0.000000625P10YP2YP4Y0.0000006250.0000006250.0000006250.000000625falseFYtrue0001329099E9E9Baidu Campus No. 10 Shangdi 10th StreetBaidu Campus No. 10 Shangdi 10th Street0.0000006250.0000006250.0000006250.0000006250.000000625Par value per share and the number of shares as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 have been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision and the ADS Ratio Change that became effective on March 1, 2021 as detailed in Note 1 and Note 21.Basic and diluted earnings per share and the number of shares for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 have been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision and the ADS Ratio Change that were effective on March 1, 2021 as detailed in Note 1 and Note 21.The financial services business (“Du Xiaoman”) was disposed in the year of 2018. Please see Note 4 for further information.The number of shares has been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision and the ADS Ratio Change that became effective on March 1, 2021 as detailed in Note 1 and Note 21.Gross unrealized losses (downward adjustments excluding impairment) were RMB2.4 billion, RMB863 million and RMB378 million (US$58 million) for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively.The Company adopted a one-quarter lag in reporting its share of equity income (loss) in Trip.Trip adopted ASC 606, on a fully retrospective basis, and ASC 321 (collectively “new standards”) from January 1, 2018. The impact of the new standards on the Company’s financial statements was immaterial, and prior period financial information of Trip was not restated.The Company adopted a one-quarter lag in reporting its share of losses in all of its equity investees.(i) Disposition during the year ended December 31, 2019 was primarily related to the disposal of a subsidiary (Note 4).The allowance for credit losses on contract assets was RMB7 million and RMB27 million (US$4 million) as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020, respectively. The amounts charged to expenses for credit losses of contract assets and write-offs charged against the allowance were RMB9 million (US$1 million) and nil, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020. The effect of adopting ASU 2016-13 was RMB11 million (US$2 million ) to the opening balance of contract assets, net.Effect of preferential tax rates inside the PRC on basic earnings per Class A and Class B ordinary share for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 have been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision and the ADS Ratio Change that became effective on March 1, 2021, as detailed in Note 1 and Note 21* Adjustment of net unrealized gains related to available-for-sale equity investments from accumulated other comprehensive income to opening retained earnings as a result of the adoption of ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2018.Basic and diluted net income per ordinary share, weighted average number of shares and the adjustments for dilutive restricted share and share options for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 have been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision and the ADS Ratio Change that became effective on March 1, 2021, as detailed in Note 1The number of share options and weighted average exercise price has been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision that became effective on March 1, 2021 as detailed in Note 1 and Note 21.The number of restricted shares and weighted average grant date fair value has been retrospectively adjusted for the Share Subdivision that became effective on March 1, 2021 as detailed in Note 1 and Note 21.The balances mainly represent amounts arising from services the Company provided to Trip. The balances represent non-trade long-term loans due from Du Xiaoman with interest rates ranging from 0.00% to 0.50% in 2020, and amounts arising from services the Company provided to Du Xiaoman. The balance mainly represents a non-trade interest-bearing loan provided to Investee A, which was an equity investee as of December 31, 2019. The Company acquired Investee A on July 16, 2020, and accordingly, all corresponding outstanding balance has been eliminated in the consolidated balance sheet. The balances mainly represent amounts arising from services including online marketing services and cloud services the Company provided to Investee C. The balances mainly represent amounts arising from services the Company provided to its investees in ordinary course of business. The balance consists of amount due from the Company’s investees in the ordinary course of business. The balances mainly represent amounts arising from services provided by Trip. The balance represents amount due to Du Xiaoman arising from services provided by Du Xiaoman to the Company in the ordinary course of business and non-trade loans provided by Du Xiaoman with interest rates of nil in 2020. The balances mainly represent amounts arising from hardware products purchased from Investee A, and a non-trade interest-bearing loan provided by the Investee A, as of December 31, 2019. The Company acquired Investee A on July 16, 2020, and accordingly, all corresponding outstanding balances have been eliminated in the consolidated balance sheet. The balances mainly represent deferred revenue relating to the future services to be provided by the Company to Investee B which is an equity method investee. The balances mainly represent amounts arising from services including advertising services and licensing of content assets provided by the Company’s investees and non-trade amounts payable for acquiring the equity interest of the Company’s investees. The balances mainly represent non-trade interest-free long-term loans provided by Du Xiaoman. The balance represents mainly deferred revenue relating to the future services to be provided by the Company to investees. Due to factors such as the outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) resulting in declined financial performances and changes in business circumstances of certain investees, the Company recognized impairment charges of long-term investments as of March 31, 2020 June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2020. For equity securities accounted for under the measurement alternative, when there are observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer, the investments are re-measured to fair value. The Company also recognized impairment loss on intangible assets as of March 31, 2020. The outbreak of COVID-19 during the first quarter of 2020 also has resulted in a downward adjustment to forecasted advertising revenues for the Mainland China film group. As a result, the Company performed an assessment to determine whether the fair value of the Mainland China film group was less than its unamortized film costs as of March 31, 2020 with the assistance of a third-party valuation firm. The Company uses a discounted cash flow approach to estimate the fair value. The Company estimated the most likely future cash flows based on historical results, economic useful lives or license periods and perception of future performance. The Company has incorporated those cash outflows necessary to generate the cash inflows, including future production, operation, exploitation and administrative costs, which were estimated at 32%-37% of revenue in aggregate. The discount rate was determined to be the weighted average cost of capital of the Mainland China film group at 15%. As of March 31, 2020, the fair value of the Mainland China film group was less than its corresponding carrying value and resulted in the Company recognizing an impairment charge of RMB390 million (US$60 million) related to licensed copyrights and RMB210 million (US$32 million) related to produced content, respectively. The impairment charge was recognized as cost of revenues in the condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive income for the year ended December 31, 2020. In addition, due to adverse changes in the expected performance of certain produced content and the reduced amount of ultimate revenue expected to be recognized, an impairment charge of RMB205 million (US$31 million) was recognized for produced content predominantly monetized on its own and was recognized as cost of revenues in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income for the year ended December 31, 2020. Investee C is one of the Company’ investees, over which the Company has significant influence. 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Table of Contents
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form
20-F
(Mark One)
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
or
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For
the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
 
or
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For
the transition period from
            
to
            
or
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from
                
to 77
                
Commission file number:
000-51469
Baidu, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
N/A
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Baidu Campus
No. 10 Shangdi 10th Street
Haidian District, Beijing 100085
The People’s Republic of China
(Address of principal executive offices)
Herman Yu, Chief Financial Officer
Telephone: +
(86 10) 5992-8888
Email: ir@baidu.com
Facsimile: +(86 10) 5992-0000
Baidu Campus
No. 10 Shangdi 10th Street,
Haidian District, Beijing 100085
The People’s Republic of China
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
 
Trading Symbol
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
American depositary shares (each American depositary share
representing eight Class A ordinary share, par value
US$0.000000625 per share)
 
BIDU
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(The Nasdaq Global Select Market)

 
Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.000000625 per share*
 
 
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(The Nasdaq Global Select Market)
 
*
Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market of American depositary shares.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report 2,107,228,720
Class A ordinary shares and
571,900,320
Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.000000625 per share, as of December 31, 2020.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer  ☒
 
Accelerated filer  ☐
 
Non-accelerated
filer  ☐
 
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
† The term “ new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP   ☒
  
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board  ☐
  
Other   ☐
If “ Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
Item 17 ☐
Item 18 ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.    Yes  ☐    No  ☐
 
 
 

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
     1  
     1  
     2  
        Item 1.         2  
        Item 2.         2  
        Item 3.         2  
        Item 4.         64  
        Item 4A.         113  
        Item 5.         113  
        Item 6.         143  
        Item 7.         155  
        Item 8.         157  
        Item 9.         159  
        Item 10.         160  
        Item 11.         168  
        Item 12.         169  
     170  
        Item 13.         170  
        Item 14.         171  
        Item 15.         171  
        Item 16A.         171  
        Item 16B.         171  
        Item 16C.         172  
        Item 16D.         172  
        Item 16E.         172  
        Item 16F.         173  
        Item 16G.         173  
        Item 16H.         173  
     173  
        Item 17.         173  
        Item 18.         174  
        Item 19.         174  
     186  
     F-1  
 
i

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INTRODUCTION
In this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this annual report only:
 
   
“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our,” or “Baidu” refers to Baidu, Inc., its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, our consolidated affiliated entities in China, including but not limited to Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd., or Baidu Netcom; “iQIYI” refers to iQIYI, Inc. (formerly known as “Ding Xin, Inc.” and “Qiyi.com, Inc.”), a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “IQ” and one of our subsidiaries;
 
   
“user traffic” or “traffic” refers generally to page views of a website, with “page views” measuring the number of web pages viewed by internet users over a specified period of time except that multiple page views of the same page viewed by the same user on the same day are counted only once;
 
   
“DAU”, or daily active user, refers to the average number of mobile devices that launched our mobile apps at least once during a day within a specific period;
 
   
“MAU’, or monthly active user, refers to the number of mobile devices that launched our mobile apps during a given month;
 
   
“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, and solely for the purpose of this annual report, excluding Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau;
 
   
“shares” or “ordinary shares” refers to our ordinary shares, which include both Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares;
 
   
“Class A ordinary shares” refers to Class A ordinary shares of the share capital of our company with a par value of US$0.000000625 each, conferring a holder of a Class A ordinary share one vote per share on all matters submitted for voting at general meetings of our company;
 
   
“Class B ordinary shares” refers to Class B ordinary shares of the share capital of our company with a par value of US$0.000000625 each, conferring weighted voting rights in our company such that a holder of a Class B ordinary share is entitled to 10 votes per share on all matters submitted for voting at general meetings of our company;
 
   
“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each ADSs representing eight Class A ordinary shares;
 
   
“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States;
 
   
“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China;
 
   
“$,” “dollars,” “US$” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States; and
 
   
all discrepancies in any table between the amounts identified as total amounts and the sum of the amounts listed therein are due to rounding.
On March 1, 2021, we effected a change to our authorized share capital by
1-to-80
subdivision of shares. Concurrently, we effected a proportionate change in ADS to Class A ordinary share ratio from 10 ADSs representing 1 Class A ordinary share to each ADS representing 8 Class A ordinary shares, or the Share Subdivision. Such changes been reflected retroactively throughout this document.
FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This annual report on Form
20-F
contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “estimate,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
 
   
our operations and business prospects;
 
   
our business and operating strategies and our ability to implement such strategies;
 
1

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our ability to develop and manage our operations and business;
 
   
competition for, among other things, capital, technology and skilled personnel;
 
   
our ability to control costs;
 
   
our ability to identify and conduct investments and acquisitions, as well as integrate acquired target(s);
 
   
changes to regulatory and operating conditions in the industry and geographical markets in which we operate;
 
   
our dividend policy; and
 
   
all other risks and uncertainties described in “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors.”
We would like to caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements and you should read these statements in conjunction with the risk factors disclosed in “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors.” Those risks are not exhaustive. We operate in a rapidly evolving environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is impossible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in any forward-looking statement. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise the forward-looking statements except as required under applicable law.
Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this annual report are made at a rate of RMB6.5250 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of December 31, 2020 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all.
PART I
 
Item 1.
Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
 
Item 2.
Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
 
Item 3.
Key Information
 
A.
Selected Financial Data
The following table presents the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The selected consolidated statements of comprehensive income data and cash flow data for the three years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page
F-1.
The selected consolidated statements of comprehensive income data and cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, which are not included in this annual report. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” below. Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Starting from January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC Topic 606,
Revenue from contracts with Customers
(“ASC 606”), which reclassifies value added taxes, or VAT, from cost of revenues to net against revenues,
 
2

Table of Contents
among other changes. The consolidated statement of comprehensive income data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 presented below have been prepared in accordance with ASC 606, while the consolidated statements of comprehensive income data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 presented below have been prepared in accordance with ASC Topic 605,
Revenue Recognition
(“ASC 605”).
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
 
    
2016
(1)
   
2017
(1)
   
2018
(2)
   
2019
(2)
   
2020
(2)
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
    
(In millions, except per share and per ADS data)
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income Data:
            
Revenues:
            
Online marketing services
     64,525       73,146       81,912       78,093       72,840       11,163  
Others
     6,024       11,663       20,365       29,320       34,234       5,247  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total revenues
     70,549       84,809       102,277       107,413       107,074       16,410  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Operating costs and expenses:
            
Cost of revenues
     35,278       43,062       51,744       62,850       55,158       8,454  
Selling, general and administrative
     15,071       13,128       19,231       19,910       18,063       2,769  
Research and development
     10,151       12,928       15,772       18,346       19,513       2,989  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total operating costs and expenses
     60,500       69,118       86,747       101,106       92,734       14,212  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Operating profit
     10,049       15,691       15,530       6,307       14,340       2,198  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total other income (loss), net
     4,460       5,592       11,795       (6,647     8,750       1,341  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
     14,509       21,283       27,325       (340     23,090       3,539  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Income taxes
     2,913       2,995       4,743       1,948       4,064       623  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
     11,596       18,288       22,582       (2,288     19,026       2,916  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Less: Net loss attributable to
non-controlling
interests
     (36     (13     (4,991     (4,345     (3,446     (528
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income attributable to Baidu, Inc.
     11,632       18,301       27,573       2,057       22,472       3,444  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
(1)
VAT is presented in cost of revenues rather than net against revenues in accordance with the legacy revenue accounting standard (ASC 605).
(2)
VAT is presented as net against revenues rather than in cost of revenues in accordance with the new revenue accounting standard (ASC 606).
 
    
As of December 31,
 
    
2016
    
2017
    
2018
    
2019
    
2020
 
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
RMB
    
US$
 
    
(In millions)
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
                 
Cash and cash equivalents
     10,898        11,084        27,638        33,443        35,782        5,484  
Restricted cash
     318        252        2,189        996        758        117  
Short-term investments, net
(1)
     71,196        89,381        111,626        112,924        126,402        19,372  
Total assets
(2)
  
 
181,997
 
  
 
251,728
 
  
 
297,566
 
  
 
301,316
 
  
 
332,708
 
  
 
50,990
 
Short-term loans
     1,115        1,244        3,046        2,618        3,016        462  
Long-term loans, current portion
     3,468        10        84        737        7,427        1,138  
Long-term loans
     6,822        6,701        7,456        7,804        —          —    
Notes payable, current portion
     5,203        6,500        6,871        5,219        —          —    
Notes payable
     27,648        29,111        42,735        38,090        48,408        7,419  
Convertible senior notes, current portion
     —          —          —          —          4,752        728  
Convertible senior notes
     —          —          4,712        12,297        11,927        1,828  
Total liabilities
  
 
84,254
 
  
 
121,356
 
  
 
121,814
 
  
 
128,501
 
  
 
140,865
 
  
 
21,589
 
Total Baidu, Inc. shareholders’ equity
  
 
92,274
 
  
 
115,346
 
  
 
162,897
 
  
 
163,599
 
  
 
182,696
 
  
 
27,999
 
 
(1)
We adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”)
No. 2016-13,
Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
(“ASU
2016-13”)
on January 1, 2020, which requires the
 
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measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. ASU
2016-13
replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss methodology, which will result in more timely recognition of credit losses.
(2)
We adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”)
No. 2016-02:
Leases
on January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition method.
Right-of-use
assets (“ROU assets”) and lease liabilities (including current and
non-current)
for operating leases are presented on the face of the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, while the consolidated balance sheet data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 have been prepared in accordance with ASC topic 840 (“ASC 840”),
Leases
.
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
 
    
2016
   
2017
   
2018
   
2019
   
2020
 
    
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
RMB
   
US$
 
                
(In millions)
             
Consolidated Cash Flow Data:
            
Net cash provided by operating activities
     22,480       32,828       35,967       28,458       24,200       3,709  
Net cash used in investing activities
     (35,911     (76,949     (34,460     (19,974     (27,552     (4,223
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
     14,447       44,557       15,082       (3,873     5,665       869  
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
     1,160       120       18,491       4,612       2,101       323  
 
B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
 
C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
D.
Risk Factors
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
If we fail to retain existing customers or attract new customers for our online marketing services, our business, results of operations and growth prospects could be seriously harmed.
We generate a substantial majority of our revenues from online marketing services, a substantial majority of which are derived from our
pay-for-performance,
or P4P, services. Our online marketing customers will not continue to do business with us if their investment does not generate sales leads and ultimately consumers, or if we do not deliver their web pages in an appropriate and effective manner. Our P4P customers may choose to discontinue their business with us, which are not subject to fixed-term contracts. In addition, third parties may develop and use certain technologies to block the display of our customers’ advertisements and other marketing products on our Baidu platform, which may in turn cause us to lose customers and adversely affect our results of operations. Furthermore, as our auction-based P4P services enable our customers to bid for priority placement of their paid sponsored links, we may lose customers if they find the bidding mechanism not cost effective or otherwise not attractive. Additionally, if our users do not increase their engagement on our platform, or our content ecosystem fails to offer rich and quality content that meets users’ tastes and preferences, or our users spend more time with or otherwise satisfy their content consumption demands on competing platforms, or we otherwise experience user traffic decline due to any reason, it would be difficult for us to attract new customers or retain existing customers. If our customers determine that their expenditures on our platform do not generate expected returns, they may allocate a portion or all of their advertising budgets to other advertising channels, such as television, outdoor media and other online marketing platforms, and reduce or discontinue business with us. Failure to retain our existing customers or attract new customers for our online marketing services could seriously harm our business, results of operations and growth prospects. We have recorded substantial customer deposits and deferred revenue, which mainly consist of deposits received from certain customers of our online marketing services. If we are unable to fulfill our obligation in respect of such customer deposits and deferred revenue, we may have to refund the balance to our customers and our cash flow and liquidity position would be materially adversely affected.
 
