across the property and casualty market in substantially all lines of business. See "Item 1A – Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – Competitors with greater resources may make it difficult for us to effectively market our products or offer our products at a profit.

Ratings
 
Our current “A- (Excellent)” rating from A.M. Best is the fourth highest of 13 ratings. We believe that a strong rating is an important factor in marketing reinsurance products to clients and brokers. These ratings reflect the rating agency’s opinion of our reinsurance subsidiaries’ financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet obligations. It is not an evaluation directed toward the investors’ protection or a recommendation to buy, sell or hold our Class A ordinary shares.
 
A.M. Best has currently assigned a negative outlook on our A- (Excellent) rating. The failure to maintain a strong rating may significantly and negatively affect our ability to implement our business strategy. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business —“A downgrade or withdrawal of either of our A.M. Best ratings would materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy successfully.

Regulations

Cayman Islands Insurance Regulation

The legislative framework for conducting insurance and reinsurance business in and from within the Cayman Islands is composed of The Insurance Act, 2010 (as amended) and underlying regulations thereto (the “Act”) which became effective in the Cayman Islands effective November 1, 2012.

Greenlight Re holds a Class D insurer license issued in accordance with the terms of the Act and is subject to regulation and supervision by CIMA.

As the holder of a Class D insurer license, Greenlight Re is permitted to carry on reinsurance business from the Cayman Islands, but, except with the prior written approval of CIMA, may not carry on any insurance or reinsurance business where the underlying risk originates and resides in the Cayman Islands.

Greenlight Re is required to comply with the following principal requirements under the Act: 
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to maintain capital and a margin of solvency in accordance with the capital and solvency requirements prescribed by the Act;
to carry on its business in accordance with the laws of the Cayman Islands, including the regulatory laws, regulations, rules, and statements of guidance, where applicable;
to maintain adequate arrangements, including internal controls, for the management of risks and a system of governance as approved by CIMA;
to maintain a minimum of at least two directors and to seek the prior approval of CIMA in respect of the appointment of directors and officers and to provide CIMA with information in connection therewith and notification of any changes thereto;
to have a place of business in the Cayman Islands and to maintain such resources, including staff and facilities, books and records as CIMA considers appropriate having regard for the nature and scale of the business of Greenlight Re;
to submit to CIMA an annual return in the prescribed form together with:
- financial statements prepared in accordance with internationally recognized accounting standards, audited by an independent auditor approved by CIMA;
- an actuarial valuation of Greenlight Re’s assets and liabilities, certified by an actuary approved by CIMA;
- certification of solvency prepared by a person approved by CIMA in accordance with the prescribed requirements;
- confirmation that the information contained in Greenlight Re’s license application, as modified by any subsequent changes, remains correct and up to date;
- such other information as may be prescribed by CIMA; and
to pay an annual license fee. 

It is the duty of CIMA: 
 to maintain a general review of insurance practices in the Cayman Islands;
to examine the affairs or business of any licensee or other person carrying on, or who has carried on, insurance business to ensure that the Act has been complied with and that the licensee is in a sound financial position and is carrying on its business in a fit and proper manner;
to examine and report on the annual returns delivered to CIMA in terms of the Act; and
to examine and make recommendations with respect to, among other things, proposals for the revocation of licenses and cases of suspected insolvency of licensed entities.

Greenlight Re is also required to comply with the Rule on Corporate Governance for Insurers and the Rule on Risk Management for Insurers. Respectively, these rules require regulated insurers to establish and maintain (a) a corporate governance framework which provides for the sound and prudent management and oversight of the insurer's business, including outsourcing and internal controls, and which adequately recognizes and protects the interests of its policyholders, and (b) a risk management framework that is capable of promptly identifying, measuring, assessing, reporting, monitoring and controlling all sources of risks that could have a material impact on its operations.

The Act provides that where CIMA believes a licensee is committing, or is about to commit or pursue, an act that is an unsafe or unsound business practice, CIMA may direct the licensee to cease or refrain from committing the act or pursuing the offending course of conduct. Failure to comply with such a CIMA direction may be punishable on summary conviction by a fine of up to 100,000 Cayman Islands dollars (approximately US$120,000) or to imprisonment for a term of five years or to both, and on conviction on indictment to a fine of 500,000 Cayman Islands dollars (approximately US$600,000) or to imprisonment for a term of ten years or to both and to an additional 10,000 Cayman Islands dollars (approximately US$12,000) for every day after conviction that the breach continues.

The Monetary Authority Act (“MAA”) also provides CIMA with authority to impose administrative fines on licensees. The recent Monetary Authority (Administrative Fines) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 (the “Amendment Regulations”) came into force on 26 June 2020. They extended the scope of the fines which CIMA may impose for breaches of a range of regulatory laws, including the Act. Breaches are categorised as minor, serious or very serious and, depending on the category of breach, fines range from US$6,100 to US$1,220,000 per breach for very serious breaches. Where a breach is committed by a corporate entity and is shown to have been committed with the consent, connivance, knowledge, or neglect of an individual, that individual may also be subject to an administrative fine.

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Whenever CIMA believes that a licensee is or may become unable to meet its obligations as they fall due, is carrying on business in a manner likely to be detrimental to the public interest or the interests of its creditors or policyholders, has contravened the terms of the Act or has otherwise behaved in such a manner to cause CIMA to call into question the licensee’s fitness, CIMA may take one of several steps. The steps include requiring the licensee to rectify the matter, suspending the license of the licensee, revoking the license, imposing conditions upon the license and amending or revoking any such condition, requiring the substitution of any director, manager or officer of the licensee, at the expense of the licensee, appointing a person to advise the licensee on the proper conduct of its affairs and to report to CIMA thereon, at the expense of the licensee, appointing a person to assume control of the licensee’s affairs or otherwise requiring such action to be taken by the licensee as CIMA considers necessary. We have not been subject to any such actions from CIMA to date. 

Other Regulations in the Cayman Islands

As Cayman Islands exempted companies, Greenlight Capital Re and Greenlight Re may not carry on business or trade locally in the Cayman Islands except in furtherance of their business outside the Cayman Islands and are prohibited from soliciting the public of the Cayman Islands to subscribe for any of their securities or debt. We are further required to file a return with the Registrar of Companies in January of each year (“Annual Return”) and to pay an annual registration fee at that time.

Economic substance law requiring a “relevant entity” conducting “relevant activity” to file notifications and, unless exempt, to report to the Tax Information Authority (“TIA”) and maintain economic substance has been introduced in the Cayman Islands.
The International Tax Co-operation (Economic Substance) Act (2020 Revision) and International Tax Co-operation (Economic Substance) Regulations, 2020 were published on January 14, 2020, and August 11, 2020, respectively (together, the “ES Act”). The latest version of the Guidance on Economic Substance for Geographically Mobile Activities (“ES Guidance”) was published on July 13, 2020.

Commencing January 2020, Greenlight Capital Re and Greenlight Re are required to confirm their economic substance classification and submit this classification to the TIA as a prerequisite to the Annual Return filing.

The Cayman Islands has no exchange controls restricting dealings in currencies or securities.

Ireland Insurance Regulations

Our Irish subsidiary, GRIL, is authorized as a non-life reinsurance undertaking by the CBI in accordance with the European Union (Insurance and Reinsurance) Regulations 2015 (the "Irish Regulations"). The Irish Regulations give effect in Ireland to EU Directive 2009/138/EC (known as "Solvency II"), which introduced a new European regulatory regime for insurers and reinsurers with effect from January 1, 2016. Solvency II is supplemented by the European Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/35, other European Commission “delegated acts” and binding technical standards, and guidelines issued by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (“Delegated Acts and Guidelines”). GRIL is required to comply at all times with the Irish Regulations, the Irish Insurance Acts 1909 to 2018, regulations relating to insurance business or reinsurance business promulgated under the European Communities Act 1972, the Irish Central Bank Acts 1942 to 2015 as amended, regulations promulgated thereunder and directions, guidelines and codes of conduct issued by CBI (collectively the “Irish Insurance Acts and Regulations”). In addition, GRIL is required to comply with the Delegated Acts and Guidelines and must meet risk-based solvency requirements imposed under Solvency II on insurers and reinsurers across all member states, including Ireland. Solvency II and the Delegated Acts and Guidelines set out classification and eligibility requirements, including the characteristics which capital, including any capital contribution, must display to qualify as regulatory capital.

GRIL is also required to comply with the European Union (Insurance Distribution) Regulations 2018 (the "2018 Regulations"), which apply to distributors of insurance and reinsurance products (including insurers and reinsurers). The 2018 Regulations give effect in Ireland to Directive (EU) 2016/97 (known as the "IDD") and strengthen the regulatory regime applicable to distribution activities through increased transparency, information, and conduct requirements. As of 25 May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (the "GDPR") came into force across the EU. The GDPR significantly increases the organizations’ obligations and responsibilities in collecting, using, storing and protecting personal data. Organizations in breach of the GDPR may incur sizable financial penalties.
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Overview of Investments

Our investment portfolio is managed by DME Advisors, LP (“DME Advisors”), a value-oriented investment advisor that analyzes companies’ available financial data, business strategies and prospects to identify undervalued and overvalued securities. DME Advisors is controlled by David Einhorn, the Chairman of our Board of Directors and the President of Greenlight Capital, Inc.

Prior to September 1, 2018, substantially all of our investable assets were invested through a joint venture arrangement in which DME Advisors, LLC (“DME”) acted as the investment advisor. We were party to a joint venture agreement (the “venture agreement”) with DME Advisors and DME under which the Company, its reinsurance subsidiaries and DME were participants in a joint venture (the “Joint Venture”) created to manage certain jointly held assets. In addition to the venture agreement, we had entered into an amended and restated investment advisory agreement (the “advisory agreement”) with DME Advisors to provide discretionary advisory services relating to the assets and liabilities of the venture. On January 2, 2019, the Joint Venture was terminated.

On September 1, 2018, we entered into an amended and restated exempted limited partnership agreement (the “SILP LPA”) of Solasglas Investments, LP (“SILP”), with DME Advisors II, LLC (“DME II”), as General Partner, Greenlight Re, GRIL and the initial limited partner (each, a “Partner”). We show our investment in SILP under the caption “Investment in related party investment fund” in our consolidated balance sheets.

On September 1, 2018, SILP entered into an investment advisory agreement (the “IAA”) with DME Advisors, with an initial term ending on August 31, 2023, subject to automatic extensions for successive three-year terms. DME Advisors has the contractual right to manage substantially all of our investable assets, and is required to follow our investment guidelines and act in a fair and equitable manner in allocating investment opportunities to SILP. However, DME Advisors is not otherwise restricted with respect to the nature or timing of making investments for SILP.

On February 26, 2019, effective as of September 1, 2018, we entered into Amendment No. 1 to the SILP LPA. The
amendment revised the mechanics for calculating the Carryforward Account and Performance Allocation (as defined in the SILP LPA) to consider withdrawals from and subsequent recontributions of capital to SILP, consistent with the treatment under the Joint Venture. On January 7, 2021, effective as of January 1, 2021, we entered into a second amendment to the SILP LPA which amended (a) the definition of “Additional Investment Ratio” and (b) each of the defined terms “Greenlight Re Surplus” and “GRIL Surplus”. The second amendment to the SILP LPA also incorporated the requirement that the Investment Portfolio, as defined in the SILP LPA, will not exceed 50% of GLRE Surplus.

