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United States
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________________
FORM 10-K
______________________________________
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-37822
 
Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc.
(Name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware 27-5472457
(State of incorporation) (IRS Employer
Identification No.)
8051 E. Maplewood Ave, Suite 210, Greenwood Village, CO, 80111
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code): (720) 598-3500
Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Act:
Class Trading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share ADESNASDAQ Global Market

Securities registered under Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ¨  Yes    x  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    ¨  Yes    x  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    x  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    x  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers in response to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer¨Accelerated filer¨
Non-accelerated filerxSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.)      Yes    x  No
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $86.1 million based on the last reported bid price of the Common Stock on the NASDAQ Global Market on June 30, 2020.  The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of March 1, 2021 was 18,518,846.
 
1


 
Documents Incorporated By Reference
Portions of Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference from the Registrant's definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the Registrant's fiscal year.

2


ADVANCED EMISSIONS SOLUTIONS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page






PART I
Item 1. Business
General
ADA-ES, Inc. ("ADA"), a Colorado corporation, was incorporated in 1997. Pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger, effective July 1, 2013, Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc. ("ADES"), a Delaware company incorporated in 2011, succeeded ADA as the publicly-held corporation and ADA became a wholly-owned subsidiary of ADES. In 2018, ADA acquired ADA Carbon Solutions, LLC ("Carbon Solutions"). We acquired Carbon Solutions to enter into the broader activated carbon ("AC") market and to expand our product offerings in the mercury control industry and other complementary activated carbon markets. This Annual Report on Form 10-K is referred to as the "Form 10-K" or the "Report." As used in this Report, the terms the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" means ADES and its consolidated subsidiaries.
We sell consumable products that utilize AC and chemical-based technologies to a broad range of customers, including coal-fired utilities, industrials, water treatment plants, and other diverse markets. Our proprietary technologies and associated product offerings provide purification solutions to enable our customers to reduce certain contaminants and pollutants to meet the challenges of existing and potential regulations.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we held equity interests of 42.5% and 50.0% in Tinuum Group, LLC ("Tinuum Group") and Tinuum Services, LLC ("Tinuum Services"), respectively, which are both unconsolidated entities, and both contribute significantly to our financial position and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. We account for Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services under the equity method of accounting. As described further below, both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021 and we believe our Refined Coal ("RC") business will substantially cease as of December 31, 2021.
As further discussed below, in December 2020, we changed our operational management structure, which resulted in a revision in our reporting segments, as defined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"), to two reporting segments, RC and Advanced Purification Technologies ("APT"). Historically we had two reporting segments, RC and Power Generation and Industrials ("PGI"). The reporting segments are discussed in more detail later in this section.
Customer Supply Agreement
On September 30, 2020, we and Cabot Norit Americas, Inc., ("Cabot") entered into a supply agreement (the "Supply Agreement") pursuant to which we agree to sell and deliver to Cabot, and Cabot agrees to purchase and accept from us, certain lignite-based activated carbon products ("Furnace Products"). The term of the Supply Agreement is for 15 years with 10-year renewal terms that are automatic unless either party provides three years prior notice of intention not to renew before the end of any term.
In addition to the sale by us and purchase by Cabot of Furnace Products, we and Cabot have agreed to additional terms whereby Cabot will reimburse us for certain capital expenditures we incur that are necessary to manufacture the Furnace Products. Reimbursements will be in the form of revenues earned from capital expenditures incurred that will benefit both us and Cabot and capital expenditures incurred that will benefit Cabot exclusively.
We believe the Supply Agreement will provide material incremental volume and capture lower operating cost efficiencies of our manufacturing plant located in Louisiana (the "Red River Plant"). As these incremental volumes come on-line and after our existing inventory balances are sold, we anticipate an increase in gross margins. Further, the Supply Agreement will expand our AC products to additional markets that are outside of coal-fired power generation.
On February 1, 2021, we and a subsidiary of Cabot Corporation ("Cabot Corporation") entered into a 5-year supply agreement ("EMEA Supply Agreement") to supply Cabot Corporation with lignite activated carbon products and other proprietary products used for mercury removal in utility and industrial coal-fired power plants in the EMEA market (as defined below). Cabot Corporation will be the exclusive and sole reseller of these products within Europe, Turkey, the Middle East and Africa ("EMEA"), and we will have a first right to provide the products to Cabot for sale in the EMEA.
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Acquisition of Marshall Mine
Concurrently with the execution of the Supply Agreement, on September 30, 2020, we entered into an agreement to purchase (the "Mine Purchase Agreement") from Cabot 100% of the membership interests in Marshall Mine, LLC (the "Marshall Mine Acquisition") for a nominal cash purchase price. Marshall Mine, LLC owns a lignite mine located outside of Marshall, Texas (the "Marshall Mine"). Immediately after completion of the Mine Purchase Agreement, we independently determined to commence activities to shutter the Marshall Mine, and we will incur the associated reclamation costs.
In conjunction with the execution of the Supply Agreement and the Mine Purchase Agreement, on September 30, 2020, we entered into a reclamation contract (the "Reclamation Contract") with a third party that provides a capped cost, subject to certain contingencies, in the amount of approximately $19.7 million plus an obligation to pay certain direct costs of approximately $3.6 million (collectively, the "Reclamation Costs") over the estimated reclamation period of 10 years. Under the terms of the Supply Agreement, Cabot is obligated to reimburse us for $10.2 million of Reclamation Costs (the "Reclamation Reimbursements"), which are payable semi-annually over 13 years and inclusive of interest. As of September 30, 2020, we recorded an asset retirement obligation related to the Reclamation Contract in the amount of $21.3 million and a receivable related to the Reclamation Reimbursements in the amount of $9.7 million.
As the owner of the Marshall Mine, we were required to post a surety bond to ensure performance of our reclamation activities in the amount of $30.0 million under the Surety Bond Indemnification Agreement (the "Surety Agreement"). For the obligations due under the Reclamation Contract, we were required, under the Surety Agreement, to post initial collateral of $5.0 million dollars as of September 30, 2020 and to post an additional $5.0 million dollars as of March 31, 2021.
Markets
AC is a specialized sorbent material that is used widely in a host of industrial and consumer applications to remove impurities, contaminants or pollutants from gas, water and other product or waste streams. AC is produced by activating carbonaceous raw materials, including wood, coal, nut shells, resins and petroleum pitch. Properties such as surface area, pore volume and particle size can be specifically engineered to selectively target various contaminants to meet end-use application requirements. AC can come in several different forms that are important for the end-use application, including powdered activated carbon ("PAC"), granular activated carbon ("GAC"), pellets, honeycombs, blocks or cloths.
Key markets include removal of heavy metal pollutants from coal-fired electrical generation processes, treatment of drinking and waste waters, industrial acid gas and odor removal, automotive gasoline emission control, soil and ground water remediation, and food and beverage process and product purification.
The AC market has been and is expected to continue to be driven by increasing environmental regulations pertaining to water and air purification, especially in the mature and more industrialized areas of the world. Additionally, we believe environmental issues will continue to be the predominant force in the AC markets of rapidly developing countries.
We see opportunities to continue to pursue diverse markets for our purification products outside of coal-fire power generation, including industrial application, water treatment plants and other end markets.
Segments
Refined Coal
Tinuum Group provides reduction of mercury and nitrogen oxide ("NOX") emissions at select coal-fired power generators through the production and sale of RC that qualifies for tax credits ("Section 45 tax credits") under the Internal Revenue Code ("IRC") Section 45 - Production Tax Credit ("IRC Section 45"). We benefit from Tinuum Group's production and sale of RC through our share of earnings from Tinuum Group's sales or leases of RC facilities to tax equity investors. Both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021 due to the expected expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period as of December 31, 2021. As such, our earnings and distributions from our RC segment will substantially cease as of December 31, 2021. See the separately filed financial statements of Tinuum Group included in Item 15 - "Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules" ("Item 15") of this Report.
Products
Our patented M-45TM and M-45-PCTM technologies (collectively, the "M-45 Technology") are proprietary pre-combustion coal treatment technologies used to control emissions from circulating fluidized bed boilers and pulverized coal boilers, respectively.
Our patented CyCleanTM technology, a pre-combustion coal treatment process provides electric power generators the ability to enhance combustion and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides ("NOX") and mercury from coals burned in cyclone boilers.
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Our patents related to the RC segment are not expected to have significant commercial application post the expected expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period.
Sales and Customers
Our RC segment derives its revenues from license royalties ("M-45 Royalties") earned under a licensing arrangement (the "M-45 License") with Tinuum Group for their use of our proprietary chemical technologies, M-45TM and M-45-PCTM (the "M-45 Technology") at their RC facilities to treat coal for the reduction of emissions of both NOX and mercury. For the year ended December 31, 2020, M-45 Royalties comprised 22% of our total consolidated revenues. M-45 Royalties are recognized based upon a percentage of the per-ton, pre-tax margin as defined in the M-45 License. We also derive substantial earnings in the RC segment from our equity method investments in Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services. Both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021 due to the planned expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period as of December 31, 2021, and the loss of equity earnings and M-45 Royalties will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and consolidated operating results compared to historical periods beginning in 2022. Additional information related to major customers is disclosed in Note 21 of the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.
Coal-fired electricity generating units use RC as one of a portfolio of tools to help comply with Mercury and Air Toxics Standards ("MATS") and other environmental regulations. These RC facilities produce and sell RC that qualifies for Section 45 tax credits, including meeting the "placed in service" requirements (referred to as "placed in service"). The IRS has issued guidance regarding emissions reductions in the production of electricity by coal-fired electric generating units, including measurement and certification criteria necessary to qualify for the Section 45 tax credits. The ability to produce and sell RC and generate Section 45 tax credits, expires 10 years after each RC facility was placed in service, but not later than December 31, 2021. Two of Tinuum Group's RC facilities reached their 10-year life in 2019, and Section 45 tax credits earned from these facilities expired in December 2019. As of December 31, 2020, Tinuum Group has built and placed into service a total of 26 RC facilities that produce RC for sale to coal-fired electricity generating units, and which are still eligible to produce RC qualifying for Section 45 tax credits. The ability to generate Section 45 tax credits related to those remaining 26 RC facilities expires in 2021.
Once an RC facility is in operation, Tinuum Group may lease or sell it to a tax equity investor, which we refer to as an "invested" RC facility. The tax equity investor subsequently operates the RC facility to produce and sell RC to a utility. It is financially advantageous for Tinuum Group to lease or sell an RC facility, as the tax equity investor assumes the operating expenses for the RC facility and remits to Tinuum Group either payments to purchase or lease payments to lease the RC facility. We benefit from equity income and cash distributions from Tinuum Group. Tax equity investors may benefit from their investment in RC facilities through the realization of tax assets and credits from the production and sale of RC.
RC facilities that are producing and selling RC and have not been leased or sold, are referred to as "retained" RC facilities, whereby the RC is produced and sold by Tinuum Group and, as an owner in Tinuum Group, we benefit from the related Section 45 tax benefits. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Section 45 tax credits were $7.301 and $7.173 per ton, respectively, of RC produced and sold to a utility. The value of the Section 45 tax credits is adjusted annually based on inflation adjustment factors published in the Federal Register. As of December 31, 2020, we have earned substantial tax credits from certain retained RC facilities through our ownership in Tinuum Group, but have not been able to fully utilize them. See Note 18 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 - "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" ("Item 8") of this Report for additional information regarding our net operating losses, tax credits and other deferred tax assets.
As of December 31, 2020, Tinuum Group had 23 invested RC facilities producing RC at utility sites. Absent an extension of the Section 45 tax credit period, we do not believe that Tinuum will enter into additional contracts for invested facilities during 2021. As of December 31, 2020, Tinuum Group had nine facilities that are leased to affiliates of The Goldman Sachs Group (the "GS Affiliates"), and one of these GS Affiliates is also an owner of Tinuum Group. A majority of Tinuum Group's leases of RC facilities are periodically renewed and the loss of these investors or material modification to the lease terms of these facilities would have a significant adverse impact on Tinuum Group's financial position, results of operations and cash flows, which in turn would have material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

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Tinuum Services operates and maintains RC facilities under operating and maintenance agreements with owners or lessees of RC facilities. The owners or lessees of the RC facilities pay Tinuum Services, subject to certain limitations, the costs of operating and maintaining the RC facilities plus various fees. Tinuum Services also arranges for the purchase and delivery of certain chemical additives under chemical agency agreements that include the chemicals required for our CyCleanTM and M-45 Technologies that are necessary for the production of RC. The term of each chemical agency agreement runs concurrently with the respective RC facility's operating and maintenance agreement.
The following table provides summary information related to the Company's investment in Tinuum Group and the related RC facilities as of December 31, 2020 and tons of RC produced and sold for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Operating
# of RC FacilitiesNot OperatingInvestedRetained
RC Facilities26 23 (1)— 
RC tons produced and sold (000's)64,982 693 
The following tables provide summary information of Tinuum Group's RC facilities as of December 31, 2019 and tons of RC produced and sold for the year ended December 31, 2019:
Operating
# of RC FacilitiesNot OperatingInvestedRetained
Facilities26 20 (1)— 
RC tons produced and sold (000's)66,481 1,505 
(1) One RC facility was approximately 50% invested with an independent third party. As of December 31, 2019, the remaining approximate 50% was retained by Tinuum Group, the Company and another member of Tinuum Group. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Tinuum Group sold its interest in this RC facility.
Competition
We believe Chem-Mod, LLC and licensees of Chem-Mod's technology are Tinuum Group's principal competitors. Competition in the RC market is based primarily on price, the number of tons of coal burned at the coal-fired electric generating units where the RC facilities are operating and the tax compliance facts associated with each RC facility.
Raw Materials
The principal raw materials used in our RC products are comprised of non-bromine based halogens.
Operations
Tinuum RC facilities are located at coal-fired power plants in the U.S. As of December 31, 2020, Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services had operations in 16 states.
Advanced Purification Technologies
Given the downward trends in the coal-fired power generation market, the prices of competing power generation sources as well as our recognition of the unavailability of Section 45 tax credits for RC after 2021, during 2020 we executed on plans to expand our AC products and diversify into new markets. As a result, internal changes, including changes in operating structure and the method in which the Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") allocates resources, resulted in the change in reportable segments.
Products
Our AC and chemical products are used to purify coal-fired utilities, industrials, water treatment plants, and other markets. For the purification of air and gases, one of the uses of AC is to reduce mercury emissions and other air contaminants, specifically at coal-fired power generators and other industrial companies. Most of the North American coal-fired power generators installed equipment to control air pollutants, such as mercury, prior to or since the inception of the MATS. However, many power generators need consumable products on a recurring basis to chemically and physically capture mercury and other contaminants. AC has widely been adopted as the best available technology to capture mercury due to product efficiency and
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effectiveness and currently accounts for over 50% of the mercury control consumables North American market. We offer AC and other chemical products and work with customers as they develop and implement a compliance control strategy that utilizes the consumables solutions that fit with their unique operating and pollutions control configuration.
For the purification of water, AC has been used in the treatment of drinking water, wastewater, contaminated soil and groundwater to absorb compounds causing unpleasant taste and odor and other contaminants. Both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants have deployed the use of AC in their treatment processes. Groundwater contamination has become a matter of increasing concern to federal and state governments as well as to the public, especially in the last 10 years. The U.S. AC market may see significant growth from water purification markets, especially if future regulations are passed controlling certain chemicals in drinking water. At present, individual states are primarily responsible for the protection of groundwater.
Coal, as a fuel source for electricity generation, continues to be a significant source of power generation, although significantly decreased from when coal was the primary power generation source for the country. We see opportunities to continue to pursue diverse markets for our purification products outside of coal-fired power generation, including industrial applications, water treatment plants and other diverse markets. We expect the Supply Agreement with Cabot, as discussed above, does help expand our AC products into some of those diverse end-markets.
Sales and Customers
Sales of consumables are primarily made by the Company’s employees to a range of customers, including coal-fired utilities, industrial companies, water treatment plants and other customers. Some of our sales of AC are made under annual requirements-based contracts or longer-term agreements. Revenues from our top three customers comprised approximately 28% of our consolidated consumables revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020, and the loss of any of these customers would have a material adverse effect on the APT operating results.
Competition
Our primary competitors for consumable products include Cabot (CBT), Calgon Carbon, a subsidiary of Tokyo Stock Exchange listed Kuraray Co., Ltd., Donau Carbon Company, Midwest Energy Emissions Corp. (MEEC) and Nalco Holding Company, a subsidiary of Ecolab Inc. (ECL).
Raw Materials
The principal raw material we use in the manufacturing of AC is lignite coal, which is, in general, readily available and we believe we have an adequate supply through our ownership of the Five Forks Mine, which is operated for us by Demery Resources Company, LLC ("Demery"), a subsidiary of the North American Coal Company.
We purchase additives that are included in certain chemical products for resale to our customers through contracts with suppliers. The manufacturing of these consumable products is dependent upon certain discrete additives that are subject to price fluctuations and supply constraints. In addition, the number of suppliers who provide the necessary additives needed to manufacture our products are limited. Supply agreements with these producers are generally renewed on an annual basis.
Operations
We own and operate the Red River plant that is located in Louisiana. We also lease a manufacturing and distribution facility located in Louisiana. Additionally, we have sales, product development and administrative operations located in Colorado.
Research and Development Activities
We have conducted research and development directed towards product development related to the Supply Agreement and other markets. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we incurred expenses of $1.0 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Legislation and Environmental Regulations
Our products and services, as well as Tinuum Group’s production and sale of RC, are for the reduction of pollutants and other contaminants. To the extent that legislation and regulation limit the amount of pollutants and other contaminants permitted, the need for our products increases. Below is a summary of the primary legislation and regulation that affects the market for our products.

