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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                                      to                                     

Commission file number 001-32593

Global Partners LP

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

74-3140887
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

P.O. Box 9161

800 South Street

Waltham, Massachusetts 02454-9161

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(781894-8800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Units representing limited partner interests

GLP

New York Stock Exchange

9.75% Series A Fixed-to-Floating Cumulative Redeemable

GLP pr A

New York Stock Exchange

Perpetual Preferred Units representing limited partner interests

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  

Accelerated filer  

Non-accelerated filer  

Smaller reporting company  

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of common units held by non-affiliates of the registrant (treating directors and executive officers of the registrant’s general partner and their affiliates, for this purpose, as if they were affiliates of the registrant) as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $272,674,585 based on a price per common unit of $9.79, the price at which the common units were last sold as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on such date.

As of March 3, 2021, 33,995,563 common units were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE: None

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

    

    

    

Items 1. and 2.

Business and Properties

7

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

21

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

55

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

55

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

55

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

56

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

57

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

60

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

93

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

94

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

94

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

94

Item 9B.

Other Information

95

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

96

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

100

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

125

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

126

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

130

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

131

2

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Forward-Looking Statements

Certain statements and information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may constitute “forward-looking statements.” The words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “intend,” “foresee,” “should,” “would,” “could” or other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, which are generally not historical in nature. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effect on us. While management believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made, there can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we anticipate. All comments concerning our expectations for future revenues and operating results are based on our forecasts for our existing operations and do not include the potential impact of any future acquisitions. Our forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from our historical experience and our present expectations or projections. Known material factors that could cause our actual results to differ from those in the forward-looking statements are those described in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors.” These risks and uncertainties include, among other things:

We may not have sufficient cash from operations to enable us to pay distributions on our Series A preferred units or maintain distributions on our common units at current levels following establishment of cash reserves and payment of fees and expenses, including payments to our general partner.
A significant decrease in price or demand for the products we sell or a significant decrease in the pricing of and demand for our logistics activities could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
The COVID-19 pandemic and certain developments in global oil markets have had, and may continue to have, material adverse consequences for general economic, financial and business conditions, and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation and those of our customers, suppliers and other counterparties.
We depend upon marine, pipeline, rail and truck transportation services for a substantial portion of our logistics activities in transporting the products we sell. Implementation of regulations and directives that adversely impact the market for transporting these products by rail or otherwise could adversely affect those activities. In addition, implementation of regulations and directives related to these aforementioned services as well as a disruption in any of these transportation services could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
We have contractual obligations for certain transportation assets such as railcars, barges and pipelines. A decline in demand for (i) the products we sell or (ii) our logistics activities, which has resulted and could continue to result in a decrease in the utilization of our transportation assets, could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
We may not be able to fully implement or capitalize upon planned growth projects. Even if we consummate acquisitions or expend capital in pursuit of growth projects that we believe will be accretive, they may in fact result in no increase or even a decrease in cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Erosion of the value of major gasoline brands could adversely affect our gasoline sales and customer traffic.
Our gasoline sales could be significantly reduced by a reduction in demand due to governmental restrictions related to COVID-19, higher prices and new technologies and alternative fuel sources, such as electric, hybrid, battery powered, hydrogen or other alternative fuel-powered motor vehicles. In addition to new technologies and alternative fuel sources, changing consumer preferences or driving habits could lead to new forms of fueling destinations or potentially fewer customer visits to our sites, resulting in a decrease

3

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in gasoline sales and/or sales of food, sundries and other on-site services. Any of these outcomes could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Physical effects from climate change and impacts to areas prone to sea level rise or other extreme weather events could have the potential to adversely affect our assets and operations.
Changes in government usage mandates and tax credits could adversely affect the availability and pricing of ethanol and renewable fuels, which could negatively impact our sales.
Our petroleum and related products sales, logistics activities and results of operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected by, among other things, changes in the petroleum products market structure, product differentials and volatility (or lack thereof), implementation of regulations that adversely impact the market for transporting petroleum and related products by rail and other modes of transportation, severe weather conditions, significant changes in prices and interruptions in transportation services and other necessary services and equipment, such as railcars, barges, trucks, loading equipment and qualified drivers.
Our risk management policies cannot eliminate all commodity risk, basis risk or the impact of unfavorable market conditions, each of which can adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, noncompliance with our risk management policies could result in significant financial losses.
Our results of operations are affected by the overall forward market for the products we sell, and pricing volatility may adversely impact our results.
Our businesses could be affected by a range of issues, such as changes in demand, commodity prices, energy conservation, competition, the global economic climate, movement of products between foreign locales and within the United States, changes in refiner demand, weekly and monthly refinery output levels, changes in local, domestic and worldwide inventory levels, changes in health, safety and environmental regulations, including, without limitation, those related to climate change, failure to obtain new permits, amend existing permits for expansion and/or to address changes to our assets and underlying operations, or renew existing permits on terms favorable to us, seasonality, supply, weather and logistics disruptions and other factors and uncertainties inherent in the transportation, storage, terminalling and marketing of refined products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil.
Increases and/or decreases in the prices of the products we sell could adversely impact the amount of availability for borrowing working capital under our credit agreement, which credit agreement has borrowing base limitations and advance rates.
Warmer weather conditions could adversely affect our home heating oil and residual oil sales. Our sales of home heating oil and residual oil continue to be reduced by conversions to natural gas and by utilization of propane and/or natural gas (instead of heating oil) as primary fuel sources.
We are exposed to trade credit risk and risk associated with our trade credit support in the ordinary course of our businesses.
The condition of credit markets may adversely affect our liquidity.
Our credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes contain operating and financial covenants, and our credit agreement contains borrowing base requirements. A failure to comply with the operating and financial covenants in our credit agreement, the indentures and any future financing

4

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agreements could impact our access to bank loans and other sources of financing as well as our ability to pursue our business activities.
A significant increase in interest rates could adversely affect our results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders and our ability to service our indebtedness.
Our gasoline station and convenience store business, including with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, could expose us to an increase in consumer litigation and result in an unfavorable outcome or settlement of one or more lawsuits where insurance proceeds are insufficient or otherwise unavailable.
Congress has given the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) broad authority to regulate tobacco and nicotine products, and the FDA and states have enacted and are pursuing enaction of numerous regulations restricting the sale of such products. These governmental actions, as well as national, state and municipal campaigns to discourage smoking, tax increases, and imposition of regulations restricting the sale of e-cigarettes and vapor products, have and could result in reduced consumption levels, higher costs which we may not be able to pass on to our customers, and reduced overall customer traffic. Also, increasing regulations related to and restricting the sale of vapor products and e-cigarettes may offset some of the gains we have experienced from selling these types of products. These factors could materially affect the sale of this product mix which in turn could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Our results can be adversely affected by unforeseen events, such as adverse weather, natural disasters, terrorism, pandemics, or other catastrophic events which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Our businesses could expose us to litigation and result in an unfavorable outcome or settlement of one or more lawsuits where insurance proceeds are insufficient or otherwise unavailable.
Adverse developments in the areas where we conduct our businesses could have a material adverse effect on such businesses and could reduce our ability to make distributions to our unitholders.
A serious disruption to our information technology systems could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our businesses efficiently.
We are exposed to performance risk in our supply chain.
Our businesses are subject to federal, state and municipal environmental and non-environmental regulations which could have a material adverse effect on such businesses.
Our general partner and its affiliates have conflicts of interest and limited fiduciary duties, which could permit them to favor their own interests to the detriment of our unitholders.
Unitholders have limited voting rights and are not entitled to elect our general partner or its directors or remove our general partner without the consent of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding common units (including common units held by our general partner and its affiliates), which could lower the trading price of our units.
Our tax treatment depends on our status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
Unitholders may be required to pay taxes on their share of our income even if they do not receive any cash distributions from us.

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Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements after the date they are made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Available Information

We make available free of charge through our website, www.globalp.com, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such material with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These documents are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Our website also includes our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, our Governance Guidelines and the charters of our Audit Committee and Compensation Committee.

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PART I

References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Global Partners LP,” “Partnership,” “we,” “our,” “us” or like terms refer to Global Partners LP and its subsidiaries. References to “our general partner” refer to Global GP LLC.

Items 1. and 2. Business and Properties.

Overview

We are a master limited partnership formed in March 2005. We own, control or have access to one of the largest terminal networks of refined petroleum products and renewable fuels in Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania (collectively, the “Northeast”). We are one of the region’s largest independent owners, suppliers and operators of gasoline stations and convenience stores. As of December 31, 2020, we had a portfolio of 1,548 owned, leased and/or supplied gasoline stations, including 277 directly operated convenience stores, primarily in the Northeast. We are also one of the largest distributors of gasoline, distillates, residual oil and renewable fuels to wholesalers, retailers and commercial customers in the New England states and New York. We engage in the purchasing, selling, gathering, blending, storing and logistics of transporting petroleum and related products, including gasoline and gasoline blendstocks (such as ethanol), distillates (such as home heating oil, diesel and kerosene), residual oil, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane and in the transportation of petroleum products and renewable fuels by rail from the mid-continent region of the United States and Canada.

We purchase refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil primarily from domestic and foreign refiners and ethanol producers, crude oil producers, major and independent oil companies and trading companies. We operate our businesses under three segments: (i) Wholesale, (ii) Gasoline Distribution and Station Operations (“GDSO”) and (iii) Commercial.

Global GP LLC, our general partner, manages our operations and activities and employs our officers and substantially all of our personnel, except for most of our gasoline station and convenience store employees who are employed by our wholly owned subsidiary, Global Montello Group Corp. (“GMG”).

2020 Events

COVID-19 Pandemic—The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to make its presence felt at home, in the office workplace and at our retail sites and terminal locations. We have successfully executed our business continuity plans and at this time our in-office employees continue to work remotely. We remain active in responding to the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and continue to provide essential products and services while prioritizing the safety of our employees, customers and vendors in the communities where we operate. Please read Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Our Perspective on Global and the COVID-19 Pandemic.”

Purchase Agreement—On December 14, 2020, we announced the signing of an agreement to purchase retail fuel and convenience store assets from Connecticut-based Consumers Petroleum of Connecticut, Incorporated. The acquisition includes 27 company-operated gasoline stations with “Wheels”-branded convenience stores in Connecticut. The transaction also includes fuel supply agreements for approximately 25 gasoline stations located in Connecticut and New York. The stations market fuel under the Citgo and Sunoco brands. The purchase is expected to close in the first half of 2021 subject to regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.

2029 Notes Offering and 2023 Notes Redemption—On October 7, 2020, we and GLP Finance Corp. (the “Issuers”) issued $350.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.875% senior notes due 2029 (the “2029 Notes”) to several initial purchasers (the “2029 Notes Initial Purchasers”) in a private placement exempt from the registration requirements under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). We used the net proceeds from the offering to fund the redemption of our 7.00% senior notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”) and to repay a portion of the borrowings outstanding under our credit agreement. The redemption of the 2023 Notes occurred on October 23, 2020.

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On February 1, 2021, we completed an exchange offer whereby holders of the 2029 Notes exchanged all of the 2029 Notes for an equivalent amount of senior notes registered under the Securities Act. The exchange notes are substantially identical to the 2029 Notes, except that the exchange notes are not subject to the restrictions on transfers or to any increase in annual interest rates for failure to comply with the 2029 Notes Registration Rights Agreement (defined below). Please read Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the 2029 Notes.

Amended Credit Agreement—On May 7, 2020, we and certain of our subsidiaries entered into the fourth amendment to our third amended and restated credit agreement which, among other things, provides temporary adjustments to certain covenants and reduced the total aggregate commitment by $130.0 million. Please read Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our credit agreement.

Operating Segments

We operate our businesses under three segments: (i) Wholesale, (ii) GDSO and (iii) Commercial. In 2020, our Wholesale, GDSO and Commercial sales accounted for approximately 55%, 36% and 9% of our total sales, respectively.

Wholesale

In our Wholesale segment, we engage in the logistics of selling, gathering, blending, storing and transporting refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane. We transport these products by railcars, barges, trucks and/or pipelines pursuant to spot or long-term contracts. From time to time, we aggregate crude oil by truck or pipeline in the mid-continent region of the United States and Canada, transport it by rail and ship it by barge to refiners. We sell home heating oil, branded and unbranded gasoline and gasoline blendstocks, diesel, kerosene and residual oil to home heating oil retailers and wholesale distributors. Generally, customers use their own vehicles or contract carriers to take delivery of the gasoline, distillates and propane at bulk terminals and inland storage facilities that we own or control or at which we have throughput or exchange arrangements. Ethanol is shipped primarily by rail and by barge.

Gasoline Distribution and Station Operations

In our GDSO segment, gasoline distribution includes sales of branded and unbranded gasoline to gasoline station operators and sub-jobbers. Station operations include (i) convenience store sales, (ii) rental income from gasoline stations leased to dealers, from commissioned agents and from cobranding arrangements and (iii) sundries (such as car wash sales and lottery and ATM commissions).

As of December 31, 2020, we had a portfolio of owned, leased and/or supplied gasoline stations, primarily in the Northeast, that consisted of the following:

Company operated

    

277

Commissioned agents

 

273

Lessee dealers

 

208

Contract dealers

 

790

Total

 

1,548

Commercial

In our Commercial segment, we include sales and deliveries to end user customers in the public sector and to large commercial and industrial end users of unbranded gasoline, home heating oil, diesel, kerosene, residual oil and bunker fuel. In the case of public sector commercial and industrial end user customers, we sell products primarily either through a competitive bidding process or through contracts of various terms. We respond to publicly issued requests for product proposals and quotes. We generally arrange for the delivery of the product to the customer’s designated location. Our Commercial segment also includes sales of custom blended fuels delivered by barges or from a terminal dock to ships through bunkering activity.

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Products

General

The following table presents our product sales and other revenues as a percentage of our consolidated sales for the years ended December 31:

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

 

Gasoline sales: gasoline and gasoline blendstocks (such as ethanol)

 

70

%  

75

%  

74

%  

Distillates (home heating oil, diesel and kerosene), residual oil and propane sales

 

24

%  

21

%  

22

%  

Crude oil sales and crude oil logistics revenue

 

1

%  

1

%  

1

%  

Convenience store sales, rental income and sundries

5

%  

3

%  

3

%  

Total

 

100

%  

100

%  

100

%  

Gasoline. We sell substantially all grades of branded and unbranded gasoline and we sell gasoline blendstocks, such as ethanol, that comply with seasonal and geographical requirements in the areas in which we market.

Distillates. Distillates are primarily divided into home heating oil, diesel and kerosene. In 2020, sales of home heating oil, diesel and kerosene accounted for approximately 42%, 56% and 2%, respectively, of our total volume of distillates sold. The distillates we sell are used primarily for fuel for trucks and off-road construction equipment and for space heating of residential and commercial buildings.

We sell generic home heating oil and Heating Oil Plus™, our proprietary premium branded heating oil that is electronically blended at the delivery facility, to wholesale distributors and retailers. In addition, we sell the additive used to create Heating Oil Plus™ to some wholesale distributors, make injection systems available to them and provide technical support to assist them with blending. We also educate the sales force of our customers to better prepare them for marketing our products to their customers.

We have a fixed price sales program that we market primarily to wholesale distributors and retailers which uses the New York Mercantile Exchange (“NYMEX”) heating oil contract as the pricing benchmark and as the vehicle to manage the commodity risk. Please read “—Commodity Risk Management.” In 2020, approximately 32% of our home heating oil volume was sold using forward fixed price contracts. A forward fixed price contract requires our customer to purchase a specific volume at a specific price during a specific period. The remaining home heating oil volume was sold on either a posted price or a price based on various indices which, in both instances, reflect current market conditions.

We sell generic diesel and Diesel One®, our proprietary premium diesel fuel product. We offer marketing and technical support for those customers who purchase Diesel One®.

Residual Oil. We sell residual oil to industrial, commercial and marine customers. We specially blend product for users in accordance with their individual power specifications and for marine transport.

Propane. We sold propane to home heating oil and propane retailers and wholesale distributors primarily from our rail-fed propane storage and distribution facility near our Church Street terminal in Albany, New York. For calendar year 2020, we ceased marketing propane during the second quarter ended June 30, 2020.

Crude Oil. We engage in the purchasing, selling, storing and logistics of transporting domestic and Canadian crude oil and other products via pipeline, rail and barge from the mid-continent region of the United States and Canada for distribution to refiners and other customers.

Convenience Store Items and Sundries. We sell a broad selection of food, beverages, snacks, grocery and non-food merchandise at our convenience store locations and generate sundry sales, such as car wash sales and lottery and ATM commissions, at our convenience store locations.

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Significant Customers

None of our customers accounted for greater than 10% of total sales for years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.

Assets

Terminals

As of December 31, 2020, we owned, leased or maintained dedicated storage facilities at 25 bulk terminals, each with the capacity of more than 50,000 barrels, with a collective storage capacity of approximately 11.8 million barrels. Twenty-two of these bulk terminals are located throughout the Northeast. Some of our storage tankage is versatile, allowing us to switch tankage from one product to another.

In addition to refined products, we also own or operate two rail facilities in New York and Oregon capable of handling ethanol, renewable diesel (only in Oregon) and other products and two rail facilities in North Dakota that are permitted to receive, store or distribute crude oil. At select locations, we have capacity to store renewable fuels, and in Albany, New York, we also have an additional rail-fed storage terminal capable of handling propane.

The bulk terminals and inland storage facilities from which we distribute product are supplied by ship, barge, truck, pipeline and/or rail. The inland storage facilities, which we use primarily to store distillates, are supplied with product delivered by truck and/or pipeline from bulk terminals. Our customers receive product from our network of bulk terminals and inland storage facilities primarily via truck, pipeline and/or rail.

In connection with our businesses, we may lease or otherwise secure the right to use certain third-party assets (such as railcars, pipelines and barges). As of December 31, 2020, we supported our rail activity with a fleet of approximately 180 leased railcars. The makeup of this fleet is split between general-purpose cars and pressurized tank cars. We lease railcars from third parties through various lease arrangements with various expiration dates, and we also lease barges from third parties through various time charter lease arrangements also with various expiration dates. We also have various pipeline connection agreements that extend for one to five years.

Many of our bulk terminals operate 24 hours a day and consist of multiple storage tanks and automated truck loading equipment. These automated systems monitor terminal access, volumetric allocations, credit control and carrier certification through the remote identification of customers. In addition, some of the bulk terminals from which we market are equipped with truck loading racks capable of providing automated blending and additive packages which meet our customers’ specific requirements.

Throughput arrangements allow storage of product at terminals owned by others. We or our customers can load product at these terminals, and we pay the owners of these terminals fees for services rendered in connection with the receipt, storage and handling of such product. Compensation to the terminal owners may be fixed or based upon the volume of our product that is delivered and sold at the terminal. Throughput agreements may require counterparties to throughput a minimum volume over an agreed-upon period and may include make-up rights if the minimum volume is not met.

