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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-32630
FIDELITY NATIONAL FINANCIAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware16-1725106
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
601 Riverside Avenue
Jacksonville, Florida, 32204
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(904) 854-8100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
FNF Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueFNFNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     or    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes  or No¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller reporting Company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes        No  
The aggregate market value of the shares of FNF common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was $8,507,709,079 based on the closing price of $30.66 as reported by The New York Stock Exchange.
The number of shares outstanding of the Registrant's common stock as of January 31, 2021 were:    
FNF Common Stock    291,168,384
The information in Part III hereof for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, will be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year that is the subject of this Report.


Table of Contents
FIDELITY NATIONAL FINANCIAL, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
Number
161
161
161
162
162
162
162
162
163
168








1

Table of Contents

PART I
Item 1.    Business 
Introductory Note
The following describes the business of Fidelity National Financial, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Except where otherwise noted, all references to "we," "us," "our", the "Company" or "FNF" are to Fidelity National Financial, Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken together.
Overview
We are a leading provider of (i) title insurance, escrow and other title-related services, including trust activities, trustee sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances and home warranty products and (ii) transaction services to the real estate and mortgage industries. FNF is one of the nation’s largest title insurance companies operating through its title insurance underwriters - Fidelity National Title Insurance Company ("FNTIC"), Chicago Title Insurance Company ("Chicago Title"), Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company ("Commonwealth Land Title"), Alamo Title Insurance and National Title Insurance of New York Inc. - which collectively issue more title insurance policies than any other title company in the United States. Through our subsidiary ServiceLink Holdings, LLC ("ServiceLink"), we provide mortgage transaction services including title-related services and facilitation of production and management of mortgage loans. We are also a provider of annuity and life insurance products, providing deferred annuities, including fixed indexed annuities ("FIA"), fixed rate annuities, and immediate annuities and indexed universal life ("IUL") insurance through our wholly-owned subsidiary, FGL Holdings ("F&G").
As of December 31, 2020, we had the following reporting segments:
Title. This segment consists of the operations of our title insurance underwriters and related businesses, which provide title insurance and escrow and other title-related services including trust activities, trustee sales guarantees, and home warranty products. This segment also includes our transaction services business, which includes other title-related services used in the production and management of mortgage loans, including mortgage loans that experience default.
F&G. This segment consists of operations of our annuities and life insurance related businesses. This segment issues a broad portfolio of deferred annuities (fixed indexed and fixed rate annuities), immediate annuities and indexed universal life insurance.
Corporate and Other. This segment consists of the operations of the parent holding company, our real estate technology subsidiaries, other smaller, non-title businesses and certain unallocated corporate overhead expenses and eliminations of revenues and expenses between it and our Title segment.
Competitive Strengths
We believe that our competitive strengths include the following:
Corporate principles.  A cornerstone of our management philosophy and operating success is the six fundamental precepts upon which we were founded, which are:
Autonomy and entrepreneurship;
Bias for action;
Customer-oriented and motivated;
Minimize bureaucracy;
Employee ownership; and
Highest standard of conduct.
These six precepts are emphasized to our employees from the first day of employment and are integral to many of our strategies described below.
Competitive cost structure.  We have been able to maintain competitive operating margins in part by monitoring our businesses in a disciplined manner through continual evaluation of business activity and management of our cost structure. When compared to our industry competitors, we also believe that our structure is more efficiently designed, which allows us to operate with lower overhead costs.
Title
Leading title insurance company.  We are one of the largest title insurance companies in the United States and a leading provider of title insurance and escrow and other title-related services for real estate transactions. Through the third quarter of
2

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2020, our insurance companies had a 33.0% share of the U.S. title insurance market, according to the American Land Title Association ("ALTA").
Established relationships with our customers.  We have strong relationships with the customers who use our title services. Our distribution network, which includes more than 1,300 direct residential title offices and approximately 5,400 agents, is among the largest in the United States. We also benefit from strong brand recognition in our multiple title brands that allows us to access a broader client base than if we operated under a single consolidated brand and provides our customers with a choice among brands.
Strong value proposition for our customers.  Through our Title segment, we provide our customers with title insurance and escrow and other title-related services that support their ability to effectively close real estate transactions. We help make the real estate closing process more efficient for our customers by offering a single point of access to a broad platform of title-related products and resources necessary to close real estate transactions.
Proven management team.  The managers of our operating businesses have successfully built our Title segment over an extended period of time, resulting in our business attaining the size, scope and presence in the industry that it has today. Our managers have demonstrated their leadership ability during numerous acquisitions through which we have grown and throughout a number of business cycles and significant periods of industry change.