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U.S. Federal Mercury and Air Toxic Standards ("MATS") Affecting Electric Utility Steam Generating Units
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") final "MATS Rule" went into effect in April 2012. The EPA structured the MATS Rule as a MACT-based hazardous pollutant regulation applicable to coal and oil-fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units ("EGU"), which generate electricity through steam turbines and have a capacity of 25 megawatts or greater, and provide for, among other provisions, control of mercury, control of acid gases such as hydrochloric acid ("HCl") and other Hazardous Air Pollutants ("HAPs"). Approximately 1,260 units were coal-fired EGUs when the rule was enacted. According to our estimates, the MATS Rule sets a limit that we believe requires the capture of up to 80-90% of the mercury in the coal burned in electric power generation boilers as measured at the exhaust stack outlet for most plants. The MACT standards are also known as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ("NESHAP"). Plants generally had four years to comply with the MATS Rule, and we estimate that, based on data reported to the EPA and conversations with plant operators, most plants were required to comply by April 2016 and implementation of the MATS Rule is now largely complete. We estimate that 42% of the coal-fired EGUs that were operating in December 2011 when the MATS Rule was finalized have been permanently shut down, leaving approximately 527 EGUs in operation at the end of 2019.
In April 2017, a review by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit of a 2016 “supplemental finding” associated with the cost benefit analysis of the MATS Rule conducted by the EPA was stayed at the request of the Trump Administration. The court case continues to be stayed indefinitely. In May 2020, the EPA reconsidered and withdrew its 2016 "supplemental finding" associated with the cost benefit analysis of the MATS Rule. In this action, EPA found that it was not “appropriate and necessary” to regulate HAPs emissions from coal- and oil-fired EGUs. However, the EPA expressly stated that the reconsideration neither removed coal- and oil-fired EGUs from the list of sources that must comply with the MATS rule, nor rescinded the MATS Rule, which has remained continuously in effect. ADES joined a number of parties in seeking review of this EPA action before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. President Biden identified EPA’s withdrawal of the supplemental finding as one of the actions to be reviewed for conformity with Biden Administration policy, and in February 2021, the Biden Administration moved that the pending judicial review of the supplemental finding withdrawal be held in abeyance. The Court has granted the administration’s motion, and this appeal also is now in abeyance. The MATS Rule remains in effect.
State Mercury and Air Toxics Regulations Affecting EGUs
In addition, certain states have their own mercury rules that are similar to or more stringent than the MATS Rule, and coal-fired electricity generating units in the U.S are subject to consent decrees that require the control of acid gases and particulate matter, in addition to mercury emissions.
U.S. Federal Industrial Boiler MACT
In January 2013, the U.S. EPA issued the final set of adjustments to the MACT-based air toxics standards for industrial boilers, including mercury, particulate matter, and acid gas emission limits. Existing boilers typically had until January 31, 2017 to comply with the rule. On December 1, 2014, the EPA announced the reconsideration of the industrial boiler MACT ("IBMACT") and proposed amendments to the version published January 31, 2013, representing technical corrections and clarifications. The proposed amendments do not affect the applicability of the final rule.
The EPA estimated that approximately 600 coal-fired boilers will be affected by IBMACT, in industries such as pulp and paper. Our estimates, based on conversations with plant operators, suggest that most of the affected plants have or will either shut down or switch fuels to natural gas to comply with the regulation.
Effluent Limitation Guidelines
In 2015, the EPA set the first federal limits known as effluent limitation guidelines (“ELGs”) on the levels of toxic metals in wastewater that can be discharged from power plants. The final rule requires, among other things, zero discharge for fly ash and bottom ash transport water, and limits on mercury, arsenic, selenium, and nitrate from flue gas desulfurization ("FGD") wastewater. In September 2017, the EPA finalized a rule that delayed the original compliance deadlines for certain wastewater streams from November 2018 to November 2020, with the possibility that plants would not need to comply until December 2023 with state approval. In April 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit struck down the EPA’s ELGs that apply to leachate wastewater and "legacy wastewater," and directed the EPA to revise the limits on the levels of toxic metals in those wastewater streams. In November 2019, the EPA proposed to revise the ELGs for bottom ash and FGD wastewater. The final rule, published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2020 and effective on December 14, 2020, does not directly regulate halogens. It does, however, propose to establish a voluntary incentives program for the removal of certain halides. Though
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under several (though not all) of the proposed treatment options that the EPA is considering, selenium in FGD wastewater would be regulated. Some halogens may impact the effectiveness of biological wastewater treatment systems that are often used for the removal of selenium.
Additional U.S. Legislation and Regulations
In 2015, the EPA finalized rules to reduce greenhouse gases ("GHGs") in the form of the Clean Power Plan ("CPP"), which established guidelines for states to follow in developing plans to reduce GHG emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Under the CPP, states were required to prepare "State Plans" to meet state targets based on emission reductions from affected sources. The CPP was challenged by multiple states in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ("DC Circuit"). The CPP was stayed by the U.S. Supreme Court. The DC Circuit held the CPP litigation in abeyance until April 28, 2017, and dismissed the case once the EPA replaced the CPP.
In July 2019, the EPA repealed the CPP and replaced it with the Affordable Clean Energy ("ACE") rule, which established guidelines for states to follow in developing plans to reduce GHG emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. ACE also requires states to prepare State Plans and prescribes that they must be based on heat rate improvements at affected plants. Numerous states, power companies, and non-governmental organizations challenged the ACE rule in the D.C. Circuit, which vacated the ACE rule on January 19, 2021.
International Regulations
There are various international regulations related to mercury control. In Canada, the Canada-Wide Standard ("CWS") was initially implemented in 2010, with increasingly stringent limits through 2020 and with varying mercury emissions caps for each province. China and Germany both have limits for mercury emissions that are less stringent than U.S. limits and are typically met using co-benefits from other installed air pollution control equipment designed to control other pollutants. In May 2017, the EU ratified the Minimata Convention on Mercury, triggering mercury control regulations with implementation starting in 2021. Specific emissions limits are currently being developed guided by the best available technologies reference ("BREF") document for limiting stack emissions and liquid effluents from industrial processes. The BREF conclusions for large coal-fired electricity generating units were adopted by the European Commission in July 2017.
Based upon the existing and potential regulations, we believe the international market for mercury control products may expand in the coming years. We believe the EMEA Supply Agreement will help facilitate positioning our patent portfolio and existing commercial products in the EMEA region.
Mining Environmental and Reclamation Matters
Federal, state and local authorities regulate the U.S. coal mining industry with respect to matters such as employee health and safety and the environment, including the protection of air quality, water quality, wetlands, special status species of plants and animals, land uses, cultural and historic properties and other environmental resources identified during the permitting process. Reclamation is required during production and after mining has been completed. Materials used and generated by mining operations must also be managed according to applicable regulations and law.
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 ("SMCRA"), establishes mining, environmental protection, reclamation and closure standards for all aspects of surface mining. Mining operators must obtain SMCRA permits and permit renewals from the Office of Surface Mining (the "OSM"), or from the applicable state agency if the state agency has obtained regulatory primacy. A state agency may achieve primacy if the state regulatory agency develops a mining regulatory program that is no less stringent than the federal mining regulatory program under SMCRA. The Five Forks Mine operates in Louisiana, which has achieved primacy and issues permits in lieu of the OSM. The Marshall Mine operates in Texas, which has achieved primacy and issues permits in lieu of the OSM.
Mine operators are often required by federal and/or state laws, including SMCRA, to assure, usually through the use of surety bonds, payment of certain long‑term obligations including mine closure or reclamation costs, federal and state workers’ compensation costs, coal leases and other miscellaneous obligations. Although surety bonds are usually noncancelable during their term, many of these bonds are renewable on an annual basis and collateral requirements may change. As of December 31, 2020, we posted a surety bond of approximately $6.7 million for reclamation of the Five Forks Mine and $30.0 million for the reclamation of Marshall Mine.
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Patents
As of December 31, 2020, we held 71 U.S. patents and 15 international patents that were issued or allowed, 24 additional U.S. provisional patents or applications that were pending, and five international patent applications that were either pending or filed relating to different aspects of our technology. Our existing patents generally have terms of 20 years from the date of filing, with our next patents expiring beginning in 2021. We consider many of our patents and pending patents to be critical to the ongoing conduct of our business.
Seasonality of Activities
The sale of our consumable products and RC facility operation levels depend on the operations of the power generation units and industrial facilities to which the applicable consumables are provided and the location of the RC facilities, respectively. Power generation is weather dependent, with electricity and steam production varying in response to heating and cooling needs. Additionally, power generating units routinely schedule maintenance outages in the spring and/or fall depending upon the operation of the boilers. During the period in which an outage may occur, which may range from one week to over a month, no consumables are used and no RC is produced or sold, and our earnings and Tinuum's revenues may be correspondingly reduced.
The sale of our AC products for water purification depends on demand from municipal water treatment facilities where these products are utilized. Depending on weather conditions and other environmental factors the summer months historically have the highest demand for PAC, as one of the major uses for PAC is for the treatment of taste and odor problems caused by increased degradation of organic contaminants and natural materials in water during the summer.
Safety, Health and Environment
Our operations are subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to safety, health, and environmental matters ("SH&E Regulations"). These SH&E Regulations include requirements to maintain and comply with various environmental permits related to the operation of many of our facilities, including mine health and safety laws required for continued operation of the Five Forks Mine.
Employees
As of December 31, 2020, we employed 136 personnel, all of which were full-time employees; 35 employees were employed at our offices in Colorado and 101 employees were employed at our facilities in Louisiana.
Available Information
Our periodic and current reports are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC') pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") and are available free of charge within 24 hours after they are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC at the Company’s website at www.advancedemissionssolutions.com. The filings are also available through the SEC at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549 or by calling 1-800-SEC-0330. Alternatively, these reports can be accessed at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. The information contained on our website shall not be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act") or the Exchange Act.
Copies of Corporate Governance Documents
The following Company corporate governance documents are available free of charge at our website at www.advancedemissionssolutions.com and such information is available in print to any stockholder who requests it by contacting the Secretary of the Company at 8051 E. Maplewood Ave, Suite 210, Greenwood Village CO, 80111.
Certificate of Incorporation
Bylaws
Code of Ethics and Business Conduct
Insider Trading Policy
Whistleblower Protection Policy
Board of Directors Responsibilities
Audit Committee Charter
Compensation Committee Charter
Nominating and Governance Committee Charter
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Forward-Looking Statements Found in this Report
This Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that involve risks and uncertainties. In particular such forward-looking statements are found in this Part I and under the heading in Part II, Item 7 below. Words or phrases such as "anticipates," "believes," "expects," "intends," "plans," "estimates," "predicts," the negative expressions of such words, or similar expressions are used in this Report to identify forward-looking statements, and such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements or expectations regarding:
(a)the scheduled expiration of the IRC Section 45 tax credit period in 2021 and the resulting wind down of the business of, and loss of revenue from, Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services;
(b)the production and sale of RC by RC facilities through the remainder of 2021 that will qualify for Section 45 tax credits;
(c)expected growth or contraction in and potential size of our target APT markets, including the water purification, food and beverage and pharmaceuticals markets;
(d)expected supply and demand for our APT products and services;
(e)increasing competition in the APT market;
(f)future level of research and development activities;
(g)the effectiveness of our technologies and the benefits they provide;
(h)probability of any loss occurring with respect to certain guarantees made by Tinuum Group ("Party Guarantees");
(i)the timing of awards of, and work and related testing under, our contracts and agreements and their value;
(j)the timing and amounts of or changes in future revenues, royalties earned, backlog, funding for our business and projects, gross margins, expenses, earnings, tax rates, valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets, cash flows, license royalties, working capital, liquidity and other financial and accounting measures;
(k)the outcome of current legal proceedings;
(l)awards of patents designed to protect our proprietary technologies both in the U.S. and other countries;
(m)the adoption and scope of regulations to control certain chemicals in drinking water; and
(n)opportunities to effectively provide solutions to U.S. coal-related businesses to comply with regulations, improve efficiency, lower costs and maintain reliability.
Our expectations are based on certain assumptions, including without limitation, that:
(a)coal will continue to be a significant source of fuel for electrical generation in the U.S.;
(b)the IRS will allow the production and sale of RC to qualify for Section 45 tax credits through December 31, 2021;
(c)we will continue as a key supplier of consumables to the coal-fired power generation industry as it seeks to implement reduction of mercury emissions;
(d)we will be able to obtain adequate capital and personnel resources to meet our operating needs and to fund anticipated growth and our indemnity obligations;
(e)Cabot will continue to purchase Furnace Products from us under the Supply Agreement in the quantities specified;
(f)we will be able to establish and retain key business relationships with current and other companies;
(g)orders we anticipate receiving will be received;
(h)we will be able to formulate new consumables that will be useful to, and accepted by, the APT markets;
(i)we will be able to effectively compete against others;
(j)we will be able to meet any technical requirements of projects we undertake; and
(k)we will be able to utilize the Section 45 tax credits we have earned before they expire.
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The forward-looking statements included in this Report involve risks and uncertainties. Actual events or results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors including, but not limited to, timing of new and pending regulations and any legal challenges to or extensions of compliance dates of them; the U.S. government’s failure to promulgate regulations that benefit our business; changes in laws and regulations, accounting rules, prices, economic conditions and market demand; impact of competition; availability, cost of and demand for alternative energy sources and other technologies; technical, start up and operational difficulties; decreases in the production of RC; our inability to commercialize our APT technologies on favorable terms; our inability to ramp up our operations to effectively address recent and expected growth in our APT business; loss of key personnel; availability of materials and equipment for our businesses; intellectual property infringement claims from third parties; pending litigation; as well as other factors relating to our business, as described in our filings with the SEC, with particular emphasis on the risk factor disclosures contained in those filings and in Item 1A - "Risk Factors" of this Report. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements made in this Report and to consult filings we have made and will make with the SEC for additional discussion concerning risks and uncertainties that may apply to our business and the ownership of our securities. The forward-looking statements contained in this Report are presented as of the date hereof, and we disclaim any duty to update such statements unless required by law to do so.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following risks relate to us as of the date this Report is filed with the SEC. This list of risks is not intended to be exhaustive, but reflects what we believe are the material risks inherent in our business and the ownership of our securities as of the specified dates. A statement to the effect that the occurrence of a specified event may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations, profitability, financial condition, or the like, is intended to reflect the fact that such an event, if it occurs, would be likely to have a negative impact on your investment in ADES, but should not imply the likelihood of the occurrence of such specified event. The order in which the following risk factors are presented is not intended as an indication of the relative seriousness of any given risk.
Risks relating to Refined Coal
The ability to generate Section 45 tax credits from existing operating RC facilities ends in 2021, which will effectively eliminate Tinuum Group’s and Tinuum Services' income and cash flows from operations and significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations beyond 2021.
Substantially all of our earnings and cash flows in 2020 and 2019 were comprised of equity method earnings from Tinuum Group and license royalties generated from certain of Tinuum Group’s invested RC facilities. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our RC segment generated segment operating income of $42.7 million. As of December 31, 2020, Tinuum Group has 23 invested facilities and no retained facilities. Absent an extension to the Section 45 tax credit period, the 23 invested facilities will no longer generate Section 45 tax credits beyond 2021. As a result, we believe that substantially all of the invested RC facilities will be returned to Tinuum Group upon the expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period. If Tinuum Group continues to operate these RC facilities, if any, its earnings will be significantly reduced and accordingly, our pro rata share will also be substantially reduced. 
We will need to grow the earnings from our APT segment substantially to make up for the earnings we expect to lose from the winding down of our RC segment after the end of 2021, and there can be no assurances we will be able to fully replace these earnings.
From an earnings standpoint, our RC segment has been the larger of our two segments, and the APT segment must grow substantially, either organically or acquisitively, in order to replace earnings from Tinuum Group that will substantially end during 2021. There can be no assurance that we will be able to increase our APT segment earnings during 2021 or beyond to cover our current operating expenses or to provide a return to shareholders that is comparable to the return currently provided by our RC segment.  If we are not able to cover operating expenses, we could be forced to raise additional capital, significantly reduce our operating expenses or take other alternative actions.
The ability of Tinuum Group to continue to generate revenues from the operation of RC facilities by tax equity investors is not assured, and the inability to operate RC facilities to produce and sell RC and generate Section 45 production tax credits could adversely affect our future growth and profitability.
Tinuum Group has successfully sold and leased RC facilities to third party investors. The termination or cancellation of existing RC facility leases, or the cessation of the production of refined coal by existing facilities, in the near term, would likely have an adverse effect on our future growth and profitability.
Our RC businesses are joint ventures and managed under operating agreements where we do not have sole control of the decision-making process, and we cannot mandate decisions or ensure outcomes.
We oversee our joint ventures under the terms of their respective operating agreements by participating in the following activities: (1) representation on the respective governing boards of directors, (2) regular oversight of financial and operational performance and controls and establishing audit and reporting requirements, (3) hiring of management personnel, (4) technical support of RC facilities, and (5) other regular and routine involvement with our joint venture partners. Notwithstanding this regular participation and oversight, our joint venture partners also participate in the management of these businesses and they may have business or economic interests that divert their attention from the joint venture, or they may prefer to operate the business, make decisions or invest resources in a manner that is contrary to our preferences. Since material business decisions must be made jointly with our joint venture partners, we cannot mandate decisions or ensure outcomes.
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The financial effects of Tinuum Group providing indemnification under performance guarantees of its RC facilities are largely unknown and could adversely affect our financial condition.
Tinuum Group indemnifies certain utilities and lessees of RC facilities for particular risks associated with the operations of those facilities. We have provided limited, joint and several guarantees of Tinuum Group’s obligations under those leases. Any substantial payments made under such guarantees could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Presently, the GS Affiliates account for a substantial portion of earnings for Tinuum Group and any further lease renegotiation or termination by the GS Affiliates or any failure to continue to produce and sell RC at the GS Affiliates' RC facilities would have a material adverse effect on our business.
As of December 31, 2020, nine of Tinuum Group’s 26 RC facilities are leased to the GS Affiliates. Significant components of our total cash flows come from Tinuum Group's distributions relating to payments received under these leases. These leases may be terminated at the option of the lessee at periodic intervals or upon the occurrence of specified events. In September 2019, Tinuum Group restructured all of the existing leases with the GS Affiliates, which resulted in a decrease in net lease payments for 2020 and 2021. Additional restructurings have occurred on certain GS Affiliate leases in 2020 and 2021, which have also resulted in a decrease in net lease payments for 2020 and 2021. If the GS Affiliates further renegotiate or terminate one or more of their leases, or if the utilities where the RC facilities are installed materially reduce their use of RC, these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Risks relating to our business
The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic downturn has affected, and is expected to continue to affect and pose risks to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows; and other epidemics or outbreaks of infectious diseases may have a similar impact.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization ("WHO") declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a global pandemic, which continues to spread throughout the United States ("U.S.") and the world and has resulted in authorities implementing numerous measures to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, and business limitations and shutdowns. We have been designated by Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency ("CISA") of the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure supplier to the energy sector. This designation provides some latitude in continuing to conduct our business operations compared to companies in other industries and markets. While we are unable to accurately predict the full impact that COVID-19 will have on our results from operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows due to numerous uncertainties, including the duration and severity of the pandemic and containment measures, our compliance with these measures has impacted our day-to-day operations and could continue to disrupt our business and operations, as well as that of our key customers, suppliers and other counterparties, for an indefinite period of time. To support the health and well-being of our employees, customers, partners and communities, a vast majority of our employees not directly involved in operating our plant have been working remotely since March 2020. In addition, many of our customers are working remotely, which may delay the timing of some orders and deliveries. The disruptions to our operations caused by COVID-19 have resulted, and are expected to continue to result in inefficiencies, delays and additional costs in our manufacturing, sales, marketing, and customer service efforts that we cannot fully mitigate through remote or other alternative work arrangements. Although such disruptions did not have a material adverse impact on our financial results for the first quarter of fiscal 2020, we incurred additional operating costs for the second quarter of fiscal year 2020, which included hazard pay, cleaning costs and sequestration costs related to our operating plant personnel. For 2021, we may see reduced demand for our products due to reduced interaction with our customers and our inability to target new customers and markets.
More generally, the pandemic raises the possibility of an extended global economic downturn and has caused volatility in financial markets, which could affect demand for our products and services and impact our results and financial condition even after the pandemic is contained and the shelter-in-place orders are lifted. For example, a decrease in orders in a given period could negatively affect our revenues in future periods, particularly if experienced on a sustained basis. We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the impact of COVID-19 to our business.
As previously disclosed, in April 2020, we entered into a loan (the "PPP Loan") in the amount of $3.3 million through a bank under the Paycheck Protection Program sponsored by the U.S. Small Business Administration ("SBA"). We entered into the PPP Loan to provide additional liquidity in light of our COVID-19-related higher employee costs. Proceeds from the PPP Loan were used to cover a portion of our existing payroll and related expenses, including sequestration pay for certain employees, as well as certain other operating costs as permitted under the Paycheck Protection Program. We expect that current cash and cash
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equivalent balances, inclusive of the PPP Loan, and cash flows that are generated from operations will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs and other capital and liquidity requirements for at least the next 12 months. However, if our business is more adversely impacted by COVID-19 than we expect, and our personnel costs remain higher than budgeted, our cash needs could increase.
Demand for our products and services depends significantly on environmental laws and regulations. Uncertainty as to the future of such laws and regulations, as well as changes to such laws and regulations, or granting of extensions of compliance deadlines has had, and will likely continue to have a material effect on our business.
A significant market driver for our existing products and services, and those planned in the future, are present and expected environmental laws and regulations, particularly those addressing the reduction of mercury and other emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units. If such laws and regulations are delayed, or are not enacted or are repealed or amended to be less strict, or include prolonged phase-in periods, or are not enforced, our business would be adversely affected by declining demand for such products and services. For example:
a.The implementation of environmental regulations regarding certain pollution control and permitting requirements has been delayed from time to time due to various lawsuits. The uncertainty created by litigation and reconsiderations of rule-making by the EPA has negatively impacted our business, results of operations and financial condition and will likely continue to do so.
b.To the extent federal, state, and local legislation mandating that electric power generating companies serving a state or region purchase a minimum amount of power from renewable energy sources such as wind, hydroelectric, solar and geothermal, and such amount lessens demand for electricity from coal-fired plants, the demand for our products and services would likely decrease.
Federal, state, and international laws or regulations addressing emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units, climate change or other actions to limit emissions, including public opposition to new coal-fired electricity generating units, has caused and could continue to cause electricity generators to transition from coal to other fuel and power sources, such as natural gas, nuclear, wind, hydroelectric and solar. The potential financial impact on us of future laws or regulations or public pressure will depend upon the degree to which electricity generators diminish their reliance on coal as a fuel source. That, in turn, will depend on a number of factors, including the specific requirements imposed by any such laws or regulations, the periods over which those laws or regulations are or will be phased in, the amount of public opposition, and the state and cost of commercial development of related technologies and processes. In addition, Public Utility Commissions ("PUCs") may not allow utilities to charge consumers for, and pass on the cost of, emissions control technologies without federal or state mandate. We cannot reasonably predict the impact that any such future laws or regulations or public opposition may have on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Action by the EPA related to MATS that decreases demand for our mercury removal products could have a material adverse effect on our APT segment.
Performance in our APT segment is largely dependent upon demand for mercury removal related product, which is largely impacted by the amount of coal-based power generation used in the U.S. and the continued regulation of utilities under MATS. In May 2020, the EPA reconsidered and withdrew its 2016 "supplemental finding" associated with the cost benefit analysis of the MATS Rule. In this action, the EPA found that it was not “appropriate and necessary” to regulate HAP emissions from coal- and oil-fired EGUs. However, the EPA expressly stated that the reconsideration neither removed coal- and oil-fired EGUs from the list of sources that must comply with the MATS rule, nor rescinded the MATS Rule, which has remained continuously in effect. ADES joined a number of parties in seeking review of this EPA action before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. President Biden identified EPA’s withdrawal of the supplemental finding as one of the actions to be reviewed for conformity with Biden Administration policy, and in February 2021, the Biden Administration moved that the pending judicial review of the withdrawal be held in abeyance. The Court has granted the administration’s motion, and this appeal is also now in abeyance. The MATS Rule remains in effect. Any final action taken by the EPA related to MATS that decreases demand for our products for mercury removal will have a negative effect on the financial results of our PGI segment. The timing and content of the final reconsideration rule are unknown.
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The failure of tariffs placed on U.S. imports of Chinese activated carbon to adequately address the impact of low-priced imports from China could have a material adverse effect on the competitiveness and financial performance of our APT segment.
Our APT segment faces competition in the U.S. from low-priced imports of activated carbon products. If the volumes of these low-priced imports increase, especially if they are sold at less than fair value, our sales of competing products could decline, which could have an adverse effect on the earnings of our APT segment. In addition, sales of these low-priced imports may negatively impact our pricing. To limit these activities, regulators in the U.S. have enacted an anti-dumping duty order on steam activated carbon products from China. In 2018, the order was extended for an additional five years. The amount of anti-dumping duties collected on imports of steam activated carbon from China is reviewed annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce. To the extent the anti-dumping margins do not adequately address the degree to which imports are unfairly traded, the anti-dumping order may be less effective in reducing the volume of these low-priced activated carbon imports in the U.S., which could negatively affect demand and/or pricing for our AC products.
The market for consumables and other products that provide pollutant reduction is highly competitive and some of our competitors are significantly larger and more established than we are, which could adversely impede our growth opportunities and financial results.
We operate in a highly competitive marketplace. Our ability to compete successfully depends in part upon our ability to maintain a production cost advantage, competitive technological capabilities and to continue to identify, develop and commercialize new and innovative products for existing and future customers. We may face increased competition from existing or newly developed products offered by industry competitors or other companies whose products offer a similar functionality as our products and could be substituted for our products, which may negatively affect demand for our products. In addition, market competition could negatively impact our ability to maintain or raise prices or maintain or grow our market position.
We compete against certain significantly larger and/or more established companies in the market for consumables and other products that provide mercury emissions reduction, water treatment and air purification.
Reduction of coal consumption by North American electricity power generators could result in less demand for our products and services. If utilities significantly reduce the number of coal-fired electricity generating units or the amount of coal burned, without a corresponding increase in the services required at the remaining units, this could reduce our revenues and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The amount of coal consumed for North American electricity power generation is affected by, among other things, (1) the location, availability, quality and price of alternative energy sources for power generation, such as natural gas, fuel oil, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, biomass and solar power; and (2) technological developments, including those related to competing alternative energy sources.
Natural gas-fueled generation and renewable energy generation has been displacing and may continue to displace coal-fueled generation, particularly from older, less efficient coal-powered generators. We expect that a significant amount of the new power generation necessary to meet increasing demand for electricity generation will be fueled by these sources. The price of natural gas has remained competitive for power generation and the use of natural gas is perceived as having a lower environmental impact than burning coal. Natural gas-fired plants are cheaper to construct, and permits to construct these plants are easier to obtain, and ongoing costs of natural gas-fired plants associated with meeting environmental compliance are lower. Possible advances in technologies and incentives, such as tax credits, that enhance the economics of renewable energy sources could make those sources more competitive than coal. Any reduction in the amount of coal consumed by domestic electricity power generators, whether as a result of new power plants utilizing alternative energy sources or as a result of technological advances, could reduce the demand for our current products and services, thereby reducing our revenues and materially and adversely affecting our business and results of operations.
Additionally, long-term changes in environmental regulation that threaten or preclude the use of coal or other fossil fuels as a primary fuel source for electricity production may result in the reduction or closure of a significant number of coal-fired electric generating units, and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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The loss of, or significant reduction in, purchases by our largest customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we derived approximately 61% of our total consumable revenues from our ten largest customers. Many of these customers purchase our products to comply with emissions regulations, and if coal-fired generation decreases, it may have a negative impact on the amount of consumable products purchased. If any of our ten largest customers, were to significantly reduce the quantities of consumables they purchase from us, it may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Volatility in price and availability of raw materials can significantly impact our results of operations.
The manufacturing and processing of our consumable products requires significant amounts of raw materials. The price and availability of those raw materials can be impacted by factors beyond our control. Our consumable products, exclusive of lignite coal, use a variety of additives. Significant movements or volatility in the costs of additives could have an adverse effect on our working capital or results of operations. Additionally, we obtain certain raw materials from selected key suppliers. While we have inventory of such raw materials, if any of these suppliers are unable to meet their obligations with us on a timely basis or at an acceptable price, we may be forced to incur higher costs to obtain the necessary raw materials.
We may attempt to offset the increase in raw material costs with price increases allowed in our contractual relationships or through cost reduction efforts. If we are unable to fully offset the increased cost of raw materials through price increases, it could significantly impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face operational risks inherent in mining operations and our mining operations have the potential to cause safety issues, including those that could result in significant personal injury.
We own the Five Forks Mine, a lignite coal mine located in Louisiana, which is operated for us by a third party. Mining operations by their nature involve a high level of uncertainty and are often affected by risks and hazards outside of our control. At the Five Forks Mine, the risks are primarily operational risks associated with the maintenance and operation of the heavy equipment required to dig and haul the lignite and risks relating to lower than expected lignite quality or recovery rates. The failure to adequately manage these risks could result in significant personal injury, loss of life, damage to mineral properties, production facilities or mining equipment, damage to the environment, delays in or reduced production and potential legal liabilities.
We also own the Marshall Mine, a former lignite coal mine located in Texas, which ceased mining operations in the third quarter of 2020 and is currently being reclaimed. Reclamation operations by their nature involve a high level of uncertainty and are often affected by risks and hazards outside of our control. At the Marshall Mine, the current risks are primarily operational risks associated with the maintenance and operation of the heavy equipment. The failure to adequately manage these risks could result in significant personal injury, loss of life, equipment, damage to the environment, delays in reclamation and potential legal liabilities.
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Our operations and products are subject to extensive safety, health and environmental requirements that could increase our costs and/or impair our ability to manufacture and sell certain products.
Our ongoing operations are subject to extensive federal, state and local laws, regulations, rules and ordinances relating to safety, health and environmental matters, many of which provide for substantial monetary fines and criminal sanctions for violations. These include requirements to obtain and comply with various environmental-related permits for constructing any new facilities (or modifications to existing facilities) and operating all of our existing facilities. In addition, our Red River Plant may become subject to greenhouse gas emission trading requirements under which we may be required to purchase emission credits if our emission levels exceed our allocations. Greenhouse gas regulatory programs that have been adopted, such as cap-and-trade programs, have not had a significant impact on our business to date. Costs of complying with regulations could increase, as concerns related to greenhouse gases and climate change continue to emerge. The enactment of new environmental laws and regulations and/or the more aggressive interpretation of existing requirements could require us to incur significant costs for compliance or capital improvements or limit our current or planned operations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our earnings or cash flow. We attempt to offset the effects of these compliance costs through price increases, productivity improvements and cost reduction efforts, and our success in offsetting any such increased regulatory costs is largely influenced by competitive and economic conditions and could vary significantly depending on the segment served. Such increases may not be accepted by our customers, may not be sufficient to compensate for increased regulatory costs or may decrease demand for our products and our volume of sales.
We may not be successful in achieving our growth expectations related to new products in our existing or new markets.
We may not be successful in achieving our growth expectations from developing new products for our existing or new markets. Further, we cannot ensure costs incurred to develop new products will result in an increase in revenues. Additionally, our ability to bring new products to the market will depend on various factors, including, but not limited to, solving potential technical or manufacturing difficulties, competition and market acceptance, which may hinder the timeliness and cost to bring such products to production. These factors or delays could affect our future operating results.
We may make future acquisitions or form partnerships and joint ventures that may involve numerous risks that could impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our strategy may include expanding our scope of products and services organically or through selective acquisitions, investments or creating partnerships and joint ventures. We have acquired, and may selectively acquire, other businesses, product or service lines, assets or technologies that are complementary to our business. We may be unable to find or consummate future acquisitions at acceptable prices and terms, or we may be unable to integrate existing or future acquisitions effectively and efficiently, and may need to divest those acquisitions. We continually evaluate potential acquisition opportunities in the ordinary course of business. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including among others:
our evaluation of the synergies and/or long-term benefits of an acquired business;
integration difficulties, including challenges and costs associated with implementing systems, processes and controls to comply with the requirements of a publicly-traded company;
diverting management’s attention;
litigation arising from acquisition activity;
potential increased debt leverage;
potential issuance of dilutive equity securities;
entering markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience and where competitors in such markets have stronger market positions;
unanticipated costs and exposure to undisclosed or unforeseen liabilities or operating challenges;
potential goodwill or other intangible asset impairments;
potential loss of key employees and customers of the acquired businesses, product or service lines, assets or technologies;
our ability to properly establish and maintain effective internal controls over an acquired company; and
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increasing demands on our operational and IT systems.
The success of acquisitions of businesses, new technologies and products, or arrangements with third parties is not always predictable and we may not be successful in realizing our objectives as anticipated. The Senior Term Loan and our bank line of credit facility contain certain covenants that limit, or that may have the effect of limiting, among other things, the payment of dividends, acquisitions, capital expenditures, the sale of assets and incurring additional indebtedness.
Natural disasters could affect our operations and financial results.
We operate facilities, including the Red River Plant and Five Forks Mine, that are exposed to natural hazards, such as floods, windstorms and hurricanes. Extreme weather events present physical risks that may become more frequent as a result of factors related to climate change. Such events could disrupt our supply of raw materials or otherwise affect production, transportation and delivery of our products or affect demand for our products.
In addition, extreme and unusually cold or hot temperatures throughout the U.S. could result in abnormally high loads on geographic electrical grids that could result in the failure of coal-fired power plants to produce electricity. If these plants were off-line for a significant period of time, the demand for our products could be less, which would impact our operations and financial results.
Information technology vulnerabilities and cyberattacks on our networks could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We rely on information technology ("IT") to manage and conduct business, both internally and externally, with our customers, suppliers and other third parties. Internet transactions involve the transmission and storage of data including, in certain instances, customer and supplier business information. Therefore, maintaining the security of computers and other electronic devices, computer networks and data storage resources is a critical issue for us and our customers and suppliers because security breaches could result in reduced or lost ability to carry on our business and loss of and/or unauthorized access to confidential information.
We have limited personnel and other resources to address information technology reliability and security of our computer networks and to respond to known security incidents to minimize potential adverse impact. Experienced hackers, cybercriminals and perpetrators of threats may be able to penetrate our network security and misappropriate or compromise our confidential information or that of third parties, create system disruptions or cause shutdowns. These perpetrators of cyberattacks also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms, malware and other malicious software programs that attack our information and networks or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities of our information and networks.
Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until long after being launched against a target, and we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. A breach of our IT systems and security measures as a result of third party action, malware, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise could materially adversely impact our business and results of operations and expose us to customer, supplier and other third party liabilities.
Risks related to intellectual property
Failure to protect our intellectual property or infringement of our intellectual property by a third party could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright and trademark laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary rights. Such means of protecting our proprietary rights may not be adequate because they provide only limited protection or such protection may be prohibitively expensive to enforce. We also enter into confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with our employees, consultants and many of our customers and vendors, and generally control access to and distribution of our proprietary information. Notwithstanding these measures, a third party could copy or otherwise obtain and use our proprietary information without authorization. We cannot provide assurance that the steps we have taken will prevent misappropriation of our technology and intellectual property, which could negatively impact our business and financial condition. In addition, such actions by third parties could divert the attention of our management from the operation of our business.
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We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims from third parties that are costly to defend and that may limit our ability to use the disputed technologies.
If our technologies are alleged to infringe the intellectual property rights of others, we may be forced to mount a defense to such claims, which may be expensive and time consuming. During the pendency of litigation, we could be prevented from marketing and selling existing products or services and from pursuing research, development or commercialization of new or complimentary products or services. Further, we may be required to obtain licenses to third party intellectual property or be forced to develop or obtain alternative technologies. Our failure to obtain a license to a technology that we may require, or the need to develop or obtain alternative technologies, could significantly and negatively affect our business.
Indemnification of third-party licensees of our technologies against intellectual property infringement claims concerning our licensed technology and our products could be financially significant to us.
We have agreed to indemnify licensees of our technologies (including Tinuum Group) and purchasers of our products, and we may enter into additional agreements with others under which we agree to indemnify and hold them harmless from losses they may incur as a result of the alleged infringement of third-party rights caused by the use of our technologies and products. Infringement claims, which are expensive and time-consuming to defend, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition, even if we are successful in defending ourselves (and the indemnified parties) against them.
Our future success depends in part on our ongoing identification and development of intellectual property and our ability to invest in and deploy new products, services and technologies into the marketplace efficiently and cost effectively.
The process of identifying customer needs and developing and enhancing products, services and solutions for our business segments is complex, costly and uncertain. Any failure by us to identify and anticipate changing needs, emerging trends and new regulations could significantly harm our future market share and results of operations.
Risk related to tax matters
An "ownership change" could limit our ability to utilize tax loss and credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income.
We have certain general business credit tax credits ("Tax Credits"). As of December 31, 2020, we had $93.9 million of Tax Credits, equaling 86% of our total gross deferred tax assets. Our ability to use these Tax Credits to offset future taxable income may be significantly limited if we experience an "ownership change" as discussed below. Under the Internal Revenue Code ("IRC') and regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, we may carry forward or otherwise utilize the Tax Credits in certain circumstances to offset any current and future taxable income, and thus reduce our federal income tax liability, subject to certain requirements and restrictions. To the extent that the Tax Credits do not otherwise become limited, we believe that we will have available a significant amount of Tax Credits in future years, and therefore the Tax Credits could be a substantial asset to us. However, if we experience an "ownership change," as defined in Sections 382 and 383 of the IRC, our ability to use the Tax Credits may be substantially limited, and the timing of the usage of the Tax Credits could be substantially delayed, which could therefore significantly impair the value of that asset.
In general, an "ownership change" under Sections 382 and 383 occurs if the percentage of stock owned by an entity’s 5% stockholders (as defined for tax purposes) increases by more than 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. An entity that experiences an ownership change generally will be subject to an annual limitation on its pre-ownership change tax loss and credit carryforwards equal to the equity value of the entity immediately before the ownership change, multiplied by the long-term, tax-exempt rate posted monthly by the IRS (subject to certain adjustments). The annual limitation would be increased each year to the extent that there is an unused limitation in a prior year. The limitation on our ability to utilize the Tax Credits arising from an ownership change under Sections 382 and 383 of the IRC would depend on the value of our equity at the time of any ownership change.  If we were to experience an "ownership change," it is possible that a significant portion of our tax credit carryforwards could expire before we would be able to use them to offset future taxable income.
On May 5, 2017, our Board of Directors (the "Board") approved the Tax Asset Protection Plan (the "TAPP") and declared a dividend of one preferred share purchase right (each, a "Right") for each outstanding share of our common stock. The TAPP was adopted in an effort to protect stockholder value by attempting to diminish the risk that our ability to use the Tax Credits to reduce potential future federal income tax obligations may become substantially limited.
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On April 8, 2020, the Board approved the Third Amendment to the TAPP ("Third Amendment") that amended the TAPP, as previously amended by the First and Second Amendments that were approved by the Board on April 6, 2018 and April 5, 2019, respectively. The Third Amendment amended the definition of "Final Expiration Date" under the TAPP to extend the duration of the TAPP and makes associated changes in connection therewith. At our 2020 annual meeting of stockholders, our stockholders approved the Third Amendment, thus the Final Expiration Date will be the close of business on December 31, 2021.
The TAPP, as amended, is intended to act as a deterrent to any person acquiring beneficial ownership of 4.99% or more of our outstanding common stock without the approval of the Board. Stockholders who beneficially owned 4.99% or more of our outstanding common stock upon execution of the Protection Plan will not trigger the Protection Plan so long as they do not acquire beneficial ownership of additional shares of our common stock. The Board may, in its sole discretion, also exempt any person from triggering the Protection Plan.
Risks relating to our common stock
Our stock price is subject to volatility.
The market price of our common stock has experienced substantial price volatility in the past and may continue to do so. The market price of our common stock may continue to be affected by numerous factors, including:
a.actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition;
b.changes in laws or regulations and court rulings and trends in our industry;
c.The expiration of the Section 45 Tax credit period and/or Tinuum Group’s ability to lease or sell RC facilities;
d.announcements of sales awards;
e.changes in supply and demand of components and materials;
f.adoption of new tax regulations or accounting standards affecting our industry;
g.changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
h.perceptions of the value of corporate transactions;
i.trends in social responsibility and investment guidelines;
j.whether we are able and elect to pay cash dividends;
k.the continuation of repurchasing shares of common stock under stock repurchase programs; and
l.the degree of trading liquidity in our common stock and general market conditions.
From January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020, the closing price of our common stock ranged from $3.76 to $14.84 per share. In June 2017, we commenced a quarterly cash dividend program and paid out cash dividends in each succeeding quarter through March 31, 2020. In 2019 and 2020, we implemented stock repurchase programs, and repurchased a total of 553,958 shares of our common stock for the fiscal years 2019 and 2020 for cash of $6.0 million.
Stock price volatility over a given period may cause the average price at which we repurchase shares of our common stock to exceed the stock’s price at a given point in time. We believe our stock price should reflect expectations of future growth and profitability. Future dividends are subject to declaration by the Board, and under our current stock repurchase program, we are not obligated to acquire any specific number of shares. If we fail to meet expectations related to future growth, profitability, dividends, stock repurchases or other market expectations, our stock price may decline significantly, which could have a material adverse impact on our ability to obtain additional capital, investor confidence and employee retention, and could further reduce the liquidity of our common stock.
There can be no assurance that we will resume declaring cash dividends at all or in any particular amounts.
We last paid a cash dividend on March 10, 2020. The Board first approved a $0.25 per share of common stock quarterly dividend in June 2017. During 2019 and 2020, we declared quarterly dividends in the aggregate amount of $23.2 million.
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The payment of future dividends will be affected by, among other factors: compliance with debt covenants; our views on potential future capital requirements for investments in acquisitions; legal risks; stock repurchase programs; changes in federal and state income tax laws or corporate laws; changes to our business model; and interest and principal payments for 2021 required under the terms of the Senior Term Loan; and any additional indebtedness that we may incur in the future.
Under a covenant provided for the Senior Term Loan that requires a minimum for expected future net cash flows from refined coal business, as of December 31, 2020, we are precluded from paying dividends or repurchasing shares of our common stock until such time that we repay all outstanding principal and accrued interest related to the Senior Term Loan, absent a modification to the Senior Term Loan.
Our dividend payments may change from time to time, and we cannot provide assurance that we will resume paying dividends at all or in any particular amounts. Our election to not resume dividend payments could have a negative effect on our stock price.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These include provisions that:
a.Limit the business at special meetings to the purpose stated in the notice of the meeting;
b.Authorize the issuance of "blank check" preferred stock, which is preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede a takeover attempt and that the Board can create and issue without prior stockholder approval;
c.Establish advance notice requirements for submitting nominations for election to the Board and for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at a meeting; and
d.Require the affirmative vote of the "disinterested" holders of a majority of our common stock to approve certain business combinations involving an "interested stockholder" or its affiliates, unless either minimum price criteria or procedural requirements are met, or the transaction is approved by a majority of our "continuing directors" (known as "fair price provisions").
These provisions, alone or in combination with each other, may discourage transactions involving actual or potential changes of control, including transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices to holders of our common stock, or could limit the ability of our stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interest.
An increased focus on environmental, social and governance factors by institutional investors may negatively impact our access to capital and the liquidity of our stock price.
Some institutional investors have recently adopted Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") investing guidelines that may prevent them from increasing or taking new stakes with companies with exposure to fossil fuels. Additional institutional investors may adopt similar ESG investment guidelines. This could limit the demand for owning our common stock and/or our access to capital. If such capital is desired, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain any additional equity or debt financing on terms that are acceptable to us. Given these emerging trends, liquidity in our common stock and our stock price may be negatively impacted.
We may require additional funding for our growth plans, and such funding may require us to issue additional shares of our common stock, resulting in a dilution of your investment.
We estimate our funding requirements in order to implement our growth plans. If the funding required to implement growth plans should exceed these estimates significantly, or if we come across opportunities to grow through expansion plans which cannot be predicted at this time, or our funds generated from our operations prove insufficient for such purposes, we may need to raise additional funds to meet these funding requirements.
These additional funds may be raised by issuing equity or debt securities or by borrowing from banks or other resources. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain any additional financing on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If we fail to
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obtain additional financing on terms that are acceptable to us, we may not be able to implement such plans fully. Such financing, even if obtained, may be accompanied by conditions that limit our ability to pay dividends or require us to seek lenders’ consent for payment of dividends, or restrict our freedom to operate our business by requiring lender’s consent for certain corporate actions. Further, if we raise additional funds through the issuance of new shares of our common stock, any shareholders who are unable or unwilling to participate in such an additional round of fund raising may suffer dilution of their investment.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Offices and Facilities
We lease office space in Greenwood Village, Colorado for our corporate headquarters and primary laboratory comprising approximately 21,000 square feet.
We also lease or own manufacturing, storage and distribution facilities in Louisiana. Our manufacturing plant is located on approximately 59 acres and the remaining facilities are comprised of a total of approximately 310,000 square feet.
Mining
As of December 31, 2020, we owned or controlled primarily through long-term leases approximately 4,570 acres of coal land for surface mining. Of those acres, approximately 1,980 acres are located in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana ("Five Forks"). The majority of the Five Forks land is leased for mineral rights and right-of-use purposes that expire at varying dates over the next 30 years and contain options to renew. The remaining land is owned by us.
Under our current mining plans, substantially all leased reserves will be mined out within the period of existing leases or within the time period of assured lease renewals. Royalties are paid to lessors either as a fixed price per ton or as a percentage of the gross sales price of the mined coal. The majority of the significant leases are on a percentage royalty basis. In some cases, a payment is required either at the time of execution of the lease or in annual installments. In most cases, the prepaid royalty amount is applied to reduce future production royalties.
The remaining 2,590 acres (of 4,570 acres of coal land for surface mining) were acquired on September 30, 2020 and located in Harrison and Panola Counties, Texas. Mining operations on this land ceased in the third quarter of 2020.
In 2018, the SEC issued new rules for disclosures under this Item for mining registrants. These rules amend Item 102 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and rescind Industry Guide 7 to direct mining registrants, and create a new subpart of Regulation S-K, which contains all of the requirements for property disclosures by mining registrants from and after January 1, 2021 (the "Mining Disclosures"). The Mining Disclosures became effective on February 25, 2019 and allow mining registrants a transition period through January 1, 2021 to comply. We elected to adopt the Mining Disclosures effective February 25, 2019 and were subject to the requirements effective with the filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. Based on the materiality and the vertically-integrated company guidelines contained in the Mining Disclosures, we have concluded that no additional disclosures related to our mining operations are required under this Item.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we are involved in various litigation matters arising in the ordinary course of our business. Information with respect to this item may be found in Note 14 "Commitments and Contingencies" to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Report.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
The statement concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95 to this Report.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market for Our Common Stock
As of December 31, 2020, our common stock was quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol "ADES." The trading volume for our common stock is relatively limited. There is no assurance that an active trading market will provide adequate liquidity for our existing stockholders or for persons who may acquire our common stock in the future.
Dividends
In June 2017, we commenced a quarterly cash dividend program of $0.25 per common share and made our most recent payment in March 2020.
In the future, we may declare and pay a cash dividend on shares of our common stock. Whether we do, however, and the timing and amounts of dividends will be subject to approval and declaration by the Board and will depend on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, our financial results, cash requirements, financial condition, compliance with loan covenants and other contractual restrictions and other factors considered relevant by the Board, and will be subject to limitations imposed under Delaware law.
Holders
The number of holders of record of our common stock as of March 1, 2021 was approximately 900. The approximate number of beneficial stockholders is estimated at 6,900.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Company and Affiliated Purchasers
We had no repurchases of our common stock for the three months ended December 31, 2020.
We maintain a program to repurchase up to $20.0 million of shares of our common stock under a stock repurchase program (the "Stock Repurchase Program") through open market transactions at prevailing market prices. The Board most recently approved an amendment to The Stock Repurchase Program in which it authorized an incremental $7.1 million, resulting in a total of $10.0 million allowable to repurchase. As of December 31, 2020, $7.0 million remained outstanding to repurchase shares of our common stock under the Stock Repurchase Program, which will remain in effect until all amounts are utilized or it is otherwise modified by the Board.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The information under this Item is not required to be provided by smaller reporting companies.
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Overview
We operate two segments: RC and APT. Our RC segment is comprised of our equity ownership in Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services, both of which are unconsolidated entities in which we generate substantial earnings. Tinuum Group provides reduction of mercury and NOx emissions at select coal-fired power generators through the production and sale of RC that qualifies for Section 45 tax credits under IRC Section 45. We benefit from Tinuum Group's production and sale of RC, which generates tax credits, as well as its revenue from selling or leasing RC facilities to tax equity investors. We also earn royalties for technologies that we license to Tinuum Group and are used at certain RC facilities to enhance combustion and reduced emissions of NOx and mercury from coal burned to generate electrical power. Tinuum Services operates and maintains the RC facilities under operating and maintenance agreements with Tinuum Group and owners or lessees of the RC facilities. Both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021 due to the expected expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period as of December 31, 2021. As such, our earnings and distributions from our RC segment will substantially cease as of December 31, 2021.
Our APT segment is materially operated through a wholly-owned subsidiary, Carbon Solutions, which we acquired on December 7, 2018 (the "Carbon Solutions Acquisition"). We sell consumable products that utilize AC and chemical based technologies to a broad range of customers, including coal-fired utilities, industrials, water treatment plants, and other diverse markets through the customer supply agreement defined below. Our primary products are comprised of AC, which is produced from lignite coal. Our AC products include PAC and GAC. Our proprietary technologies and associated product offerings provide purification solutions to enable our customers to reduce certain contaminants and pollutants to meet the challenges of existing and potential regulations. Additionally, through Carbon Solutions, we also own an associated lignite mine that supplies the primary raw material for manufacturing our products.
See further discussion of our business included in Item 1 - "Business" ("Item 1") of this Report. Discussion regarding segment information is included in the discussion of our consolidated results under this Item 7. Additionally, discussion related to our reportable segments is included in Item 1 and Note 19 of the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included in Item 8 of this Report.
We believe there are opportunities to continue to pursue diverse markets for our purification products outside of coal-fire power generation, including industrial applications and water. The Supply Agreement with Cabot, as discussed below, will help our expansion of our AC products to those diverse end-markets and drive the Company’s post-Refined Coal future.
Drivers of Demand and Key Factors Affecting Profitability
Drivers of demand and key factors affecting our profitability differ by segment. In the RC segment, demand is driven primarily from investors who purchase or lease RC facilities that qualify under the Section 45 tax credit period, which is expected to expire no later than December 31, 2021. Operating results in RC are affected by: (1) the ability to sell, lease or operate RC facilities; (2) lease renegotiation or termination; and (3) changes in tonnage of RC due to changing coal-fired dispatch and electricity power generation sources. Earnings and distributions from our RC segment will substantially cease as of December 31, 2021 as a result the significant wind down of both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services due to the expected expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period as of December 31, 2021.
In the APT segment, demand is driven primarily by consumables-based solutions for coal-fired power generation and other industrials, municipal water customers, and since September 30, 2020, demand from Cabot's customers through the Supply Agreement discussed below. Operating results in APT has been influenced by: (1) changes in our sales volumes; (2) changes in price and product mix; and (3) changes in coal-fired dispatch and electricity power generation sources.
Customer Supply Agreement
On September 30, 2020, we and Cabot entered into the Supply Agreement pursuant to which we agree to sell and deliver to Cabot, and Cabot agrees to purchase and accept from us, Furnace Products. The term of the Supply Agreement is for 15 years with 10-year renewal terms that are automatic unless either party provides three years prior notice of intention not to renew before the end of any term.
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In addition to the sale by us and purchase by Cabot of Furnace Products, we and Cabot have agreed to additional terms whereby Cabot will reimburse us for certain capital expenditures incurred by us that are necessary to manufacture the Furnace Products. Reimbursements will be in the form of revenues earned from capital expenditures incurred that will benefit both us and Cabot (referred to as "Shared Capital") and capital expenditures incurred that will benefit Cabot exclusively (referred to as "Specific Capital").
We believe the Supply Agreement will provide material incremental volume and capture lower operating cost efficiencies of our manufacturing plant. As these incremental volumes come on-line and after our existing inventory balances are sold, we anticipate an increase in gross margins. Further, we expect the Supply Agreement will expand our activated carbon products to diverse end markets that are outside of coal-fired power generation.
Acquisition of Marshall Mine
Concurrently with the execution of the Supply Agreement, on September 30, 2020, we entered into the Mine Purchase Agreement from Cabot 100% of the membership interests in Marshall Mine, LLC (the "Marshall Mine Acquisition") for a nominal purchase price. Marshall Mine, LLC owns a lignite mine located outside of Marshall, Texas (the "Marshall Mine"). We independently determined to immediately commence activities to shutter the Marshall Mine and will incur the associated reclamation costs.
In conjunction with the execution of the Supply Agreement and the Mine Purchase Agreement, on September 30, 2020, we entered into the Reclamation Contract with a third party that provides a capped cost, subject to certain contingencies, in the amount of approximately $19.7 million plus an obligation to pay certain direct costs of approximately $3.6 million (collectively, the "Reclamation Costs") over the estimated reclamation period of 10 years. We are accounting for this obligation as an asset retirement obligation under U.S. GAAP. Under the terms of the Supply Agreement, Cabot is obligated to reimburse us for $10.2 million of Reclamation Costs (the "Reclamation Reimbursements"), which are payable semi-annually over 13 years and inclusive of interest.
As the owner of the Marshall Mine, we were required to post a surety bond to ensure performance of our reclamation activities in the amount of $30.0 million under the Surety Agreement. For the obligations due under the Reclamation Contract, we were required to post collateral of $5.0 million dollars as of September 30, 2020 and to post an additional $5.0 million dollars as of March 31, 2021.
Settlement with Former Customer
On December 29, 2020, we and a former customer (the "Parties") reached a settlement (the "Settlement") on various litigation matters (the "Litigation Matters") that resulted in the former customer (the "Former Customer") agreeing to pay to us cash of $2.5 million (the "Settlement Amount"), which was received on January 27, 2021. This payment was in exchange for full dissolution of all claims and counterclaims that the two Parties have asserted or could have asserted against each other in the Litigation Matters, or which have arisen or may arise against each other but are presently unknown, arising out of or related to the Litigation Matters and related to any other of the Parties’ business dealings, conduct and/or transactions through the date of the Settlement, including all claims for damages, fees, costs, sanctions, or any other amounts due or to become due in connection with the foregoing. We applied the Settlement Amount cash proceeds to both an outstanding trade account receivable and note receivable due from the Former Customer and recognized the excess cash received as a gain from the Settlement of $1.1 million, which is included as a reduction of operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020, See further discussion under "Results of Operations" under this Item 7.
Impact of COVID-19
In March 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. We are designated by CISA of the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure supplier to the energy sector. Our operations have been deemed essential and, therefore, our facilities remain open and our employees employed. We follow the COVID-19 guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control concerning the health and safety of our personnel, including remote working for those that have the ability to do so, sequestered employees at our plant and other heath safety measures. Additionally, we have taken proactive and precautionary steps to ensure the safety of our employees, customers and suppliers, including frequent cleaning and disinfection of workspaces, property, plant and equipment, instituting social distancing measures and mandating remote working environments, where possible, for all employees. These measures have resulted in an increase in our personnel costs, operational inefficiencies and the incurrence of incremental costs to allow manufacturing operations to continue; while at the same time we have faced a general downturn in our sales and marketing efforts.
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The duration of these measures is unknown, may be extended and additional measures may be imposed. We cannot predict the long-term effects on our business, including our financial position or results of operations, if governmental restrictions or other such directives continue for a prolonged period of time and cause a material negative change in power generation demand, materially disrupt our supply chain, substantially increase our operating costs or limit our ability to serve existing customers and seek new customers.
In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, in March 2020, the federal government passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act"). The CARES Act provided, among other things, the deferral of payroll tax payments for all payroll taxes incurred through December 31, 2020 and created the Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP"), which is sponsored and administered by the SBA. "). In June 2020, the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act of 2020 (the "PPPFA") was signed into law and established the payment dates in the event that amounts borrowed under the PPP are not forgiven. See further discussion below of the loan made to us under the PPP under the section "PPP Loan" under this Item.
The Company elected to defer payments of payroll taxes for the periods allowed under the CARES Act and will repay 50% by December 31, 2021 and 50% by December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2020, total payroll tax payments deferred under the CARES Act were $0.4 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we incurred costs of $0.4 million related to sequestration of certain of our employees at our Red River plant. These costs included hazard pay, lodging and meal expenses for 30 days.
Our customers may also be impacted by COVID-19 pandemic as the utilization of energy has changed. We cannot predict the long-term impact on our customers and the subsequent impact on our business.
Components of Revenue, Expenses and Equity Method Investees
The following briefly describes the components of revenues and expenses as presented in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Descriptions of the revenue recognition policies are included in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.
Revenues and cost of revenue
Consumables
We sell AC and proprietary chemical blend technologies for purification of air and water contaminants and other industries. Currently, our products mostly serve coal-fired utilities and other industrial boilers that allow the respective utilities to comply with the regulatory air emissions standards as well as water treatment plants to remove contaminants from the water. Additionally, we sell AC to Cabot and its customers through the Supply Agreement. Revenue is generally recorded upon delivery of our product.
License royalties, related party
We recognize license royalties under the M-45 License, under our M-45 Technology, to Tinuum Group. License royalties are based on a percentage of the per-ton, pre-tax margin, inclusive of depreciation expense and other allocable expenses, as defined in the M-45 License. Because Section 45 tax credits from the production and sale of RC will likely not be available after 2021 and both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021, we do not expect to receive license royalties after 2021.
Other Operating Expenses
Payroll and benefits
Payroll and benefits costs include personnel related fringe benefits, sales and administrative staff labor costs and stock compensation expenses. Payroll and benefits costs exclude direct labor included in Cost of revenue.
Legal and professional fees
Legal and professional costs include external legal, audit and consulting expenses.
General and administrative
General and administrative costs include director fees and expenses, bad debt expense, research and development expense and other general costs of conducting business. Research and development costs, net of reimbursements from cost-sharing
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arrangements, are charged to expense in the period incurred and are reported in the General and administrative line item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion
Depreciation and amortization expense consists of depreciation expense related to property, plant and equipment and the amortization of long-lived intangible assets. Depletion and accretion expense consists of depletion expense related to the depletion of mine development costs and the accretion of mine reclamation liabilities.
Other Income (Expense), net
Earnings from equity method investments
Earnings from equity method investments represent our share of earnings (losses) related to our equity method investments.
We own a 42.5% equity interest and a 50% voting interest in Tinuum Group. Our equity method earnings in Tinuum Group are positively impacted when Tinuum Group obtains an investor in a RC facility and receives cash payments under either a lease arrangement or sales arrangement of the RC facility. If Tinuum Group operates a retained RC facility, the Company's equity method earnings are negatively impacted as operating retained RC facilities generate operating losses. However, we benefit on an after-tax basis if we are able to utilize tax credits associated with the production and sale of RC from operation of retained RC facilities by Tinuum Group. These benefits, if utilized, increase our consolidated net income as a result of a reduction in income tax expense.
We own both a 50% equity and voting interest in Tinuum Services, which operates and maintains RC facilities under operating and maintenance agreements. The lessee/owner of an RC facility pays Tinuum Services, subject to certain limitations, the costs of operating and maintaining the RC facilities plus certain fees. Tinuum Services also arranges for the purchase and delivery of certain chemical additives under chemical agency agreements necessary for the production of RC. Tinuum Services consolidates certain RC facilities leased or owned by tax equity investors that are deemed to be variable interest entities ("VIE's"). All net income (loss) associated with these VIE's is allocated to the noncontrolling equity holders of Tinuum Services and therefore does not impact our equity earnings (loss) from Tinuum Services.
Other income (expense)
The remaining components of other income (expense) include interest income, interest expense and other miscellaneous items.
Results of Operations
For comparison purposes, the following tables set forth our results of operations for the years presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report. The year-to-year comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of financial results that may be achieved in future years.
Year ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year ended December 31, 2019
Total Revenue and Cost of Revenue
A summary of the components of revenues and cost of revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(Amounts in thousands except percentages)
20202019($)(%)
Revenues:
Consumables$48,122 $53,187 $(5,065)(10)%
License royalties, related party13,440 16,899 (3,459)(20)%
Other15 — 15 *
Total revenues$61,577 $70,086 $(8,509)(12)%
Consumables cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization$45,176 $49,443 $(4,267)(9)%
Other cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization(563)— (563)*
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* Calculation not meaningful
Consumables revenue and consumables cost of revenue
For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, consumables revenue decreased year over year primarily due to less favorable price and product mix of approximately $7.6 million combined. Offsetting these decreases was higher volume resulting in revenue of approximately $2.6 million. However, for the quarterly period ended December 31, 2020, both volumes and revenue increased both sequentially and compared to the quarterly period ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to the Supply Agreement, which was executed on September 30, 2020.
Consumables revenue is affected by electricity demand, driven by seasonal weather and related power generation needs, as well as competitor prices related to alternative power generation sources such as natural gas. According to data provided by the EIA, for the year ended December 31, 2020, power generation from coal-fired power dispatch was down approximately 19.0% compared to the corresponding period in 2019. Additionally, there was a decrease in total power generation from all sources of approximately 4.0% in 2020 compared to the corresponding period in 2019.
Consumables cost of revenue was positively impacted for the year ended December 31, 2020 due to higher volumes driving lower per unit fixed costs. However, we incurred additional expense from safety actions taken by the Company to provide for continued operation of our manufacturing facilities in response to COVID-19 of approximately $0.4 million. For the year ended December 31, 2019, consumables cost of revenue was negatively impacted as a result of $5.0 million of costs recognized as a result of the step-up in inventory fair value recorded from the Carbon Solutions Acquisition.
For 2021, based on current market estimates and the expected benefits from the Supply Agreement, we believe that consumables revenue and volumes will be higher for 2021 compared to 2020. In addition to the Supply Agreement, the most significant drivers related to this expected volume increase are expected higher natural gas prices and the expansion of energy generation sources related to natural gas and renewables. For 2021, we expect to incur additional plant costs that were not incurred in 2020 for the planned plant turnaround occurring in 2021.
License royalties, related party
License royalties decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily due to a reduction in the royalty rate per ton. This decrease was primarily attributable to higher depreciation recognized of approximately $1.7 million on all royalty bearing RC facilities as a result of a reduction in their estimated useful lives as determined by Tinuum Group in the second half of 2019. Further reducing the rate per ton was a decrease in net lease payments of approximately $1.3 million as a result of Tinuum Group restructuring RC facility contracted leases with its largest customer in the second half of 2019. As a result of higher depreciation and lower lease payments, we expect that the lower royalty rate per ton will continue in 2021.
Offsetting the year over year decrease in license royalties from a decrease in the royalty rate per ton, there was an increase year over year in tons of RC produced from RC produced using the M-45 Technology under the M-45 License, which increased from 47.3 million tons in 2019 to 49.4 million tons in 2020.
Other cost of revenue
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a credit of $0.6 million to Other cost of revenue for the reversal of an allowance, originally recorded as of December 31, 2016, on a trade account receivable due from the Former Customer. We recorded the reversal of this reserve based on our quarterly collectability review of financial assets that was performed as of December 31, 2020. See further discussion below of the reversal of an allowance on a note receivable due from the Former Customer in this section under the caption "General and administrative."
Additional information related to revenue concentrations and contributions by class and reportable segment is included in the "Business Segments" section of this Item and in Note 13 and Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.