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Since most of our customers are not bound by long-term contracts, they may amend or terminate advertising arrangements with us easily without incurring liabilities. Failure to retain existing customers or attract new ones to advertise on our platform may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We have in the past removed, and may in the future again remove, questionable listings or advertisements to ensure the quality and reliability of our search results and/or information feed. Such removal, whether temporary or permanent, may cause affected customers to discontinue their business with us or negatively impact our relationships with affected Baidu Union partners. We also examine the relevant business licenses and bank accounts of prospective customers prior to business engagement, as a quality control measure. In addition, we have taken steps to implement measures requested by PRC regulatory authorities, such as modifying paid search practices and limiting the amount of displays. We have also proactively implemented numerous additional measures to deliver a better user experience and build a safer and more trustworthy platform for users. Such measures have had a negative impact on the number of customers and our revenues, although we believe such impact is likely to be temporary. PRC regulations on online marketing services are evolving, and uncertainties remain with respect to the implementation of and compliance with new regulations that may emerge, which in turn may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our business and results of operations could continue to be materially and adversely affected by the challenging macroeconomic environment impacting online marketing demand.
Online marketing services continue to be a primary source of our revenues, although we have seen declines in online marketing revenues in 2018, 2019 and 2020, mainly due to the weakness in online advertising demand as our customers face challenging macroeconomic environment in their respective industries and in the general economy, including the significant adverse impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic in 2020. Our business and results of operations could continue to be materially and adversely affected by the challenging macroeconomic environment and the general growth in online marketing through internet search or feed. While the internet has developed to a more advanced stage in China, customers have many channels to conduct online marketing and promotions. As users may not spend as much time on search-plus-newsfeed as they do on other types of internet platforms, many current and potential customers may not allocate as much of their marketing budgets to online marketing through search-plus-newsfeed, as compared to other methods of online marketing. Our ability to increase revenue and profitability from online marketing may be adversely impacted by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including but not limited to:
 
   
difficulties associated with developing and maintaining a larger user base with demographic characteristics attractive to online marketing customers and maintaining and increasing user engagement;
 
   
increased competition and potential
re-allocation
of marketing budgets and downward pressure on online marketing prices, for example, resulting from an oversupply of advertising inventory released into the market;
 
   
higher customer acquisition costs due in part to the limited experience of small to
medium-sized
enterprises, or SMEs, with the internet as a marketing channel or due to competition;
 
   
decreased use of our search and paid click because search queries are increasingly being undertaken via voice-activated smart devices, apps, social media or other online platforms;
 
   
growing reluctance of users to click on search results marked as advertisements;
 
   
ineffectiveness of our online marketing delivery, tracking and reporting systems; and
 
   
decreased use of internet or online marketing in China.
 
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Our business depends on a strong brand, and if we are unable to maintain and enhance our brand, our business and results of operations may be harmed.
We believe that our brand “Baidu” has contributed significantly to the success of our business. We also believe that maintaining and enhancing the “Baidu” brand is critical to increasing the number of our users, customers, Baidu Union partners and content providers, as well as to expanding our developer communities and to attracting and retaining enterprise and public sector customers and partners. We have conducted various marketing and brand promotion activities, but we cannot assure you that these activities will achieve the brand promotion effect expected by us. If we fail to maintain and further promote the “Baidu” brand, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, any negative publicity about our company, our products and services, our employees, our business practices, our search results or the platform to which our search results link, regardless of its veracity, could harm our brand image and in turn adversely affect our business and results of operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to defuse negative publicity to the satisfaction of our investors, users, customers and business partners. From time to time, there has been negative publicity about our company and our business practice, which has adversely affected our public image and reputation during certain periods of intense negative publicity. For example, in 2018, Chinese media reported incidents where users had been defrauded by health care and logistics service providers that they found through search listings on Baidu. Also in 2018, an editorial falsely alleged that, unlike Google, Baidu was biased in displaying its feed content in its search results. This editorial attracted the attention of the general public and Chinese media, including state-owned news agencies, and adversely affected our public image. In 2019, Shenzhen Consumer Council received complaints from users who encountered false travel information provided by false travel agencies through search listings on Baidu. The negative publicity surrounding these incidents have resulted in significant adverse impact on our public image and reputation. Intense negative publicity may divert our management’s attention and may adversely impact our business. We cannot assure you that our brand, public image and reputation will not be materially and adversely affected in the future.
We face risks associated with our acquisition of YY Live and its online live streaming business.
Baidu (Hong Kong) Limited, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into definitive agreements with JOYY Inc. and certain of its affiliates, which are collectively referred to as JOYY, to acquire YY Live on November 16, 2020, and subsequently amended the share purchase agreement on February 7, 2021. The acquisition has been substantially completed, with certain customary matters remaining to be completed in the near future. On November 18, 2020, Muddy Waters issued a short seller report containing certain allegations against JOYY, including YY Live business. Based on public records, in November 2020, JOYY and certain of its current and former officers and directors were named as defendants in a federal putative securities class action alleging that they made material misstatements and omissions in documents filed with the SEC regarding certain of the allegations contained in the Muddy Waters short seller report. On February 8, 2021, JOYY publicly disclosed that its audit committee conducted an independent review of the allegations raised in the report related to the YY Live business, with the assistance of independent counsel, working with a team of experienced forensic auditors and data analytics experts, and that the review concluded that the allegations raised and conclusions reached in the report about the YY Live business were not substantiated. We are currently unable to predict the possible or further consequence that may arise from or relate in any way to the allegations contained in the Muddy Waters short seller report. There might be other class actions or regulatory enforcement actions in connection with such allegations. Any adverse outcome as a result of the short seller report, or any class action or regulatory enforcement action in connection thereof, could have a material adverse effect on YY Live’s business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows, and reputation, and we may record impairment charges or write-offs of intangible assets and goodwill in connection with the acquisition in the future. Even if the allegations against JOYY may ultimately be proven to be groundless, we may have to allocate a portion of our resources to make assessment in relation to the short seller report and various matters provided for in the share purchase agreement. In the event that there is a dispute as to whether indemnification provision is triggered, we may need to utilize a
 
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significant portion of our resources and divert management’s attention from our
day-to-day
operations to resolve such disputes, including any litigation or other legal proceedings arising thereof.
There can be no assurance that the acquired YY Live will bring the anticipated benefits to us. We have relatively limited experience with operating the online live streaming business and we may not be able to successfully integrate YY Live into our existing business. We face uncertainties and challenges in navigating the complex regulatory environment, competing effectively in attracting and retaining users and hosts, and developing and/or upgrading products and services as well as technologies to meet everchanging user needs. If implemented ineffectively or if impacted by unforeseen negative economic or market conditions or other factors, we may not realize the full anticipated benefits of the acquisition of YY Live. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in realizing the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of YY Live could cause an interruption of, or a loss of momentum in, our activities and could adversely affect our results of operations. The acquisition and integration of the businesses may result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses and diversion of management’s attention, and we may record impairment charges or write-offs in connection therewith if the anticipated benefits of the acquisition fail to realize. We would be subject to and may not be able to successfully manage a variety of additional risks associated with respect to combining YY Live with us. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
   
the online live streaming business is based on a relatively new business model in a relatively new market in which user demand may change or decrease substantially;
 
   
challenges in the integration of operations and systems and in managing the expanded operations of a larger and more complex company;
 
   
challenges in achieving anticipated business opportunities and growth prospects from combining the businesses of YY Live with the rest of our businesses;
 
   
rules and measures governing online live streaming businesses and hosts are complex and evolving, and we may not be able to navigate such complex regulatory environment or to respond to future changes in regulatory environment in an effective and timely manner;
 
   
we may face significant risks related to the content and communications on YY Live, as a majority of the communications on YY Live are conducted in real time, and we are unable to verify the sources of all information posted thereon or examine the content generated by users before it is posted;
 
   
the revenue model for online live streaming may not remain effective, and we may not be able to retain existing users, attract new users, keep users engaged and attract more paying users;
 
   
we may not be able to retain or attract popular talents such as performers, channel managers, professional game players, commentators and hosts for our live streaming platform or these talents may fail to draw fans or participants; and
 
   
unanticipated additional costs and expenses resulting from integrating into our business additional personnel, operations, products, services, technology, internal controls and financial reporting responsibilities.
We face significant competition and may suffer from loss of users and customers as a result.
We face significant competition in almost every aspect of our business. For Baidu Core business, our primary competitors are mainly internet companies, online marketing platforms in China and other search engines. We compete with these entities for both users and customers on the basis of user traffic, cyber security quality (relevance) of search (and other marketing and advertising) results, availability and user experience products and services, distribution channels and the number of associated third-party websites. iQIYI competes with Tencent Video and Youku for both users and advertising customers. iQIYI also competes with other internet media and entertainment services, such as internet and social platforms and short-form video platforms, as well as major TV stations. iQIYI competes with these market players primarily on the basis of obtaining IP rights to
 
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popular content, conducting brand promotions and other marketing activities, and making investments in and acquisitions of business partners. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Competition.” Some of our competitors have significant financial resources, long operating histories and are experienced in attracting and retaining their users, accommodating their users’ habits and preferences and managing customers. They may use their experience and resources to compete with us in a variety of ways, including competing for users and their time, customers, third-party agents, content, strategic partners and networks of third-party websites/wapsites, investing more heavily in research and development and making investments and acquisitions. Our business environment is rapidly evolving and competitive. Our business faces changing technologies, shifting user needs, and frequent introductions of rival products and services. Some of our competitors in the search sector may have innovative business models, extensive distribution network or proprietary content or technologies that may provide users with better user experience and customers with better services. They may use their resources in ways that could affect our competitive position, including developing new products, making acquisitions, continuing to invest heavily in research and development and in talent, and continuing to compete aggressively for users, advertisers, customers, the acquisition of traffic and content. If any of our competitors provides comparable or better Chinese language search and feed experience or internet video services, our user traffic could decline significantly. Additionally, if the channels and properties that we use to distribute services or products to our users and customers are no longer available to us, we may experience a decline in user traffic. Any such decline in traffic could weaken our brand and result in loss of users and customers, which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.
There are vertical service providers in the forms of mobile apps and/or websites that allow users to search within their closed ecosystems. There players often purchase traffic from search engineers and try to retain their users by offering comprehensive services on their platforms. As these vertical service providers expand, though they will continue to acquire traffic from search engines, their reliance on search engines may decline, especially if they can consolidate their industry verticals.
We also face competition from other types of advertising media, including traditional advertising media, such as newspapers, magazines, yellow pages, billboards, other forms of outdoor media, television and radio, mobile apps, webcasting and online video. Large companies in China generally allocate, and may continue to allocate, a limited portion of their budgets to online marketing, as opposed to traditional advertising and other forms of advertising media. If these companies do not devote a larger portion of their marketing budgets to online marketing services provided by us, or if our existing customers reduce the amount they spend on online marketing, our results of operations and growth prospects could be adversely affected.
If our expansions into new businesses are not successful, our future results of operation and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
As part of our growth strategy, we enter into new businesses from time to time to generate additional revenue streams and through our development of new business lines or strategic investments in or acquisitions of other businesses. Expansions into new businesses may present operating, marketing and compliance challenges that differ from those that we currently encounter.
We have invested significant resources in the research and development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology and have made significant progress in the commercialization of
AI-enabled
offerings, including
in-app
services, cloud services and solutions, intelligent driving services and solutions and smart devices and services. We plan to continue to invest capital and other resources into our
AI-enabled
business operations. However, AI technology is rapidly evolving with significant uncertainties, and we cannot assure you that our investment and exploration in AI technology and
AI-enabled
products and services will be successful. Our operating results may also suffer if our innovation is not responsive to the needs of our users, customers and partners, inappropriately timed with market opportunities, or marketed ineffectively. For example, we have limited experience with operating and scaling
AI-enabled
business, including cloud services and solutions, intelligent driving services and solutions and smart devices and services, which could subject us to various challenges and risks, including developing and
 
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managing relationships with enterprises and public sector customers and partners, who are likely to have different needs and preferences from our existing customers, users and partners, highly competitive procurement processes, instances of corrupt practices or other illegal gains, longer receivable payment cycles and lower collection rates. We also may not alter our business practices in time to avoid or reduce adverse effects from any of the foregoing risks. In addition, our
AI-enabled
business requires very different products and services, sales and marketing channels and internal operational systems and processes. These requirements could disrupt our current operations and harm our financial condition and operating results, especially during the initial stage of investment, development and scaling of our new
AI-enabled
offerings.
We may also enter into other markets and industries/industry verticals that are new to us through organic business initiatives or investment and acquisitions, such as live streaming,
e-commerce
and healthcare vertical including internet hospital, which may subject us to different and unforeseen risks. However, we cannot assure you that such efforts will be successful. For these new markets and industries/industry verticals, we may not have sufficient experience and may not be able to navigate the rapidly evolving regulatory environment or forecast and meet the continually changing demands and preferences for products and services. Some of these new markets and industries/industry verticals are emerging with relatively novel and untested business models. Any of the foregoing could pose significant challenges to us. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of our investments or acquisitions, due to the uncertainties related to the performance and valuation of the relevant targets, or failure to integrate the targets into our existing business, or difficulty in operating the acquired business with our existing expertise and resources. See also “—Our strategy of investments and acquiring complementary businesses and assets may fail.”
It is uncertain whether our strategies will attract users and customers or generate the revenue required to succeed. If we fail to generate sufficient usage of our new products and services, we may not grow revenue in line with the significant resources we invest in these new businesses. This may negatively impact gross margins and operating income. Commercial success of our expansion into new business areas depends on many factors, including innovativeness, competitiveness, effectiveness of distribution and marketing, and pricing and investments strategies, especially in the early stage of competition for market share. For example, the smart transportation industry is highly competitive and fragmented. Our current and potential competitors in this industry range from large and established technology companies to emerging
start-ups.
Some competitors have longer operating histories in the sector. They can use their experience, resources and network in ways that could affect our competitive position, including making acquisitions, continuing to invest heavily in research and development and in talents, aggressively initiating intellectual property claims (whether or not meritorious), and continuing to compete aggressively for customers, partners and investees. Our competitors may be able to innovate and provide products and services faster than we can or may foresee
product-and-service
needs before us. As a result, we may not achieve significant revenue from our new business areas, such as our
AI-enabled
business operations, for several years, or at all, and may incur significant losses during the process and fail to recoup our investments. On the other hand, market conditions and general acceptance of products and services could be adversely impacted if other players in the market fail to adopt appropriate business and operational model, develop and offer successful products and services and develop and adapt appropriate technologies and infrastructure. If the markets of our new businesses, such as intelligent driving and electric vehicle, do not develop and grow as we anticipate, we may incur significant loss from our new businesses and our growth prospects may be materially adversely impacted.
In addition, we may encounter regulatory uncertainties related to new business areas that we enter into. The laws and regulations related to AI technology and products are at an early stage of development and still evolving in China. The effects of such laws and regulations remain unclear and may add uncertainties to the development and operation of our
AI-related
business. For example, as PRC regulatory framework on autonomous driving evolves, we may be required to comply with approval and other compliance requirements for autonomous driving road test and related data collection and sharing promulgated by PRC authorities from time to time. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Driving Vehicles.” We may confront other challenges as we enter new business
 