We have exchange agreements with customers and suppliers. An exchange is a contractual agreement where the parties exchange product at their respective terminals or facilities. For example, we (or our customers) receive product that is owned by our exchange partner from such party’s facility or terminal, and we deliver the same volume of our product to such party (or to such party’s customers) out of one of the terminals in our terminal network. Generally, both sides of an exchange transaction pay a handling fee (similar to a throughput fee), and often one party also pays a location differential that covers any excess transportation costs incurred by the other party in supplying product to the location at which the first party receives product. Other differentials that may occur in exchanges (and result in additional payments) include product value differentials and timing differentials.

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Gasoline Stations

As of December 31, 2020, we had a portfolio of 1,548 owned, leased and/or supplied gasoline stations, including 277 directly operated convenience stores, primarily in the Northeast.

At our company-operated stores, we operate the gasoline stations and convenience stores with our employees, and we set the retail price of gasoline at the station. At commissioned agent locations, we own the gasoline inventory, and we set the retail price of gasoline at the station and pay the commissioned agent a fee related to the gallons sold. We receive rental income from commissioned agent leased gasoline stations for the leasing of the convenience store premises, repair bays and other businesses that may be conducted by the commissioned agent. At dealer-leased locations, the dealer purchases gasoline from us, and the dealer sets the retail price of gasoline at the dealer’s station. We also receive rental income from (i) dealer-leased gasoline stations and (ii) cobranding arrangements. We also supply gasoline to locations owned and/or leased by independent contract dealers. Additionally, we have contractual relationships with distributors in certain New England states pursuant to which we source and supply these distributors’ gasoline stations with ExxonMobil-branded gasoline.

Supply

Our products come from some of the major energy companies in the world as well as North American crude oil producers. Products can be sourced from the United States, Canada, South America, Europe, Russia and occasionally from Asia. Most of our products are delivered by water, pipeline, rail or truck. During 2020, we purchased an average of approximately 360,000 barrels per day of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil. We enter into supply agreements with these suppliers on a term basis or a spot basis. With respect to trade terms, our supply purchases vary depending on the particular contract from prompt payment (usually two days) to net 30 days. Please read “—Commodity Risk Management.” We obtain our convenience store inventory from traditional suppliers.

Seasonality

Due to the nature of our businesses and our reliance, in part, on consumer travel and spending patterns, we may experience more demand for gasoline during the late spring and summer months than during the fall and winter. Travel and recreational activities are typically higher in these months in the geographic areas in which we operate, increasing the demand for gasoline. Therefore, our volumes in gasoline are typically higher in the second and third quarters of the calendar year. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on gasoline demand and the extent and duration of that impact is uncertain. As demand for some of our refined petroleum products, specifically home heating oil and residual oil for space heating purposes, is generally greater during the winter months, heating oil and residual oil volumes are generally higher during the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year. These factors may result in fluctuations in our quarterly operating results.

Commodity Risk Management

When we take title to the products that we sell, we are exposed to commodity risk. Commodity risk is the risk of unfavorable market fluctuations in the price of commodities such as refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil. We endeavor to minimize commodity risk in connection with our daily operations through hedging by the use of exchange-traded futures contracts on regulated exchanges or using other over-the-counter derivatives, and then lift hedges as we sell the product for physical delivery to third parties. Products are generally purchased and sold at spot market prices, fixed prices or indexed prices, with certain adjustments based on quality and freight due to location differences and prevailing supply and demand conditions, as well as other factors. While we use these transactions to seek to maintain a position that is substantially balanced within our commodity product purchase and sales activities, we may experience net unbalanced positions for short periods of time as a result of variances in daily purchases and sales and transportation and delivery schedules as well as other logistical issues inherent in our businesses, such as weather conditions. In connection with managing these positions, we are aided by maintaining a constant presence in the marketplace. We also engage in a controlled trading program for up to an aggregate of 250,000 barrels of commodity products at any one point in time. Our policy is generally to purchase only products for which we have a market and to structure our sales contracts so that price fluctuations do not materially affect our profit. While our policies

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are designed to minimize market risk, as well as inherent basis risk, exposure to fluctuations in market conditions remains.

In addition, because a portion of our crude oil business may be conducted in Canadian dollars, we may use foreign currency derivatives to minimize the risks of unfavorable exchange rates. These instruments may include foreign currency exchange contracts and forwards. In conjunction with entering into the commodity derivative, we may enter into a foreign currency derivative to hedge the resulting foreign currency risk. These foreign currency derivatives are generally short-term in nature and not designated for hedge accounting.

Operating results are sensitive to a number of factors. Such factors include commodity location, grades of product, individual customer demand for grades or location of product, localized market price structures, availability of transportation facilities, daily delivery volumes that vary from expected quantities and timing and costs to deliver the commodity to the customer. Basis risk is the inherent market price risk created when a commodity of a certain grade or location is purchased, sold or exchanged as compared to a purchase, sale or exchange of a commodity at a different time or place, including transportation costs and timing differentials. We attempt to reduce our exposure to basis risk by grouping our purchase and sale activities by geographical region and commodity quality in order to stay balanced within such designated region. However, basis risk cannot be entirely eliminated, and basis exposure, particularly in backward markets (when prices for future deliveries are lower than current prices) or other adverse market conditions, can adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

With respect to the pricing of commodities, we utilize exchange-traded futures contracts and other derivative instruments to minimize or hedge the impact of commodity price changes on our inventories and forward fixed price commitments. Any hedge ineffectiveness is reflected in our results of operations. We utilize regulated exchanges, including the NYMEX, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (“CME”) and the Intercontinental-Exchange (“ICE”), which are exchanges for the respective commodities that each trades, thereby reducing potential delivery and supply risks. Generally, our practice is to close all exchange positions rather than to make or receive physical deliveries.

We monitor processes and procedures to prevent unauthorized trading by our personnel and to maintain substantial balance between purchases and sales or future delivery obligations. We can provide no assurance, however, that these steps will eliminate commodity risk or detect and prevent all violations of such trading processes and procedures, particularly if deception or other intentional misconduct is involved.

In our Wholesale segment, we obtain Renewable Identification Numbers (“RINs”) in connection with our purchase of ethanol which is used for bulk trading purposes or for blending with gasoline through our terminal system. A RIN is a renewable identification number associated with government-mandated renewable fuel standards. To evidence that the required volume of renewable fuel is blended with gasoline, obligated parties must retire sufficient RINs to cover their Renewable Volume Obligation (“RVO”). Our U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) obligations relative to renewable fuel reporting are comprised of foreign gasoline and diesel that we may import and blending operations at certain facilities. As a wholesaler of transportation fuels through our terminals, we separate RINs from renewable fuel through blending with gasoline and can use those separated RINs to settle our RVO. While the annual compliance period for the RVO is a calendar year and the settlement of the RVO typically occurs by March 31 of the following year, the settlement of the RVO can occur, under certain EPA deferral actions, more than one year after the close of the compliance period. Our Wholesale segment operating results may be sensitive to the timing associated with our RIN position relative to our RVO at a point in time, and we may recognize a mark-to-market liability for a shortfall in RINs at the end of each reporting period. To the extent that we do not have a sufficient number of RINs to satisfy our RVO as of the balance sheet date, we charge cost of sales for such deficiency based on the market price of the RINs as of the balance sheet date and record a liability representing our obligation to purchase RINs. Our 2016 RIN obligation may change due to a court decision requiring the EPA to revise the calculation methodology for determining the 2016 renewable fuel obligation. In 2019, the EPA proposed a rule that would retain the 2016 obligation, though the agency continues to assess how to proceed. A coalition of agriculture and biofuels groups have filed suit, seeking a court order to force EPA to revise its calculation of the 2016 obligations. However, we do not believe that any impacts associated with any such change will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

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For more information about our policies and procedures to minimize our exposure to market risk, including commodity market risk, please read Part II, Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

Competition

In each of our operating segments, we encounter varying degrees of competition based on product and geographic locations and available logistics. Our competitors include terminal companies, major integrated oil companies and their marketing affiliates, wholesalers, producers and independent marketers of varying sizes, financial resources and experience. In our markets, we compete in various product lines and for all customers. In the residual oil markets, however, where product is heated when stored and cannot be delivered long distances, we face less competition because of the strategic locations of our residual oil storage facilities. We supply oil to industrial, commercial and marine customers. We compete with other transloaders in our logistics activities including, in part, storage and transportation of renewable fuels, gasoline and gasoline blendstocks, crude oil and the movement of product by alternative means (e.g., pipelines). We also compete with natural gas suppliers and marketers in our home heating oil and residual oil product lines. Bunkering requires facilities at ports to service vessels. In various other geographic markets, particularly with respect to unbranded gasoline and distillates markets, we compete with integrated refiners, merchant refiners and regional marketing companies. Our retail gasoline stations compete with unbranded and branded retail gasoline stations as well as supermarket and warehouse stores that sell gasoline, and our convenience stores compete with other convenience store chains, independent convenience stores, supermarkets, drugstores, discount warehouse clubs, motor fuel stations, mass merchants, fast food operations and other similar retail outlets.

Employees and Human Capital

To carry out our operations, our general partner and certain of our operating subsidiaries employed a total of approximately 3,540 employees, including approximately 2,375 full-time employees as of December 31, 2020, of which approximately 105 employees were represented by labor unions under collective bargaining agreements with various expiration dates. We believe we have good relations with our employees.

Our values and culture are key to our ability to attract, hire and retain skilled and talented employees for our businesses. Those values, that culture and our employees are critical to our success as we build and sustain our company. We offer competitive compensation and benefit programs to motivate and reward performance.

We also value diversity throughout or organization and continuously look to extend our diversity and inclusion initiatives across the workforce. We believe our employees embody our core values of integrity, quality, commitment and innovation and, in doing so, contribute to our long-standing character and reputation.

We maintain an environment of open communications where the contributions of all employees are valued. We encourage many forms of company-wide communications, including town hall meetings. Our culture is founded upon core principles of respect, fair treatment and providing equal opportunities for our workforce.

Safeguarding the health and safety of our employees is our first and foremost priority. We are committed to providing a safe working environment for all our employees and operating in a safe and environmentally sound manner. We support our local communities and we are working to obtain sustainability throughout the company. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have remained focused on safeguarding the health of our employees by implementing new safety protocols and procedures across all our offices and facilities. We continuously monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our employees and proactively modify and adopt new measures and practices for the health and safety of our employees and in response to applicable laws.

We operate in an evolving regulatory environment and our operations are subject to numerous and varying regulatory requirements. We proactively manage compliance and work collaboratively with stakeholder groups, including government agencies and committees in this endeavor.

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Title to Properties, Permits and Licenses

We believe we have all of the assets needed, including leases, permits and licenses, to operate our businesses in all material respects. With respect to any consents, permits or authorizations that have not been obtained, we believe that the failure to obtain these consents, permits or authorizations will have no material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

We believe we have satisfactory title to all of our assets. Title to property, including certain sites within our GDSO segment, may be subject to encumbrances, including repurchase rights and use, operating and environmental covenants and restrictions. We believe that none of these encumbrances will materially detract from the value of our properties or from our interest in these properties, nor will they materially interfere with the use of these properties in the operation of our businesses.

The name GLOBAL®, our Global logos and the name Global Petroleum Corp.® are our trademarks. In addition, we have trademarks for our premium fuels and additives: Heating Oil Plus™ and the Heating Oil Plus® logo, SubZero® and the SubZero® logo, Diesel One® and the Diesel One® logo, Diesel 1®, the Diesel 1™ logo and the tagline Legacy.Technology.Performance.®. Our Global online customer portal for buying, bidding and contract management is operated under the name GlobalCONNECT™.

We also use the following trademarks for our convenience store business: ALLTOWN®, ALLTOWN INSIDERS®, ALLTOWN FRESH® and the ALLTOWN FRESH® logos, YOUR TOWN.MYTOWN.ALLTOWN!®, ALLTOWN MARKET®, CENTRE ST. KITCHEN®, Buck Stop®, Fast Freddie’s®, Mr. Mike’s®, Deli Joe’s® and the Deli Joe’s® logo, Diamond Fuels®, Xtra® and the XtraCafé® logo, Xtra Mart® and the Xtramart® logo, the Honey Farms® logo, Honey Money® and the Honey Money® logo.

Facilities

We lease office space for our principal executive office in Waltham, Massachusetts. This lease expires on July 31, 2026 with extension options through July 31, 2036. In addition, we lease office space in Branford, Connecticut. This lease expires on July 31, 2024 with extension options through July 31, 2034.

Environmental

General

Our businesses of supplying primarily refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil involve a number of activities that are subject to extensive and stringent environmental laws. In addition, these laws are frequently modified or revised to impose new obligations.

Our operations use a number of petroleum and other products storage and distribution facilities. These facilities include rail transloading facilities and gasoline stations that we do not own or operate, but at which refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil are stored. We use these facilities through several different contractual arrangements, including leases and throughput and terminalling services agreements. If facilities with which we contract that are owned and operated by third parties fail to comply with environmental laws, they could be shut down or their operations could be compromised, requiring us to incur costs to use alternative facilities.

State, federal, and municipal laws and regulations, including, without limitation, those governing environmental matters can restrict or impact our business activities in many ways, such as:

requiring remedial action to mitigate releases of hydrocarbons, hazardous substances or wastes caused by our operations or attributable to former operators;
requiring our operations to obtain, maintain and renew permits which can obligate us to incur capital expenditures to comply with environmental control requirements and which may restrict our operations;

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enjoining the operations of facilities found to be noncompliant with applicable laws and regulations; and
inability to renew, modify or obtain permits on terms and conditions that are satisfactory to maintain existing operations, to modify and/or expand existing operations and to conduct new operations.

Any such failures to comply may also trigger administrative, civil and possibly criminal enforcement measures, including monetary penalties and remedial requirements. Certain statutes impose strict, joint and several liability for costs required to clean up and restore sites where hydrocarbons, hazardous substances or wastes have been released or disposed of. Moreover, neighboring landowners and other third parties may file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by the release of hydrocarbons, hazardous substances or other wastes into the environment.

Our operating permits are subject to modification, renewal and revocation. We regularly monitor and review our operations, procedures and policies for compliance with permits, laws and regulations. Risk of noncompliance, permit interpretation, permit modification, renewal of permits on less favorable terms, judicial or administrative challenges of permits or permit revocation are inherent in the operation of our businesses, as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses.

The trend in environmental regulation has been to place more restrictions and limitations on activities that may affect the environment over time. As a result, there can be no assurance as to the amount or timing of future expenditures for environmental compliance or remediation, and actual future expenditures may be different from the amounts we currently anticipate. We try to anticipate future regulatory requirements that might be imposed and plan accordingly to remain in compliance with changing environmental laws and regulations and minimize the costs of such compliance.

We do not believe that compliance with federal, state or municipal laws, including environmental laws and regulations will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders. We can provide no assurance, however, that future events, such as changes in existing laws (including changes in the interpretation of existing laws), the promulgation of new laws, or the development or discovery of new facts or conditions will not cause us to incur significant costs or will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

For additional information concerning certain environmental proceedings, please read Notes 14 and 23 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Hazardous Substance Releases and Waste Handling

Our businesses are subject to laws that relate to the release of hazardous substances into the water, air or soils and require, among other things, measures to control pollution of the environment. For instance, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended, also known as CERCLA or the Superfund law, and comparable state laws impose liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of hazardous substances into the environment. Under the Superfund law, these persons may be subject to joint and several liability for the costs of cleaning up hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. In the course of our ordinary operations, we may generate, store or otherwise handle materials and wastes that fall within the Superfund law’s definition of a hazardous substance and, as a result, we may be jointly and severally liable under the Superfund law for all or part of the costs required to clean up sites at which those hazardous substances have been released into the environment. Under these laws, we could be required to remove or remediate previously disposed wastes, including wastes disposed of or released by prior owners or operators, clean up contaminated property, including groundwater contaminated by prior owners or operators, or make capital improvements to prevent future contamination.

Our operations generate a variety of wastes, including some hazardous wastes that are subject to the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (“RCRA”) and comparable state laws. These regulations impose detailed requirements for the handling, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. Our operations also generate solid wastes which are regulated under state law or the less stringent solid waste requirements of the federal Solid Waste

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Disposal Act. We believe that our operations are in substantial compliance with the existing requirements of RCRA, the Solid Waste Disposal Act and similar state and municipal laws, and the cost involved in complying with these requirements is not material. We also incur ongoing costs for monitoring groundwater and/or remediation of contamination at several facilities that we operate.

We believe we are in substantial compliance with applicable hazardous substance releases and waste handling requirements related to our operations. We do not believe that compliance with federal, state or municipal hazardous substance releases and waste handling regulations will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders. However, these and future statutes, regulatory changes or initiatives regarding hazardous substance releases and waste handling could directly and indirectly increase our operating and compliance costs. We cannot assure that costs incurred to comply with standards and regulations emerging from these and future rulemakings will not be material to our businesses, financial condition or results of operations.

Above Ground Storage Tanks

Above ground tanks that contain petroleum and other hazardous substances are subject to comprehensive regulation under environmental and other laws. Generally, these laws require secondary containment systems for tanks or that the operators take alternative precautions to ensure that no contamination results from tank leaks or spills and impose liability for releases from the tanks. We believe we are in substantial compliance with environmental laws and regulations applicable to above ground storage tanks.

Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”) and comparable state laws, responsible parties for a regulated facility from which products are spilled may be subject to strict, joint and several liability for removal costs and certain other consequences of any spill such as natural resource damages, where the spill is into navigable waters, groundwater or along shorelines and other resource areas, and damages to private properties.

Under the authority of the federal Clean Water Act, the EPA imposes specific requirements for Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure Plans and Facility Response Plans that are designed to prevent, and minimize the impacts of, releases of oil and other products from above ground storage tanks. We believe we are in substantial compliance with regulations pursuant to OPA, the Clean Water Act and similar state laws. We follow the American Petroleum Institute’s inspection, maintenance and repair standard applicable to our above ground storage tanks.

Underground Storage Tanks

We are required to make financial expenditures to comply with regulations governing underground storage tanks (“USTs”) which store gasoline or other regulated substances adopted by federal, state and municipal regulatory agencies. Pursuant to RCRA, the EPA has established a comprehensive regulatory program for the detection, prevention, investigation and cleanup of leaking USTs. State or local agencies may be delegated the responsibility for implementing the federal program or developing and implementing equivalent or stricter state or local regulations. We have a comprehensive program in place for performing routine tank testing and other compliance activities which are intended to promptly detect and investigate any potential releases. We believe we are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental requirements, including those applicable to our USTs. Compliance with existing and future environmental laws regulating UST systems of the kind we use may require significant capital expenditures in the future. These expenditures may include upgrades, modifications, and the replacement of USTs and related piping to comply with current and future regulatory requirements designed to ensure the detection, prevention, investigation and remediation of leaks and spills.