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Other Operating Expenses
A summary of the components of our operating expenses, exclusive of cost of revenue items (presented above), for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands, except percentages)
20202019($)(%)
Operating expenses:
Payroll and benefits$10,621 $10,094 $527 %
Legal and professional fees5,585 9,948 (4,363)(44)%
General and administrative8,228 8,123 105 %
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion8,537 7,371 1,166 16 %
Impairment of long-lived assets26,103 — 26,103 *
Gain on settlement(1,129)— (1,129)*
$57,945 $35,536 $22,409 63 %
* Calculation not meaningful
Payroll and benefits
Payroll and benefits expenses increased year over year primarily due to severance related costs of $1.4 million incurred in 2020 associated with the resignation of an executive officer, offset by a decrease in salaries related to our current headcount, which remained relatively consistent year over year.
Legal and professional fees
Legal and professional fees decreased year over year primarily due to decreased outsourced shared service costs, which included legal, general consulting and audit and accounting fees of approximately $2.8 million, and a reduction in outsourced IT costs specific to the completion of the integration of Carbon Solutions of $1.5 million.
General and administrative
General and administrative expenses increased year over year primarily due to an increase in product development expenses of approximately $0.8 million related to the Supply Agreement, an increase in rent and occupancy of approximately $0.6 million relating to property taxes and office rent, and an increase in costs incurred due to the sequestration of certain of our employees at our Red River plant of approximately $0.4 million.
Offsetting these increases was the reversal of an allowance on a note receivable from the Former Customer (See "Other cost of revenue" discussion of above under this section) of $0.4 million, which we reversed as part of our financial asset collectability review performed as of December 31, 2020. See further discussion below in this section under the caption "Gain on settlement." Further reductions year over year included travel, as a preventative measure related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and recruiting fees.
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion
Depreciation and amortization expense increased year over year primarily due to increased sales volumes in 2020 and lower absorption due to the drawdown of inventory, resulting in an increase of depreciation expense of $1.1 million. Further, the addition of leasehold improvements at our corporate headquarters in 2020 and the addition of accretion expense related to Marshall Mine contributed approximately $0.7 million of depreciation and amortization expense in 2020. Offsetting these increases was a decrease year over year in depreciation and amortization expense of approximately $0.6 million related to impaired property, plant and equipment assets as of June 30, 2020, which resulted in lower net book values of the impaired assets of June 30, 2020 and lower depreciation and amortization recorded in the second half of 2020.
Impairment of long-lived assets
As of June 30, 2020, we recorded an impairment charge of $26.1 million, which is included in the Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and was solely attributable to our APT segment. This impairment charge was necessitated by an analysis of the carrying values of our APT segment's long-lived assets and certain other long-lived assets (the "Asset
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Group"), which are comprised of our manufacturing plant and related assets and our lignite mine assets, to their respective fair values.
Gain on settlement
As noted above under this Item 7, for the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a gain of $1.1 million on the Settlement with the Former Customer.
Other Income (Expense), net
A summary of the components of our other income (expense), net for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(Amounts in thousands, except percentages)
20202019($)(%)
Other income (expense):
Earnings from equity method investments$30,978 $69,176 $(38,198)(55)%
Interest expense(3,920)(7,174)3,254 (45)%
Other132 427 (295)(69)%
Total other income$27,190 $62,429 $(35,239)(56)%
Earnings from equity method investments
The following table presents the equity method earnings by investee for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)20202019($)(%)
Earnings from Tinuum Group$24,396 $60,286 $(35,890)(60)%
Earnings from Tinuum Services6,582 8,896 (2,314)(26)%
Earnings (loss) from other— (6)(100)%
Earnings from equity method investments$30,978 $69,176 $(38,198)(55)%