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domains, including the lack of adoption of new products and services, the lack of management talent in the new business, cost management and other factors required for the expansion of new businesses.
We have experienced slowdowns and declines in our revenues, and we may sustain net loss from time to time, and we may experience downward pressure on our operating and profit margins in the future.
Our total revenues grew at a compound annual growth rate of 11.0% from 2016 to 2020. Our growth was driven in part by the growth in China’s internet and online marketing industries, which may not be indicative of future growth or be sustainable. Our revenue growth slowed down in 2019 and declined in 2020 as compared to that of 2019, due to the decline in our online marketing services. We could continue to experience a decline in our revenues, as a result of a number of factors, including changes in the mix of products and services, customer demographics, industry and channel, changes in policy or policy implementation, increase in market competition for marketing and/or new AI offerings, and decrease in pricing arising from an oversupply of advertising inventory in the market, which has been witnessed since 2019. We may also experience a decline in our revenue or revenue growth rate, if there is a decrease in the rate of adoption for our products, services and technologies, or deceleration or decline in demand for platforms used to access our services, among other factors.
Our operating margin increased from 6% in 2019 to 13% in 2020. Net income attributable to us as a percentage of revenue changed from 2% in 2019 to 21% in 2020. We may experience downward pressure on our operating margin from increasing competition, revenue growth slower than expenses, and increased costs from many aspects of our business, including within online marketing where revenue growth does not keep up with traffic growth and related infrastructure costs to support our online properties, such as Baidu App, video-related and other products requiring huge data transmission and computing power. We may also pay increased fees for our distribution channels, as well as increased content acquisition costs to content providers. Additionally, an increase in personnel-related costs, an increase in spending to promote new products and services, the expiration of temporary tax exemptions or reductions, and the impact of the coronavirus
(COVID-19),
which has negatively affected our revenue growth and delayed certain spending, may dampen our operating margin. We may also experience downward pressure on our operating margin resulting from a variety of factors, such as the expansion of our business into new areas, including AI cloud, intelligent driving, voice assistant & smart device, all of which have margins much lower than that of online marketing. Our operating margin may also be negatively impacted from a greater proportion of revenue contributed by new business areas, which has grown faster than online marketing.
In addition, we may also sustain net loss from time to time. We experienced significant losses from investment write downs in the third quarter of 2019, and experienced foreign currency fluctuation from time to time. We may experience further investment impairment and currency losses in the future. Declining operating margin and investment impairment have caused us to experience a net loss in 2019 and the first quarter of 2020, and there is no guarantee that we will be profitable in the future.
Due to these factors and the evolving nature of our business, our historical revenue growth rate, historical operating margin and historical profitability may not be indicative of our future performance.
If we fail to continue to innovate and provide products, services and high-quality internet experience that attract and retain users, we may not be able to generate sufficient user traffic to remain competitive; we may expend significant resources in order to remain competitive.
Our success depends on providing products and services to attract users and enable users to have a high-quality internet experience. In order to attract and retain users and compete against our competitors, we must continue to invest significant resources in research and development to enhance our artificial intelligence (AI) or other new technologies, improve our existing products and services, and introduce additional high-quality products and services. If we are unable to anticipate user preferences or industry changes, enhance the quality of our products and services on a timely basis or fail to provide sufficient content, or provide other consumer-facing
 
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services and products, including our maps and smart devices, to our users’ satisfaction, we may suffer a decline in the size of our user base. Our results of operations may also suffer if our innovations do not respond to the needs of our users, are not appropriately timed with market opportunities or are not effectively brought to market. As search, marketing and AI technologies and new forms of devices and apps continue to develop, we may expend significant resources in research and development and strategic investments and acquisitions in order to remain competitive.
If our content ecosystem fails to continually offer quality content in a cost effective manner, we may experience declines in user traffic and user engagement, our business and results of operations may be harmed.
Our content ecosystem consists of products developed for our partners, such as Baijiahao, Smart Mini Program, Managed Page and Union network, and internally developed content and services products, such as Baidu Knows, Baidu Wiki, Baidu Healthcare Wiki, Baidu Wenku, Baidu Scholar, Baidu Experience, Baidu Post, Haokan, Quanmin, iQIYI. The success of our content ecosystem depends on our ability to attract content creators and producers to contribute quality content to our platform by leveraging our user traffic and enhance user engagement through the provision of attractive content, so as to create a virtuous cycle. We have relied, and will continue to rely, on third parties for the majority of the content offered in our content ecosystem and some of our products include third party intellectual property. As the competition for quality content becomes increasingly intense in China, we cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our content acquisition costs effectively and generate sufficient revenues to outpace future increase in content spending. We may also be unable to renew some of our content or intellectual property licensing agreements upon their expiration or termination and any renewal of the content or intellectual property licensing agreements may involve higher costs or less favorable terms. If we are not able to license popular premium content on commercially reasonable terms or renew our content or intellectual property licensing agreements, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. We have undertaken significant commitments of future minimum payments under
non-cancellable
agreements for produced content and licensed copyrights. If the content does not achieve anticipated popularity and commercial success, such commitments may not be recoverable. In addition, we rely on users to contribute content to our various products, including Baijiahao, Baidu Knows, Baidu Wiki, Baidu Healthcare Wiki, Baidu Experience, Baidu Post, Haokan, Quanmin, and iQIYI’s user generated content. If these parties fail to develop and maintain high-quality and engaging content, if our desired premium content becomes exclusive to our competitors, if we are unable to continue to grow our content offerings and stay competitive
vis-à-vis
other content platforms, or if a large number of our existing relationships are terminated, the attractiveness of our content offerings to users may be severely impaired. If we are unable to offer content that meets users’ tastes and preferences on a continuing basis, including continuously upgrading our content recommendation engines and in a cost effective manner, our user experience may deteriorate, we may suffer from reduced user traffic, our business and results of operations may be harmed.
We have been and may again be subject to legal proceedings, claims and investigations in the ordinary course of business and could be adversely impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings and investigations.
We are subject to various legal proceedings, claims and government investigations, penalties or actions that have arisen in the ordinary course of business and have not yet been fully resolved, and new legal proceedings, claims, regulatory investigations, penalties or actions may arise in the future. In addition, agreements entered into by us sometimes include indemnification provisions which may subject us to costs and damages in the event of a claim against an indemnified third party. The existence of litigation, claims, governmental investigations and proceedings may harm our reputation, business and adversely affect the trading price of our securities. In 2020, our subsidiary iQIYI was subject to SEC investigation after the publication of a short seller report by Wolfpack Research making certain allegations against iQIYI (the “Wolfpack Report”). In sum and substance, the Wolfpack Report alleges that iQIYI inflated its user numbers, inflated its revenue and deferred revenue in connection with certain parts of iQIYI’s business, inflated its expenses and the purchase prices of certain assets to conceal revenue inflation, and provided misleading financial statements of cash flows by adopting an incorrect
 
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accounting method. Following the publication of the Wolfpack Report, the SEC requested iQIYI to produce certain financial, operating, and other documents and records primarily relate to the allegations in the Wolfpack Report. iQIYI has voluntarily and publicly disclosed the SEC’s request for information, and, through its legal counsel, it has been providing the SEC with requested documents and information. We are unable to predict the timing, outcome, or consequences of the SEC investigation of iQIYI, or from the SEC’s review of the documents and records requested from iQIYI. In the same year, iQIYI and certain of its current and former directors and officers were named as defendants in several federal punitive securities litigations. Also in 2020, we and certain of our current and former officers were named as defendants in three federal putative securities class actions, two of which are in regard to certain of the key allegations contained in the Wolfpack Report. In 2021, we and certain of our former officers were named as defendants in a separate federal putative securities class action alleging that our subsidiary, iQIYI, made false and misleading statements in its public disclosure documents in violation of federal securities laws. In the event that a court finds that iQIYI, Baidu and/or other defendants violated any of the applicable securities laws, or in the event that iQIYI, Baidu and/ or other defendants choose to reach a settlement with plaintiffs, iQIYI and/or Baidu may be liable for civil monetary damages and the potential financial, operational and reputational impact on iQIYI and/or Baidu may be material. However, we cannot predict the timing, outcome or consequences of these class actions, and there is no basis to conclude at this point whether such actions will be successful or whether the Company will be subject to any damages, let alone how much. For more details, see “Item 8.A. Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.” Regardless of the merit of particular claims, legal proceedings, government investigations and proceedings may result in reputational harm, be expensive to respond, time consuming, disruptive to our operations and distracting to management. In the event we or iQIYI does not prevail or we or iQIYI enters into settlement arrangements in any of these proceedings or investigations, we or iQIYI may incur significant expenses which may materially adversely affect our results of operations.
The outcome of legal proceedings and investigations is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against us or an indemnified third party in a reporting period for amounts in excess of management’s expectations, our financial condition and operating results for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. Further, such an outcome could result in significant compensatory, punitive or trebled monetary damages, disgorgement of revenue or profits, remedial corporate measures or injunctive relief against us that could materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In addition to the content developed and posted on our platform by ourselves, our users may post information on Baidu Post, Baidu Knows, Baidu Wiki, Baidu Wenku and other sections of our platform, our content providers may provide content through Baijiahao platform and our P4P customers may create text-based descriptions, image descriptions and other phrases to be used as text, images or keywords in our search listings, and users can also use our personal cloud computing service to upload, store and share documents, images, audio and videos on our cloud servers. We have been and may continue to be subject to claims and investigations for intellectual property ownership and infringement, defamation, negligence or other legal theories based on the content found on our platform, the results in our paid search listings or our other products and services, which, with or without merit, may result in diversion of management attention and financial resources and negative publicity for our brand and reputation. In November 2018, an individual, together with his related company, filed a complaint alleging acts of defamation and libel, commercial disparagement, tortious inference with prospective business relations, intentional infliction of emotional distress and civil conspiracy against, among others, us and Robin Yanhong Li in his capacity as our chairman and chief executive officer in the Supreme Court of New York. The complaint alleged, among other things, that the defendants published articles containing false and defamatory statements concerning the plaintiffs, and sought damages in an aggregate amount of US$11 billion, including purported punitive damages of US$10 billion. The defendants moved the complaint to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York and filed motions to dismiss the complaint. The plaintiff voluntarily dismissed that complaint, and then added us and Mr. Li as defendants to an amended complaint in a separate lawsuit involving substantially similar claims against numerous other parties, that was then-pending in the Supreme Court of New York, or the Second State Court Lawsuit. We filed motions to dismiss that complaint, which were not opposed. The plaintiff filed a notice of voluntary discontinuance of the complaint in the Second
 
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State Court Lawsuit, and subsequently filed a nearly identical complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. In January 2020, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York dismissed that complaint in its entirety with prejudice, and the time for plaintiff to appeal that dismissal has expired. In February 2020, the Supreme Court of New York granted defendants’ motions to discontinue the Second State Court Lawsuit with prejudice. No appeal of that order has been filed as of the date of this disclosure. We believe these claims to be without merit and intend to continue to defend ourselves vigorously. See “Item 8.A. Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.” Furthermore, if the content posted on our platform or found, stored or shared through our other products and services contains information that government authorities find objectionable, our platform or relevant products or services may be shut down and we may be subject to other penalties. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may be subject to liability for information displayed on or linked to our websites, mobile apps, Smart Mini Program or Managed Page and negative publicity in international media and our business may be adversely affected as a result.”
We have been, and may again in the future be, subject to claims, investigations or negative publicity based on the results in our paid search listings. Claims have been filed against us after we allowed certain customers to register keywords containing trademarks, trade names or brand names owned by others and displayed links to such customers’ websites in our paid search listings. While we maintain a database of certain well-known trademarks and continually update our system algorithms and functions to guard against customers keywords containing the well-known trademarks that are owned by others, it is not possible for us to completely prevent our customers from bidding on keywords that contain trademarks, trade names or brand names owned by others. There has been negative publicity about fraudulent information in our paid search listings. Although we have been continually enhancing our technology, control and oversight to prevent fraudulent websites, web pages and information from appearing in our paid search listings, there is no guarantee that the measures we have taken are effective at all times. Claims, investigations and negative publicity based on the results in our paid search listings, regardless of their merit, may divert management attention, severely disrupt our operations, adversely affect our results of operations and harm our reputation.
If we fail to keep up with rapid changes in technologies and user behavior, our future success may be adversely affected.
Our future success will depend on our ability to respond to rapidly changing technologies, adapt our products and services to evolving industry standards and improve the performance and reliability of our products and services. Our failure to adapt to such changes could harm our business. In addition, changes in user behavior resulting from technological developments may also adversely affect us. For example, the number of people accessing the internet through mobile devices and internet of things, or IoTs, such as smartphones, tablets and smart (voice-activated internet) home devices, has increased in recent years, and we expect this trend to continue while 5G and more advanced mobile communications technologies are broadly implemented. If we fail to develop products and technologies that are compatible with all mobile devices, IoTs and operating systems, or if the products and services we develop are not widely accepted and used by users of various mobile devices and IoTs, our position in the mobile internet and AI sectors may be adversely affected. In addition, the widespread adoption of new internet, networking or telecommunications technologies or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures to modify or integrate our products, services or infrastructure. If we fail to keep up with rapid technological changes to remain competitive, or consequently fail to retain users with products and services of exceptional quality, our future success may be materially and adversely affected.
Our increasing focus on cloud-based services presents execution, competitive and compliance risks; Baidu Core’s revenue growth may be materially adversely affected by our ability to develop cloud-based services and generate sufficient usage of such services.
A growing part of our business involves cloud-based services available across a spectrum of computing devices. Our Baidu Core’s cloud services revenue was RMB9.2 billion (US$1.4 billion) in 2020, increasing by
 
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44% from 2019. We are devoting significant resources to provide AI solutions, cloud infrastructure, and other services to enterprises and individuals. At the same time, our competitors are rapidly developing and deploying their cloud-based solutions and services. Pricing and delivery models are evolving. Devices and form factors influence how users access services in the cloud and sometimes the user’s choice of which suite of cloud-based services to use. Our success in cloud-based services strategy will depend on the level of adoption of our products and services. We may not establish market share sufficient to achieve scale necessary to achieve our business objectives or recoup costs incurred to build and maintain infrastructure to support our cloud-based services. It is uncertain whether our strategies will attract the users or generate the revenue required to succeed. If we fail to generate sufficient usage of our new products and services, we may not grow revenue in line with the costs associated with infrastructure development and research and development investments. This may negatively and materially impact our results of operations and financial performance.
The development of cloud-based services is accompanied by regulatory compliance risks. For example, regulatory authorities in China are increasing enforcement efforts against
non-compliance
relating to companies operating content delivery networks, internet data centers, and internet service providers. However, the interpretation and application of relevant laws in China and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux, and any failure or perceived failure to comply with all applicable laws and regulations may result in legal proceedings or regulatory actions against us, and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In the past, our peers have experienced data security and infrastructure stability issues arising out of their cloud services. Our cloud services may also encounter similar issues, which could have a material and adverse impact on our brand, operations and financial performance.
Potential issues in the adoption and use of artificial intelligence in our product offerings may result in reputational harm or liability.
We are building AI into many of our product offerings and we expect this element of our business to be a driver for our future growth. We envision a future in which AI operates in our services and applications, such as search-plus-feed, cloud services and solutions, intelligent driving services and solutions and Xiaodu smart devices and services, and the cloud helps our customers become more productive. As with many disruptive innovations, AI presents risks and challenges that could affect its adoption, and, therefore, our business. Our products and services based on AI may not be adopted by our users or customers. AI algorithms may be flawed. Datasets may be insufficient or contain biased information. Inappropriate or controversial data practices by us or others could impair the acceptance of our AI solutions. These deficiencies could undermine the decisions, predictions, or analysis AI applications produce, subjecting us to legal liability, and brand or reputational harm. In addition, some AI scenarios present ethical issues. If we enable or offer AI solutions that are controversial because of their impact on human rights, privacy, employment, or other social issues, we may experience reputational harm or be exposed to liability.
We may face challenges in connection with developing, manufacturing and marketing new Xiaodu smart products in response to changing customer requirements, new technologies and market competition.
The market for our Xiaodu smart products is characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, short product life cycles, frequent new product introductions, continual improvement in product price and performance characteristics, and price and feature sensitivity on the part of consumers and businesses. As a result, we must continually introduce new products and technologies and enhance existing products in order to remain competitive.
The success of our Xiaodu smart products depends on several factors, including our ability to:
 
   
anticipate technology and market trends;
 
   
develop innovative new products and enhancements on a timely basis;
 
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distinguish our products from those of our competitors;
 
   
manufacture and deliver high-quality products in sufficient volumes at competitive cost structure;
 
   
establish strong, efficient online and offline distribution channels;
 
   
price our products competitively;
 
   
develop a vibrant DuerOS skills store and a large developer community to increase user stickiness and loyalty; and
 
   
innovate post-hardware sales monetization models.
If we are unable to develop, manufacture, market and introduce enhanced or new Xiaodu smart products in a timely manner in response to changing market conditions or customer requirements, including changing fashion trends and styles, it will materially adversely affect our business, revenue growth, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, as we develop new generations of products more quickly, we expect that the pace of product obsolescence will increase concurrently. The disposition of inventories of excess or obsolete products may result in reductions to our operating margins and materially and adversely affect our earnings and results of operations.
The success of our Xiaodu smart products depends on the continued growth of the smart device market, our ability to establish and maintain the brand, market share, and competition from other companies, as well as our ability to monetize through services after the initial hardware sale.
We have invested significant resources in the “Xiaodu” brand and the research and development of Xiaodu smart products. If the smart device market does not continue to grow or grow in unpredictable ways, or we fail to maintain and further promote the “Xiaodu” brand, our revenue may fall short of expectations and our operating results may be harmed. Also, we have previously offered, but have recently strategically ceased to offer, sales discounts on Xiaodu smart products. Offering such discounts, which has resulted in a loss on smart device hardware sales, has negatively affected, and will continue to negatively affect, our financial performance in the long term. We cannot assure you that our decision to offer or cease to offer such sales discounts is producing, or will produce, positive outcomes for our results of operations. The market for smart devices may not continue to grow; even if it does, we may not be successful in developing and selling devices that appeal to consumers or gain sufficient market acceptance, which typically takes longer in the smart device market. To succeed in this market, we will need to design, produce and sell innovative and compelling products and partner with other businesses that enable us to capitalize on new technologies, some of which have developed or may develop and sell smart devices of their own. We are currently exploring different business models with Xiaodu smart devices, and exploring different monetization model through services after hardware sales, such as membership, advertising and revenue sharing from distribution of third-party skills. Whether we will be able to achieve profitability in smart devices depends in part on our ability to generate revenue through services after the initial hardware sale at a level sufficient to cover associated operating expenses, but there can be no assurance that we will succeed in formulating and implementing the appropriate business and monetization model. Moreover, competition from other companies that seek to provide smart devices will adversely affect our profitability.
We face a number of manufacturing, supply chain, distribution channel and inventory risks as well as product quality and financing risks that, if not properly managed, could harm our financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
We rely on third parties to manufacture our Xiaodu smart products, to design certain of our components and parts, and to participate in the distribution of our products. Our business could be negatively affected if we are not able to engage these companies with the necessary capabilities or capacity on reasonable terms, or if those we engage fail to meet their obligations (whether due to financial difficulties or other reasons), or make adverse changes in the pricing or other material terms of our arrangements with them.
 