Commercial title insurance.  While residential title insurance comprises the majority of our business, we are also a significant provider of commercial real estate title insurance in the United States. Our network of agents, attorneys, underwriters and closers that service the commercial real estate markets is one of the largest in the industry. Our commercial network combined with our financial strength makes our title insurance operations attractive to large national lenders that require the underwriting and issuing of larger commercial title policies.
We believe that our Title segment's competitive strengths position us well to take advantage of future changes to the real estate market.
F&G
Distribution relationships. We have deep, long-tenured relationships with our network of independent marketing organizations (IMOs). We partner with leading IMOs and their agents to serve the needs of the middle-income market and develop competitive products to align with their evolving needs. Additionally, FNF’s ownership and F&G’s recent rating upgrades have opened up additional distribution channels to F&G.
Product expertise. Our team of product developers have a history of innovation and collaboration in developing our flagship fixed indexed annuity products (FIAs). Our customers value FIAs, which provide a portion of the gains of an underlying market index, while also providing principal protection. We believe this mix of “some upside but limited downside” fills the need for middle-income Americans who must save for retirement but want to limit the risk of decline in their savings.
Investment management expertise. We believe our investment portfolio is well matched to our liabilities and well diversified across a range of high-quality asset classes. Our active management strategy leverages the expertise of Blackstone Insurance Solutions to provide a competitive advantage through sourcing investment grade, proprietary private debt and allowing F&G to leverage the breadth and depth of Blackstone’s credit platforms and analysts.
Proven track record of managing net investment spread. We have a long track record of consistently managing net investment spread to achieve or exceed targeted lifetime returns. Our flagship fixed indexed annuity product allows for active management, and our disciplined approach to pricing our business has resulted in strong and stable net investment spread, even during periods of economic turmoil.
Efficient and scalable administrative model. Our third-party administration model provides for scalable, cost-efficient, and nimble operations.
We believe that the F&G segment’s competitive strengths position us well to grow the F&G segment.
Strategy
Title
Our strategy in the Title segment is to maximize operating profits by increasing our market share and managing operating expenses throughout the real estate business cycle. To accomplish our goals, we intend to do the following:
Continue to operate multiple title brands independently.  We believe that in order to maintain and strengthen our title insurance customer base, we must operate our strongest brands in a given marketplace independently of each other. Our national and regional brands include FNTIC, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, Lawyers Title, Ticor Title, Alamo Title, and National Title of New York. In our largest markets, we operate multiple brands. This approach
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allows us to continue to attract customers who identify with a particular brand and allows us to utilize a broader base of local agents and local operations than we would have with a single consolidated brand.
Consistently deliver superior customer service.  We believe customer service and consistent product delivery are the most important factors in attracting and retaining customers. Our ability to provide superior customer service and consistent product delivery requires continued focus on providing high quality service and products at competitive prices. Our goal is to continue to improve the experience of our customers, in all aspects of our business.
Manage our operations successfully through business cycles.  Our Title segment operates in a cyclical industry and our ability to diversify our revenue base within our title insurance business and manage the duration of our investments may allow us to better operate in this cyclical business. Maintaining a broad geographic revenue base, utilizing both direct and independent agency operations and pursuing both residential and commercial title insurance business help diversify our title insurance revenues. We continue to monitor, evaluate and execute upon the consolidation of administrative functions, legal entity structure, and office consolidation, as necessary, to respond to the continually changing marketplace. We maintain shorter durations on our investment portfolio to mitigate our interest rate risk. A more detailed discussion of our investment strategies is included in “Investment Policies and Investment Portfolio.”
Continue to improve our products and technology.  As a national provider of real estate transaction products and services, we participate in an industry that is subject to significant change, frequent new product and service introductions and evolving industry standards. We believe that our future success will depend in part on our ability to anticipate industry changes and offer products and services that meet evolving industry standards. In connection with our service offerings, we are continuing to deploy new information system technologies to our direct and agency operations. We expect to improve the process of ordering title and escrow services and improve the delivery of our products to our customers.
Maintain values supporting our strategy.  We believe that our continued focus on and support of our long-established corporate culture will reinforce and support our business strategy. Our goal is to foster and support a corporate culture where our employees and agents seek to operate independently and maintain profitability at the local level while forming close customer relationships by meeting customer needs and improving customer service. Utilizing a relatively flat managerial structure and providing our employees with a sense of individual ownership support this goal.
Effectively manage costs based on economic factors.  We believe that our focus on our operating margins is essential to our continued success in the title insurance business. Regardless of the business cycle in which we may be operating, we seek to continue to evaluate and manage our cost structure and make appropriate adjustments where economic conditions dictate. This continual focus on our cost structure helps us to better maintain our operating margins.
F&G
Our strategy within our F&G segment is to seek to deliver profitable growth for our shareholders through a number of strategic pillars.