DME Advisors receives a monthly management fee at an annual rate of 1.5% of each limited partner’s Investment Portfolio, as provided in the SILP LPA. DME II receives a performance allocation based on the positive performance change of each limited partner’s capital account equal to 20% of net profits calculated per annum, subject to a loss carryforward provision.

The loss carryforward provision allows DME II to earn a reduced performance allocation of 10% on net profits in any year after the year in which a limited partner’s capital account incurs a loss, until the limited partner has recouped all losses and has earned an additional amount equal to 150% of the loss. DME II is not entitled to a performance allocation in a year in which a capital account incurs a loss.

DME Advisors is required to follow our investment guidelines and act in a manner that it considers fair and equitable in allocating investment opportunities to us and SILP. However, the IAA does not otherwise impose any specific obligations or requirements concerning the allocation of time, effort, or investment opportunities to us and SILP or any restrictions on the nature or timing of investments for our or SILP’s account, or other accounts that DME Advisors or its affiliates may manage. DME Advisors can outsource to sub-advisors without our consent or approval. If DME Advisors and any of its affiliates attempt to invest in the same opportunity simultaneously, DME Advisors and its affiliates may allocate the opportunity as they determine reasonably. Affiliates of DME Advisors presently serve as the general partner or the investment advisor of Greenlight Capital, LP, Greenlight Capital Offshore Qualified, Ltd., GCOQ Intermediate, LP, Greenlight Capital Offshore Partners, Ltd., Greenlight Capital Investors, LP, Greenlight Capital Offshore Investors, Ltd., GCOI Intermediate, LP, Greenlight Capital Offshore Master, Ltd., Greenlight Masters, LP, Greenlight Masters Qualified, LP, Greenlight Masters Offshore, Ltd., Greenlight Masters Offshore I, Ltd., Greenlight Masters Offshore Partners and Greenlight Masters Partners (collectively, the “Greenlight Funds”). 

We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to cause all of our current and future subsidiaries to enter into the SILP LPA. Under the SILP LPA, we are contractually obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to cause substantially all investable assets of Greenlight Re and GRIL, with limited exceptions, to be contributed to SILP.

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We have agreed to release DME, DME II, and DME Advisors and their affiliates from, and to indemnify and hold them harmless against, any liability arising out of the venture agreement and the advisory agreement, subject to certain exceptions. Furthermore, DME, DME II, and DME Advisors and their affiliates have agreed to indemnify us against any liability incurred in connection with certain actions. 

Under the SILP LPA, either of the GLRE Limited Partners may voluntarily withdraw all or part of its capital account for its operating needs by giving DME II at least three business days notice. Either of the GLRE Limited Partners may withdraw as a partner and fully withdraw all of its capital account from SILP on three business days notice if the limited partner’s board declares that a cause for withdrawal exists as per the SILP LPA.

Investment Strategy

DME Advisors implements a value-oriented investment strategy by taking long positions in perceived undervalued securities and short positions in perceived overvalued securities. DME Advisors aims to achieve high absolute returns while minimizing the risk of capital loss. DME Advisors attempts to determine the risk/return characteristics of potential investments by analyzing factors such as the risk that expected cash flows would not be achieved, the volatility of the cash flows, the leverage of the underlying business, and the security’s liquidity, among others.

Our Board of Directors conducts reviews of our investment portfolio activities and oversees our investment guidelines to meet our investment objectives. We believe our investment approach, while less predictable than traditional fixed-income portfolios, complements our reinsurance business and will achieve higher rates of return over the long term than reinsurance companies that invest predominantly in fixed-income securities. We have designed our investment guidelines to maintain adequate liquidity to fund our reinsurance operations.

DME Advisors is contractually obligated to adhere to our investment guidelines, and make investment decisions on our behalf. These decisions may include buying publicly listed equity securities and corporate debt, selling securities short, and investing in private placements, futures, currencies, commodities, credit default swaps, interest rate swaps, sovereign debt, derivatives, and other instruments. As of December 31, 2020, DME Advisors was in compliance with our investment guidelines.

Investment Guidelines

The investment guidelines adopted by the respective Boards of Directors of Greenlight Re and GRIL, which may be amended or modified from time to time, take into account restrictions imposed on us by regulators, our liability mix, requirements to maintain an appropriate claims paying rating by ratings agencies and requirements of lenders.

As of the date hereof, Greenlight Re’s investment guidelines, which Greenlight Re’s board of directors may amend at any time, are as follows:

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Composition of Investments: At least 80% of the assets in its Investment Portfolio (as defined in the Limited Partnership Agreement) will be held in debt or equity securities (including swaps) of publicly-traded companies (or their subsidiaries), governments of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development high income countries, cash, cash equivalents and gold. No more than 10% of Greenlight Re Surplus (as defined in the Limited Partnership Agreement) will be held in private equity securities.
Concentration of Investments: Other than cash, cash equivalents, United States government obligations and gold, no single investment in its Investment Portfolio will constitute more than 10% of Greenlight Re Surplus.
Liquidity: Assets will be invested in such fashion that Greenlight Re has a reasonable expectation that it can meet any of its liabilities as they become due. Greenlight Re will review with the Investment Advisor the liquidity of the portfolio on a periodic basis.
Monitoring: Greenlight Re will require the Investment Advisor to re-evaluate each position in its Investment Portfolio and to monitor changes in intrinsic value and trading value and provide monthly reports on its Investment Portfolio to Greenlight Re as Greenlight Re may reasonably determine.
Leverage: No new investments to increase net long exposure shall be made when Greenlight Re’s pro rata share of Assets (excluding cash equivalents) exceed its Investment Portfolio. In any event, Greenlight Re’s pro rata share of Assets (excluding cash equivalents) may not exceed 110% of its Investment Portfolio.
Currency hedging activities are excluded from leverage calculations. In addition to currency hedging, where the Investment Advisor enters into a secondary investment with the primary purpose of reducing the risk of another existing investment then the investment advisor may exclude the secondary investment from the calculation of leverage provided that the Investment Advisor receives approval from Greenlight Re’s Chief Financial Officer. Such authority is limited such that no more than 10% of gross exposure may be excluded from leverage calculations and may be netted from the primary investment for concentration limits.

The investment guidelines for GRIL are identical to Greenlight Re’s except for (a) currency hedging guidelines, which do not apply to GRIL, and (b) Concentration of Investments and Credit default swaps, which for GRIL are as follows:
 
Concentration of Investments: Other than cash, cash equivalents and United States government obligations, (1) no single investment in its Investment Portfolio will constitute more than 7.5% of GRIL Surplus, (2) the ten largest investments shall not constitute greater than 40% of GRIL Surplus, and (3) its Investment Portfolio shall at all times be composed of a minimum of 50 debt or equity securities of publicly traded companies (or their subsidiaries).
Credit default swaps: The sale of credit default swaps is prohibited.

Investment Results
 
Composition
 
The following table summarizes the investments as reported in the consolidated financial statements: 
December 31
20202019
($ in thousands)
Investment in related party investment fund$166,735 85.0 %$240,056 93.6 %
Private investments and unlisted equities 21,793 11.1 10,681 4.2 
Investment accounted for under the equity method 6,545 3.3 5,703 2.2 
Derivative financial instruments (not designated as hedging instruments)1,080 0.6 — — 
Total investments$196,153 100.0 %$256,440 100.0 %
  
DME Advisors reports the composition of SILP’s portfolio on a delta adjusted basis, which it believes is the appropriate manner in which to assess the exposure and profile of investments and is the way in which it manages the portfolio. An option’s delta is the option price’s sensitivity to the underlying stock (or commodity) price. The delta adjusted basis is the number of shares or contracts underlying the option multiplied by the delta and the underlying stock (or commodity) price.

This exposure analysis does not include cash (U.S. dollar and foreign currencies), gold and other commodities, credit default swaps, sovereign debt, foreign currency derivatives, interest rate options, and other macro positions. Under this methodology, the total return swap’s exposure is reported at its full notional amount. Options are reported at their delta adjusted basis.
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The following table represents the composition of SILP’s investments as of December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2019:
December 31
20202019
Long %Short %Long %Short %
Debt instruments0.1 %— %0.2 %— %
Equities & related derivatives40.4 21.2 25.7 (7.9)
Private and unlisted equity securities2.4 — 2.4 — 
Total42.9 %21.2 %28.3 %(7.9)%

As of December 31, 2020, SILP’s exposure to gold on a delta adjusted basis was 3.7% (2019: 0.0% ).

The following table represents the composition of SILP by industry sector, as of December 31, 2020:

SectorLong %Short %Net %
Communication Services0.7 %(1.8)%(1.1)%
Consumer Discretionary13.6 (5.1)8.5 
Consumer Staples0.2 (0.2)— 
Energy1.4 (0.6)0.8 
Financial6.5 (1.6)4.9 
Healthcare2.6 (2.9)(0.3)
Industrials7.3 (4.3)3.0 
Materials5.6 — 5.6 
Real Estate— (2.0)(2.0)
Technology4.0 (2.7)1.3 
Utilities— — — 
Other1.0 — 1.0 
Total42.9 %(21.2)%21.7 %

The following table represents the composition of our investments in SILP, by the market capitalization of the underlying security, as of December 31, 2020:

CapitalizationLong %Short %Net %
Mega Cap Equity (≥$25 billion)0.6 %(5.5)%(4.9)%
Large Cap Equity (≥$10 billion and <$25 billion)1.5 (4.7)(3.2)
Mid Cap Equity (≥$2 billion and <$10 billion)20.8 (10.4)10.4 
Small Cap Equity (<$2 billion)17.4 (0.6)16.8 
Debt Instruments0.1 — 0.1 
Other Investments2.5 — 2.5 
Total42.9 %(21.2)%21.7 %

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Investment Returns

In accordance with the SILP LPA, DME Advisors constructs a levered investment portfolio as agreed with the Company (the “Investment Portfolio” as defined in the SILP LPA). Investment returns, net of all fees and expenses, by quarter for the last five years are as follows: (1)

Quarter20202019201820172016
1st(8.1)%6.2 %(11.8)%0.9 %2.5%
2nd0.3 2.7 (3.8)(3.4)(3.4)
3rd1.4 1.2 (8.4)5.5 3.1 
4th8.4 (1.0)(10.2)(1.3)5.0 
Full Year1.4 %9.3 %(30.3)%1.5 %7.2 %

    (1)    Investment returns are calculated monthly and compounded to calculate the quarterly and annual returns generated by our Investment Portfolio. Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.
  
Internal Risk Management
 
Our Chief Risk Officer is responsible for constructing and reviewing our internal risk management function. A primary objective of our risk management function is to ensure that our underwriting efforts comply with explicitly stated underwriting appetites. We design these appetites to balance our risk position size with our expertise and the available margins, while containing the cost of incorrectly assessing risks and rewards. In doing so, our risk management function designs, implements, and oversees a range of operational and underwriting controls to support the organization. We frequently review our investment and underwriting portfolios to assess the impact on capital under stressed scenarios. With the assistance of DME Advisors, we analyze our investment assets and liabilities including the numerous risk components in our portfolio, such as concentration risk and liquidity risk.

Information Technology

We house most of our information technology infrastructure primarily at an off-site, secure data center in Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. We are increasing our use of cloud-based services as these services’ security and reliability improve.

We have implemented backup procedures to ensure we save key data daily and we can restore it promptly as needed.
 
We have a disaster recovery plan for our information technology infrastructure that includes data and systems replication between our Cayman Islands office and Dublin office and other off-site locations. We believe we can access our core systems with insignificant outages and restore our secondary systems if our primary systems are unavailable due to a disaster or otherwise.