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $24.4 million in equity earnings from Tinuum Group, which was equal to our proportionate share of Tinuum Group's net income for the year. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized $60.3 million in equity earnings from Tinuum Group compared to our proportionate share of Tinuum Group's net income of $62.0 million for the year. This difference was the result of cumulative distributions received from Tinuum Group being in excess of the carrying value of the investment, and therefore we recognized such excess distributions as equity method earnings in the year the distributions occurred. See further discussion of year over year changes in Earnings from Equity Investments in "Business Segments" under this Item. Additional information related to equity method investments is included in Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.
Tinuum Group's audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended are included in Item 15 - "Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules" ("Item 15") of this Report.
Tax Credits and Obligations
Historically, we have earned Section 45 tax credits that may be available for future benefit related to the production of RC from the operation of RC facilities in which we have held both direct ownership and indirect ownership through Tinuum's direct ownership. We refer to these RC facilities as "retained facilities." Future earned Section 45 tax credits for 2021 are expected to be consistent with 2020. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $93.9 million in Section 45 tax carryforwards.
In the hypothetical event of an ownership change, as defined by IRC Section 382, utilization of general business credits ("GBC's") generated prior to the change would be subject to an annual limitation imposed by IRC Section 383 for GBC's. The results of a recent analysis indicated that we had not experienced an ownership change as of December 31, 2020, as defined by IRC Section 382. Such analysis for the period from January 1, 2021 through the date of this Report has not been completed.
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Therefore, it is possible that we experienced an ownership change between January 1, 2021 and the date of this filing, thus subjecting our GBC carryforwards to limitation.
Interest expense
Interest expense decreased year over year by $3.3 million primarily due to a reduction in the coupon interest of $2.4 million related to senior term loan (the "Senior Term Loan"), as the principal balance was reduced from payments made of $24.0 million in 2020 and the weighted-average interest rate for 2019 compared to 2020 decreased from 7.1% to 5.8%. Interest expense related to debt discount and debt issuance costs related to the Senior Term Loan also decreased by $0.3 million as a result of the decrease in the Senior Term Loan principal. The remaining decrease in interest expense year over year related to lower interest expense ("Section 453A interest") in 2020 compared to 2019 related to IRS section 453A ("Section 453A"), which decreased by $0.7 million in 2020 year over year as a result of a decrease in the tax liability for the year ended December 31, 2020 associated with RC facilities in which Tinuum Group recognized as installment sales for tax purposes.
The following table shows the balance of the tax liability that has been deferred and the applicable interest rate used to calculate 453A interest:
As of December 31,
(in thousands)20202019
Tax liability deferred on installment sales (1)
$10,653 $20,783 
Interest rate3.00 %5.00 %
(1) Represents the approximate tax effected liability utilizing the federal tax rate in effect for the applicable years ended related to the deferred gain on installment sales (approximately $59.8 million as of December 31, 2020).
We expect the tax liability deferred on installment sales to be minimal as of December 31, 2021.
Income tax expense
For the year ended December 31, 2020, our reported income tax expense of $6.5 million differed from federal income tax benefit of $2.9 million, computed by applying the U.S. statutory federal income tax rate (the "Federal Rate") and state income tax benefit of $0.4 million, primarily due to the increase in the valuation allowance on our deferred income tax assets of $9.1 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, our reported income tax expense of $12.0 million differed from income tax expense of $10.0 million, computed using the Federal Rate, primarily due to an increase in income tax expense from state income tax expense, net of federal benefit of $1.6 million.
Accounting for income taxes requires that companies assess whether a valuation allowance should be recorded against their deferred tax asset based on an assessment of the amount of the deferred tax asset that is “more likely than not” to be realized. Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. 
We assess the valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets at each reporting date. The determination of whether a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets is appropriate requires the evaluation of positive and negative evidence that can be objectively verified. Consideration must be given to all sources of taxable income available to realize the deferred tax asset, including, as applicable, the future reversal of existing temporary differences, future taxable income forecasts exclusive of the reversal of temporary differences and carryforwards, taxable income in carryback years and tax planning strategies. In estimating taxes, we assess the relative merits and risks of the appropriate tax treatment of transactions taking into account statutory, judicial, and regulatory guidance.
As of December 31, 2020, we concluded it is more likely than not we will generate sufficient taxable income within the applicable net operating loss and tax credit carryforward periods to realize $10.6 million of our net deferred tax assets. In reaching this conclusion, we primarily considered: (1) the future reversal of existing temporary differences; and (2) forecasts of future taxable income. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had a valuation allowance of $88.8 million and $79.6 million, respectively, on our deferred tax assets.
The ability to recognize the remaining deferred tax assets that continue to be subject to a valuation allowance is evaluated on a quarterly basis to determine if there are any significant events that would affect the ability to utilize those deferred tax assets.
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Our estimate of future taxable income is based on internal projections that consider historical performance, assumptions on future performance and external data. If events are identified that affect our ability to utilize our deferred tax assets, or if additional deferred tax assets are generated, we update our analysis to determine if an increase to the valuation allowance is required. Such an increase could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Conversely, better than expected results and continued positive results and trends could result in an decrease to the valuation allowance, and any such decreases could have a material positive effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
See additional discussion in Note 18 of the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
To supplement our financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, we are providing non-GAAP measures of certain financial performance. These non-GAAP measures include Consolidated EBITDA, Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA, RC Segment EBITDA, RC Segment Adjusted EBITDA, APT Segment EBITDA and APT Segment Adjusted EBITDA. We have included non-GAAP measures because management believes that they help to facilitate period to period comparisons of our operating results. We believe the non-GAAP measures provide useful information to both management and users of the financial statements by excluding certain expenses, gains and losses that may not be indicative of core operating results and business outlook. Management uses these non-GAAP measures in evaluating the performance of our business.
These non-GAAP measures are not in accordance with, or an alternative to, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP and may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies. In addition, these non-GAAP measures are not based on any comprehensive set of accounting rules or principles. These measures should only be used to evaluate our results of operations in conjunction with the corresponding GAAP measures.
We define Consolidated EBITDA as net income adjusted for the impact of the following items that are either non-cash or that we do not consider representative of our ongoing operating performance: depreciation, amortization, depletion, accretion, interest expense, net and income tax expense. We define Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA as Consolidated EBITDA reduced by the non-cash impacts of equity earnings from equity method investments and gain on settlement, and increased by cash distributions from equity method investments, impairment of long-lived assets and amortization of upfront customer consideration that was recorded as a component of the Marshall Mine Acquisition ("Upfront Customer Consideration"). Because Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA omits certain non-cash items, we believe that the measure is less susceptible to variances that affect our operating performance.
We define APT Segment EBITDA Loss as APT Segment operating loss adjusted for the impact of the following items that are either non-cash or that we do not consider representative of our ongoing operating performance: depreciation, amortization, depletion, accretion and interest expense, net. We define APT Segment Adjusted EBITDA loss as APT Segment EBITDA loss reduced by gain on settlement and increased by impairment of long-lived assets and amortization of Upfront Customer Consideration.
We define RC Segment EBITDA as RC Segment operating income adjusted for the impact of the following items that are either non-cash or that we do not consider representative of our ongoing operating performance: depreciation, amortization, depletion, accretion and interest expense. We define RC Segment Adjusted EBITDA as RC Segment EBITDA reduced by the non-cash impact of equity earnings from equity method investments and increased by cash distributions from equity method investments.
When used in conjunction with GAAP financial measures, we believe these non-GAAP measures are supplemental measures of operating performance that explain our operating performance for our period to period comparisons and against our competitors' performance. Generally, we believe these non-GAAP measures are less susceptible to variances that affect our operating performance results.
With the exception of impairment on long-lived assets and gain on settlement, the adjustments to Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA and APT Segment Adjusted EBITDA in future periods are generally expected to be similar. These non-GAAP measures have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analyzing our results as reported under GAAP.
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Consolidated EBITDA and Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA
Year ended December 31,
20202019
Net (loss) income (1)
$(20,302)$35,537 
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion8,537 7,371 
Interest expense, net3,793 6,913 
Income tax expense6,511 11,999 
Consolidated EBITDA (loss)(1,461)61,820 
Cash distributions from equity method investees62,441 73,888 
Equity earnings(30,978)(69,176)
Impairment26,103 — 
Gain on settlement(1,129)— 
Amortization of Upfront Customer Consideration158 — 
Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA$55,134 $66,532 
(1) Net income for the year ended December 31, 2019 was inclusive of a $5.0 million adjustment, which increased cost of revenue due to a step-up in basis of inventory acquired related to the Carbon Solutions Acquisition.
Business Segments
As of December 31, 2020, we have two reportable segments, RC and APT.
The business segment measurements provided to and evaluated by our chief operating decision maker are computed in accordance with the principles listed below:
The accounting policies of the operating segments are the same as those described in the summary of significant accounting policies except as described below.
Segment revenues include equity method earnings and losses from our equity method investments.
Segment operating income (loss) includes segment revenues, gains related to sales of equity method investments and allocation of certain "Corporate general and administrative expenses," which include Payroll and benefits, Legal and professional fees, General and administrative, and Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion.
RC segment operating income includes interest expense directly attributable to the RC segment.
The principal products and services of our segments are described in Item 1 of this document. The following table presents our operating segment results for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
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 Years Ended December 31,Change
(in thousands)20202019($)
Revenues:
Refined Coal:
Earnings in equity method investments$30,978 $69,176 $(38,198)
License royalties, related party13,440 16,899 (3,459)
44,418 86,075 (41,657)
Advanced Purification Technologies:
Consumables48,122 53,187 (5,065)
Other15 — 15 
48,137 53,187 (5,050)
Total segment reporting revenues92,555 139,262 (46,707)
Adjustments to reconcile to reported revenues:
Earnings in equity method investments(30,978)(69,176)38,198 
Total reported revenues$61,577 $70,086 $(8,509)
Segment operating income (loss)
Refined Coal (1)
$42,689 $83,471 $(40,782)
Advanced Purification Technologies (2)
(39,958)(13,600)(26,358)
Total segment operating income$2,731 $69,871 $(67,140)
(1) Included in the RC segment operating income for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is 453A interest expense of $0.3 million and $1.0 million, respectively.
(2) Included in the APT segment operating loss for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $7.9 million and $7.2 million, respectively, of depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion expenses on mine- and plant-related long-lived assets and liabilities. Included in the APT segment operating loss for the year ended December 31, 2020 was an impairment charge of $26.1 million offset by gain on settlement of $1.1 million. Included in the APT segment operating loss for the year ended December 31, 2019 was approximately $5.0 million of cost of revenue expense related to a step up in basis of the fair value of inventory and of depreciation, amortization.
A reconciliation of segment operating income to consolidated net income is included in Note 19 of the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.
Refined Coal
The following table details the segment revenues of our respective equity method investments for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019
Earnings from Tinuum Group$24,396 $60,286 
Earnings from Tinuum Services6,582 8,896 
Earnings (loss) from other— (6)
Earnings from equity method investments$30,978 $69,176 
For 2020, equity earnings from Tinuum Group were positively impacted by the addition of two new RC facilities during the second half of 2019, three new RC facilities added during the year ended December 31, 2020 and the sale by Tinuum Group of its 49.9% remaining interest in an RC facility in the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020. However, equity earnings from Tinuum Group for 2020 decreased from 2019 primarily from the point-in-time revenue recognition in 2019 of two new RC facilities and due to higher depreciation recognized of approximately $4.9 million in 2020 on all Tinuum Group RC facilities as
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a result of a reduction in RC facilities estimated useful lives as determined by Tinuum Group during the second half of 2019. Further contributing to the decrease in equity earnings for 2020 compared to 2019 was the restructuring of RC facility leases with Tinuum Group's largest customer in 2019, which decreased lease payments and equity earnings beginning in the second half of 2019, and the termination of two RC facility leases in the fourth quarter of 2019 for RC facilities located at two coal-fired utilities that were announced for closure in 2019. Also, in the fourth quarter of 2020, Tinuum Group recorded an impairment charge of $3.0 million on certain of its assets located at RC facilities and a retention accrual related to the wind down of its operations by the end of 2021.
As a result of higher depreciation, lower lease payments and the termination of RC facilities' leases throughout 2021 due to the expiration of the Section 45 tax period applicable to those RC facilities' leases, we expect our earnings in Tinuum Group to decrease in 2021. However, in 2021, and consistent with 2020, we expect that cash distributions will substantially exceed earnings.
RC earnings related to M-45 license royalties decreased from 2020 to 2019 as a result of reduction in the royalty rate per ton year over year offset by an increase in tonnage produced by RC facilities subject to the M-45 License.
Equity earnings from Tinuum Services decreased by $2.3 million in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily as a result of recording an impairment charge of $2.9 million for year ended December 31, 2020 as well as a reduction in tonnage for the RC facilities that Tinuum Services operated in 2020 compared to 2019. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Tinuum Services provided operating and maintenance services to 22 and 19 RC facilities, respectively. Tinuum Services derives earnings from both fixed-fee arrangements as well as fees that are tied to actual RC production, as determined by the specific RC facility operating and maintenance agreement.
Outlook
Both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021 due to the planned expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period as of December 31, 2021, and the loss of equity earnings, distributions and M-45 Royalties beginning in 2022 will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and consolidated operating results compared to historical periods. Earnings in the RC segment for 2021 will continue to be impacted by coal-fired dispatch and invested facilities with leases subject to periodic renewals being terminated, repriced, or otherwise subject to renegotiated terms. As a result of higher depreciation and lower lease payments for 2021, as well as the expiration of the Section 45 tax program as of December 31, 2021, we expect our earnings in Tinuum Group to decrease in 2021. However, in 2021, and consistent with 2020, cash distributions will substantially exceed earnings.
RC Segment EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019
RC Segment operating income$42,689 $83,471 
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion116 83 
Interest expense331 1,039 
RC Segment EBITDA43,136 84,593 
Cash distributions from equity method investees62,441 73,888 
Equity earnings(30,978)(69,176)
RC Segment Adjusted EBITDA$74,599 $89,305 
Advanced Purification Technologies
APT segment operating loss increased during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019 primarily due to the impairment charge of $26.1 million, a reduction in consumable revenue and associated margins and costs incurred related to COVID-19. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Consumables revenue and margins also continued to be negatively impacted by low coal-fired power dispatch driven by power generation from sources other than coal and a decline in overall U.S. power generation during 2020 of approximately 4.0%.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we incurred costs of $0.4 million related to sequestration of certain of our employees at our Red River plant. These costs included hazardous pay, lodging expense and other related costs for 60 days.
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Outlook
Based on current market estimates, we believe that the APT segment will continue to be negatively impacted, as power generation from coal-fired power plants declines and the market focuses on other sources, including natural gas and renewable energy. Future demand will also be impacted by prices of competing energy sources such as natural gas. Low prices of alternative energy sources and decreasing power generation from coal-fired utilities reduce demand for our products. However, in 2021 and beyond, we expect the Supply Agreement to play significant roles in diversifying our product mix into markets outside of power generation.