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We may experience supply shortages and price increases driven by a variety of factors, such as raw material availability, manufacturing capacity, labor shortages, tariffs, trade disputes and barriers, natural disasters, and significant changes in the financial or business condition of our suppliers. We may experience shortages or other supply chain disruptions that could negatively affect our operations. In addition, some of the components we use in our Xiaodu smart products are available only from a single source or limited sources, and we may not be able to find replacement vendors on favorable terms in the event of a supply chain disruption.
Our Xiaodu smart products may have quality issues resulting from design, manufacturing, or operations. Sometimes, these issues may be caused by components we purchase from other manufacturers or suppliers. If the quality of our Xiaodu smart products does not meet expectations or are defective, it could harm our reputation, financial condition, and operating results.
We are exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect our operating results as a result of seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, defective merchandise, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, and other factors. We endeavor to accurately predict these trends and avoid overstocking or understocking issues. Demand for our Xiaodu smart products, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. We may misjudge customer demand, resulting in inventory buildup and possible significant inventory write-down. It may also make it more difficult for us to inspect and control quality and ensure proper handling, storage and delivery. We may experience higher return rates on new products, receive more customer complaints about them and face costly product liability claims as a result of selling them, which would harm our brand and reputation as well as our financial performance.
Our Smart Living Group (SLG), which runs the DuerOS and Xiaodu operations, completed its first round of funding in 2020, and has historically experienced an operating loss. If SLG is unable to satisfy its cashflow needs by generating sufficient cash from its operations in the near future, it may need to rely on subsequent round(s) of financing. If SLG’s operating cashflow does not improve and if SLG fails to conduct financing on reasonable terms, it may not be able to continue its business operations, which may adversely impact our results of operations and financial performance.
Our
now-divested
financial services business may subject us to operational and reputational risks, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We have provided financial services in China in recent years. In August 2018, we completed the divestiture of a majority equity stake in our financial services business unit, which has been rebranded as Du Xiaoman Financial, or Du Xiaoman. After the divestiture, we hold a
non-controlling
equity interest in Du Xiaoman and have since then deconsolidated the financial results of Du Xiaoman from our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The financial services provided by the
now-divested
Du Xiaoman mainly include consumer credit, wealth management, financial technology services and payment support, through which Du Xiaoman mainly offers technology solutions to financial institution partners covering loan facilitation and risk management aspects and consumer financing to individual customers to meet their cash expenditure needs or business operation requirements. We are still the largest shareholder of Du Xiaoman and would be exposed to losses from Du Xiaoman.
PRC laws and regulations concerning the internet finance industry, particularly those governing wealth management and credit lending, are evolving. Although to our knowledge Du Xiaoman has taken careful measures to comply with the laws and regulations that are applicable to its financial services, the PRC government authorities may promulgate new policies, rules and regulations regulating the internet finance industry. For example, the Supreme Court of the PRC has issued a judicial interpretation in August 2020 which has capped the interest rate of loan contract at four times the
one-year
Loan Prime Rate then effective when such loan contract is executed. As we hold a
non-controlling
equity interest in Du Xiaoman and do not control Du Xiaoman’s business conduct and operations, we cannot assure you that the practices of Du Xiaoman would not be deemed to violate any PRC laws or
 
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regulations, nor can we ensure that all business cooperators on Du Xiaoman’s platform meet all the regulatory compliance requirements. If Du Xiaoman were deemed to violate any current or future applicable PRC laws or regulations, such as the exposure draft of the Interim Measures for the Administration of Internet Small Loan Business recently released, we may be exposed to negative publicity as a result of the potential misconception that Du Xiaoman is still part of our consolidated group. For example, on December 15, 2020, officials from PBOC publicly named deposit products provided by internet financial platforms as illegal and should be subject to regulatory supervision. Many internet financial platforms, including Du Xiaoman, has removed deposit products from their platforms. Events like this may expose us to negative publicity as well.
Interruption or failure of our own information technology and communications systems or those of third-party service providers we rely upon could impair our ability to provide products and services, which could damage our reputation and harm our results of operations.
Our ability to provide products and services depends on the continuing operation of our information technology and communications systems. Any damage to or failure of our systems could interrupt our services. Service interruptions could reduce our revenue and profit and damage our brand if our systems are perceived to be unreliable. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption as a result of terrorist attacks, wars, earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, health epidemics, undetected errors or “bugs” in our software, computer viruses, interruptions in access to our platform through the use of “denial of service” or similar attacks, hacking or other attempts to harm our systems, and similar events. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning does not account for all possible scenarios. In November 2018, multiple services including Baidu Search, Baidu Feed, Baidu Wiki, Baidu Post and Baidu Knows were inaccessible to users for seventy-three minutes due to a system failure. Such service disruptions adversely affected our user experience.
Our servers, which are hosted at third-party or our own internet data centers, are vulnerable to
break-ins,
sabotage and vandalism. The occurrence of natural disasters or closure of an internet data center by a third-party provider without adequate notice could result in lengthy service interruptions. In addition, our domain names are resolved into internet protocol (IP) addresses by systems of third-party domain name registrars and registries. Any interruptions or failures of those service providers’ systems, which are beyond our control, could significantly disrupt our own services. If we experience frequent or persistent system failures on our platform, whether due to interruptions and failures of our own information technology and communications systems or those of third-party service providers that we rely upon, our reputation and brand could be severely harmed. The steps we take to increase the reliability and redundancy of our systems may cause us to incur heavy costs and reduce our operating margin, and may not be successful in reducing the frequency or duration of service interruptions.
We may not be able to manage our expanding operations effectively.
We expect to continue to expand our operations as we grow our user and customer base and explore new opportunities. To manage the further expansion of our business and growth of our operations and personnel, we need to continually improve our operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, and expand, train, manage and maintain good relations with our growing employee base. We have experienced labor disputes in the past. Although these disputes were resolved promptly, we cannot assure you that there will not be any new labor disputes in the future.
We expect our
AI-enabled
business to become a key revenue driver of Baidu Core, and believe our future growth relies on the success of our
AI-enabled
business. Our systems and processes were designed in the past to support our mobile ecosystem business operations. For our
AI-enabled
business operations to be successful, we must be able to attract industry expertise and talents, and adapt to systems and processes suitable for the enterprise and public sector business environment. If we are unable to do so, we may not be competitive in these markets and our
AI-enabled
business offerings will not be successful. In addition, we must maintain and expand
 
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our relationships with other websites, internet companies and other third parties. Our current and future personnel, systems, procedures and controls may not be adequate to support our expanding operations, and consequently our financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
We may face intellectual property infringement claims and other related claims, which could be time-consuming and costly to defend and may result in an adverse impact over our operations.
Internet, technology and media companies are frequently involved in litigation based on allegations of infringement of intellectual property rights, unfair competition, invasion of privacy, defamation and other violations of other parties’ rights. The validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property in internet-related and
AI-related
industries, particularly in China, are uncertain and still evolving. As we face increasing competition and as litigation becomes more common in China in resolving commercial disputes, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims. We may be subject to administrative actions brought by relevant PRC competent governmental authorities such as the PRC State Copyright Bureau and in the most severe scenario criminal prosecution for alleged copyright infringement, and as a result may be subject to fines and other penalties and be required to discontinue infringing activities. Furthermore, as we expand our operations outside of China, we may be subject to claims brought against us in jurisdictions outside of China.
Our search products and services link to materials in which third parties may claim ownership of trademarks, copyrights or other rights. As we adopt new technologies and roll out new products and services, we face the risk of being subject to intellectual property infringement claims that may arise from our use of new technologies and provision of new products and services. Our products and services including those based on content storage and sharing, such as Baidu Knows, Baidu Wiki, Baidu Wenku, Baidu Post, Baidu Drive, Baijiahao, Haokan, Quanmin, and iQIYI’s user-generated content, allow our users to upload, store and share documents, images, audio and videos on our servers, or share, link to or otherwise provide access to contents from other websites, and we also operate distribution platforms whereby developers can upload, share and sell their apps or games to users. Although we have made commercially reasonable efforts to request users or developers to comply with applicable intellectual property laws, we cannot ensure that all of our users or developers have the rights to upload or share these contents or apps. In addition, we have been and may continue to be subject to copyright or trademark infringement and other related claims from time to time, in China and internationally.
We have been making continuous efforts to keep ourselves informed of and to comply with all applicable laws and regulations affecting our business. However, PRC laws and regulations are evolving, and uncertainties still exist with respect to the legal standards as well as the judicial interpretation of the standards for determining liabilities of internet search and other internet service providers for providing links to content on third-party websites that infringe upon others’ copyrights or hosting such content, or providing information storage space, file sharing technology or other internet services that are used by internet users to disseminate such content. The Supreme People’s Court of China promulgated a judicial interpretation on infringement of the right of dissemination through internet in December 2012, which was further amended on December 29, 2020 and came into effect on January 1, 2021. This judicial interpretation, like certain court rulings and certain other judicial interpretations, provide that the courts will place the burden on internet service providers to remove not only links or contents that have been specifically mentioned in the notices of infringement from right holders, but also links or contents they “should have known” to contain infringing content. The interpretation further provides that where an internet service provider has directly obtained economic benefits from any content made available by an internet user, it has a higher duty of care with respect to internet users’ infringement of third-party copyrights. A guidance on the trial of audio/video sharing copyright disputes promulgated by the Higher People’s Court of Beijing in December 2012 provides that where an internet service provider has directly obtained economic benefits from any audio/video content made available by an internet user who has no authorization for sharing such content, the internet service provider shall be presumed to be at fault. The Civil Code of the PRC, or the Civil Code, promulgated in 2020 has further elaborated the circumstances where internet service providers may
 
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be found liable for the infringement of third parties. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Tort Liability”. The Copyright Law which will become effective in June 2021 further provides that the competent copyright authority may require compliance from the relevant parties in the process of investigating the infringing activities.
These interpretations could subject us and other internet service providers to significant administrative burdens and litigation risks.
We conduct our business operations primarily in China. There might be claims that we are subject to U.S. copyright laws, including the legal standards for determining indirect liability for copyright infringement, although we believe such claims are without merit. We cannot assure you that we will not be subject to copyright infringement lawsuits or other proceedings in the U.S. or elsewhere in the future.
Intellectual property litigation is expensive, time-consuming and could divert resources and management attention from the operations of our business. We are currently named as defendant in certain copyright infringement suits in connection with Baidu Feed, P4P, Baidu Post, Baidu Search, iQIYI, Baidu Wenku, Baidu Drive, Baijiahao, Haokan and certain other products or services. See “Item 8.A. Financial Information—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.” There is no guarantee that the courts will accept our defenses and rule in our favor. If there is a successful claim of infringement, we may be required to discontinue the infringing activities, pay substantial fines and damages and/or enter into royalty or license agreements that may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. Our failure to obtain a license of the rights on a timely basis could harm our business. Any intellectual property litigation by third parties and/or negative publicity alleging our intellectual property infringement could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations. To address the risks relating to intellectual property infringement, we may have to substantially modify, limit or terminate some of our search services. Any such change could materially affect user experience and in turn have an adverse impact on our business.
Liability claims against, or any unauthorized control or manipulation of our autonomous driving systems, could result in the loss of confidence in us, our brands and our products, and harm our business.
Our Intelligent Driving platform, contains complex information technology systems. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our Intelligent Driving platform, but there can be no assurance that vulnerabilities will not be identified in the future, or that our remediation efforts are or will be successful. Hackers have reportedly attempted, and may attempt in the future, to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter and use our Intelligent Driving platform to gain control of, or to change, functionality, user interface and performance characteristics of vehicles utilizing our Intelligent Driving platform, or to gain access to data stored in or generated by the vehicles. Any unauthorized access to or control of autonomous driving vehicles or their systems or any loss of data could result in death and personal injury, and legal claims or proceedings against us.
Our Intelligent Driving platform may be involved in crashes resulting in property damage, death or personal injury in the future, and such crashes may be the subject of significant public attention. We may face claims related to any misuse or failure of new technologies that we are pioneering, including our Intelligent Driving platform and related solutions, such as smart transportation. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay substantial monetary damages.
Moreover, product liability claims or reports of unauthorized access to our Intelligent Driving platform or data, regardless of their veracity, could generate substantial negative publicity about our products and business and could have material adverse impact on our brand, business, prospects and operating results.
Our strategy of investments and acquiring complementary businesses and assets may fail.
As part of our business strategy, we have pursued, and intend to continue to pursue, selective strategic investments and acquisitions of businesses and assets that complement our existing business and help us execute
 
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our growth strategies. For example, we invested in Trip.com Group Limited (Trip.com) (formerly known as Ctrip). In November 2020, we entered into definitive agreements with JOYY Inc. and certain of its affiliates to acquire its domestic video-based entertainment live streaming business in China, or YY Live, which includes YY mobile app, YY.com website and PC YY, among others. For more details, see “—We face risks associated with our acquisition of YY Live and its online live streaming business.”
We intend to make other strategic investments and acquisitions in the future if suitable opportunities arise. Investments and acquisitions involve uncertainties and risks, including, but not limited to:
 
   
potential ongoing financial obligations and unforeseen or hidden liabilities, including liability for infringement of third-party copyrights or other intellectual property;
 
   
failure to achieve the intended objectives, benefits or revenue-enhancing opportunities,
 
   
non-occurrence
of anticipated or speculative transactions and any resulting negative impact;
 
   
costs and difficulties of integrating acquired businesses and managing a larger business;
 
   
in the case of investments where we do not obtain management and operational control, lack of influence over the controlling partner or shareholder, which may prevent us from achieving our strategic goals in the investments;
 
   
possible unsatisfactory operational or financial performance, including financial loss, or fraudulent activities of a target business;
 
   
possible loss of key employees of a target business;
 
   
potential claims or litigation regarding our board’s exercise of its duty of care and other duties required under applicable law in connection with any of our significant acquisitions or investments approved by the board;
 
   
diversion of resources and management attention;
 
   
regulatory hurdles and compliance risks, including the anti-monopoly and competition laws, rules and regulations of China and other jurisdictions and the enhanced compliance requirement for outbound acquisitions and investment under the laws and regulations of China; and
 
   
in the case of acquisitions of businesses or assets outside of China, the need to integrate operations across different business cultures and languages and to address the particular economic, currency, political, and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.
Any failure to address these risks successfully may have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Investments and acquisitions may require a significant amount of capital, which would decrease the amount of cash available for working capital or capital expenditures. In addition, if we use our equity securities to pay for investments and acquisitions, we may dilute the value of our listed securities and the ordinary shares underlying our ADSs. If we borrow funds to finance investments and acquisitions, such debt instruments may contain restrictive covenants that could, among other things, restrict us from distributing dividends. Moreover, acquisitions may also generate significant amortization expenses related to intangible assets. We are required to test our intangible assets and goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that they may be impaired. We may also incur impairment charges to earnings for investments and acquired businesses and assets.
There can be no assurance that the acquired YY Live will bring the anticipated strategic benefits to us. We have relatively limited experience with operating the online live streaming business and we may not be able to successfully integrate YY Live into our existing business. We face uncertainties and challenges in navigating the complex regulatory environment, competing effectively in attracting and retaining users and hosts, and developing and/or upgrading products and services as well as technologies to meet everchanging user needs.
 