Water Discharges

The federal Clean Water Act imposes restrictions regarding the discharge of pollutants, including oil and refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil, into waters of the United States. This law and comparable state laws may require permits for discharging pollutants into state and federal waters, including certain underground sources, and impose substantial liabilities and remedial obligations for noncompliance. We hold these discharge permits for our facilities, as applicable. These state and federal laws are subject to uncertainty due to

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ongoing proposed regulatory revisions, ongoing litigation and the current change in federal administration. This uncertainty extends to, among other regulatory provisions, the definition of waters of the United States, which has been the subject of several regulatory redefinitions in recent years (as well as ongoing litigation), potential changes in regulated pollutants and applicable standards and the regulation of discharges to groundwater, all of which could expand jurisdiction or restrict discharges due to revised standards. This regulatory uncertainty may result in a need for additional or amended permits in areas that were not formerly subject to the Clean Water Act, which may impact operations in the future.

EPA regulations also may require us to obtain permits to discharge certain storm water runoff. Storm water discharge permits also may be required by certain states in which we operate. We believe that we hold the required permits and operate in material compliance with those permits. While we have experienced periodic permit discharge exceedences at some of our terminals, we do not expect any noncompliance with existing permits and foreseeable new permit requirements to have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Air Emissions

Under the federal Clean Air Act (the “CAA”) and comparable state and local laws, permits are typically required to emit regulated air pollutants into the atmosphere above certain thresholds. We believe that we currently hold or have applied for all necessary air permits and that we are in substantial compliance with applicable air laws and regulations. Although we can give no assurances, we are aware of no changes to air quality regulations that will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Various federal, state and municipal agencies have the authority to prescribe product quality specifications for the petroleum products and renewable fuels that we sell, largely in an effort to reduce air pollution. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in substantial penalties. Although we can give no assurances, we believe we are currently in substantial compliance with these regulations.

Changes in product quality specifications could require us to incur additional handling costs or reduce our throughput volume. For instance, different product specifications for different markets, such as sulfur content for transportation fuels and home heating fuels, could require the construction of additional storage.

In addition, the CAA and similar state laws impose requirements on emissions to the air from motor fueling activities in certain areas of the country, including those that do not meet state or national ambient air quality standards. These laws may require the installation of vapor recovery systems to control emissions of volatile organic compounds to the air during the motor fueling process.

In November 2015, the EPA also revised the existing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (“NAAQS”) for ground-level ozone, which made the standard more stringent. Nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds are recognized as precursors of ozone, and emissions of those materials are associated with mobile sources and the petroleum industry. A designation of nonattainment can lead the governing state to issue more stringent limits on existing sources of those precursor pollutants within the designated nonattainment area. Also, a nonattainment designation may increase the burdens on permitting new activities in those areas. The EPA completed area designations for the 2015 ozone standards in July 2018. States with areas designated nonattainment have at least two years from the effective date of the nonattainment designation to submit any required State Implementation Plan revisions. While the full extent of the impacts of this new standard are not clear, the finalized nonattainment designations have the potential to have a material impact on our operations and cost-structure, which will be determined on an individual permit by permit basis as States finalize State Implementation Plan revisions.

Climate Change

The threat of climate change continues to attract considerable attention in the United States and in foreign countries. In the United States, no comprehensive climate change legislation has been implemented at the federal level;

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however, President Biden has indicated that addressing climate change will be a focus of his administration, and several states have implemented their own efforts to curb greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions. To the extent that our operations are subject to restrictions on GHG emissions, we may face increased capital and operating costs associated with new or expanded facilities. Significant expansions of our existing facilities or construction of new facilities may be subject to the CAA’s requirements for review of pollutants regulated under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V programs. Some of our facilities and operations are also subject to the EPA’s Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule, and any further regulation may increase our operational costs. Some states in which we do business, including New York, have enacted measures requiring regulatory agencies to consider potential sea level rise in the performance of their regulatory duties.

The EPA has proposed or finalized New Source Performance Standards (“NSPS”) for a number of emissions categories, including methane and volatile organic compound emissions from certain activities in the oil and gas production sector. Although the Trump administration reduced certain of these requirements, President Biden has issued an executive order calling for the development of new or more stringent emissions standards for new, modified, and existing sources in the oil and gas sector, including those involved in transportation and storage. These rules, if enacted, could impose new compliance costs and additional permitting burdens on upstream oil and gas operations, which could in turn affect the companies that produce the products that we transport. Currently, however, it is not possible to estimate the likely financial impact of potential future regulation on our operations.

Under Subpart MM of the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule (“MRR”), importers and exporters of petroleum products, including distillates and natural gas liquids, must report the GHG emissions that would result from the complete combustion of all imported and exported products if such combustion would result in the emission of at least 25,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. We currently report under Subpart MM because of the volume of petroleum products we typically import. Compliance with the MRR does not substantially impact our operations. However, any change in regulations based on GHG emissions reported in compliance with MRR may limit our ability to import petroleum products or increase our costs to import such products.

The EPA has also issued Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”) standards to regulate emissions of GHGs from the use of fossil fuels for mobile sources. Generally, the CAFE standards have incremental annual increases; however, in recent years, significant regulatory changes and related litigation have cast uncertainty on the pace of state and federal efforts to further accelerate fuel economy objectives, which are tied to regulatory strategies to reduce vehicle emissions. In April 2020, the EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) finalized a rule to fix the CAFE standards at 2020 levels through at least 2026; however, this rulemaking also revoked California’s authority to set its own fuel economy standards, which are as strict, and often stricter, than the federal standards. The April 2020 rulemaking may be the subject of litigation, and President Biden has signed an executive order calling for the suspension, revision, or rescission of this rule. Additionally, various state and regional programs have been proposed which would curtail or prevent the sale of new gasoline-powered personal vehicles in their jurisdictions within identified time periods. Such programs to achieve reductions in emissions of GHGs from the operation of motor vehicles may be required, which may reduce demand for our products and services.

Overall, there has been a trend towards increased regulation of GHGs and initiatives, both domestically and internationally, to limit GHG emissions. Future efforts to limit emissions associated with transportation fuels and heating fuels could reduce the market for, or effect pricing of, our products, and thus adversely impact our businesses. For example, at the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, the United States and nearly 200 other nations entered into an international climate agreement. Although this agreement does not create any binding obligations for nations to limit their GHG emissions, it does include pledges to voluntarily limit or reduce future emissions. Although the United States had withdrawn from the Paris Agreement, President Biden has signed an executive order recommitting the United States to the Paris Agreement. The impacts of this order, and of any legislation or regulation that may be passed to implement the United States’ commitment under the Paris Agreement, are unclear at this time.

In the Northeast and mid-Atlantic, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Washington, D.C. and Rhode Island have entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) to implement the Transportation and Climate Initiative program (“TCI”). The MOU calls for those jurisdictions to set a cap on CO2 emissions from the transportation sector by 2023 and

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introduces a process for auctioning allowances. Many important details of the TCI are not yet finalized including the identity of the State fuel suppliers who will be responsible to obtain CO2 allowances. It remains to be seen how the various jurisdictions will implement the MOU. The obligation to purchase allowances and perform the required reporting may entail considerable cost and expense and may have an adverse impact on our operations. 

Separately, it should be noted that many scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHG in the earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other climatic events. If any of those effects were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our assets and operations. In addition, various suits have been filed, alleging that certain companies created public nuisances by producing fuels that contributed to climate change, or alleging that such companies have been aware of the adverse impacts of climate change for some time but failed to adequately disclose such impacts to their investors or customers. Any such litigation could have an adverse effect on operations in the future.

There are increasing financial risks associated with our operations. Activists concerned about the potential effects of climate change have, in certain instances, directed their attention at sources of funding for energy companies whose businesses are related to the use of fossil fuels. Additionally, the Federal Reserve has joined the Network for Greening the Financial System (“NGFS”), a network of financial regulators committed to addressing climate-related risks in the financial system. While the impacts of the Federal Reserve joining the NGFS are uncertain, financial institutions may be required to adopt policies that could have the effect of reducing funding available to the fossil fuel industry. This could make it more difficult to secure funding.

Convenience Store Regulations

Our convenience store operations are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations that include legal restrictions on the sale of alcohol, tobacco and lottery products, food labelling, safety and health requirements and public accessibility, as well as sanitation, environmental, safety and fire standards. State and local regulatory agencies have the authority to approve, revoke, suspend or deny applications for, and renewals of, permits and licenses. Our operations are also subject to federal and state laws governing matters such as wage rates, overtime, working conditions and citizenship requirements. At the federal level, there are proposals under consideration from time to time to increase minimum wage rates and to introduce a system of mandated health insurance, each of which could adversely affect our results of operations.

In June 2009, Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (“FSPTCA”) which gave the FDA broad authority to regulate tobacco and nicotine products. Under the FSPTCA, the FDA has enacted numerous regulations restricting the sale of such products to anyone under the age of 18 years (state laws are permitted to set a higher minimum age); prohibit the sale of single cigarettes or packs with less than 20 cigarettes; and prohibit the sale or distribution of non-tobacco items such as hats and t-shirts with tobacco brands, names or logos. These governmental actions, as well as national, state and municipal campaigns to discourage smoking, tax increases, and imposition of regulations restricting the sale of e-cigarettes and vapor products, have and could result in reduced consumption levels, higher costs which we may not be able to pass on to our customers, and reduced overall customer traffic. Also, increasing regulations related to and restricting the sale of vapor products and e-cigarettes may offset some of the gains we have experienced from selling these types of products. These factors could materially affect the sale of this product mix which in turn could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Ethanol Market

The market for ethanol is dependent on several economic incentives and regulatory mandates for blending ethanol into gasoline, including the availability of federal tax incentives, ethanol use mandates and oxygenate blending requirements. For instance, the Renewable Fuels Standard (“RFS”) requires that a certain amount of renewable fuels, such as ethanol, be utilized in transportation fuels, including gasoline, in the United States each year. Additionally, the EPA imposes oxygenate blending requirements for reformulated gasoline that are best met with ethanol blending. Gasoline marketers may also choose to discretionally blend ethanol into conventional gasoline for economic reasons. A change or waiver of the RFS mandate or the reformulated gasoline oxygenate blending requirements could adversely

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affect the availability and pricing of ethanol. Any change in the RFS mandate could also result in reduced discretionary blending of ethanol into conventional gasoline.

In addition, the EPA has not set the biofuels mandate for 2021 for any renewable fuel other than biodiesel. President Biden’s administration will need to determine the mandated amounts of conventional and advanced biofuels for 2021. This decision and the resolution of the questions relating to small refinery waivers could have a significant impact on the amount of RINs needed and their pricing, which could in turn increase our costs of RFS compliance and operations.

Environmental Insurance

We maintain insurance which may cover, in whole or in part, certain costs relating to environmental matters associated with releases of products we store, sell and/or ship. We maintain insurance policies with insurers in amounts and with coverage and deductibles we believe are reasonable and prudent. These policies may not cover all environmental risks and costs and may not provide sufficient coverage in the event an environmental claim is made against us.

Security Regulation

Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, the U.S. government has issued warnings that energy infrastructure assets may be future targets of terrorist organizations. These developments have subjected our operations to increased risks. Increased security measures taken by us as a precaution against possible terrorist attacks have resulted in increased costs to our businesses. Where required by federal or municipal laws, we have prepared security plans for the storage and distribution facilities we operate. Terrorist attacks aimed at our facilities and any global and domestic economic repercussions from terrorist activities could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. For instance, terrorist activity could lead to increased volatility in prices for home heating oil, gasoline and other products we sell.

Insurance carriers are currently required to offer coverage for terrorist activities as a result of the federal Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (“TRIA”). Pursuant to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015, TRIA has been extended through December 31, 2027. We elect to purchase terrorism coverage through a stand-alone insurance program for both liability and property. Although we cannot determine the future availability and cost of insurance coverage for terrorist acts, we do not expect the availability and cost of such insurance to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Hazardous Materials Transportation

Our operations include the preparation and shipment of some hazardous materials by truck, rail, marine vessel and/or pipeline. We are subject to regulations promulgated under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (and subsequent amendments) and administered by the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”) under the Federal Highway Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, the United States Coast Guard and the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (“PHMSA”).

We conduct loading and unloading of primarily refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil to and from cargo transports, including tanker trucks, railcars, marine vessels and pipelines. In large part, the cargo transports are owned and operated by third parties. In addition, we lease a fleet of railcars and charter barges associated with the shipment of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil. We conduct ongoing training programs to help ensure that our operations are in compliance with applicable regulations.

The trend in hazardous material transportation is to increase oversight and regulation of these operations. These regulations address: the testing and ensuing designations of crude oil; the safety of tank cars that are used in transporting crude oil and other flammable or petroleum type liquids by rail, including the phase out of DOT-111 tank cars that have not been retro-fitted; braking standards for certain trains; new operational protocols for trains transporting large volumes of flammable liquids, such as routing requirements, speed restrictions and the provision of information to local

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government agencies; and comprehensive oil spill response plans for any railroad that transports liquid petroleum oil in a single train carrying either a continuous block of 20 or more loaded tank cars or 35 or more loaded tank cars in total. PHMSA recently withdrew an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking announcing potential revisions of the Hazardous Materials Regulations to establish vapor pressure limits for the transportation of crude oil and potentially all Class 3 flammable liquid hazardous materials. This or other regulations regarding the movement of hazardous liquids by rail may be pursued by the Biden Administration. In addition to action taken or proposed by federal agencies, a number of states have proposed or enacted laws in recent years that encourage safer rail operations or urge the federal government to enhance requirements for these operations.

Regulations for rail transport are similar in Canada, though specific requirements may vary. Transport Canada has implemented regulations imposing speed limit restrictions on certain trains carrying hazardous materials in highly populated areas, requiring railways to give municipalities and first responders more information about the hazardous materials they carry, requiring that approved Emergency Response Assistance Plans be in place prior to transporting certain quantities of dangerous goods, and requiring railways to carry minimum levels of insurance depending on the quantity of crude oil or dangerous goods that they transport.

We believe we are in substantial compliance with applicable hazardous materials transportation requirements related to our operations. We do not believe that compliance with federal, state or municipal hazardous materials transportation regulations will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash available for distribution to our unitholders. However, these and future statutes, regulatory changes or initiatives regarding hazardous material transportation, could directly and indirectly increase our operation, compliance and transportation costs and lead to shortages in availability of tank cars. We cannot assure that costs incurred to comply with standards and regulations emerging from these and future rulemakings will not be material to our businesses, financial condition or results of operations. Furthermore, we can provide no assurance that future events, such as changes in existing laws (including changes in the interpretation of existing laws), the promulgation of new laws and regulations, including any voluntary measures by the rail industry, that result in new requirements for the design, construction or operation of tank cars used to transport crude oil or other products, or, or the development or discovery of new facts or conditions will not cause us to incur significant costs. Any such requirements would apply to the industry as a whole.

Employee Safety

We are subject to the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (“OSHA”) and comparable state statutes that regulate the protection of the health and safety of workers. In addition, OSHA’s hazard communication standard requires that information be maintained about hazardous materials used or produced in operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local government authorities and citizens. We believe that we are in substantial compliance with the applicable OSHA requirements.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Summary of Risk Factors

We are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation risks related to (i) our businesses and underlying regulations governing our operations, (ii) changes in the regulatory and permitting environment, (iii) environmental risks, (iv) tax matters and (v) the COVID-19 pandemic, each of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. Additional discussion of these risks, and other risks that we face, can be found below.

The COVID-19 pandemic and certain developments in global oil markets have had, and may continue to have, material adverse consequences for general economic, financial and business conditions.
We may not have sufficient cash from operations to enable us to pay distributions on our Series A preferred units or maintain distributions on our common units at current levels.
Certain of our financial results are subject to seasonality.
Our debt levels may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing and in pursuing other business

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opportunities.
Our risk management policies cannot eliminate all commodity risk, basis risk or the impact of unfavorable market conditions. In addition, any noncompliance with our risk management policies could result in significant financial losses.
We are exposed to trade credit risk and risk associated with our trade credit support in the ordinary course of our business activities.
Higher prices, new technology and alternative fuels, such as electric, hybrid, battery powered, hydrogen or other alternative fuel-powered motor vehicles, and energy efficiency could reduce demand for our products.
We depend upon marine, pipeline, rail and truck transportation services for logistics activities. Implementation of regulations and directives related to these transportation services as well as disruption in any of these transportation services could adversely affect our logistics activities.
Changes in government usage mandates and tax credits could adversely affect the availability and pricing of ethanol and renewable fuels, which could negatively impact our sales.
We may not be able to obtain state fund or insurance reimbursement of our environmental remediation costs.
Our results can be adversely affected by unforeseen events, such as adverse weather, natural disasters, terrorism, pandemics or other catastrophic events.
Our businesses are subject to federal, state and municipal environmental and non-environmental regulations which could have a material adverse effect on such businesses.
New, stricter environmental laws and other industry-related regulations or environmental litigation could significantly impact our operations and/or increase our costs.
Our operations are subject to a series of risks arising from climate change.
We depend on unionized labor for the operation of certain of our terminals. Any work stoppages or labor disturbances at these terminals could disrupt our businesses.
Our general partner and its affiliates have conflicts of interest and limited fiduciary duties, which could permit them to favor their own interests to the detriment of our unitholders.
Our tax treatment depends on our status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
Unitholders may be required to pay taxes on their share of our income even if they do not receive any cash distributions from us.

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic and certain developments in global oil markets have had, and may continue to have, material adverse consequences for general economic, financial and business conditions, and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation and those of our customers, suppliers and other counterparties.

The COVID-19 pandemic across the United States and the responses of governmental bodies (federal, state and municipal), companies and individuals, including mandated and/or voluntary restrictions to mitigate the spread of the virus, have caused a significant economic downturn. Because there are fewer people commuting to and from work and elsewhere, fewer people traveling, fewer people on the road to purchase goods or services, and fewer companies engaged in their traditional business activities who would otherwise seek such goods and/or services, there has been a decline in the demand for the products we sell and the services we provide. These declines may be further impacted by world-wide events related to the production of crude oil and the pricing of that product.

There is continuing uncertainty surrounding the short-term and long-term impacts of COVID-19 to the national and state economies. The inability to project a timely economic recovery and/or the extent of same on each of a national, state and regional basis remain prevalent. Any prolonged period of economic distress and/or prolonged and disparate periods of economic recovery have had and could continue to have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of

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operation and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. These events could also have or cause significant adverse effects on the financial condition of our counterparties, suppliers of goods and services we purchase, and purchasers of customers of the goods and services we sell, resulting in disruption to and a decline in our business activities resulting in an adverse impact to our financial condition and results of operations.

Any of the foregoing events or conditions, or other unforeseen consequences of COVID-19 and certain developments in global oil markets, could significantly adversely affect our business and financial condition and the business and financial condition of our customers, suppliers and counterparties. The ultimate extent of the impact of COVID-19 on our business, financial condition and results of operations depends in large part on future developments which are uncertain and cannot be predicted with any certainty at this time. That uncertainty includes the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, the geographic regions so impacted, the extent of such impact within specific boundaries of those areas and the impact to the local, state and national economies.

To the extent COVID-19 and certain developments in global oil markets adversely affect our business activities, financial condition and results of operations, the COVID-19 pandemic and such developments in global oil markets may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risk factors described herein.

