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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549 
___________________________________________
FORM 10-K
 ___________________________________________

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                    
Commission file number: 001-33292
_________________________________________________________
corr-20201231_g1.jpg
CORENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE TRUST, INC.
______________________________________________________________________
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland20-3431375
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)

1100 Walnut, Ste. 3350
Kansas City, MO
64106
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

(816) 875-3705
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareCORRNew York Stock Exchange
7.375% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred StockCORRPrANew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
___________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes   No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes   No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  x    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act)     Yes   No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price on that date of $9.15 on the New York Stock Exchange was $124,446,978. Common shares held by each executive officer and director and by each person who owns 10% or more of the outstanding common shares (as determined by information provided to the registrant) have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of March 3, 2021, the registrant had 13,651,521 common shares outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc.
FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Page No.
F-45
F-45

2

PART I
GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS


Certain of the defined terms used in this Report are set forth below:
5.875% Convertible Notes: the Company's 5.875% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025.
7.00% Convertible Notes: the Company's 7.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020, which matured on June 15, 2020.
Accretion Expense: the expense recognized when adjusting the present value of the GIGS ARO for the passage of time.
Administrative Agreement: the Administrative Agreement dated December 1, 2011, as amended effective August 7, 2012, between the Company and Corridor.
Amended Pinedale Term Credit Facility: Pinedale LP's $41.0 million Second Amended and Restated Term Credit Agreement and Note Purchase Agreement with Prudential as lender, effective December 29, 2017, which was extinguished on June 30, 2020.
Arc Logistics: Arc Logistics Partners LP, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Zenith Energy U.S., LP. as a result of the completion of a merger on December 21, 2017.
ARO: the Asset Retirement Obligation liabilities assumed with the acquisition of GIGS.
ASC: FASB Accounting Standards Codification.
ASU: FASB Accounting Standard Update.
Bbls: standard barrel containing 42 U.S. gallons.
CARES Act: the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act.
Code: the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
Company or CorEnergy: CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc. (NYSE: CORR).
Compass SWD: Compass SWD, LLC, the current borrower under the Compass REIT Loan.
Compass REIT Loan: the financing notes between Compass SWD and Four Wood Corridor.
Convertible Notes: collectively, the Company's 5.875% Convertible Notes and the Company's 7.00% Convertible Notes.
CorEnergy BBWS: CorEnergy BBWS, Inc., a wholly-owned taxable REIT subsidiary of CorEnergy.
CorEnergy Credit Facility: the Company's upsized $160.0 million CorEnergy Revolver and the $1.0 million MoGas Revolver with Regions Bank, which was terminated on February 4, 2021.
CorEnergy Revolver: the Company's $160.0 million secured revolving line of credit facility with Regions Bank, which was terminated on February 4, 2021.
CorEnergy Term Loan: the Company's $45.0 million secured term loan with Regions Bank that was paid off in conjunction with the amendment and restatement of the CorEnergy Credit Facility on July 28, 2017.
Corridor: Corridor InfraTrust Management, LLC, the Company's external manager pursuant to the Management Agreement.
Corridor MoGas: Corridor MoGas, Inc., a wholly-owned taxable REIT subsidiary of CorEnergy, the holding company of MoGas, United Property Systems and CorEnergy Pipeline Company, LLC and a co-borrower under the Crimson Credit Facility.
Corridor Private: Corridor Private Holdings, Inc., an indirect wholly-owned taxable REIT subsidiary of CorEnergy.
Corridor Public: Corridor Public Holdings, Inc., an indirect wholly-owned taxable REIT subsidiary of CorEnergy.
COVID-19: Coronavirus disease of 2019; a pandemic affecting many countries globally.
Cox Acquiring Entity: MLCJR LLC, an affiliate of Cox Oil, LLC.
Cox Oil: Cox Oil, LLC.
CPI: Consumer Price Index.
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GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS (Continued from previous page)
CPUC: California Public Utility Commission.
Crimson: Crimson Midstream Holdings, LLC, a CPUC regulated crude oil pipeline owner and operator, of which the Company owns a 49.50 percent interest effective February 1, 2021.
Crimson Credit Facility: the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with Crimson Midstream Operating and Corridor MoGas as borrowers, the lenders from time to time party thereto, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent, swingline lender and issuing bank, entered into on February 4, 2021, which provides borrowing capacity of up to $155.0 million, consisting of: a $50.0 million revolving credit facility, an $80.0 million term loan and an uncommitted incremental facility of $25.0 million.
Crimson Midstream Operating: Crimson Midstream Operating, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Crimson and a co-borrower under the Crimson Credit Facility.
Crimson Revolver: the $50.0 million secured revolving line of credit facility with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association entered into on February 4, 2021.
Crimson Term Loan: the $80.0 million secured term loan with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association entered into on February 4, 2021.
Crimson Transaction: the Company's acquisition of a 49.50 percent interest in Crimson on February 4, 2021 with the right to acquire the remaining 50.50 percent upon receiving CPUC approval.
Exchange Act: the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
EGC: Energy XXI Ltd, the parent company (and guarantor) of our tenant on the Grand Isle Gathering System lease, emerged from a reorganization under Chapter 11 of the US Bankruptcy Code on December 30, 2016, with the succeeding company named Energy XXI Gulf Coast, Inc. Effective October 18, 2018, EGC became an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of MLCJR LLC ("Cox Acquiring Entity"), an affiliate of Cox Oil, LLC, as a result of a merger transaction. Throughout this document, references to EGC will refer to both the pre- and post-bankruptcy entities and, for dates on and after October 18, 2018, to EGC as an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Cox Acquiring Entity.
EGC Tenant: Energy XXI GIGS Services, LLC, a wholly-owned operating subsidiary of Energy XXI Gulf Coast, Inc. that was the tenant under Grand Isle Corridor's triple-net lease of the Grand Isle Gathering System until the lease was terminated on February 4, 2021.
FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board.
FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Four Wood Corridor: Four Wood Corridor, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of CorEnergy.
GAAP: U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
GIGS: the Grand Isle Gathering System, owned by Grand Isle Corridor LP and triple-net leased to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Energy XXI Gulf Coast, Inc until it was sold on February 4, 2021.
GOM: Gulf of Mexico.
Grand Isle Corridor: Grand Isle Corridor LP, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
Grand Isle Gathering System: a subsea midstream pipeline gathering system located in the shallow Gulf of Mexico shelf and storage and onshore processing facilities.
Grand Isle Lease Agreement: the June 2015 agreement pursuant to which the Grand Isle Gathering System assets were triple-net leased to EGC Tenant, which terminated on February 4, 2021 upon disposal of GIGS.
Indentures: collectively, (i) that certain Base Indenture, dated June 29, 2015, as supplemented by the related First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of June 29, 2015, between the Company and Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee for the 7.00% Convertible Notes and (ii) that certain Base Indenture, dated August 12, 2019, between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee for the 5.875% Convertible Notes.
Internalization: CorEnergy's expected acquisition of its external manager, Corridor, as contemplated in a Contribution Agreement, as described in this Report.
IRS: U.S. Internal Revenue Service.
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GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS (Continued from previous page)
Joliet: Zenith Energy Terminals Joliet Holdings LLC, an indirect subsidiary of Zenith Energy U.S., LP.
Lightfoot: collectively, Lightfoot Capital Partners, LP and Lightfoot Capital Partners GP LLC.
Management Agreement: the current management agreement between the Company and Corridor entered into May 8, 2015, effective as of May 1, 2015, and as amended February 4, 2021.
MoGas: MoGas Pipeline LLC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of CorEnergy.
MoGas Pipeline System: an approximately 263-mile interstate natural gas pipeline system in and around St. Louis and extending into central Missouri, owned and operated by MoGas.
MoGas Revolver: a $1.0 million secured revolving line of credit facility at the MoGas subsidiary level with Regions Bank, which was terminated on February 4, 2021.
Mowood: Mowood, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of CorEnergy and the holding company of Omega Pipeline Company, LLC.
Mowood/Omega Revolver: a $1.5 million secured revolving line of credit facility at the Mowood subsidiary level with Regions Bank, which was terminated on February 4, 2021.
NAREIT: National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts.
NYSE: New York Stock Exchange.
Omega: Omega Pipeline Company, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mowood, LLC.
Omega Pipeline: Omega's natural gas distribution system in south central Missouri.
OPEC: the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Pinedale LGS: the Pinedale Liquids Gathering System, a system consisting of approximately 150 miles of pipelines and four above-ground central gathering facilities located in the Pinedale Anticline in Wyoming, owned by Pinedale LP and triple-net leased to a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ultra Petroleum until it was sold on June 30, 2020.
Pinedale Lease Agreement: the December 2012 agreement pursuant to which the Pinedale LGS assets were triple-net leased to a wholly owned subsidiary of Ultra Petroleum, which terminated on June 30, 2020 upon sale of the Pinedale LGS.
Pinedale LP: Pinedale Corridor, LP, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of CorEnergy.
Pinedale GP: the general partner of Pinedale LP and a wholly-owned subsidiary of CorEnergy.
PLR: the Private Letter Ruling dated November 16, 2018 (PLR 201907001) issued to CorEnergy by the IRS.
Portland Lease Agreement: the January 2014 agreement pursuant to which the Portland Terminal Facility was triple-net leased to Zenith Terminals, which terminated on December 21, 2018 upon sale of the facility.
Portland Terminal Facility: a petroleum products terminal located in Portland, Oregon sold on December 21, 2018 to Zenith Terminals.
Prudential: the Prudential Insurance Company of America.
QDI: qualified dividend income.
REIT: real estate investment trust.
SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities Act: the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Series A Preferred Stock: the Company's 7.375% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, of which there currently are outstanding approximately 50,108 shares represented by 5,010,814 depositary shares, each representing 1/100th of a whole share of Series A Preferred Stock.
SWD: SWD Enterprises, LLC, the previous debtor of the financing notes with Four Wood Corridor.
TRS: taxable REIT subsidiary.
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GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS (Continued from previous page)
UPL: Ultra Petroleum Corp.
Ultra Wyoming: Ultra Wyoming LGS LLC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Ultra Petroleum.
United Property Systems: United Property Systems, LLC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of CorEnergy, acquired with the MoGas transaction in November 2014.
VIE: Variable Interest Entity.
Zenith: Zenith Energy U.S., LP.
Zenith Terminals: Zenith Energy Terminals Holdings, LLC (f/k/a Arc Terminal Holdings, LLC), a wholly-owned operating subsidiary of Arc Logistics LP (and, subsequent to December 21, 2017, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Zenith).
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ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GENERAL
CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc. ("CorEnergy") was organized as a Maryland corporation and commenced operations on December 8, 2005. As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Report"), the terms "we", "us", "our" and the "Company" refer to CorEnergy and its subsidiaries.
COMPANY OVERVIEW
We are a publicly traded real estate investment trust ("REIT") focused on energy infrastructure. Our business strategy is to own and operate or lease critical energy midstream infrastructure connecting the upstream and downstream sectors within the industry. We currently generate revenue from the transportation, via pipeline, of natural gas and crude oil for our customers in Missouri and California. The pipelines are located in areas where it would be difficult to replicate rights of way or transport natural gas or crude oil via non-pipeline alternatives resulting in our assets providing utility-like criticality in the midstream supply chain for our customers.
As primarily regulated assets, the near to medium term value of our regulated pipelines is supported by revenue derived from cost-of-service methodology. The cost-of-service methodology is used to establish appropriate transportation rates based on several factors including expected volumes, expenses, debt and return on equity. The regulated nature of the majority of our assets provides a degree of support for our profitability over the long-term, where our customers primarily own the products shipped on or stored in our facilities. We believe these characteristics provide CorEnergy with the attractive attributes of other globally listed infrastructure companies, including high barriers to entry and predictable revenue streams, while mitigating risks and volatility experienced by other companies engaged in the midstream energy sector.
Over the last twelve months, our asset portfolio has undergone significant changes as described under "2020 Developments" below. We have divested all of our leased assets including the Grand Isle Gathering System ("GIGS") and Pinedale Liquids Gathering System ("Pinedale LGS"). On February 4, 2021, GIGS was used as partial consideration to acquire a 49.50 percent interest in Crimson Midstream Holdings, LLC ("Crimson"), an approximately 2,000-mile crude oil transportation pipeline system in California, which is referred to throughout this Report as the "Crimson Transaction." The repositioning of our asset portfolio from a focus on non-operated leased assets to one of owned and operated assets is enabled by our U.S. Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") recent private letter ruling ("PLR") related to qualifying income for operated assets. As a result, all of our current assets are owned and operated which provides us with an opportunity to grow the business organically using our footprint in addition to making acquisitions. However, we still plan on pursuing the leasing or other non-operating ownership of assets, as part of our business model, when we believe appropriate opportunities arise. We intend to distribute substantially all of our cash available for distribution, less prudent reserves, on a quarterly basis. We regularly assess our ability to pay and to grow our dividend to common stockholders.
2020 Developments
Our 2020 fiscal year was impacted by the coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic-related reduction in energy demand, which resulted in several significant impacts on our tenants under our then triple-net leases and the financial performance of our business. These key events during our fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 are summarized below:
The COVID-19 pandemic-related reduction in energy demand and the uncertainty of production from OPEC members, U.S. producers and other international suppliers caused significant disruptions and volatility in the global oil marketplace during 2020, which adversely affected our tenants. In response to COVID-19, governments around the world have implemented increasingly stringent measures to help reduce the spread of the virus, including stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders, travel restrictions and other measures. These measures have adversely affected the economies and financial markets of the U.S. and many other countries, resulting in an economic downturn that has negatively impacted global demand and prices for the products handled by our pipelines, terminals and other facilities. There is significant uncertainty regarding how long these conditions will persist and the impact of the virus on the energy industry and potential impacts to our business. Refer to Item 1A, Risk Factors, for further details.
Events as described above resulted in decreases of current and expected long-term crude oil prices along with significant reductions to the market capitalization and bankruptcy filings of many oil and gas producing companies, including our tenants. Our tenant under the Grand Isle Lease Agreement was impacted by these economic events and ceased paying rent starting on April 1, 2020 and continuing into January of 2021, until the GIGS asset was disposed of and the Grand Isle Lease Agreement was terminated on February 4, 2021 in connection with the Crimson Transaction described above. These events triggered our review of the carrying value of our long-lived GIGS asset as of March 31, 2020. Our evaluation resulted in the recognition of a $140.3 million impairment for our GIGS asset and a $30.1 million non-cash
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write-off of the deferred rent receivable for the Grand Isle Lease Agreement. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for further details.
As a result of the bankruptcy filing of Ultra Petroleum Corp. ("UPL") and Ultra Wyoming LGS, LLC ("Ultra Wyoming"), the guarantor and tenant (respectively) of the Pinedale Lease Agreement, the tenant's motion to reject the lease effective June 30, 2020 and the sale of the Pinedale LGS to Ultra Wyoming for $18.0 million on June 30, 2020, (collectively, the "Pinedale Transaction"), we recognized a loss of approximately $136.0 million, net of a gain on extinguishment of related debt, for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Pinedale Lease Agreement was terminated effective June 30, 2020. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for further details.
Our Operations
As highlighted above, we have significantly changed our asset portfolio during 2020 and first quarter 2021. The asset portfolio is described below.
Crimson Midstream Holdings: An approximately 2,000-mile crude oil transportation pipeline system, including approximately 1,300 active miles, and associated storage facilities located in southern California and the San Joaquin Valley. The pipeline network provides a critical link between California crude oil production and California refineries. The operations and maintenance of these assets are in strict accordance with applicable safety and regulatory requirements promulgated by the U.S. Department of Transportation's ("DOT") Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration ("PHMSA") and California State Fire Marshall. The California Public Utility Commission ("CPUC") regulates the rates and administration of the transportation tariffs which comprise the majority of our revenue generating activities. These assets were acquired effective as of February 1, 2021.
MoGas Pipeline System: An approximate 263-mile interstate natural gas pipeline in and around St. Louis and extending into central Missouri. The pipeline network provides a critical link between natural gas producing regions with local utilities. MoGas operates and maintains these assets in strict accordance with applicable safety and regulatory requirements promulgated by PHMSA. The vast majority of our revenue is related to our Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC")-approved firm transportation agreements with various customers which entitle the customers to specified amounts of guaranteed capacity on the pipeline during the term of the agreements. We also earn additional revenue from our customers based on actual volumes of natural gas transported under either the firm transportation agreements, or under interruptible transportation agreements, but these revenues comprise a small percentage of our total revenue.
Omega Pipeline: An approximate 75-mile natural gas distribution system located primarily on the U.S. Army's Fort Leonard Wood military post in south-central Missouri. Omega Pipeline Company, LLC ("Omega") operates and maintains these assets in strict accordance with applicable safety and regulatory requirements promulgated by the Missouri Public Service Commission ("MoPUC"). The vast majority of Omega’s revenue is derived from a non-regulated Natural Gas Distribution Agreement between Omega and the U.S. Department of Defense ("DOD"), to provide the natural gas supply, distribution assets, operations and maintenance of the assets at Fort Leonard Wood. Omega has been under contract with the DOD since 1991 at Fort Leonard Wood, and we are currently in year five of a ten-year renewable agreement. We also earn additional revenue from Omega Gas Marketing, LLC providing gas supply services to a small number of small industrial and commercial customers in central Missouri near Fort Leonard Wood, but these revenues comprise a minimal percentage of our total revenue.
On November 16, 2018, the IRS issued a second requested PLR to CorEnergy. The PLR provides us assurance that fees we may receive for the usage of storage and pipeline assets we may own will qualify as rents from real property for purposes of our qualification as a REIT. As a result, the PLR grants us the opportunity to own and operate certain energy infrastructure assets under conditions set forth in the PLR. This ruling allows us to own and operate assets such as those within Crimson, MoGas, and Omega, which, prior to this PLR ruling, would not have directly generated REIT qualifying income.
Assets sold during 2020 and Q1 2021:
Grand Isle Gathering System: An approximately 137-mile subsea crude oil pipeline system located in the Gulf of Mexico south of Grand Isle, Louisiana and a 16-acre onshore terminal facility located in Grand Isle, Louisiana. CorEnergy had a triple-net lease for these assets on a long-term basis to a subsidiary of Energy Gulf Coast, Inc. ("EGC"), pursuant to the Grand Isle Lease Agreement. On February 4, 2021, the Grand Isle Gathering System was provided as partial consideration for the purchase of the 49.50 percent interest in Crimson.
Pinedale LGS: An approximately 150-mile liquid pipeline system and four central gathering treatment facilities located in the Pinedale Anticline, near Pinedale, Wyoming. CorEnergy had a triple-net lease for these assets on a long-term basis to a subsidiary of UPL. The Pinedale LGS was sold to UPL on June 30, 2020.
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Market Overview
Crude oil production in California dates back more than 150 years and the state has some of the highest recoverable reserves remaining in the ground. Given the significant hydrocarbon resources in California, and its access to the Pacific Ocean, California is not connected, via pipeline, to other crude oil producing regions in North America. The refining industry in California is primarily supplied first by native California crude oil production with the balance being supplied via waterborne imports. The majority of refineries in California are specifically designed to service California from both a crude oil supply and refined products standpoint. Many refineries are specifically designed to process the low-gravity crude oil that is prevalent in California. Furthermore, the refineries are also uniquely designed to meet the stringent California gasoline standards set by the California Air Resources Board ("CARB"). The high complexity of CARB requirements for California refiners results in a preference for California produced crude oil as a feedstock. Furthermore, the stringent refined product formulations required by CARB provide high barriers to entry for satisfying California's refined product demand from refineries outside of California.
The utilization of MoGas and Omega assets is driven by the consumption of natural gas from residential, commercial and industrial users in the region where MoGas' and Omega's assets are located. MoGas is well supplied by other interstate pipelines, originating in the Rocky Mountains, Mid-Continent, Appalachia, and Gulf Coast production basins.
Competition
We compete with other midstream energy companies as well as public and private funds, to make the types of investments that we plan to make in the U.S. energy infrastructure sector. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than us. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to a greater variety of funding sources than are available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, allowing them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. These competitive conditions may adversely affect our ability to make investments in the energy infrastructure sector and could adversely affect our distributions to stockholders.
Pipelines generally offer the lowest cost and safest mode of transportation. Despite this, pipelines can face competition from other forms of transportation, such as truck, rail and ship. Although these alternative forms of transportation are typically higher cost, they can provide access to alternative markets which could be attractive to our customers for various reasons.
The primary competition for our California assets is existing pipelines and trucking. In mature and stable crude oil producing regions like California, the threat of a newly constructed pipelines is low. Furthermore, a significant percentage of our assets are located in an urban environment which also significantly decreases the competition from new construction.
Customers
The majority of revenues from Crimson's operations are generated from California refiners which are predominately investment-grade. The majority of revenues from our MoGas and Omega operations are generated from long-term "take-or-pay" contracts with investment grade utilities, municipalities and the DOD. For a discussion of customers, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 8 ("Concentrations") to our consolidated financial statements.
Growth Opportunities and Due Diligence
We seek to grow through acquisitions and organically via optimization of our existing assets. We primarily rely on our own analysis to determine whether to pursue an opportunity. In evaluating a specific opportunity, we consider, among other things, the following factors:
Cash Flow Stability – We primary seek growth opportunities which provide stable and predictable cash flow through either long-term contracts or a regulated cost-of-service. As a second layer of stability, we look for assets which have natural barriers to entry with low current competition.
Importance to Customer/Counterparty Operations – We predominately focus on assets that we believe are critical or important to the ongoing operations of the customer or counterparty for the economic production or use of hydrocarbon resources. We focus on assets which are critical to our customers' realization of economic returns from their operations. We believe that this type of asset will provide a relatively low risk of nonuse, and therefore loss, in the case of a potential bankruptcy or abandonment scenario.
Organic Growth/Optimization Opportunities – We seek assets which provide us with the opportunity to organically grow. These opportunities might include attracting new volumes to our system or optimizing the asset within our current portfolio.
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Diversification – We attempt to diversify our portfolio to avoid dependence on any one particular customer, counterparty, commodity, and market location within the U.S. By diversifying, we seek to reduce the adverse effect of a single under-performing investment or a downturn in any particular asset, commodity, or market region.
Asset Evaluation – We review the physical condition of the property and assess the effectiveness of the current integrity management program. We also typically engage a third party to conduct, or require the seller to conduct, a thorough examination of all land-related documents, agreements, and easements, as well as, a preliminary examination, or Phase 1 assessment, of the site to determine the potential for contamination or similar environmental site assessments in an attempt to identify potential environmental liabilities associated with a property prior to its acquisition.
Customer/Counterparty/Investment Evaluation – We evaluate each potential customer, counterparty or investment for creditworthiness, typically considering factors such as management experience, industry position and fundamentals, operating history, and capital structure, as well as other factors that may be relevant to a particular acquisition.
Lease Terms – Typically, the net leased properties we will acquire will be leased on a full recourse basis to the tenants or their affiliates. In addition, we often seek to include a clause in each lease that provides for increases in rent over the term of the lease.
Other Real Estate Related Assets – As other opportunities arise, we may also seek to expand the portfolio to include other types of real estate-related investments, in all cases within the energy infrastructure sector, such as:
equity investments in real properties that are not long-term net leased to a single-tenant and may include partially leased properties, undeveloped properties and properties subject to short-term net leases, among others;
mortgage loans secured by real properties including loans to our taxable REIT subsidiaries ("TRS");
subordinated interests in first mortgage real estate loans, or B-notes;