APT Segment EBITDA Loss and Adjusted EBITDA Loss
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019
APT Segment operating loss (1)
$(39,958)$(13,600)
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion7,870 7,206 
Interest expense, net402 368 
APT Segment EBITDA loss(31,686)(6,026)
Impairment26,103 — 
Gain on settlement(1,129)— 
Amortization of Upfront Customer Consideration158 — 
APT Segment Adjusted EBITDA loss$(6,554)$(6,026)
(1) Segment operating loss for the year ended December 31, 2019 was inclusive of an adjustment of $5.0 million, which increased cost of revenue due to a step-up in basis of inventory acquired related to the Carbon Solutions Acquisition.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Factors Affecting Our Liquidity
During 2020, our liquidity position was positively affected primarily from cash distributions from Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services, royalty payments from Tinuum Group, PPP Loan distributions and borrowing availability under our bank ("Lender") line of credit (the "Line of Credit").
As of December 31, 2020, our principal future sources of liquidity include:
cash and cash equivalents;
distributions from Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services;
royalty payments from Tinuum Group;
operations of the APT segment; and
the Line of Credit.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, our principal uses of liquidity included:
our business operating expenses, including capital expenditures, reclamation costs, federal and state tax payments and cash severance payments,
payment of debt principal and interest;
payment of dividends; and
repurchases of shares of common stock.
Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services Distributions
The following table summarizes the cash distributions from our equity method investments, which most significantly affected our consolidated cash flow results, for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019
Tinuum Group$53,289 $65,238 
Tinuum Services9,152 8,650 
Distributions from equity method investees$62,441 $73,888 
Cash distributions from Tinuum Group for 2020 decreased by $11.9 million compared to 2019 primarily due to reductions in lease payments received by Tinuum Group from its largest customer as a result of renegotiations of certain leases, which occurred in the second half of 2019 between Tinuum Group and this customer, and the shuttering of two coal-fired utilities in the fourth quarter of 2019 where two invested RC facilities were operating.
Future cash flows from Tinuum are expected to range from $70 to $90 million, and key drivers in achieving these future cash flows are based on the following:
23 invested facilities as of December 31, 2020 and inclusive of all net Tinuum cash flows (distributions and license royalties), offset by estimated federal and state income tax payments and 453A interest payments.
Expected future cash flows from Tinuum Group are based on the following key assumptions:
Tinuum Group continues to not operate retained facilities;
Tinuum Group does not have material unexpected capital expenditures or unusual operating expenses;
Tax equity lease renewals on invested facilities are not terminated or repriced; and
Coal-fired power generation remains consistent with existing contractual expectations.
Both Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services expect to significantly wind down their operations by the end of 2021 due to the expected expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period as of December 31, 2021. As such, our distributions from our RC segment will substantially cease as of December 31, 2021.