Risks Related to Our Business

We may not have sufficient cash from operations to enable us to pay distributions on our Series A preferred units or maintain distributions on our common units at current levels following establishment of cash reserves and payment of fees and expenses, including payments to our general partner.

We may not have sufficient available cash each quarter to pay distributions on our Series A preferred units and maintain distributions on our common units at current levels. The amount of cash we can distribute on our units principally depends upon the amount of cash we generate from our operations, which will fluctuate from quarter to quarter based on, among other things:

competition from other companies that sell refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil and convenience store items and sundries;
demand for refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil in the markets we serve;
absolute price levels, as well as the volatility of prices, of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, RINs and crude oil in both the spot and futures markets;
supply, extreme weather and logistics disruptions;
seasonal variation in temperatures which affects demand for home heating oil and residual oil to the extent that it is used for space heating;
the level of our operating costs, including payments to our general partner; and
prevailing economic conditions.

In addition, the actual amount of cash we have available for distribution will depend on other factors such as:

the level of capital expenditures we make;
the restrictions contained in our credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes, including financial covenants, borrowing base limitations and advance rates;

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distributions paid on our Series A preferred units;
our debt service requirements;
the cost of acquisitions;
fluctuations in our working capital needs;
our ability to borrow under our credit agreement to make distributions to our unitholders; and
the amount of cash reserves established by our general partner.

The amount of cash we have available for distribution to unitholders depends on our cash flow and does not depend solely on profitability.

The amount of cash we have available for distribution depends primarily on our cash flow, including borrowings, and does not depend solely on profitability. Our cash flow will be affected by non-cash items. As a result, we may make cash distributions during periods when we record losses and may not make cash distributions during periods when we record net income.

We may not be able to fully implement or capitalize upon planned growth projects.

We could have a number of organic growth projects that may require the expenditure of significant amounts of capital in the aggregate. Many of these projects involve numerous regulatory, environmental, commercial and legal uncertainties beyond our control. As these projects are undertaken, required approvals, permits and licenses may not be obtained, may be delayed or may be obtained with conditions that materially alter the expected return associated with the underlying projects. Moreover, revenues associated with these organic growth projects may not increase immediately upon the expenditures of funds with respect to a particular project and these projects may be completed behind schedule or in excess of budgeted cost. We may pursue and complete projects in anticipation of market demand that dissipates or market growth that never materializes. As a result of these uncertainties, the anticipated benefits associated with our capital projects may not be achieved.

We commit substantial resources to pursuing acquisitions and expending capital for growth projects, although there is no certainty that we will successfully complete any acquisitions or growth projects or receive the economic results we anticipate from completed acquisitions or growth projects.

We are continuously engaged in discussions with potential sellers and lessors of existing (or suitable for development) terminalling, storage, logistics and/or marketing assets, including gasoline stations, convenience stores and related businesses. Our growth largely depends on our ability to make accretive acquisitions and/or accretive development projects. We may be unable to execute such accretive transactions for a number of reasons, including the following: (1) we are unable to identify attractive transaction candidates or negotiate acceptable terms; (2) we are unable to obtain financing for such transactions on economically acceptable terms; or (3) we are outbid by competitors. In addition, we may consummate transactions that at the time of consummation we believe will be accretive but that ultimately may not be accretive. If any of these events were to occur, our future growth and ability to increase or maintain distributions on our common units could be limited. We can give no assurance that our transaction efforts will be successful or that any such efforts will be completed on terms that are favorable to us.

Even if we consummate acquisitions that we believe will be accretive, they may in fact result in no increase or even a decrease in cash available for distribution to our unitholders. Any acquisition involves potential risks, including:

performance from the acquired assets and businesses that is below the forecasts we used in evaluating the acquisition;

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mistaken assumptions about price, demand, volumes, revenues and costs, including synergies;
a significant increase in our indebtedness and working capital requirements;
an inability to hire, train or retain qualified personnel to manage and operate our businesses and newly acquired assets;
the inability to timely and effectively integrate the operations of recently acquired businesses or assets, particularly those in new geographic areas or in new lines of business;
mistaken assumptions about the overall costs of equity or debt;
the assumption of substantial unknown or unforeseen environmental and other liabilities arising out of the acquired businesses or assets, including liabilities arising from the operation of the acquired businesses or assets prior to our acquisition, for which we are not indemnified or for which the indemnity is inadequate;
limitations on rights to indemnity from the seller;
customer or key employee loss from the acquired businesses;
unforeseen difficulties operating in new and existing product areas or new and existing geographic areas; and
diversion of our management’s and employees’ attention from other business concerns.

If any acquisitions we ultimately consummate do not generate expected increases in cash available for distribution to our unitholders, our ability to increase or maintain distributions on our common units may be reduced.

Our gasoline financial results in our GDSO segment can be lower in the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year due to seasonal fluctuations in demand.

Due to the nature of our businesses and our reliance, in part, on consumer travel and spending patterns, we may experience more demand for gasoline during the late spring and summer months than during the fall and winter. Travel and recreational activities are typically higher in these months in the geographic areas in which we operate, increasing the demand for gasoline. Therefore, our results of operations in gasoline can be lower in the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on gasoline demand and in-store traffic, and the extent and duration of that impact is uncertain.

Our heating oil and residual oil financial results can be lower in the second and third quarters of the calendar year.

Demand for some refined petroleum products, specifically home heating oil and residual oil for space heating purposes, is generally higher during November through March than during April through October. We obtain a significant portion of these sales during the winter months. Therefore, our results of operations in heating oil and residual oil for the first and fourth calendar quarters can be better than for the second and third quarters.

Warmer weather conditions could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Weather conditions generally have an impact on the demand for both home heating oil and residual oil. Because we supply distributors whose customers depend on home heating oil and residual oil for space heating purposes during the winter, warmer-than-normal temperatures during the first and fourth calendar quarters can decrease the total volume we sell and the gross profit realized on those sales.

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A significant decrease in price or demand for the products we sell or a significant decrease in the pricing of and demand for our logistics activities could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.

A significant decrease in price or demand for the products we sell or a significant decrease in the pricing of and demand for our logistics activities could reduce our revenues and, therefore, reduce our ability to make distributions to our unitholders or increase distributions to our common unitholders. Factors that could lead to a decrease in market demand for products we sell, including refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil include:

a recession or other adverse economic conditions or an increase in the market price or of an oversupply of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil or higher taxes or other governmental or regulatory actions that increase, directly or indirectly, the cost of gasoline or other refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil;
a shift by consumers to more fuel-efficient or alternative fuel vehicles, including hybrids, or an increase in fuel economy of vehicles, whether as a result of technological advances by manufacturers, governmental or regulatory actions or otherwise; and
conversion from consumption of home heating oil or residual oil to natural gas and utilization of propane and/or natural gas (instead of heating oil) as primary fuel sources.

Certain of our operating costs and expenses are fixed and do not vary with the volumes we store and distribute. Should we experience a reduction in our volumes stored, distributed and sold and in our logistics activities, such costs and expenses may not decrease ratably or at all. As a result, we may experience declines in our margin if these volumes decrease. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on gasoline demand and in-store traffic, and the extent and duration of that impact is uncertain.

Our businesses are influenced by the overall markets for refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane and increases and/or decreases in the prices of these products may adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders and the amount of borrowing available for working capital under our credit agreement.

Results from our purchasing, storing, terminalling, transporting, selling and blending operations are influenced by prices for refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane, price volatility and the market for such products. Prices in the overall markets for these products may affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. Our margins can be significantly impacted by the forward product pricing curve, often referred to as the futures market. We typically hedge our exposure to petroleum product and renewable fuel price moves with futures contracts and, to a lesser extent, swaps. In markets where future prices are higher than current prices, referred to as contango, we may use our storage capacity to improve our margins by storing products we have purchased at lower prices in the current market for delivery to customers at higher prices in the future. In markets where future prices are lower than current prices, referred to as backwardation, inventories can depreciate in value and hedging costs are more expensive. For this reason, in these backward markets, we attempt to reduce our inventories in order to minimize these effects.

Our inventory management is dependent on the use of hedging instruments which are managed based on the structure of the forward pricing curve. Daily market changes may impact periodic results due to the point-in-time valuation of these positions. Volatility in oil markets may impact our results. When prices for the products we sell rise, some of our customers may have insufficient credit to purchase supply from us at their historical purchase volumes, and their customers, in turn, may adopt conservation measures which reduce consumption, thereby reducing demand for product. Furthermore, when prices increase rapidly and dramatically, we may be unable to promptly pass our additional costs on to our customers, resulting in lower margins which could adversely affect our results of operations. Higher prices for the products we sell may (1) diminish our access to trade credit support and/or cause it to become more

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expensive and (2) decrease the amount of borrowings available for working capital under our credit agreement as a result of total available commitments, borrowing base limitations and advance rates thereunder.

When prices for the products we sell decline, our exposure to risk of loss in the event of nonperformance by our customers of our forward contracts may be increased as they and/or their customers may breach their contracts and purchase the products we sell at the then lower market price from a competitor.

We have contractual obligations for certain transportation assets such as railcars, barges and pipelines.

A decline in demand for (i) the products we sell or (ii) our logistics activities, could result in a decrease in the utilization of our transportation assets, which could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

The condition of credit markets may adversely affect our liquidity.

In the past, world financial markets experienced a severe reduction in the availability of credit. Possible negative impacts in the future could include a decrease in the availability of borrowings under our credit agreement, increased counterparty credit risk on our derivatives contracts and our contractual counterparties could require us to provide collateral. In addition, we could experience a tightening of trade credit from our suppliers.

Our debt levels may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing and in pursuing other business opportunities.

As of December 31, 2020, our total debt, including amounts outstanding under our credit agreement and senior notes, was approximately $1.0 billion. We have the ability to incur additional debt, including the capacity to borrow up to $1.17 billion under our credit agreement, subject to limitations in our credit agreement. Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences to us, including the following:

our ability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes may be impaired or such financing may not be available on favorable terms;
covenants contained in our existing and future credit and debt arrangements will require us to meet financial tests that may affect our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our businesses, including possible acquisition opportunities;
we will need a substantial portion of our cash flow to make principal and interest payments on our indebtedness, reducing the funds that would otherwise be available for operations, future business opportunities and distributions to unitholders;
our debt level will make us more vulnerable than our competitors with less debt to competitive pressures or a downturn in our businesses; and
our debt level may limit our flexibility in responding to changing businesses and economic conditions.

Our ability to service our indebtedness depends upon, among other things, our financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. If our operating results are not sufficient to service our current or future indebtedness, we will be forced to take actions, such as reducing or eliminating distributions, reducing or delaying our business activities, acquisitions, investments and/or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our indebtedness, or seeking additional equity capital or bankruptcy protection. We may not be able to effect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms or at all.

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A significant increase in interest rates could adversely affect our ability to service our indebtedness.

The interest rates on our credit agreement are variable; therefore, we have exposure to movements in interest rates. A significant increase in interest rates could adversely affect our ability to service our indebtedness. The increased cost could make the financing of our business activities more expensive. These added expenses could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. Under our credit agreement, if a comparable or successor rate to LIBOR is approved by Bank of America, N.A., in its capacity as administrative agent under our credit agreement, the approved rate will be applied in a manner consistent with market practice. To the extent market practice is not administratively feasible for the administrative agent, the approved rate will be applied in a manner otherwise reasonably determined by the administrative agent. We currently do not expect the transition from LIBOR to have a material impact on us. However, if clear market standards and replacement methodologies have not developed as of the time LIBOR becomes unavailable, we may have difficulty reaching agreement on acceptable replacement rates under our credit agreement. In the event that we do not reach agreement on an acceptable replacement rate for LIBOR, outstanding borrowings under the credit agreement denominated in U.S. dollars would revert to a floating rate equal to the base rate (which is equal to the greatest of the administrative agent’s prime rate, the Federal Funds effective rate plus 0.50%, or 1-month LIBOR plus 1.00%) plus the applicable margin applicable to the alternative base rate which is currently equal to between 0.75% and 1.75%. If we are unable to negotiate replacement rates on favorable terms, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash distributions to unitholders. For more information about the interest rates under our senior secured credit agreement, please read Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Agreement.”

We may not be able to obtain funding on acceptable terms or obtain additional requested funding in excess of total commitments under our credit agreement, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

In the past, global financial markets and economic conditions were disrupted and volatile. The debt and equity capital markets were exceedingly distressed. These issues, along with significant write-offs in the financial services sector, the re-pricing of credit risk and the economic conditions, had made and, along with any other potential future economic or market uncertainties, could make it difficult to obtain funding. Activists concerned about the potential effects of climate change have, in certain instances, directed their attention at sources of funding for energy companies whose businesses are related to the use of fossil fuels. This could make it more difficult to secure funding.

As a result, the cost of raising money in the debt and equity capital markets could increase while the availability of funds from those markets could diminish. The cost of obtaining money from the credit markets could increase as many lenders and institutional investors increase interest rates, enact tighter lending standards and reduce and, in some cases, cease to provide funding to borrowers.

In addition, we may be unable to obtain adequate funding under our credit agreement because (i) one or more of our lenders may be unable to meet its funding obligations or (ii) our borrowing base under our credit agreement, as redetermined from time to time, may decrease as a result of price fluctuations, counterparty risk, advance rates and borrowing base limitations and customer nonpayment or nonperformance.

Due to these factors, we cannot be certain that funding will be available if needed and to the extent required or requested on acceptable terms. If funding is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to maintain our businesses as currently conducted, enhance our existing businesses, complete acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

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Operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes and borrowing base requirements in our credit agreement may restrict our business and financing activities.

The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes and any future financing agreements could restrict our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage, expand or pursue our business activities. For example, our credit agreement restricts our ability to:

grant liens;
make certain loans or investments;
incur additional indebtedness or guarantee other indebtedness;
make any material change to the nature of our businesses or undergo a fundamental change;
make any material dispositions;
acquire another company;
enter into a merger, consolidation, sale-leaseback transaction or purchase of assets;
make distributions if any potential default or event of default occurs; or
modify borrowing base components and advance rates.

In addition, the indentures governing our senior notes limit our ability to, among other things:

incur additional indebtedness;
make distributions to equity owners;
make certain investments;
restrict distributions by our subsidiaries;
create liens;
sell assets; or
merge with other entities.

Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions contained in our credit agreement and indentures may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If market or other economic conditions deteriorate, our ability to comply with these covenants may be impaired. If we violate any of the restrictions, covenants, ratios or tests in our credit agreement or indentures, a significant portion of our indebtedness may become immediately due and payable, and our lenders’ commitment to make further loans to us may terminate. We might not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to make these accelerated payments. In addition, our obligations under our credit agreement are secured by substantially all of our assets, and if we are unable to repay our indebtedness under our credit agreement, the lenders could seek to foreclose on such assets.

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Restrictions in our credit agreement and indentures limit our ability to pay distributions upon the occurrence of certain events.

Our credit agreement and indentures limit our ability to pay distributions upon the occurrence of certain events. For example, each of our credit agreement and the indentures limits our ability to pay distributions upon the occurrence of the following events, among others:

failure to pay any principal, interest, fees or other amounts when due;
failure to perform or otherwise comply with the covenants in the credit agreement, the indentures or in other loan documents to which we are a borrower; and
a bankruptcy or insolvency event involving us, our general partner or any of our subsidiaries.

Any subsequent refinancing of our current debt or any new debt could have similar restrictions. For more information regarding our credit agreement and indentures, please read Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Agreement” and Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

We can borrow money under our credit agreement to pay distributions, which would reduce the amount of credit available to operate our businesses.

Our partnership agreement allows us to borrow under our credit agreement to pay distributions. Accordingly, we can make distributions on our units even though cash generated by our operations may not be sufficient to pay such distributions. For more information, please read Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources” and Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The enactment of derivatives legislation could have an adverse effect on our ability to use derivative instruments to reduce the effect of commodity price, interest rate and other risks associated with our businesses.

On July 21, 2010, new comprehensive financial reform legislation, known as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Act”), was enacted that establishes federal oversight and regulation of the over-the-counter derivatives market and entities, such as us, that participate in that market. The Act requires the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), the SEC and other regulators to promulgate rules and regulations implementing the new legislation. Although the CFTC has finalized certain regulations, others remain to be finalized or implemented and it is not possible at this time to predict when this will be accomplished.

In January 2020, the CFTC proposed new rules that would place limits on positions in certain core futures and equivalent swaps contracts for, or linked to, certain physical commodities, subject to exceptions for certain bona fide hedging transactions. As these new position limit rules are not yet final, the impact of those provisions on us is uncertain at this time.

The CFTC has designated certain interest rate swaps and credit default swaps for mandatory clearing and exchange trading. To the extent we engage in such transactions or transactions that become subject to such rules in the future, we will be required to comply or take steps to qualify for an exemption to such requirements. Although we expect to qualify for the end-user exception to the mandatory clearing requirements for swaps entered to hedge our commercial risks, the application of the mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements to other market participants, such as swap dealers, may change the cost and availability of the swaps that we use for hedging. If our swaps do not qualify for the commercial end-user exception, or the cost of entering into uncleared swaps becomes prohibitive, we may be required to clear such transactions. The ultimate effect of the rules and any additional regulations on our businesses is uncertain at this time.

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In addition, the Act requires that regulators establish margin rules for uncleared swaps. Banking regulators and the CFTC have adopted final rules establishing minimum margin requirements for uncleared swaps. Although we expect to qualify for the end-user exception from such margin requirements for swaps entered into to hedge our commercial risks, the application of such requirements to other market participants, such as swap dealers, may change the cost and availability of the swaps that we use for hedging. If any of our swaps do not qualify for the commercial end-user exception, posting of initial or variation margin could impact our liquidity and reduce cash available for capital expenditures, therefore reducing our ability to execute hedges to reduce risk and protect cash flows.

The full impact of the Act and related regulatory requirements upon our businesses will not be known until all of the related regulations are implemented. The Act and any new regulations could significantly increase the cost of derivative contracts (including from swap recordkeeping and reporting requirements and through requirements to post collateral which could adversely affect our available liquidity), materially alter the terms of derivative contracts, reduce the availability of some derivatives to protect against risks we encounter and reduce our ability to monetize or restructure our existing derivative contracts. If we reduce our use of derivatives as a result of the Act and regulations, our results of operations may become more volatile and our cash flows may be less predictable, which could adversely affect our ability to plan for and fund capital expenditures. Any of these consequences could have material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.

In addition, the European Union and other non-U.S. jurisdictions are implementing regulations with respect to the derivatives market. To the extent we transact with counterparties in foreign jurisdictions, we may become subject to such regulations.

Our risk management policies cannot eliminate all commodity risk, basis risk or the impact of unfavorable market conditions, each of which can adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, any noncompliance with our risk management policies could result in significant financial losses.

While our hedging policies are designed to minimize commodity risk, some degree of exposure to unforeseen fluctuations in market conditions remains. For example, we change our hedged position daily in response to movements in our inventory. If we overestimate or underestimate our sales from inventory, we may be unhedged for the amount of the overestimate or underestimate. Also, significant increases in the costs of the products we sell can materially increase our costs to carry inventory. We use our credit facility as our primary source of financing to carry inventory and may be limited to the amounts we can borrow to carry inventory.