mezzanine loans related to real estate, which are senior to the borrower's equity position but subordinated to other third-party financing; and
equity and debt securities (including preferred equity, limited partnership interests, trusts and other higher yielding structured debt and equity investments) issued by companies that are engaged in real-estate-related businesses as defined by regulations promulgated under the Code or our PLR, including other REITs.
Use of Taxable REIT Subsidiaries
We operate as a REIT and therefore are generally not subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxes on the income and gains that we distribute to our stockholders, including the income derived through leasing fees and financing revenue from our REIT qualifying investments in energy infrastructure assets. However, even as a REIT, we remain obligated to pay income taxes on earnings from our TRSs. The use of TRSs enables us to own certain assets and engage in certain businesses while maintaining compliance with the REIT qualification requirements under the Code. We may, from time to time, change the election of previously designated TRSs to be treated as qualified REIT subsidiaries, and may reorganize and transfer certain assets or operations from our TRSs to other subsidiaries, including qualified REIT subsidiaries. For example, through a series of reorganization events, and based on a favorable IRS PLR received, Omega was converted from a TRS entity to a qualified REIT subsidiary in 2017. Refer to the "Omega Pipeline (Mowood, LLC)" section in Item 2 of this Report for additional details.
Financing Strategy
We believe a major factor in our continued success is our ability to maintain financial flexibility, a competitive cost of capital and access to the capital markets. Our long-term target is a total debt-to-adjusted-EBITDA ratio of less than 4.0x. However, we may exceed that target during an acquisition if there is a viable path to returning to the long-term target. In addition to debt, we may use preferred or common equity to satisfy remaining capital needs to help limit the amount of financial risk of the Company.
Consistent with our asset acquisition policies, we use leverage when available on terms we believe are favorable. The amount of leverage for any given acquisition will depend on our assessment of market conditions and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing. Although we currently do not anticipate doing so, the amount of total funded debt leverage we employ may exceed 50 percent of our total assets. Secured loans which we might obtain, could be recourse or non-recourse to us. A lender on non-recourse mortgage debt often has recourse only to the property collateralizing such debt and not to any of our other assets, while full recourse financing would give the lender recourse to all of our assets. The use of non-recourse debt helps us to limit the exposure of all of our assets to any one debt obligation.
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Regulatory and Environmental Matters
Our energy infrastructure assets and operations, as well as those of our tenants, are subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations concerning the protection of public health and safety, zoning and land use, and pricing and other matters related to certain of our business operations. For a discussion of the current effects and potential future impacts of such regulations on our business and properties, see the discussion presented in Item 1A of this Report under the subheading "Risks Related to Our Investments in Energy Infrastructure." In particular, for a discussion of the current and potential future effects of compliance with federal, state and local environmental regulations, see the discussion titled "Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations, including those relating to environmental matters, may adversely affect our income and the cash available for distribution to our stockholders" within such section.
FERC and State PUC Common Carrier Regulations
The vast majority of our operated pipeline systems are subject to economic and operational regulation by various federal, state and/or local agencies. Our rates are generally set based on a regulated cost-of-service model.
FERC regulates interstate transportation on our common carrier pipeline systems under the Interstate Commerce Act ("ICA"), the Natural Gas Act, the Environmental Protection Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated under those laws. FERC regulations require that rates and terms and conditions of service be just and reasonable and must not be unduly discriminatory or confer any undue preference upon any shipper. FERC's regulations also require interstate common carrier pipelines to file with FERC and publicly post tariffs stating their interstate transportation rates and terms and conditions of service.
Under the ICA, FERC or any interested private entity of person may challenge existing or proposed new or changed rates, services or terms and conditions of service. FERC is authorized to investigate such charges and may suspend the effectiveness of a new rate for a period of time or could limit a common carrier pipeline's ability to change rates until completion of an investigation. During an investigation, FERC could find that the new or changed rate is unlawful.
Intrastate transportation services, provided by our California pipeline system, are subject to regulation by the CPUC. The CPUC requires intrastate pipelines to file their rates with the agencies and permit shippers to challenge existing rates and proposed rate increases. The CPUC could limit our ability to increase our rates or could order us to reduce our rates and require the payment of refunds to shippers.
Environmental, Health and Safety Regulation
Our operations involve the transportation of crude oil and natural gas which are subject to stringent federal, state and local laws and regulations designed to protect the environment. Compliance with these laws and regulations increases our overall cost of doing business. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, and the addition of new operational constraints. Environmental and safety laws and regulations are subject to changes that may result in more stringent requirements which could negatively impact our future earnings to the extent they cannot be recovered through our cost-of-service framework. A discharge of hazardous liquids into the environment could, to the extent such event is not insured, subject us to substantial expense. The following summarizes some of the key environmental, health and safety laws and regulations to which our operations are subject.
Pipeline and Tank Safety and Integrity Management
The majority of our assets are subject to regulation by the DOT's PHMSA pursuant to the Hazardous Liquids Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 ("HLPSA"). The HLPSA imposes safety requirements on the design, construction, operation and maintenance of pipeline and storage facilities. Federal regulations implementing the HLPSA require pipeline operators to adopt measures designed to reduce the environmental impact of their operations, including the maintenance of comprehensive spill response plans and the performance of spill response training for pipeline personnel. These regulations also require pipeline operators to develop and maintain a written qualification program for individuals performing covered tasks on pipeline facilities.
The HLPSA was amended by the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 and the Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement and Safety Act of 2006. These amendments have resulted in the adoption of rules by the DOT that requires transportation pipeline operators to implement integrity management programs to ensure pipeline safety in "high consequence areas" such as high population areas, areas unusually sensitive to environmental damage, and navigable waterways.
In October 2015, the Governor of California signed the Oil Spill Response: Environmentally and Ecologically Sensitive Areas Bill ("AB-864") which requires new and existing pipelines located near environmentally and ecologically sensitive areas connected to or located in the coastal zone to use best available technologies to reduce the amount of oil released in an oil spill to protect state waters and wildlife. The California Office of the State Fire Marshal has developed the regulations required by
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AB-864. Full compliance is required by early 2023. Compliance with these new regulations may require some modifications to our affected pipelines in California and may add to the cost to operate the pipelines subject to these rules.
The DOT has generally adopted American Petroleum Institute Standard ("API") 653 as the standard for the maintenance of steel above ground petroleum storage tanks subject to DOT jurisdiction. API 653 requires regularly scheduled inspection and repair of tanks remaining in service.
Occupational Safety and Health
We are subject to the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, as amended ("OSHA") and comparable state statutes that regulate the protection of the health and safety of workers. In addition, the OSHA hazard communication standard requires that certain information be maintained about hazardous materials used or produced in operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local government authorities and citizens.
Seasonality
Our operated pipeline volumes have not historically experienced meaningful seasonal revenue variability. Our MoGas and Omega assets can experience high volumes in times of extreme high or low temperatures but impacts to our revenue are limited given the contracts. Our San Pablo Bay pipeline has a minimum flow rate requirement, which is dependent on ground temperature, in order to maintain segregated crude-oil service.
MANAGEMENT
Our Manager
We are externally managed by Corridor. Corridor is a real property asset manager with a focus on U.S. energy infrastructure real property assets. Corridor assists us in identifying infrastructure real property asset acquisition opportunities, and is generally responsible for our day-to-day operations.
On February 4, 2021, we entered into a Contribution Agreement with Richard C. Green, Rick Kreul, Rebecca M. Sandring, Sean DeGon, Jeff Teeven, Jeffrey E. Fulmer, David J. Schulte (as Trustee of the DJS Trust under Trust Agreement dated July 18, 2016), and Campbell Hamilton, Inc., which is an entity controlled by David J. Schulte (collectively, the "Contributors"), and Corridor. Consummation of the transactions contemplated in the Contribution Agreement will result in the internalization of the management of the Company (the "Internalization"). Following the Internalization, we will own all material assets of Corridor currently used in the conduct of its business and will be managed by officers and employees who currently work for Corridor and who are expected to become employees of the Company as a result of the Internalization. We will seek stockholder approval of the Internalization in compliance with the rules of the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE"). Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 16 ("Subsequent Events") for further details on the Internalization.
Contemporaneously with execution of the Contribution Agreement, we and Corridor entered into the First Amendment (the "First Amendment") to the Management Agreement dated as of May 8, 2015 (as amended, the "Management Agreement") that has the effect of (i) reducing the amount paid to Corridor until closing of the Internalization or termination of the Contribution Agreement and (ii) provides payment to Corridor to enable distribution of payments to employees of Corridor as approved by the independent directors of the Company and pending closing of the Contribution Agreement. The following description of Corridor is based on the current operations of our manager prior to the completion of the Internalization, except as otherwise noted.
Management Team
Each of our officers, except officers recently appointed from Crimson in February 2021, is an employee of Corridor or one of its affiliates. The CorEnergy officers directly employed by Crimson include John Grier, Larry Alexander and Robert Waldron. Corridor is not obligated to dedicate certain of its employees exclusively to us, nor are it or its employees obligated to dedicate any specific portion of its or their time to our business. As described below, we have historically paid a management fee and certain other fees to Corridor, which it used in part to pay compensation to certain officers and employees who, notwithstanding that some of them also are our officers, receive no cash compensation directly from us.
Prior to the announcement of the Internalization agreement on February 4, 2021, we paid Corridor a management fee based on total assets under management. Additionally, Corridor was paid an incentive fee based on increases in distributions to our stockholders. A percentage of the Corridor incentive fee was reinvested in CorEnergy's common stock. Pursuant to the Management Agreement and Administrative Agreement, Corridor agreed to use its reasonable best efforts to present us with suitable acquisition opportunities consistent with our investment objectives and policies and is generally responsible, subject to the supervision and review of our Board of Directors, for our day-to-day operations.
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Energy Infrastructure Real Property Asset Management and Operation
Both the historical members of the Corridor team and the new officers from the Crimson team have experience across several segments of the energy sector and will continue to be primarily responsible for the effective management of our assets to maintain and enhance their values. The PLR creates the opportunity for us to acquire and operate assets in the manner we now do for Crimson, MoGas and Mowood, but on a broader scale. We have leveraged the PLR in acquiring the Crimson assets described above, and we will continue to rely on Corridor and Crimson to provide or supervise the employees responsible for operating such assets until the Internalization is complete.
Management Agreement
Under our Management Agreement, pending Internalization, Corridor (i) presents us with suitable acquisition opportunities consistent with our investment policies and our objectives, (ii) is responsible for our day-to-day operations and (iii) performs such services and activities relating to our assets and operations as may be appropriate. The Management Agreement does not have a specific term, and will remain in place unless terminated by us or Corridor in the manner permitted pursuant to the agreement, which includes the Internalization transaction described above.
As historically in effect, the terms of the Management Agreement include a quarterly management fee equal to 0.25 percent (1.00 percent annualized) of the value of our Managed Assets as of the end of each quarter. For purposes of the Management Agreement, "Managed Assets" means our total assets (including any securities receivables, other personal property or real property purchased with or attributable to any borrowed funds) minus (A) the initial invested value of all non-controlling interests, (B) the value of any hedged derivative assets, (C) any prepaid expenses and (D) all of the accrued liabilities other than (1) deferred taxes and (2) debt entered into for the purpose of leverage. For purposes of the definition of Managed Assets, our securities portfolio will be valued at then-current market value. For purposes of the definition of Managed Assets, other personal property and real property assets will include real and other personal property owned and our assets invested, directly or indirectly, in equity interests in or loans secured by real estate or personal property (including acquisition-related costs and acquisition costs that may be allocated to intangibles or are unallocated), valued at the aggregate historical cost, before reserves for depreciation, amortization, impairment charges or bad debts or other similar noncash reserves.
During 2020, prior to the amendment of the Management Agreement in connection with the Internalization, Corridor voluntarily recommended, and we agreed, that effective solely for the purpose of computing the Managed Assets in calculating the quarterly management fee under the terms of the Management Agreement certain cash balances should be excluded from Managed Assets.
Corridor also voluntarily recommended, and we agreed, that effective solely for purpose of computing the Managed Assets in calculating the quarterly management fee under the terms of the Management Agreement for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, the incremental management fee attributable to the assets involved in the Pinedale Transaction, which occurred on June 30, 2020, should be paid for the second quarter of 2020 as such assets were under management for all but the last day of the period.
The Management Agreement also required a quarterly incentive fee of 10 percent of the increase in distributions paid over a threshold distribution equal to $0.625 per share per quarter. During 2020, the Company either waived or did not earn the incentive fee that would otherwise be payable under the provisions of the Management Agreement with respect to dividends paid on the Company's common stock. Accordingly, Corridor did not receive any incentive fees during 2020. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 9 ("Management Agreement") for further details on the Management Agreement for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Until the closing of the Internalization transaction or termination of the Contribution Agreement as described above, we will pay Corridor a management fee based on the actual cost of operations of Corridor, including salaries and benefits of employees.
Administrative Agreement
Under our Administrative Agreement, Corridor, as our administrator, performs (or oversees or arranges for the performance of) the administrative services necessary for our operation, including without limitation providing us with equipment, clerical, bookkeeping and record keeping services. For these services we pay our administrator an annual fee equal to 0.04 percent of the value of the Company's Managed Assets as of the end of each quarter, with a minimum annual fee of $30 thousand.
Pursuant to the Management and Administrative Agreement, Corridor furnishes us with office facilities and clerical and administrative services necessary for our operation (other than services provided by our custodian, accounting agent, dividend and interest-paying agents and other service providers). Corridor is authorized to enter into agreements with third parties to provide such services. To the extent we request, Corridor will (i) oversee the performance and payment of the fees of our service providers and make such reports and recommendations to the Board of Directors concerning such matters as the parties deem desirable; (ii) respond to inquiries and otherwise assist such service providers in the preparation and filing of regulatory reports, proxy statements, and stockholder communications, and the preparation of materials and reports for the Board of Directors; (iii) establish and oversee the implementation of borrowing facilities or other forms of leverage authorized by the Board of
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Directors; and (iv) supervise any other aspect of our administration as may be agreed upon by us and Corridor. We have agreed, pursuant to the Management Agreement, to reimburse Corridor for all out-of-pocket expenses incurred in providing the foregoing.
We bear all expenses not specifically assumed by Corridor and incurred in our operations. The compensation and allocable routine overhead expenses of all management professionals of Corridor and its staff, when and to the extent engaged in providing us management services, is provided and paid for by Corridor and not us.
Human Capital Management
As we are externally managed, we have no employees at the corporate level. Our subsidiary, Omega, has one part-time and three full-time employees. Our subsidiary MoGas has one part-time employee and 16 full-time employees. Corridor has 12 employees who will become direct employees of CorEnergy upon closing of the Internalization described above.
Corridor's and our subsidiaries' employees are an important asset, and we seek to attract and retain top talent by fostering a culture that is guided by our core values of integrity, inclusivity, creativity and high standards of quality and excellence. We also seek to promote workplace and operational safety and focus on the protection of public health and the environment.
As of February 4, 2021, we acquired a 49.50 percent interest in Crimson, which has 105 full-time equivalent employees.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
We are required to file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We will make available free of charge our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports on or through our web site at http://corenergy.reit as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. This information may also be obtained, without charge, upon request by calling us at (816) 875-3705 or toll-free at (877) 699-2677. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information filed by us with the SEC which is available on the SEC's Internet site at www.sec.gov. Please note that any Internet addresses provided in this Form 10-K are for informational purposes only and are not intended to be hyperlinks. Accordingly, no information found and/or provided at such Internet address is intended or deemed to be included by reference herein.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
There are many risks and uncertainties that can affect our future business, financial performance or share price. Many of these are beyond our control. A description follows of some of the important factors that could have a material negative impact on our future business, operating results, financial condition or share price. This discussion includes a number of forward-looking statements. You should refer to the description of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements in the first paragraph under Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Form 10-K.
RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
The following is a summary of the most significant risks relating to our business activities that we have identified. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operation, including our ability to generate cash and make distributions could be materially adversely affected. For a more complete understanding of our material risk factors, this summary should be read in conjunction with the detailed description of our risk factors which follows this summary.
Risks Related to Our Investments in Energy Infrastructure
Our focus on the energy infrastructure sector will subject us to more risks than if we were broadly diversified.
We may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions of real property assets, and the relative illiquidity of our real property and energy infrastructure investments also may interfere with our ability to sell our assets when we desire.
Energy infrastructure companies are and will be subject to extensive regulation, including numerous environmental regulations, pipeline safety and integrity regulations, revenue and tariff regulations by applicable interstate (FERC) and intrastate authorities, and potential future regulations related to greenhouse gases and climate change. Related compliance costs may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as those of our customers and tenants.
Our operations, and those of our customers and tenants, are subject to operational hazards, and could be affected by extreme weather patterns and other natural phenomena. Any resulting business interruptions not adequately covered by insurance could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial results.
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Both we and our customers and tenants depend on certain key customers for a significant portion of our respective revenues, which also exposes us to related credit risks. The loss of a key customer, or any failure of our credit risk management, could result in a decline in our business.
Pandemics, epidemics or disease outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely affect local and global economies and our business, operations and financial results.
The operation of our energy infrastructure assets could be adversely affected if third-party pipelines, railroads or other facilities interconnected to our facilities become partially or fully unavailable.
Risks Related to Our Ownership Interest in Crimson
We have significant assets which are held as ownership interests in Crimson, whose operations we do not fully control.
Crimson's insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover our losses in the event of an accident, natural disaster or other hazardous event.
Crimson's results could be adversely affected if third-party pipelines, refineries, and other facilities interconnected to its pipelines become unavailable, or if the volumes Crimson transports and stores are reduced due to any significant decrease in crude oil production in areas in which it operates.
Crimson does not own all of the land on which its assets are located, which could result in disruptions to Crimson's operations.
Crimson's assets were constructed over many decades, which may increase future inspection, maintenance or repair costs, or result in downtime that could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Some of our directors and officers may have conflicts of interest with respect to certain other business interests related to the Crimson Transaction.
Crimson's pipeline loss allowance exposes us to commodity risk.
Any failure to achieve forecast assumptions on Crimson's expansion projects, acquisitions and divestitures, or to recruit and retain the skilled workforce Crimson requires, could result in a failure to implement Crimson's business plans.
Risks Related to Our Ownership and Operation of MoGas or Other Assets
MoGas competes with other pipelines, and may be unable to renew contracts with certain customers on an annual basis following expiration of the current five-year rate agreements with its customers.
Risks Related to Our Investments in Leases
We are subject to risks involved in single tenant leases, and net leases may not result in fair market lease rates over time.
If a tenant declares bankruptcy and rejects our lease, or if a sale-leaseback transaction is challenged as a fraudulent transfer or re-characterized in bankruptcy, our business, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Financing Our Business
We face risks associated with our dependence on external sources of capital and our indebtedness could have important consequences, including impairing our ability to obtain additional financing or pay future distributions and subjecting us to the risk of foreclosure on any mortgaged properties.
Issues related to refusal of EGC and Cox Oil to provide historical financial statements to us, prior to the transfer of the GIGS to CGI Crimson Holdings, L.L.C. ("Carlyle") in the Crimson Transaction, may continue to interfere with our ability to use our SEC registration statements.
Covenants in our loan documents could limit our flexibility and adversely affect our financial condition, and we face risks related to "balloon payments" and refinancings. Additionally, the transition away from LIBOR may adversely affect our cost to obtain financing.
Risks Related to Our Convertible Notes
The Convertible Notes are structurally subordinated to all liabilities of our existing or future subsidiaries, and the Convertible Notes are not guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries and are not protected by any restrictive covenants.
The conversion rate of the Convertible Notes may not be adjusted for all dilutive events. Further, the make-whole fundamental change provisions may not adequately compensate the holders of Convertible Notes for any lost value and
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we may not be able to finance a repurchase of the Convertible Notes upon a fundamental change. These fundamental change provisions also could discourage an acquisition of the Company by a third party.
We have not registered our 5.875% Convertible Notes or the common stock issuable upon their conversion, which will limit a holder's ability to resell them. An active, liquid trading market may not develop for the Convertible Notes.
Risks Related to Our Preferred Stock
While depositary shares representing our Series A Preferred Stock are registered and trade on the NYSE, an active trading market for such shares may not be maintained.
The limited Change of Control conversion feature of Series A Preferred Stock may not adequately compensate the holders, who also have very limited voting rights, and the Change of Control conversion and redemption features may make it more difficult for a party to take over the Company or discourage a party from taking over the Company.
Risks Related to REIT Qualification and Federal Income Tax Laws
While we take numerous actions to ensure the Company's qualification as a REIT and have obtained related private letter rulings from the IRS, any failure to so qualify would have significant adverse consequences to the Company and to the value of our common stock. Further, complying with REIT requirements may affect our profitability and force us to liquidate or forego otherwise attractive investments.
We generally must distribute at least 90 percent of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders annually. As a result, we require additional capital to make new investments, and any failure to make required distributions would subject us to federal corporate income tax.
Our charter includes ownership limit provisions to protect our REIT status, which may impair the ability of holders to convert our Convertible Notes to common stock and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or change of control of our Company.
If we acquire C corporations in the future, we may inherit material tax liabilities and other tax attributes that could require us to distribute earnings and profits. Further, re-characterization of any sale-leaseback transaction could cause us to lose our REIT status.
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Governance
In addition to the ownership limit provisions discussed above, certain provisions of our charter and of Maryland law may limit the ability of stockholders to control our policies and effect a change of control of our Company.
Our ability to pay dividends is limited by the requirements of Maryland law.
Risks Related to Terrorism and Cybersecurity
Risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks or acts of cyber terrorism, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems, could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, operations or financial results.
Some losses related to our real property assets, including, among others, losses related to potential terrorist activities, may not be covered by insurance and would adversely impact distributions to stockholders.