We protect our information systems with physical, electronic, and software safeguards considered appropriate by our management. We employ a specialist vendor to monitor our systems for security events and risks from within our network. We regularly provide security risk awareness education and training to our staff. Despite these efforts, computer viruses, hackers, employee misuse or misconduct, and other internal or external hazards could expose our data systems to security breaches, cyber-attacks, or other disruptions. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business — Operational risks, including human or systems failures, are inherent in our business.


Human Capital
 
As of March 5, 2021, we had 35 full-time employees, 26 of whom were based in Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, eight in Dublin, Ireland and one in London, United Kingdom. We believe that our employee relations are good. None of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements, and we are not aware of any current efforts to implement such agreements. We also engage consultants and contract with third-parties, as needed, to provide additional resources to support our business activities.

We are committed to advancement and innovation through investing in our employees’ professional development. We have implemented an employee training and development policy to encourage our employees to take advantage of training and development opportunities.
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Our performance-driven compensation policy is designed to attract and retain talent. We use short-term compensation composed of base salary and annual cash bonuses and long-term compensation composed of deferred bonuses and stock options, restricted share units, and/or restricted shares, as applicable, in an effort to align our employees’ and executive officers’ interests with those of our shareholders. In addition, from time to time and under certain circumstances, we award sign-on bonuses, retention bonuses and other bonuses and/or bonus opportunities. We also offer welfare benefits and other perquisites including defined contribution pension plan, medical insurance coverage, and tax preparation for our employees.

We believe our employees are fairly compensated, without regard to gender, race, and ethnicity. We believe in creating and maintaining a workplace that is free from discrimination or harassment on the basis of color, race, sex, national origin, ethnicity, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identification or expression or any other status protected by applicable law. Each of our employees annually acknowledges complying with our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics which also provides employees with access to an anonymous whistleblower hotline to report any violations. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is available on our website. 


Additional Information
 
Our website address is www.greenlightre.com and we make available, free of charge, on or through our website, links to our annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other documents we file with or furnish to the SEC, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.




Glossary of Selected Reinsurance Terms  
Accident & Health insuranceInsurance against loss by illness or bodily injury. Health insurance provides
coverage for medicine, visits to the doctor or emergency room, hospital stays, and
other medical expenses.
Acquisition costsCeding commission, profit commissions, brokerage fees, premium taxes and other direct expenses relating directly to premium production.
Acquisition cost ratioThe acquisition cost ratio is calculated by dividing net acquisition costs by net premiums earned.
ActuaryA person professionally trained in the mathematical and technical aspects of insurance and related fields particularly in calculating premiums, loss reserves and other values.
BrokerAn intermediary who negotiates contracts of insurance or reinsurance, receiving a commission for placement and other services rendered, between (1) a policyholder and a primary insurer, on behalf of the policyholder, (2) a primary insurer and a reinsurer, on behalf of the primary insurer, or (3) a reinsurer and a retrocessionaire, on behalf of the reinsurer.
CapacityCapacity is the percentage of surplus that an insurer or reinsurer is willing or able to place at risk or the dollar amount of exposure it is willing to assume. Capacity may apply to a single risk, a program, a business line or an entire book of business. Capacity may be constrained by legal restrictions, corporate restrictions, or indirect financial restrictions such as capital adequacy requirements.
Casualty reinsuranceCasualty reinsurance is primarily concerned with the losses caused by injuries to third persons (persons other than the policyholder) and the legal liability imposed on the policyholder resulting therefrom. Casualty reinsurance includes, but is not limited to workers’ compensation, automobile liability, and general liability. A greater degree of unpredictability is generally associated with casualty risks known as ‘‘long-tail risks,’’ where losses take time to become known, and a claim may be separated from the circumstances that caused it by several years. An example of a long-tail casualty risk includes the use of certain drugs that may cause cancer or birth defects. There tends to be a greater delay in the reporting and settlement of casualty reinsurance claims due to the long-tail nature of the underlying casualty risks and their greater potential for litigation.
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CatastropheA severe loss, typically involving multiple claimants. Common perils include earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, hailstorms, tornados, derechos, severe winter weather, floods, fires, explosions, volcanic eruptions, and other natural or human-made disasters. Catastrophe losses may also arise from acts of war, acts of terrorism and political instability.
Cede; cedentWhen a party reinsures its liability to another party, it ‘‘cedes’’ business to the reinsurer and is referred to as the ‘‘client.’’
ClaimRequest by an insured or reinsured for indemnification by an insurance or reinsurance company for loss incurred from an insured peril or event.
ClientA party whose liability is reinsured by a reinsurer. Also known as a cedent.
Combined ratioThe combined ratio is the sum of the loss ratio, acquisition cost ratio, and underwriting expense ratio.   
Composite ratioThe composite ratio is the ratio of underwriting losses incurred, loss adjustment expenses. and acquisition costs, excluding underwriting-related general and administrative expenses, to net premiums earned, or equivalently, the sum of the loss ratio and acquisition cost ratio.
Corporate expensesCorporate expenses include those costs associated with operating as a publicly listed entity and an allocation of other general and administrative expenses.
DevelopmentThe difference between the amount of reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses initially estimated by an insurer or reinsurer and the amount re-estimated in an evaluation at a later date.
Excess of loss reinsuranceReinsurance that indemnifies the reinsured against all or a specified portion of losses above a specified dollar or percentage loss ratio amount.
Financial strength ratingThe opinion of rating agencies regarding an insurance or reinsurance company’s financial ability to meet its financial obligations under its policies.
Funds at Lloyd’sFunds of an approved form that are lodged and held in trust at Lloyd's as security for a member’s underwriting activities. They comprise the members deposit, personal reserve fund and special reserve fund and may be drawn down in the event that the member’s syndicate level premium trust funds are insufficient to cover its liabilities. The amount of the deposit is related to the member's premium income limit and also the nature of the underwriting account.
Gross premiums writtenTotal premiums for assumed reinsurance during a given period.
Health insuranceInsurance against loss by illness or bodily injury. Health insurance provides coverage for medicine, visits to the doctor or emergency room, hospital stays, and other medical expenses.
Incurred but not reported (IBNR)Reserves for estimated loss and loss adjustment expenses incurred by insureds and reinsureds but not yet reported to the insurer or reinsurer, including unknown future developments on loss and loss adjustment expenses known to the insurer or reinsurer.
Lloyd’sDepending on the context this term may refer to - (a) the society of individual and corporate underwriting members that insure and reinsure risks as members of one or more syndicates. Lloyd’s is not an insurance company; (b) the underwriting room in the Lloyd’s Building in which managing agents underwrite insurance and reinsurance on behalf of their syndicate members. In this sense Lloyd’s should be understood as a market place; or (c) the Corporation of Lloyd’s which regulates and provides support services to the Lloyd’s market.
Loss adjustment expenses (LAE)The expenses of settling claims, including legal and other fees and the portion of general expenses allocated to claim settlement costs. Also known as claim adjustment expenses.
Loss ratioThe loss ratio is calculated by dividing net loss and loss adjustment expenses incurred by net premiums earned.  
Loss reserves and loss adjustment expense reservesLiabilities established by insurers and reinsurers to reflect the estimated cost of claims payments and the related expenses that the insurer or reinsurer will ultimately be required to pay in respect of insurance or reinsurance contracts it has written. Reserves are established for losses and loss adjustment expenses, and consist of reserves established for individual reported claims and incurred but not reported losses.
Multi-lineContracts that cover more than one line of business.
Net financial impactThe net impact of prior period loss development after taking into account net losses and loss expenses incurred, earned reinstatement premiums assumed and ceded, and adjustments to assumed and ceded acquisition costs and profit commissions.
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Net premiums writtenAn insurer’s gross premiums written, less premiums ceded to reinsurers.
Non-admitted insurersAn insurer not licensed to do business in the jurisdiction in question. Also known as an unauthorized insurer and unlicensed insurer.
Premiums; written, earned and unearnedPremiums represent the cost of insurance paid by the cedent or insured to the insurer or reinsurer. Written represents the total amount of premiums received, and earned represents the amount recognized as income over a period of time. Unearned is the difference between written and earned premiums.
Probable maximum loss (PML)PML is the anticipated loss, taking into account contract terms and limits, caused by a natural catastrophe affecting a broad geographic area, such as that caused by an earthquake or hurricane.
Professional liability insuranceProfessional liability insurance protects a company and its representatives against legal claims arising from error or misconduct in providing or failing to provide professional services. This coverage type includes errors and omissions policies, directors and officers coverage and specialty coverage like employment practices liability insurance.
Profit commissionA commission paid by a reinsurer to a ceding insurer based on a predetermined percentage of the profit realized by the reinsurer on the ceded business.
Property insuranceProperty insurance covers a business’s building and its contents—money and securities, records, inventory, furniture, machinery, supplies, and even intangible assets such as trademarks—when damage, theft. or loss occurs.
Property catastrophe reinsuranceProperty catastrophe reinsurance contracts are typically ‘‘all risk’’ in nature, meaning that they protect against losses from natural and human-made catastrophes. Losses on these contracts typically stem from direct property damage and business interruption.
Proportional reinsuranceAll forms of reinsurance in which the reinsurer shares a proportional part of the original premiums and losses of the reinsured. In proportional reinsurance, the reinsurer generally pays the client a ceding commission. The ceding commission is generally based on the client’s cost of acquiring the business being reinsured (including commissions, premium taxes, assessments, and miscellaneous administrative expenses) and may include a profit component. Frequently referred to as quota-share reinsurance.
Quota-share reinsuranceA form of proportional reinsurance in which the reinsurer assumes an agreed percentage of each underlying insurance contract being reinsured.
Reinstatement premiumA Premium charged for the reinstatement of the amount of reinsurance coverage to its full amount reduced as a result of a reinsurance loss payment.
ReinsuranceAn arrangement in which a reinsurer agrees to indemnify an insurance company, the client, against all or a portion of the insurance risks underwritten by the client under one or more policies. Reinsurance can provide a client with several benefits, including reducting net liability on individual risks and catastrophe protection from large or multiple losses. Reinsurance also provides a client with additional underwriting capacity by permitting it to accept larger risks and write more business than would be possible without a related increase in capital and surplus, and facilitates the maintenance of acceptable financial ratios by the client. Reinsurance does not legally discharge the client from its liability with respect to its obligations to the insured.
ReinsurerAn insurance company that assumes part of the risk in exchange for part of the premium to a primary insurer.
Retrocession; retrocessional coverageA transaction whereby a reinsurer cedes to another reinsurer, commonly referred to as the retrocessionaire, all or part of the reinsurance that the first reinsurer has assumed. Retrocessional reinsurance does not legally discharge the ceding reinsurer from its liability with respect to its obligations to the reinsured.
Risk-free rateThe interest rate on a riskless, or safe, asset, usually taken to be a short-term U.S. government security.
Risk transferThe shifting of all or a part of a risk to another party.
Severity businessInsurance/reinsurance characterized by contracts containing the potential for significant losses emanating from one event.
Surety and fidelity insuranceSurety and fidelity includes (1) insurance guaranteeing the fidelity of persons holding positions of public or private trust; (2) insurance guaranteeing the performance of contracts, other than insurance policies, and guaranteeing and executing bonds, undertakings, and contracts of suretyship; and (3) insurance indemnifying banks, bankers, brokers, financial or moneyed corporations or associations against loss.
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UnderwriterAn employee of an insurance or reinsurance company who examines, accepts or rejects risks and classifies risks to charge an appropriate premium for each accepted risk.
UnderwritingThe process of evaluating, defining, and pricing reinsurance risks including, where appropriate, the rejection of such risks, and the acceptance of the obligation to pay the reinsured under the terms of the contract.
Underwriting expenseUnderwriting expenses include those expenses directly related to underwriting activities that are not eligible to be capitalized and an allocation of other general and administrative expenses.
Underwriting expense ratioThe underwriting expense ratio includes those expenses directly related to underwriting activities and an allocation of other general and administrative expenses. Therefore, the underwriting expense ratio is the ratio of underwriting expenses to net premiums earned. The underwriting expense ratio also incorporates gains and losses resulting from deposit accounted contracts.
Workers’ compensation insuranceWorkers’ compensation insurance provides medical, disability and lost-wage benefits to employees for injuries and illness sustained in the course of their employment.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The following risk factors could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Additional risk factors not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business or results of operations.
 