Basis risk is the inherent market price risk created when a commodity of certain grade or location is purchased, sold or exchanged as compared to a purchase, sale or exchange of a like commodity at a different time or place. Transportation costs and timing differentials are components of basis risk. For example, we use the NYMEX to hedge our commodity risk with respect to pricing of energy products traded on the NYMEX. Physical deliveries under NYMEX contracts are made in New York Harbor. To the extent we take deliveries in other ports, such as Boston Harbor, we may have basis risk. In a backward market (when prices for future deliveries are lower than current prices), basis risk is created with respect to timing. In these instances, physical inventory generally loses value as basis declines over time. Basis risk cannot be entirely eliminated, and basis exposure, particularly in backward or other adverse market conditions, can adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

We monitor processes and procedures to prevent unauthorized trading and to maintain substantial balance between purchases and sales or future delivery obligations. We can provide no assurance, however, that these steps will detect and/or prevent all violations of such risk management policies and procedures, particularly if deception or other intentional misconduct is involved.

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We are exposed to trade credit risk and risk associated with our trade credit support in the ordinary course of our business activities.

We are exposed to risks of loss in the event of nonperformance by our customers, by counterparties of our forward and futures contracts, options and swap agreements and by our suppliers. Some of our customers, counterparties and suppliers may be highly leveraged and subject to their own operating and regulatory risks. The tightening of credit in the financial markets may make it more difficult for customers and counterparties to obtain financing and, depending on the degree to which it occurs, there may be a material increase in the nonpayment and nonperformance of our customers and counterparties. Even if our credit review and analysis mechanisms work properly, we may experience financial losses in our dealings with other parties. Any increase in the nonpayment or nonperformance by our customers and/or counterparties and the nonperformance by our suppliers could reduce our ability to make distributions to our unitholders.

Additionally, our access to trade credit support could diminish and/or become more expensive. Our ability to continue to receive sufficient trade credit on commercially acceptable terms could be adversely affected by fluctuations in prices of petroleum products, renewable fuels and other products we sell or disruptions in the credit markets or for any other reason. Any of these events could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

We are exposed to performance risk in our supply chain.

We rely upon our suppliers to timely produce the volumes and types of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil for which they contract with us. In the event one or more of our suppliers does not perform in accordance with its contractual obligations, we may be required to purchase product on the open market to satisfy forward contracts we have entered into with our customers in reliance upon such supply arrangements. We may purchase refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil from a variety of suppliers under term contracts and on the spot market. In times of extreme market demand, we may be unable to satisfy our supply requirements. Furthermore, a portion of our supply comes from other countries, which could be disrupted by political events. In the event such supply becomes scarce, whether as a result of political events, natural disaster, logistical issues associated with delivery schedules or otherwise, we may not be able to satisfy our supply requirements. If any of these events were to occur, we may be required to pay more for product that we purchase on the open market, which could result in financial losses and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Historical prices for certain products we sell have been volatile and significant changes in such prices in the future may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Historical prices for certain products we sell have been volatile. General political conditions, acts of war, terrorism and instability in oil producing regions, particularly in the United States, Canada, Middle East, Russia, Africa and South America, could significantly impact crude oil supplies and crude oil and refined petroleum product costs. Significant increases and volatility in wholesale gasoline costs could result in significant increases in the retail price of motor fuel products and in lower margins per gallon. Increases in the retail price of motor fuel products could impact consumer demand for motor fuel. This volatility makes it extremely difficult to predict the impact future wholesale cost fluctuations will have on our operating results and financial condition. Dramatic increases in crude oil prices squeeze fuel margins because fuel costs typically increase faster than these increased costs can be passed along to customers. Higher fuel prices trigger higher credit card expenses, because credit card fees are calculated as a percentage of the transaction amount, not as a percentage of gallons sold. A significant change in any of these factors could materially impact our customers’ needs, motor fuel gallon volumes, gross profit and overall customer traffic, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

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Our gasoline sales could be significantly reduced by a reduction in demand due to higher prices and to new technologies and alternative fuel sources, such as electric, hybrid, battery powered, hydrogen or other alternative fuel-powered motor vehicles.

Technological advances and alternative fuel sources, such as electric, hybrid, battery powered, hydrogen or other alternative fuel-powered motor vehicles, may adversely affect the demand for gasoline. We could face additional competition from alternative energy sources as a result of future government-mandated controls or regulations which promote the use of alternative fuel sources. A number of new legal incentives and regulatory requirements, and executive initiatives, including various government subsidies including the extension of certain tax credits for renewable energy, have made these alternative forms of energy more competitive. Changing consumer preferences or driving habits could lead to new forms of fueling destinations or potentially fewer customer visits to our sites, resulting in a decrease in gasoline sales and/or sales of food, sundries and other on-site services. Any of these outcomes could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, higher prices could reduce the demand for gasoline and adversely impact our gasoline sales. A reduction in gasoline sales could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Energy efficiency, higher prices, new technology and alternative fuels could reduce demand for our products.

Higher prices and new technologies and alternative fuel sources, such as electric, hybrid or battery powered motor vehicles, could reduce the demand for transportation fuels and adversely impact our sales of transportation fuels. A reduction in sales of transportation fuels could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, increased conservation and technological advances have adversely affected the demand for home heating oil and residual oil. Consumption of residual oil has steadily declined over the last three decades. We could face additional competition from alternative energy sources as a result of future government-mandated controls or regulations further promoting the use of cleaner fuels. End users who are dual-fuel users have the ability to switch between residual oil and natural gas. Other end users may elect to convert to natural gas. During a period of increasing residual oil prices relative to the prices of natural gas, dual-fuel customers may switch and other end users may convert to natural gas. During periods of increasing home heating oil prices relative to the price of natural gas, residential users of home heating oil may also convert to natural gas. As described above, such switching or conversion could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Erosion of the value of major gasoline brands could adversely affect our gasoline sales and customer traffic.

As a significant number of our retail gasoline stations and convenience stores are branded utilizing major gasoline brands, they may be dependent, in part, upon the continuing favorable reputation of such brands. Erosion of the value of major gasoline brands could have a negative impact on our gasoline sales, which in turn may cause our operations to be less profitable.

We depend upon marine, pipeline, rail and truck transportation services for a substantial portion of our logistics activities in transporting the products we sell. Implementation of regulations and directives related to these aforementioned services as well as disruption in any of these transportation services could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Hurricanes, flooding and other severe weather conditions could cause a disruption in the transportation services we depend upon and could affect the flow of service. In addition, accidents, labor disputes between providers and their employees and labor renegotiations, including strikes, lockouts or a work stoppage, shortage of railcars, trucks and barges, mechanical difficulties or bottlenecks and disruptions in transportation logistics could also disrupt our business operations. These events could result in service disruptions and increased costs which could also adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. Other disruptions, such as those due to an act of terrorism or war, could also adversely affect our businesses.

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Changes in government usage mandates and tax credits could adversely affect the availability and pricing of ethanol and renewable fuels, which could negatively impact our sales.

The EPA has implemented a RFS pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The RFS program seeks to promote the incorporation of renewable fuels in the nation’s fuel supply and, to that end, sets annual quotas for the quantity of renewable fuels (such as ethanol) that must be blended into transportation fuels consumed in the United States. A RIN is assigned to each gallon of renewable fuel produced in or imported into the United States.

We are exposed to volatility in the market price of RINs. We cannot predict the future prices of RINs. RIN prices are dependent upon a variety of factors, including EPA regulations related to the amount of RINs required and the total amounts that can be generated, the availability of RINs for purchase, the price at which RINs can be purchased, and levels of transportation fuels produced, all of which can vary significantly from quarter to quarter. For more information, please read Part I, Items 1. and 2. “Business and Properties—Environmental—Ethanol Market.” If sufficient RINs are unavailable for purchase or if we have to pay a significantly higher price for RINs, or if we are otherwise unable to meet the EPA’s RFS mandates, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Future demand for ethanol will be largely dependent upon the economic incentives to blend based upon the relative value of gasoline and ethanol, taking into consideration the EPA’s regulations on the RFS program and oxygenate blending requirements. A reduction or waiver of the RFS mandate or oxygenate blending requirements could adversely affect the availability and pricing of ethanol, which in turn could adversely affect our future gasoline and ethanol sales. In addition, changes in blending requirements or broadening the definition of what constitutes a renewable fuel could affect the price of RINs which could impact the magnitude of the mark-to-market liability recorded for the deficiency, if any, in our RIN position relative to our RVO at a point in time.

We may not be able to obtain state fund or insurance reimbursement of our environmental remediation costs.

Where releases of products, including, without limitation, refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil have occurred, federal and state laws and regulations require that contamination caused by such releases be assessed and remediated to meet applicable standards. Our obligation to remediate this type of contamination varies, depending upon applicable laws and regulations and the extent of, and the facts relating to, the release. A portion of the remediation costs for certain products may be recoverable from the reimbursement fund of the applicable state and/or from third party insurance after any deductible or self-insured retention has been met, but there are no assurances that such reimbursement funds or insurance proceeds will be available to us.

Future consumer or other litigation could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our retail gasoline and convenience store operations are characterized by a high volume of customer traffic and by transactions involving an array of products.

These operations carry a higher exposure to consumer litigation risk when compared to the operations of companies operating in many other industries. Consequently, we may become a party to individual personal injury or products liability and other legal actions in the ordinary course of our retail gasoline and convenience store business. Any such action could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we are occasionally exposed to industry-wide or class action claims arising from the products we carry or industry-specific business practices. Our defense costs and any resulting damage awards or settlement amounts may not be fully covered by our insurance policies. An unfavorable outcome or settlement of one or more of these lawsuits could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions.

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We may incur costs or liabilities as a result of litigation or adverse publicity resulting from concerns over food quality, health or other issues that could cause customers to avoid our convenience stores.

We may be the subject of complaints or litigation arising from food-related illness or injury in general which could have a negative impact on our businesses. Additionally, negative publicity, regardless of whether the allegations are valid, concerning food quality, food safety or other health concerns, employee relations or other matters related to our food preparation operations may materially adversely affect demand for our offerings and could result in a decrease in customer traffic to our convenience stores.

We depend upon a small number of suppliers for a substantial portion of our convenience store merchandise inventory. A disruption in supply or an unexpected change in our relationships with our principal merchandise suppliers could have an adverse effect on our convenience store results of operations.

We purchase convenience store merchandise inventory from a small number of suppliers for our directly operated convenience stores. A change of merchandise suppliers, a disruption in supply or a significant change in our relationships with our principal merchandise suppliers could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Governmental action and campaigns to discourage smoking and use of other products may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and gross profit.

Congress has given the FDA broad authority to regulate tobacco and nicotine products, and the FDA and states have enacted and are pursuing enaction of numerous regulations restricting the sale of such products. These governmental actions, as well as national, state and municipal campaigns to discourage smoking, tax increases, and imposition of regulations restricting the sale of e-cigarettes and vapor products, have and could result in reduced consumption levels, higher costs which we may not be able to pass on to our customers, and reduced overall customer traffic. Also, increasing regulations related to and restricting the sale of vapor products and e-cigarettes may offset some of the gains we have experienced from selling these types of products. These factors could materially affect the sale of this product mix which in turn could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Our results can be adversely affected by unforeseen events, such as adverse weather, natural disasters, terrorism, pandemics, or other catastrophic events which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.

Global and national health concerns, such as the outbreak of a pandemic or contagious disease like the coronavirus, may adversely affect us by reducing demand for our products. Such a health concern could result in people traveling less and avoiding public spaces, such as convenience stores and other locales where food and sundries are sold, either due to self-imposed or government-mandated restrictions to halt the spread of disease, thereby resulting in a decrease in the demand for our products, including gasoline and other refined petroleum products, and a decrease in sales of food, sundries and other on-site services. Such an event may impair our suppliers’ ability to provide the volumes and types of product and goods we sell. A disease outbreak could affect the health of our workforce or result in travel restrictions, in either case rendering employees unable to work or travel. While these factors and the impact of these factors are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could disrupt our business as we may be unable to continue business operations in a continuous manner consistent with the level and extent of business activities prior to the occurrence of an unexpected event or events, lower our revenues, increase our costs, or reduce our cash available for

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distribution to our unitholders.

We face intense competition in our purchasing, selling, gathering, blending, terminalling, transporting, storage and logistics activities. Competition from other providers of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil that are able to supply our customers with those products and services at a lower price and have capital resources many times greater than ours could reduce our ability to make distributions to our unitholders.

We are subject to competition from distributors and suppliers of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil that may be able to supply our customers with the same or comparable products and gathering, blending, terminalling, transporting and storage services and logistics on a more competitive basis. We compete with terminal companies, major integrated oil companies and their marketing affiliates, wholesalers, producers and independent marketers of varying sizes, financial resources and experience. In our Northeast market, we compete in various product lines and for all customers of those various products lines. In the residual oil markets, however, where product is heated when stored and cannot be delivered long distances, we face less competition because of the strategic locations of our residual oil storage facilities. We compete with other transloaders in our logistics activities. We also compete with natural gas suppliers and marketers in our home heating oil and residual oil product lines. Bunkering requires facilities at ports to service vessels, and we compete with other providers of bunker fuels in those ports. In various other geographic markets, particularly the unbranded gasoline and distillates markets, we compete with integrated refiners, merchant refiners and regional marketing companies. Our retail gasoline stations compete with unbranded and branded retail gas stations as well as supermarket and warehouse stores that sell gasoline.

Some of our competitors are substantially larger than us, have greater financial resources and control greater supplies of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil than we do. If we are unable to compete effectively, we may lose existing customers or fail to acquire new customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. For example, if a competitor attempts to increase market share by reducing prices, our operating results and cash available for distribution to our unitholders could be adversely affected. We may not be able to compete successfully with these companies, and our ability to compete could be harmed by factors including price competition and the availability of alternative and less expensive fuels.

New entrants or increased competition in the convenience store industry could result in reduced gross profits.

We compete with numerous other convenience store chains, independent convenience stores, supermarkets, drugstores, discount warehouse clubs, motor fuel service stations, mass merchants, fast food operations, other locales providing food services and other similar retail outlets. Several non-traditional retailers, including supermarkets and club stores, compete directly with convenience stores.

We may not be able to renew our leases or our agreements for dedicated storage when they expire.

The bulk terminals we own or lease or at which we maintain dedicated storage facilities play a key role in moving product to our customers. As of December 31, 2020, we owned, operated and maintained dedicated storage facilities at 18 bulk terminals, leased the entirety of one bulk terminal that we operated exclusively for our businesses, and maintained dedicated storage at six facilities at which we have terminalling agreements. The lease and terminalling agreements are subject to expiration through 2021 and 2023, respectively. If these lease and terminalling agreements are not renewed or we are unable to renew them at rates and on terms and conditions satisfactory us, it could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

We may not be able to lease sites we own or lease and/or sub-lease sites we lease with respect to the sale of gasoline and/or related activities on favorable terms and any such failure could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

If we are unable to obtain tenants on favorable terms for sites we own or lease, the lease payments we receive may not be adequate to cover our rent expense for leased sites and/or may not be adequate to cover costs associated with ownership of that site. We may lease certain sites where the rent expense we pay is more than the lease payments we

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collect. We cannot provide any assurance that our gross margin from the sale of transportation fuels and related convenience store items at sites will be adequate to offset unfavorable lease terms. The occurrence of these events could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Some of our sales are generated pursuant to contracts that must be renegotiated or replaced periodically. If we are unable to successfully renegotiate or replace these contracts, our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders could be adversely affected.

Most of our arrangements with our customers are renegotiated or replaced periodically. As these contracts expire, they must be renegotiated or replaced. We may be unable to renegotiate or replace these contracts when they expire, and the terms of any renegotiated contracts may not be as favorable as the contracts they replace. Whether these contracts are successfully renegotiated or replaced is often subject to factors beyond our control. Such factors include fluctuations in refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil prices, counterparty’s ability to pay for or accept contracted volumes and a competitive marketplace for the services offered by us. If we cannot successfully renegotiate or replace our contracts or if we renegotiate or replace them on less favorable terms, sales from these arrangements could decline, and our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders could be adversely affected.

Due to our lack of asset and geographic diversification, adverse developments in the terminals we use or in our operating areas would reduce our ability to make distributions to our unitholders.

We rely primarily on sales generated from products distributed from terminals we own or control or to which we have access. Furthermore, the majority of those assets and operations are located in the Northeast. Due to our lack of diversification in asset type and location, an adverse development in these businesses or areas, including adverse developments due to catastrophic events or weather and corresponding decreases in demand for refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane, could have a significantly greater impact on our results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders than if we maintained more diverse assets and locations.

Our operations are subject to operational hazards and unforeseen interruptions for which we may not be adequately insured.

We are not fully insured against all risks incident to our businesses. Our operations are subject to operational hazards and unforeseen interruptions such as natural disasters, weather, accidents, fires, explosions, hazardous materials releases, mechanical failures, disruptions in supply infrastructure or logistics and other events beyond our control. If any of these events were to occur, we could incur substantial losses because of personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment, and pollution or other environmental damage resulting in curtailment or suspension of our related operations.

We primarily store gasoline and gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane in underground and above ground storage tanks. Our operations are also subject to significant hazards and risks inherent in storing such products. These hazards and risks include fires, explosions, spills, discharges and other releases, any of which could result in distribution difficulties and disruptions, environmental pollution, governmentally-imposed fines or clean-up obligations, personal injury or wrongful death claims and other damage to our properties and the properties of others.

Furthermore, we may be unable to maintain or obtain insurance of the type and amount we desire at reasonable rates. As a result of market conditions, premiums and deductibles for certain of our insurance policies have increased and could escalate further. In some instances, certain insurance could become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. If we were to incur a significant liability for which we are not fully insured, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to unitholders.

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New, stricter environmental laws and other industry-related regulations or environmental litigation could significantly impact our operations and/or increase our costs, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our operations are subject to federal, state and municipal laws and regulations regulating, among other matters, logistics activities, product quality specifications and other environmental matters. The trend in environmental regulation has been towards more restrictions and limitations on activities that may affect the environment over time. For example, President Biden signed an executive order calling for new or more stringent emissions standards for new, modified and existing oil and gas facilities. Our businesses may be adversely affected by increased costs and liabilities resulting from such stricter laws and regulations. We try to anticipate future regulatory requirements that might be imposed and plan accordingly to remain in compliance with changing environmental laws and regulations and to minimize the costs of such compliance. Risks related to our environmental permits, including the risk of noncompliance, permit interpretation, permit modification, renewal of permits on less favorable terms, judicial or administrative challenges to permits by citizens groups or federal, state or municipal entities or permit revocation are inherent in the operation of our businesses as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses. We may not be able to renew the permits necessary for our operations, or we may be forced to accept terms in future permits that limit our operations or result in additional compliance costs. There can be no assurances as to the timing and type of such changes in existing laws or the promulgation of new laws or the amount of any required expenditures associated therewith. Climate change continues to attract considerable public and scientific attention. In recent years environmental interest groups have filed suit against companies in the energy industry related to climate change. Should such suits succeed, we could face additional compliance costs or litigation risks. For more information, please read Part I, Items 1. and 2. “Business and Properties—Environmental—Climate Change.”