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Risks Related to our Investments in Energy Infrastructure
Our focus on the energy infrastructure sector will subject us to more risks than if we were broadly diversified.
Because we specifically focus on the energy infrastructure sector, investments in our common stock may present more risks than if we were broadly diversified. A downturn in the U.S. energy infrastructure sector would have a larger impact on our assets and performance than on a REIT that does not concentrate its investments in one sector of the economy. The energy infrastructure sector can be significantly affected by the supply and demand for crude oil, natural gas, and other energy commodities; the price of crude oil, natural gas, and other energy commodities; exploration, production and other capital expenditures; government regulation; world and regional events, politics and economic conditions.
Production declines and volume decreases impacting our assets could be caused by various factors, including decreased access to capital or loss of economic incentive to drill and complete wells, depletion of resources, catastrophic events affecting production, labor difficulties, political events, OPEC actions, environmental proceedings, increased regulations, equipment failures and unexpected maintenance problems, failure to obtain necessary permits, unscheduled outages, unanticipated expenses, inability to successfully carry out new construction or acquisitions, import or export supply and demand disruptions, or increased competition from alternative energy sources.
We may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions of real property assets.
Our ability to identify and complete acquisitions of real property assets on favorable terms and conditions are subject to the following risks:
we may be unable to acquire a desired asset because of competition from other investors with significant capital, including both publicly traded and non-traded REITs and institutional investment funds;
competition from other investors may significantly increase the purchase price of a desired real property asset or result in less favorable terms;
we may not complete the acquisition of a desired real property asset even if we have signed an agreement to acquire such real property asset because such agreements are subject to customary conditions to closing, including completion of due diligence investigations to our satisfaction; and
we may be unable to finance acquisitions of real property assets on favorable terms or at all.
Energy infrastructure companies are and will be subject to extensive regulation because of their participation in the energy infrastructure sector, which could adversely impact the business and financial performance of our customers and tenants and the value of our assets.
Companies in the energy infrastructure sector are subject to significant federal, state and local government regulation in virtually every aspect of their operations, including how facilities are constructed, maintained and operated, environmental and safety controls, and the prices they may charge for the products and services they provide. Various governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with these regulations and the permits issued under them, and violators are subject to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, including civil fines, injunctions or both. Stricter laws, regulations or enforcement policies could be enacted in the future that likely would increase compliance costs, which could adversely affect the business and financial performance of our customers and tenants in the energy infrastructure sector and the value or quality of our assets.
Our operation of assets such as those at Crimson and MoGas is subject to extensive regulation, including those relating to environmental matters, which may adversely affect our income and the cash available for distribution.
In addition to the pipeline safety regulations discussed below, Crimson's and MoGas' operations, as well as those of assets we may acquire and operate in the future, are subject to extensive federal, regional, state and local environmental laws including, for example, the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and analogous state and local laws. These laws and their implementing regulations may restrict or impact such business activities in many ways, including requiring the acquisition of permits or other approvals to conduct regulated activities, limiting emissions and discharges of pollutants, restricting the manner in which it disposes of wastes, requiring remedial action to remove or mitigate contamination, requiring capital expenditures to comply with pollution control or workplace safety requirements, and imposing substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from its operations. In addition, the regulations implementing these laws are constantly evolving, and the potential impact of recent regulatory actions is unclear. For instance, the EPA adopted final rules establishing new source performance standards for methane emissions from new, modified, or reconstructed oil and gas sources in 2016. Although the new source performance standards were rescinded in September 2020, states, municipalities, and environmental groups are all challenging the action in the D.C. Circuit. As a result,
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the D.C. Circuit has stayed the rescission of the standards. Additionally, the United State Army Corps of Engineers (the "Corps") Nationwide Permit 12 ("NWP 12"), which broadly authorized activities associated with the construction, maintenance, and repair of oil and natural gas pipelines, was vacated by a Montana District Court in the spring of 2020 only to have the U.S. Supreme Court temporarily overturn the nationwide injunction. In the wake of this litigation, the Corps finalized a new rule which would streamline and reduce pre-construction notice requirements for oil and gas pipelines subject to NWP 12, but the fate of the new rule is still uncertain. Compliance with new or more stringent laws or regulations, stricter interpretation of existing laws, or uncertainty created by the constantly changing regulatory landscape may require material expenditures by Crimson and MoGas, and likewise may require material expenditures at other facilities or systems we may acquire and operate.
Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may trigger a variety of administrative, civil and criminal enforcement measures, including the assessment of monetary penalties, the imposition of remedial requirements and the issuance of orders enjoining future operations. In addition, increases in penalty amounts and limits of liability for damages to reflect inflation and/or increases in the CPI may result in increased exposure to operations such as Crimson and MoGas. The operator of any such assets may be unable to recover some or all of the resulting costs through insurance or increased revenues, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition.
The PLR grants us the ability to own and to operate storage facilities, pipelines, and oil platforms and to have assurance that the payments we receive are treated as rent from real property for purposes of our qualification as a REIT. To the extent we acquire and operate any such asset, as with the recent Crimson Transaction, we will be exposed to risks similar to those described above and to which MoGas is exposed. In addition, oil platforms located off the coast of the United States are subject to additional regulatory scrutiny by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (the "BOEM") and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement ("BSEE").
Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations, including those relating to environmental matters, may adversely affect our income and the cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
We have invested, and expect to continue to invest, in real property assets, which are subject to laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and human health and safety. These laws and regulations generally govern the gathering, storage, handling, and transportation of petroleum and other hazardous substances, the emission and discharge of materials into the environment, including wastewater discharges and air emissions, the operation and removal of underground and aboveground storage tanks, the generation, use, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of solid and hazardous materials and wastes, and the remediation of any contamination associated with such disposals. We own assets related to the storage and distribution of oil and gas, natural gas and natural gas liquids, and storage and throughput of crude oil, which are subject to all of the inherent hazards and risks normally incidental to such assets, such as fires, pipe and other equipment and system failures, uncontrolled flows of oil or gas, environmental risks and hazards such as gas leaks, oil spills and pipeline ruptures and discharges of toxic gases. Environmental laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on tenants, owners or operators for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. This liability could be substantial. Moreover, if one or more of these hazards occur, there can be no assurance that a response will be adequate to limit or reduce any resulting damage. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly remediate these substances, may adversely affect our ability to sell, rent or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings. We also may be required to comply with various local, state and federal fire, health, life-safety and similar regulations.
Local, state and federal laws in this area are constantly evolving. Compliance with new or more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws, may impose material environmental liability and/or require material expenditures by us to avoid such liability. Further, our customers' or tenant companies' operations, the existing condition of land when we buy it or operations in the vicinity of our properties (each of which could involve the presence of underground storage tanks), or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our properties. We intend to monitor these laws and take commercially reasonable steps to protect ourselves from the impact of these laws, including, where deemed necessary, obtaining environmental assessments of properties that we acquire. In addition, any such assessment that we do obtain may not reveal all environmental liabilities or whether a prior owner of a property created a material environmental condition not known to us and may not offer any protection against liability for known or unknown environmental conditions.
Failure to comply with applicable environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil or criminal fines or penalties, permit revocations, and injunctions limiting or prohibiting some or all of the operations at our facilities. Any material compliance expenditures, fines, or damages we must pay could materially and adversely affect our business, assets or results of operations and, consequently, would reduce our ability to make distributions.
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Regulation of greenhouse gases and climate change could have a negative impact on our and our customers' and tenants' businesses.
We cannot predict with certainty the rate at which climate change is occurring. However, scientific studies have suggested that emissions of certain gases, commonly referred to as greenhouse gases ("GHGs") and including carbon dioxide and methane, may be contributing to warming of the earth's atmosphere and other climatic changes. In response to such studies, the issue of the effect of GHG emissions on climate change, in particular emissions from fossil fuels, is attracting increasing attention worldwide. We are aware of the increasing focus of local, state, national and international regulatory bodies on GHG emissions and climate change issues. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") has adopted rules requiring GHG reporting and permitting, and the United States Congress and EPA may consider additional legislation or regulations that could ultimately require new, modified, and reconstructed facilities, and/or existing facilities, to meet emission standards by installing control technologies, adopting work practices, or otherwise reducing GHG emissions. Although it is not possible at this time to predict whether proposed legislation or regulations will be adopted, the Biden administration has pledged to be more aggressive on GHG emissions than its predecessor and any resulting laws or regulations could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions that could adversely impact our energy infrastructure assets as well as the businesses of our customers and tenants. If we or our customers or tenants are unable to recover or pass through a significant level of the costs related to complying with any such future climate change and GHG regulatory requirements, it could have a material adverse impact on our or our customers' or tenants' business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, to the extent financial markets view climate change and GHG emissions as a financial risk, this could negatively impact our cost of or access to capital. Climate change and GHG regulation could also reduce the demand for hydrocarbons and, ultimately, demand for utilization of our energy infrastructure assets related to the production and distribution of hydrocarbons. Finally, it should be noted that studies suggest that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the Earth's atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of hurricanes and other storms, floods and related climatic events. If any such effects were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our assets and operations, particularly an offshore asset such as our previous ownership in GIGS.
Pipeline safety integrity programs and repairs may impose significant costs and liabilities on the systems of Crimson and MoGas or other operating assets we may acquire.
Regulations administered by the Federal Office of Pipeline Safety within DOT's PHMSA require pipeline operators to develop integrity management programs to comprehensively evaluate certain areas along their pipelines and to take additional measures to protect certain pipeline segments. As an operator, both Crimson and MoGas are, and any other systems or facilities we may acquire and operate in reliance on the PLR are likely to be, required to:
perform ongoing assessments of pipeline or asset integrity;
identify and characterize applicable threats to pipeline or asset segments that could impact a high consequence area;
improve data collection, integration and analysis;
repair and remediate the pipeline or asset as necessary; and
implement preventative and mitigating actions.
Both Crimson and MoGas are required to maintain pipeline integrity testing programs that are intended to assess pipeline integrity. Any repair, remediation, preventative or mitigating actions could require significant capital and operating expenditures. The regulations implementing these laws are constantly evolving; pursuant to its reauthorization under the Protecting our Infrastructure of Pipelines and Enhancing Safety Act of 2016 (the "PIPES Act"), PHMSA has adopted rules implementing its emergency order authority over pipelines, revising federal pipeline safety regulations related to underground natural gas storage facilities, and imposing additional requirements on the transportation of natural gas and hazardous liquids by pipeline, including more stringent standards for plastic pipe. In October 2019, PHMSA issued final rules amending pipeline safety regulations governing both hazardous liquid pipelines and gas transmission pipelines. These rules extend reporting, inspections, integrity assessment, leak detection, and in-line inspection requirements to include additional pipeline segments, including certain pipeline segments outside high consequence areas. PHMSA also issued a final rule adopting enhanced emergency order procedures implementing certain emergency order authority conferred on the Secretary by the PIPES Act. In addition, in May 2020, PHMSA issued a final rule harmonizing the hazardous materials regulations with international regulations and standards. Compliance with new or more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretation of existing laws, could significantly increase compliance costs. Should Crimson or MoGas fail to comply with the Federal Office of Pipeline Safety's rules and related regulations and orders, we could be subject to significant penalties and fines, including potential future increases in applicable penalty amounts to reflect inflation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. PHMSA also may apply to other systems at facilities that we, in reliance on the PLR, may acquire and operate in the future.
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Our operations, as well as those of our customers and tenants, are subject to operational hazards and unforeseen interruptions. If a significant accident or event occurs that results in a business interruption or shutdown for which we or any tenant operators are not adequately insured, such operations and our financial results could be materially adversely affected.
Our assets are subject to many hazards inherent in the transmission of energy products and provision of related services, including:
aging infrastructure, mechanical or other performance problems;
damage to pipelines, facilities and related equipment caused by tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, fires and other natural disasters, explosions and acts of terrorism;
inadvertent damage from third parties, including from construction, farm and utility equipment;
leaks of natural gas and other hydrocarbons or losses of natural gas as a result of the malfunction of equipment or facilities;
operator error; and
environmental hazards, such as natural gas leaks, product and waste spills, pipeline and tank ruptures, and unauthorized discharges of products, wastes and other pollutants into the surface and subsurface environment, resulting in environmental pollution; and explosions.
These risks could result in substantial losses due to personal injury and/or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment and pollution or other environmental damage and may result in curtailment or suspension of our or any tenants' related operations or services. A natural disaster or other hazard affecting the areas in which we or any tenants operate could have a material adverse effect on our operations and the financial results of our business.
Both we and our customers and tenants depend on certain key customers for a significant portion of our respective revenues. The loss of any such key customers could result in a decline in our business.
Both we and our customers and tenants are subject to risks of loss resulting from nonperformance by customers. We depend on certain key customers for a significant portion of our revenues, particularly operating revenues from MoGas and Crimson related to fees for the transportation of natural gas and crude oil through their respective pipeline systems. Tenants leasing any of our energy infrastructure assets may similarly be dependent on revenues from key customers to support their operations and ability to make lease payments to us. The loss of all or even a portion of the contracted volumes of such customers, as a result of competition, creditworthiness, inability to negotiate extensions or replacements of contracts or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition and results of operations of us or any applicable tenants, unless we or they are able to contract for comparable volumes from other customers at favorable rates.
Pandemics, epidemics or disease outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely affect local and global economies and our business, operations or financial results.
Disruptions caused by pandemics, epidemics or disease outbreaks, in locations in which we operate or globally, could materially adversely affect our business, operations, financial results and forward-looking expectations. The COVID-19 pandemic has had repercussions across local, national and global economies and financial markets. As a result, there has been a decline in the demand for, and thus also the market prices of, oil and natural gas and other products of our customers and tenants. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are expected to continue for future periods, which we are unable to reasonably predict due to numerous uncertainties, including the duration and severity of the pandemic.
The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In response to the rapid global spread of COVID-19, governments have enacted emergency measures to combat the spread of the virus. These measures include restrictions on business activity and travel, as well as requirements to isolate or quarantine, which could continue or expand. These actions have interrupted business activities and supply chains; disrupted travel and adversely impacted national and international economic conditions, including commodity prices and demand for energy, as well as the labor market.
These factors, coupled with the emergence of decreasing business and consumer confidence and increasing unemployment resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak and the abrupt oil price declines experienced in 2020, may precipitate a prolonged economic slowdown and recession. Any such prolonged period of economic slowdown or recession, or a protracted period of depressed prices for the products of our customers and tenants, could have significant adverse consequences for their financial condition and, subsequently, our financial condition, and could diminish our liquidity. For instance, during 2020 the worsening of our estimated future cash flows with respect to properties adversely impacted by the effects on our tenants of the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with ongoing market and oil price volatility, resulted in substantial impairment charges with respect to the
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affected assets. A significant continuation of these effects in future periods could result in the recognition of additional future asset impairment charges, which adversely impact our financial results.
Given the ongoing and dynamic nature of the circumstances surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, it is difficult to predict how significant the continuing impact of this pandemic, including any responses to it, will be on the United States or global economies or our business, or for how long disruptions are likely to continue. The extent of such impact will depend on future developments and factors outside of our control, which are highly uncertain, rapidly evolving and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity or duration of this pandemic (including regarding new COVID-19 strains) and actions taken by governments and others to contain or end the COVID-19 pandemic or its impact (including regarding the development and distribution of effective vaccines).
There can be no assurance that our strategies to address potential disruptions will mitigate these risks or the adverse impacts to our business, operations and financial results. Future adverse impacts to our business, operations and financial results may materialize that are not yet known. In addition, disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic have had, or could have, the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this Item 1A – Risk Factors.
We are exposed to the credit risk of our customers and tenants and our credit risk management may not be adequate to protect against such risk.
We are subject to the risk of loss resulting from nonpayment and/or nonperformance by our tenants and customers. Our credit procedures and policies may not be adequate to fully eliminate such credit risk. If we fail to adequately assess the creditworthiness of any tenants or customers, unanticipated deterioration in their creditworthiness and any resulting increase in nonpayment and/or nonperformance by them and inability to re-market the resulting capacity, or re-lease the underlying assets, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to effectively re-market such capacity, or re-lease such assets, during and after bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings involving a customer or tenant.
Our assets and operations, as well as those of our customers and tenants and other investees, can be affected by extreme weather patterns and other natural phenomena.
Our assets and operations, as well as those of our customers and tenants and other investees, can be adversely affected by floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, landslides, tornadoes, fires and other natural phenomena and weather conditions, including extreme or unseasonable temperatures, making it more difficult for us to realize the historic rates of return associated with our assets and operations. These events also could result in significant volatility in the supply of energy and power, which might create fluctuations in commodity prices and earnings of companies in the energy infrastructure sector. A significant disruption in our operations or those of our customers, tenants or investees, or a significant liability for which we or any affected customer, tenant or investee is not fully insured, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Moreover, extreme weather events could adversely impact the valuation of our energy infrastructure assets.
The operation of our energy infrastructure assets could be adversely affected if third-party pipelines, railroads or other facilities interconnected to our facilities become partially or fully unavailable.
Our facilities, as well as those of our tenants, may connect to other pipelines, railroads or facilities owned by third parties. Both we and any such tenants depend upon third-party pipelines and other facilities that provide delivery options to and from such facilities. For example, MoGas' pipeline interconnects, directly or indirectly, with most major interstate pipelines in the eastern portion of the U.S. and a significant number of intrastate pipelines. Because we do not own these third-party facilities, their continuing operation is not within our control. Accordingly, these pipelines and other facilities may become unavailable, or available only at a reduced capacity. If these pipeline connections were to become unavailable to us or any applicable tenants for current or future volumes of products due to repairs, damage, lack of capacity or any other reason, our ability, or the ability of such tenants, to operate efficiently and continue shipping products to end markets could be restricted, thereby reducing revenues. Likewise, if any of these third-party pipelines or facilities becomes unable to transport any products distributed or transported through our or our tenants' facilities, our or such tenants' business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our ability to make cash distributions to our stockholders.
The relative illiquidity of our real property and energy infrastructure asset investments may interfere with our ability to sell our assets when we desire.
Investments in real property and energy infrastructure assets are relatively illiquid compared to other investments. Accordingly, we may not be able to sell such assets when we desire or at prices acceptable to us in response to changes in economic or other conditions. This could substantially reduce the funds available for satisfying our obligations and for distribution to our stockholders.
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Risks Related to Our Ownership Interest in Crimson
We have significant assets which are held as ownership interests in Crimson, whose operations we do not fully control.
We have significant assets which are held as ownership interests in Crimson that include crude oil pipelines, and a crude tank storage and terminal system. As a result, our ability to make distributions to our stockholders will depend to a significant extent on the performance of this entity and its ability to distribute funds to us. More specifically:
pending receipt of CPUC Approval we own 49.50 percent of the voting membership interests in Crimson Midstream Holdings, and it is managed by its own governing board, the current members of which are David Schulte, Todd Banks, John Grier and Larry Alexander. Our ability to influence decisions with respect to the operation of Crimson Midstream Holdings is subject to the terms of its Third Amended and Restated Operating Agreement, which require supermajority board approval of distributions to us and the Grier Members and, prior to receipt of the CPUC Approval, give John Grier effective control over operating decisions relating to the majority of the entity’s assets;
we may not have the ability to unilaterally require Crimson to make capital expenditures, such capital expenditures may require us to make additional capital contributions to fund operating and maintenance expenditures, as well as to fund expansion capital expenditures, which would reduce the amount of cash otherwise available for distribution by us or require us to incur additional indebtedness;
Crimson may incur additional indebtedness upon receipt of a super majority board approval of the Company and Grier Members, which debt payments would reduce the amount of cash that might otherwise be available for distribution;
our assets are operated by entities that we do not control except for certain material decisions and actions that require supermajority approval; and
the operator of the assets held by Crimson could change, in some cases without our consent. For more information on the agreements governing the management and operation of Crimson, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 16 ("Subsequent Events") included in this Report.
We may not receive CPUC approval which would allow the Company to control the operations of the CPUC regulated assets.
The CPUC requires approval for any change of control of a regulated asset. John Grier is currently the person deemed to control Crimson's California assets regulated by the CPUC. Evidence of such control is supported by the Crimson Transaction documents. On February 12, 2021, Crimson filed an 854 Application with the CPUC which requests CPUC approval for the Company to control the regulated assets. While this approval is expected to occur in 2021, we cannot give any assurance that the Company will receive this approval and ultimately be able to directly control these assets.
Crimson's insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover our losses in the event of an accident, natural disaster or other hazardous event.
Crimson's operations are subject to many hazards inherent in our industry. Such assets may experience physical damage as a result of an accident or natural disaster. These hazards also can cause, and in some cases have caused, personal injury and loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment, pollution or environmental damage, and suspension of operations. We maintain a comprehensive insurance program for us, our subsidiaries and certain of our affiliates to mitigate the financial impacts arising from these hazards. This program includes insurance coverage in types and amounts and with terms and conditions that are generally consistent with coverage customary for our industry; however, insurance does not cover all events in all circumstances.
In connection with the Crimson Transaction, we mutually agreed with Carlyle that (i) the parties will maintain certain joint insurance coverage applicable to both the assets of Crimson Midstream Holdings and Crimson’s pre-transaction Gulf Coast assets retained by Carlyle in effect through June 1, 2021 and (ii) if an insurable loss is incurred by either party prior to June 1 which would reduce the aggregate remaining coverage available to the other party below 50% of the policy’s aggregate $200 million coverage limit, the party claiming such loss will procure temporary coverage to ensure the other party remains covered at 50% of the original policy limit through June 1, 2021.
In the unlikely event that multiple insurable incidents that in the aggregate exceed coverage limits occur within the same insurance period, the total insurance coverage will be allocated among our entities on an equitable basis based on an insurance allocation agreement among us and our subsidiaries. Additionally, even with insurance, if any natural disaster or other hazardous event leads to a catastrophic interruption in operations, we may not be able to restore operations without significant interruption.
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The energy industry is highly capital intensive, and the entire or partial loss of individual facilities or multiple facilities can result in significant costs to both energy industry companies, such as us, and their insurance carriers. In recent years, several large energy industry claims have resulted in significant increases in the level of premium costs and deductible periods for participants in the energy industry. As a result of large energy industry claims, insurance companies that have historically participated in underwriting energy-related facilities may discontinue that practice, may reduce the insurance capacity they are willing to offer or demand significantly higher premiums or deductible periods to cover these facilities. If significant changes in the number or financial solvency of insurance underwriters for the energy industry occur, or if other adverse conditions over which we have no control prevail in the insurance market, we may be unable to obtain and maintain adequate insurance at a reasonable cost. The unavailability of full insurance coverage to cover events in which the entities in which we own an interest suffer significant losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If third-party pipelines, refineries, and other facilities interconnected to Crimson's pipelines, become unavailable to transport, produce, or store crude oil, Crimson's revenue and available cash could be adversely affected.
Crimson depends upon third-party pipelines, refineries, and other facilities that provide delivery options to and from its pipelines and terminal facilities. Their continuing operation is not within Crimson's control. For example, wildfires in California may require exploration and production facilities as well as refineries to shut down. These shutdowns could cause a reduction of future volumes of crude oil, damage to the facility, lack of capacity, shut-in by regulators or any other reason, leaks, or require shut-in due to regulatory action or changes in law, all of which could negatively impact Crimson's ability to operate efficiently thereby reducing revenue. Disruptions at refineries that use Crimson's pipelines, such as strikes or other disruptions can also have an adverse impact on the volume of products Crimson ships. Any temporary or permanent interruption at any key pipeline or terminal interconnect, any termination of any material connection agreement, or adverse change in the terms and conditions of service, could have a material adverse effect on Crimson's business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows, including Crimson's ability to make cash distributions to us that help fund distributions to our stockholders.
Any significant decrease in production of crude oil in areas in which Crimson operates could reduce the volumes of crude oil Crimson transports and stores, which could adversely affect our revenue and available cash.
Crimson's crude oil pipelines and terminal system depend on the continued availability of crude oil production and reserves. Low prices for crude oil could adversely affect development of additional reserves and continued production from existing reserves that are accessible by Crimson's assets.
California crude oil prices have fluctuated significantly over the past few years, often with drastic moves in relatively short periods of time. The current global, geopolitical, domestic policy and economic uncertainty may contribute to future volatility in financial and commodity markets in the near to medium term.
In general terms, the prices of crude oil and other hydrocarbon products fluctuate in response to changes in supply and demand, market uncertainty and a variety of additional factors that are beyond our control. These factors impacting crude oil prices include worldwide economic conditions; weather conditions and seasonal trends; the levels of domestic production and consumer demand; the availability of imported crude oil; the availability of transportation systems with adequate capacity; actions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil producing nations; the effect of energy conservation measures; the strength of the U.S. dollar; the nature and extent of governmental regulation and taxation; and the anticipated future prices of crude oil and other commodities.
Lower crude oil prices, or expectations of declines in crude oil prices, have had and may continue to have a negative impact on exploration, development and production activity, particularly in the continental United States. If lower prices are sustained, it could lead to a material decrease in such activity. Sustained reductions in exploration or production activity in our areas of operation could lead to reduced utilization of Crimson's pipelines. Any such reduction in demand or less attractive terms could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and ability to make or increase cash distributions to our stockholders.
In addition, production from existing areas with access to Crimson's pipeline and terminal systems will naturally decline over time. The amount of crude oil reserves underlying wells in these areas may also be less than anticipated, and the rate at which production from these reserves declines may be greater than anticipated. Accordingly, to maintain or increase the volume of crude oil transported, or throughput, on Crimson's pipelines, or stored in its terminal system, and cash flows associated with the transportation and storage of crude oil, Crimson's customers must continually obtain new supplies of crude oil.
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Crimson does not own all of the land on which its assets are located, which could result in disruptions to Crimson's operations.
Crimson does not own all of the land on which its assets are located, and is, therefore, subject to the possibility of more onerous terms and increased costs to retain necessary land use if Crimson does not have valid leases or rights-of-way or if such leases or rights-of-way lapse or terminate. Crimson obtains the rights to construct and operate its assets on land owned by third parties and some of the agreements may grant Crimson those rights for only a specific period of time. Crimson's loss of these or similar rights, through the inability to renew leases, right-of-way contracts or otherwise, or inability to obtain easements at reasonable costs could have a material adverse effect on Crimson's business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, including Crimson's ability to make cash distributions to us that help fund distributions to our stockholders.
Crimson's assets were constructed over many decades which may cause its inspection, maintenance or repair costs to increase in the future. In addition, there could be service interruptions due to unknown events or conditions or increased downtime associated with Crimson's pipelines that could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Crimson's pipelines and storage terminals were constructed over many decades. Pipelines and storage terminals are generally long-lived assets, and construction and coating techniques have varied over time. Depending on the era of construction, some assets will require more frequent inspections, which could result in increased maintenance or repair expenditures in the future. Any significant increase in these expenditures could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Crimson’s financial results primarily depend on the outcomes of regulatory and ratemaking proceedings and Crimson may not be able to manage its operating expenses and capital expenditures so that it is able to earn its authorized rate of return in a timely manner or at all.
As a regulated entity, Crimson's tariffs are set by the CPUC on a prospective basis and are generally designed to allow Crimson to collect sufficient revenues to recover reasonable costs of providing service, including a return on its capital investments. Crimson's financial results could be materially affected if the CPUC does not authorize sufficient revenues for Crimson to safely and reliably serve its customers and earn its authorized return of equity. The outcome of Crimson's ratemaking proceedings can be affected by many factors, including the level of opposition by intervening parties; potential rate impacts; increasing levels of regulatory review; changes in the political, regulatory, or legislative environments; and the opinions of Crimson's regulators, consumer and other stakeholder organizations, and customers, about Crimson's ability to provide safe and reliable oil transportation pipeline transportation.
In addition to the amount of authorized revenues, Crimson's financial results could be materially affected if Crimson's actual costs to safely and reliably serve its customers differ from authorized or forecast costs. Crimson may incur additional costs for many reasons including changing market circumstances, unanticipated events (such as wildfires, storms, earthquakes, accidents, or catastrophic or other events affecting Crimson's operations), or compliance with new state laws or policies. Although Crimson may be allowed to recover some or all of the additional costs, there may be a substantial delay between when Crimson incurs the costs and when Crimson is authorized to collect revenues to recover such costs. Alternatively, the CPUC may disallow costs that they determine were not reasonably or prudently incurred by Crimson.
Some of our directors and officers may have conflicts of interest with respect to certain other business interests related to the Crimson Transaction.
John D. Grier and certain affiliated trusts of Mr. Grier (collectively with Mr. Grier, the "Grier Members") hold certain limited liability company interests in Crimson, which were received in connection with the Crimson Transaction and relate to their prior equity interests in certain pre-transaction properties of Crimson. Prior to any later exchange of these limited liability company interests for common or preferred stock of the Company, as described in Part IV, Item 15, Note 16 ("Subsequent Events"), the Grier Members will have tax consequences that differ from those of the Company and the Company's public stockholders upon the sale of, or certain changes to the debt encumbering, any of these properties. Accordingly, the Company, on the one hand, and the Grier Members, on the other hand, may have different objectives regarding the terms of any such future transactions related to such properties. Under the terms of the Third Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of Crimson, the approval of any action, or of a failure to take any action, that could impact the Company's ability to continue to qualify as a REIT, requires the approval of a supermajority of the members of Crimson's Board of Managers (consisting of the initial Crimson Managers, John D. Grier and Larry W. Alexander, and the initial CORR Managers, David J. Schulte and Todd Banks).
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Violations of data protection laws carry fines and expose us to criminal sanctions and civil suits.
Along with our own confidential data and information in the normal course of our business, we, as well as Crimson and its affiliates, collect and retain significant volumes of data, some of which are subject to certain laws and regulations. The regulations regarding the transfer and use of this data domestically is becoming increasingly complex. This data is subject to governmental regulation at the federal, state, and local levels in many areas of our business, including data privacy and security laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"). These laws may also expose us to significant liabilities and penalties if any company we acquire has violated or is not in compliance with applicable data protection laws.
The CCPA became effective on January 1, 2020 and gives California residents specific rights regarding their personal information, requires that companies take certain actions, including notifications of security incidents, and applies to activities regarding personal information that may be collected by us, directly or indirectly, from California residents. In addition, the CCPA grants California residents statutory private rights of action in the case of a data breach. As interpretation and enforcement of the CCPA evolves, it creates a range of new compliance obligations, which could cause us to change our business practices, with the possibility of significant financial penalties for noncompliance that may materially adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations and cash flows.
Crimson's pipeline loss allowance exposes us to commodity risk.
Crimson's transportation agreements and tariffs for crude oil shipments include a pipeline loss allowance. Crimson collects pipeline loss allowance to reduce its exposure to differences in crude oil measurement between origin and destination meters, which can fluctuate. This arrangement exposes us to risk of financial loss in some circumstances, including when the crude oil is received from the connecting carrier using different measurement techniques, or resulting from solids and water produced from the crude oil. It is not always possible for us to completely mitigate the measurement differential. If the measurement differential exceeds the loss allowance, the pipeline must make the customer whole for the difference in measured crude oil. Additionally, Crimson takes title to any excess product that it transports when product losses are within the allowed levels, and regularly sell that product at prevailing market prices. This allowance oil revenue is subject to more volatility than transportation revenue, as it is directly dependent on Crimson's measurement capability and prevailing commodity prices.
Our forecasted assumptions may not materialize as expected on Crimson's expansion projects, acquisitions and divestitures.
We and Crimson evaluate expansion projects, acquisitions and divestitures on an ongoing basis. Planning and investment analysis is highly dependent on accurate forecasting assumptions and to the extent that these assumptions do not materialize, financial performance may be lower or more volatile than expected. Volatility and unpredictability in the economy, both locally and globally, a change in both expected volume flows and cost estimates, project scoping and risk assessment could result in a loss of our profits.
Our business requires the retention and recruitment of a skilled workforce, and difficulties recruiting and retaining our workforce could result in a failure to implement our business plans.
Both our historical operations and management, and those of Crimson, require the retention and recruitment of a skilled workforce, including engineers, technical personnel and other professionals. We and our affiliates compete with other companies in the energy industry for this skilled workforce. If we are unable to retain current employees and/or recruit new employees of comparable knowledge and experience, our business could be negatively impacted. In addition, we could experience increased costs to retain and recruit these professionals.
Risks Related to Our Ownership and Operation of MoGas or Other Assets
MoGas' natural gas transmission operations, and related customer revenue agreements, are subject to regulation by FERC.
MoGas' business operations are subject to regulation by FERC, including the types and terms of services MoGas may offer to its customers, construction of new facilities, expansion of current facilities, creation, modification or abandonment of services or facilities, record keeping and relationships with affiliated companies. Compliance with these requirements can be costly and burdensome and FERC action in any of these areas could adversely affect MoGas' ability to compete for business, construct new facilities, expand current facilities, offer new services, recover the full cost of operating its pipelines or earn its authorized rate of return. This regulatory oversight can result in longer lead times or additional costs to develop and complete any future project than competitors that are not subject to FERC's regulations. To the extent we, in reliance on the PLR, acquire and operate other facilities or systems, those facilities or systems may similarly be subject to FERC regulatory oversight.
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In addition, the rates MoGas can charge for its natural gas transmission operations are regulated by FERC pursuant to the Natural Gas Act of 1938 ("NGA") as follows:
MoGas may only charge rates that have been determined to be just and reasonable by FERC, subject to a prescribed maximum and minimum, and is prohibited from unduly preferring or unreasonably discriminating against any person with respect to its rates or terms and conditions of service.
MoGas' existing rates may be challenged in a proceeding before FERC, which may reduce MoGas' rates if FERC finds the rates are not just and reasonable or are unduly preferential or unduly discriminatory. Proposed rate increases may be challenged by protest and allowed to go into effect subject to refund. Even if a rate increase is permitted by FERC to become effective, the rate increase may not be adequate.
To the extent MoGas' costs increase in an amount greater than its revenues increase, or there is a lag between MoGas' cost increases and its ability to file for and obtain rate increases, MoGas' operating results would be negatively affected.
Should FERC find that MoGas has failed to comply with all applicable FERC-administered statutes, rules, regulations, and orders, or with the terms of MoGas' tariffs on file with FERC, MoGas could be subject to substantial penalties and fines. Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ("EPAct 2005"), FERC has civil penalty authority under the NGA and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 ("NGPA") to impose penalties for violations of up to approximately $1.3 million per day for each violation, to revoke existing certificate authority and to order disgorgement of profits associated with any violation.
We cannot give any assurance regarding potential future regulations under which MoGas will operate its natural gas transmission business, or the effect that any changes in such future regulations, or in MoGas' agreements with its customers could have on MoGas' business, financial condition and results of operations.