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PPP Loan
On April 20, 2020, we entered into the PPP Loan under the PPP, evidenced by a promissory note, with BOK providing for $3.3 million in proceeds, which was funded on April 21, 2020. The PPP Loan matures April 21, 2022. The PPP Loan principal may be forgiven subject to the terms of the PPP and approval by the SBA. The interest rate on the PPP Loan is 1.00%. The PPP Loan is unsecured and contains customary events of default relating to, among other things, payment defaults, making materially false and misleading representations to the SBA or BOK, or breaching the terms of the PPP Loan. The occurrence of an event of default may result in the repayment of all amounts outstanding, collection of all amounts owing from us, or filing suit and obtaining judgment against us.
Under the PPPFA, as defined above, monthly payments of principal and interest commence on the later of 10 months following the "covered period" (as defined in the PPPFA) or the date that BOK notifies us that the SBA has notified BOK that all or a portion of the PPP Loan has not been forgiven. In January 2021, we submitted an application to the SBA for forgiveness of the PPP Loan and we are awaiting the SBA's response on our application for forgiveness. Accordingly, we have determined that any amounts due under the PPP Loan would commence in August 2021.
Our business has been classified as an essential business, and therefore we continue to operate on a modified basis to comply with governmental restrictions and public health authority guidelines. In April 2020, we sequestered approximately 60 employees to continue to run our manufacturing plant and build-up inventory in order to supply our customers. This resulted in additional costs as the sequestered employees received hazard pay. We used proceeds from the PPP Loan to fund our payroll costs.
Restricted Cash
As of December 31, 2020, we had short-term restricted cash of $5.0 million as required under a minimum cash balance requirement of a Senior Term Loan covenant, and long-term restricted cash of $5.0 million as required under the Surety Agreement related to the Reclamation Contract. Under the Surety Agreement, we are required to increase the restricted cash balance by $5.0 million as of March 31, 2021.
Senior Term Loan
On December 7, 2018, we executed the Senior Term Loan with Apollo in the principal amount of $70.0 million, less original issue discount of $2.1 million. We also paid debt issuance costs of $2.0 million related to the Senior Term Loan. The Senior Term Loan matures on December 7, 2021 and bears interest at a rate equal to 3-month LIBOR (subject to a 1.5% floor) + 4.75% per annum, which is adjusted quarterly to the current 3-month LIBOR rate, and interest is payable quarterly in arrears. As of December 31, 2020, we have $16.0 million in outstanding principal which, per the contractual requirements, we expect to fully repay in 2021. The Senior Term Loan is secured by substantially all of our assets, including the cash flows from Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services, but excluding our equity interests in those Tinuum entities.
The Senior Term Loan includes, among others, the following covenants: (1) As of the end of each fiscal quarter, we must maintain a minimum cash balance of $5.0 million and shall not permit "expected future net cash flows from the refined coal business" (as defined in the Senior Term Loan) to be less than 1.75 times the outstanding principal amount of the Senior Term Loan; (2) Annual collective dividends and buybacks of shares of our common stock in an aggregate amount, not to exceed $30.0 million, are permitted so long as (a) no default or event of default exists under the Senior Term Loan and (b) expected future net cash flows from the refined coal business as of the end of the most recent fiscal quarter exceed $100.0 million. As of December 31, 2020, our expected future net cash flows from the refined coal business are less than $100.0 million and we have no plans in 2021 to either declare cash dividends on our stock or repurchase shares of our common stock. See also "Item 1A Risk Factors" of this Report - "Risks relating to our common stock - There can be no assurance that we will continue to declare cash dividends at all or in any particular amounts."
Stock Repurchases and Dividends
In November 2018, our Board authorized us to purchase up to $20.0 million of our outstanding common stock under a stock repurchase program (the "Stock Repurchase Program"), which was to remain in effect until December 31, 2019 unless otherwise modified by the Board. As of November 2019, $2.9 million remained outstanding related to Stock Repurchase Program. In November 2019, the Board authorized an incremental $7.1 million to the Stock Repurchase Program and provided that it will remain in effect until all amounts are utilized or it is otherwise modified by the Board.
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During the year ended December 31, 2020, we paid quarterly cash dividends to stockholders of $4.6 million, which was paid on March 10, 2020.
Line of Credit
As of December 31, 2020, there were no outstanding borrowings under the Line of Credit.
In September 2013, ADA, as borrower, ADES, as guarantor, and the Lender entered into the Line of Credit for an aggregate principal amount of $10.0 million that was secured by certain amounts due to the Company from certain Tinuum Group RC leases. The Line of Credit has been amended 14 times from the period from December 2, 2013 through December 31, 2020, which included a reduction in the principal amount to $5.0 million in September 2018.
On September 29, 2020, ADA, ADES and the Lender entered into an amendment to the Line of Credit (the "Fourteenth Amendment"), which extended the maturity date of the Line of Credit to March 31, 2021. In addition, the Fourteenth Amendment retained covenants from the prior amendments to the Line of Credit, which included ADA's ability to enter into the Senior Term Loan as a guarantor so long as the principal amount of the Senior Term Loan did not exceed $70.0 million and the revision of covenants that were consistent with the Senior Term Loan covenants, including maintaining a minimum cash balance of $5.0 million.
Cash Flows
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash increased from $17.1 million as of December 31, 2019 to $35.9 million as of December 31, 2020, an increase of $18.9 million. The following table summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively:
Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019Change
Cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$54,469 $62,262 $(7,793)
Investing activities(7,887)(13,238)5,351 
Financing activities(27,730)(55,716)27,986 
Net change in Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash$18,852 $(6,692)$25,544 
Cash flows from operating activities
Cash flows provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased by $7.8 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 and were negatively impacted primarily by the following: (1) a decrease in Distributions from equity method investees, return on investment of $11.4 million; (2) a decrease of $5.2 million in deferred income tax expense; and (3) a reduction due to the Gain on settlement of $1.1 million recognized in 2020 . Offsetting these decreases to operating cash flows was primarily a decrease in earnings from equity method investments of $38.2 million and Impairment of long-lived assets of $26.1 million recorded in 2020.
Cash flows from investing activities
Cash flows used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased by $5.4 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily due to a decrease in expenditures for mine development costs of $3.5 million. Also contributing to the decrease in cash flows used in investing activities were decreases in cash flows used in investing activities for acquisition of property, plant, equipment and intangibles of $1.2 million and the final cash payment for the Carbon Solutions Acquisition of $0.7 million, which was made in 2019.
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Cash flows from financing activities
Cash flows used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $27.7 million compared to cash flows provided by financing activities of $55.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. This net decrease in cash flows used in financing activities was primarily due a decrease in dividends paid and shares repurchased of $13.3 million and $5.6 million, respectively, in an effort to preserve cash due to uncertainties arising from the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Also contributing to the decrease were lower principal payments on the Senior Term Loan of $6.0 million and $3.3 million of cash proceeds in 2020 from the PPP Loan .