Serve the growing retirement market needs by collaborating with our existing and new distribution partners to deliver peace of mind solutions. We believe the demand for retirement and principal protection products will continue to grow. We offer valuable products and capabilities tailored to serve this growing demographic need.
Strengthen our foundation. With our process rigor, we pay close attention to market and profitability trends and fine-tune our actions throughout the year. By partnering with Blackstone Insurance Solutions, our F&G segment is able to source the breadth and volume of assets that enable us to offer competitive products while we optimize our risk-adjusted returns.
Enhance the F&G experience. With products that provide downside protection coupled with opportunity for market upside, we are focused on giving our policyholders peace of mind. We partner with agents who help their clients select the best products for their individual needs. Our customer care professionals provide personalized support, and we offer self-serve options through our digital platforms.
Focus on bottom-line, profit-oriented objectives. In both our organic and inorganic growth plans as a writer and as a reinsurer, our F&G segment focuses on markets and products where we can achieve targeted profit margins.
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Acquisitions, Dispositions, Minority Owned Operating Subsidiaries and Financings
Acquisitions have been an important part of our growth strategy and dispositions have been an important aspect of our strategy of returning value to shareholders. On an ongoing basis, with assistance from our advisors, we actively evaluate possible transactions, such as acquisitions and dispositions of business units and operating assets and business combination transactions.
In the future, we may seek to sell certain investments or other assets to increase our liquidity. In the past we have obtained majority and minority investments in entities and securities where we see the potential to achieve above market returns. Fundamentally our goal is to acquire quality companies that are run by best in class management teams and that have attractive organic and acquired growth opportunities. We leverage our operational expertise and track record of growing industry-leading companies along with our active interaction with the acquired company's management directly or through our board of directors, to ultimately provide value for our shareholders.
There can be no assurance that any suitable opportunities will arise or that any particular transaction will be completed. We have made a number of acquisitions and dispositions over the past several years to strengthen and expand our service offerings and customer base in our various businesses, to expand into other businesses or where we otherwise saw value, and to monetize investments in assets and businesses.
On June 1, 2020, we completed our acquisition of F&G for approximately $2.7 billion pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated February 7, 2020, as amended (the "Merger Agreement"). For further discussion of the acquisition of F&G, refer to Note B Acquisitions included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report"), which is incorporated by reference into this Item 1 of Part I. Refer to discussion under Selected Financial Data included in Item 6 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report"), which is incorporated by reference into this Item 1 of Part I, for further discussion of material dispositions of businesses.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of contractual restrictions, internal security practices, and copyright and trade secret law to establish and protect our software, technology, and expertise across our businesses. Further, we have developed a number of brands that have accumulated substantial goodwill in the marketplace, and we rely on trademark law to protect our rights in that area. We intend to continue our policy of taking all measures we deem necessary to protect our copyright, trade secret, and trademark rights. These legal protections and arrangements afford only limited protection of our proprietary rights, and there is no assurance that our competitors will not independently develop or license products, services, or capabilities that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours.
Technology and Research and Development
 As a national provider of real estate transaction products and services, we participate in an industry that is subject to significant regulatory requirements, frequent new product and service introductions, and evolving industry standards. We believe that our future success depends in part on our ability to anticipate industry changes and offer products and services that meet evolving industry standards. In connection with our Title segment service offerings, we are continuing to deploy new information system technologies to our direct and agency operations. We continue to improve the process of ordering title and escrow services and improve the delivery of our products to our customers. In order to meet new regulatory requirements, we also continue to expand our data collection and reporting abilities.
Loss Reserves
 For information about our loss reserves, see Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report, under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Estimates.
Title Insurance
Market for title insurance.  According to Demotech Performance of Title Insurance Companies 2020 Edition, an annual compilation of financial information from the title insurance industry that is published by Demotech Inc. ("Demotech"), an independent firm, total operating income for the entire U.S. title insurance industry has increased over the last five years from approximately $13.7 billion in 2015 to $16.9 billion in 2019, which represents a $1.0 billion increase from 2018. The size of the industry is closely tied to various macroeconomic factors, including, but not limited to, growth in the gross domestic product, inflation, unemployment, the availability of credit, consumer confidence, interest rates, and sales volumes and prices for new and existing homes, as well as the volume of refinancing of previously issued mortgages.
Most real estate transactions consummated in the U.S. require the use of title insurance by a lending institution before the transaction can be completed. Generally, revenues from title insurance policies are directly correlated with the value of the property underlying the title policy, and appreciation or depreciation in the overall value of the real estate market are major factors in total industry revenues. Industry revenues are also driven by factors affecting the volume of real estate closings, such
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as the state of the economy, the availability of mortgage funding, and changes in interest rates, which affect demand for new mortgage loans and refinancing transactions.