Further regulation of the transport by rail of fuel products may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Over the last several years, federal and state agencies have adopted various requirements governing the transport of fuel products, such as crude oil and ethanol. Were these bodies to establish more stringent design or construction standards for railcars, or impose other requirements for such railroad tank cars that are used to transport, by example, crude oil and ethanol, those requirements, individually or in the aggregate, may lead to shortages of compliant railcars, or limitations on deliveries of these products, which in either case could adversely affect our businesses. In recent years, non-governmental groups have intensified their efforts to use federal, state and municipal laws to restrict the transportation of fuels products, including, without limitation, crude oil and ethanol by railroad tank cars. Additional regulations regarding the movement and storage of fossil fuel products by transportation modalities could potentially expose our operations to duplicative and possibly inconsistent regulation.

Our terminalling operations are subject to federal, state and municipal laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and operational safety that could require us to incur substantial costs.

The risk of substantial environmental costs and liabilities is inherent in terminal operations, and we may incur substantial environmental costs and liabilities. Our terminalling operations involving the receipt, storage and delivery of primarily refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil are subject to stringent federal, state and municipal laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment, operational safety and related matters. Compliance with these laws and regulations increases our overall cost of business, including our capital costs to maintain and upgrade equipment and facilities. We utilize a number of terminals that are owned and operated by third parties who are also subject to these stringent federal, state and municipal environmental laws in their operations. Their compliance with these requirements could increase the cost of doing business with these facilities. Please read Part I, Items 1. and 2. “Business and Properties—Environmental.”

In addition, our operations could be adversely affected if shippers of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil incur additional costs or liabilities associated with regulations, including environmental regulations. These shippers could increase their charges to us or discontinue service altogether. Similarly, many of our suppliers face a trend of increasing environmental regulations, which could likewise restrict their ability to

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produce crude oil or fuels, or increase their costs of production, and thus impact the price of, and/or their ability to deliver, these products.

Various governmental authorities, including the EPA, have the power to enforce compliance with these regulations and the permits issued under them, and violators are subject to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, including fines, injunctions or both. Joint and several liability may be incurred, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, under federal and state environmental laws for the remediation of contaminated areas at our facilities and those where we do business. Private parties, including the owners of properties located near our terminal facilities and those with whom we do business, also may have the right to pursue legal actions against us to enforce compliance with environmental laws, as well as seek damages for personal injury or property damage. We may also be held liable for damages to natural resources.

The possibility exists that new, stricter laws, regulations or enforcement policies could significantly increase our compliance costs and the cost of any remediation that may become necessary, some of which may be material. Our insurance may not cover all environmental risks and costs or may not provide sufficient coverage in the event an environmental claim is made against us. We may incur increased costs because of stricter pollution control requirements or liabilities resulting from noncompliance with, or renewal of required operating or other regulatory permits. New environmental regulations, such as those related to the emissions of GHGs, might adversely affect the market for our products and activities, including the storage of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil, as well as our waste management practices and our control of air emissions. Enactment of laws and passage of regulations regarding GHG emissions, or other actions to limit GHG emissions may reduce demand for fossil fuels and impact our businesses. Federal, state and municipal agencies also could impose additional safety regulations to which we would be subject. Because the laws and regulations applicable to our operations are subject to change, we cannot provide any assurance that compliance with future laws and regulations will not have a material effect on our results of operations.

Additionally, the construction of new terminals or the expansion of an existing terminal involves numerous regulatory, environmental, political and legal uncertainties, most of which are not in our control. Delays, litigation, local concerns and difficulty in obtaining approvals for projects requiring federal, state or municipal permits could impact our ability to build, expand and operate strategic facilities and infrastructure, which could adversely impact growth and operational efficiency.

Our operations are subject to a series of risks arising from climate change.

The threat of climate change continues to attract considerable attention in the United States and in foreign countries. In the United States, no comprehensive climate change legislation has been implemented at the federal level. However, President Biden has highlighted addressing climate change as a priority of his administration, which includes certain potential initiatives for climate change legislation to be proposed and passed into law. Moreover, federal regulators and state and local governments have taken (or announced that they plan to take) actions that have or may have a significant influence on our operations. For example, following the finding that GHG emissions such as carbon dioxide and methane threaten the public health and welfare, the EPA has promulgated or adopted regulations to regulate GHG emissions from certain large stationary sources, require the monitoring and reporting of GHG emissions from certain sources, implement emissions standards for certain sources in the oil and gas sector, and (together with NHTSA), implement GHG emissions limits on vehicles manufactured for operation in the United States. Separately, President Biden has already issued a suite of executive orders that, among other things, recommitted the United States to the Paris Agreement, called for the revision of Trump Administration changes to the CAFE standards, and called for the issuance of methane-emission standards for new, modified, and existing oil and gas facilities, including in the transmission and storage segments. In addition, it is possible federal legislation could be adopted in the future to restrict GHGs, as Congress has considered various proposals to reduce GHG emissions from time to time. Many states and regions have also adopted GHG initiatives. For further information, please read Part I, Items 1. and 2. “Business and Properties—Environmental—Climate Change.”

Future international, federal and state initiatives to control GHG emissions could result in increased costs associated with refined petroleum products consumption, such as costs to install additional controls to reduce GHG

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emissions or costs to purchase emissions reduction credits to comply with future emissions trading programs. Please read Part I, Items 1. and 2. “Business and Properties—Environmental—Climate Change.” Such increased costs could result in reduced demand for refined petroleum products and some customers switching to alternative sources of fuel which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.

Climate change continues to attract considerable public and scientific attention. This attention has also resulted in increased political risks, including climate change related pledges made by certain candidates for public office. These have included promises to curtail oil and gas operations on federal land, such as through the cessation of leasing federal land for hydrocarbon development. On January 27, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that commits to substantial action on climate change calling for, among other things, the increased use of zero-emission vehicles by the federal government, the elimination of subsidies provided to the fossil fuel industry, and increased emphasis on climate-related risk across governmental agencies and economic sectors. Other actions that could be pursued include more restrictive requirements for the development of midstream infrastructure. Additionally, litigation has been filed against companies in the energy industry related to climate change. Although the litigation is varied, many such suits allege that oil and gas companies have created public nuisances by producing fuels that contribute to climate change or allege that the companies have been aware of the adverse effects of climate change for some time but failed to adequately disclose those impacts to their investors and customers. Should such suits succeed, we could face additional costs or litigation risks.

Additionally, in response to concerns related to climate change, companies in the fossil fuel sector may be exposed to increasing financial risks. Certain financial institutions, including investment advisors and certain sovereign wealth, pension, and endowment funds, may elect in the future to shift some or all of their investment into non-fossil fuel related sectors. There is also a risk that financial institutions may be required to adopt policies that have the effect of reducing the funding provided to the fossil fuel sector. Recently, the Federal Reserve announced that it has joined the Network for Greening the Financial System, a consortium of financial regulators focused on addressing climate-related risks in the financial sector. This could make it more difficult to secure funding.

Separately, many scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHG in the earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other climatic events. If any of those effects were to occur in areas where our facilities are located, they could have an adverse effect on our assets and operations.

Our businesses involve the buying, selling, gathering, blending and shipping of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil by various modes of transportation, which involves risks of derailment, accidents and liabilities associated with cleanup and damages, as well as potential regulatory changes that may adversely impact our businesses, financial condition or results of operations.

Our operations involve the buying and selling, gathering and blending of refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels and crude oil and shipping it to various markets including on railcars that we lease. The derailments of trains transporting such products in North America have caused various regulatory agencies and industry organizations, as well as federal, state and municipal governments, to focus attention on transportation by rail of flammable materials. Additional measures have been taken in both the United States. and Canada to regulate the transportation of these products. Please read Part I, Items 1. and 2. “Business and Properties—Environmental— Hazardous Materials Transportation.”

Any changes to the existing laws and regulations, or promulgation of new laws and regulations, including any voluntary measures by the rail industry, that result in new requirements for the design, construction or operation of tank cars, including those used to transport crude oil or other products, may require us to make expenditures to comply with new standards that are material to our operations, and, to the extent that new regulations require design changes or other modifications of tank cars, we may incur significant constraints on transportation capacity during the period while tank cars are being retrofitted or newly constructed to comply with the new regulations. We cannot assure that the totality of costs incurred to comply with any new standards and regulations and any impacts on our operations will not be material to our businesses, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, any derailment of railcars or other events related to products that we have purchased or are shipping may result in claims being brought against us that may

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involve significant liabilities. Although we believe that we are adequately insured against such events, we cannot assure you that our policies will cover the entirety of any damages that may arise from such an event.

We are subject to federal, state and municipal laws and regulations that govern the product quality specifications of the refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane we purchase, store, transport and sell.

Various federal, state and municipal government agencies have the authority to prescribe specific product quality specifications to the sale of commodities. Our businesses include such commodities. Changes in product quality specifications, such as reduced sulfur content in refined petroleum products, or other more stringent requirements for fuels, could reduce our ability to procure product and adversely impact related sales volume, require us to incur additional handling costs and/or require the expenditure of capital. For instance, different product specifications for different markets could require additional storage. If we are unable to procure product or recover these costs through increased sales, we may not be able to meet our financial obligations. Failure to comply with these regulations could also result in substantial penalties.

We are subject to federal, state and municipal environmental regulations which could have a material adverse effect on our retail operations business.

Our retail operations are subject to extensive federal, state and municipal laws and regulations, including those relating to the protection of the environment, waste management, discharge of hazardous materials, pollution prevention, as well as laws and regulations relating to public safety and health. Certain of these laws and regulations may require assessment or remediation efforts. Retail operations with USTs are subject to federal and state regulations and legislation. Compliance with existing and future environmental laws regulating USTs may require significant capital expenditures and increased operating and maintenance costs. The operation of USTs also poses certain other risks, including damages associated with soil and groundwater contamination. Leaks from USTs which may occur at one or more of our gas stations may impact soil or groundwater and could result in fines or civil liability for us. We may be required to make material expenditures to modify operations, perform site cleanups or curtail operations.

We are subject to federal and state non-environmental regulations which could have an adverse effect on our convenience store business and results of operations.

Our convenience store business is subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations that include legal restrictions on the sale of alcohol, tobacco and lottery products, food labelling, food preparation, safety and health requirements and public accessibility. Furthermore, state and local regulatory agencies have the power to approve, revoke, suspend, or deny applications for and renewals of permits and licenses relating to the sale of alcohol, tobacco and lottery products or to seek other remedies. A violation of or change in such laws and/or regulations could have an adverse effect on our convenience store business and results of operations.

Regulations related to wages also affect our businesses. Any increase in the statutory minimum wage would result in an increase in our labor costs and such cost increase could adversely affect our businesses, financial condition and results of operations.

Any terrorist attacks aimed at our facilities and any global and domestic economic repercussions from terrorist activities and the government’s response could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, the U.S. government has issued warnings that energy assets may be future targets of terrorist organizations. In addition to the threat of terrorist attacks, we face various other security threats, including cyber security threats to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information or systems or to render data or systems unusable; threats to the safety of our employees; threats to the security of our facilities, such as terminals and pipelines, and infrastructure or third-party facilities and infrastructure. These developments have subjected our operations to increased risks.

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Although we utilize various procedures and controls to monitor these threats and mitigate our exposure to security threats, there can be no assurance that these procedures and controls will be sufficient in preventing security threats from materializing. If any of these events were to materialize, they could lead to losses of sensitive information, critical infrastructure, personnel or capabilities, essential to our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Cyber security attacks in particular are evolving and include malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to, or otherwise disrupt, pipeline control systems, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in critical systems, including pipeline control systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. These events could damage our reputation and lead to financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability.

We incur costs for providing facility security and may incur additional costs in the future with respect to the receipt, storage and distribution of our products. Additional security measures could also restrict our ability to distribute refined petroleum products, gasoline blendstocks, renewable fuels, crude oil and propane. Any future terrorist attack on our facilities, or those of our customers, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Terrorist activity could lead to increased volatility in prices for home heating oil, gasoline and other products we sell, which could decrease our customers’ demand for these products. Insurance carriers are required to offer coverage for terrorist activities as a result of federal legislation. We purchase this coverage with respect to our property and casualty insurance programs. This additional coverage resulted in additional insurance premiums which could increase further in the future.

We depend on key personnel for the success of our businesses.

We depend on the services of our senior management team and other key personnel. The loss of the services of any member of senior management or key employee could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. We may not be able to locate or employ on acceptable terms qualified replacements for senior management or other key employees if their services were no longer available.

Certain executive officers of our general partner perform services for one of our affiliates pursuant to a shared services agreement. Please read Part III, Item 13, “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Relationship of Management with Global Petroleum Corp.”

We depend on unionized labor for the operation of certain of our terminals. Any work stoppages or labor disturbances at these terminals could disrupt our businesses.

Any work stoppages or labor disturbances by our unionized labor force at facilities with an organized workforce could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, employees who are not currently represented by labor unions may seek representation in the future, and any renegotiation of collective bargaining agreements may result in terms that are less favorable to us.

We rely on our information technology systems to manage numerous aspects of our businesses, and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our businesses.

We depend on our information technology (“IT”) systems to manage numerous aspects of our businesses and to provide analytical information to management. Our IT systems are an essential component of our businesses and growth strategies, and a serious disruption to our IT systems could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our businesses effectively. These systems are vulnerable to, among other things, damage and interruption from power loss or natural disasters, computer system and network failures, loss of telecommunication services, physical and electronic loss of data, cyber and other security breaches and computer viruses. While we believe we have adequate systems and controls in place, we are continuously working to install new, and upgrade existing, information technology systems and provide employee awareness around phishing, malware and other cyber risks in an effort to ensure that we are protected against cyber risks and security breaches. We have a disaster recovery plan in place, but this plan may not entirely

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prevent delays or other complications that could arise from an IT systems failure or disruption. Any failure or interruption in our IT systems could have a negative impact on our operating results, cause our businesses and competitive position to suffer and damage our reputation.

In the normal course of our businesses, we may obtain personal data, including credit card information. While we believe we have adequate cyber and other security controls over individually identifiable customer, employee and vendor data provided to us, a breakdown or a breach in our systems that results in the unauthorized release of individually identifiable customer or other sensitive data could nonetheless occur and have a material adverse effect on our reputation, operating results and financial condition.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, then we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, current and potential unitholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which could harm our businesses and could adversely influence the trading price of our units.

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports, prevent fraud and operate successfully as a public company. If our efforts to maintain internal controls are not successful or if we are unable to maintain adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future or if we are unable to comply with our obligations under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, our operating results could be harmed or we may fail to meet our reporting obligations. Ineffective internal controls also could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our units.

Risks Related to our Structure

Our general partner and its affiliates have conflicts of interest and limited fiduciary duties, which could permit them to favor their own interests to the detriment of our unitholders.

As of March 3, 2021, affiliates of our general partner, including directors and executive officers and their affiliates, owned 15.4% of our common units and the entire general partner interest. Although our general partner has a fiduciary duty to manage us in a manner beneficial to us and our unitholders, the directors and officers of our general partner have a fiduciary duty to manage our general partner in a manner beneficial to its owners. Furthermore, certain directors and officers of our general partner are directors or officers of affiliates of our general partner. Conflicts of interest may arise between our general partner and its affiliates, on the one hand, and us and our unitholders, on the other hand. As a result of these conflicts, our general partner may favor its own interests and the interests of its affiliates over the interests of our unitholders. Please read “—Our partnership agreement limits our general partner’s fiduciary duties to unitholders and restricts the remedies available to unitholders for actions taken by our general partner that might otherwise constitute breaches of fiduciary duty.” These conflicts include, among others, the following situations:

Our general partner is allowed to take into account the interests of parties other than us, such as affiliates of its members, in resolving conflicts of interest, which has the effect of limiting its fiduciary duty to our unitholders.
Affiliates of our general partner may engage in competition with us under certain circumstances. Please read “—Certain members of the Slifka family and their affiliates may engage in activities that compete directly with us.”
Neither our partnership agreement nor any other agreement requires owners of our general partner to pursue a business strategy that favors us. Directors and officers of our general partner’s owners have a fiduciary duty to make these decisions in the best interest of such owners which may be contrary to our interests.
Some officers of our general partner who provide services to us devote time to affiliates of our general partner.
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Our general partner has limited its liability and reduced its fiduciary duties under the partnership agreement, while also restricting the remedies available to our unitholders for actions that, without these limitations, might constitute breaches of fiduciary duty. As a result of purchasing common units, common unitholders consent to some actions and conflicts of interest that might otherwise constitute a breach of fiduciary or other duties under applicable state law. Additionally, our partnership agreement provides that we, and the officers and directors of our general partner, do not owe any duties, including fiduciary duties, or have any liabilities to holders of our Series A preferred units.
Our general partner determines the amount and timing of asset purchases and sales, borrowings, issuances of additional partnership securities and reserves, each of which can affect the amount of cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Our general partner determines the amount and timing of any capital expenditures and whether a capital expenditure is a maintenance capital expenditure, which reduces distributable cash flow, or a capital expenditure for acquisitions or capital improvements, which does not, and such determination can affect the amount of cash distributed to our unitholders.
In some instances, our general partner may cause us to borrow funds in order to permit the payment of cash distributions, even if the purpose or effect of the borrowing is to make incentive distributions.
Our general partner determines which costs incurred by it and its affiliates are reimbursable by us.
Our partnership agreement does not restrict our general partner from causing us to pay it or its affiliates for any services rendered on terms that are fair and reasonable to us or entering into additional contractual arrangements with any of these entities on our behalf.
Our general partner intends to limit its liability regarding our contractual and other obligations.
Our general partner may exercise its limited right to call and purchase common units if it and its affiliates own more than 80% of the common units.
Our general partner controls the enforcement of obligations owed to us by it and its affiliates.
Our general partner decides whether to retain separate counsel, accountants or others to perform services for us.

Please read Part III, Item 13, “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Noncompetition.”

Our partnership agreement limits our general partner’s fiduciary duties to unitholders and restricts the remedies available to unitholders for actions taken by our general partner that might otherwise constitute breaches of fiduciary duty.