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Liquidity Outlook
Our ability to continue to generate sufficient cash flow required to meet ongoing operational needs and obligations, and make potential future dividend payments and share repurchases depends upon several factors, includes executing on our contracts and initiatives, receiving royalty payments from Tinuum Group and distributions from Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services, and increasing our share of the market for APT consumables, including expanding our overall AC business into additional adjacent markets.
Our liquidity was negatively impacted from COVID-19 due to increased operating losses in our APT segment from higher operating costs as a result of measures taken to support our ability to deliver as a critical infrastructure business, primarily from sequestration efforts and "hazard pay," which is a premium on wages, for a substantial number of our employees, and overall plant operating inefficiencies. However, in April 2020, we took steps to enhance our short-term liquidity through the PPP Loan as discussed above under this Item.
In 2021, our primary source of liquidity is expected to be distributions from Tinuum Group and Tinuum Services. These distributions in 2021 will provide sufficient cash on hand to fund operations in 2021 and 2022. For 2021, we expect to spend $9.5 million in capital expenditures compared to $7.1 million incurred in 2020. This increase is primarily the result of product specific capital related to the Supply Agreement and routine scheduled maintenance outages planned for 2021.
Due to the expiration of the Section 45 tax period as of December 31, 2021 and the resultant wind down of Tinuum Group's and Tinuum Services' operations by the end of 2021, distributions from Tinuum Group will no longer be a source of liquidity after 2021.
As we look to 2022 and beyond, our primary source of liquidity is expected to be through our ongoing operations from our APT segment. We believe the Supply Agreement will provide material incremental volume and capture lower operating cost efficiencies of our Red River plant, providing additional sources of operating cash flows in the future. Full and partial reimbursements on capital expenditures from Cabot will help limit our uses of investing cash flows. Further, we intend to fund the remaining portion of the Reclamation Costs from cash on hand as well as cash generated from the Supply Agreement. In 2022 and beyond, our capital expenditures are expected to average approximately $5.0 million.