The U.S. title insurance industry is concentrated among a handful of industry participants. According to Demotech, the top four title insurance groups accounted for 83% of net premiums written in 2019. Approximately 34 independent title insurance companies accounted for the remaining 17% of net premiums written in 2019. Consolidation has created opportunities for increased financial and operating efficiencies for the industry’s largest participants and should continue to drive profitability and market share in the industry.
Our Title segment revenue is closely related to the level of real estate activity that includes sales, mortgage financing and mortgage refinancing. For further discussion of current trends in real estate activity in the United States, see discussion under Business Trends and Conditions included in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report, which is incorporated by reference into this Item 1 of Part I.
Title Insurance Policies.  Generally, real estate buyers and mortgage lenders purchase title insurance to insure good and marketable title to real estate and priority of lien. A brief generalized description of the process of issuing a title insurance policy is as follows:
The customer, typically a real estate salesperson or broker, escrow agent, attorney or lender, places an order for a title policy.
Company personnel note the specifics of the title policy order and place a request with the title company or its agents for a preliminary report or commitment.
After the relevant historical data on the property is compiled, the title officer prepares a preliminary report that documents the current status of title to the property, any exclusions, exceptions and/or limitations that the title company might include in the policy, and specific issues that need to be addressed and resolved by the parties to the transaction before the title policy will be issued.
The preliminary report is circulated to all the parties for satisfaction of any specific issues.
After the specific issues identified in the preliminary report are satisfied, an escrow agent closes the transaction in accordance with the instructions of the parties and the title company’s conditions.
Once the transaction is closed and all monies have been released, the title company issues a title insurance policy.
In real estate transactions financed with a mortgage, virtually all real property mortgage lenders require their borrowers to obtain a title insurance policy at the time a mortgage loan is made. This lender’s policy insures the lender against any defect affecting the priority of the mortgage in an amount equal to the outstanding balance of the related mortgage loan. An owner’s policy is typically also issued, insuring the buyer against defects in title in an amount equal to the purchase price. In a refinancing transaction, only a lender’s policy is generally purchased because ownership of the property has not changed. In the case of an all-cash real estate purchase, no lender’s policy is issued but typically an owner’s title policy is issued.
Title insurance premiums paid in connection with a title insurance policy are based on (and typically are a percentage of) either the amount of the mortgage loan or the purchase price of the property insured. Applicable state insurance regulations or regulatory practices may limit the maximum, or in some cases the minimum, premium that can be charged on a policy. Title insurance premiums are due in full at the closing of the real estate transaction.
The amount of the insured risk or “face amount” of insurance under a title insurance policy is generally equal to either the amount of the loan secured by the property or the purchase price of the property. The title insurer is also responsible for the cost of defending the insured title against covered claims. The insurer’s actual exposure at any given time; however, generally is less than the total face amount of policies outstanding because the coverage of a lender’s policy is reduced and eventually terminated as a result of payments on the mortgage loan. A title insurer also generally does not know when a property has been sold or refinanced except when it issues the replacement coverage. Because of these factors, the total liability of a title underwriter on outstanding policies cannot be precisely determined.
Title insurance companies typically issue title insurance policies directly through branch offices or through affiliated title agencies, or indirectly through independent third party agencies unaffiliated with the title insurance company. Where the policy is issued through a branch or wholly-owned subsidiary agency operation, the title insurance company typically performs or directs the title search, and the premiums collected are retained by the title company. Where the policy is issued through an independent agent, the agent generally performs the title search (in some areas searches are performed by approved attorneys), examines the title, collects the premium and retains a majority of the premium. The remainder of the premium is remitted to the title insurance company as compensation, part of which is for bearing the risk of loss in the event a claim is made under the policy. The percentage of the premium retained by an agent varies from region to region and is sometimes regulated by the states. The title insurance company is obligated to pay title claims in accordance with the terms of its policies, regardless of whether the title insurance company issues policies through its direct operations or through independent agents.
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 Prior to issuing policies, title insurers and their agents attempt to reduce the risk of future claim losses by accurately performing title searches and examinations. A title insurance company’s predominant expense relates to such searches and examinations, the preparation of preliminary title reports, policies or commitments, the maintenance of "title plants,” which are indexed compilations of public records, maps and other relevant historical documents, and the facilitation and closing of real estate transactions. Claim losses generally result from errors made in the title search and examination process, from hidden defects such as fraud, forgery, incapacity, or missing heirs of the property, and from closing-related errors.
Residential real estate business results from the construction, sale, resale and refinancing of residential properties, while commercial real estate business results from similar activities with respect to properties with a business or commercial use. Commercial real estate title insurance policies insure title to commercial real property, and generally involve higher coverage amounts and yield higher premiums. Residential real estate transaction volume is primarily affected by macroeconomic and seasonal factors while commercial real estate transaction volume is affected primarily by fluctuations in local supply and demand conditions for commercial space.