Risk Factors Summary

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations and financial results.

Risks Relating to Our Business

The impact of COVID-19 and related risks could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and liquidity.
Our results of operations will likely fluctuate from period to period and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.
A downgrade or withdrawal of either of our A.M. Best ratings would materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy successfully.
If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
The inability to obtain business provided from brokers could materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy and results of operations.
We are subject to the credit risk of our brokers, cedents, agents and other counterparties.

Risks Relating to Insurance and Other Regulations

Any suspension or revocation of our reinsurance licenses would materially and adversely impact our ability to do business and implement our business strategy.
Our reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital and surplus requirements, and our failure to meet these requirements could subject us to regulatory action.
We are subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under U.S. federal securities law.

Risks Relating to Our Investment Strategy and Our Investment Advisor

Under the SILP LPA, we are contractually obligated to invest substantially all our assets in SILP with certain exceptions. SILP’s performance depends on the ability of DME Advisors to select and manage appropriate investments.
Under our investment management structure, we have limited control over SILP.
SILP effectuates short sales that subject our capital accounts to material and adverse loss potential.
SILP may be concentrated in a few large positions, which could result in investment volatility and large losses.
Apart from funds required for collateral purposes, substantially all of our investable assets are or are expected to be invested with SILP and, as a result, we depend upon DME II to implement our investment strategy.
Potential conflicts of interest with DME Advisors may exist that could adversely affect us.
The compensation arrangements of SILP may create an incentive to effect transactions that are risky or speculative.
Certain investments made by SILP may have limited liquidity and lack valuation data, which could create a conflict of interest.

Risks Relating to our Class A Ordinary Shares

Our level of debt may have an adverse impact on our liquidity, restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to business opportunities, and increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions.
We may not be able to pay interest on the convertible notes or settle conversions of the convertible notes in cash or repurchase the notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt, if any, may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the convertible notes.
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Provisions of our Articles, the Companies Act of the Cayman Islands and our corporate structure may each impede a takeover, which could adversely affect the value of our Class A ordinary shares.

Risks Relating to Taxation

Greenlight Capital Re, Greenlight Re and/or GRIL may be subject to United States federal income taxation.
United States persons who own Class A ordinary shares may be subject to United States federal income taxation on our undistributed earnings and may recognize ordinary income upon disposition of Class A ordinary shares.
H.R. 1, the recently passed tax reform bill, is causing us to undertake changes to the manner in which we conduct our business and could subject United States persons who own Class A ordinary shares to United States income taxation on our undistributed earnings. 
The impact of the initiative of the OECD and the EU to eliminate harmful tax practices is uncertain and could adversely affect our tax status in the Cayman Islands where we are exempt from income taxes.
 
Additional details relating to the above and other risk factors are described below:

Risks Relating to Our Business

The impact of COVID-19 and related risks could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and liquidity.

The global pandemic related to COVID-19 which began in March 2020 continues to impact the global economy. Because of the size and breadth of the pandemic, direct and indirect consequences of COVID-19 are not yet fully known and will likely not emerge for some time. We cannot provide assurance on the short-term or long-term impacts of COVID-19 on
our various product lines. The potential exists for elevated frequency and severity losses in the event of legislative action to
retroactively mandate coverage irrespective of terms, exclusions or other conditions included in the policies that would
otherwise preclude coverage and, accordingly, historical analysis and data utilized in our assessment of anticipated losses may
not be reliable. Identified risks to our operations, financial position and/or liquidity presented by the ongoing effects of COVID-19 include the following:
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Premiums. We expect that the impact of COVID-19 on general economic activity will negatively impact the premium written of our cedents and, in turn, our gross written and earned premium. The degree of the impact will depend on the extent and duration of economic contraction, particularly in the United States. Given the anticipated impact of the pandemic on our gross written and earned premiums, we expect an increase in our underwriting expense ratio in the near term.
Loss and Loss Adjustment Expenses. We believe that, as a result of COVID-19, we will experience higher loss and loss adjustment expenses in certain lines of business due to anticipated increases in frequency and/or severity of claims. For example, we may experience elevated frequency and severity in our workers’ compensation and health (medical stop loss) lines related to compensable claims by workers who demonstrate that the injury or illness arose both out of and in the course of their employment and, as discussed below, potentially as a result of legislative or regulatory action to effectively expand workers’ compensation coverage by creating presumptions of compensability for certain types of workers. In addition, limited availability of medical resources could result in medical inflation and complicate, delay and/or extend treatment for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 related issues. Most of our health business relates to medical stop-loss coverage of employer health plans where the employer retains an initial level of risk. To the extent COVID-19 workers’ compensation and health (medical stop loss) claims exceed the employers’ self-retention levels, our incurred losses will be adversely impacted.

Higher levels of unemployment will likely increase delinquencies and defaults by homeowners, thereby increasing the claims relating to our mortgage business. Additionally, a decline in home prices and resulting foreclosures could further adversely impact losses on our mortgage business.

Frequency and severity of claims could also increase with respect to our motor business due to, among other things, disruptions in supply chains and reduced repair shop and/or parts availability. Our cedents may experience higher losses resulting from delayed reporting and settlement of claims due to limited access to business locations; arson; collisions at faster speeds traveled as a result of less congested roadways; and increased first party medical losses in certain jurisdictions. We may also experience elevated frequency and severity in our liability coverages as a result of plaintiffs’ lawyers seeking to generate COVID-19-related claim activity against our insureds.

We have some exposure to construction surety, where there is the potential for elevated losses if contractors experience shutdowns, which could negatively impact their cash flows, or experience disruptions in their supply chains, unavailability of labor or increased costs for materials, each of which increases their costs.

In our commercial and multi-lines business, there is the potential for elevated frequency and severity due to an increase in the number of bankruptcies, cancellations and other contingency claims.

In addition, anticipated and unknown risks related to COVID-19 may cause additional uncertainty in the process of estimating claims and claim adjustment expense reserves. For example, the behavior of underlying claimants and policyholders may change in unexpected ways (such as, our cedents may experience an increase in the number of fraudulent claims), the disruption to the court system may impact the timing and amounts of claims settlements and the actions taken by governmental bodies, both legislative and regulatory, in reaction to COVID-19 and their related impacts are hard to predict. As a result, our estimated level of claims and claim adjustment expense reserves may change.
Inflation. Changes in economic conditions and steps taken by governments and regulatory authorities in response to COVID-19 could lead to higher inflation than anticipated, which could in turn lead to an increase in loss costs and the need to strengthen claims and claim adjustment expense reserves. The impact of inflation on loss costs and loss and loss adjustment expense reserves could be more pronounced for those lines of business that require a relatively longer period of time to finalize and settle claims for a given accident year and, accordingly, are relatively more inflation sensitive.
Investments. Major equity indices experienced significant volatility throughout 2020 driven by COVID-19. Similar disruptions in global financial markets due to the continuing impact of COVID-19 could result in investment losses, including potential impairments in our private equity investments relating to Innovations. For further discussion of the risks related to our investment portfolio see “Risks Relating to Our Investment Strategy and Our Investment Advisor” included in “Part I-Item 1A-Risk Factors”.
Operational Disruptions and Heightened Cybersecurity Risks. Our operations could be disrupted if key members of our senior management or a significant percentage of our employees or those of our cedents, agents, brokers, suppliers or outsourcing providers are unable to continue to work because of illness, government directives or otherwise. In addition, the interruption of our or their system capabilities could result in a deterioration of our ability to write and process new and renewal business, provide customer service, pay claims in a timely manner or perform other necessary business functions. Having shifted to remote working arrangements, we also face a heightened risk of cybersecurity attacks or data security incidents and are more dependent on internet and telecommunications access and capabilities. For a further discussion, see “Operational risks, including human or systems failures, are inherent in our business” included in “Part I-Item IA-Risk Factors”.

As a result of the above risks, COVID-19 could materially and adversely impact our results of operations, financial position and/or liquidity.



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Our results of operations will likely fluctuate from period to period and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.

The performance of our operations will likely fluctuate from period to period. Fluctuations in our results of operations will result from a variety of factors, including: 
 our assessment of the quality of available reinsurance opportunities;
loss experience on our reinsurance liabilities;
reinsurance contract pricing;
the volume and mix of reinsurance products we underwrite;
the performance of our investment portfolio; and
our ability to assess and integrate our risk management strategy properly.

In particular, we seek attractive opportunities to underwrite products and make investments to achieve favorable returns on equity over the long term. Our investment strategy to invest primarily in long and short positions in publicly-traded equity and debt instruments is subject to market volatility and is likely to be more volatile than traditional fixed-income portfolios that are composed primarily of investment grade bonds. In addition, our differentiated strategy and focus on long-term growth in book value will result in fluctuations in total premiums written from period to period as we concentrate on underwriting contracts that we believe will generate better long-term, rather than short-term, results. Additionally, if actual renewals do not meet expectations or if we choose not to write on a renewal basis because of pricing conditions, our premiums written in future years and our future operations could be materially adversely affected. Accordingly, our short-term results of operations may not be indicative of our long-term prospects. 

A downgrade or withdrawal of either of our A.M. Best ratings would materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy successfully.

If A.M. Best downgrades or withdraws either of our ratings, we could be severely limited or prevented from writing any new reinsurance contracts, which would materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy. Additionally, if A.M. Best downgrades our ratings, we cannot provide assurance that our regulators, the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority and the Central Bank of Ireland, would continue to authorize our current business strategy.

Greenlight Re’s A.M. Best rating of “A- (Excellent)” is the fourth highest of 13 ratings that A.M. Best issues. A.M. Best periodically reviews our ratings and may revise one or more of our ratings downward or revoke them at its sole discretion based primarily on its analysis of our balance sheet strength, operating performance and business profile. Factors that may affect such an analysis include: 
if A.M. Best alters its capital adequacy assessment methodology in a manner that would adversely affect the rating of our reinsurance entities;
if our actual losses significantly exceed our loss reserves;
if unfavorable financial or market trends impact us;
if we change our business practices from our organizational business plan in a manner that no longer supports our A.M. Best ratings;
if we are unable to retain our senior management and other key personnel; or
if our investments incur significant losses.

A downgrade in A.M. Best ratings below specified levels or a significant decrease in our capital or surplus could enable certain clients to terminate reinsurance agreements or to require additional collateral.