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We would be subject to and may not be able to successfully manage a variety of additional risks associated with the online streaming business. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
   
the online live streaming business is based on a relatively new business model in a relatively new market in which user demand may change or decrease substantially;
 
   
rules and measures governing online live streaming businesses and hosts are complex and evolving, and we may not be able to navigate such complex regulatory environment;
 
   
we may face significant risks related to the content and communications on YY Live, as a majority of the communications on YY Live are conducted in real time, and we are unable to verify the sources of all information posted thereon or examine the content generated by users before it is posted;
 
   
the revenue model for online live streaming may not remain effective, and we may not be able to retain existing users, attract new users, keep users engaged and attract more paying users; and
 
   
we may not be able to retain or attract popular talents such as performers, channel managers, professional game players, commentators and hosts for our live streaming platform or these talents may fail to draw fans or participants.
Our business is subject to complex and evolving Chinese and international laws and regulations regarding privacy and data protection. Many of these laws and regulations are subject to change and uncertain interpretation, and could result in claims, changes to our business practices, increased cost of operations, or declines in user growth or engagement, or otherwise harm our business.
We are required by privacy and data protection laws in China and other jurisdictions, including, without limitation, the PRC Cyber Security Law, to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information of our users, customers, third-party agents, content providers and Baidu Union partners, which is also essential to maintaining their confidence in our online products and services. However, the interpretation and application of such laws in China and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux.
In December 2012, the Standing Committee of the PRC National People’s Congress promulgated the Decision on Strengthening Network Information Protection, or the Network Information Protection Decision, to enhance the legal protection of information security and privacy on the internet. The Network Information Protection Decision also requires internet operators to take measures to ensure confidentiality of information of users. In July 2013, the MIIT promulgated the Provisions on Protection of Personal Information of Telecommunication and Internet Users to regulate the collection and use of users’ personal information in the provision of telecommunication service and internet information service in China. In August 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Ninth Amendment to the Criminal Law, which became effective in November 2015 and amended the standards of crime of infringing citizens’ personal information and reinforced the criminal culpability of unlawful collection, transaction, and provision of personal information. It further provides that any ICP provider that fails to fulfill the obligations related to internet information security administration as required by applicable laws and refuses to rectify upon orders will be subject to criminal liability. In November 2016, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Cyber Security Law, which requires, among others, that network operators take security measures to protect the network from unauthorized interference, damage and unauthorized access and prevent data from being divulged, stolen or tampered with. Network operators are also required to collect and use personal information in compliance with the principles of legitimacy, properness and necessity, and strictly within the scope of authorization by the subject of personal information unless otherwise prescribed by laws or regulations. Significant capital, managerial and human resources are required to comply with legal requirements, enhance information security and to address any issues caused by security failures. The Civil Code promulgated in 2020 also provides specific provisions regarding the protection of personal information. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Internet Privacy”
The PRC Cyber Security Law and the Civil Code are relatively new and subject to interpretation by the regulators. Although we only gain access to user information that is necessary for, and relevant to, the services
 
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provided, the data we obtain and use may include information that is deemed as “personal information” under the PRC Cyber Security Law, the Civil Code and related data privacy and protection laws and regulations. As such, we have adopted a series of measures to ensure that we comply with relevant laws and regulations in the collection, use, disclosure, sharing, storage, and security of user information.
While we take all these measures to comply with all applicable data privacy and protection laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by us and business partners, and such measures may still be determined as insufficient, improper, or even as user-privacy invasive, by the relevant authorities, which may result in penalties against us. The activities of third parties such as our customers and business partners are beyond our control. If our business partners violate the PRC Cyber Security Law and other laws and regulations relating to the protection of personal information, or fail to fully comply with the service agreements with us, or if any of our employees fail to comply with our internal control measures and misuse the information, we may be subject to penalties and other legal liabilities. Any failure or perceived failure to comply with all applicable data privacy and protection laws and regulations, or any failure or perceived failure of our business partners to do so, or any failure or perceived failure of our employees to comply with our internal control measures, may result in negative publicity and legal proceedings or regulatory actions against us, and could damage our reputation, discourage current and potential users and customers from using our products or services and subject us to fines and damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
The PRC laws and regulations concerning data protection are subject to changes and updates from time to time. For example, the Draft Personal Information Protection Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress in October 2020 sets forth more specific requirements on and introduces notable changes to the current obligations of personal information protection under applicable PRC laws and regulations. There are also a number of legislative proposals in the European Union and the United States, at both the federal and state level, as well as other jurisdictions that could impose new obligations in areas affecting our business. New laws or regulations concerning data protection, or the interpretation and application of existing consumer and data protection laws or regulations, which are often uncertain and in flux, may be inconsistent with our practices. The introduction of new products or other actions that we may take may subject us to additional laws, regulations, or other government scrutiny. Complying with new laws and regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner materially adverse to our business. For example, if privacy concerns or regulatory restrictions prevent us from selling demographically targeted advertising, we may become less attractive to online advertising customers. In addition, some countries are considering or have passed legislation implementing data protection requirements or requiring local storage and processing of data or similar requirements that could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services.
Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized use, release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other user data, could cause our users to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims or penalties. Any perception by the public that privacy of user information are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of our products and services generally. We expect that these areas will be subject to greater public scrutiny and attention from regulators and more frequent and rigid investigation or review by regulators, which will increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges. We may have to spend much more personnel cost and time evaluating and managing these risks and challenges in connection with our products and services in the ordinary course of our business operations, and cooperated and will keep cooperating in the future with the competent regulators in these respects. If we are unable to manage these risks, we could become subject to penalties, including fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
 
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Our business may be adversely affected if we were found to have failed to fulfill the additional obligations under the online advertising rules.
Although the PRC Advertising Law has not specified “paid search results” as a form of advertising, the Interim Administration Measures of Internet Advertising, or the Internet Advertising Measures, which was promulgated by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (currently known as State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR) and became effective on September 1, 2016, characterizes “paid search results” as a form of internet advertising from the perspective of regulating the online advertising business. Pursuant to the Internet Advertising Measures, we are subject to additional legal obligations to monitor our P4P customers’ listings on our website during the course of our provision of P4P services. For example, we must examine, verify and record identity information of our P4P customers, such as the customer’s name, address and contact information, and maintain an updated verification of such information on a regular basis. Moreover, we must examine supporting documentation provided by our P4P customers. Where a special government review is required for specific categories of advertisements before posting, we must confirm that the review has been performed and approval has been obtained. If the content of the advertisement is inconsistent with the supporting documentation, or the supporting documentation is incomplete, the advertisement cannot be published. The Chinese government may, from time to time, promulgate new advertising laws and regulations in the future to impose further requirements on online advertising services relating to medical, pharmaceutical, health care and other similar businesses. We cannot assure that we will be in compliance with the requirements under these new laws and regulations. Failure to comply with these obligations may subject us to fines and other administrative penalties. If advertisements shown on our platform are in violation of relevant PRC advertising laws and regulations, or if the supporting documentation and government approvals provided to us by our P4P customers in connection with the advertising content are not complete or accurate, we may be subject to legal liabilities and our reputation could be harmed. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Advertisements and Online Advertising.”
We may be subject to patent infringement claims with respect to our P4P platform.
Our technologies and business methods, including those relating to our P4P platform, may be subject to third-party claims or rights that limit or prevent their use. We applied for a patent in China for our P4P platform, but our application was rejected on the ground that it is not patentable. Certain U.S.-based companies, including Overture Services Inc., have been granted patents in the United States relating to P4P platforms and similar business methods and related technologies. While we believe that we are not subject to U.S. patent laws since we conduct our business operations primarily in China, we cannot assure you that U.S. patent laws would not be applicable to our business operations, or that holders of patents relating to a P4P platform would not seek to enforce such patents against us in the United States or China.
Many parties are actively developing and seeking protection for internet-related technologies, including patent protection. They may hold patents issued or pending that relate to certain aspects of our technologies, products, business methods or services. Any patent infringement claims, regardless of their merits, could be time-consuming and costly to us. If we were sued for patent infringement claims with respect to our P4P platform and were found to infringe upon the patents and were not able to adopt
non-infringing
technologies, we may be severely limited in our ability to operate our P4P platform, which would have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and prospects.
Our business may be adversely affected by third-party software apps or practices that interfere with our receipt of information from, or provision of information to, our users, which may impair our users’ experience.
Our business may be adversely affected by third-party malicious or unintentional software apps that make changes to our users’ computers and interfere with our products and services. These software apps may change our users’ internet experience by hijacking queries to our platform, altering or replacing our search results, or otherwise interfering with our ability to connect with our users. The interference often occurs without disclosure
 
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to or consent from users, resulting in a negative experience, which users may associate with our platform. These software apps may be difficult to remove or disable, may reinstall themselves and may circumvent other apps’ efforts to block or remove them.
In addition, our business may be adversely affected by the practices of third-party website owners, content providers and developers which interfere with our ability to crawl and index their web pages and contents including apps. The ability to provide a superior user experience is critical to our success. If we are unable to successfully combat malicious third-party software apps that interfere with our products and services, our reputation may be harmed. If a significant number of website owners, content providers and developers prevent us from indexing and including their high-quality web pages and content including apps in our search results, or if we cannot effectively combat web spam from
low-quality
and irrelevant content websites, the quality of our search results may be impaired, which may damage our reputation and deter our current and potential users from using our products and services.
We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.
We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as nondisclosure agreements and other methods to protect our intellectual property rights. The protection of intellectual property rights in China may not be as effective as those in the United States or other countries. The steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our technology. Reverse engineering, unauthorized copying or other misappropriation of our technologies could enable third parties to benefit from our technologies without paying us. Moreover, unauthorized use of our technology could enable our competitors to offer products and services that compete with ours, which could harm our business and competitive position. We have in the past resorted to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, and may have to do so from time to time in the future. There is no guarantee that the competent courts will accept our claims and rule in our favor. Such litigation may result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.
Our success depends on the continuing and collaborative efforts of our management team and other key personnel, and our business may be disrupted if we lose their services and are not able to find their successors in a timely manner.
Our success depends heavily upon the continuing services of our management team, in particular our chairman and chief executive officer, Robin Yanhong Li. If one or more of our executives or other key personnel are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions and we are not able to find their successors in a timely manner, our business may be disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. Competition for management and key personnel is intense, the pool of qualified candidates is limited, and we may not be able to retain the services of our executives or key personnel, or attract and retain experienced executives or key personnel in the future.
If any of our executives or other key personnel joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may not be able to successfully retain customers, key agents,
know-how
and key personnel. Each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement with us, containing confidentiality and
non-competition
provisions. If any disputes arise between any of our executives or key personnel and us, we cannot assure you the extent to which any of these agreements may be enforced.
We rely on highly skilled personnel. If we are unable to retain or motivate them or hire additional qualified personnel, we may not be able to grow effectively.
Our performance and future success depend on the talents and efforts of highly skilled individuals. We will need to continue to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization and business operations. Competition for qualified employees in the industries we operate in is
 
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intense. Our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to attract new employees and to retain and motivate our existing employees. As competitions in our industries intensify, it may be more difficult for us to hire, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel. In general, if we do not succeed in attracting additional highly skilled personnel or retaining or motivating our existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively. In certain emerging industry, such as autonomous driving, many players with sufficient funds would heavily devote their resources to compete for talents with us. To keep our competitiveness and market position, we would need to, among others, recruit, train and retain our key talents and employees, in particular research and development personnel. If we fail to do so, we may lag behind with respect to the ever-emerging and cutting-edge technologies in the emerging industry, and our prospects in such industry would be ultimately harmed.
We are exposed to significant downward adjustments or impairments in the market values of our investments, which will be material to financial statements.
As part of our business strategy, we have investments in both private and public companies. Fair values of these investments can be negatively impacted by fluctuations in the share prices of public companies we own, the fair value of private companies we own, liquidity, credit deterioration or losses, financial results, foreign exchange rates, changes in interest rates, or other factors. In addition, after adopting ASC Topic 321,
Investments—Equity Securities
(“ASC 321”), on January 1, 2018, for investments previously accounted for using the cost method, we elected to use the measurement alternative to measure these investments at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer, if any. Equity securities with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value, and any changes in fair value are recognized in earnings, instead of through other comprehensive income if they were previously designated as available for sale equity securities under legacy GAAP. The change of these equity securities’ fair value could result in significant fluctuation of our financial condition and operating results.
For example, in 2019, the market value of Trip.com declined, and the continuing low market price of its ADSs caused us to recognize a
non-cash
impairment loss of RMB8.9 billion in the third quarter of 2019. We have also recognized impairment charges on our long-term investments in 2020, due to the impact of
COVID-19
and other factors. We may still suffer significant impairment loss or downward adjustments of our investments in the future. The carrying amounts of short-term investments and long-term investments as of December 31, 2020 were RMB126.4 billion (US$19.4 billion) and RMB76.2 billion (US$11.7 billion), respectively. The value or liquidity of our investments could decline and result in a material impairment, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
We are subject to risks and uncertainties faced by companies in a rapidly evolving industry.
We operate in the rapidly evolving internet industry, which makes it difficult to predict our future results of operations. Accordingly, you should consider our future prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties experienced by companies in evolving industries. Some of these risks and uncertainties relate to our ability to:
 
   
maintain our leading position in the Chinese-language internet search market;
 
   
offer attractive, useful and innovative products and services to attract and retain a larger user base;
 
   
procure content from studios and other content providers, as well as distribution channels and other licensors of content;
 
   
attract users’ continuing use of internet search services;
 
   
retain existing customers and attract additional customers and increase spending per customer;
 
   
evaluate the credit worthiness and collectability of accounts receivables from an evolving variety of customers, whose failure to pay us in a timely manner may adversely affect our liquidity position;
 
   
retain members and attract new members of iQIYI’s membership services;
 
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upgrade our technology to support increased traffic and expanded
product-and-service
offerings;
 
   
further enhance our brand;
 
   
respond to competitive market conditions;
 
   
respond to evolving user preferences or industry changes;
 
   
respond to changes in the regulatory environment and manage legal risks, including those associated with intellectual property rights;
 
   
maintain effective control of our costs and expenses;
 
   
execute our strategic investments and acquisitions and post-acquisition integrations effectively;
 
   
attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel and maintain good relations with a young and growing work force; and
 
   
build profitable operations in new markets and other overseas internet markets we have entered into.
If we are unsuccessful in addressing any of these risks and uncertainties, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and our ability to obtain additional capital on reasonable terms when necessary.
As of December 31, 2020, we had an aggregate of RMB75.5 billion (US$11.6 billion) of outstanding indebtedness (including loans, convertible senior notes and notes payable), which will mature between 2021 and 2030, which include RMB20.6 billion (US$3.2 billion) of outstanding indebtedness of iQIYI. In February 2021, we entered into a
non-binding
term sheet for a term and revolving facility with a group of five mandated lead arrangers, bookrunners and underwriters, pursuant to which we plan to borrow a total of US$3.0 billion. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources.” We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our current and future debt requires us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to service interest and principal payments and may limit our ability to engage in other transactions. Our ability to pay interest and repay the principal for our indebtedness is dependent upon our ability to manage our business operations, generate sufficient cash flows, raise additional capital and the other factors discussed in this section. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage any of these risks successfully.
Certain of our outstanding indebtedness include financial and other covenants. For example, certain of these covenants require iQIYI to maintain minimum liquidity. If we fail to comply with these covenants and are unable to remedy or obtain a waiver or amendment, an event of default would result. If an event of default were to occur, the lenders could, among other things, declare outstanding amounts due and payable. In addition, because certain outstanding notes of Baidu, Inc. contain customary cross default and cross acceleration provisions, an event of default or declaration of acceleration under a subsidiary’s outstanding loan could also result in an event of default under these notes of Baidu, Inc., which would permit the notes holders to accelerate the repayment of the notes. If any of these notes is accelerated, we may be required to renegotiate, repay or refinance these obligations and may not have sufficient funds available to repay it, and our liquidity and financial position would be materially and adversely affected.
We may require additional capital to support our business growth or to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances. Our ability to obtain additional capital, if and when required, will depend on our business plans, investor demand, our operating performance, the condition of the capital markets, and other factors, and our indebtedness may limit our ability to borrow additional funds. We may have difficulty incurring new debt on terms that we would consider to be commercially reasonable. In addition, we may also need to refinance a portion of our outstanding debt as it matures. There is a risk that we may not be able to refinance existing debt or that the terms of any refinancing may not be as favorable as the terms of our existing debt.
 