Direct and Agency Operations.  We provide title insurance services through our direct operations and through independent title insurance agents who issue title policies on behalf of our title insurance companies. Our title insurance companies determine the terms and conditions upon which they will insure title to the real property according to our underwriting standards, policies and procedures.
Direct Operations.  Our direct operations include both the operations of our underwriters and those of affiliated agencies. In our direct operations, the title insurer issues the title insurance policy and retains the entire premium paid in connection with the transaction. Our direct operations provide the following benefits:
higher margins because we retain the entire premium from each transaction instead of paying a commission to an independent agent;
continuity of service levels to a broad range of customers; and
additional sources of income through escrow and closing services.
We have approximately 1,300 offices throughout the U.S. primarily providing residential real estate title insurance. We continuously monitor the number of direct offices to make sure that it remains in line with our strategy and the current economic environment. Our commercial real estate title insurance business is operated primarily through our direct operations. We maintain direct operations for our commercial title insurance business in all the major real estate markets including Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Seattle and Washington D.C.
Agency Operations.  In our agency operations, the search and examination function is performed by an independent agent or the agent may purchase the search product from us. In either case, the agent is responsible to ensure that the search and examination is completed. The agent thus retains the majority of the title premium collected, with the balance remitted to the title underwriter for bearing the risk of loss in the event that a claim is made under the title insurance policy. Independent agents may select among several title underwriters based upon their relationship with the underwriter, the amount of the premium “split” offered by the underwriter, the overall terms and conditions of the agency agreement and the scope of services offered to the agent. Premium splits vary by geographic region, and in some states are fixed by insurance regulatory requirements. Our relationship with each agent is governed by an agency agreement defining how the agent issues a title insurance policy on our behalf. The agency agreement also sets forth the agent’s liability to us for policy losses attributable to the agent’s errors. An agency agreement is usually terminable without cause upon 30 days notice or immediately for cause. In determining whether to engage or retain an independent agent, we consider the agent’s experience, financial condition and loss history. For each agent with whom we enter into an agency agreement, we maintain financial and loss experience records. We also conduct periodic audits of our agents and strategically manage the number of agents with which we transact business in an effort to reduce future expenses and manage risks. As of December 31, 2020, we transact business with approximately 5,400 agents.
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 Fees and Premiums.  One method of analyzing our business is to examine the level of premiums generated by direct and agency operations.
The following table presents the percentages of our title insurance premiums generated by direct and agency operations:
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
 Amount%Amount%Amount%
 (Dollars in millions)
Direct$2,699 42.9 %$2,381 44.6 %$2,221 45.2 %
Agency3,599 57.1 2,961 55.4 2,690 54.8 
     Total title insurance premiums$6,298 100.0 %$5,342 100.0 %$4,911 100.0 %

The premium for title insurance is due in full when the real estate transaction is closed. We recognize title insurance premium revenues from direct operations upon the closing of the transaction. Premium revenues from agency operations include an accrual based on estimates of the volume of transactions that have closed in a particular period for which premiums have not yet been reported to us. The accrual for agency premiums is necessary because of the lag between the closing of these transactions and the reporting of these policies to us by the agent, and is based on estimates utilizing historical information.
Escrow, Title-Related and Other Fees.  In addition to fees for underwriting title insurance policies, we derive a significant amount of our revenues from escrow and other title-related services including closing and trust activities, trustee sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty products. The escrow and other services provided by us include all of those typically required in connection with residential and commercial real estate purchases and refinance activities. Escrow, title-related and other fees included in our Title segment represented approximately 29.7%, 28.9%, and 30.6% of total Title segment revenues in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
Sales and Marketing. We market and distribute our title and escrow products and services to customers in the residential and commercial market sectors of the real estate industry through customer solicitation by sales personnel. Although in many instances the individual homeowner is the beneficiary of a title insurance policy, we do not focus our marketing efforts on the homeowner. We actively encourage our sales personnel to develop new business relationships with persons in the real estate community, such as real estate sales agents and brokers, financial institutions, independent escrow companies and title agents, real estate developers, mortgage brokers and attorneys who order title insurance policies for their clients. While our smaller, local clients remain important, large customers, such as national residential mortgage lenders, real estate investment trusts and developers are an important part of our business. The buying criteria of locally based clients differ from those of large, geographically diverse customers in that the former tend to emphasize personal relationships and ease of transaction execution, while the latter generally place more emphasis on consistent product delivery across diverse geographical regions and the ability of service providers to meet their information systems requirements for electronic product delivery.
Claims. An important part of our operations is the handling of title and escrow claims. We employ a large staff of attorneys in our claims department. Our claims processing centers are located in Omaha, Nebraska and Jacksonville, Florida. In-house claims counsel are also located in other parts of the country.