Our partnership agreement contains provisions that reduce the standards to which our general partner would otherwise be held by state fiduciary duty law. Our partnership agreement provides that we, and the officers and directors of our general partner, do not owe any duties, including fiduciary duties, or have any liabilities to holders of our Series A preferred units. Additionally, our partnership agreement:

permits our general partner to make a number of decisions in its individual capacity, as opposed to in its capacity as our general partner. This entitles our general partner to consider only the interests and factors that it desires, and it has no duty or obligation to give any consideration to any interest of, or factors affecting, us, our affiliates or any limited partner. Examples include the exercise of its limited call right, its

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voting rights with respect to the units it owns, its registration rights and its determination whether or not to consent to any merger or consolidation of us;
provides that our general partner shall not have any liability to us or our unitholders for decisions made in its capacity as general partner so long as it acted in good faith, meaning it believed that the decision was in our best interests;
generally provides that affiliated transactions and resolutions of conflicts of interest not approved by the conflicts committee of the board of directors of our general partner and not involving a vote of unitholders must be on terms no less favorable to us than those generally being provided to or available from unrelated third parties or be “fair and reasonable” to us and that, in determining whether a transaction or resolution is “fair and reasonable,” our general partner may consider the totality of the relationships between the parties involved, including other transactions that may be particularly advantageous or beneficial to us; and
provides that our general partner and its officers and directors will not be liable for monetary damages to us, our limited partners or assignees for any acts or omissions unless there has been a final and non-appealable judgment entered by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that the general partner or those other persons acted in bad faith or engaged in fraud or willful misconduct.

By purchasing a unit, a unitholder will become bound by the provisions of the partnership agreement, including the provisions described above.

Unitholders have limited voting rights and are not entitled to elect our general partner or its directors or remove our general partner without the consent of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding common units (including common units held by our general partner and its affiliates), which could lower the trading price of our units.

Unlike the holders of common stock in a corporation, unitholders have only limited voting rights on matters affecting our businesses and, therefore, limited ability to influence management’s decisions regarding our businesses. Unitholders have no right to elect our general partner or its board of directors on an annual or other continuing basis. The board of directors of our general partner is chosen entirely by its members and not by the unitholders. Furthermore, if the unitholders are dissatisfied with the performance of our general partner, they have limited ability to remove our general partner. The vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of all outstanding common units (including common units held by our general partner and its affiliates) is required to remove our general partner.

Although the holders of our Series A preferred units are entitled to limited protective voting rights with respect to certain matters, our Series A preferred units generally vote separately as a class along with any other series of parity securities that we may issue upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable. As a result, the voting rights of holders of our Series A preferred units may be significantly diluted, and the holders of such other series of parity securities that we may issue may be able to control or significantly influence the outcome of any vote.

As a result of these limitations, the prices at which our common units and our Series A preferred units trade could diminish because of the absence or reduction of a takeover premium in the trading price.

We may issue additional units without unitholder approval, which would dilute unitholders’ ownership interests.

Except in the case of the issuance of units that rank equal to or senior to our Series A preferred units, we may issue an unlimited number of limited partner interests of any type without the approval of our unitholders. We are allowed to issue additional Series A preferred units and parity securities without any vote of the holders of our Series A preferred units, except where the cumulative distributions on our Series A preferred units or any parity securities are in arrears.

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The issuance by us of additional common units or other equity securities of equal or senior rank will have the following effects:

our unitholders’ proportionate ownership interest in us will decrease;
the amount of cash available for distribution on each unit may decrease;
the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding unit may be diminished; and
the market price of the units may decline.

We are prohibited from paying distributions on our common units if distributions on our Series A preferred units are in arrears.

The holders of our Series A preferred units are entitled to certain rights that are senior to the rights of holders of our common units, such as rights to distributions and rights upon liquidation of the Partnership. If we do not pay the required distributions on our Series A preferred units, we will be unable to pay distributions on our common units. Additionally, because distributions to our Series A preferred units are cumulative, we will have to pay all unpaid accumulated preferred distributions before we can pay any distributions to our common unitholders. Also, because distributions to our common unitholders are not cumulative, if we do not pay distributions on our common units with respect to any quarter, our common unitholders will not be entitled to receive distributions covering any prior periods if we later commence paying distributions on our common units. The preferences and privileges of our Series A preferred units could adversely affect the market price for our common units, or could make it more difficult for us to sell our common units in the future.

Our Series A preferred units are subordinated to our existing and future debt obligations and could be diluted by the issuance of additional units, including additional Series A preferred units, and by other transactions.

Our Series A preferred units are subordinated to all of our existing and future indebtedness. The payment of principal and interest on our debt reduces cash available for distribution to our limited partners, including the holders of our Series A preferred units. The issuance of additional units on parity with or senior to our Series A preferred units (including additional Series A preferred units) would dilute the interests of the holders of our Series A preferred units, and any issuance of equal or senior ranking securities or additional indebtedness could affect our ability to pay distributions on, redeem or pay the liquidation preference on our Series A preferred units.

We cannot assure that we will be able to pay distributions on our Series A preferred units regularly, and the agreements governing our indebtedness may limit the cash available to make distributions on our Series A preferred units.

Pursuant to our partnership agreement, we distribute all of our “available cash” each quarter to our limited partners. Our partnership agreement defines “Available Cash” to generally mean, for each fiscal quarter, all cash and cash equivalents on hand on the date of determination of available cash with respect to such quarter, less the amount of any cash reserves established by our general partner to:

provide for the proper conduct of our businesses;
comply with applicable law or the terms of any of our debt instruments or other agreements; or
provide funds for distributions to holders of our common units and Series A preferred units for any one or more of the next four quarters.

As a result, we do not expect to accumulate significant amounts of cash. Depending on the timing and amount of our cash distributions, these distributions could significantly reduce the cash available to us in subsequent periods to

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make distributions on our Series A preferred units.

Further, our existing debt agreements also may limit our ability to pay distributions on our Series A preferred units.

Change of control conversion rights may make it more difficult for a party to acquire us or discourage a party from acquiring us.

The change of control conversion feature of our Series A preferred units may have the effect of discouraging a third party from making an acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing certain of our change of control transactions under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common units and Series A preferred units with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-current market price of such equity securities or that unitholders may otherwise believe is in their best interests.

The market price of our common units could be adversely affected by sales of substantial amounts of our common units, including sales by our existing unitholders.

A substantial number of our securities may be sold in the future either pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act or pursuant to a registration statement filed with the SEC. Rule 144 under the Securities Act provides that after a holding period of six months, non-affiliates may resell restricted securities of reporting companies, provided that current public information for the reporting company is available. After a holding period of one year, non-affiliates may resell without restriction, and affiliates may resell in compliance with the volume, current public information and manner of sale requirements of Rule 144. Pursuant to our partnership agreement, members of the Slifka family have registration rights with respect to the common units owned by them.

Sales by any of our existing unitholders of a substantial number of our common units, or the perception that such sales might occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common units or could impair our ability to obtain capital through an offering of equity securities.

Future market fluctuations may result in a lower price of our common units.

An increase in interest rates may cause the market price of our units to decline.

Like all equity investments, an investment in our common units is subject to certain risks. In exchange for accepting these risks, investors may expect to receive a higher rate of return than would otherwise be obtainable from lower-risk investments. Accordingly, as interest rates rise, the ability of investors to obtain higher risk-adjusted rates of return by purchasing government-backed debt securities may cause a corresponding decline in demand for riskier investments generally, including yield-based equity investments such as publicly-traded limited partnership interests. Reduced demand for our common units resulting from investors seeking other more favorable investment opportunities may cause the trading price of our common units to decline.

One of the factors that influences the price of our Series A preferred units is the distribution yield on our Series A preferred units (as a percentage of the price of our Series A preferred units) relative to market interest rates. An increase in market interest rates, which are currently at low levels relative to historical rates, may lead prospective purchasers of our Series A preferred units to expect a higher distribution yield, and higher interest rates would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution to our limited partners, including the holders of our Series A preferred units. Accordingly, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our Series A preferred units to decrease.

In addition, on and after August 15, 2023, our Series A preferred units will have a floating distribution rate set each quarterly distribution period at a percentage of the $25.00 liquidation preference equal to a floating rate of the then-current three-month LIBOR (or if LIBOR is no longer available as otherwise provided for in our partnership agreement) plus a spread of 6.774% per annum. The per annum distribution rate that is determined on the relevant determination date will apply to the entire quarterly distribution period following such determination date even if LIBOR (or an

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alternative rate, as applicable) increases during that period. As a result, the holders of our Series A preferred units will be subject to risks associated with fluctuation in interest rates and the possibility that holders will receive distributions that are lower than expected. We have no control over a number of factors, including economic, financial and political events, that impact market fluctuations in interest rates, which have in the past and may in the future experience volatility.

Our general partner has a limited call right that may require unitholders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price.

If at any time our general partner and its affiliates own more than 80% of the common units, our general partner will have the right, but not the obligation, which it may assign to any of its affiliates or to us, to acquire all, but not less than all, of the common units held by unaffiliated persons at a price not less than their then-current market price. As a result, unitholders may be required to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price and may not receive any return on their investment. Unitholders may also incur a tax liability upon a sale of their units. Our general partner is not obligated to obtain a fairness opinion regarding the value of the common units to be repurchased by it upon exercise of the limited call right. There is no restriction in our partnership agreement that prevents our general partner from issuing additional common units and exercising its call right. If our general partner exercises its limited call right, the effect would be to take us private and, if the units were subsequently deregistered, we would no longer be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Our partnership agreement restricts the voting rights of unitholders owning 20% or more of any class of our units.

Our partnership agreement restricts unitholders’ voting rights by providing that any units held by a person that owns 20% or more of any class of units then outstanding, other than our general partner, its affiliates, their transferees and persons who acquired such units with the prior approval of the board of directors of our general partner, cannot vote on any matter. Our partnership agreement also contains provisions limiting the ability of unitholders to call meetings or acquire information about our operations, as well as other provisions limiting the unitholders’ ability to influence the manner or direction of management.

Cost reimbursements due to our general partner and its affiliates will reduce cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

Prior to making any distribution on the common units, we reimburse our general partner and its affiliates for all expenses they incur on our behalf, which is determined by our general partner in its sole discretion. These expenses include all costs incurred by the general partner and its affiliates in managing and operating us, including costs for rendering corporate staff and support services to us. We are managed and operated by directors and executive officers of our general partner. In addition, the majority of our operating personnel are employees of our general partner. Please read Part III, Item 13, “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.” The reimbursement of expenses and payment of fees, if any, to our general partner and its affiliates could adversely affect our ability to pay cash distributions to our unitholders.

Unitholders may not have limited liability if a court finds that unitholder action constitutes control of our businesses.

A general partner of a partnership generally has unlimited liability for the obligations of the partnership, except for those contractual obligations of the partnership that are expressly made without recourse to the general partner. Our partnership is organized under Delaware law, and we conduct business in a number of other states. The limitations on the liability of holders of limited partner interests for the obligations of a limited partnership have not been clearly established in some of the other states in which we do business. A unitholder could be liable for our obligations as if he were a general partner if:

a court or government agency determined that we were conducting business in a state but had not complied with that particular state’s partnership statute; or
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a unitholder’s right to act with other unitholders to remove or replace the general partner, approve some amendments to our partnership agreement or take other actions under our partnership agreement constitute “control” of our businesses.

Unitholders may have liability to repay distributions.

Under certain circumstances, unitholders may have to repay amounts wrongfully returned or distributed to them. Under Delaware law, we may not make a distribution to unitholders if the distribution would cause our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets. Delaware law provides that for a period of three years from the date of the impermissible distribution, limited partners who received the distribution and who knew at the time of the distribution that it violated Delaware law will be liable to the limited partnership for the distribution amount. Purchasers of units who become limited partners are liable for the obligations of the transferring limited partner to make contributions to us that are known to the purchaser of units at the time it became a limited partner and for unknown obligations if the liabilities could be determined from the partnership agreement. Liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interests and liabilities that are non-recourse to us are not counted for purposes of determining whether a distribution is permitted.

The control of our general partner may be transferred to a third party without unitholder consent.

Our general partner may transfer its general partner interest to a third party in a merger or in a sale of all or substantially all of its assets without the consent of the unitholders. Furthermore, there is no restriction in the partnership agreement on the ability of the members of our general partner from transferring their respective membership interests in our general partner to a third party. The new members of our general partner would then be in a position to replace the board of directors and officers of our general partner with their own choices and control the decisions taken by the board of directors and officers of our general partner.

Certain members of the Slifka family and their affiliates may engage in activities that compete directly with us.

Mr. Richard Slifka and his affiliates (other than us) are subject to noncompetition provisions in the omnibus agreement and business opportunity agreement. In addition, Mr. Eric Slifka’s and Mr. Andrew Slifka’s employment agreements contain noncompetition provisions. These agreements do not prohibit Messrs. Richard Slifka, Eric Slifka and Andrew Slifka and certain affiliates of our general partner from owning certain assets or engaging in certain businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. Please read Part III, Item 13, “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence—Noncompetition.”

Tax Risks

Our tax treatment depends on our status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and not being subject to a material amount of entity-level taxation. If the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, were to treat us as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, or we become subject to entity level taxation for state tax purposes, our cash available for distribution to our unitholders would be substantially reduced.

The anticipated after-tax economic benefit of an investment in our common units depends largely on our being treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.

Despite the fact that we are organized as a limited partnership under Delaware law, we would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless we satisfy a “qualifying income” requirement. Based upon our current operations and current Treasury Regulations, we believe we satisfy the qualifying income requirement. However, no ruling has been or will be requested regarding our treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Failing to meet the qualifying income requirement or a change in current law could cause us to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes or otherwise subject us to taxation as an entity.

If we were treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, we would pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at the corporate tax rate. Distributions to our unitholders would generally be taxed again as corporate distributions, and no income, gains, losses or deductions would flow through to our unitholders. Because a tax would be

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imposed upon us as a corporation, our cash available for distribution to our unitholders would be substantially reduced. Therefore, treatment of us as a corporation would result in a material reduction in the anticipated cash flow and after-tax return to our unitholders, likely causing a substantial reduction in the value of our common units.

Our partnership agreement provides that if a law is enacted or existing law is modified or interpreted in a manner that subjects us to taxation as a corporation or otherwise subjects us to additional amounts of entity level taxation for federal, state, municipal or foreign income tax purposes, the minimum quarterly distribution amount and the target distribution amounts may be adjusted to reflect the impact of that law or interpretation on us. At the state level, several states have been evaluating ways to subject partnerships to entity-level taxation through the imposition of state income, franchise or other forms of taxation. We currently own assets and conduct business in several states that impose a margin or franchise tax. In the future, we may expand our operations. Imposition of a similar tax on us in other jurisdictions that we may expand to could substantially reduce our cash available for distribution to our unitholders.

The tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships or an investment in our units could be negatively impacted by future legislative, judicial or administrative changes in applicable tax laws or differing interpretations thereof, possibly applied on a retroactive basis.

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships, including us, or an investment in our units, may be negatively impacted by future administrative, legislative or judicial changes or differing interpretations thereof at any time. From time to time, members of Congress have proposed and considered substantive changes to the existing U.S. federal income tax laws that would affect publicly traded partnerships, including proposals that would eliminate our ability for partnership tax treatment.

Any modification to the U.S. federal income tax laws or interpretations thereof may be applied retroactively and could make it more difficult or impossible for us to meet the exception for certain publicly traded partnerships to be treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We are unable to predict whether any changes or other proposals will ultimately be enacted. In addition, there can be no assurance that there will not be any legislative, judicial or administrative changes in tax law generally that would negatively impact the value of an investment in our units. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor with respect to the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals in tax law generally and their potential effect on your investment in our units.

We have subsidiaries that are treated as corporations for federal income tax purposes and subject to corporate-level income taxes.

As of December 31, 2020, we conducted substantially all of our operations of our end-user business through six subsidiaries that are treated as corporations for federal income tax purposes. These corporations primarily engage in the retail sale of gasoline and/or operate convenience stores and collect rents on personal property leased to dealers and commissioned agents at other stations. We may elect to conduct additional operations through these corporate subsidiaries in the future. These corporate subsidiaries are subject to corporate-level taxes, which reduce the cash available for distribution to us and, in turn, to common unitholders. If the IRS were to successfully assert that these corporations have more tax liability than we anticipate or legislation were enacted that increased the corporate tax rate, our cash available for distribution to common unitholders would be further reduced.

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If the IRS were to contest the federal income tax positions we take, it may adversely impact the market for our common units, and the costs of any such contest would reduce our cash available for distribution to our common unitholders.

We have not requested a ruling from the IRS with respect to our treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The IRS may adopt positions that differ from the positions we take. It may be necessary to resort to administrative or court proceedings to sustain some or all of the positions we take. A court may not agree with some or all of the positions we take. Any contest with the IRS may materially and adversely impact the market for our common units and the price at which they trade. Moreover, the costs of any contest between us and the IRS will result in a reduction in our cash available for distribution to our common unitholders and thus will be borne indirectly by our common unitholders.

If the IRS makes audit adjustments to our income tax returns for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, it (and some states) may assess and collect any taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustments directly from us, in which case our cash available for distribution to our common unitholders might be substantially reduced and our current and former common unitholders may be required to indemnify us for any taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustments that were paid on such common unitholders’ behalf.

Pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, if the IRS makes an audit adjustment to our income tax return, it (and some states) may assess and collect any taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustment directly from us. To the extent possible under the new rules, our general partner may elect to either pay the taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) directly to the IRS or, if we are eligible, issue a revised information statement to each common unitholder and former common unitholder with respect to an audited and adjusted return. Although our general partner may elect to have our common unitholders and former common unitholders take such audit adjustment into account and pay any resulting taxes (including applicable penalties or interest) in accordance with their interests in us during the tax year under audit, there can be no assurance that such election will be practical, permissible or effective in all circumstances. As a result, our current common unitholders may bear some or all of the tax liability resulting from such audit adjustment, even if such common unitholders did not own units in us during the tax year under audit. If, as a result of any such audit adjustment, we are required to make payments of taxes, penalties and interest, our cash available for distribution to our common unitholders might be substantially reduced and our current and former common unitholders may be required to indemnify us for any taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustments that were paid on such common unitholders’ behalf. These rules are not applicable for tax years beginning on or prior to December 31, 2017.

Even if our common unitholders do not receive any cash distributions from us, they will be required to pay taxes on their share of our taxable income.

Because common unitholders are treated as partners to whom we allocate taxable income, which could be different in amount than the cash we distribute, common unitholders are required to pay any federal income taxes and, in some cases, state and local income taxes on their share of our taxable income even if they do not receive any cash distributions from us. For example, if we sell assets and use the proceeds to repay existing debt or fund capital expenditures, you may be allocated taxable income and gain resulting from the sale and our cash available for distribution would not increase. Similarly, taking advantage of opportunities to reduce our existing debt, such as debt exchanges, debt repurchases, or modifications of our existing debt could result in “cancellation of indebtedness income” being allocated to our common unitholders as taxable income without any increase in our cash available for distribution. Our common unitholders may not receive cash distributions from us equal to their share of our taxable income or even equal to the tax liability that results from that income.

Tax gain or loss on the disposition of our common units could be more or less than expected.

If a unitholder sells common units, the unitholder will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and that unitholder’s tax basis in those common units. Because distributions in excess of a common

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unitholder’s allocable share of our net taxable income decrease such unitholder’s tax basis in its common units, the amount, if any, of such prior excess distributions with respect to the common units a unitholder sells will, in effect, become taxable income to a unitholder if it sells such units at a price greater than its tax basis in those units, even if the price such unitholder receives is less than its original cost. In addition, because the amount realized includes a unitholder’s share of our nonrecourse liabilities, if a unitholder sells its common units, the unitholder may incur a tax liability in excess of the amount of cash received from the sale.