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iQIYI has significant working capital requirements, and our controlling interest in iQIYI may be diluted if iQIYI raises additional capital by issuing and selling additional equity in the future.
iQIYI, our controlled subsidiary listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, has experienced working capital deficits. iQIYI had achieved a working capital surplus as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019, but experienced a working capital deficit as of December 31, 2020. There is no assurance that iQIYI will be able to improve its working capital position and achieve working capital surplus again, although iQIYI will take actions to manage its working capital. iQIYI raised a concurrent equity and convertible bond offering in December 2020. There can be no assurance that iQIYI will be able to raise additional equity or debt financing on terms that are acceptable to iQIYI in the future. Any failure to do so as and when necessary could materially adversely affect iQIYI’s liquidity, results of operations, financial condition and ability to operate. In addition, when iQIYI obtains additional financing by issuing and selling additional equity or equity-linked securities, such as convertible bonds, our interest in iQIYI will be diluted.
iQIYI operates in a capital intensive industry and requires a significant amount of cash to fund its operations, content acquisitions and technology investments. If iQIYI cannot obtain sufficient capital, its business, financial condition and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
The operation of an internet video streaming platform requires significant and continuous investment in content and technology. Producing high-quality original content is costly and time-consuming and it will typically take a long period of time to realize returns on investment, if at all. To date, iQIYI has financed its operations primarily with net cash generated from operating activities, as well as financing activities such as placements of preferred shares, convertible notes and asset-based securities, and the proceeds from its initial public offering. In order to implement its growth strategies, iQIYI will incur additional capital in the future to cover, among others, costs to produce and license content. iQIYI may need to obtain additional financing, including equity offering or debt financing, to fund the operation and expansion of business. iQIYI’s ability to obtain additional financing in the future, however, is subject to a number of uncertainties, including those relating to:
 
   
iQIYI’s business development, financial condition and results of operations;
 
   
general market conditions for financing activities by companies in iQIYI’s industry; and
 
   
macro-economic and other conditions in China and elsewhere.
As a public company with a growing business, iQIYI expects to increasingly rely on net cash provided by operating activities, financing through capital markets and commercial banks for its liquidity needs. However, iQIYI cannot assure you that it will be successful in its efforts to further diversify its sources of liquidity and obtain financing. In addition, certain financing may pose additional capital needs on iQIYI, for example, the potential redemption by holders of iQIYI’s convertible notes. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources.” If iQIYI cannot obtain sufficient capital to meet its capital needs, iQIYI may not be able to execute its growth strategies and its business, financial condition and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
Our results of operations may fluctuate, which makes our results difficult to predict and could cause our results to fall short of expectations.
Our results of operations may fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For these reasons, comparing our results of operations on a
period-to-period
basis may not be meaningful, and you should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. Our quarterly and annual revenues and costs and expenses as a percentage of our revenues may be significantly different from our historical or projected figures. Our results of operations in future quarters may fall below expectations. Any of these events could cause the price of our ADSs to fall. Any of the risk factors listed in this “Risk Factors”
 
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section, and in particular the following factors, could cause our results of operations to fluctuate from quarter to quarter:
 
   
general economic conditions in China and economic conditions specific to the internet, internet search and feed, and online marketing industries;
 
   
our ability to continue to attract users to our platform despite the emergence of mobile apps and other services;
 
   
our ability to attract additional customers and increase spending per customer;
 
   
the announcement or introduction of new or enhanced products and services by us or our competitors;
 
   
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the maintenance and expansion of our businesses, operations and infrastructure;
 
   
the results of our acquisitions of, or investments in, other businesses or assets;
 
   
PRC regulations or government actions pertaining to activities on the internet, including various forms of entertainment, online payment and activities otherwise affecting our online marketing customers, and those relating to the products and services we provide;
 
   
unforeseen events, such as negative publicity arising from widespread media coverage and other sources and labor disputes; and
 
   
geopolitical events, natural disasters or epidemics.
Because of the rapid growth of our business, our historical results of operations may not be useful to you in predicting our future results of operations. Our user traffic tends to be seasonal. For example, we generally experience less user traffic during public holidays and other special event periods in China. In addition, advertising and other marketing spending in China has historically been cyclical, reflecting overall economic conditions as well as budgeting and buying patterns. As we continue to grow, we expect that the cyclicality and seasonality in our business may cause our results of operations to fluctuate.
A severe and prolonged downturn in the Chinese or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
COVID-19
has had a severe and negative impact on the Chinese and global economy since early 2020. Whether this will lead to a prolonged downturn in the economy is still unknown, especially considering the multiple recent outbreaks in various countries and regions as well as the uncertainties brought by the newly launched vaccination programs. Even before the outbreak of
COVID-19,
the global macroeconomic environment had been facing challenges. The growth of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed down in recent years and the trend may continue. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa. There have also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, including surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially lead to foreign investors closing down their businesses or withdrawing their investments in China and, thus, exiting the China market, and other economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, and continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs. Our customers may reduce or delay spending with us, while we may have difficulty expanding our customer base fast enough, or at all, to offset the impact of decreased spending by our
 
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existing customers. In addition, to the extent we offer credit to any customer and the customer experiences financial difficulties due to the economic slowdown, we could have difficulty collecting payment from the customer.
Rising international political tensions, including changes in U.S. and international trade policies, particularly with regard to China, may adversely impact our business and operating results.
The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that may lead to changes in U.S. and international trade policies towards China. In January 2020, the “Phase One” agreement was signed between the United States and China on trade matters. However, it remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the U.S. or other governments with respect to international trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs on goods imported into the United States, tax policy related to international commerce, or other trade matters. While cross-border business may not be an area of focus for us, any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may affect the demand for our products and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from selling products in certain countries. If any new tariffs, legislation and/or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or, in particular, if the U.S. government takes retaliatory trade actions due to recent U.S.-China trade tensions, such changes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we have been closely monitoring domestic policies in the United States designed to restrict certain Chinese companies from supplying or operating in the U.S. market. These policies include the Clean Network project initiated by the U.S. Department of State in August 2020 and new authorities granted to the Department of Commerce to prohibit or restrict the use of information and communications technology and services, or ICTS. While a substantial majority of our business is conducted in China, policies like these may deter U.S. users from accessing and/or using our search engine, apps and other products in the United States, which could adversely impact our user experience and reputation. Similarly, India has banned a large number of apps in 2020 out of national security concerns, many of which are China-based apps (including our apps), escalating regional political and trade tensions.
Likewise, we are monitoring policies in the United States that are aimed at restricting U.S. persons from investing in or supplying certain Chinese companies. The United States and various foreign governments have imposed controls, license requirements and restrictions on the import or export of technologies and products (or voiced the intention to do so). For instance, the United States is in the process of developing new export controls with respect to “emerging and foundational” technologies, which may include certain AI and semiconductor technologies. In addition, the U.S. government may potentially impose a ban prohibiting U.S. persons from making investments in or engaging in transactions with certain Chinese companies. Measures such as these could deter suppliers in the United States and/or other countries that impose export controls and other restrictions from providing technologies and products to, making investments in, or otherwise engaging in transactions with Chinese companies. As a result, Chinese companies would have to identify and secure alterative supplies or sources of financing, while they may not be able to do so in a timely manner and at commercially acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, Chinese companies may have to limit and reduce their research and development and other business activities, or cease conducting transactions with parties, in the United States and other countries that impose export controls or other restrictions. Like other Chinese companies, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result.
Failure to retain key third-party agents or attract additional third-party agents, or termination of our relationship with third-party agents could materially and adversely affect our business. Moreover, there is no assurance that our direct sales model in some key geographic markets will continue to be successful.
We rely, to a large extent, on a nationwide distribution network of third-party agents for our sales to, and collection of payment from, our customers. The operations and conduct of such third-party agents are beyond our control. They may fail to provide quality services to our customers or otherwise breach their contracts with our customers, or experience operational or financial difficulties or run out of business, or engage in misconduct with respect to our sales and our customers. If any of the foregoing issues arise, we may terminate our relationship with third-party agents, lose customers and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In
 
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the past, there had been alleged incidents of certain of our employees and consultants colluding with third-party agents in illegal activities. Although we have zero tolerance towards any illegal activities and have internal policies and procedures against employee misconduct, we cannot assure you that our employees would always comply with such policies and procedures, nor can we control third-party agents’ conduct or guarantee that such incidents would not happen again. In addition, since most of third-party agents are not bound by long-term contracts, we cannot assure you that we will continue to maintain favorable relationships with them. If we fail to retain key third-party agents or attract additional ones on terms that are commercially reasonable, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. We may decide to terminate existing third-party agents and transition to new ones or to our own distribution channel. If we decide and fail to smoothly transition our business to new third-party agents or to our own distribution channel, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We have transitioned to using our direct sales force to serve customers in some key geographic markets, such as Beijing, Shanghai and other cities There is no assurance that our direct sales model in those markets will continue to be successful. If we fail to maintain an adequate direct sales force, retain existing customers and continue to attract new customers in those markets, our business, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
We may not be able to detect or prevent misconduct committed by our employees or third parties.
Misconduct by our employees, such as unauthorized business transactions, bribery, corruption and breach of our internal policies and procedures, or by consultants or other third parties, such as breach of law, may be difficult to detect or prevent. It could subject us to financial loss and sanctions imposed by governmental authorities while seriously damaging our reputation. This may also impair our ability to effectively attract prospective users, develop customer loyalty, obtain financing on favorable terms and conduct other business activities. Our risk management systems, information technology systems and internal control procedures are designed to monitor our operations and overall compliance. Historically we have identified certain incidents of employee and third-party misconduct. However, there can be no assurance we will be able to identify
non-compliance
or illegal activities promptly, or at all. Furthermore, it is not always possible to detect and prevent misconduct committed by our employees or third parties, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect such activities may not be effective. This may materially and adversely affect our business, brand, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on Baidu Union partners for a significant portion of our revenues. If we fail to retain existing Baidu Union partners or attract additional members, our revenue growth and profitability may be adversely affected.
We pay Baidu Union partners a portion of our revenues as we leverage traffic of the Baidu Union partners’ internet properties. Some of Baidu Union partners, however, may compete with us in one or more areas of our business. Therefore, they may decide in the future to terminate their relationships with us. If Baidu Union partners decide to use a competitor’s or their own internet search services, or if our competitors offer more attractive prices to bid for union traffic, our user traffic may decline, which may adversely affect our revenues. If we fail to attract additional Baidu Union partners, our revenue growth may be adversely affected. In addition, if we have to share a larger portion of our revenues to retain existing Baidu Union partners or attract additional partners, our profitability may be adversely affected.
Our overseas operations may not be successful.
We have launched products and services in local languages to internet users in several countries. It is uncertain when the operation will become profitable, if at all. In particular, we rely on local telecommunication operators and service providers to provide us with network services and data center hosting services, and our systems for these international products and services are not redundant across different regions and data centers. Any interruption to the internet infrastructure or any data center may render our products and services in the region unavailable.
 
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We face certain risks inherent in doing business internationally, including:
 
   
difficulties in developing, staffing and simultaneously managing a foreign operation as a result of distance, language and cultural differences;
 
   
challenges in formulating effective local sales and marketing strategies targeting users from various jurisdictions and cultures, who have a diverse range of preferences and demands;
 
   
challenges in identifying appropriate local business partners and establishing and maintaining good working relationships with them;
 
   
dependence on local platforms in marketing our international products and services overseas;
 
   
challenges in selecting suitable geographical regions for international business;
 
   
longer customer payment cycles;
 
   
currency exchange rate fluctuations;
 
   
political or social unrest or economic instability;
 
   
compliance with applicable foreign laws and regulations and unexpected changes in laws or regulations;
 
   
exposure to different tax jurisdictions that may subject us to greater fluctuations in our effective tax rate and potentially adverse tax consequences; and
 
   
increased costs associated with doing business in foreign jurisdictions.
One or more of these factors could harm our overseas operations and consequently, could harm our overall results of operations.
If we are unable to adapt or expand our existing technology infrastructure to accommodate greater traffic, content or additional customer requirements, our business may be harmed.
Our Baidu platform regularly serves a large number of users and customers and delivers a large number of daily page views. Our technology infrastructure is highly complex and may not provide satisfactory service in the future, especially as the number of users and customers increases. We may be required to upgrade our technology infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our Baidu platform, such as increasing the capacity of our servers and the sophistication of our software. If we fail to adapt our technology infrastructure to accommodate greater traffic or customer requirements, our users and customers may become dissatisfied with our services and switch to our competitors’ websites, which could harm our business.
If we fail to detect fraudulent click-throughs, our customers’ confidence in us could be damaged and our revenues could decline.
We are exposed to the risk of click-through fraud on our paid search results. Click-through fraud occurs when a person clicks paid search results for a reason other than to view the underlying content of search results. Although our anti-spam algorithms and tools can identify and respond to spam web pages quickly and effectively and thus capture and prevent some fraudulent click-throughs, there is no assurance that our anti-spam technology is able to detect and stop all fraudulent click-throughs. If we fail to detect fraudulent clicks or otherwise are unable to prevent this fraudulent activity, the affected customers may experience a reduced return on investments, or ROI, in our online marketing services and lose confidence in the integrity of our systems, and we may have to issue refunds to our customers. If this happens, we may be unable to retain existing customers or attract new customers for our online marketing services, and our online marketing revenues could decline. In addition, affected customers may also file legal actions against us claiming that we have over-charged or failed to refund them. Any such claims or similar claims, regardless of their merits, could be time-consuming and costly
 
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for us to defend against and could also adversely affect our brand and our customers’ confidence in the integrity of our systems. We experienced a number of incidents involving fraudulent click-throughs in recent years. Although the amount of revenue involved in these incidents was immaterial, such cases of fraudulent click-throughs, if occurring on a large-scale and widespread manner, may damage the reputation of our search ecosystem.
The successful operation of our business depends upon the performance and reliability of the internet infrastructure and fixed telecommunications networks in China.
Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the internet infrastructure in China. Almost all access to the internet is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT. In addition, the national networks in China are connected to the internet through international gateways controlled by the PRC government. These international gateways are the only channels through which a domestic user can connect to the internet. It is unpredictable whether a more sophisticated internet infrastructure will be developed in China. We may not have access to alternative networks in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China’s internet infrastructure. In addition, the internet infrastructure in China may not support the demands associated with continued growth in internet usage.
We rely heavily on China Telecommunications Corporation, or China Telecom, China United Network Communications Group Company Limited, or China Unicom, and China Mobile Communications Corporation, or China Mobile, to provide us with network services and data center hosting services. We have entered into contracts with various local branches or subsidiaries of China Telecom, China Unicom and China Mobile to obtain data communications capacity. We have limited access to alternative services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with the fixed telecommunications networks of these companies, or if these companies otherwise fail to provide the services. Any unscheduled service interruption could damage our reputation and result in a decrease in our revenues. Furthermore, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by these telecommunication companies. If the prices that we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our gross margins could be adversely affected. In addition, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decrease, which in turn may harm our revenues.
Security breaches and improper access to or disclosure of our data or user data, or any system failure or compromise of our security, could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business.
Our business is prone to cyber-attacks seeking unauthorized access to our data or user data or to disrupt our ability to provide services. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches and improper access to or disclosure of our data or user data, such as personal information, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords, and payment or transaction related information, could result in the loss or misuse of such data, which could cause a loss or give rise to liabilities to the owners of confidential information, such as our users, customers, third-party agents, content providers and Baidu Union partners, subject us to penalties imposed by administrative authorities, and disrupt our operations. For example, Baidu Drive provides services to many individual users who may upload sensitive personal information and documents of significance to Baidu Drive. In the event of an unauthorized access, such information and documents might be leaked or even further sold through illegal means. In addition, computer malware, viruses, social engineering (predominantly spear phishing attacks), and general hacking have become more prevalent in our industry, have occurred on our systems in the past, and may occur again on our systems in the future. We also regularly encounter attempts to create false or undesirable user accounts, purchase ads, or take other actions on our platform for purposes such as spamming, spreading misinformation, or other objectionable ends. As a result of our prominence, the size of our user base, and the types and volume of personal data on our systems, we believe that we are a particularly attractive target for such breaches and attacks. Such attacks may cause interruptions to the services we provide, degrade the user experience, cause users or customers to lose confidence and trust in our products and services, impair our internal systems, or result in financial harm to us.
 
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We have adopted strict information security policies and deployed advanced measures to implement the policies, including, among others, advanced encryption technologies. However, we may not be able to implement adequate preventative measures or prevent compromises or breaches of our preventative measures due to the evolution of the sophistication of cyber-attacks, advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of our products and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or others, software bugs or other technical malfunctions, employee, contractor, or vendor error or malfeasance, government surveillance, or other evolving threats. As a result, we may incur significant costs in protecting against or remediating cyber-attacks.
In addition, some of our developers or other partners, such as those that help us measure the effectiveness of advertisements, may receive or store information provided by us or by our users through mobile or web applications integrated with our products. We provide limited information to such third parties based on the scope of services provided to us. However, if these third parties fail to adopt or adhere to adequate data security practices, or in the event of a breach of their networks, our data or our users’ data may be improperly accessed, used, or disclosed.
Affected users or government authorities could initiate legal or regulatory actions against us in connection with any actual or perceived security breaches or improper disclosure of data, which could cause us to incur significant expense and liabilities or result in orders or consent decrees forcing us to modify our business practices. Such incidents or our efforts to remediate such incidents may also result in a decline in our user base or engagement levels. Any of these events could have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation, or results of operations.
Defects or errors in our products or services could diminish demand for our products or services, harm our business and results of operations and subject us to liability.
Our customers use our products for important aspects of their personal lives or businesses. Any errors, defects or disruptions to our products and any other performance problems with our products could damage our customers’ personal lives or businesses and, in turn, hurt our brand and reputation. We provide regular updates to our products, which have in the past contained, and may in the future contain, undetected errors, failures, vulnerabilities and bugs when first introduced or released. Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our products could result in negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our platform, loss of competitive position, lower customer retention or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend additional resources in order to help correct the problem. In addition, we may not carry insurance to compensate us for any losses that may result from claims arising from defects or disruptions in our products. As a result, our reputation and our brand could be harmed, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Concerns and unfavorable media coverage relating to our privacy practices could damage our reputation, deter current and potential users and customers from using our products and services and negatively impact our business.
The internet industry is facing significant challenges with respect to information security and privacy, including the storage, transmission and sharing of confidential information. The general public, our users, customers, third-party agents, content providers and Baidu Union partners are increasingly aware of the vulnerability of confidential and private information. We will continue to experience media or regulatory scrutiny of our actions or decisions regarding user privacy, content or advertising. Furthermore, concerns have been expressed from time to time about whether our products, services or processes could compromise the privacy of users and others.
We transmit and store confidential and private information of our users, customers, third-party agents, content providers and Baidu Union partners, such as personal information, including names, accounts, user IDs
 
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and passwords, and payment or transaction related information. Historically there has been negative publicity or media reports making allegations about our practice, and we cannot rule out similar possibilities of such in the future. Although we strive to comply with all privacy related requirements, we cannot guarantee that our products or services are at all times without defect due to the complexity and rapid evolvement of technology, etc. Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal information or other privacy related matters, and any negative publicity on our information safety or privacy protection mechanism and policy, even if unfounded, has in the past, and could adversely affect our business and results of operations and financial condition. Such concerns and negative publicity could damage our reputation and brand, and have an adverse effect on the size, engagement and loyalty of our user base, which could adversely affect our business and results.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may lose investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on the company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. We have been subject to these requirements since the fiscal year ended December 31, 2006.
Our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020. See “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report, which has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective in all material aspects as of December 31, 2020. However, if we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. This could in turn result in loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs. Furthermore, we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and other requirements.
We are subject to changing laws and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosures that have increased both our costs and the risk of
non-compliance.
We are subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the SEC, which is charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and the various regulatory authorities in China and the Cayman Islands, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.
Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalty and our business may be harmed.
We have limited business insurance coverage.
We have purchased insurance to cover certain liabilities, properties and employees in connection with our intelligent driving business. We only have limited business liability or disruption insurance coverage for our
 