Claims result from a wide range of causes. These causes generally include, but are not limited to, search and exam errors, forgeries, incorrect legal descriptions, signature and notary errors, unrecorded liens, mechanics’ liens, the failure to pay off existing liens, mortgage lending fraud, mishandling or theft of settlement funds (including independent agency theft), and mistakes in the escrow process. Under our policies, we are required to defend insureds when covered claims are filed against their interest in the property. Some claimants seek damages in excess of policy limits. Those claims are based on various legal theories, including in some cases allegations of negligence or an intentional tort. We occasionally incur losses in excess of policy limits. Experience shows that most policy claims and claim payments are made in the first five years after the policy has been issued, although claims may also be reported and paid many years later.
Title losses due to independent agency defalcations typically occur when the independent agency misappropriates funds from escrow accounts under its control. Such losses are usually discovered when the independent agency fails to pay off an outstanding mortgage loan at closing (or immediately thereafter) from the proceeds of the new loan. Once the previous lender determines that its loan has not been paid off timely, it will file a claim against the title insurer.
Claims can be complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market conditions and the legal environment existing at the time claims are processed. In our commercial title business, we may issue polices with face amounts well in excess of $100 million, and from time to time claims are submitted with respect to large policies. We believe we are appropriately reserved with respect to all claims (large and small) that we currently face. Occasionally we experience large
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losses from title policies that have been issued or from our escrow operations, or overall worsening loss payment experience, which require us to increase our title loss reserves. These events are unpredictable and adversely affect our earnings. Claims can result in litigation in which we may represent our insured and/or ourselves. We consider this type of litigation to be an ordinary course aspect of the conduct of our business.
Reinsurance and Coinsurance.  Within our Title segment, we limit our maximum loss exposure by reinsuring risks with other insurers under excess of loss and case-by-case (“facultative”) reinsurance agreements. Reinsurance agreements generally provide that the reinsurer is liable for loss and loss adjustment expense payments exceeding the amount retained by the ceding company. However, the ceding company remains primarily liable to the insured whether or not the reinsurer is able to meet its contractual obligations. Facultative reinsurance agreements are entered into with other title insurers when the transaction to be insured will exceed state statutory or self-imposed limits. Excess of loss reinsurance coverage protects us from a large loss from a single loss occurrence. Our excess of loss reinsurance coverage is split into four contracts. The first excess of loss reinsurance contract provides an $80 million limit of coverage from a single loss occurrence for residential and commercial losses in excess of a $20 million retention per single loss occurrence ("First XOL Contract"). The second excess of loss reinsurance contract ("Second XOL Contract") provides an additional $300 million limit of coverage from a single loss occurrence for commercial loss, with the Company co-participating at approximately 10%.  The third excess of loss reinsurance contract ("Third XOL Contract") provides an additional $80 million limit of coverage from a single loss occurrence for commercial loss, with the Company co-participating at approximately 10%.  The fourth excess of loss reinsurance contract ("Fourth XOL Contract") provides an additional $220 million limit of coverage from a single loss occurrence for commercial loss, with the Company co-participating at approximately 10%. Subject to the Company’s retention and co-participation on the Second, Third and Fourth XOL Contracts, the maximum coverage from a single loss occurrence provided under our excess of loss reinsurance coverage is $620 million. Each XOL Contract provides for one reinstatement of its respective limit, so the aggregate limit of coverage is $1.24 billion.
 In addition to reinsurance, we carry errors and omissions insurance and fidelity bond coverage, each of which can provide protection to us in the event of certain types of losses that can occur in our businesses.
Our policy is to be selective in choosing our reinsurers, seeking only those companies that we consider to be financially stable and adequately capitalized. In an effort to minimize exposure to the insolvency of a reinsurer, we periodically review the financial condition of our reinsurers.
We also use coinsurance in our commercial title business to provide coverage in amounts greater than we would be willing or able to provide individually. In coinsurance transactions, each individual underwriting company issues a separate policy and assumes a portion of the overall total risk. As a coinsurer we are only liable for the portion of the risk we assume.
We also earn a small amount of additional income, which is reflected in our direct premiums, by assuming reinsurance for certain risks of other title insurers.
Competition.  Competition in the title insurance industry is based primarily on service and price. The number and size of competing companies varies in the different geographic areas in which we conduct our business. In our principal markets, competitors include other major title underwriters such as First American Financial Corporation, Old Republic International Corporation, Stewart Information Services Corporation, Westcor Land Title Insurance Company, and WFG National Title Insurance Company, as well as numerous regional title insurance companies, underwritten title companies and independent agency operations at the regional and local level. The addition or removal of regulatory barriers might result in changes to competition in the title insurance business. New competitors may include diversified financial services companies that have greater financial resources than we do and possess other competitive advantages. Competition among the major title insurance companies, expansion by regional companies and any new entrants with alternative products could affect our business operations and financial condition.