A substantial portion of the amount realized from a unitholder’s sale of our common units, whether or not representing gain, may be taxed as ordinary income to such unitholder due to potential recapture items, including depreciation recapture. Thus, a common unitholder may recognize both ordinary income and capital loss from the sale of units if the amount realized on a sale of such units is less than such unitholder’s adjusted basis in the common units. Net capital loss may only offset capital gains and, in the case of individuals, up to $3,000 of ordinary income per year. In the taxable period in which a unitholder sells its common units, such unitholder may recognize ordinary income from our allocations of income and gain to such unitholder prior to the sale and from recapture items that generally cannot be offset by any capital loss recognized upon the sale of units.

Common unitholders may be subject to limitation on their ability to deduct interest expense incurred by us.

In general, we are entitled to a deduction for interest paid or accrued on indebtedness properly allocable to our trade or business during our taxable year. However, subject to the exceptions in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act,” discussed below), under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, our deduction for “business interest” is limited to the sum of our business interest income and 30% of our “adjusted taxable income.” For the purposes of this limitation, our adjusted taxable income is computed without regard to any business interest expense or business interest income, and in the case of taxable years beginning before January 1, 2022, any deduction allowable for depreciation, amortization, or depletion to the extent such depreciation, amortization, or depletion is not capitalized into cost of goods sold with respect to inventory.

For our 2020 taxable year, the CARES Act increases the 30% adjusted taxable income limitation to 50%, unless we elect not to apply such increase. For purposes of determining our 50% adjusted taxable income limitation, we may elect to substitute our 2020 adjusted taxable income with our 2019 adjusted taxable income, which may result in a greater business interest expense deduction. In addition, unitholders may treat 50% of any excess business interest allocated to them in 2019 as deductible in the 2020 taxable year without regard to the 2020 business interest expense limitations. The remaining 50% of such unitholder’s excess business interest is carried forward and subject to the same limitations as other taxable years.

If our “business interest” is subject to limitation under these rules, our unitholders will be limited in their ability to deduct their share of any interest expense that has been allocated to them. As a result, common unitholders may be subject to limitation on their ability to deduct interest expense incurred by us which could negatively impact the value of an investment in our common units. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor with respect to this potential limitation on the deductibility of interest expense and its impact on your investment in our common units.

Tax-exempt entities face unique tax issues from owning our common units that may result in adverse tax consequences to them.

Investment in our common units by tax-exempt entities, such as employee benefit plans and individual retirement accounts (known as IRAs) raises issues unique to them. For example, virtually all of our income allocated to organizations that are exempt from U.S. federal income tax, including IRAs and other retirement plans, will be unrelated business taxable income and will be taxable to them. Tax-exempt entities should consult a tax advisor before investing in our common units.

Non-U.S. Unitholders will be subject to U.S. taxes and withholding with respect to their income and gain from owning our units.

Non-U.S. unitholders are generally taxed and subject to income tax filing requirements by the United States on

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income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Income allocated to our common unitholders and any gain from the sale of our units will generally be considered to be “effectively connected” with a U.S. trade or business. As a result, distributions to a non-U.S. common unitholder will be subject to withholding at the highest applicable effective tax rate and a non-U.S. unitholder who sells or otherwise disposes of a unit will also be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the gain realized from the sale or disposition of that unit.

Moreover, the transferee of an interest in a partnership that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business is generally required to withhold 10% of the “amount realized” by the transferor unless the transferor certifies that it is not a foreign person. While the determination of a partner’s “amount realized” generally includes any decrease of a partner’s share of the partnership’s liabilities, recently issued Treasury regulations provide that the “amount realized” on a transfer of an interest in a publicly traded partnership, such as our units, will generally be the amount of gross proceeds paid to the broker effecting the applicable transfer on behalf of the transferor, and thus will be determined without regard to any decrease in that partner’s share of a publicly traded partnership’s liabilities. The Treasury regulations further provide that withholding on a transfer of an interest in a publicly traded partnership will not be imposed on a transfer that occurs prior to January 1, 2022, and after that date, if effected through a broker, the obligation to withhold is imposed on the transferor’s broker.

We treat each purchaser of our common units as having the same tax benefits without regard to the common units actually purchased. The IRS may challenge this treatment, which could adversely affect the value of our common units.

Because we cannot match transferors and transferees of common units, we have adopted certain methods for allocating depreciation and amortization deductions that may not conform to all aspects of existing Treasury Regulations. A successful IRS challenge to the use of these methods could adversely affect the amount of tax benefits available to our unitholders. It also could affect the timing of these tax benefits or the amount of gain from any sale of common units and could have a negative impact on the value of our common units or result in audit adjustments to a unitholder’s tax returns.

We generally prorate our items of income, gain, loss and deduction between transferors and transferees of our common units each month based upon the ownership of our common units on the first day of each month, instead of on the basis of the date a particular common unit is transferred. The IRS may challenge this treatment, which could change the allocation of items of income, gain, loss and deduction among our unitholders.

We generally prorate our items of income, gain, loss and deduction between transferors and transferees of our common units each month based upon the ownership of our common units on the first day of each month (the “Allocation Date”), instead of on the basis of the date a particular common unit is transferred. Similarly, we generally allocate (i) certain deductions for depreciation of capital additions, (ii) gain or loss realized on a sale or other disposition of our assets, and (iii) in the discretion of the general partner, any other extraordinary item of income, gain, loss or deduction based upon ownership on the Allocation Date. Treasury Regulations allow a similar monthly simplifying convention, but such regulations do not specifically authorize all aspects of our proration method. If the IRS were to challenge our proration method, we may be required to change the allocation of items of income, gain, loss and deduction among our unitholders.

A unitholder whose common units are the subject of a securities loan (e.g., a loan to a “short seller” to cover a short sale of common units) may be considered to have disposed of those common units. If so, such unitholder would no longer be treated for tax purposes as a partner with respect to those common units during the period of the loan and may recognize gain or loss from the disposition.

Because there are no specific rules governing the U.S. federal income tax consequences of loaning a partnership interest, a unitholder whose common units are the subject of a securities loan may be considered to have disposed of the loaned units. In that case, the unitholder may no longer be treated for tax purposes as a partner with respect to those common units during the period of the loan to the short seller and the unitholder may recognize gain or loss from such disposition. Moreover, during the period of the loan, any of our income, gain, loss or deduction with respect to those common units may not be reportable by the unitholder and any cash distributions received by the unitholder as to those

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common units could be fully taxable as ordinary income. Unitholders desiring to assure their status as partners and avoid the risk of gain recognition from a securities loan are urged consult a tax advisor to determine whether it is advisable to modify any applicable brokerage account agreements to prohibit their brokers from borrowing their common units.

We have adopted certain valuation methodologies in determining a unitholder’s allocations of income, gain, loss and deduction. The IRS may challenge these methodologies or the resulting allocations, which could adversely affect the value of our common units.

In determining the items of income, gain, loss and deduction allocable to our unitholders, we must routinely determine the fair market value of our assets. Although we may, from time to time, consult with professional appraisers regarding valuation matters, we make many fair market value estimates using a methodology based on the market value of our common units as a means to measure the fair market value of our assets. The IRS may challenge these valuation methods and the resulting allocations of income, gain, loss and deduction.

A successful IRS challenge to these methods or allocations could adversely affect the timing or amount of taxable income or loss being allocated to our unitholders. It also could affect the amount of gain recognized from the sale of our common units, have a negative impact on the value of our common units or result in audit adjustments to our unitholders’ tax returns without the benefit of additional deductions.

Unitholders may be subject to state and local taxes and return filing requirements in jurisdictions where they do not live as a result of investing in our common units.

In addition to U.S. federal income taxes, our unitholders may be subject to other taxes, including foreign, state and local taxes, unincorporated business taxes and estate, inheritance or intangible taxes that are imposed by the various jurisdictions in which we conduct business or own property now or in the future, even if they do not live in any of those jurisdictions. Our unitholders will likely be required to file foreign, state and local income tax returns and pay state and local income taxes in some or all of these various jurisdictions. Further, our unitholders may be subject to penalties for failure to comply with those requirements.

We currently own assets and conduct business in several states, some of which impose a personal income tax on individuals, corporations and other entities. As we make acquisitions or expand our businesses, we may own assets or conduct business in additional states that impose a personal income tax. It is our unitholders’ responsibility to file all U.S. federal, state, municipal and non-U.S. tax returns and pay any taxes due in these jurisdictions. Unitholders should consult with their own tax advisors regarding the filing of such tax returns, the payment of such taxes, and the deductibility of any taxes paid.

Treatment of distributions on our Series A preferred units as guaranteed payments for the use of capital creates a different tax treatment for the holders of our Series A preferred units than the holders of our common units and such distributions are not eligible for the 20% deduction for qualified business income.

The tax treatment of distributions on our Series A preferred units is uncertain. We will treat each of the holders of our Series A preferred units as partners for tax purposes and will treat income attributable to distributions on our Series A preferred units as a guaranteed payment for the use of capital that will generally be taxable to each of the holders of our Series A preferred units as ordinary income. Holders of our Series A preferred units will recognize taxable income from the accrual of such income (even in the absence of a contemporaneous cash distribution). Otherwise, except in the case of our liquidation, the holders of our Series A preferred units are generally not anticipated to share in our items of income, gain, loss or deduction, nor will we allocate any share of our nonrecourse liabilities to the holders of our Series A preferred units. If distributions on our Series A preferred units were treated as payments on indebtedness for tax purposes, rather than as guaranteed payments for the use of capital, the distributions likely would be treated as payments of interest by us to each of the holders of our Series A preferred units.

Although we expect that much of the income we earn is generally eligible for the 20% deduction for qualified publicly traded partnership income, recently issued final Treasury Regulations provide that income attributable to a

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guaranteed payment for the use of capital is not eligible for the 20% deduction for qualified publicly traded partnership income.  As a result, income attributable to a guaranteed payment for use of capital recognized by holders of our Series A preferred units is not eligible for the 20% deduction for qualified business income.

A holder of our Series A preferred units will be required to recognize gain or loss on a sale of Series A preferred units equal to the difference between the amount realized by such holder and such holder’s tax basis in the Series A preferred units sold. The amount realized generally will equal the sum of the cash and the fair market value of other property such holder receives in exchange for such Series A preferred units. Subject to general rules requiring a blended basis among multiple partnership interests, the tax basis of a Series A preferred unit will generally equal the sum of the cash and the fair market value of other property paid by the holder of such Series A preferred unit to acquire such Series A preferred unit. Gain or loss recognized by a holder of Series A preferred units on the sale or exchange of a Series A preferred unit held for more than one year generally will be taxable as long-term capital gain or loss. Because holders of our Series A preferred units will generally not be allocated a share of our items of depreciation, depletion or amortization, it is not anticipated that such holders will be required to recharacterize any portion of their gain as ordinary income as a result of the recapture rules.

Investment in our Series A preferred units by tax-exempt investors, such as employee benefit plans and individual retirement accounts, and non-United States persons raises issues unique to them. The treatment of guaranteed payments for the use of capital to tax-exempt investors is not certain and the income resulting from such payments may be treated as unrelated business taxable income for federal income tax purposes. Distributions to non-United States holders of our Series A preferred units will be subject to withholding taxes. If the amount of withholding exceeds the amount of United States federal income tax due, non-United States holders of our Series A preferred units may be required to file United States federal income tax returns in order to seek a refund of such excess.

All holders of our Series A preferred units are urged to consult a tax advisor with respect to the consequences of owning our Series A preferred units.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

The information required by this item is included in Note 23 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information and Holders

Our common units trade on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “GLP.” At the close of business on March 1, 2021, based upon information received from our transfer agent and brokers and nominees, we had 14,012 common unitholders, including beneficial owners of common units held in street name.

Distributions of Available Cash

Common Units and General Partner Interest

We intend to make cash distributions to common unitholders on a quarterly basis, although there is no assurance as to the future cash distributions since they are dependent upon future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition and other factors. Our credit agreement prohibits us from making cash distributions if any potential default or event of default, as defined in the credit agreement, occurs or would result from the cash distribution. The indentures governing our outstanding senior notes and our partnership agreement also limit our ability to make distributions to our common unitholders in certain circumstances.

Within 45 days after the end of each quarter, we will distribute all of our Available Cash (as defined in our partnership agreement) to common unitholders of record on the applicable record date. The amount of Available Cash is all cash on hand on the date of determination of Available Cash for the quarter, less the amount of cash reserves established by our general partner to provide for the proper conduct of our businesses, to comply with applicable law, any of our debt instruments or other agreements, or to provide funds for distributions to unitholders and our general partner for any one or more of the next four quarters.

We will make distributions of Available Cash from distributable cash flow for any quarter in the following manner: 99.33% to the common unitholders, pro rata, and 0.67% to the general partner, until we distribute for each outstanding common unit an amount equal to the minimum quarterly distribution for that quarter; and thereafter, cash in excess of the minimum quarterly distribution is distributed to the common unitholders and the general partner based on the percentages as provided below.

As holder of the incentive distribution rights, the general partner is entitled to incentive distributions if the amount we distribute with respect to any quarter exceeds specified target levels shown below:

Marginal Percentage

 

Total Quarterly Distribution

Interest in Distributions

 

Target Amount

Unitholders

General Partner

 

First Target Distribution

    

up to $0.4625

    

99.33

%  

0.67

%  

Second Target Distribution

 

above $0.4625 up to $0.5375

 

86.33

%  

13.67

%  

Third Target Distribution

 

above $0.5375 up to $0.6625

 

76.33

%  

23.67

%  

Thereafter

 

above $0.6625

 

51.33

%  

48.67

%  

Series A Preferred Units

On August 7, 2018, we issued 2,760,000 of our Series A preferred units at a price of $25.00 per Series A preferred unit. We used the proceeds, net of underwriting discount and expenses, of $66.4 million to reduce indebtedness under our credit agreement.

Distributions on the Series A preferred units are cumulative from August 7, 2018, the original issue date of the Series A preferred units, and payable quarterly in arrears on February 15, May 15, August 15 and November 15 of each

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year, commencing on November 15, 2018 (each, a “Distribution Payment Date”), to holders of record as of the opening of business on the February 1, May 1, August 1 or November 1 next preceding the Distribution Payment Date, in each case, when, as, and if declared by the General Partner out of legally available funds for such purpose. Distributions on the Series A preferred units will be paid out of Available Cash with respect to the quarter immediately preceding the applicable Distribution Payment Date.

No distribution may be declared or paid or set apart for payment on any junior securities (other than a distribution payable solely in junior securities) unless full cumulative distributions have been or contemporaneously are being paid or provided for on all outstanding Series A preferred units and any parity securities through the most recent respective distribution periods.

The initial distribution rate for the Series A preferred units from and including the Original Issue Date, but excluding, August 15, 2023 is 9.75% per annum of the $25.00 liquidation preference per Series A preferred unit (equal to $2.4375 per Series A preferred unit per annum). On and after August 15, 2023, distributions on the Series A preferred units will accumulate for each distribution period at a percentage of the $25.00 liquidation preference equal to an annual floating rate of the three-month LIBOR plus a spread of 6.774% per annum.

Equity Compensation Plan

The equity compensation plan information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K in response to this item is incorporated by reference from Part III, Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters—Equity Compensation Plan Table.”

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

We did not repurchase any of our common units during the quarter ended December 31, 2020.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following table presents selected historical financial and operating data of Global Partners LP for the years and as of the dates indicated. The selected historical financial data is derived from the historical consolidated financial statements of Global Partners LP.

This table should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the historical consolidated financial statements of Global Partners LP and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. In addition, this table presents non-GAAP financial measures which we use in our businesses. These measures are not calculated or presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). We explain these measures and present reconciliations to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s

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Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations—Key Performance Indicators.”

Year Ended December 31, 

 

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

 

(dollars in millions except per unit amounts)

 

Statement of Income Data:

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

Sales

$

8,321.6

$

13,081.7

$

12,672.6

$

8,920.6

$

8,239.6

Cost of sales

 

7,600.5

 

12,419.0

 

12,022.2

 

8,337.5

 

7,693.1

Gross profit

 

721.1

 

662.7

 

650.4

 

583.1

 

546.5

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

192.5

 

170.9

 

171.0

 

155.0

 

149.7

Operating expenses

 

323.3

 

342.4

 

321.1

 

283.6

 

288.5

(Gain) loss on trustee taxes

(52.6)

16.2

Lease exit and termination (gain) expenses

(0.5)

(3.5)

80.7

Amortization expense

 

10.8

 

11.4

 

11.0

 

9.2

 

9.4

Net loss (gain) on sale and disposition of assets

0.3

(2.7)

5.9

(1.6)

20.5

Goodwill and long-lived asset impairment

1.9

2.0

0.4

0.8

149.9

Total operating costs and expenses

 

528.8

 

523.5

 

453.3

 

463.3

 

698.7

Operating income (loss)

 

192.3

 

139.2

 

197.1

 

119.8

 

(152.2)

Interest expense

 

(83.5)

 

(89.9)

 

(89.1)

 

(86.2)

 

(86.3)

Loss on early extinguishment of debt

(7.2)

(13.1)

Income (loss) before income tax (expense) benefit

 

101.6

 

36.2

 

108.0

 

33.5

 

(238.5)

Income tax benefit (expense)

 

0.1

 

(1.0)

 

(5.6)

 

23.6

 

(0.1)

Net income (loss)

 

101.7

 

35.2

 

102.4

 

57.1

 

(238.6)

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest (1)

 

0.5

 

0.7

 

1.5

 

1.6

 

39.2

Net income (loss) attributable to Global Partners LP

 

102.2

 

35.9

 

103.9

 

58.8

 

(199.4)

Less: General partners’ interest in net income (loss)

 

1.4

 

1.4

 

1.0

 

0.4

 

(1.3)

Less: Series A preferred limited partner interest in net income

6.7

6.7

2.7

Net income (loss) attributable to common limited partners

$

94.1

$

27.8

$

100.2

$

58.4

$

(198.1)

Per Unit Data

Basic net income (loss) per common limited partner unit (2)

$

2.77

$

0.82

$

2.97

$

1.74

$

(5.91)

Diluted net income (loss) per common limited partner unit (2)

$

2.74

$

0.81

$

2.95

$

1.74

$

(5.91)

Cash distributions per common limited partner unit (3)

$

1.88

$

2.05

$

1.88

$

1.85

$

1.85

Cash Flow Data:

Net cash provided by (used in):

Operating activities

$

312.5

$

94.4

$

168.9

$

348.4

$

(119.9)

Investment activities

$

(69.7)

$

(67.2)

$

(225.7)

$

(61.6)

$

6.4

Financing activities

$

(245.1)

$

(23.3)

$

50.1

$

(282.0)

$

122.4

Other Financial Data:

EBITDA (4)