Certain of our assumed reinsurance contracts contain provisions that permit our clients to cancel the contract or require additional collateral in the event of a downgrade in our A.M.Best ratings below specified levels or a reduction of our capital or surplus below specified levels over the course of the agreement. We expect that similar provisions will also be included in some contracts in the future. Whether a client would exercise such cancellation rights would likely depend, among other things, on the reason the provision is triggered, the prevailing market conditions, the degree of unexpired coverage and the pricing and availability of replacement reinsurance coverage. We cannot predict how many of our clients would ultimately exercise such rights. The exercise of such rights in aggregate could have a significant effect on our financial condition, results of operations and our underwriting capacity.

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Competitors with greater resources may make it difficult for us to effectively market our products or offer our products at a profit.

The reinsurance industry is highly competitive. We compete with major reinsurers, many of which have substantially greater financial, marketing and management resources than we do. Competition in the types of business that we underwrite is based on many factors, including: 
the general reputation and perceived financial strength of the reinsurer;
ratings assigned by independent rating agencies;
relationships with reinsurance brokers;
 pricing;
ability to obtain terms and conditions appropriate with the risk being assumed and in accordance with our underwriting guidelines;
actual and perceived speed with which we pay claims; and
the experience and reputation of the members of our underwriting team in the particular lines of reinsurance we seek to underwrite.

Additionally, although the members of our underwriting deal team have experience across many property and casualty lines, they may not have the requisite or specialized experience or expertise to compete for all transactions that fall within our strategy at times and in markets where capacity and alternatives may be limited.

Our competitors vary according to the individual market and situation. Generally, they include Arch Capital, Axis, Everest Re, Hamilton Re, Hannover Re, PartnerRe, RenaissanceRe, SiriusPoint, and smaller companies, other niche reinsurers and Lloyd’s syndicates and their related entities. Although we seek to provide coverage where capacity and alternatives are limited, we directly compete with these and other larger companies due to the breadth of their coverage across the property and casualty market in substantially all lines of business that we write.

Further, our ability to compete may be harmed if insurance industry participants continue to consolidate. Consolidated entities may try to use their enhanced market power to negotiate price reductions for our products and services. If competitive pressures reduce our prices, we would expect to write less business. If and when the insurance industry further consolidates, competition for customers may become more intense, and the importance of acquiring and properly servicing each customer may become greater. We could incur greater expenses relating to customer acquisition and retention, further reducing our operating margins. In addition, insurance companies that merge may be able to spread their risks across a consolidated, larger capital base so that they require less reinsurance. The number of companies offering retrocessional reinsurance may decline. Reinsurance intermediaries could also consolidate, potentially adversely impacting our ability to access business and distribute our products. We could also experience more robust competition from larger, better capitalized competitors. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business or our results of operations.

We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in the reinsurance market. Our failure to compete effectively could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and may increase the likelihood that we may be deemed to be a passive foreign investment company or an investment company. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Taxation - United States persons who own Class A ordinary shares may be subject to United States federal income taxation on our undistributed earnings and may recognize ordinary income upon disposition of Class A ordinary shares.” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Insurance and Other Regulations — We are subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under U.S. federal securities law.”

If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

Our results of operations and financial condition depend upon our ability to accurately assess the potential losses and loss adjustment expenses associated with the risks we reinsure. Reserves are estimates at a given time of claims an insurer ultimately expects to pay, based upon facts and circumstances then known, predictions of future events, estimates of future trends in claim severity and other variable factors. The inherent uncertainties associated with estimating loss reserves are generally greater for reinsurance companies than for primary insurance companies primarily due to:
 
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the reporting delays that occur between the occurrence of an event or claim, its reporting to the primary insurance company and subsequent reporting to the reinsurance company by the primary insurance company;
the settlement delays associated with the reporting delays;
the diversity of development patterns among different types of reinsurance treaties; and
the necessary reliance on the client for information regarding claims.

Our estimation of reserves may be less reliable than the reserve estimations of a reinsurer with a greater volume of business and an established loss history. Actual losses and loss adjustment expenses paid may deviate substantially from the estimates of our loss reserves contained in our financial statements and could negatively affect our results of operations. If we determine our loss reserves to be inadequate, we will increase our loss reserves with a corresponding reduction in our net income and capital in the period in which we identify the deficiency, and such a reduction would also negatively affect our results of operations. If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. For a summary of the effects of reserve re-estimation on prior year reserves and net income, see “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Estimates, Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Reserves

The effect of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business is uncertain.

As industry practices and social, political, legal, judicial and regulatory conditions change, unexpected issues related to claims and coverage have emerged and we believe such changes have adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our results. We have seen increased levels of abuse and fraud, as well as other forms of social inflation, in multiple U.S. jurisdictions. For example, Florida insureds have been assigning the benefit of their insurance policies to attorneys and other third parties. This practice is referred to as an “assignment of benefits,” or “AOB,”. In recent years, we believe AOB abuse has resulted in increases in the size and number of claims ceded to us. In the future, AOB abuse and related insurance fraud may directly affect us, potentially materially.

Additionally, various provisions of our contracts, such as limitations or exclusions from coverage or choice of forum, may be difficult to enforce in the manner we intend, due to, among other things, disputes relating to coverage and choice of legal forum. These issues may adversely affect our business by either extending coverage beyond the period that we intended or by increasing the number or size of claims. In some instances, these changes may not manifest themselves until many years after we have issued reinsurance contracts that are affected by these changes. As a result, we may not be able to ascertain the full extent of our liabilities under our reinsurance contracts for many years following the issuance of our contracts.

The effects of unforeseen developments or substantial government intervention could adversely impact our ability to attain our goals. For example, due to the evolving and highly uncertain nature of COVID-19, it is currently not possible to estimate the direct or indirect impacts this pandemic may have on our business. As COVID-19 has developed into a global pandemic, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity due to the disruptions to commerce, reduced economic activity and other consequences of a pandemic.
 
The property and casualty reinsurance market may be affected by cyclical trends.

We write reinsurance in the property and casualty markets, which are subject to pricing cycles. Primary insurers’ underwriting results, prevailing general economic and market conditions, liability retention decisions of companies and primary insurers and reinsurance premium rates influence the demand for property and casualty reinsurance. Prevailing prices and available surplus to support assumed business influence reinsurance supply. Supply may fluctuate in response to changes in return on capital realized in the reinsurance industry, the frequency and severity of losses and prevailing general economic and market conditions.

As a result, the reinsurance business historically has been a cyclical industry characterized by periods of intense price competition due to high levels of available underwriting capacity as well as periods when shortages of capacity have permitted favorable premium levels and changes in terms and conditions. The supply of available reinsurance capital has increased over the past several years and may increase further, either as a result of capital provided by new entrants or by the commitment of additional capital by existing insurers or reinsurers.

Continued increases in the supply of reinsurance may have consequences for the reinsurance industry generally and for us, including fewer contracts written, lower premium rates, increased expenses for customer acquisition and retention, less favorable policy terms and conditions and/or lower premium volume.

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Unpredictable developments, including courts granting increasingly larger awards for certain damages, natural disasters (such as catastrophic hurricanes, windstorms, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires and floods), fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the investment environment that affect market prices of investments and inflationary pressures, affect the industry’s profitability. The effects of cyclicality could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Global economic downturns and any significant weakness in the U.S. economy could harm our business, our liquidity and financial condition and our stock price.

Weak economic conditions may adversely affect (among other aspects of our business) the demand for and claims made under our products, the ability of customers, counterparties and others to establish or maintain their relationships with us, our ability to access and efficiently use internal and external capital resources and our investment in SILP. Volatility in the U.S. and other securities markets may adversely affect our investment in SILP and our stock price.

Operational risks, including human or systems failures, are inherent in our business.

Operational risks and losses can result from, among other things, fraud, errors, failure to document transactions properly or to obtain proper internal authorization, failure to comply with regulatory requirements, information technology failures or external events.

We believe that our modeling, underwriting and information technology and application systems are critical to our business. We utilize modeling tools to facilitate our pricing, reserving, and risk management tools to manage risks in our reinsurance portfolio. These models help us to control risk accumulation, inform management and other stakeholders of capital requirements and to improve the risk/return profile or minimize the amount of capital required to cover the risks in each reinsurance contract. However, given the inherent uncertainty of modeling techniques and the application of such techniques, these models and databases may not accurately address the emergence of a variety of matters which might be deemed to impact certain of our coverages. These models have been developed internally and in some cases they make use of third party software. The construction of these models and the selection of assumptions requires significant actuarial judgment. Furthermore, these models typically rely on either cedent or industry data, both of which may be incomplete or may be subject to errors. Accordingly, these models may understate the exposures we are assuming and our financial results may be adversely impacted, perhaps significantly.

Moreover, our information technology and application systems have been an important part of our underwriting process and our ability to compete successfully. We have also licensed certain systems and data from third parties. We cannot be certain that we will have access to these, or comparable, service providers, or that our information technology or application systems will continue to operate as intended. Like all companies, our information technology and application systems may be vulnerable to data breaches, interruptions or failures due to events that may be beyond our control, including, but not limited to, natural disasters, theft, terrorist attacks, malicious cyber-attacks, computer viruses, hackers and general technology failures. A major defect or failure in our internal controls or information technology and application systems could result in management distraction, a violation of applicable privacy or other laws, harm our reputation, cause a loss of customers or give rise to monetary fines or penalties or otherwise increase expenses. We believe appropriate controls and mitigation procedures are in place to prevent significant risk of data breaches, interruptions or failures in, information technology and application systems, but internal controls provide only a reasonable, not absolute, assurance as to the absence of errors or irregularities and any ineffectiveness of such controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The inability to obtain business provided from brokers could materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy and results of operations.
 
Substantially all of our business is placed through brokered transactions, which involve a limited number of reinsurance brokers which exposes us to concentration risk. Our two largest brokers each accounted for more than 10% of our gross written premiums, and in the aggregate they accounted for approximately 64.2% and 73.0% of our gross premiums written in 2020 and 2019, respectively. Because broker-produced business is concentrated with a small number of brokers, we are exposed to concentration risk. To lose or fail to expand all or a substantial portion of the business provided through brokers, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
We may need additional capital in the future in order to operate our business, and such capital may not be available to us or may not be available to us on favorable terms.
 
We may need to raise additional capital in the future through public or private equity or debt offerings or otherwise in order to: 
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 fund liquidity needs caused by underwriting or investment losses;
repay our convertible notes;
meet rating agency capital requirements;
replace capital lost in the event of significant reinsurance losses or adverse reserve developments or significant investment losses;
satisfy collateral requirements that may be imposed by our clients or by regulators;
meet applicable statutory jurisdiction requirements; or
respond to competitive pressures. 

Additional capital may not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. Further, any additional capital raised through the sale of equity could dilute existing ownership interest in our company and may cause the market price of our Class A ordinary shares to decline. Additional capital raised through the issuance of debt may result in creditors having rights, preferences and privileges senior or otherwise superior to those of our Class A ordinary shares.

Our property and property catastrophe reinsurance operations make us vulnerable to losses from catastrophes and may cause our results of operations to vary significantly from period to period.

Certain of our reinsurance operations expose us to claims arising out of unpredictable catastrophic events, such as hurricanes, hailstorms, tornadoes, typhoons, windstorms, severe winter weather, earthquakes, floods, droughts, fires, explosions, volcanic eruptions and other natural or man-made disasters such as acts of war or terrorism, cyber attacks, major aircraft crashes, riots or political unrest or outbreaks of pandemic or contagious diseases. The incidence and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable, and there may be increases in the frequency and severity of natural catastrophes and the losses that result from them. Further, such catastrophes could impact the affordability and availability of homeowners insurance, which could have an impact on pricing. We monitor and adjust our risk management models to reflect our judgment of how to interpret current developments and information. We believe that factors including increases in the value and geographic concentration of insured property, particularly along coastal regions, the possibility of an increase in the frequency and/or severity of extreme weather events, and the effects of inflation may increase the severity of claims from catastrophic events in the future.