 Regulation. Our insurance subsidiaries, including title insurers, underwritten title companies and insurance agencies, are subject to extensive regulation under applicable state laws. Each of the insurers is subject to a holding company act in its state of domicile, which regulates, among other matters, the ability to pay dividends and enter into transactions with affiliates. The laws of most states in which we transact business establish supervisory agencies with broad administrative powers relating to issuing and revoking licenses to transact business, regulating trade practices, licensing agents, approving policy forms, accounting practices, financial practices, establishing reserve and capital and surplus as regards policyholders (“capital and surplus”) requirements, defining suitable investments for reserves and capital and surplus and approving rate schedules. The process of state regulation of changes in rates ranges from states that set rates, to states where individual companies or associations of companies prepare rate filings that are submitted for approval, to a few states in which rate changes do not need to be filed for approval.
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Since we are governed by both state and federal governments and the applicable insurance laws and regulations are constantly subject to change, it is not possible to predict the potential effects on our insurance operations of any laws or regulations that may become more restrictive in the future or if new restrictive laws will be enacted.
 Pursuant to statutory accounting requirements of the various states in which our title insurers are domiciled, these insurers must defer a portion of premiums as an unearned premium reserve for the protection of policyholders (in addition to their reserves for known claims) and must maintain qualified assets in an amount equal to the statutory requirements. The level of unearned premium reserve required to be maintained at any time is determined by a statutory formula based upon either the age, number of policies, and dollar amount of policy liabilities underwritten, or the age and dollar amount of statutory premiums written. As of December 31, 2020, the combined statutory unearned premium reserve required and reported for our title insurers was $1,532 million. In addition to statutory unearned premium reserves and reserves for known claims, each of our insurers maintains surplus funds for policyholder protection and business operations.
Each of our insurance subsidiaries is regulated by the insurance regulatory authority in its respective state of domicile, as well as that of each state in which it is licensed. The insurance commissioners of their respective states of domicile are the primary regulators of our insurance subsidiaries. Each of the insurers is subject to periodic regulatory financial examination by regulatory authorities.
Under the statutes governing insurance holding companies in most states, insurers may not enter into certain transactions, including sales, reinsurance agreements and service or management contracts, with their affiliates unless the regulatory authority of the insurer’s state of domicile has received notice at least 30 days prior to the intended effective date of such transaction and has not objected to, or has approved, the transaction within the 30-day period.
In addition to state-level regulation, our title insurance and certain other real estate businesses are subject to regulation by federal agencies, including the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). The CFPB was established under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 ("Dodd-Frank"), which also included regulation over financial services and other lending related businesses. The CFPB has broad authority to regulate, among other areas, the mortgage and real estate markets in matters pertaining to consumers. This authority includes the enforcement of the Truth-in-Lending Act ("TILA") and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (individually, "RESPA", and together, "TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure" or "TRID") formerly placed with the Department of Housing and Urban Development. 
 As a holding company with no significant business operations of our own, we depend on dividends or other distributions from our subsidiaries as the principal source of cash to meet our obligations, including the payment of interest on and repayment of principal of any debt obligations, and to pay any dividends to our shareholders. The payment of dividends or other distributions to us by our insurers is regulated by the insurance laws and regulations of their respective states of domicile. In general, an insurance company subsidiary may not pay an “extraordinary” dividend or distribution unless the applicable insurance regulator has received notice of the intended payment at least 30 days prior to payment and has not objected to or has approved the payment within the 30-day period. In general, an “extraordinary” dividend or distribution is statutorily defined as a dividend or distribution that, together with other dividends and distributions made within the preceding 12 months, exceeds the greater of:
10% of the insurer’s statutory surplus as of the immediately prior year end; or
the statutory net income of the insurer during the prior calendar year.
The laws and regulations of some jurisdictions also prohibit an insurer from declaring or paying a dividend except out of its earned surplus or require the insurer to obtain prior regulatory approval. During 2021, our directly owned title insurers can pay dividends or make distributions to us of approximately $551 million; however, insurance regulators have the authority to prohibit the payment of ordinary dividends or other payments by our title insurers to us (such as a payment under a tax sharing agreement or for other services) if they determine that such payment could be adverse to our policyholders. There are no restrictions on our retained earnings regarding our ability to pay dividends to shareholders.
The combined statutory capital and surplus of our title insurers was approximately $1,699 million and $1,581 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The combined statutory earnings of our title insurers were $629 million, $583 million, and $625 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
As a condition to continued authority to underwrite policies in the states in which our insurers conduct their business, they are required to pay certain fees and file information regarding their officers, directors and financial condition.