Following expiration of the current five-year rate agreements with MoGas' customers other than certain contracts, MoGas’ revenues from these customers will once again be generated under agreements that are subject to cancellation on an annual basis.
Once the term of MoGas' current firm transportation pricing arrangements with its customers expire on December 31, 2023 (other than certain contracts with its largest customers, Spire and Ameren), revenues for MoGas' business with such other customers will once again be generated under transportation agreements which renew automatically on a year-to-year basis, but will be subject to cancellation by the customer or MoGas on 365 days' notice. When that occurs, if MoGas is unable to succeed in replacing any agreements canceled by its customers or itself that account for a significant portion of its revenues, or in renegotiating such agreements on terms substantially as favorable as the existing agreements, MoGas could suffer a material reduction in its revenues, financial results and cash flows. The maintenance or replacement of agreements with MoGas' customers at rates sufficient to maintain current or projected revenues and cash flows ultimately depends on a number of factors beyond its control, including competition from other pipelines, the proximity of supplies to the markets, and the price of, and demand for, natural gas. In addition, changes in state regulation of local distribution companies may cause them to exercise their cancellation rights in order to turn back their capacity when the agreements expire.
MoGas competes with other pipelines.
The principal elements of competition among pipelines are availability of capacity, rates, terms of service, access to supplies, flexibility, and reliability of service. Additionally, FERC's policies promote competition in natural gas markets by increasing the number of natural gas transmission options available to MoGas' customer base. Any current or future pipeline system or other form of transmission that delivers natural gas into the areas that MoGas serves could offer transmission services that are more desirable to shippers than those MoGas provides because of price, location, facilities or other factors. Increased competition could reduce the volumes of product MoGas transports, result in a reduction in the rates MoGas is able to negotiate with its customers, or cause customers to choose to ship their product on a different competing pipeline. Any one of these consequences could have a material adverse impact on MoGas, or on the operations of any other pipeline owned by the Company. These competitive considerations also could intensify the negative impact of factors that adversely affect the demand for MoGas' services, such as adverse economic conditions, weather, higher fuel costs and taxes or other regulatory actions that increase the cost, or limit the use, of products MoGas transports.
Risks Related to Our Investments in Leases
We are subject to risks involved in single tenant leases.
Historically, a significant portion of our acquisition activities have been focused on real properties that are triple-net leased to single tenants. Therefore, the financial failure of, or other default by, a single tenant under its lease: (i) is likely to cause a
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significant reduction in the operating cash flow generated by the property leased to that tenant, (ii) might decrease the value of that property, and (iii) could expose us to 100 percent of all applicable operating costs.
In addition, if we determine that a renewal of a lease with any tenant of an energy infrastructure asset is not in the best interests of our stockholders, if a tenant determines it no longer wishes to be the tenant under a lease upon its expiration, if we desire to terminate a lease as a result of a breach of that lease by the tenant or if we lose any tenant as a result of such tenant's bankruptcy, then in each circumstance we would need to identify a new tenant for the lease. We may not be able to identify a new tenant, as interest in leasing certain of our assets would be dependent on ownership of an interest in nearby mineral rights. There is no assurance that we would be able to identify a qualified and reputable operator of such energy infrastructure assets with the wherewithal and capability of acting as a potential replacement tenant, or that we could enter into a new lease with any such tenant on terms that are as favorable as the lease terms that were in place with the prior tenant.
Net leases may not result in fair market lease rates over time.
We expect a large portion of any future leasing revenue to come from net leases. Net leases typically have longer lease terms and, thus, there is an increased risk that if market rental rates increase in future years, the rates under our net leases will be less than fair market rental rates during those years. As a result, our income and distributions could be lower than they would otherwise be if we did not engage in net leases. We often will seek to include a clause in each lease that provides increases in rent over the term of the lease, as well as participating features based on increases in the tenant's utilization of the underlying asset, but there can be no assurance we will be successful in obtaining such a clause.
If a tenant declares bankruptcy and such action results in a rejection of the lease, or if the sale-leaseback transaction is challenged as a fraudulent transfer or re-characterized in the lessee company's bankruptcy proceeding, our business, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Historically, we have entered into sale-leaseback transactions, whereby we purchase an energy infrastructure property and then simultaneously lease the same property back to the seller. If a lessee company declares bankruptcy, our business could be adversely affected by one or both of the following:
A sale-leaseback transaction may be re-characterized by a bankruptcy court as either a disguised financing transaction or a functional joint venture. If the sale-leaseback were re-characterized as a financing transaction, we might not be considered the owner of the subject property and, as a result, we should have the status of a secured creditor of the lessee company with regard to the subject property, assuming the securitization measures we take as described below are respected by the bankruptcy court. In that event, we would no longer have the right to sell or encumber our ownership interest in the property. Instead, we would have a claim against the lessee company for the amounts owed under the lease. Although we believe each of our historical lease agreements, and any similar lease we may enter into in the future, constitute true leases that should not be subject to recharacterization, there is no guaranty that a bankruptcy court would agree. In the event of recharacterization, our claim under a lease agreement would either be secured or unsecured. As a preventative measure, we take steps to create and perfect a security interest in property made the subject of our lease agreements to ensure that our claim against the bankrupt lessee would be secured in the event of a recharacterization, but such attempts could be subject to challenge by the debtor or creditors and there is no assurance that a court would find our claim to be secured. The bankrupt lessee under this scenario might have the ability to restructure the terms, interest rate and amortization schedule of its outstanding balance owed under the lease. If approved by the bankruptcy court, we could be bound by the new terms, and prevented from foreclosing any lien on the property, so long as the lessee adhered to the new terms. If the sale-leaseback were re-characterized as a joint venture under applicable, non-bankruptcy law, we and the lessee company could be treated as co-venturers with regard to the property. As a result, we could be held liable, under some circumstances, for debts incurred by the lessee company relating to the property.
A lessee could either assume, assign or reject a lease in a bankruptcy case. The bankrupt lessee is required to make rent payments to us during its bankruptcy until it rejects the commercial real property lease (for leases that are personal property leases, the lessee need not make rental payments that arise from the petition date until 60 days after the order for relief is entered in the bankruptcy case). If the lessee assumes the lease, the bankrupt debtor must pay or “cure” all existing monetary defaults under the lease. Further, the lease can only be assumed “as is”. The bankruptcy court would not be able to change the rental amount or any other lease provision that could financially impact us. However, if the lessee rejects the lease, the facility would be returned to us. If a lease is rejected, we may not be able to identify an acceptable new tenant, and if we were able to re-lease the affected facility to a new tenant only on unfavorable terms or after a significant delay, we could lose some or all of the revenue from that facility for an extended period of time. Further, if the lease agreement is rejected, our claim against the lessee and/or parent guarantor could be, in some courts, subject to a statutory cap under section 502(b)(6) of the Bankruptcy Code to the extent the lease agreement is deemed to be a lease for real property rather than a lease for personal property. Such cap generally limits the amount of a claim for lease-based damages in the event of a termination of a commercial real property lease to the greater of one year's rent or
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15 percent of the rent reserved for the remaining lease term, not to exceed 3 years. There is a national split of authority as to whether a rejection of such a lease equates a termination, so the outcome will depend on where the bankrupt lessee files its bankruptcy. We believe that any of our lease agreements would be characterized as real property leases rather than personal property leases, though a court could hold to the contrary.
Risks Related to Financing Our Business
Our indebtedness could have important consequences, including impairing our ability to obtain additional financing or pay future distributions, as well as subjecting us to the risk of foreclosure on any mortgaged properties in the event of non-payment of the related debt.
As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding consolidated indebtedness of approximately $118.1 million. On February 4, 2021, our leverage increased to $223.1 million as a result of the Crimson Transaction. Our leverage could have important consequences. For example, it could:
result in the acceleration of a significant amount of debt for non-compliance with the terms of such debt or, if such debt contains cross-default or cross-acceleration provisions, other debt;
materially impair our ability to borrow undrawn amounts under existing financing arrangements or to obtain additional financing or refinancing on favorable terms or at all;
limit our ability to pay distributions by restricting cash flow from some of our subsidiaries unless certain conditions are satisfied, including without limitation, no default or event of default, compliance with financial covenants, minimum undrawn availability under certain revolving credit facilities, and available free cash flow;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow to paying principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the cash flow available to fund our business, to pay distributions, including those necessary to maintain REIT qualification, or to use for other purposes;
increase our vulnerability to economic downturns;
limit our ability to withstand competitive pressures; or
reduce our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions.
If we were to violate one or more financial covenants under our debt agreements, the lenders could declare us in default and could accelerate the amounts due under a portion or all of our outstanding debt. Further, a default under one debt agreement could trigger cross-default provisions within certain of our other debt agreements.
Additionally, the Indenture for the 5.875% Convertible Notes specifies events of default, including default by us or any of our subsidiaries with respect to any debt agreements under which there may be outstanding, or by which there may be secured or evidenced, any debt in excess of $25.0 million in the aggregate of ours and/or any such subsidiary, resulting in such indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable prior to its stated maturity.
Further, we expect to mortgage many of our properties to secure payment of indebtedness. If we are unable to meet mortgage payments, such failure could result in the loss of assets due to foreclosure and transfer to the mortgagee or sale on unfavorable terms with a consequent loss of income and asset value. A foreclosure of one or more of our properties could create taxable income without accompanying cash proceeds, and could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, and ability to service debt and make distributions and the market price of our stock.
We face risks associated with our dependence on external sources of capital.
In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required each year to distribute to our stockholders at least 90 percent of our REIT taxable income, and we will be subject to tax on our income to the extent it is not distributed. Because of this distribution requirement, we may not be able to fund all future capital needs from cash retained from operations. As a result, to fund capital needs, we must rely on third-party sources of capital, which we may not be able to obtain on favorable terms, if at all. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends upon a number of factors, including (i) general market conditions; (ii) the market's perception of our growth potential; (iii) our current and potential future earnings and cash distributions; and (iv) the market price of our capital stock. Additional debt financing may substantially increase our debt-to-total capitalization ratio. Additional equity issuances may dilute the holdings of our current stockholders.
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Covenants in our loan documents could limit our flexibility and adversely affect our financial condition.
The terms of our various credit agreements and other indebtedness require us to comply with a number of customary financial and other covenants, such as maintaining debt service coverage and leverage ratios and maintaining insurance coverage. In addition, our ability to receive cash flow from some of our subsidiaries is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including without limitation, no default or event of default, compliance with financial covenants, minimum undrawn availability under certain revolving credit facilities, and available free cash flow. These covenants may limit our flexibility in our operations, and breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under the instruments governing the applicable indebtedness even if we had satisfied our payment obligations. If we were to default under credit agreements or other debt instruments, our financial condition would be adversely affected.
The refusal of EGC and Cox Oil to provide financial statements to us in accordance with the terms of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, prior to the transfer of the GIGS to Carlyle in the Crimson Transaction, has adversely impacted the use of our effective registration statements on Form S-3 and Form S-8 to register the offer and sale of securities, and also has limited our ability to issue registered common stock to participants in our dividend reinvestment plan and to use our common stock as a component of compensation for our independent directors. These circumstances will also either prevent or make more costly our efforts to raise future capital if we are unable to use our universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3.
Under applicable SEC rules, an issuer loses the privilege of using "short form" Form S-3 or Form S-8 registration statements to offer and sell securities unless it has timely filed all periodic and other reports required to be filed under the Exchange Act after the initial filing of such a registration statement. As described elsewhere in this Report, EGC and Cox Oil refused to provide the financial statement information concerning EGC required to be filed by us pursuant to SEC Regulation S-X, as described in Section 2340 of the SEC Financial Reporting Manual. This situation has adversely impacted our ability to use our currently effective shelf registration statements on Form S-3, and also could result in the SEC not declaring effective any registration statement that we file on any other form in connection with an offering so long as we remain unable to amend our periodic reports to include the required financial statements of EGC, which could either prevent or make more costly our efforts to raise future capital through the issuance of our equity and debt securities on a rapid basis. While we may be able to raise additional capital through bank financing, private placement transactions or other means, these alternatives could increase both our financing costs and the amount of time required to complete a transaction, and there is no guarantee that we would succeed in raising the additional capital required on a timely basis.
Our dividend reinvestment plan is registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a Form S-3D. As previously disclosed in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 24, 2019, as a result of the refusal by EGC and Cox Oil to provide financial information, we have suspended our dividend reinvestment plan and currently are paying quarterly common stock dividends entirely in cash. Furthermore, the issuance of common stock to our independent directors as a portion of their compensation is registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a Form S-8. We have similarly suspended the issuance of these registered shares under the Company's Director Compensation Plan as a result of our inability to file the required EGC financial statements.
We have engaged in dialogue with the staff of the SEC in an effort to shorten the period during which we do not use these registration statements. There is no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining such relief.
We face risks related to "balloon payments" and refinancings.
Certain of our mortgages will have significant outstanding principal balances on their maturity dates, commonly known as "balloon payments." There can be no assurance that we will be able to refinance the debt on favorable terms or at all. To the extent we cannot refinance this debt on favorable terms or at all, we may be forced to dispose of properties on disadvantageous terms or pay higher interest rates, either of which would have an adverse impact on our financial performance and ability to service debt and make distributions.
The transition away from LIBOR may adversely affect our cost to obtain financing.
Our variable rate indebtedness under the Crimson Credit Facility uses LIBOR as one benchmark for establishing the rate. LIBOR is the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms and other pressures may cause LIBOR to disappear entirely or to perform differently than in the past. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, but could include an increase in the cost of our variable rate indebtedness.
In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, the authority that regulates LIBOR, announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee ("ARRC") has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") is the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR and organizations are currently working on industry wide and company specific
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transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to USD-LIBOR. There is no guarantee that a transition from LIBOR to an alternative will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark rates, or financing costs to borrowers. We have material contracts that are indexed to USD-LIBOR and we are monitoring this activity and evaluating the related risks.
Risks Related to Our Convertible Notes
We expect that the trading price of the Convertible Notes will be significantly affected by the price of our common stock, which may be volatile.
The market price of our common stock, as well as the general level of interest rates and our credit quality, will likely significantly affect the market price of the Convertible Notes. This may result in significantly greater volatility in the trading price of the Convertible Notes than would be expected for nonconvertible debt securities we may issue.
We cannot predict whether the price of our common stock or interest rates will rise or fall. The market price of our common stock will be influenced by our operating results and prospects and by economic, financial, regulatory and other factors. General market conditions, including the level of, and fluctuations in, the trading prices of stocks generally, could affect the price of our common stock.
Holders who receive shares of our common stock upon the conversion of their Convertible Notes will be subject to the risk of volatile and depressed market prices of our common stock. There can be no assurances that the market price of our common stock will not fall in the future. A decrease in the market price of our common stock would likely adversely impact the trading price of the Convertible Notes.
The Convertible Notes are structurally subordinated to all liabilities of our existing or future subsidiaries.
Holders of the Convertible Notes do not and will not have any claim as a creditor against any of our present or future subsidiaries. Indebtedness and other liabilities, including trade payables, whether secured or unsecured, of those subsidiaries are structurally senior to our obligations to holders of the Convertible Notes. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any of our subsidiaries, such subsidiaries will pay the holders of their debts, holders of any equity interests, including fund investors, and their trade creditors before they will be able to distribute any of their assets to us (except to the extent we have a claim as a creditor of such subsidiary). Any right that we have to receive any assets of any of the subsidiaries upon the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of those subsidiaries, and the consequent rights of holders of Convertible Notes to realize proceeds from the sale of any of those subsidiaries' assets, will be effectively structurally subordinated to the claims of those subsidiaries' creditors, including trade creditors and holders of any preferred equity interests of those subsidiaries.
The Convertible Notes are solely the obligations of the Company and are not guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries; whereas, our operations are conducted through, and substantially all of our consolidated assets are held by, our subsidiaries.
The Convertible Notes are our obligations exclusively and are not guaranteed by any of our operating subsidiaries. Substantially all of our consolidated assets are held by our subsidiaries. Accordingly, our ability to service our debt, including the Convertible Notes, depends on the results of operations of our subsidiaries and upon the ability of such subsidiaries to provide us with cash, whether in the form of dividends, loans or otherwise, to pay amounts due on our obligations, including the Convertible Notes. Our subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation, contingent or otherwise, to make payments on the Convertible Notes or to make any funds available for that purpose. In addition, dividends, loans or other distributions to us from such subsidiaries may be subject to contractual and other restrictions set forth in our current and future debt instruments and are subject to other business considerations.
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Convertible Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.
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Regulatory actions may adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of the Convertible Notes.
Current and future regulatory actions and other events may adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of the Convertible Notes. We expect that many investors in, and potential purchasers of, the Convertible Notes will employ, or seek to employ, a convertible arbitrage strategy with respect to the Convertible Notes. Investors would typically implement such a strategy by selling short the common stock underlying the Convertible Notes and dynamically adjusting their short position while continuing to hold the Convertible Notes. Investors may also implement this type of strategy by entering into swaps on our common stock in lieu of or in addition to short selling the common stock.
The SEC and other regulatory and self-regulatory authorities have implemented various rules and taken certain actions, and may in the future adopt additional rules and take other actions, which may impact those engaging in short selling activity involving equity securities (including our common stock). Such rules and actions include Rule 201 of SEC Regulation SHO, the adoption by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. and the national securities exchanges of a "Limit Up-Limit Down" program, the imposition of market-wide circuit breakers that halt trading of securities for certain periods following specific market declines, and the implementation of certain regulatory reforms required by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. Any governmental or regulatory action that restricts the ability of investors in, or potential purchasers of, the Convertible Notes to effect short sales of our common stock, borrow our common stock or enter into swaps on our common stock could adversely affect the trading price and the liquidity of the Convertible Notes.
We may still incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed above.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments, some of which may be secured debt. We are not restricted under the terms of the Indentures governing the Convertible Notes from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the Indentures governing the Convertible Notes that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on the Convertible Notes when due. Our existing credit facilities restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, but we may be able to obtain waivers of such restrictions or may not be subject to such restrictions under the terms of any subsequent indebtedness.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to repurchase the Convertible Notes upon a fundamental change.
Holders of the Convertible Notes have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase for cash all of their Convertible Notes, or any portion of the principal thereof that is equal to $1,000, or a multiple of $1,000, upon the occurrence of a fundamental change, as set forth in the Indentures, at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100 percent of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon to (but excluding) the fundamental change repurchase date. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of Convertible Notes surrendered therefor. Our failure to repurchase Convertible Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the Indentures would constitute a default under the Indentures. A default under the Indentures or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Convertible Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof. Our ability to repurchase the Convertible Notes may also be limited by law or by regulatory authority.
Future sales of shares of our common stock or equity-linked securities in the public market, or the perception that they could occur, may depress the market price for our common stock and adversely impact the trading price of the Convertible Notes.
We may, in the future, sell additional shares of our common stock or equity-linked securities to raise capital. Sales of substantial amounts of additional shares of common stock or equity-linked securities, shares that may be sold by stockholders and shares of common stock underlying the Convertible Notes as well as sales of shares that may be issued in connection with future acquisitions or for other purposes, including to finance our operations and business strategy, or the perception that such sales could occur, may have an adverse effect on the trading price of the Convertible Notes and prevailing market prices for our common stock and our ability to raise additional capital in the financial markets at a time and price favorable to us. The price of our common stock could also be affected by possible sales of our common stock by investors who view the Convertible Notes as a more attractive means of equity participation in our company and by hedging or arbitrage trading activity that we expect will develop involving our common stock.
We have also reserved a substantial amount of shares of our common stock in connection with the Convertible Notes, the issuance of which will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such issuance or conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.
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We are unable to predict the effect that sales, or the perception that our shares may be available for sale, will have on the prevailing market price of our common stock and the trading price of the Convertible Notes.
Holders of Convertible Notes are not entitled to any rights with respect to our common stock, but are subject to all changes made with respect to our common stock.
Holders of Convertible Notes are not entitled to any rights with respect to our common stock (including, without limitation, voting rights and rights to receive any dividends or other distributions on our common stock) prior to the conversion date with respect to any Convertible Notes they surrender for conversion, but are subject to all changes affecting our common stock. For example, if an amendment is proposed to our charter or bylaws requiring stockholder approval and the record date for determining the stockholders of record entitled to vote on the amendment occurs prior to the conversion date related to a holder's conversion of its notes, then such holder will not be entitled to vote on the amendment, although such holder will nevertheless be subject to any changes affecting our common stock.
The Convertible Notes are not protected by restrictive covenants.
The Indentures governing the Convertible Notes do not contain any financial or operating covenants or restrictions on the payments of dividends, the incurrence of indebtedness or the issuance or repurchase of securities by us or any of our subsidiaries. The Indentures contain no covenants or other provisions to afford protection to holders of the Convertible Notes in the event of a fundamental change or other corporate transaction involving us except in limited circumstances as set forth in the Indentures. For example, events such as leveraged recapitalizations, refinancings, restructurings or acquisitions initiated by us may not constitute a fundamental change requiring us to repurchase the Convertible Notes. In the event of any such events, the holders of the Convertible Notes would not have the right to require us to repurchase the Convertible Notes, even though each of these transactions could increase the amount of our indebtedness, or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or any credit ratings, thereby adversely affecting the trading price of the Convertible Notes.