Claims from catastrophic events such as hurricanes, typhoons, derecho and wildfires from 2017 to 2020 have reduced our earnings and caused substantial volatility in our results of operations and have affected our financial condition. Future catastrophic events may materially reduce our earnings and cause further volatility in our results of operations and the corresponding reductions in our surplus levels could impact our ability to write new reinsurance policies.

Catastrophic losses are a function of the insured exposure in the affected area and the severity of the event. Because accounting regulations do not permit reinsurers to reserve for catastrophic events until they occur, claims from catastrophic events could cause substantial volatility in our financial results for any fiscal quarter or year and could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
 
We depend on our clients’ evaluations of the risks associated with their insurance underwriting, which may subject us to reinsurance losses.

In our proportional reinsurance business, in which we assume an agreed percentage of each underlying insurance contract being reinsured, or quota share contracts, we do not expect to separately evaluate each of the original individual risks assumed under these reinsurance contracts. Therefore, we are largely dependent on the original underwriting decisions made by ceding companies. We are subject to the risk that the clients may not have adequately evaluated the insured risks and that the premiums ceded may not adequately compensate us for the risks we assume. We also do not separately evaluate each of the individual claims made on the underlying insurance contracts under quota share contracts. Therefore, we are dependent on the claims decisions made by our clients.

We could face unanticipated losses on our reinsurance contracts from political instability which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We could be exposed to unexpected losses on our reinsurance contracts resulting from political instability and other politically driven events globally. These risks are inherently unpredictable and it is difficult to predict the timing of these events or to estimate the amount of loss that any given occurrence will generate. To the extent that losses from these risks occur, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

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Our failure to comply with restrictive covenants contained in our current or future credit facilities could trigger prepayment obligations, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our credit facility requires us and/or certain of our subsidiaries to comply with certain covenants, including restrictions on our ability to place a lien or charge on pledged assets, issue debt and in certain circumstances on the payment of dividends. Our failure to comply with these or other covenants could result in an event of default under the credit facility or any credit facility we may enter into in the future, which, if not cured or waived, could result in us being required to repay the amounts outstanding under these facilities prior to maturity. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

If we lose or are unable to retain our senior management and other key personnel and are unable to attract qualified personnel, our ability to implement our business strategy could be delayed or hindered, which, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on the efforts of our senior management and other key personnel to implement our business strategy. We believe there are only a limited number of available, qualified executives with substantial experience in our industry. We could face challenges attracting and retaining personnel in the Cayman Islands and/or in Dublin, Ireland. Accordingly, the loss of the services of one or more of the members of our senior management or other key personnel, or our inability to hire and retain other key personnel, could prevent us from continuing to implement our business strategy and, consequently, materially and adversely affect our business.

We do not currently maintain key man life insurance with respect to any of our senior management, including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Underwriting Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Risk Officer, or General Counsel. If any member of senior management dies or becomes incapacitated, or leaves the Company to pursue employment opportunities elsewhere, we would be solely responsible for locating an adequate replacement for such senior management and for bearing any related cost. To the extent that we are unable to locate an adequate replacement or are unable to do so within a reasonable period of time, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We may face risks arising from future strategic transactions such as acquisitions, dispositions, mergers or joint ventures.

We may pursue strategic transactions in the future, which could involve acquisitions or dispositions of businesses or assets. Any strategic transactions could have an adverse impact on our reputation, business, results of operation or financial condition. We face a number of risks arising from these types of transactions, including financial, accounting, tax and regulatory challenges; difficulties with integration, business retention, execution of strategy, unforeseen liabilities or market conditions; and other managerial or operating risks and challenges. Any future transactions could also subject us to risks such as failure to obtain appropriate value, post-closing claims being levied against us and disruption to our other businesses during the negotiation or execution process or thereafter. Accordingly, these risks and difficulties may prevent us from realizing the expected benefits from such strategic transactions. For example, businesses that we acquire or our strategic alliances or joint ventures may underperform relative to the price paid or resources committed by us; we may not achieve anticipated cost savings; or we may otherwise be adversely affected by transaction-related charges.
Through strategic transactions, we may also assume unknown or undisclosed business, operational, tax, regulatory and other liabilities, fail to properly assess known contingent liabilities, or assume businesses with internal control deficiencies. Risk-mitigating provisions that we put in place in the course of negotiating and executing these transactions, such as due diligence efforts and indemnification provisions, may not be sufficient to fully address these liabilities and contingencies.

Our ability to implement our business strategy could be adversely affected by Cayman Islands employment restrictions.

Under Cayman Islands law, persons who are not Caymanian, do not possess Caymanian status, or are not otherwise entitled to reside and work in the Cayman Islands pursuant to provisions of the Immigration Law (2015 Revision) of the Cayman Islands, which we refer to as the Immigration Law, may not engage in any gainful occupation in the Cayman Islands without an appropriate governmental work permit. Such a work permit may be granted or extended on a continuous basis for a maximum period of nine years (after having been legally and ordinarily resident in the Cayman Islands for a period of eight years a person may apply for permanent residence in accordance with the provisions of the Immigration Law) upon showing that, after proper public advertisement, no Caymanian or person of Caymanian status, or other person legally and ordinarily resident in the Cayman Islands who meets the minimum standards for the advertised position is available. The failure of these work permits to be granted or extended could prevent us from continuing to implement our business strategy.  

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We are subject to the credit risk of our brokers, cedents, agents and other counterparties.

In accordance with industry practice, we frequently pay amounts owed on claims under our policies to reinsurance brokers, and these brokers, in turn, remit these amounts to the ceding companies that have reinsured a portion of their liabilities with us. In some jurisdictions, if a broker fails to make such a payment, we might remain liable to the client for the deficiency notwithstanding the broker’s obligation to make such payment. Conversely, in certain jurisdictions, when the client pays premiums for policies to reinsurance brokers for payment to us, these premiums are considered to have been paid and the client will no longer be liable to us for these premiums, whether or not we have actually received them. Consequently, we assume a degree of credit risk associated with brokers around the world.

In addition, we are also exposed to the credit risk of our cedents and agents, who, pursuant to their contracts with us, may be required to pay us profit commission, additional premiums, reinstatement premiums, and adjustments to ceding commissions over a period of time, which in some cases may extend beyond the initial period of risk coverage. Insolvency, liquidity problems, distressed financial condition or the general effects of an economic recession may increase the risk that our cedents or agents may not pay a part of or the full amount of their obligations to us. To the extent our cedents or agents become unable to pay us, we would be required to recognize a downward adjustment to our premiums receivable or reinsurance recoverables, as applicable, in our financial statements. While we generally seek to mitigate this risk through, among other things, collateral agreements, funds withheld, corporate guarantees and right of offset of receivables against any losses payable, an increased inability of customers to fulfill their obligations to us could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time, we extend credit in the form of promissory notes and other credit facilities to certain counterparties in connection with our reinsurance activities. We have recognized losses due to counterparties’ inability to repay us, and we may incur such losses in the future.

Our reinsurance balances receivable from brokers and cedents at December 31, 2020 totaled $330.2 million, which included premiums, ceding commissions receivable as well as funds at Lloyds of London, a majority of which are not collateralized. We cannot provide assurance that such receivables will be collected or that valuation allowances or write downs for uncollectible recoverable amounts will not be required in future periods.

We may be unable to purchase reinsurance for the liabilities we reinsure, and if we successfully purchase such reinsurance, we may be unable to collect, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We purchase reinsurance for certain liabilities we reinsure, which we refer to as retrocessional coverage, in order to mitigate the effect of a potential concentration of losses upon our financial condition. The insolvency or inability or refusal of a retrocessionaire to make payments under the terms of its agreement with us could have an adverse effect on us because we remain liable to our client. From time to time, market conditions have limited, and in some cases have prevented, reinsurers from obtaining the types and amounts of retrocessional coverage that they consider necessary for their business needs. Accordingly, we may not be able to obtain our desired amounts of retrocessional coverage or negotiate terms that we deem appropriate or acceptable or obtain retrocessional coverage from entities with satisfactory creditworthiness. Our failure to establish adequate retrocessional arrangements or the failure of our retrocessional arrangements to protect us from overly concentrated risk exposure could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The failure of any risk management and loss limitation methods we employ, as well as an unexpected accumulation of attritional losses, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We seek to limit our loss exposure in a variety of ways, including by writing many of our reinsurance contracts on an excess of loss basis, adhering to maximum limitations on policies written in defined geographical zones, limiting program size for each client, establishing per risk and per occurrence limitations for each event, employing coverage restrictions and following prudent underwriting guidelines for each program written. In the case of proportional treaties, we generally seek per occurrence limitations or loss ratio caps to limit the impact of losses from any one event. We also seek to limit our loss exposure through geographic diversification. Notwithstanding these loss limitation techniques, one or more future catastrophic or other events could result in claims that substantially exceed our expectations in ways limiting the applicability of these techniques, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.  
Non-compliance with laws, regulations and taxation regarding transactions with international counter-parties may adversely affect our business.

As we provide reinsurance on a worldwide basis, we are subject to an expanding legal, regulatory and tax environment intended to help detect and prevent anti-trust activity, money laundering, terrorist financing, proliferation financing, fraud, tax
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avoidance and other illicit activity. These requirements include, among others, regulations promulgated and administered by CIMA, the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control, The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012, and the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act. These and other programs prohibit or restrict dealings with certain persons, entities, countries, their governments and, in certain circumstances, their nationals and may require detailed reporting to various administrative parties. Non-compliance with any of these regulations could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

Currency fluctuations could result in exchange rate losses and negatively impact our business.

Our functional currency is the U.S. dollar. However, we expect that we will write a portion of our business and receive premiums and pay claims in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We may incur foreign currency exchange gains or losses as we ultimately receive premiums and settle claims in foreign currencies. In addition, SILP may invest in securities or cash denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Consequently, we may experience exchange rate losses to the extent any of our foreign currency exposure is not hedged, which could materially and adversely affect our business. If we or SILP hedge our foreign currency exposure through the use of forward foreign currency exchange contracts or currency swaps, we will be subject to the risk that our or SILP’s counterparties to the arrangements fail to perform.

There are differences under Cayman Islands corporate law and Delaware corporate law with respect to interested party transactions which may benefit certain of our shareholders at the expense of other shareholders.

Under Cayman Islands corporate law, a director may vote on a contract or transaction where the director has an interest as a shareholder, director, officer or employee provided such interest is disclosed. None of our contracts will be deemed to be void because any director is an interested party in such transaction and interested parties will not be held liable for monies owed to the Company.
 
Under Delaware law, interested party transactions are voidable.

Risks Relating to Insurance and Other Regulations
 
Any suspension or revocation of our reinsurance license would materially and adversely impact our ability to do business and implement our business strategy.
 
We are presently licensed as a reinsurer only in the Cayman Islands and the European Economic Area. The suspension or revocation of our licenses to do business as a reinsurance company in either of these jurisdictions for any reason would mean that we would not be able to enter into any new reinsurance contracts in that jurisdiction until the suspension ended or we became licensed in another jurisdiction. The process of obtaining licenses is time consuming and costly, and we may not be able to become licensed in another jurisdiction in the event we chose to. Any such suspension or revocation of our license would negatively impact our reputation in the reinsurance marketplace and could have a material adverse effect on any potential license application and on our results of operations.
 