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operations in China. Any business disruption may result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of our resources.
We face risks related to health epidemics, severe weather conditions and other outbreaks.
In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally, including the outbreak of
COVID-19.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the
COVID-19
a pandemic.
COVID-19
has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of businesses and facilities in China and worldwide.
Our results of operations have been, and could continue to be adversely, and may be materially, affected, to the extent that the
COVID-19
or any other epidemic harms the Chinese and global economy in general. Any potential impact to our results will depend on, to a large extent, future developments and new information that may emerge regarding the duration and severity of the
COVID-19
and the actions taken by government authorities and other entities to contain the
COVID-19
or treat its impact, including the effectiveness of the vaccine programs, almost all of which are beyond our control. For the
COVID-19’s
impact on our financial results, please see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”. Potential impacts include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
   
temporary closure of offices, travel restrictions or suspension of services of our customers and suppliers have negatively affected, and could continue to negatively affect, the demand for our services;
 
   
our customers in industries that are negatively impacted by
COVID-19,
including healthcare, travel, offline education, franchising, auto/transportation and real estate/home furnishing sectors, may reduce their budgets on online advertising and marketing, which may materially adversely impact our revenue from online marketing services;
 
   
our customers may require additional time to pay us or fail to pay us at all, which could significantly increase the amount of accounts receivable and require us to record additional allowances for doubtful accounts. We have provided and may continue to provide significant sales incentives to our customers and third-party agents during the pandemic, which may in turn materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results;
 
   
the business operations of our third-party agents have been and could continue to be negatively impacted by the pandemic, which may negatively impact our distribution channel, or result in loss of customers or disruption of our services, which may in turn materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results;
 
   
any disruption of our supply chain, logistics providers or customers could adversely impact our business and results of operations, including causing us or our suppliers to cease manufacturing Xiaodu smart devices for a period of time or materially delay delivery to customers, which may also lead to loss of customers, as well as reputational, competitive and business harm to us;
 
   
many of our customers, third-party agents, suppliers and other partners are small and
medium-sized
enterprises (SMEs), which may not have strong cash flows or be well capitalized, and may be vulnerable to a pandemic and slowing macroeconomic conditions. If the SMEs that we work with cannot weather
COVID-19
and the resulting economic impact, or cannot resume business as usual after a prolonged pandemic, our revenues and business operations may be materially and adversely impacted;
 
   
the global stock markets have experienced, and may continue to experience, significant decline from the
COVID-19
pandemic and the private and public companies that we have invested in could be materially adversely affected, which may lead to significant impairment in the fair values of our investments and in turn materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results; and
 
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corporate social responsibility initiatives we put forth in response to
COVID-19,
such as the RMB300 million charitable initiative with the goal of providing awareness education and improving public health in China, and many other efforts to leverage our technology, products and services to help contain the pandemic, may negatively affect our financial condition and operating results.
The potential downturn brought by and the duration of the
COVID-19
pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict where actual effects will depend on many factors beyond our control. The extent to which the
COVID-19
pandemic impacts our long-term results remains uncertain, and we are closely monitoring its impact on us. During the year ended December 31, 2020, our operations have been significantly affected by the
COVID-19
pandemic. Our online marketing revenues declined compared to the prior period, mainly due to weakness in online advertising demand as our customers in certain industries are negatively impacted by
COVID-19.
We have also provided additional allowance for credit losses for accounts receivable and contract assets, recognized impairment charges on our long-term investments and content assets, and recorded loss from equity method investments in 2020, due to the impact of
COVID-19
and other factors. In addition, increased market volatility has contributed to larger fluctuations in the valuation of our equity investments. There are still significant uncertainties of
COVID-19’s
future impact, and the extent of the impact will depend on a number of factors, including the duration and severity of
COVID-19,
possibility of a second wave in China and other countries, the development of the vaccine and other medical treatment, the actions taken by government authorities to contain the outbreak, and government stimulus measures, almost all of which are beyond our control. As a result, certain of our estimates and assumptions, including the allowance for credit losses, the valuation of certain debt and equity investments, long-term investments, content assets and long-lived assets subject to impairment assessments, require significant judgments and carry a higher degree of variabilities and volatilities that could result in material changes to our current estimates in future periods.
In general, our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics, including, but not limited to, the
COVID-19,
avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the influenza A virus, Ebola virus, severe weather conditions such as a snowstorm, flood or hazardous air pollution, or other outbreaks. In response to an epidemic, severe weather conditions, or other outbreaks, government and other organizations may adopt regulations and policies that could lead to severe disruption to our daily operations, including temporary closure of our offices and other facilities. These severe conditions may cause us and/or our partners to make internal adjustments, including but not limited to, temporarily closing down business, limiting business hours, and setting restrictions on travel and/or visits with clients and partners for a prolonged period of time. Various impact arising from a severe condition may cause business disruption, resulting in material, adverse impact to our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
PRC laws and regulations governing our businesses and the validity of certain of our contractual arrangements are uncertain. If we are found to be in violation, we could be subject to sanctions. In addition, changes in PRC laws and regulations or changes in interpretations thereof may materially and adversely affect our business.
The PRC government restricts or imposes conditions on foreign investment in various industries such as internet content, value-added telecommunication-based online marketing, audio and video services and mobile application distribution businesses. We and our PRC subsidiaries are still considered foreign persons or foreign-invested enterprises under PRC foreign investment related laws. As a result, we and our PRC subsidiaries are subject to PRC legal restrictions on or conditions for foreign ownership of internet content, value-added telecommunication-based online marketing, audio and video services and mobile application distribution businesses. Due to these restrictions and conditions, we operate our platform and conduct business in certain restricted or prohibited industries such as value-added telecommunication-based online marketing, audio and video services and mobile application distribution businesses in China through our consolidated affiliated entities. As all the nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities are either PRC citizens or PRC
 
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domestic enterprises, these entities are therefore considered as PRC domestic enterprises under PRC law. The “nominee shareholders” refer to those shareholders who have entered into exclusive equity purchase and transfer option agreements and equity pledge agreements with us as part of the contractual arrangements. Our contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities and the nominee shareholders allow us to have the power to direct the activities of these entities that most significantly impact their economic performance. These contractual arrangements demonstrate our ability and intention to continue to exercise the ability to absorb losses or receive economic benefits that could potentially be significant to the consolidated affiliated entities. In 2018, 2019 and 2020, we derived 33%, 40% and 43% of our external revenues from our consolidated affiliated entities, respectively.
There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the laws and regulations governing our business, or the enforcement and performance of our contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities, including but not limited to Baidu Netcom and the nominee shareholders. These laws and regulations may be subject to change, and their official interpretation and enforcement may involve substantial uncertainty. New laws and regulations that affect existing and proposed future businesses may also be applied retroactively. Due to the uncertainty and complexity of the regulatory environment, we cannot assure you that we would always be in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations, the violation of which may have adverse effect on our business and our reputation.
Although we believe we comply with current PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that the PRC government would agree that our contractual arrangements comply with PRC licensing, registration or other regulatory requirements, with existing policies or with requirements or policies that may be adopted in the future. The PRC government has broad discretion in determining rectifiable or punitive measures for
non-compliance
with or violations of PRC laws and regulations. If the PRC government determines that we do not comply with applicable law, it could revoke our business and operating licenses, require us to discontinue or restrict our operations, restrict our right to collect revenues, block our websites, require us to restructure our operations, impose additional conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply, impose restrictions on our business operations or on our customers, or take other regulatory or enforcement actions against us that could be harmful to our business. Any of these or similar occurrences could significantly disrupt our business operations or restrict us from conducting a substantial portion of our business operations, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of any of our consolidated affiliated entities that most significantly impact its economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from any of our consolidated affiliated entities, we may not be able to consolidate these entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Our contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities in China and the individual nominee shareholders may not be as effective in providing control over these entities as direct ownership.
Since PRC law restricts or imposes conditions on foreign equity ownership in the internet sector, value-added telecommunication-based online marketing, online audio and video services and mobile application distribution companies in China, we operate our platform and conduct our value-added telecommunication-based online marketing, online audio and video services and mobile app distribution businesses through our consolidated affiliated entities in China. We have no equity interest in any of these entities and must rely on contractual arrangements to control and operate the businesses and assets held by our consolidated affiliated entities, including the domain names and trademarks that have been transferred from our subsidiaries to our consolidated affiliated entities in accordance with requirements of PRC law. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control over these entities as direct ownership. For example, our consolidated affiliated entities and the individual nominee shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to operate our business, such as using the domain names and trademarks our subsidiaries have transferred to them or maintaining our platform, in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. If our consolidated affiliated entities or the individual nominee
 
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shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including contract remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to have the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of our consolidated affiliated entities, and we may lose control over the assets owned by our consolidated affiliated entities, including our Baidu.com domain name and website, and any other domain names and websites we have access to may not attract a large number of users and customers at the same level as Baidu.com. As a result, our ability to conduct our business may be materially and adversely affected, and we may not be able to consolidate the financial results of the relevant affiliated entities into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and damage our reputation.
Our contractual arrangements with our consolidated affiliated entities in China may result in adverse tax consequences to us.
As a result of our corporate structure and the contractual arrangements between our subsidiaries and each of our consolidated affiliated entities in China, we would be subject to adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities were to determine that the contracts between our subsidiaries and these consolidated affiliated entities were not on an
arm’s-length
basis and therefore constituted a favorable transfer pricing. Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, an enterprise must submit its annual tax return together with information on related-party transactions to the PRC tax authorities. The PRC tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with
arm’s-length
principles. For example, the PRC tax authorities could request that our consolidated affiliated entities adjust their taxable income upward for PRC tax purposes. Such adjustment could adversely affect us by increasing our consolidated affiliated entities’ tax expenses without reducing our subsidiaries’ tax expenses, which could subject our consolidated affiliated entities to interest due on late payments and other penalties for under-payment of taxes.
We may have exposure to greater than anticipated tax liabilities.
We are subject to enterprise income tax, or EIT, VAT, and other taxes in many provinces and cities in China and our tax structure is subject to review by various local tax authorities. The determination of our provision for income tax and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. For example, if our P4P service is classified as a form of advertisement distribution service, we may be required to pay a cultural business construction fee. See “Item 5.A. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Taxation—PRC VAT in Lieu of Business Tax.” In addition, if this classification of P4P services were to be retroactively applied, we might be subject to sanctions, including payment of delinquent fees and fines for the revenues generated from our P4P services prior to the classification. Moreover, under the EIT Law, the PRC tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with
arm’s-length
principles. Particularly, pursuant to the Administrative Measures for Special Tax Adjustment and Investigation and Mutual Consultation Procedures issued by the State Administration of Tax in March 2017, if a PRC enterprise makes an outbound payment to its overseas related party which undertakes no functions, bears no risks or has no substantial operation or activities and such payment is inconsistent with
arm’s-length
principles, the tax authorities may carry out a special tax adjustment based on the full amount deducted prior to tax. Although we believe all our related party transactions, including all payments by our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities to our
non-PRC
entities, are made on an
arm’s-length
basis and our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate decisions by the relevant tax authorities may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.
 
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The individual nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may adversely affect our business. We do not have any arrangements in place to address such potential conflicts.
We have designated individuals who are PRC nationals to be the nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities in China. For example, Robin Yanhong Li, our chairman, chief executive officer and
co-founder,
is also the principal nominee shareholder of Baidu Netcom, which is our principal consolidated affiliated entity.
Although the individual nominee shareholders are contractually obligated to act in good faith and in our best interest, they may still have potential conflicts of interest with us. For example, some individual nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities do not have a significant equity stake in our company other than the share options granted to them. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these individuals will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. In addition, these individuals may breach, cause our consolidated affiliated entities to breach or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements with us. Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these individuals and our company, except that we could exercise our transfer option under the exclusive equity purchase and transfer option agreement with the relevant individual nominee shareholder to request him/her to transfer all of his/her equity ownership in the relevant consolidated affiliated entity to a PRC entity or individual designated by us. We rely on Mr. Robin Yanhong Li, who is also a director of our company, to abide by the Cayman Islands law, which provides that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company, and those who are also directors or officers of our PRC subsidiaries to abide by PRC law, which provides that directors and officers owe a fiduciary duty to the company. Such fiduciary duty requires directors and/or officers to act in good faith and in the best interests of the company and not to use their positions for personal gains. There are, however, no specific provisions under the Cayman Islands or PRC law on how to address potential conflicts of interest. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the individual nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could disrupt our business, distract management and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.
We may be unable to collect long-term loans to the nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities in China.
As of December 31, 2020, we have made long-term loans in an aggregate principal amount of RMB19.1 billion (US$2.9 billion) to the nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities. We extended these loans to enable the nominee shareholders to fund the capitalization of these entities. We may in the future provide additional loans to the nominee shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities in China in connection with any increase in their capitalization to the extent necessary and permissible under applicable law. Our ability to ultimately collect these loans will depend on the profitability of these consolidated affiliated entities and their operational needs, which are uncertain.
We are in the process of registering the pledges of equity interests by nominee shareholders of some of our consolidated affiliated entities, and we may not be able to enforce the equity pledges against any third parties who acquire the equity interests in good faith in the relevant consolidated affiliated entities before the pledges are registered.
Pursuant to equity pledge agreements under the contractual arrangements, the nominee shareholders of each of our consolidated affiliated entities should pledge all of their equity interests in the relevant consolidated affiliated entities to our subsidiaries. An equity pledge agreement becomes effective among the parties upon execution. However, according to the Civil Code which became effective from January 1, 2021, an equity pledge is not perfected as a security property right unless it is registered with the relevant local administration for market regulation. We are still in the process of registering the pledge relating to certain consolidated affiliated
 
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entity(ies), relating to recent equity interest transfers and capital increase. Prior to the completion of the registration, we may not be able to successfully enforce the equity pledge against any third parties who have acquired property right interests in good faith in the equity interests in the relevant consolidated affiliated entity(ies).
If the chops of our PRC subsidiaries and our VIEs are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.
In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so. In addition, if the chops are misused by unauthorized persons, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material and adverse effect on our business and operations.
Most of our business operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects are affected by economic, political and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.
China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the extent of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.
Growth of China’s economy has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the growth of the Chinese economy has slowed down in recent years. Some of the government measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. Any stimulus measures designed to boost the Chinese economy may contribute to higher inflation, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. For example, certain operating costs and expenses, such as employee compensation and office operating expenses, may increase as a result of higher inflation. Additionally, because a substantial portion of our assets consists of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, high inflation could significantly reduce the value and purchasing power of these assets.
 
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Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us.
We conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. Our subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investments in China. The PRC legal system is based on written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.
PRC laws and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China for the past decades. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, because these laws and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited volume of published decisions and their nonbinding nature, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties.
Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all. As a result, we may not be aware of our potential violation of these policies and rules. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.
We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations of internet and related business and companies.
The PRC government regulates the internet and related industry extensively, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainty. As a result, under certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be violations of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC government regulation of the internet industry include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
   
We only have contractual control over our websites. We do not own the websites due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunications services in China, including online information services.
 
   
The licensing requirements relating to the internet business in China are uncertain and evolving. This means that permits, licenses or operations at some of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities may be subject to challenge, or we may not be able to obtain or renew certain permits or licenses, including without limitation, a Value-Added Telecommunication Business Operating License, which is issued by the MIIT, an Internet News License, which is issued by the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, a Short Messaging Service Access Code Certificate, which is issued by the MIIT, an Online Audio/Video Program Transmission License, which is issued by the State Administration of Press Publication, Radio, Film and Television, or the SAPPRFT (the corresponding regulatory body currently known as National Radio and Television Administration, or the NRTA), a Radio and Television Program Production License, which is issued by the local bureau of the NRTA, a Surveying and Mapping Qualification Certificate for internet map services, which is issued by the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and
Geo-information,
an Internet Culture Business Permit with or without the permitted scope of business covering online game operation and online game virtual currency issuance or trading, which is issued by the local bureau of the then Ministry of Culture, or the Ministry of Culture and Tourism which has replaced the Ministry of Culture, an Internet Publication Service License, which is issued by the SAPPRFT (the corresponding regulatory body currently known as the National Press and Publication Administration, or the NPPA), a Publication Business Operating License, which is issued by the local bureau of the SAPPRFT or NPPA, a Qualification Certificate for Internet Drug Information Services, which is issued by provincial branch of the State Food and Drug Administration (the corresponding regulatory body currently known
 
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as the National Medical Products Administration), a Human Resource Services License, which is issued by the local bureau of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and a Commercial Performances License, which is issued by the Municipal Bureau of Culture and Tourism. Failure to obtain or renew these permits and licenses may significantly disrupt our business, or subject us to sanctions, requirements to increase capital or other conditions or enforcement, or compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.
 