The increase in the conversion rate for 5.875% Convertible Notes converted in connection with a make-whole fundamental change or notice of redemption may not adequately compensate the holders for any lost value of their 5.875% Convertible Notes as a result of such make-whole fundamental change or redemption.

If a make-whole fundamental change occurs prior to the maturity date or if we deliver a notice of redemption, under certain circumstances as described in the Indenture for the 5.875% Convertible Notes, we will increase the conversion rate by a number of additional shares of our common stock for 5.875% Convertible Notes converted in connection with such make-whole fundamental change or notice of redemption. The increase in the conversion rate will be determined based on the date on which the specified corporate transaction that constitutes a make-whole fundamental change becomes effective or the date we deliver a notice of redemption and the price paid (or deemed to be paid) per share of our common stock in the make-whole fundamental change or the average of the last reported sale prices of our common stock over the five consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date of the notice of redemption (such average, the “redemption price”), as described in the Indenture for the 5.875% Convertible Notes. The increase in the conversion rate for 5.875% Convertible Notes converted in connection with a make-whole fundamental change or notice of redemption may not adequately compensate the holders for any lost value of their 5.875% Convertible Notes as a result of such transaction or redemption. In addition, if the price per share of our common stock paid (or deemed to be paid) in the transaction or the redemption price, as applicable, is greater than $65.00 per share or less than $44.25 per share (in each case, subject to adjustment), no additional shares will be added to the conversion rate. Moreover, in no event will the conversion rate per $1,000 principal amount of 5.875% Convertible Notes as a result of this adjustment exceed 22.5998 shares of our common stock, subject to adjustments in the same manner as the conversion rate as set forth under the terms of the Indenture for the 5.875% Convertible Notes.

Our obligation to increase the conversion rate or 5.875% Convertible Notes converted in connection with a make-whole fundamental change or notice of redemption could be considered a penalty, in which case the enforceability thereof would be subject to general principles of reasonableness and equitable remedies.
The conversion rate of the Convertible Notes may not be adjusted for all dilutive events.
The conversion rate of the Convertible Notes is subject to adjustment for certain events, including, but not limited to, the issuance of certain stock dividends on our common stock, the issuance of certain rights or warrants, subdivisions, combinations, distributions of capital stock, indebtedness, or assets, cash dividends and certain issuer tender or exchange offers. However, the conversion rate will not be adjusted for other events, such as a third-party tender or exchange offer or an issuance of our common stock or derivative instruments for cash or an exercise or conversion of any derivative instrument, that may adversely affect the trading price of the Convertible Notes or our common stock. An event that adversely affects the value of the Convertible Notes may occur, and that event may not result in an adjustment to the conversion rate.
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Some significant restructuring transactions and significant changes in the composition of our board may not constitute a fundamental change, in which case we would not be obligated to offer to repurchase the Convertible Notes.
Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change, holders of Convertible Notes have the right to require us to repurchase their Convertible Notes. However, the fundamental change provisions of the Indentures do not afford protection to holders of Convertible Notes in the event of other transactions that could adversely affect the Convertible Notes. For example, transactions such as leveraged recapitalizations, refinancings, restructurings, or acquisitions initiated by us may not constitute a fundamental change requiring us to repurchase the Convertible Notes. In the event of any such transaction, the holders would not have the right to require us to repurchase the Convertible Notes, even though each of these transactions could increase the amount of our indebtedness, or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or any credit ratings, thereby adversely affecting the holders of Convertible Notes.
In addition, absent the occurrence of a fundamental change, changes in the composition of our Board of Directors will not provide holders with the right to require us to repurchase the Convertible Notes or to an increase in the conversion rate upon conversion.

We have not registered the 5.875% Convertible Notes or the common stock issuable upon conversion of the 5.875% Convertible Notes which will limit the holders' ability to resell them.