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Contractual Obligations
Our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020 are as follows:
Payment Due by Period
(in thousands)TotalLess than 1 year1-3 years4-5 yearsAfter 5 years
Senior Term Note (1)
$16,000 $16,000 $— $— $— 
Finance lease obligations6,344 1,859 1,988 2,497 — 
Operating lease obligations3,119 1,994 1,125 — — 
Reclamation liability, Marshall Mine (2)
20,281 10,257 8,122 1,109 793 
$45,744 $30,110 $11,235 $3,606 $793 
(1) Includes outstanding principal amounts due through the maturity date of the Senior Term Loan.
(2) Includes payments due under a capped fee contract with a third-party mining operator for reclamation of the Marshal Mine (the "Marshall Mine ARO"). Payments on this contract are due through approximately 2031. Reclamation costs related to the Marshall Mine ARO are based on a stated fee by month structure, based on the initial estimate of the total costs of reclamation, which provides for certain contingencies that could increase or decrease the reclamation fee over time. The timing of payments may vary, and the Company accounts for these timing differences in valuing the reclamation on a quarterly basis. As well, the Company accounts for changes in actual reclamation costs on a quarterly basis.
The table above excludes obligations related to 453A interest payments, which are variable due to annual changes in the statutory rate established by the IRS and changes in Tinuum Group's deferred tax liabilities associated with taxes that have been deferred under the installment method for sales or leases of certain of Tinuum Group's RC facilities. We do not expect that our obligations for 453A interest will be material for 2021. During 2021, Tinuum Group will be likely closing RC facilities commensurate with the expiration of the Section 45 tax credit period, which expires 10 years after a respective facility was in service and eligible to generate Section 45 tax credits. As a result, Tinuum Group's composite deferred tax liability will decline through 2021 and our 453A interest payments will also decline in proportion to the decrease in Tinuum Group's deferred tax liability.
The table above also excludes our asset retirement obligation ("ARO") related to reclamation of the Five Forks Mine (the "Five Forks ARO"). As of December 31, 2020, our consolidated balance sheet reflects a liability of $3.3 million for the Five Forks ARO. The Five Forks Mine ARO was recorded at fair value. The timing and amount of payments to satisfy the Five Forks ARO are uncertain and are based on numerous factors including, but not limited to, the Five Forks Mine closure date.
We had no outstanding letters of credit as of December 31, 2020.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Surety Bonds
As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding surety bonds of $36.7 million related to performance requirements under reclamation contracts associated with both the Five Forks Mine and the Marshall Mine. As of December 31, 2020, we had restricted cash of $5.0 million securing the Surety Agreement and will be required to post an additional $5.0 million of restricted cash on March 31, 2021. We expect that the obligations secured by these surety bonds will be performed in the ordinary course of business and in accordance with the applicable contractual terms. To the extent that the obligations are performed, the related surety bonds should be released, and we should not have any continuing obligations. However, in the event any surety bond is called, our indemnity obligations could require us to reimburse the issuer of the surety bond.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report. In presenting our financial statements in conformity with GAAP, we are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported therein. Several of the estimates and assumptions we are required to make relate to matters that are inherently uncertain as they pertain to future events. Our estimates are based on historical experience and other assumptions believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, and we evaluate these estimates on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
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We believe that the accounting estimates discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these estimates relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.
Business Combinations, including asset acquisitions
We allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date. This also includes accounting for asset acquisitions. The purchase price allocation process requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions with respect to assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made are reasonable, they are based in part on historical experience, market conditions and information obtained from management of the acquired company or group of assets and are inherently uncertain. Examples of critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired or may acquire in the future include but are not limited to:
future expected cash flows from revenues;
historical and expected customer attrition rates and anticipated growth in revenues from acquired customers;
the acquired company’s developed technology as well as assumptions about the period of time the acquired developed technology will continue to be used in the combined company's product portfolio;
the expected use and useful lives of the acquired assets; and
valuation methods and discount rates used in estimating the values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
In regard to the Marshall Mine Acquisition, which was accounted for as an asset acquisition, we recorded the fair value of assumed assets, which included property, plant and equipment and spare parts and assumed liabilities, which included accrued liabilities. In addition, we recorded assets including, Upfront Customer Consideration and the Cabot Receivable, and liability of Marshall Mine ARO.
Carrying value of long-lived assets and intangibles
We review and evaluate our long-lived assets and intangibles for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is measured and recorded for long-lived assets and intangibles based on the excess of their carrying amounts over their estimated fair values. Fair value is typically determined through the use of an income approach utilizing estimates of discounted pre-tax future cash flows or a market approach utilizing recent transaction activity for comparable properties.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Accounting for AROs requires management to make estimates of future costs unique to a specific mining operation that we will incur to complete the reclamation and remediation work required to comply with existing laws and regulations. Any such changes in future costs, the timing of reclamation activities, scope, or the exclusion of certain costs not considered reclamation and remediation costs, could materially impact the amounts charged to earnings for reclamation and remediation. Additionally, future changes to environmental laws and regulations could increase the extent of reclamation and remediation work required.
Five Forks Mine ARO - Reclamation costs related to the Five Forks Mine ARO are allocated to expense over the life of the related mine assets, and are periodically adjusted to reflect changes in the estimated present value resulting from the passage of time and revisions to the estimates of either the timing or amount of the reclamation costs. Remediation costs for the Five Forks Mine are accrued based on management’s best estimate at the end of each period of the costs expected to be incurred. Such cost estimates may include ongoing care, maintenance and monitoring costs. Reclamation obligations are based on the timing of estimated spending for an existing environmental disturbance. We review, on at least an annual basis, the Five Forks Mine ARO.
Marshall Mine ARO - Reclamation costs related to the Marshall Mine are based on a capped fee structure, based on the initial estimate of the total costs of reclamation, which provides for certain contingencies that could increase or decrease the reclamation fee based on the reclamation agreement executed between us and the Marshall Mine operator. The timing of payments may vary, and the Company accounts for these timing differences in valuing the reclamation on a quarterly basis. As well, the Company accounts for changes in actual reclamation costs on a quarterly basis.
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Income Taxes
We account for income taxes as required by U.S. GAAP, under which management judgment is required in determining income tax expense and the related balance sheet amounts. This judgment includes estimating and analyzing historical and projected future operating results, the reversal of taxable temporary differences, tax planning strategies, and the ultimate outcome of uncertain income tax positions. Actual income taxes paid may vary from estimates, depending upon changes in income tax laws, actual results of operations, and the final audit of tax returns by taxing authorities. Tax assessments may arise several years after tax returns have been filed. Changes in the estimates and assumptions used for calculating income tax expense and potential differences in actual results from estimates could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that we believe these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies and results of recent operations.
We establish a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets when, based upon the weight of all available evidence, we believe it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we have established valuation allowances for our deferred tax assets that, in our judgment, will not be realized. In making this determination, we have considered the relative impact of all of the available positive and negative evidence regarding future sources of taxable income and tax planning strategies. However, there could be a material impact to our effective tax rate if there is a significant change in our estimates of future taxable income and tax planning strategies. If and when our estimates change, or there is a change in the gross balance of deferred tax assets or liabilities causing the need to reassess the realizability of deferred tax assets, we adjust the valuation allowance through the provision for income taxes in the period in which this determination is made. Refer to Note 18 of our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report for additional information regarding our net deferred tax assets and related deferred income tax expense (benefit).
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Refer to Note 1 of the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report for information regarding recently issued accounting standards.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
The information under this Item is not required to be provided by smaller reporting companies.

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc.
Index to Financial Statements
Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc.
Consolidated Financial Statements:

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of
Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures to respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Income Taxes – Realizability of Deferred Tax Assets
As described in Notes 1 and 18 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recognizes deferred income taxes for the effects of temporary differences between the tax basis of an asset or liability and their reported amounts in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. These temporary differences result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years. Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. As of December 31, 2020 the Company concluded it is more likely than not the Company will generate sufficient taxable income within the applicable net operating loss and tax credit carry-forward periods to realize $10.6 million of its net deferred tax assets, which resulted in a valuation allowance of $88.8 million.

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We identified the realizability of deferred tax assets as a critical audit matter due to the Company’s tax structure and the significant judgments and estimates made by management to determine that sufficient taxable income will be generated to realize a portion of deferred tax assets prior to expiration. This required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort when performing audit procedures to evaluate management’s estimates of taxable income prior to expiration.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
Recalculating the mathematical accuracy of management’s accounting for the previously described taxes, which included supporting calculations, schedules, and reconciliations.
Reading and evaluating management’s documentation of the accounting for income taxes, including relevant significant accounting policies, and information obtained by management from third party tax specialists which details management’s basis for the accounting and impact to the consolidated financial statements.
Obtaining and evaluating the supporting tax analyses and documentation prepared by management, as a framework and initial support for audit procedures. This includes the Company’s deferred tax calculations, which also integrates management’s analysis of valuation allowances, current tax expenses (benefits), and IRC Section 45 credits.
Consulting with internal tax specialists in evaluating management’s calculation of its provision for income taxes and that the significant judgments used were applied consistently with the tax code.
Validating the parameters employed by management in their analysis of the partial valuation allowance, in order to gain comfort with relevant positive and negative evidence available and utilized in performing the analysis.
Evaluating whether significant estimates and judgments used were consistent with past performance related to said estimates, the consistency of future forecasts and projections based on current operating conditions and future expectations, and that all were consistent with evidence obtained in procedures performed in other areas of the audit.
Accounting for Cabot Transactions
As described in Notes 2, 3, and 4 to the consolidated financial statements, on September 30, 2020, the Company entered into a supply agreement (the Supply Agreement) with Cabot Norit Americas, Inc. (Cabot) to sell and deliver certain lignite-based AC products. Concurrently with the execution of the Supply Agreement, the Company entered into an agreement to purchase (the Mine Purchase Agreement) from Cabot 100% of the membership interests in Marshall Mine, LLC for a nominal purchase price. Marshall Mine, LLC owns a lignite mine located outside of Marshall, Texas (the Marshall Mine). The Company independently determined to immediately commence activities to shutter the Marshall Mine and will incur the associated reclamation costs. In conjunction with the execution of the Supply Agreement and the Purchase Agreement, the Company entered into a reclamation contract (the Reclamation Contract) with a third party that provides a capped cost, subject to certain contingencies, in the amount of approximately $19.7 million plus an obligation to pay certain direct costs of approximately $3.6 million (collectively, the Reclamation Costs) over the estimated reclamation period of 10 years. Under the terms of the Supply Agreement, Cabot is obligated to reimburse the Company for $10.2 million of the Reclamation Costs (the Reclamation Reimbursements). In connection with the Supply Agreement, Purchase Agreement, and the Reclamation Contract, the Company assumed the obligations to reclaim and restore the land associated with the Marshall Mine. As of September 30, 2020, the Company recorded an asset retirement obligation for the total Reclamation Costs of $21.3 million. The Company also recorded a receivable for the Reclamation Reimbursements at its estimated fair value of $9.7 million. These transactions also resulted in the recording of property, plant, and equipment of $3.9 million, spare parts of $0.1 million, receivables of $0.5 million, accounts payable and accrued liabilities of $0.5 million, and upfront customer consideration of $7.6 million. The upfront customer consideration is the excess of the fair value of the liabilities assumed over assets acquired and will be amortized on a straight-line basis as a reduction to revenue over the expected 15-year contractual period of the Supply Agreement.
We identified the accounting for these agreements and contracts as a critical audit matter due to the subjective judgment required to evaluate the appropriateness of the accounting guidance followed in recording these transactions, including the conclusions surrounding the interrelatedness of the transactions and the application of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles surrounding the treatment of the upfront customer consideration.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
Evaluating management’s significant accounting policies related to the various aspects of these transactions for appropriateness, which incorporated the use of a subject matter expert on technical accounting matters.
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Gaining an understanding of the transactions, including the business purpose and terms, by obtaining and reading the related contracts and through discussion with management.
Evaluating the estimated future cash flows for consistency with the terms laid out in the contract.
Assessment of Impairment of Long-lived Assets
As described in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements, as part of its periodic review of the carrying value of long-lived assets, the Company assesses its long-lived assets for potential impairment. At June 30, 2020, in assessing impairment of its advanced purification technologies (APT) segment and certain other long-lived asset groups (the Asset Group), based on market conditions such as current and future years’ forecasted revenue and historically low prices of alternative power generation sources, management concluded there should be an impairment analysis of the Asset Group. Accordingly, the Company completed an undiscounted cash flow analysis of the Asset Group and estimated that the undiscounted cash flows from the Asset Group were less than the carrying value of the Asset Group. As such, the Company completed an assessment of the Asset Group’s fair value, resulting in a $26.1 million impairment and write-down of the Asset Group.
We identified the assessment and measurement of the impairment of the Asset Group as a critical audit matter due to the auditor judgment required to evaluate management’s process for assessing and quantifying the impairment. Specifically, assessing certain internally developed assumptions included the need to involve our fair value specialists. These assumptions included cash flow forecasts and revenue growth rates, estimates relating to the cost structure and operating margins, and the discount rate.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
Recalculating the mathematical accuracy of both the undiscounted cash flow analysis and the assessment of the Asset Group’s fair value.
Evaluating the Company’s estimated cash flow forecasts and long-term revenue growth rates by comparing to historical data, current market conditions, and our knowledge of the Company’s operations and the industry.
Obtaining and evaluating the fair value report used to estimate the Asset Group’s fair value which was prepared by management’s third-party valuation specialist and was evaluated and approved by the Company’s management team. This evaluation incorporated the use of the expertise of our internal fair value specialists. The work of our fair value specialists included reviews and analysis of the model and related assumptions used for the valuation of the Asset Group and the appropriateness of such modeling for the type of valuation being performed.

/s/ Moss Adams LLP

Denver, Colorado
March 10, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2017.
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Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
As of December 31,
(in thousands, except share data)20202019
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$30,932 $12,080 
Receivables, net13,125 7,430 
Receivables, related party3,453 4,246 
Inventories, net9,882 15,460 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,597 7,832 
Total current assets61,989 47,048 
Restricted cash, long-term5,000 5,000 
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $3,340 and $7,444, respectively
29,433 44,001 
Intangible assets, net1,964 4,169 
Equity method investments7,692 39,155 
Deferred tax assets, net10,604 14,095 
Other long-term assets, net29,989 20,331 
Total Assets$146,671 $173,799 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$7,849 $8,046 
Accrued payroll and related liabilities3,257 3,024 
Current portion of long-term debt18,441 23,932 
Other current liabilities12,996 4,311 
Total current liabilities42,543 39,313 
Long-term debt, net of current portion5,445 20,434 
Other long-term liabilities13,473 5,760 
Total Liabilities61,461 65,507 
Commitments and contingencies (Notes 14)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock: par value of $.001 per share, 50,000,000 shares authorized, none outstanding
  
Common stock: par value of $.001 per share, 100,000,000 shares authorized, 23,141,284 and 22,960,157 shares issued and 18,523,138 and 18,362,624 shares outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively
23 23 
Treasury stock, at cost: 4,618,146 and 4,597,533 shares as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively
(47,692)(47,533)
Additional paid-in capital100,425 98,466 
Retained earnings32,454 57,336 
Total stockholders’ equity85,210 108,292 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ equity$146,671 $173,799 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Operations
Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share data)20202019
Revenues:
Consumables$48,122 $53,187 
License royalties, related party13,440 16,899 
Other15  
Total revenues61,577 70,086 
Operating expenses:
Consumables cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization45,176 49,443 
Other cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization(563) 
Payroll and benefits10,621 10,094 
Legal and professional fees5,585 9,948 
General and administrative8,228 8,123 
Depreciation, amortization, depletion and accretion8,537 7,371 
Impairment of long-lived assets26,103  
Gain on settlement(1,129) 
Total operating expenses102,558 84,979 
Operating loss(40,981)(14,893)
Other income (expense):
Earnings from equity method investments30,978 69,176 
Interest expense(3,920)(7,174)
Other132 427 
Total other income27,190 62,429 
(Loss) income before income tax expense(13,791)47,536 
Income tax expense6,511 11,999 
Net (loss) income$(20,302)$35,537 
(Loss) earnings per common share (Note 1):
Basic$(1.12)$1.96 
Diluted$(1.12)$1.93 
Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic18,044 18,154 
Diluted18,044 18,372 
See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.


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Advanced Emissions Solutions, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity
Common StockTreasury Stock
(in thousands, except share data)SharesAmountSharesAmountAdditional Paid-in CapitalRetained Earnings/(Accumulated Deficit)Total Stockholders’
Equity
Balances, January 1, 201922,640,677 $23 (4,064,188)$(41,740)$96,750 $12,914 $67,947 
Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle (Note 7)— — — — — 27,442 27,442 
Stock-based compensation298,573 — — — 2,011 — 2,011 
Issuance of stock upon exercise of options, net50,268 — — — 156 — 156 
Repurchase of common shares to satisfy tax withholdings(29,361)— — — (451)— (451)
Cash dividends declared on common stock— — — — — (18,557)(18,557)
Repurchase of common shares— — (533,345)(5,793)— — (5,793)
Net income— — — — — 35,537 35,537 
Balances, December 31, 201922,960,157 $23 (4,597,533)$(47,533)$98,466 $57,336 $108,292 
Stock-based compensation278,910 — — — 2,496 — 2,496 
Repu