   
New laws and regulations may be promulgated to regulate internet activities, including online advertising and internet cultural activities. Other aspects of our online operations may be further regulated in the future. If these new laws and regulations are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our online operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations at the time they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.
We provide value-added telecommunications services through our consolidated affiliated entities, which hold the required licenses. In July 2006, the MIIT issued the Notice of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on Intensifying the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-Added Telecommunications Services. This notice prohibits domestic telecommunication service providers from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunication business operating licenses to any foreign investor in any form, or providing any resources, sites or facilities to any foreign investor for their illegal operation of a telecommunication business in China. According to this notice, either the holder of a Value-Added Telecommunication Business Operating License or its shareholders must directly own the domain names and trademarks used by the license holder in its provision of value-added telecommunications services. Our major consolidated affiliated entities hold the necessary assets that are material to the operation of our business, including domain names, personnel, facilities and most of our intellectual property rights.
As we enter into new businesses, we may encounter additional regulatory uncertainties. For example, the current PRC legal framework on autonomous cars or autonomous driving is still new and evolving. Pursuant to the local rules and regulations in various cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, and other cities, any entity intending to conduct a road testing of autonomous driving vehicles in these cities must file an application for road testing with a designated local agency supervising road testing of autonomous vehicles in these cities. It also remains uncertain what additional compliance requirements we need to meet in order to undertake a road testing of our autonomous driving cars in other locations in China. Baidu has obtained permits to conduct road testing in certain cities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Yangquan, Shanghai, Yinchuan, Nanjing and Hefei. There is no guarantee that the road testing of our autonomous driving cars in other locations fully complies with local laws and regulations. If our road testing is deemed by local enforcement authority as a violation of the applicable traffic and transportation laws, we may have to suspend the testing, and the progress of our research and development of autonomous cars may be adversely affected.
The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business.
Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with the enacted Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms and other anti-monopoly laws and regulations may result in governmental investigations or enforcement actions, litigation or claims against us and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The PRC anti-monopoly enforcement agencies have in recent years strengthened enforcement under the PRC Anti-monopoly Law. In March 2018, the SAMR was formed as a new governmental agency to take over, among other things, the anti-monopoly enforcement functions from the relevant departments under the
 
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MOFCOM, the NDRC and the SAIC, respectively. Since its inception, the SAMR has continued to strengthen anti-monopoly enforcement. On December 28, 2018, the SAMR issued the Notice on Anti-monopoly Enforcement Authorization, which grants authorities to its province-level branches to conduct anti-monopoly enforcement within their respective jurisdictions. On September 11, 2020, the SAMR issued Anti-monopoly Compliance Guideline for Operators, which requires, under the PRC Anti-monopoly Law, operators to establish anti-monopoly compliance management systems to prevent anti-monopoly compliance risks. On February 7, 2021, the Antimonopoly Commission of the State Council officially promulgated the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms. Pursuant to an official interpretation from the Anti-monopoly Commission of the State Council, the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms mainly covers five aspects, including general provisions, monopoly agreements, abusing market dominance, concentration of undertakings, and abusing of administrative powers eliminating or restricting competition. The Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms prohibits certain monopolistic acts of internet platforms so as to protect market competition and safeguard interests of users and undertakings participating in internet platform economy, including without limitation, prohibiting platforms with dominant position from abusing their market dominance (such as discriminating customers in terms of pricing and other transactional conditions using big data and analytics, coercing counterparties into exclusivity arrangements, using technology means to block competitors’ interface, favorable positioning in search results of goods displays, using bundle services to sell services or products, compulsory collection of unnecessary user data). In addition, the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms also reinforces antitrust merger review for internet platform related transactions to safeguard market competition. As the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms was newly promulgated, we are uncertain to estimate its specific impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We cannot assure you that our business operations comply with such regulations and authorities’ requirements in all respects. If any
non-compliance
is raised by relevant authorities and determined against us, we may be subject to fines and other penalties.
To our knowledge, a certain number of PRC Internet companies adopt VIE structure, but there have been few precedents where Internet companies with a VIE structure were investigated for being involved in the concentrations of undertaking until recently. It has been long debated whether transactions involving Internet companies with a VIE structure are subject to prior filing of notification requirements, since filing of notification of concentration of undertaking made by couples of Internet companies were not accepted in the past. Due to such regulatory history in the industry and as a matter of common industry practice in the past, we did not file prior notification of concentrations of undertaking. In April 2020, the SAMR published a case of concentration of undertaking where a VIE structure was involved (such case was closed in July 2020 and unconditional approval was granted). In November 2020, the draft Guidelines to Anti-Monopoly in the Field of Internet Platforms also, for the first time, expressly include concentrations involving a VIE structure within the ambit of SAMR’s merger control review if the reporting thresholds are triggered. Furthermore, in December 2020, SAMR has, for the first time, formally penalized three Internet companies with a VIE structure for failure to file prior notifications of implementing concentrations. Hence, starting from 2020, SAMR has been reviewing historical cases of concentrations of undertaking of Internet companies with a VIE structure, and past failure to file prior notification of concentrations of undertaking may be investigated and penalized.
We have received enquiry from the SAMR related to failure to file prior notification of concentrations of undertaking and the possibility of penalty. Relevant cases are still under investigation. We have been cooperating with SAMR and we keep written and oral correspondence with SAMR. In January 2021, we received one official case-filing notification in connection with one case, which required us to provide relevant materials and statements on whether the
non-filing
constitutes a failure to file prior notification of concentrations of undertaking. We have been cooperating with SAMR and providing the requested documents and information. Recently we received a notification from the SAMR contemplating the imposition of a fine of RMB500,000 in connection with this case. The SAMR will issue an official notice imposing the penalty if no objection was raised within three business days. We did not object to the penalty. We do not expect further penalty from the SAMR in connection with this case after we make full payment of the penalty. There can be no assurance that such enquiry can be resolved in a timely manner to the SAMR’s satisfaction, or that we will not be subject to more enquiries in
 
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the future. We may be subject to penalty in connection with any such enquiry, including certain fines up to RMB500,000 per case, and in extreme case being order to terminate the contemplated concentration, to dispose of our equity or asset within a prescribed period, to transfer our business within a prescribed time or to take any other necessary measures to return to the
pre-concentration
status. We may receive greater scrutiny and attention from regulators and more frequent and rigid investigation or review by regulators, which will increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges. We may have to spend much more personnel cost and time evaluating and managing these risks and challenges in connection with our products and services as well as our investments in our ordinary business course to avoid any failure to comply with these regulations. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with the enacted Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for Internet Platforms and other anti-monopoly laws and regulations may result in governmental investigations or enforcement actions, litigations or claims against us and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to governmental economic sanctions or export control laws.
We are subject to various economic and trade sanctions laws in different jurisdictions. For example, U.S. economic sanctions prohibit the provision of products and services to countries, governments, and persons targeted by U.S. sanctions. United Kingdom financial sanctions and European Union sanctions also have similar regime to prohibit the provision of products and services to countries, governments and persons on their respective target list.
In August 2020, MOFCOM and the Ministry of Technology jointly promulgated a notice to adjust and pronounce the Catalog of Technologies Prohibited or Restricted from Export of the PRC, which has provided that certain technologies on interactive interface of AI (including voice recognition, microphone array, voice
wake-up
and interactive understanding) could be restricted for export from the PRC without approval. According to the Administrative Measures on the Import and Export of Technologies of the PRC, which was recently revised by the State Council in November 2020, if we would like to conduct any type of cross-border technology service or cooperation involving certain AI technologies which are or may be (subject to determination by the relevant governmental authority) restricted from export, we would be required to apply for approval from the provincial competent commercial department before entering into any substantial stage of negotiation or execution of any technology export contract. If and after such contract is executed, we shall apply for an export certificate and such contract would only come into effect after the competent commercial department has granted us the permit. Such process may be time consuming and there is no guarantee that such permit would always be granted, which could negatively affect our potential cross-border technology service or cooperation.
While we believe that we have been, and that we continue to be, in compliance with applicable governmental economic sanctions or export control laws, our failure to employ appropriate safeguards with respect to users located in countries that are targets of governmental economic sanctions or export control may result in a violation of such laws and regulations.
Non-compliance
with applicable governmental economic sanctions or export control laws could subject us to adverse media coverage, investigations, severe administrative, civil and possibly criminal sanctions, and expenses related to remedial measures and legal expenses, which could materially and adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
There are uncertainties associated with PRC laws and regulations on virtual assets, and therefore it is not clear what liabilities, if any, we may have relating to the loss of virtual assets by our users.
While participating on our platform, our users may acquire, purchase and accumulate certain virtual assets, such as gifts or certain statuses and privileges. Such virtual assets can be important to users and have monetary value and, in some cases, can be cashed to actual money. However, virtual assets may become lost for various reasons, often through unauthorized use of the account of one user by other users and occasionally through data loss caused by delays in network service, network crashes or hacking activities. Currently, there are uncertainties
 
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associated with PRC laws and regulations on virtual assets. As a result, uncertainties still exist as to who the legal owner of virtual assets is, whether and how the ownership of virtual assets is protected by law, and whether an operator of a platform would have any liability, whether in contract, tort or otherwise, to users or other interested parties, for loss of such virtual assets. Some recent PRC court judgments ordered certain online platform operators liable for losses of virtual assets by platform users, and have ordered online platform operators to restore the lost virtual items to users or pay damages and losses. In case of a loss of virtual assets, we may be sued by our users and held liable for losses, which may negatively affect our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We have been involved in virtual items related lawsuits in the past, and we cannot assure you that such lawsuits will not be brought against us again in the future.
Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the new PRC Foreign Investment Law and its Implementation Regulations and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
On January 1, 2020, the PRC Foreign Investment Law, or the Foreign Investment Law, and the Regulations for Implementation of the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the Implementation Regulations, came into effect and replaced the trio of prior laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Foreign Investment Law and the Implementation Regulations embody an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, since they are relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to their interpretation and implementation. For instance, under the Foreign Investment Law, “foreign investment” refers to the investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign individuals, enterprises or other entities in China. Though it does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, there is no assurance that foreign investment via contractual arrangement would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activities under the definition in the future. In addition, the definition contains a
catch-all
provision which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. In any of these cases, it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all.
If any of our VIEs would be deemed as foreign invested enterprise under any such future laws, administrative regulations or provisions and any of our business would be included in any negative list or other form of restrictions on foreign investment, we may need to take further actions to comply with such future laws, administrative regulations or provisions. Such actions may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, result of operations and prospects. If we or any of our VIEs is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws, administrative regulations or provisions, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take corresponding action regarding such violations or failures to such entities, such as:
 
   
order to immediately terminate prohibited investment activities and to take certain measures to return to the
pre-investment
status;
 
   
order to rectify within prescribed period and to take necessary measures to comply with such laws, administrative regulations or provisions;
 
   
revocation of such entities’ business licenses and/or operating licenses;
 
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shutting down of our website, or discontinuance or restriction on any transactions between certain of our PRC subsidiaries with them;
 
   
fines, confiscation of the income from our PRC subsidiaries or VIEs, or other requirements with which we or our VIEs may not be able to comply;
 
   
order to restructure our ownership structure, corporate governance and business operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and deregistering the equity pledges of our VIEs, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or impose effective control over our VIEs; or
 
   
restriction or prohibition on our use of the proceeds of any financing outside PRC to finance our business operations in PRC, and other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.
Any of the above penalties may result in a material and adverse effect on our business operation. In addition, if the PRC regulatory authorities were to find our legal structure and contractual arrangements to be in violation of any PRC laws, administrative regulations or provisions, we are uncertain what impact of above PRC regulatory authorities’ actions would have on us and our ability to consolidate our VIEs in the consolidated financial statement. If any of these regulatory actions result in us losing our right to direct the activities of our VIEs or to receive substantially all the economic benefits and residual returns from our VIEs and we are not able to restructure our ownership structure and operations in a satisfactory manner, we would no longer be able to consolidate the financial results of our VIEs in the consolidated financial statements. Any of the above results, or any other significant unfavorable actions that might be imposed on us in this event, would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigation or collect evidence within China.
Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests. See also “—Risks Related to Our ADSs—Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.” for risks associated with investing in us as a Cayman Islands company.
We may be subject to liability for information displayed on or linked to our websites, mobile apps, Smart Mini Program or Managed Page and negative publicity in international media and our business may be adversely affected as a result.
The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and distribution of news and other information over the internet. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China, contains terrorism or extremism content, or is reactionary,
 
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obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses and the closure of the concerned websites. In the past, failure to comply with these requirements has resulted in the closure of certain websites. The website operator may also be held liable for the information displayed on or linked to the website or the mobile apps.
In particular, the MIIT has published regulations that subject website operators to potential liability for content displayed on their websites or mobile apps and the actions of users and others using their systems, including liability for violations of PRC laws and regulations prohibiting the dissemination of content deemed to be socially destabilizing. The Ministry of Public Security has the authority to order any local internet service provider to block any internet website at its sole discretion. From time to time, the Ministry of Public Security has stopped the dissemination over the internet of information which it believes to be socially destabilizing. The State Secrecy Bureau is also authorized to block any website it deems to be leaking state secrets or failing to meet the relevant regulations relating to the protection of state secrets in the dissemination of online information. Furthermore, we are required to report any suspicious content to relevant governmental authorities, and to undergo computer security inspections. If we fail to implement the relevant safeguards against security breaches, our websites may be shut down and our business and ICP licenses may be revoked. In addition, the CAC has, from time to time, also issued rules enhancing the internet service provider’s obligations to monitor information displayed on its information platform and prevent dissemination of illegal contents. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Value-Added Telecommunications Services and Internet Content Services—Regulations on Content.”
The Anti-Terrorism Law, which took effect on January 1, 2016 and was amended on April 27, 2018, further requires internet service providers to verify the identity of their users, and to not provide services to anyone whose identity is unclear or who declines verification. Although the identity verification requirements are already embodied in some internet related regulations, the Anti-Terrorism Law extends these requirements to all types of internet services. The internet service providers are also required to provide technical interfaces, decryption and other technical support and assistance for the competent departments to prevent and investigate terrorist activities. See “Item 4.B. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Information Security.” for more details.
Although we attempt to monitor the content in our search results, mobile apps, online communities such as Baidu Post, Smart Mini Programs and Managed Page, we are not able to control or restrict the content of other internet content providers linked to or accessible through our websites, mobile apps, or content generated or placed on our Baidu Post message boards, mini programs, Managed Page, or our other online communities by our users. To the extent that PRC regulatory authorities find any content displayed on our websites or mobile apps illegal, they may require us to limit or eliminate the dissemination of such information on our websites or mobile apps. To the extent that PRC regulatory authorities find any content displayed on our websites or mobile apps objectionable, they may suggest that we limit or eliminate the dissemination of such information on our websites or mobile apps. If third-party websites linked to or accessible through our websites or mini programs accessible through our mobile apps conduct unlawful activities such as online gambling, PRC regulatory authorities may require us to report such unlawful activities to relevant authorities and to remove the links to such websites or mobile apps, or they may suspend or shut down the operation of these third-party websites. PRC regulatory authorities may also temporarily block access to certain websites or mobile apps for a period of time for reasons beyond our control. Any of these actions may reduce our user traffic and adversely affect our business. In addition, we have been and may be subject to penalties in the future for violations of those regulations arising from information displayed on or linked to our websites or mobile apps, including a suspension or shutdown of our online operations. For example, in April 2020, we were approached and inquired by the CAC with respect to the display and dissemination of vulgar contents and insufficient content monitoring on the public accounts on Baidu App. As a consequence, our Baidu App was ordered to suspend any updates for over two weeks before updates resumed to normal. Although we will make our best efforts to closely monitor and filter the contents displayed and disseminated on our Baidu App and other products, we cannot assure you that incidents of similar type would not take place in the future.
 
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Moreover, our compliance with PRC regulations governing internet access and distribution of news and other information over the internet may subject us to negative publicity or even legal actions outside of China. In May 2011, eight New York residents filed a lawsuit against us before the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York accusing us of aiding Chinese censorship in violation of the U.S. Constitution. In March 2014, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York granted our motion for judgment on the pleadings based upon the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and dismissed with prejudice the plaintiffs’ complaint in its entirety, barring the plaintiffs from bringing an appeal or action based on the same claim. Even though we have won the case, our reputation may continually be adversely affected among users and investors outside of China.
The discontinuation of any of the preferential income tax treatments currently available to us in the PRC could have a material and adverse effect on our result of operations and financial condition.
Pursuant to the EIT Law, as further clarified by subsequent tax regulations implementing the EIT Law, foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises are subject to EIT at a uniform rate of 25%. Certain enterprises may benefit from a preferential tax rate of 15% under the EIT Law if they qualify as “High and New Technology Enterprises strongly supported by the state,” subject to certain general factors described in the EIT Law and the related regulations.
A number of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities, such as Baidu Online Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or Baidu Online, and Baidu Netcom are entitled to enjoy a preferential tax rate of 15% due to their qualification as “High and New Technology Enterprise,” which has a term of three years. If any or some of these PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities fail to maintain the “High and New Technology Enterprise” qualification, their applicable EIT rate will increase to 25%. Furthermore, Baidu Online was entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 10% from 2010 to 2019 due to its “Key Software Enterprise” status, so was Baidu China for