The 5.875% Convertible Notes and the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the 5.875% Convertible Notes have not been registered under the Securities Act or any state securities laws. Unless the 5.875% Convertible Notes and the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of the 5.875% Convertible Notes have been registered, the 5.875% Convertible Notes and such shares may not be transferred or resold except in a transaction exempt from or not subject to the registration requirements of the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws. We do not intend to file a registration statement for the resale of the 5.875% Convertible Notes and the common stock into which the 5.875% Convertible Notes are convertible.
An active trading market may not develop for the Convertible Notes or, if it develops, may not be maintained or be liquid.
We do not intend to apply to list the Convertible Notes on any securities exchange or to arrange for quotation on any automated dealer quotation system. The initial purchasers of the 5.875% Convertible Notes may cease their market-making of the Convertible Notes at any time without notice. In addition, the liquidity of the trading market in the Convertible Notes, and the market price quoted for the Convertible Notes, may be adversely affected by changes in the overall market for this type of security and by changes in our financial performance or prospects or in the prospects for companies in our industry generally. As a result, an active trading market may not develop for the Convertible Notes. If an active trading market does not develop or is not maintained, the market price and liquidity of the Convertible Notes may be adversely affected. In that case holders of the Convertible Notes may not be able to sell their Convertible Notes at a particular time or they may not be able to sell their Convertible Notes at a favorable price.
The liquidity of the trading market, if any, and future trading prices of the Convertible Notes will depend on many factors, including, among other things, the market price of our common stock, prevailing interest rates, our financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects and credit quality relative to our competitors, the market for similar securities and the overall securities market. The liquidity of the trading market of the Convertible Notes may be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in any of these factors, some of which are beyond our control and others of which would not affect debt that is not convertible into capital stock. Historically, the market for convertible debt has been subject to disruptions that have caused volatility in prices of securities similar to the Convertible Notes. Market volatility could materially and adversely affect the Convertible Notes, regardless of our financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects or credit quality.
The Convertible Notes are not rated. Any adverse rating of the Convertible Notes may cause their trading price to fall.
We do not intend to seek a rating on the Convertible Notes. However, if a rating service were to rate the Convertible Notes and if such rating service were to lower its rating on the Convertible Notes below the rating initially assigned to the Convertible Notes or otherwise announces its intention to put the Convertible Notes on credit watch or to withdraw the rating, the trading price of the Convertible Notes could decline.
Upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, holders may receive less valuable consideration than expected because the value of our common stock may decline after they exercise their conversion right.
Under the Convertible Notes, a converting holder will be exposed to fluctuations in the value of our common stock during the period from the date such holder surrenders Convertible Notes for conversion until the date we settle our conversion obligation. We will be required to deliver the shares of our common stock, together with cash for any fractional shares, on the third business day following the relevant conversion date; and for any conversion that occurs on or after the record date for the payment of interest on the Convertible Notes at the maturity date, we will be required to deliver shares on the maturity date. Accordingly, if
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the price of our common stock decreases during this period, the value of the shares that the holders receive will be adversely affected and would be less than the conversion value of the Convertible Notes on the conversion date.
Conversion of the Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders, including holders who had previously converted their Convertible Notes.
To the extent we issue shares of our common stock upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, the conversion of some or all of the Convertible Notes will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of shares of our common stock issuable upon such conversion of the Convertible Notes could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Convertible Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Convertible Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.
Provisions of the Convertible Notes could discourage an acquisition of us by a third party.
Certain provisions of the Indentures and the Convertible Notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. Upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a fundamental change under the Indentures, holders of the Convertible Notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their Convertible Notes. We may also be required to increase the conversion rate upon conversion or provide for conversion into the acquirer's capital stock in the event of certain fundamental changes. In addition, the Indentures and the Convertible Notes prohibit us from engaging in certain mergers or acquisitions unless, among other things, the surviving entity assumes our obligations under the Convertible Notes and the Indentures.
Holders of the Convertible Notes may be subject to tax if we make or fail to make certain adjustments to the conversion rate of the Convertible Notes even though they do not receive a corresponding cash distribution.
The conversion rate of the Convertible Notes is subject to adjustment in certain circumstances, including the payment of cash dividends. If the conversion rate is adjusted as a result of a distribution that is taxable to our common stockholders, such as a cash dividend, holders of Convertible Notes may be deemed to have received a dividend subject to U.S. federal income tax without the receipt of any cash. In addition, a failure to adjust (or to adjust adequately) the conversion rate after an event that increases the proportionate interest in us could be treated as a deemed taxable dividend to holders of the Convertible Notes. If, pursuant to the terms of the Indentures, a make-whole fundamental change occurs on or prior to the maturity date, under some circumstances, we will increase the conversion rate for Convertible Notes converted in connection with the make-whole fundamental change. Such increase may also be treated as a distribution subject to U.S. federal income tax as a dividend. For a non-U.S. holder of the Convertible Notes, any deemed dividend may be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a 30 percent rate, or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable treaty, which may be set off against subsequent payments on the Convertible Notes.
Because the Convertible Notes were initially issued in book-entry form, holders must rely on the Depository Trust Company's ("DTC") procedures to receive communications relating to the Convertible Notes and exercise their rights and remedies.
We initially issued the Convertible Notes in the form of one or more global notes registered in the name of Cede & Co., as nominee of DTC. Beneficial interests in global notes will be shown on, and transfers of global notes will be affected only through, the records maintained by DTC. Except in limited circumstances, we will not issue certificated notes. Accordingly, if the holders own a beneficial interest in a global note, then they will not be considered an owner or holder of the Convertible Notes. Instead, DTC or its nominee will be the sole holder of global notes. Unlike persons who have certificated notes registered in their names, owners of beneficial interests in global notes will not have the direct right to act on our solicitations for consents or requests for waivers or other actions from holders. Instead, those beneficial owners will be permitted to act only to the extent that they have received appropriate proxies to do so from DTC or, if applicable, a DTC participant. The applicable procedures for the granting of these proxies may not be sufficient to enable owners of beneficial interests in global notes to vote on any requested actions on a timely basis. In addition, notices and other communications relating to the Convertible Notes will be sent to DTC. We expect DTC to forward any such communications to DTC participants, which in turn would forward such communications to indirect DTC participants. But we can make no assurances that holders will timely receive any such communications.
Risks Related to Our Preferred Stock
An active trading market for our depositary shares may not be maintained.
Our depositary shares, each of which represents 1/100th of a share of our Series A Preferred Stock, are listed on the NYSE; however, we can provide no assurance that an active trading market on the NYSE for the depositary shares may be maintained. As a result, the ability to transfer or sell the depositary shares and any trading price of the depositary shares could be adversely affected.
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The market price of the depositary shares representing interests in our Series A Preferred Stock may be adversely affected by the future incurrence of debt or issuance of preferred stock by the Company.
In the future, we may increase our capital resources by making offerings of debt securities and preferred stock of the Company and other borrowings by the Company. The debt securities, preferred stock (if senior to our Series A Preferred Stock) and borrowings of the Company are senior in right of payment to our Series A Preferred Stock, and all payments (including dividends, principal and interest) and liquidating distributions on such securities and borrowings could limit our ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to the holders of depositary shares representing interests in our Series A Preferred Stock.
Because our decision to issue securities and make borrowings in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors, some of which may be beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings or borrowings. Thus, holders of the depositary shares representing interests in Series A Preferred Stock bear the risk of our future offerings or borrowings reducing the market price of the depositary shares representing interests in our Series A Preferred Stock.
A holder of depositary shares representing interests in the Series A Preferred Stock has extremely limited voting rights.
The voting rights of a holder of depositary shares are limited. Our common stock is the only class of our securities that carries full voting rights. Voting rights for holders of depositary shares exist primarily with respect to (i) the ability to elect (together with the holders of other series of preferred stock on parity with the Series A Preferred Stock, if any) two additional directors to our Board of Directors in the event that six quarterly dividends (whether or not declared or consecutive) payable on the Series A Preferred Stock are in arrears, (ii) voting on amendments to our Charter, including the articles supplementary creating our Series A Preferred Stock (in some cases voting together with the holders of Parity Preferred Stock as a single class) that materially and adversely affect the rights of the holders of depositary shares representing interests in the Series A Preferred Stock and (iii) the creation of additional classes or series of our stock that are senior to the Series A Preferred Stock with respect to the payment of dividends or distributions of assets upon our liquidation, in each case, provided that in any event adequate provision for redemption has not been made. Other than certain limited circumstances, holders of depositary shares do not have any voting rights.
The Change of Control conversion feature of Series A Preferred Stock may not adequately compensate the holders, and the Change of Control conversion and redemption features of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock underlying the depositary shares may make it more difficult for a party to take over the Company or discourage a party from taking over the Company.
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control (as defined in the Articles Supplementary for Series A Preferred Stock), holders of the depositary shares representing interests in our Series A Preferred Stock will have the right (unless, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date (as defined in the Articles Supplementary for Series A Preferred Stock), we have provided notice of our election to redeem the depositary shares either pursuant to our optional redemption right or our special optional redemption right) to convert some or all of their depositary shares into shares of our common stock (or equivalent value of Alternative Conversion Consideration). Upon such a conversion, the maximum number of shares of common stock that holders of depositary shares will receive for each depositary share converted will be limited to the Share Cap. These features of the Series A Preferred Stock may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for the Company or of delaying, deferring or preventing a Change of Control of the Company under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-current market price or that stockholders may otherwise believe is in their best interests.
The market price of the depositary shares could be substantially affected by various factors.
The market price of the depositary shares will depend on many factors, which may change from time to time, including:
Prevailing interest rates, increases in which may have an adverse effect on the market price of the depositary shares representing interests in our Series A Preferred Stock;
The market for similar securities issued by other REITs;
General economic and financial market conditions;
The financial condition, performance and prospects of us, our tenants and our competitors;
Any rating assigned by a rating agency to the depositary shares;
Changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts with respect to us, our competitors or our industry; and
Actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results and those of our competitors.
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In addition, over the last several years, prices of equity securities in the U.S. trading markets have been experiencing extreme price fluctuations. As a result of these and other factors, investors holding our depositary shares may experience a decrease, which could be substantial and rapid, in the market price of the depositary shares, including decreases unrelated to our financial condition, performance or prospects. Likewise, in the event that the depositary shares become convertible and are converted into shares of our common stock, holders of our common stock issued upon such conversion may experience a similar decrease, which also could be substantial and rapid, in the market price of our common stock.
Risks Related to REIT Qualification and Federal Income Tax Laws
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for fiscal 2013 and subsequent years, but the IRS may challenge our qualification as a REIT.
We have elected to be a REIT for federal income tax purposes. In order to qualify as a REIT, a substantial percentage of our income must be derived from, and our assets consist of, real estate assets, and, in certain cases, other investment property. We have acquired and managed investments which satisfy the REIT tests. Whether a particular investment is considered a real estate asset for such purposes depends upon the facts and circumstances of the investment. Due to the factual nature of the determination, the IRS may challenge whether any particular investment will qualify as a real estate asset or realize income which satisfies the REIT income tests. In determining whether an investment is a real property asset, we will look at the Code and the IRS's interpretation of the Code in regulations, published rulings, private letter rulings and other guidance. In the case of a private letter ruling issued to another taxpayer, we would not be able to bind the IRS to the holding of such ruling. We have received private letter rulings from the IRS with respect to certain issues relevant to our qualification as a REIT. In general, the rulings provide, subject to the terms and conditions contained therein, that we may treat certain of our assets as qualifying REIT assets and certain income that we receive as rents from interests in real property. Although we may generally rely upon the rulings, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification as a REIT on the basis of other issues or facts outside the scope of the rulings. If the IRS successfully challenges our qualification as a REIT, we may not be able to achieve our objectives and the value of our stock may decline. As a REIT, our distributions from earnings and profits will be treated as ordinary income and a return of capital, and generally will not qualify as qualified dividend income ("QDI").
Fluctuations in the fair market value of the assets that we own and that are owned by our taxable REIT subsidiaries may adversely affect our continued qualification as a REIT.
We have to satisfy the asset tests at the end of each quarter. Although fluctuations in the fair market value of our assets should not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT, we must satisfy the asset tests immediately after effecting the REIT acquisition of any asset. Thus, we may be limited in our ability to purchase certain assets depending upon the potential fluctuations in the fair market value of our direct and indirect assets. As fair market value determinations are factual, risks exist as to the fair market determination.
Although we believe that the Grand Isle Gathering System and Pinedale LGS constitute real estate assets under the REIT provisions of the Code, that belief is not binding on the IRS or any court and does not guarantee our qualification as a REIT.
On August 31, 2016, the IRS issued final regulations to define real property under the REIT provisions, which provide that interests in real estate include inherently permanent structures such as pipelines and certain related assets. The qualifying real estate assets in the energy infrastructure sector include electric transmission and distribution systems, pipeline systems, and storage and terminaling systems, among others. We believe that substantially all of the Grand Isle Gathering System and Pinedale LGS constituted real estate assets under the REIT provisions during the entire period that we owned those assets, consistent with the final regulations and certain private letter rulings. We have not obtained any private letter rulings with respect to the Grand Isle Gathering System. We received a private letter ruling and certain other confirmation from the IRS that certain Pinedale LGS assets qualified as real property for REIT purposes. If the Grand Isle Gathering System or Pinedale LGS should not constitute a real estate asset for federal income tax purposes, we could likely be found to have failed to continue to qualify as a REIT for the years during which we owned those assets. If that should occur, it likely would prevent us from achieving our business objectives and could cause the value of our stock to decline.
Failure to qualify as a REIT would have significant adverse consequences to us and the value of our common stock.
Beginning with our fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, we believe our income and investments have allowed us to meet the income and asset tests necessary for us to qualify for REIT status and we have elected to be taxed as a REIT for fiscal years 2013 through 2020. Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code as to which there may only be limited judicial and administrative interpretations and involves the determination of facts and circumstances not entirely within our control. Future legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions may significantly change the tax laws or the application of the tax laws with respect to qualification as a REIT for
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federal income tax purposes or the federal income tax consequences of such qualification. Accordingly, we cannot assure our stockholders that we will be organized or will operate to qualify as a REIT for future fiscal years. If, with respect to any taxable year, we fail to qualify as a REIT, we would not be allowed to deduct distributions to stockholders in computing our taxable income. After our initial election and qualification as a REIT, if we later failed to so qualify and we were not entitled to relief under the relevant statutory provisions, we would also be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for four subsequent taxable years. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, corporate-level income tax would apply to our taxable income at regular corporate rates. As a result, the amount available for distribution to holders of equity securities would be reduced for the year or years involved, and we would no longer be required to make distributions. In addition, our failure to qualify as a REIT could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital, and it could adversely affect the value of our common stock.
As a REIT, failure to make required distributions would subject us to federal corporate income tax.
In order to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT, we also are generally required to distribute at least 90 percent of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain) each year, or in limited circumstances, the following year, to our stockholders. Beginning with our fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, we believe we have satisfied these requirements. While the amount, timing and form of any future distributions will be determined, and will be subject to adjustment, by our Board of Directors, we generally expect to distribute all or substantially all of our REIT taxable income. If our cash available for distribution falls short of our estimates, we may be unable to maintain distributions that approximate our REIT taxable income and may fail to remain qualified for taxation as a REIT. In addition, our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to fund required distributions as a result of differences in timing between the actual receipt of income and the payment of expenses and the recognition of income and expenses for federal income tax purposes, or the effect of nondeductible expenditures, such as capital expenditures, payments of compensation for which Section 162(m) of the Code denies a deduction, interest expense deductions limited by Section 163(j) of the Code, the creation of reserves or required debt service or amortization payments.
To the extent that we satisfy the 90 percent distribution requirement but distribute less than 100 percent of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4 percent nondeductible excise tax on our undistributed taxable income to the extent the actual amount that we distribute to our stockholders for a calendar year is less than the minimum distribution amount specified under the Code.
Ownership limitation provisions in our charter may delay or prevent certain transactions in our shares, and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or change of control of our Company.
To maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, among other purposes, our charter includes provisions designed to ensure that not more than 50 percent in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by or for five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) at any time during the last half of any taxable year. Subject to the exceptions described below, our charter generally prohibits any person (as defined under the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) from actually owning or being deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, (i) more than 9.8 percent (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock or (ii) more than 9.8 percent in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, in each case, excluding any shares of our stock not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. We refer to these restrictions as the "ownership limitation provisions." Our charter further prohibits any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock that would result in us being "closely held" under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT. Our charter also provides that any transfer of shares of our capital stock which would, if effective, result in our capital stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (as determined pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code) shall be void ab initio and the intended transferee shall acquire no rights in such shares. These ownership limitation provisions may prevent or delay individual transactions in our stock that would trigger such provisions, and also could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control and, as a result, could adversely affect our stockholders' ability to realize a premium for their shares of common stock. However, our Board of Directors may waive the ownership limitation provisions with respect to a particular stockholder and establish different ownership limitation provisions for such stockholder. In granting such waiver, our Board of Directors may also require the stockholder receiving such waiver to make certain representations, warranties and covenants related to our ability to qualify as a REIT.
Ownership limitations in our charter may impair the ability of holders to convert Convertible Notes into our common stock.
In order to assist us in maintaining our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, among other purposes, our charter restricts ownership of more than 9.8 percent (in value or in number, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding shares of common stock, or 9.8 percent in value of our outstanding capital stock, subject to certain exceptions. Notwithstanding
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any other provision of the Convertible Notes or the Indentures, no holder of Convertible Notes will be entitled to receive common stock following conversion of such Convertible Notes to the extent that receipt of such common stock would cause such holder (after application of certain constructive ownership rules) to exceed the ownership limit contained in our charter. We will not be able to deliver our common stock, even if we would otherwise choose to do so, to any holder of Convertible Notes if the delivery of our common stock would cause that holder to exceed the ownership limits described above.
Complying with REIT requirements may affect our profitability and may force us to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments.
To qualify as a REIT, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the nature and diversification of our assets, the sources of our income and the amounts we distribute to our stockholders. We may be required to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments in order to satisfy the asset and income tests or to qualify under certain statutory relief provisions. We may also be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. As a result, having to comply with the distribution requirement could cause us to sell assets in adverse market conditions, borrow on unfavorable terms or distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, capital expenditures or repayment of debt. Accordingly, satisfying the REIT requirements could materially and adversely affect us.
As a REIT, re-characterization of sale-leaseback transactions may cause us to lose our REIT status.
We intend to purchase certain properties and simultaneously lease those same properties back to the sellers. While we will use our best efforts to structure any such sale-leaseback transaction so that the lease will be characterized as a "true lease," thereby allowing us to be treated as the owner of the property for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the IRS could challenge such characterization. In the event that any sale-leaseback transaction is recharacterized as a financing transaction or loan for U.S. federal income tax purposes, deductions for depreciation and cost recovery relating to such property would be disallowed. If a sale-leaseback transaction were so recharacterized, we might fail to satisfy the REIT qualification "asset tests" or the "income tests" and, consequently, lose our REIT status effective with the year of re-characterization. Alternatively, the amount of our REIT taxable income could be recalculated which might also cause us to fail to meet the distribution requirement for a taxable year.
As a REIT, we are required to make distributions, other than capital gain distributions, to our stockholders each year in the amount of at least 90 percent of our REIT taxable income in order to deduct distributions to our stockholders. As a result, we will continue to need additional capital to make new investments. If additional funds are unavailable or not available on favorable terms, our ability to make new investments will be impaired.
As a REIT, we are required to distribute at least 90 percent of our REIT taxable income in order to deduct distributions to our stockholders, and as such we expect to continue to require additional capital to make new investments or carry existing investments. We may acquire additional capital from the issuance of securities senior to our common stock, including additional borrowings or other indebtedness or the issuance of additional securities. We may also acquire additional capital through the issuance of additional equity. However, we may not be able to raise additional capital in the future on favorable terms or at all. Unfavorable economic conditions could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. We may issue debt securities, other instruments of indebtedness or preferred stock, and we may borrow money from banks or other financial institutions, which we refer to collectively as "senior securities." As a result of issuing senior securities, we will also be exposed to typical risks associated with leverage, including increased risk of loss. If we issue preferred securities which will rank "senior" to our common stock in our capital structure, the holders of such preferred securities may have separate voting rights and other rights, preferences or privileges more favorable than those of our common stock, and the issuance of such preferred securities could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for security holders or otherwise be in our best interest.
To the extent our ability to issue debt or other senior securities is constrained, we will depend on issuances of additional common stock to finance new investments. If we raise additional funds by issuing more of our common stock or senior securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock, the percentage ownership of our stockholders at that time would decrease, and our stockholders may experience dilution.
If we acquire C corporations in the future, we may inherit material tax liabilities and other tax attributes from such acquired corporations, and we may be required to distribute earnings and profits.
From time to time we may acquire C corporations or assets of C corporations in transactions in which the basis of the corporations' assets in our hands is determined by reference to the basis of the assets in the hands of the acquired corporations, or carry-over basis transactions.
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In the case of assets we acquire from a C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, if we dispose of any such asset in a taxable transaction (including by deed in lieu of foreclosure) during the five-year period beginning on the date of the carry-over basis transaction, then we will be required to pay tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate on the gain recognized to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date of the carry-over basis transaction. Any taxes we pay as a result of such gain would reduce the amount available for distribution to our stockholders. The imposition of such tax may require us to forgo an otherwise attractive disposition of any assets we acquire from a C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, and as a result may reduce the liquidity of our portfolio of investments. In addition, in such a carry-over basis transaction, we could potentially succeed to any tax liabilities and earnings and profits of any acquired C corporation. To qualify as a REIT, we must distribute any non-REIT earnings and profits by the close of the taxable year in which such transaction occurs. If the IRS were to determine that we acquired non-REIT earnings and profits from a corporation that we failed to distribute prior to the end of the taxable year in which the carry-over basis transaction occurred, we could avoid disqualification as a REIT by paying a "deficiency dividend." Under these procedures, we generally would be required to distribute any such non-REIT earnings and profits to our stockholders within 90 days of the determination and pay a statutory interest charge at a specified rate to the IRS. Such a distribution would be in addition to the distribution of REIT taxable income necessary to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement and may require that we borrow funds to make the distribution even if the then-prevailing market conditions are not favorable for borrowings. In addition, payment of the statutory interest charge could materially and adversely affect us.
Legislative or other actions affecting REITs could have a negative effect on us.
The rules dealing with federal, state and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Changes to the tax laws, with or without retroactive application, could materially and adversely affect our investors or us. On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act") was enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and on December 27, 2020, the Consolidated Appropriation Act, 2021 was enacted. The Consolidation Appropriations Act included the Taxpayer Certainty and Disaster Relief Act of 2020 ("Disaster Relief Act") and the COVID-related Tax Relief Act of 2020 ("COVID Relief Act"). Although we are not aware of any provision in the final legislation or any pending tax legislation that would adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, we cannot predict how future changes in the tax laws might affect our investors or us. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect our ability to qualify as a REIT or the income tax consequences of such qualification.
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Governance
Corridor may serve as a manager to other entities, which may create conflicts of interest not in the best interest of us or our stockholders.
Corridor's services under the Management Agreement are not exclusive, and, while it currently does not have any contractual arrangement to do so, it is free to furnish the same or similar services to other entities, including businesses that may directly or indirectly compete with us so long as its services to us are not impaired by the provision of such services to others. Corridor and its members may have obligations to other entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders.
We will be dependent upon key personnel of Corridor and Crimson for our future success.
We have entered into a management agreement with Corridor to provide full management services to us for real property asset investments. Further, certain members of the Crimson management team are also officers of CorEnergy. We will be dependent on the diligence, expertise and business relationships of the management of Corridor and Crimson to implement our strategy of acquiring real property assets. The departure of one or more investment professionals of Corridor or Crimson could have a material adverse effect on our ability to implement this strategy and on the value of our common stock. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in implementing our strategy.
Members of our management team have competing duties to other entities, which could result in decisions that are not in the best interests of our stockholders.
Certain of our officers and the employees of Crimson do not spend all of their time managing our activities. These executive officers and the employees of Crimson allocate some, or a material portion, of their time to other businesses and activities. None of these individuals is required to devote a specific amount of time to our affairs. As a result of these overlapping responsibilities, there may be conflicts of interest among and reduced time commitments from our officers and employees of Crimson that they will face in making decisions on our behalf. Accordingly, CorEnergy competes with Crimson, their affiliates and possibly other entities for the time and attention of these officers.
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In addition to the ownership limit provisions discussed above, certain provisions of our charter and of Maryland law may limit the ability of stockholders to control our policies and effect a change of control of our Company.
Our charter authorizes our Board of Directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock, to authorize us to issue additional shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock. We believe that these provisions in our charter provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional authorized shares of stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our Board of Directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests.
Provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws could deter takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.
The following considerations related to provisions of Maryland General Corporation Law, and of our charter and bylaws, may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or making difficult a change in control of our Company or the removal of our incumbent directors:
We are subject to the Business Combination Act of the Maryland General Corporation Law. However, pursuant to the statute, our Board of Directors has adopted a resolution exempting us from the Maryland Business Combination Act for any business combination between us and any person to the extent that such business combination receives the prior approval of our Board of Directors. This resolution, however, may be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time by our Board of Directors. If this resolution is repealed, or our Board of Directors does not otherwise approve a business combination with a person, the statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
Our bylaws exempt from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act acquisitions of stock by any person. If we amend our bylaws to repeal the exemption from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act also may make it more difficult to obtain control of our Company.
As described above, our charter includes a share ownership limit and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares, in each such case designed, among other purposes, to preserve our status as a REIT, which may have the effect of precluding an acquisition of control of us without the approval of our Board of Directors.
Under our charter, our Board of Directors is divided into three classes serving staggered terms, which may make it more difficult for a hostile bidder to acquire control of us.
Our charter contains a provision whereby we have elected to be subject to the provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the Maryland General Corporation Law relating to the filling of vacancies on our Board of Directors. Further, through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from the board, which removal must be for cause, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directors, subject to limitations set forth in our charter and bylaws, (3) have a classified Board of Directors and (4) require that, unless a special meeting of stockholders is called by the chairman of our Board of Directors, our chief executive officer, our president or our Board of Directors, such a special meeting may be called to consider and vote on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders only at the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on a matter at such meeting.
In addition, our Board of Directors may, without stockholder action, authorize the issuance of shares of stock in one or more classes or series, including preferred stock. Our Board of Directors also may, without stockholder action, amend our charter to increase the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue.
Our bylaws include advance notice provisions, governing stockholders' director nominations or proposal of other business to be considered at an annual meeting of our stockholders, requiring the continuous ownership by the stockholder(s) putting forth any such nominee or proposal of at least one percent (1 percent) of our outstanding shares for a minimum period of at least three years prior to the date of such nomination or proposal and through the date of the related annual meeting (including any adjournment or postponement thereof), each as specified in the bylaws.
Our bylaws designate certain Maryland courts as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders' ability to obtain a judicial forum that our stockholders believe is favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
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The existence of these provisions, among others, may have a negative impact on the price of our common stock and may discourage third party bids for ownership of our Company. These provisions may prevent any premiums being offered to you for our common stock.
Our ability to pay dividends is limited by the requirements of Maryland law.
Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock and Series A Preferred Stock is limited by the laws of Maryland. Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, a Maryland corporation generally may not make a distribution if, after giving effect to the distribution, the corporation would not be able to pay its debts as the debts become due in the usual course of business, or the corporation's total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus, unless the corporation's charter provides otherwise, the amount that would be needed, if the corporation were dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of stockholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution. Accordingly, we may not make a distribution on our common stock or the Series A Preferred Stock if, after giving effect to the distribution, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus, unless the terms of such class or series provide otherwise, the amount that would be needed to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of the holders of any shares of any class or series of preferred stock then outstanding, if any, with preferences senior to those of our common stock or the Series A Preferred Stock.
Risk Related to Terrorism and Cybersecurity
A terrorist attack, act of cyber-terrorism or armed conflict could harm our business.
Terrorist activities, anti-terrorist efforts and other armed conflicts involving the U.S., whether or not targeted at our assets or those of our tenants, investees or customers, could adversely affect the U.S. and global economies and could prevent us from meeting our financial and other obligations. Both we and our tenants and investees could experience loss of business, delays or defaults in payments from customers or disruptions of supplies and markets if domestic and global utilities or other energy infrastructure companies are direct targets or indirect casualties of an act of terror or war. Additionally, both we and our tenants and other investees rely on financial and operational computer systems to process information critically important for conducting various elements of our respective businesses. Any act of cyber-terrorism or other cyber-attack resulting in a failure of our computer systems, or those of our tenants, customers, suppliers or others with whom we do business, could materially disrupt our ability to operate our respective businesses and could result in a financial loss to the Company and possibly do harm to our reputation. Accordingly, terrorist activities and the threat of potential terrorist activities (including cyber-terrorism) and any resulting economic downturn could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such events also might result in increased volatility in national and international financial markets, which could limit our access to capital or increase our cost of obtaining capital.
Some losses related to our real property assets, including, among others, losses related to potential terrorist activities, may not be covered by insurance and would adversely impact distributions to stockholders.
Our leases will generally require the tenant companies to carry comprehensive liability and casualty insurance on our properties comparable in amounts and against risks customarily insured against by other companies engaged in similar businesses in the same geographic region as our tenant companies. We believe the required coverage will be of the type, and amount, customarily obtained by an owner of similar properties. However, there are some types of losses, such as catastrophic acts of nature, acts of war or riots, for which we or our tenants cannot obtain insurance at an acceptable cost. If there is an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insurance limits, we could lose both the revenues generated by the affected property and the capital we have invested in the property if our tenant company fails to pay us the casualty value in excess of such insurance limit, if any, or to indemnify us for such loss. This would in turn reduce the amount of income available for distributions. We would, however, remain obligated to repay any secured indebtedness or other obligations related to the property. Since September 11, 2001, the cost of insurance protection against terrorist acts has risen dramatically. The cost of coverage for acts of terrorism is currently mitigated by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019 ("TRIPRA"), which extended such program through December 31, 2027. Under TRIPRA, the amount of terrorism-related insurance losses triggering the federal insurance threshold has been increasing gradually from its initial level of $100 million for acts occurring in 2015 to $160 million for acts occurring in 2018, with $180 million being the applicable threshold for acts occurring in 2019 and finally increasing to $200 million for 2020. Additionally, the bill increases insurers' co-payments for losses exceeding their deductibles, from 15 percent in 2015 to 16 percent beginning January 1, 2016, and increasing in annual one percent steps thereafter until reaching 20 percent for 2020. Each of these changes may have the effect of increasing the cost to insure against acts of terrorism for property owners, such as the Company, notwithstanding the other provisions of TRIPRA. Further, if TRIPRA is not continued beyond 2027 or is significantly modified, we may incur higher insurance costs and experience greater difficulty in obtaining insurance that covers terrorist-related damages. Our tenants may also have similar difficulties. There can be no assurance our tenant companies will be able to obtain terrorism insurance coverage, or that any coverage they do obtain will adequately protect our properties against loss from terrorist attack.
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We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems.
We rely on information technology systems and network infrastructure, including the Internet, to process transmit and store electronic information and to manage or support a variety of our business processes, including financial transactions and maintenance of records. Our business is dependent upon information systems and other digital technologies for controlling our plants, pipelines and other assets, processing transactions and summarizing and reporting results of operations. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of information is critical to our operations. A security breach of our network or systems, or the network or systems of our third-party vendors, could result in improper operation of our assets, potentially including delays in the delivery or availability of our customers’ products, contamination or degradation of the products we transport, store or distribute, or releases of hydrocarbon products for which we could be held liable. Furthermore, we and some of our vendors collect and store sensitive data in the ordinary course of our business, including personal identification information of our employees as well as our proprietary business information and that of our customers, tenants, suppliers, investors and other stakeholders.
Cybersecurity risks have increased in recent years as a result of the proliferation of new technologies and the increased sophistication, magnitude and frequency of cyber-attacks and data security breaches. Because of the critical nature of our infrastructure and our use of information systems and other digital technologies to control our assets, we face a heightened risk of cyber-attacks. Cyber attacks targeting our infrastructure could result in a full or partial disruption of our operations, as well as those of our customers and tenants. Likewise, cyberattacks in the form of "social engineering" (manipulating recipients into performing actions, or divulging information, by impersonating members of Company management, customers or others) aimed at our company, our employees, our customers, our tenants, or others could result in operational disruption, financial loss and reputational harm. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our data, IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to minimize and/or manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, we cannot guarantee that our security efforts and measures will be effective at preventing or detecting any attempted or actual security incidents, or that disruptions caused by any such incidents or attempted incidents will not be successful or damaging to us or others.
During the normal course of business, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience attempts to gain unauthorized access to, or to compromise, our information systems or to disrupt our operations through cyber-attacks or security breaches, although none to our knowledge have had a material adverse effect on our business, operations or financial results. Despite our security measures, our information systems, or those of our vendors, may become the target of further cyber-attacks (including hacking, viruses or acts of terrorism) or security breaches (including employee error, malfeasance or other breaches), which could compromise and disrupt the proper functioning of our network or systems, or those of our vendors, affect our ability to correctly record, process and report transactions or financial information, or result in the release or loss of the information stored therein, misappropriation of assets, misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants and/or missed reporting deadlines, inability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT, disruption to our operations or damage to our facilities. As a result of a cyber-attack or security breach, we could also be liable under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, subject to regulatory penalties, experience damage to our reputation or a loss of consumer confidence in our products and services, or incur additional costs for remediation and modification or enhancement of our information systems, and require significant management attention and resources, to prevent future occurrences or other costs or be subject to increased regulation or litigation, all of which could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, operations or financial results.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Properties Owned as of December 31, 2020
Leased Energy Infrastructure Assets
We are primarily focused on acquiring midstream and downstream real estate assets within the U.S. energy infrastructure sector and have historically entered into long-term triple-net participating leases with energy companies. The following summarizes our investments in energy infrastructure assets that were leased on a triple-net basis to their respective operators as of December 31, 2020:
Asset NameOwner/LandlordTenantAsset LocationAsset Description
Encumbrances (1)
Grand Isle Gathering System(2)
Grand Isle Corridor, LP
Energy XXI GIGS Services, LLC (3)
Gulf of Mexico / LouisianaApproximately 137 miles of offshore pipeline with total capacity of 120 thousand Bbls/d, including a 16-acre onshore terminal and saltwater disposal systemSecurity for the Company's $160 million revolving credit facility with Regions Bank
(1) For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 11 ("Debt") included in this Report. The revolving credit facility was terminated in conjunction with the Crimson Transaction.
(2) On February 4, 2021, the Company disposed of the GIGS asset and terminated the related triple-net lease in conjunction with the Crimson Transaction. For additional information, see Part I, Item 1, Business and Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties and Leases") included in this Report. Prior to the sale, GIGS was an asset securing the Company's revolving credit facility with Regions Bank.
(3) Energy XXI GIGS Services, LLC's obligations under the Grand Isle Lease Agreement were guaranteed by EGC. For additional information, see "Additional Information Concerning the Grand Isle Gathering System" below.
Additional Information Concerning the Grand Isle Gathering System
Grand Isle Corridor, LP ("Grand Isle Corridor") acquired the Grand Isle Gathering System on June 30, 2015, from Energy XXI USA, Inc., which has since become EGC and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of privately-held Cox Oil as discussed further below. The Grand Isle Gathering System's design capacity was approximately 120 thousand barrels per day. It included 137 miles of undersea pipeline that transports oil and water from seven offshore fields and a 16-acre onshore terminal. The terminal included four storage tanks, three saltwater injection wells, and associated pipelines, land, buildings and facilities. As discussed in further detail in Part IV, Item 15, Note 12 ("Asset Retirement Obligation"), during the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company decommissioned a segment of the GIGS pipeline system.
The subsea pipelines forming the majority of the Grand Isle Gathering System and certain other components, such as the buildings and saltwater disposal facilities, had useful lives that extend beyond the initial term of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, and the system was critical to Cox Oil's central Gulf of Mexico oil production operations. The Grand Isle Gathering System provides shoreline terminal access to 38 offshore platforms producing from seven fields. Some of these fields have produced for over 50 years and continue to produce. During 2017-2018, EGC drilled and successfully completed four new wells. Future wells drilled will be dependent on economics, but several undrilled locations remain in fields served by the Grand Isle Gathering System. From its analysis, CORR assumed average Grand Isle Gathering System well lives of 10 to 20 years depending on the number of productive zones encountered, implying a long-term continued need for transport and terminaling services.
The primary term of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement was 11 years, with an initial renewal term of nine years, subject to certain conditions. During the initial term of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, the EGC Tenant was required to make minimum monthly rental payments. In year one, the minimum monthly payments were initially $2.6 million. The monthly payments were scheduled to peak in year seven at $4.2 million before declining to $3.5 million in year eleven. Beginning in April 2020, the EGC Tenant ceased paying rent due. The EGC Tenant's nonpayment rent continued until the disposition of the Grand Isle Gathering System and termination of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement as further described below. In addition, the EGC Tenant was required to pay variable rent payments if certain pre-defined revenue thresholds are exceeded. Variable rent obligations were calculated monthly and based on ten percent revenue participation above the thresholds. Revenues are calculated on the volumes of the EGC Tenant's oil that flow through the Grand Isle Gathering System, multiplied by the average daily closing price of crude oil for the applicable calendar month. Participating rent is capped at 39 percent of the total rent for each month. There were no participating rents paid in 2020.
On February 4, 2021, we contributed the Grand Isle Gathering System as partial consideration for the acquisition of our 49.50 percent interest in Crimson described in Part I, Item 1, Business, of this Report resulting in its disposition and the termination of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement. In connection with the disposition, the Company entered into a Settlement and Mutual Release Agreement with the EGC Tenant, EGC, and CEXXI, LLC. Refer to Part I, Item 3, Legal Proceedings, of this Report for additional information on the resolution of the legal matters, and Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties and Leases"), for additional information on the disposition of the GIGS asset and termination of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement.
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Other Energy Infrastructure Assets
MoGas Pipeline System
Our wholly-owned TRS, Corridor MoGas, Inc. ("Corridor MoGas"), owns all of the membership interests in a subsidiary that owns and operates the MoGas Pipeline System, which consists of an approximately 263-mile interstate natural gas pipeline system in and around St. Louis and extending into central Missouri, and certain related real and personal property. The MoGas Pipeline System, which is regulated by FERC, receives natural gas at four separate receipt points from third party interstate gas pipelines and delivers that gas through 24 different delivery points to investor-owned natural gas distribution companies, municipalities and end users. MoGas has eight firm transportation customers. We provide REIT-qualifying intercompany mortgage financing secured by the real property assets of MoGas and United Property Systems, which allows for a maximum principal balance of $90.0 million. Our ownership interest in the MoGas Pipeline System partially secured borrowings under the CorEnergy Credit Facility until it was terminated on February 4, 2021. Currently, our ownership interest in Corridor MoGas. partially secures borrowings under the Crimson Credit Facility.
Omega Pipeline (Mowood, LLC)
We indirectly hold 100 percent of the equity interests in Omega through Mowood, which was a TRS of the Company until December 31, 2017, as discussed further below. Mowood is the holding company of Omega, a natural gas provider located primarily on the DOD's Fort Leonard Wood military post in south-central Missouri. Omega has a long-term contract with the DOD, which was renewed for an additional 10-year term in January 2016, to provide natural gas distribution to Fort Leonard Wood through Omega's approximately 75-mile pipeline distribution system on the post. In addition, Omega has historically provided natural gas marketing services to several customers in the surrounding area.
During 2017, we received a private letter ruling from the IRS which, among other items, qualified the revenue from our long-term contract with Fort Leonard Wood as representing rents from real property. As a result of the favorable ruling, we converted Omega from a taxable REIT subsidiary to a qualified REIT subsidiary. Omega's natural gas marketing service contracts with customers other than Fort Leonard Wood were sold to a newly created indirect wholly-owned TRS of the Company, Omega Gas Marketing, LLC.
New Properties Acquired in February 2021
As discussed in Part I, Item 1, Business, of this Report, on February 4, 2021, we acquired a 49.50 percent interest in Crimson. Crimson is a CPUC regulated crude oil pipeline owner and operator, and its assets include four critical infrastructure pipeline systems spanning approximately 2,000 miles, including approximately 1,300 active miles, across northern, central and southern California, connecting California crude production to in-state refineries. The acquired assets qualify for REIT treatment under established IRS regulations and the Company’s PLR. The assets acquired in the Crimson Transaction include the following:

Asset Location Asset Description
Sol Cal Pipeline Southern California ~760 miles of pipe (including ~610 active miles); 7 separate pipeline systems; 8 tanks and 6 pump stations. Transports crude oil from Los Angeles and Ventura basins to Los Angeles refineries.
KLM Pipeline San Joaquin Valley to Northern California ~620 miles of pipe (including ~290 active miles); 5 tanks and 7 pump stations. Transports crude oil from San Joaquin Valley to Bay Area refineries.
San Pablo Bay Pipeline San Joaquin Valley to Northern California ~540 miles of heated pipe from San Joaquin Valley to Northern California (including ~380 active miles); ~2.3 Mbbls tank capacity. Transports crude from San Joaquin Valley to Bay Area refineries.
Proprietary Pipeline South of Bakersfield ~100 miles of pipe (including ~45 active miles). Connects Crimson system to rail volumes and supports other in-basin crude movements.

Principal Location
Our principal executive office is located at 1100 Walnut Street, Suite 3350, Kansas City, MO 64106.
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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
CorEnergy Legal Proceedings
As discussed in further detail in Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") in this Report, the Company initiated litigation on March 26, 2019 to enforce the terms of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement requiring that we be provided with copies of certain financial statement information that we are required to file pursuant to SEC Regulation S-X, as described in Section 2340 of the SEC Financial Reporting Manual, in the case CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc. and Grand Isle Corridor, LP v. Energy XXI Gulf Coast, Inc. and Energy XXI GIGS Services, LLC, Case No. 01-19-0228-CV in the 11th District Court of Harris County, Texas. The Company sought and obtained a temporary restraining order mandating that our tenant deliver the required financial statements. On April 1, 2019, that order was stayed pending an appeal by the tenant to the Texas First District Court of Appeals in Houston. On January 6, 2020, that appellate court rejected our tenant's appeal and remanded the case for further proceedings in the 11th District Court of Harris County, Texas. While the appeal was pending, the original temporary restraining order lapsed by its own terms. In May 2020, the trial court granted the Company's motion for partial summary judgment mandating our tenant deliver the required financial statements. The parties agreed to stay this case in order to facilitate settlement discussions (see below).
In addition to the foregoing lawsuit, the Company's subsidiary, Grand Isle Corridor, filed a separate lawsuit against EGC and EGC Tenant to recover unpaid rent due and owed under the Grand Isle Lease Agreement. The lawsuit was filed in the 129th District Court of Harris County, Texas and was styled as Grand Isle Corridor, LP v. Energy XXI Gulf Coast, Inc. and Energy XXI GIGS Services, LLC, Case No. 202027212. Grand Isle Corridor filed a motion for summary judgment against the EGC Tenant in this action. Grand Isle Corridor filed two identical lawsuits in Harris County seeking unpaid rent for June and July (Case Nos. 202036038 and 202039219, respectively). These cases were stayed pending negotiation of a business resolution with EGC and EGC Tenant (see below).
On April 20, 2020, EGC and its parent company, CEXXI, LLC, filed an adversary proceeding against the Company and Grand Isle Corridor, Energy XXI Gulf Coast, LLC and CEXXI, LLC v. Grand Isle Corridor, LP and CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc., Adv. No. 20-03084, in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas. In this suit, EGC is asking the bankruptcy court in which EGC filed for bankruptcy in 2016 to declare that the assignment and assumption of the guarantee of the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, which was a part of that earlier bankruptcy proceeding, is null and void. The Company believes this claim is meritless. The parties have agreed to stay this case (see below).
During the third quarter of 2020, the Company and Grand Isle Corridor reached an agreement with EGC, EGC Tenant, and CEXXI, LLC to stay each of the above-referenced lawsuits indefinitely while seeking a business resolution for their various disputes. During the agreed stay, all deadlines in the pending actions were suspended, and the parties may not engage in discovery, file pleadings, or initiate any new lawsuits against each other. Any party may terminate the agreed stay and resume litigation upon five days' written notice.
On February 4, 2021, the Company contributed the GIGS asset as partial consideration for the acquisition of its interest in Crimson. In connection with the disposition, the Company and Grand Isle Corridor entered into a Settlement and Mutual Release Agreement (the "Settlement Agreement") with the EGC Tenant, EGC, and CEXXI, LLC (the "EXXI Entities"). The EGC Tenant is the tenant under the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, dated June 30, 2015 with Grand Isle Corridor. Grand Isle Corridor initially received a Guaranty dated June 22, 2015 from Energy XXI Ltd. in connection with the original purchase of the GIGS, which was assumed by EGC, as guarantor of the obligations of the EGC Tenant pursuant to the terms of the Assignment and Assumption of Guaranty and Release dated December 30, 2016 (as assigned and assumed, the "Landlord Guaranty").
Pursuant to the terms of the Settlement Agreement, the Company and Grand Isle Corridor released the EXXI Entities from any and all claims, except for the Environmental Indemnity under the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, which shall survive, and the EXXI Entities released the Company and Grand Isle Corridor from any and all claims. The parties have also agreed to jointly dismiss the litigation described above in connection with the Settlement Agreement. Additionally, the Grand Isle Lease Agreement and Landlord Guaranty were cancelled and terminated.
Crimson Legal Proceedings
On October 30, 2014, the owner of a property on which Crimson built a valve access vault filed an action against Crimson, claiming that Crimson's pre-existing pipeline easement did not authorize the construction of the vault. Crimson responded by filing a condemnation action on October 26, 2015 to acquire new easements for the vault and related pipeline, and the cases were consolidated into one action, Crimson California Pipeline L.P. v. Noarus Properties, Inc.; and Does 1 through 99, Case No. BC598951, in the Los Angeles Superior Court-Central District. The property owner has claimed damages of $7,500,000. A legal issues trial relating to liability for damages is scheduled for July 12, 2021, and a jury trial to determine the amount of damages, if
45


any, is scheduled for November 1, 2021. Crimson is vigorously defending itself against the claims asserted by the property owner in this matter and, while the outcome cannot be predicted, management believes the ultimate resolution of this matter will not have a material adverse impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
In June 2016, Crimson discovered a leak on its Ventura pipeline located in Ventura County, California, at which time Crimson began remediation of the observed release and concurrently took the pipeline out of service. The pipeline was properly repaired and returned to service in June 2016. The remediation efforts are complete, the affected area has been restored, and Crimson has implemented a monitoring program for the area. In November 2018, Crimson was notified by the California State Water Resources Board of a Forthcoming Assessment of Administrative Civil Liability concerning alleged violations of the California Water Code related to this incident. Through pre-enforcement settlement discussion, Crimson and the California State Water Board reached a settlement requiring Crimson to pay a penalty of $325,000, which is currently pending final approval from the State of California. Pursuant to that settlement, annually Crimson also must perform certain ongoing monitoring obligations related to the condition of the affected barranca. Additionally, in July 2020 Crimson entered into a Stipulation of Final Judgment related to the same incident with the Ventura County, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Office of Oil Spill Response, pursuant to which Crimson agreed to pay penalties of $900,000 plus reimbursement of certain investigative costs. Half of this settlement was paid during 2020 prior to the Crimson Transaction, and the remainder will be paid in 2021.
As a transporter of crude oil, Crimson is subject to various environmental regulations that could subject the Company to future monetary obligations. Crimson has received notices of violations and potential fines under various federal, state and local provisions relating to the discharge of materials into the environment or protection of the environment. Management believes that even if any one or more of these environmental proceedings were decided against Crimson, it would not be material to the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows, and the Company maintains insurance coverage for environmental liabilities in amounts that management believes to be appropriate and customary for the Company's business.
The Company also is subject to various other claims and legal proceedings covering a wide range of matters that arose in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, all such matters are adequately covered by insurance or by established reserves, and, if not so covered, are without merit or are of such kind, or involve such amounts, as would not have a material adverse effect on the financial position, results of operations or cash flows of the Company.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE, under the symbol "CORR". As of December 31, 2020, we had 27 stockholders of record. A substantially greater number of holders of our common stock are "street name" or beneficial holders, whose shares of record are held by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
Dividends
Our portfolio of energy infrastructure real property assets generates cash flow to us from which we pay dividends to stockholders. The amount of any dividend is recorded on the ex-dividend date. The character of dividends made during the year may differ from their ultimate characterization for federal income tax purposes. Although there is no assurance that we will continue to make regular dividend payments, we believe that a number of actions have been taken, including the acquisition of our interest in Crimson on February 4, 2021, to maintain 2021 dividends on a quarterly basis and an estimated total 2021 annualized dividend of $0.20 per share. Refer to Item 7, "Dividends," for further discussion of our dividend.
Federal and State Income Taxation
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under sections 856 through 860 of the Code and applicable Treasury regulations, which set forth the requirements for qualifying as a REIT, commencing with our taxable year beginning January 1, 2013. We believe that we have been organized and operated in a manner so as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner.
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For as long as we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal corporate income taxes on net income that we currently distribute to stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the "double taxation" (at the corporate and security holder levels) that can result from investment in a "C" corporation. A "C" corporation is a corporation that is generally required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed.
As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made to our taxable U.S. stockholders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits (and not designated as capital gain dividends or retained capital gains) will be taken into account by them as ordinary income, and corporate stockholders will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction as to such amounts. If we received QDI and designate such portion of our distributions as QDI in a written notice mailed no later than 60 days after the close of our taxable year, an individual U.S. stockholder may qualify (provided holding period and certain other requirements are met) to treat such portion of the distribution as QDI, eligible to be taxed at the reduced maximum rate of 20 percent. Distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a stockholder to the extent that they do not exceed the adjusted basis of such stockholder's common stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted basis of such shares as a return of capital. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a stockholder's common stock, they will be included in income as long-term capital gains (or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less), assuming the shares are a capital asset in the hands of the stockholder. Distributions that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to stockholders as gains (to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year) from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for greater than one year. If we designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, a U.S. stockholder will receive an Internal Revenue Service Form 1099-DIV indicating the amount that will be taxable to the stockholder as a capital gain. As a REIT, we will be subject to corporate level tax on certain built-in gains in assets if such assets are sold during the 5-year period following conversion. Built-in gain assets are assets whose fair market value exceeds the REIT's adjusted tax basis at the time of conversion or assets acquired from a C corporation if our initial tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset. In addition, a REIT may not have earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year.
We may, from time to time, own and operate certain properties through C corporation subsidiaries and will treat those subsidiaries as either "qualified REIT subsidiaries," or "taxable REIT subsidiaries." If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a "qualified REIT subsidiary," the separate existence of that subsidiary generally will be disregarded for federal income tax purposes. A "taxable REIT subsidiary" is an entity taxable as a corporation in which we own stock and that elected with us to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary under Section 856(1) of the Code. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to federal income tax, and state and local income tax where applicable, as a regular "C" corporation.
Our tax expense or benefit attributable to the taxable REIT subsidiary is included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not sell any securities during the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2020 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933.
Performance Graph
We operate as a REIT and primarily own assets in the midstream and downstream U.S. Energy sectors that perform utility-like functions, such as pipelines, storage terminals, rail terminals and gas transmission and distribution assets. The following graph sets forth the cumulative return on our common stock between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2020, as compared to the following set of relevant indices: FTSE NAREIT All Equity REIT Index ("FTSE NAREIT"), the Dow Jones Utilities Average Index ("DJ UTIL"), the S&P Global Infrastructure Index ("SPGTIND") and the Alerian MLP Index ("AMZ"). The graph assumes a $100 investment was made on December 31, 2015 in each of our common stock, the FTSE NAREIT, the DJ UTIL, the SPGTIND and the AMZ, and assumes the reinvestment of all cash dividends. The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not intended to forecast future performance.
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corr-20201231_g2.jpg
The performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Cumulative Value of $100 Investment, through December 31,
201520162017201820192020
CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc.$100.00 $294.92 $363.36 $324.54 $478.90 $74.90 
FTSE NAREIT All Equity REIT Index100.00 109.43 120.95 111.55 149.71 155.65 
Dow Jones Utilities Average Index100.00 116.24 130.08 126.72 164.36 182.02 
S&P Global Infrastructure Index100.00 112.08 134.42 118.97 151.29 150.45 
Alerian MLP Index100.00 125.91 120.73 100.94 112.08 81.00 
Our shares began trading on the NYSE on February 2, 2007. Since December 3, 2012, our common stock has traded under the symbol "CORR".
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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The selected financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and the financial statements and related notes included in this Report. Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. The financial information presented below has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which financial statements have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm. The historical data is not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period. The balance sheet data below reflects the reclassification of deferred financing costs under FASB Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issue Costs, which was adopted on January 1, 2016, retrospectively.
For the Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
Operating Data
Total revenue$11,338,071 $85,945,570 $89,231,598 $88,749,377 $89,250,586 
Net Income (Loss) attributable to CorEnergy Stockholders(306,067,579)4,079,495 43,711,876 32,602,790 29,663,200 
Net Income (Loss) attributable to Common Stockholders(315,257,388)(5,175,973)34,163,499 24,648,802 25,514,763 
Per Share Data
Net Income (Loss) attributable to Common stockholders:
Basic$(23.09)$(0.40)$2.86 $2.07 $2.14 
Diluted(23.09)(0.40)2.79 2.07 2.14 
Cash dividends declared per common share0.900 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 
Other Data
AFFO attributable to Common stockholders(1)
Basic$0.52 $4.06 $4.11 $4.25 $4.41 
Diluted0.52 3.83 3.70 3.81 3.93 
(1) We believe that net income (loss), as defined by U.S. GAAP, is the most appropriate earnings measurement. However, we consider Adjusted Funds From Operations ("AFFO") to be an appropriate measure of operating performance of an equity REIT. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures" included in Item 7 of this Report for a reconciliation of AFFO to our GAAP earnings.