CIMA and CBI may take a number of actions, including suspending or revoking a reinsurance license whenever the regulatory body believes that a licensee is or may become unable to meet its obligations, is carrying on business in a manner likely to be detrimental to the public interest or to the interest of its creditors or policyholders, has contravened the terms of the Act or has otherwise behaved in such a manner so as to cause such regulatory body to call into question the licensee’s fitness to conduct regulated activity.
 
Further, based on statutes, regulations and policies in their respective jurisdictions, CIMA and CBI may suspend or revoke our license if:
 we cease to carry on reinsurance business;
the direction and management of our reinsurance business has not been conducted in a fit and proper manner;
a person holding a position as a director, manager or officer is not a fit and proper person to hold the respective position; or
we become bankrupt or go into liquidation or we are wound up or otherwise dissolved.

Similarly, if CIMA suspended or revoked our license, we could lose our exemption under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”) (See “— We are subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under U.S. federal securities law.”)

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Our reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital and surplus requirements, and our failure to meet these requirements could subject us to regulatory action.
 
The Insurance (Capital and Solvency) (Classes B, C, and D Insurers) Regulations, (2018 Revision) (the “Capital and Solvency Regulations”) impose on Greenlight Re a minimum capital requirement of US$50 million, a prescribed capital requirement of US$204.8 million and a requirement to maintain solvency equal to or in excess of the total prescribed capital requirement (the “Capital Requirements”). As of December 31, 2020, Greenlight Re was in compliance with the Capital Requirements.

Under the prudential regime applying prior to the introduction of Solvency II, GRIL, our Irish subsidiary, was required to maintain statutory reserves, particularly in respect of underwriting liabilities. GRIL is required to comply with risk-based solvency requirements under Solvency II including calculating and maintaining a minimum capital requirement and solvency capital requirement. As of December 31, 2020, GRIL’s minimum capital requirement and solvency capital requirement was approximately $6.9 million and $27.8 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, GRIL has been in compliance with the capital requirements required under the Irish Insurance Acts and Regulations.
 
Any failure to meet applicable requirements or minimum statutory capital requirements could subject us to further examination or action by regulators, including restrictions on dividend payments, limitations on our writing of additional business or engaging in financial or other activities, enhanced supervision, financial or other penalties or liquidation. Further, any changes in existing risk based capital requirements or minimum statutory capital requirements may require us to increase our statutory capital levels, which we might be unable to do.
 
We are a holding company that depends on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends.
 
We are a holding company and do not have any significant operations or assets other than our ownership of the shares of our subsidiaries. Dividends and other permitted distributions from our subsidiaries are our primary source of funds to meet ongoing cash requirements, including future debt service payments, if any, and other corporate expenses, and to repurchase shares or pay dividends to our shareholders if we choose to do so. Some of our subsidiaries are subject to significant regulatory restrictions limiting their ability to declare and pay dividends.  The inability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our cash requirements at the holding company level could have an adverse effect on our operations and our ability to repurchase shares or pay dividends to our shareholders if we choose to do so and/or meet our debt service obligations, if any.
 
To the extent any of our subsidiaries located in jurisdictions other than the Cayman Islands consider declaring dividends, such subsidiaries are required to comply with restrictions set forth under applicable law and regulations in such other jurisdictions. These restrictions could adversely impact the Company.
  
We are subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under U.S. federal securities law.
 
In the United States, the Investment Company Act regulates certain companies that invest in or trade securities. We rely on an exemption under the Investment Company Act for an entity organized and regulated as a foreign insurance company which is engaged primarily and predominantly in the reinsurance of risks on insurance agreements. The law in this area is subjective and there is a lack of guidance as to the meaning of “primarily and predominantly” under the relevant exemption to the Investment Company Act. For example, there is no standard for the amount of premiums that need to be written relative to the level of an entity’s capital in order to qualify for the exemption. If this exemption were deemed inapplicable, we would have to register under the Investment Company Act as an investment company. Registered investment companies are subject to extensive, restrictive and potentially adverse regulation relating to, among other things, operating methods, management, capital structure, leverage, dividends and transactions with affiliates. Registered investment companies are not permitted to operate their business in the manner in which we operate our business, nor are registered investment companies permitted to have many of the relationships that we have with our affiliated companies. Accordingly, we likely would not be permitted to engage DME Advisors as our investment advisor, unless we obtained board and shareholder approvals under the Investment Company Act. If DME Advisors were not our investment advisor, we would seek to identify and retain another investment advisor with a value-oriented investment philosophy. If we could not identify or retain such an advisor, we would be required to make substantial modifications to our investment strategy. Any such changes to our investment strategy could materially and adversely impact our investment results, financial condition and our ability to implement our business strategy.
 
If at any time it were established that we had been operating as an investment company in violation of the registration requirements of the Investment Company Act, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that we could become subject to monetary penalties or injunctive relief, or both, or that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third
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parties or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with us undertaken during the period in which it was established that we were an unregistered investment company.
 
To the extent that the laws and regulations change in the future so that contracts we write are deemed not to be reinsurance contracts, we will be at greater risk of not qualifying for the Investment Company Act exception. Additionally, it is possible that our classification as an investment company would result in the suspension or revocation of our reinsurance license.
 
Insurance regulations to which we are, or may become, subject, and potential changes thereto, could have a significant and negative effect on our business.
 
We currently are admitted to do business in the Cayman Islands and the European Economic Area.  Our operations in each of these jurisdictions are subject to varying degrees of regulation and supervision. The laws and regulations of the jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries are domiciled require that, among other things, these subsidiaries maintain minimum levels of statutory or regulatory capital, surplus and liquidity, meet solvency standards, submit to periodic examinations of their financial condition and restrict payments of dividends and reductions of capital. Statutes, regulations and policies that our subsidiaries are subject to may also restrict the ability of these subsidiaries to write insurance and reinsurance policies, make certain investments and distribute funds.
 
More specifically with respect to our Irish subsidiary, European legislation known as “Solvency II”, was introduced with effect from January 1, 2016 and governs the prudential regulation of insurers and reinsurers, and requires insurers and reinsurers in Europe to meet risk-based solvency requirements. It also imposes group solvency and governance requirements on groups with insurers and/or reinsurers operating in the European Economic Area. A number of European Commission delegated acts and technical standards have been adopted, which set out more detailed requirements based on the overarching provisions of the Solvency II Directive. However, further delegated acts, technical standards and guidance are likely to be published on an ongoing basis.
  Although we do not presently expect that we will be admitted to do business in any other jurisdiction other than the Cayman Islands and the European Economic Area, we cannot provide assurance that insurance regulators in the United States or elsewhere will not review our activities and claim that we are subject to such jurisdiction’s licensing requirements. In addition, we are subject to indirect regulatory requirements imposed by jurisdictions that may limit our ability to provide reinsurance. For example, our ability to write reinsurance may be subject, in certain cases, to arrangements satisfactory to applicable regulatory bodies, and proposed legislation and regulations may have the effect of imposing additional requirements upon, or restricting the market for, non-U.S. reinsurers such as Greenlight Re and GRIL, with whom domestic companies may place business. We do not know of any such proposed legislation pending at this time.
 
We may not be able to comply fully with, or obtain desired exemptions from, revised statutes, regulations and policies that currently, or may in the future, govern the conduct of our business. Failure to comply with, or to obtain desired authorizations and/or exemptions under, any applicable laws could result in restrictions on our ability to do business or undertake activities that are regulated in one or more of the jurisdictions in which we operate and could subject us to fines and other sanctions. The Monetary Authority Act (2020 Revision) includes amendments that provide for a specific administrative fines framework whereby CIMA has been granted the power to issue monetary penalties up to 1 million Cayman Dollars for a very serious breach.

In addition, governmental authorities worldwide have become increasingly interested in potential risks posed by the insurance industry as a whole, and to the commercial and financial systems in general. While we cannot predict the exact nature, timing or scope of possible governmental initiatives, there may be increased regulatory intervention in our industry in the future. Changes in the laws or regulations to which our subsidiaries are subject or may become subject, or in the interpretations thereof by enforcement or regulatory agencies, could have a material adverse effect on our business. 

The U.K.’s exit from the EU could materially and adversely impact our results of operations or financial condition.
On January 31, 2020, the U.K. formally exited from the EU (“Brexit”) and entered an 11-month transition period which ended on December 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the EU announced a Trade and Cooperation Agreement which took effect from January 1, 2021. However, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement did not address financial services in any material way, with the effect that there has been a “hard” Brexit in respect of financial services. The United Kingdom and the European Union are to negotiate and agree a Memorandum of Understanding in relation to financial services by March 31, 2021. It remains uncertain whether this will address issues such as market access or equivalence. As a result, we face risks associated with the potential uncertainty and consequences, including with respect to volatility in financial markets, exchange
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rates and interest rates. These uncertainties could increase the volatility of, or reduce, our investment results in particular periods or over time.
Brexit could adversely affect European or worldwide political, regulatory, economic or market conditions and could contribute to instability in global political institutions and regulatory agencies. Brexit could also lead to legal uncertainty and differing laws and regulations between the U.K. and the EU, and could impair or adversely affect the ability of the Lloyd’s market and the wider London market to transact business in EU countries.
These uncertainties could affect the operations, strategic position or results of insurers or reinsurers on whom we ultimately rely to access underlying insured coverages. Any of these potential effects of Brexit, and others we cannot anticipate, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.

Risks Relating to Our Investment Strategy and Our Investment Advisor

SILP may be concentrated in a few large positions, which could result in large losses.

Our investment guidelines provide that SILP may commit up to 20% of Greenlight Re’s capital account (10% for GRIL) to any one investment. In addition, GRIL’s investment guidelines require that the 10 largest investments shall not constitute more than 50% of the total investment portfolio and GRIL’s investment portfolio shall at all times, unless waived by the GRIL board of directors, be composed of a minimum of 50 debt or equity securities of publicly traded companies. From time to time SILP may hold a few, relatively large security positions in relation to our capital accounts. Since SILP may not be widely diversified by security or by industry, it may be subject to more rapid changes in value than would be the case if our investment portfolio were required to maintain a wide diversification among companies, securities industries and types of securities.

Under the SILP LPA, we are contractually obligated to invest substantially all our assets in SILP with certain exceptions. SILP’s performance depends on the ability of DME Advisors to select and manage appropriate investments.

In connection with the SILP LPA, DME Advisors acts as the exclusive investment advisor for our investment portfolio. Pursuant to the SILP LPA, we are contractually obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to cause substantially all investable assets of Greenlight Re and GRIL, with limited exceptions, to be contributed to SILP. Additionally, we are restricted from making additional contributions of assets that would cause the capital account balances of Greenlight Re and GRIL to represent more than 90% of the aggregate capital account balances of all of the partners of SILP. Although DME Advisors is contractually obligated to follow the investment guidelines of both Greenlight Re and GRIL, we cannot provide assurance as to how DME Advisors will allocate our investable assets to different investment opportunities. DME Advisors may allocate our capital accounts to long and short equity positions, debt and derivatives, which could increase the level of risk to which our investment portfolio will be exposed.