As of December 31,
20202019201820172016
Balance sheet data
Total assets$284,953,178 $651,455,794 $624,883,180 $633,418,113 $650,732,571 
Current debt maturities— 5,612,178 3,528,000 3,528,000 7,128,556 
Long-term debt115,008,130 146,497,248 146,510,380 149,249,437 193,504,324 
CorEnergy equity - Preferred125,270,350 125,493,175 125,555,675 130,000,000 56,250,000 
CorEnergy equity - Common24,129,477 351,246,264 329,455,630 331,785,632 350,218,436 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Certain statements included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may be deemed "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the federal securities laws. In many cases, these forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as "will," "may," "should," "could," "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "projects," "goals," "objectives," "targets," "predicts," "plans," "seeks," or similar expressions. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this Report.
Although we believe the expectations reflected in any forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or results and we can give no assurance that these expectations will be attained. Our actual results may differ materially from those indicated by these forward-looking statements due to a variety of known and unknown risks and uncertainties. Such risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, the risk factors discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Report. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect actual results or changes in the factors affecting the forward-looking information.
BUSINESS OBJECTIVE
We are a publicly traded REIT focused on energy infrastructure. Our business strategy is to own and operate or lease critical energy midstream infrastructure connecting the upstream and downstream sectors within the industry. Beginning in February 2021, we currently generate revenue from the transportation, via pipeline, of natural gas and crude oil for our customers in Missouri and California. The pipelines are located in areas where it would be difficult to replicate rights of way or transport natural gas or crude oil via non-pipeline alternatives resulting in our assets providing utility-like criticality in the midstream supply chain for our customers. Prior to February 2021, we generated long-term contracted revenue from operators of our assets, primarily under triple-net participating leases without direct commodity price exposure.
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include CorEnergy Infrastructure Trust, Inc., as of December 31, 2020, and its direct and indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table summarizes the financial data and key operating statistics for CorEnergy for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. We believe the Operating Results detail presented below provides investors with information that will assist them in analyzing our operating performance. However, the operations of the Company going forward in 2021 may differ significantly due to the losses experienced in 2020 and resulting disposition of assets. The following data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Part IV, Item 15 of this Report.

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The following table and discussion are a summary of our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018:
For the Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
Revenue
Lease revenue$21,351,123 $67,050,506 $72,747,362 
Deferred rent receivable write-off(30,105,820)— — 
Transportation and distribution revenue19,972,351 18,778,237 16,484,236 
Financing revenue120,417 116,827 — 
Total Revenue11,338,071 85,945,570 89,231,598 
Expenses
Transportation and distribution expenses6,059,707 5,242,244 7,210,748 
General and administrative12,231,922 10,596,848 13,042,847 
Depreciation, amortization and ARO accretion expense13,654,429 22,581,942 24,947,453 
Loss on impairment of leased property140,268,379 — — 
Loss on impairment and disposal of leased property146,537,547 — — 
Loss on termination of lease458,297 — — 
Provision for loan gain— — (36,867)
Total Expenses319,210,281 38,421,034 45,164,181 
Operating Income (Loss)$(307,872,210)$47,524,536 $44,067,417 
Other Income (Expense)
Net distributions and other income$471,449 $1,328,853 $106,795 
Net realized and unrealized loss on other equity securities— — (1,845,309)
Interest expense(10,301,644)(10,578,711)(12,759,010)
Gain on the sale of leased property, net— — 11,723,257 
Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt11,549,968 (33,960,565)— 
Total Other Income (Expense)1,719,773 (43,210,423)(2,774,267)
Income (loss) before income taxes(306,152,437)4,314,113 41,293,150 
Income tax expense (benefit), net(84,858)234,618 (2,418,726)
Net Income (Loss) attributable to CorEnergy Stockholders$(306,067,579)$4,079,495 $43,711,876 
Preferred dividend requirements9,189,809 9,255,468 9,548,377 
Net Income (Loss) attributable to Common Stockholders$(315,257,388)$(5,175,973)$34,163,499 
Other Financial Data(1)
Adjusted EBITDAre
$23,623,711 $71,435,331 $69,395,739 
NAREIT FFO(14,800,449)16,962,000 46,888,133 
FFO (14,939,667)16,949,416 48,051,243 
AFFO
7,076,213 53,012,786 49,024,120 
(1) Refer to the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section that follows for additional details.
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
Revenue. Consolidated revenues were $11.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $85.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, representing a decrease of $74.6 million. Lease revenue was $21.4 million and was fully offset by the non-cash write-off of the deferred rent receivable of $30.1 million related to the Grand Isle Lease Agreement, resulting in a loss of $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Lease revenue was $67.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, resulting in a decrease of $75.8 million. The decrease in lease revenue was primarily driven by (i) the non-cash write-off of the deferred rent receivable ($30.1 million), which was determined to be no longer probable of collection in the first quarter of 2020, (ii) the non-payment of rent due for the GIGS asset in the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020 ($30.5 million), (iii) the decrease in rent resulting from the sale of our Pinedale LGS asset during the second quarter of 2020 ($10.7 million) and (iv) the decrease in participating rent at Pinedale ($4.5 million). Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for further discussion of the impairment of the deferred rent receivable, nonpayment of rent by the EGC Tenant and the sale of the Pinedale LGS asset.
Transportation and distribution revenue from our subsidiaries MoGas and Omega was $20.0 million and $18.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The $1.2 million increase was primarily driven by increased system maintenance revenue projects at Omega.
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Transportation and Distribution Expenses. Transportation and distribution expenses were $6.1 million and $5.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, representing an increase of $0.8 million. The increase was primarily driven by higher system maintenance expense at Omega due to the timing of projects, partially offset by lower legal, real estate taxes and maintenance costs at MoGas.
General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses were $12.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $10.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The most significant components of the variance from the prior year are outlined in the following table and explained below:
For the Years Ended December 31,
20202019
Management fees$5,073,977 $6,786,637 
Acquisition and professional fees5,931,628 2,413,617 
Other expenses1,226,317 1,396,594 
Total$12,231,922 $10,596,848 
Management fees are directly proportional to our asset base. For the year ended December 31, 2020, management fees decreased $1.7 million compared to the prior year due to (i) a decrease in our asset base as a result of the sale of the Pinedale LGS at the end of the second quarter of 2020, (ii) the management fee waivers in the current-year period to exclude the net proceeds from the 5.875% Convertible Notes offering in August of 2019 (other than the cash portion of such proceeds utilized in connection with the exchange of the Company’s 7.00% Convertible Notes) and (iii) a full waiver of the incentive fee for the first quarter of 2020 and no incentive fee earned for the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020. The management fee waivers in (ii) above waived approximately $749 thousand and $510 thousand of the management fees for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In connection with the management fee waivers covering the year ended December 31, 2020, we also agreed with the Manager that the incremental management fees paid for the second quarter of 2020 would include approximately $592 thousand for the assets involved in the Pinedale Transaction, which were under management for all but the last day of the prior period. See Part IV, Item 15, Note 9 ("Management Agreement") for additional information.
Acquisition and professional fees for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased $3.5 million from the prior year due to increases in both professional fees and asset acquisition expenses. Professional fees increased $2.0 million during the current year while asset acquisition expenses increased $1.5 million. The increase in professional fees was attributable to (i) higher legal and consulting costs in the current-year period related to the litigation with EGC/Cox Oil and valuation of the GIGS asset and (ii) higher legal and consulting costs related to the UPL bankruptcy and the ultimate sale of our Pinedale LGS asset to Ultra Wyoming.
Asset acquisition expenses increased due to acquisition opportunities which have advanced into various stages of due diligence. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the increase was primarily driven by the due diligence performed for the acquisition of a 49.50 percent interest in Crimson announced on February 4, 2021. Generally, we expect asset acquisition expenses to be repaid over time from income generated by acquisitions. However, any particular period may reflect significant expenses arising from third party legal, engineering, and consulting fees that are incurred in the early to mid-stages of due diligence. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 16 ("Subsequent Events") for additional information on the Crimson Transaction.
Other expenses for the for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased $170 thousand compared to the prior year. The decrease is primarily related to decreased administrative fees under the Management Agreement due to the factors described above and decreased travel expenses due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Depreciation, Amortization and ARO Accretion Expense. Depreciation, amortization and ARO accretion expense was $13.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $22.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The $8.9 million decrease was primarily driven by depreciation expense. The decrease in depreciation expense was driven by (i) a reduction in depreciation for the Pinedale LGS starting in June 2020 as a result of the sale of the asset to Ultra Wyoming ($5.2 million) and (ii) the impairment of the GIGS asset during the first quarter of 2020 which resulted in a reduced carrying value and a decrease in the remaining useful life of the GIGS asset beginning in the second quarter of 2020 ($3.9 million).
Loss on Impairment of Leased Property. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a $140.3 million loss on impairment of leased property related to our GIGS asset. The impairment analysis was triggered by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and significant decline in the global energy markets, which adversely impacted the EGC Tenant under the Grand Isle Lease Agreement. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for further discussion of the impairment, including the valuation methodology used to determine the fair value of the GIGS asset.
Loss on Impairment and Disposal of Leased Property. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a $146.5 million loss on impairment and disposal of leased property related to our Pinedale LGS asset. The impairment and sale of the Pinedale
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LGS was triggered by the bankruptcy of the Pinedale LGS tenant, Ultra Wyoming, during the second quarter of 2020. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for further discussion of the impairment and sale of the Pinedale LGS asset.
Loss on Termination of Lease. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a $458 thousand loss on termination of lease related to the sale of our Pinedale LGS asset during the second quarter of 2020, which resulted in the termination of the Pinedale Lease Agreement. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for further discussion of the sale of the Pinedale LGS asset and lease termination.
Net Distributions and Other Income. Net distributions and other income for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $0.5 million compared to $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily related to interest income, which decreased approximately $781 thousand from the prior-year period due to a reduction in cash and declining interest rates during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Interest Expense. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, interest expense totaled approximately $10.3 million and $10.6 million, respectively. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower interest expense due to (i) the exchanges completed during the first and third quarters of 2019 and maturity of the remaining outstanding 7.00% Convertible Notes during the second quarter of 2020 and (ii) the settlement of the Amended Pinedale Term Credit Facility at the end of the second quarter of 2020, partially offset by (iii) additional interest expense incurred as a result of the 5.875% Convertible Notes Offering in August of 2019. For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 11 ("Debt").
Gain (Loss) on Extinguishment of Debt. For the year ended December 31, 2020, a gain on extinguishment of debt of $11.5 million was recognized for (i) the release agreement entered into with Prudential for the Amended Pinedale Term Credit Facility in connection with the sale of the Pinedale LGS on June 30, 2020 ($11.0 million) and (ii) the repurchase of the 5.875% Convertible Notes completed in April of 2020 ($576 thousand). For the year ended December 31, 2019, a loss on extinguishment of debt totaling approximately $34.0 million was recorded in connection with the 7.00% Convertible Notes exchanges completed during the first and third quarters of 2019. For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 11 ("Debt").
Income Tax Expense (Benefit). Income tax benefit was $85 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to income tax expense of $235 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2019. The income tax benefit recorded in the current year is primarily the result of carryback of net operating losses against net operating income in prior periods and additional net operating losses generated by certain of our TRS entities, partially offset by certain fixed asset, deferred contract revenue and loan loss activities. The income tax expense recorded in the prior year is primarily the result of (i) a change in our state effective rate due to changes in state law and state operations by certain of our TRS entities, (ii) certain fixed asset, deferred contract revenue and loan loss activities, partially offset by (iii) the impact of the refund liability related to the FERC rate case settlement and (iv) capital losses generated from the Lightfoot liquidation that were carried back against capital gains from prior years.
Net Income (Loss). Net income (loss) was $(306.1) million and $4.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, representing a decrease of $310.1 million. After deducting $9.2 million and $9.3 million for the portion of preferred dividends that are allocable to each respective period, net loss attributable to common stockholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $(315.3) million, or $(23.09) per basic and diluted common share, as compared to $(5.2) million, or $(0.40) per basic and diluted common share, for the prior year.
Year Ended December 31, 2019 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2018
Revenue. Consolidated revenues were $85.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $89.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, representing a decrease of $3.3 million. Lease revenue was $67.1 million and $72.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, with the decrease of approximately $5.7 million driven primarily by (i) the sale of the Portland Terminal Facility, partially offset by (ii) an increase in variable rent collected on the Pinedale lease during the year ended December 31, 2019.
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Transportation and distribution revenue from our subsidiaries MoGas and Omega was $18.8 million and $16.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The $2.3 million increase primarily resulted from higher rates going into effect on December 1, 2018 related to the rate case filed by MoGas with the FERC, net of the final refund liability. The FERC rate case settlement was approved in August of 2019.
Transportation and Distribution Expenses. Transportation and distribution expenses were $5.2 million and $7.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, representing a decrease of $2.0 million. The increase relates primarily to lower legal, consulting and maintenance costs at MoGas.
General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses were $10.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $13.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The most significant components of the variance from the prior year are outlined in the following table and explained below:
For the Years Ended December 31,
20192018
Management fees$6,786,637 $7,591,750 
Acquisition and professional fees2,413,617 3,759,505 
Other expenses1,396,594 1,691,592 
Total$10,596,848 $13,042,847 
Management fees are directly proportional to our asset base. For the year ended December 31, 2019, management fees decreased $805 thousand compared to the prior year due to (i) cash utilized for the 7.00% Convertible Notes exchange in the first quarter of 2019, (ii) management fee waivers in the third and fourth quarters of 2019 to exclude the net proceeds from the 5.875% Convertible Notes offering (other than the cash portion of such proceeds utilized in connection with the exchange of the Company's 7.00% Convertible Notes) and (iii) lower incentive fees due to decreased revenue from the sale of the Portland Terminal in December 2018. See Part IV, Item 15, Note 9 ("Management Agreement") for additional information.
Acquisition and professional fees for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased $1.3 million from the prior year primarily due to a decrease in professional fees. Professional fees decreased $1.0 million during 2019 while asset acquisition expenses decreased $336 thousand. Generally, we expect asset acquisition expenses to be repaid over time from income generated by acquisitions. However, any particular period may reflect significant expenses arising from third party legal, engineering, and consulting fees that are incurred in the early to mid-stages of due diligence. The decrease in professional fees during the year ended December 31, 2019 was primarily attributable to higher legal and consulting costs in the prior year related to monitoring our GIGS asset and the sale of the Portland Terminal Facility, partially offset by legal and consulting costs incurred in 2019 related to the ongoing litigation with EGC/Cox Oil. Refer to Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases") for additional information.
Other expenses for the for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased $295 thousand compared to the prior year. The decrease is primarily related to a loss on settlement of ARO related to the decommissioning of a segment of the GIGS pipeline system during the prior year.
Depreciation, Amortization and ARO Accretion Expense. Depreciation, amortization and ARO accretion expense was $22.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $24.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This $2.4 million decrease was primarily driven by depreciation expense, which decreased approximately $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease in depreciation expense was driven by (i) the sale of the Portland Terminal Facility in December of 2018 and (ii) updates made to the estimated useful lives of certain ARO segments of GIGS at the end of 2018.
Provision for loan gain. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a provision for loan gain of approximately $37 thousand related to the satisfaction of the SWD loans with Four Wood Corridor upon sale of the assets securing the loans to Compass SWD, LLC ("Compass SWD") in exchange for (i) a new loan agreement with Compass SWD for $1.3 million and (ii) cash proceeds from the sale recognized as principal payments on the SWD loans. For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 5 ("Financing Notes Receivable"). There were no loan (gain) loss provisions recorded for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Net Distributions and Other Income. Net distributions and other income for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $1.3 million compared to $107 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase was primarily related to interest income, which increased approximately $1.2 million from the prior-year period, due to a higher cash balance maintained during 2019. Net distributions of approximately $0.1 million recognized for each of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were impacted by (i) the sale of a large portion of the Lightfoot investment as a result of the Arc Logistics merger with Zenith, completed on
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December 21, 2017, (ii) Lightfoot's disposition of its remaining asset interest at the end of 2018 and (iii) and the liquidation of Lightfoot at the end of 2019.

The portion of distributions and dividends deemed to be income versus a return of capital in any period are estimated at the time such distributions are received. These estimates may be subsequently revised based on information received from the portfolio company after their tax reporting periods are concluded. The following table provides a reconciliation of the gross cash distributions and dividend income received from our investment securities for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 to the net distributions and other income recorded on the Consolidated Statements of Income.
For the Years Ended December 31,
20192018
Gross cash distributions and other income received from investment securities$1,328,853 $770,734 
Add:
Cash distributions received in prior period previously deemed a return of capital (dividend income) which have been reclassified as income (return of capital) in a subsequent period— — 
Less:
Cash distributions and dividends received in current period deemed a return of capital and not recorded as income (recorded as a cost reduction) in the current period— 663,939 
Net distributions and other income$1,328,853 $106,795 
Net Realized and Unrealized Loss on Other Equity Securities. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a net loss on other equity securities of $1.8 million. The net loss recorded during the year ended December 31, 2018 related to valuation considerations surrounding the arbitration award delivered to Eni USA and Gulf LNG as well as other market information. Due to the sale or asset disposition related to our investment securities at the end of 2018 and the liquidation of the remaining investment interest at the end of 2019, we no longer have an interest in other equity securities.
Interest Expense. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, interest expense totaled approximately $10.6 million and $12.8 million, respectively. This decrease was primarily attributable to (i) a decrease in interest expense as a result of the 7.00% Convertible Notes exchanges and conversions that occurred during the year ended December 31, 2019, partially offset by (ii) additional interest expense from the 5.875% Convertible Notes Offering in August of 2019. For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 11 ("Debt").

Gain on the sale of leased property. For the year ended December 31, 2018, a gain on the sale of leased property totaling approximately $11.7 million was recorded in connection with the sale of the Portland Terminal Facility to Zenith Terminals on December 21, 2018. For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 3 ("Leased Properties And Leases"). There was no gain on the sale of leased property recorded for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt. For the year ended December 31, 2019, a loss on extinguishment of debt totaling approximately $34.0 million was recorded in connection with the 7.00% Convertible Notes exchanges completed in the first and third quarters of 2019. For additional information, see Part IV, Item 15, Note 11 ("Debt"). There was no loss on extinguishment of debt recorded for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit). Income tax expense was $235 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to an income tax benefit of $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The income tax expense recorded for the year ended December 31, 2019 is primarily the result of (i) a change in our state effective rate due to changes in state law and state operations by certain of our TRS entities, (ii) certain fixed asset, deferred contract revenue and loan loss activities, partially offset by (iii) the impact of the refund liability related to the FERC rate case settlement and (iv) capital losses generated from the Lightfoot liquidation that will be carried back against capital gains from prior years. The income tax benefit recorded for the year ended December 31, 2018 was primarily attributable to (i) higher losses generated by our TRS subsidiaries and (ii) the capital losses generated from the sale of our interest in Joliet to Zenith Terminals and Lightfoot's disposition of its remaining asset interest that were carried back against capital gains generated from the sale of a portion of the Lightfoot investment in prior years.
Net Income (Loss). Net income was $4.1 million and $43.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, representing a decrease of $39.6 million. After deducting $9.3 million and $9.5 million for the portion of preferred dividends that are allocable to each respective period, net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $(5.2) million, or $(0.40) per basic and diluted common share, as compared to $34.2 million, or $2.86 per basic and $2.79 diluted common share, for the prior year.
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Common Equity Attributable to CorEnergy Stockholders per Share
As of December 31, 2020, our common equity decreased by approximately $327.1 million to $24.1 million from $351.2 million as of December 31, 2019. This decrease principally consists of: (i) the net loss attributable to CorEnergy common stockholders of approximately $315.3 million, which was driven by the impairment of leased property for the Grand Isle Gathering System ($140.3 million), the impairment and disposal of leased property related to the Pinedale LGS ($146.5 million) and the deferred rent receivable write-off for the Grand Isle Lease Agreement ($30.1 million), partially offset by gains on extinguishment of debt ($11.5 million) and (ii) dividends paid to our common stockholders of approximately $12.3 million, partially offset by (iii) $419 thousand of common stock issued pursuant to conversions of the 7.00% Convertible Notes. The decrease in the book value per common share as of December 31, 2020 was driven by accounting events related to the impairments and additional write-offs (discussed above) calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Book Value Per Common Share
Analysis of EquityDecember 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock 7.375%, $125,270,350 and $125,493,175 liquidation preference ($2,500 per share, $0.001 par value), 10,000,000 authorized; 50,108 and 50,197 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
$125,270,350 $125,493,175 
Capital stock, non-convertible, $0.001 par value; 13,651,521 and 13,638,916 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 (100,000,000 shares authorized)
13,652 13,639 
Additional paid-in capital339,742,380 360,844,497 
Retained deficit(315,626,555)(9,611,872)
Total CorEnergy Stockholders' Equity$149,399,827 $476,739,439 
Subtract: 7.375% Series A Preferred Stock(125,270,350)(125,493,175)
Total CorEnergy Common Equity$24,129,477 $351,246,264 
Common shares outstanding13,651,521 13,638,916 
Book Value per Common Share$1.77 $25.75 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
We use certain financial measures that are not recognized under GAAP. The non-GAAP financial measures used in this Report include earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization as defined by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts ("EBITDAre"); EBITDAre as adjusted in the manner described below ("Adjusted EBITDAre"); NAREIT funds from operations ("NAREIT FFO"); funds from operations adjusted for securities investments ("FFO"); and FFO as further adjusted in the manner described below ("AFFO"). These supplemental measures are used by our management team and are presented because we believe they help investors understand our business, performance and ability to earn and distribute cash to our stockholders by providing perspectives not immediately apparent from net income (loss). The presentation of EBITDAre, Adjusted EBITDAre, NAREIT FFO, FFO and AFFO are not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for, or superior to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP.
We offer these measures to assist the users of our financial statements in assessing our operating performance under U.S. GAAP, but these measures are non-GAAP measures and should not be considered measures of liquidity, alternatives to net income (loss) or indicators of any other performance measure determined in accordance with GAAP, nor are they indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including capital expenditures (if any), to make payments on our indebtedness or to make distributions. Our method of calculating these measures may be different from methods used by other companies and, accordingly, may not be comparable to similar measures as calculated by other companies. Investors should not rely on these measures as a substitute for any GAAP measure, including net income (loss), cash flows from operating activities or revenues.
EBITDAre and Adjusted EBITDAre
EBITDAre and Adjusted EBITDAre are non-GAAP financial measures that management and external users of our consolidated financial statements, such as industry analysts, investors and lenders may use to evaluate our ongoing operating results, including (i) the performance of our assets without regard to the impact of financing methods, capital structure or historical cost basis of our assets and (ii) the overall rates of return on alternative investment opportunities. EBITDAre, as established by NAREIT, is defined as net income (loss) (calculated in accordance with GAAP) excluding interest expense, income tax, depreciation and amortization, gains or losses on disposition of depreciated property (including gains or losses on change of control), impairment write-downs of depreciated property and of investments in unconsolidated affiliates caused by a decrease in value of depreciated property in the affiliate, and adjustments to reflect the entity's pro rata share of EBITDAre of unconsolidated affiliates. Our presentation of Adjusted EBITDAre represents EBITDAre adjusted for deferred rent receivable write-off; (gain) loss on extinguishment of debt; provision for loan (gain) loss; preferred dividend requirements; (gain) loss on settlement of ARO; and net realized and unrealized (gain) loss on securities, non-cash.
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We believe that the presentation of EBITDAre and Adjusted EBITDAre