The performance of our investment portfolio depends to a great extent on the ability of DME Advisors to select and manage appropriate investments for SILP. We cannot provide assurance that DME Advisors will be successful in meeting our investment objectives. The failure of DME Advisors to perform adequately could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our investment performance depends in part on the performance of SILP, and may suffer as a result of adverse financial market developments or other factors that impact our liquidity, which could in turn adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our operating results depend in part on the performance of SILP. We cannot provide assurance that DME Advisors on behalf of SILP will successfully structure investments in relation to our liquidity needs or liabilities. Failure to do so could force us to withdraw investments from SILP at a significant loss or at prices that are not optimal, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

The risks associated with the value-oriented investment strategy expected to be employed by SILP may be substantially greater than the risks associated with traditional fixed-income investment strategies. In addition, long equity investments may generate losses if the market declines. Similarly, short equity investments may generate losses in a rising market. The success of the investment strategy may also be affected by general economic conditions. Unexpected market volatility and illiquidity associated with our investment in SILP could materially and adversely affect our investment results, financial condition or results of operations.

SILP effectuates short sales that subject our capital accounts to unlimited loss potential.

SILP enters into transactions in which it sells a security it does not own, which we refer to as a short sale, in anticipation
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of a decline in the market value of the security. Short sales subject our capital accounts to material and adverse loss potential
since the market price of securities sold short may continuously increase. SILP may mitigate such losses by buying back the
securities sold short before the market price has increased significantly but we have no control over such mitigation, if any.
Under adverse market conditions, SILP might have difficulty borrowing securities to meet short sale delivery obligations and
may have to cover short sales at suboptimal prices.

Several securities have recently been targeted for trading by participants on social media platforms in part due to the amount of short interest in the security. If SILP holds a short interest in a targeted security, the short interest may attract social media attention and related trading. Given changes to market structure and the low cost of trading for retail clients, the volume of social-media related trading may be significant, which could raise a targeted security’s share price. The borrowing costs for short securities increases as the price of the security increases (and may typically only be ended through purchases of securities). As a result, social-media-related trading may cause SILP to incur outsize losses or to exit short positions earlier than it normally would so exit. It is possible that U.S. lawmakers and regulators may react to the volatility related to social-media related trading and restrict, or require the public reporting of, short interest, which may limit SILP’s ability to achieve its trading objectives.

Under our investment management structure, we have limited control over SILP.

Under the SILP LPA, subject to the investment guidelines and certain other conditions, DME II has complete and exclusive power and responsibility for all investment and investment management decisions to be undertaken on behalf of SILP and for managing and administering the affairs of SILP, and has the power and authority to do all things that it, as the general partner, considers necessary or desirable to carry out its duties thereunder including the power to delegate its authorities. While SILP is not, and is not expected to be registered as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940 or any comparable U.S. regulatory requirements, the general partner, or its designee, may resign or withdraw from SILP and may admit new limited partners to SILP without our consent, which may cause SILP to be deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

We have no right to remove the general partner of SILP and do not have any right to participate in the conduct or management of SILP, other than by amending our investment guidelines.

The historical performance of DME Advisors and its affiliates should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our investment portfolio or of our future results or of any returns expected on our Class A ordinary shares.
The historical returns of SILP and other the funds managed by DME Advisors and its affiliates are not directly linked to our Class A ordinary shares. Results for our investment in SILP could differ from results of the other funds managed by DME Advisors and its affiliates as a result of restrictions imposed by our investment guidelines and other factors.
Even if our investment in SILP generates investment income in a given period, our overall performance could be adversely affected by losses generated by our reinsurance operations. Poor performance of SILP will cause a decline in our revenue and will therefore have a negative effect on our financial performance.
The historical performance of DME Advisors and its affiliates may impact our A.M. Best rating.

The historical performance of DME Advisors and its funds, including SILP, is not necessarily indicative of future results, but losses incurred to date may be taken into account by A.M. Best & Co. and may adversely affect our financial strength rating. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business - “A downgrade or withdrawal of either of our A.M. Best ratings would materially and adversely affect our ability to implement our business strategy successfully.”.

If A.M. Best downgrades our ratings, we cannot provide assurance that our regulators, CIMA and CBI, would continue to authorize our current investment strategy.

Apart from funds required for collateral purposes, substantially all of our investable assets are or are expected to be invested with SILP and, as a result, we depend upon DME II to implement our investment strategy.

Apart from funds required for collateral purposes, risk management and other operational needs, substantially all of our investable assets are or are expected to be invested with SILP and, as a result, we depend upon DME II to implement our investment strategy. Accordingly, the diminution or loss of the services of DME II could significantly affect SILP and our business. DME II, in turn, is dependent on the talents, efforts and leadership of DME Advisors’ principals. The diminution or loss of the services of DME Advisors’ principals, or diminution or loss of their reputation or any negative market or industry perception arising from that diminution or loss, could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, the loss of
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DME Advisors’ key personnel, or DME Advisors’ inability to hire and retain other key personnel, over which we have no control, could delay or prevent DME Advisors from fulfilling its obligations pursuant to the IAA, which could materially and adversely affect SILP’s performance and correspondingly our business and financial performance.

Our investment performance may suffer as a result of adverse financial market developments or other factors that impact our liquidity, which could in turn adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We may derive a significant portion of our income from our investment portfolio. As a result, our operating results depend in part on the performance of our investment portfolio. We strive to structure our investments in a manner that recognizes our liquidity needs for future liabilities. We cannot provide assurance that DME Advisors will successfully structure the investments in SILP in relation to our anticipated liabilities. Failure to do so could force us to liquidate investments at a significant loss or at prices that are not optimal, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

The risks associated with DME Advisors’ value-oriented investment strategy may be substantially greater than the risks associated with traditional fixed-income investment strategies. In addition, long equity investments may generate losses if the market declines. Similarly, short equity investments may generate losses in a rising market. The success of our investment strategy may also be affected by general economic conditions. Unexpected market volatility and illiquidity associated with our investments could materially and adversely affect our investment portfolio results. 

Potential conflicts of interest with DME Advisors may exist that could adversely affect us.

In addition to managing SILP, DME Advisors, its principals and their affiliates may engage in investment and trading activities for their own accounts and/or for the accounts of third parties. None of DME Advisors or its principals, including David Einhorn, Chairman of our Board of Directors and the President of Greenlight Capital, Inc., are obligated to devote any specific amount of time to our investment in SILP. Affiliates of DME Advisors, including Greenlight Capital, Inc., manage and expect to continue to manage other client accounts, some of which have objectives similar to SILP, including collective investment vehicles managed by DME Advisors’ affiliates and in which DME Advisors or its affiliates may have an equity interest. Pursuant to the SILP LPA and the IAA, DME Advisors has the exclusive right to manage SILP and is required to follow our investment guidelines and act in a manner that is fair and equitable in allocating investment opportunities to us, but neither the SILP LPA or the IAA impose any specific obligations or requirements concerning allocation of time, effort or investment opportunities to us or any restriction on the nature or timing of investments for accounts that DME Advisors or its affiliates may manage. If we compete for any investment opportunity with another entity that DME Advisors or its affiliates manage, DME Advisors is not required to afford SILP exclusivity or priority. DME Advisors’ interest and the interests of its affiliates, including Greenlight Capital, Inc., may at times conflict, possibly to DME Advisors’ detriment, which, in turn, may potentially adversely affect SILP’s investment opportunities and returns, and correspondingly, our investment portfolio.

Mr. Einhorn, Chairman of our Board of Directors, is not, under Cayman Islands law, legally restricted from participating in making decisions with respect to Greenlight Re’s investment guidelines. Accordingly, his involvement as a member of the Boards of Directors of Greenlight Capital Re, Ltd. and Greenlight Re may lead to a conflict of interest.

DME Advisors and its affiliates may also manage accounts whose advisory fee schedules, investment objectives and policies differ from those of SILP, which may cause DME Advisors and its affiliates to effect trading in one account that may have an adverse effect on another account, including SILP. We do not have the contractual right to inspect the trading records of DME Advisors or its principals.

If DME Advisor’s risk management systems are ineffective, we may be exposed to material unanticipated losses.
DME Advisors continually refines its risk management techniques, strategies and assessment methods. However, its risk management techniques and strategies do not fully mitigate the risk exposure of its funds and managed accounts, including SILP, in all economic or market environments, or against all types of risk, including risks that it might fail to identify or anticipate. Any failures in DME Advisors’ risk management techniques and strategies to accurately quantify risk exposure could limit the risk-adjusted returns of SILP. In addition, any risk management failures could cause losses to be significantly greater than historical measures predict. DME Advisors’ approach to managing those risks could prove insufficient, exposing SILP, and correspondingly our investment portfolio, to material unanticipated or material losses.

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We and SILP are exposed to credit risk primarily from the possibility that counterparties may default on their obligations to us.

We and SILP are exposed to credit risk primarily from the possibility that counterparties may default on their obligations to us or it. The amount of the maximum exposure to credit risk is indicated by the carrying value of our and SILP’s financial assets. In addition, SILP holds the securities of our investment portfolio with prime brokers and have credit risk from the possibility that one or more of them may default on their obligations to SILP. Other than our investment in derivative contracts and corporate debt, if any, and the fact that our investments are held by prime brokers and custodians on our behalf, we have no other significant concentrations of credit risk in our investment portfolio.

Issuers or borrowers whose securities or debt SILP holds, customers, reinsurers, clearing agents, exchanges, clearing houses and other financial intermediaries and guarantors may default on their obligations to us and/or SILP due to bankruptcy, insolvency, lack of liquidity, adverse economic conditions, operational failure, fraud or other reasons. Such defaults could have a significant and negative effect on us and/or SILP, and, correspondingly, our investment portfolio and our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

SILP may trade on margin and use other forms of financial leverage, which could potentially adversely affect our revenues.

Our investment guidelines provide SILP with the ability to trade on margin and use other forms of financial leverage. Fluctuations in the market value of our investment in SILP could have a disproportionately large effect in relation to our capital. Any event which may adversely affect the value of positions SILP holds could materially and adversely affect the net asset value of our investment portfolio and thus our results of operations.

SILP may transact in derivatives trading, which may increase the risk of our investment portfolio.
 
Derivative instruments, or derivatives, include futures, options, swaps, structured securities and other instruments and contracts that derive their value from one or more underlying securities, financial benchmarks, currencies, commodities or indices. There are a number of risks associated with derivatives trading. Because many derivatives are leveraged, a relatively small adverse market movement may result in a substantial loss, and may potentially expose us to a loss exceeding the original amount invested. Derivatives may also expose SILP, and correspondingly, our investment portfolio, to liquidity risk as there may not be a liquid market within which to close or dispose of outstanding derivative contracts. The counterparty risk lies with each party with whom SILP contracts for the purpose of making derivative investments. In the event of the counterparty’s default, SILP will generally only rank as an unsecured creditor and risk the loss of all or a portion of the amounts SILP is contractually entitled to receive.

The compensation arrangements of SILP may create an incentive to effect transactions that are risky or speculative.

Pursuant to the SILP LPA each of Greenlight Re and GRIL is obligated to pay a performance allocation to DME II at the end of each performance period based on its positive performance change to its capital account, subject to a modified loss carry forward provision.

The loss carry forward provision contained in the SILP LPA allows DME II to earn reduced performance allocation of 10% of profits in any year subsequent to the year in which SILP has incurred a loss, until all losses are recouped and an additional amount equal to 150% of the loss is earned.

While the performance compensation arrangement contained in the SILP LPA provides that losses will be carried forward as an offset against net profits in subsequent periods, DME II and DME Advisors generally will not otherwise be penalized for losses or decreases in the value of our portfolio under the SILP LPA. These performance compensation arrangements may create an incenti