 Pursuant to statutory requirements of the various states in which our insurers are domiciled, such insurers must maintain certain levels of minimum capital and surplus. Required levels of minimum capital and surplus are not significant to the insurers individually or in the aggregate. Each of our title insurers has complied with the minimum statutory requirements as of December 31, 2020.
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 Our underwritten title companies, primarily those domiciled in California, are also subject to certain regulation by insurance regulatory or banking authorities relating to their net worth and working capital. Minimum net worth and working capital requirements for each underwritten title company is less than $1 million. These companies were in compliance with their respective minimum net worth and working capital requirements at December 31, 2020.
 From time to time we receive inquiries and requests for information from state insurance departments, attorneys general and other regulatory agencies about various matters relating to our business. Sometimes these take the form of civil investigative demands or subpoenas. We cooperate with all such inquiries and we have responded to or are currently responding to inquiries from multiple governmental agencies. Various governmental entities are studying the title insurance product, market, pricing, and business practices, and potential regulatory and legislative changes, which may materially affect our business and operations. From time to time, we are assessed fines for violations of regulations or other matters or enter into settlements with such authorities that may require us to pay fines or claims or take other actions. For further discussion, see Item 3, Legal Proceedings.
Before a person can acquire control of a U.S. insurance company, prior written approval must be obtained from the insurance commissioner of the state in which the insurer is domiciled. Prior to granting approval of an application to acquire control of a domestic insurer, the state insurance commissioner will consider such factors as the financial strength of the applicant, the integrity and management of the applicant’s Board of Directors and executive officers, the acquirer’s plans for the insurer’s Board of Directors and executive officers, the acquirer’s plans for the future operations of the domestic insurer and any anti-competitive results that may arise from the consummation of the acquisition of control. Generally, state statutes provide that control over a domestic insurer is presumed to exist if any person, directly or indirectly, owns, controls, holds with the power to vote, or holds proxies representing 10% or more of the voting securities of the domestic insurer. Because a person acquiring 10% or more of our common shares would indirectly control the same percentage of the stock of our insurers, the insurance change of control laws would likely apply to such a transaction.
 The National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC") has adopted an instruction requiring an annual certification of reserve adequacy by a qualified actuary. Because all of the states in which our title insurers are domiciled require adherence to NAIC filing procedures, each such insurer, unless it qualifies for an exemption, must file an actuarial opinion with respect to the adequacy of its reserves.
Title Insurance Ratings. Our title insurance underwriters are regularly assigned ratings by independent agencies designed to indicate their financial condition and/or claims paying ability. The rating agencies determine ratings by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing financial data and other information. Our title subsidiaries include Alamo Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title, FNTIC and National Title of New York. Standard & Poor’s Ratings Group (“S&P”) and Moody’s Investors Service (“Moody’s”) provide ratings for the entire FNF family of companies as a whole as follows:
 S&P Moody’s
FNF family of companiesA A2
The relative position of each of our ratings among the ratings scale assigned by each rating agency is as follows:
An S&P "A" rating is the third highest rating of 11 ratings for S&P. According to S&P, an insurer rated “A” has strong capacity to meet its financial commitments, but is somewhat more susceptible to adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than insurers with "AAA" or "AA" ratings.
A Moody's "A2" rating is the third highest rating of 9 ratings for Moody's. Moody's states that companies rated “A2” are judged to be upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.

Demotech provides financial strength/stability ratings for each of our title insurance underwriters individually, as follows: 
Alamo Title InsuranceA'
Chicago Title Insurance CompanyA''
Commonwealth Land Title Insurance CompanyA'
Fidelity National Title Insurance CompanyA'
National Title Insurance of New YorkA'
 Demotech states that its ratings of "A"(A double prime)" and "A' (A prime)" reflect its opinion that the insurer possesses "Unsurpassed" ability to maintain liquidity of invested assets, quality reinsurance, acceptable financial leverage and realistic pricing while simultaneously establishing loss and loss adjustment expense reserves at reasonable levels. The A'' and A' ratings are the two highest ratings of Demotech's six ratings.
The ratings of S&P, Moody’s, and Demotech described above are not designed to be, and do not serve as, measures of protection or valuation offered to investors. These financial strength ratings should not be relied on with respect to making an
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investment in our securities. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — If the rating agencies downgrade our Company, our results of operations and competitive position in the title insurance industry may suffer” for further information.
 Investment Policies and Investment Portfolio. Within our Title segment, our investment policy is designed to maximize total return through investment income and capital appreciation consistent with moderate risk of principal, while providing adequate liquidity. Our insurance subsidiaries, including title insurers, underwritten title companies and insurance agencies, are subject to extensive regulation under applicable state laws. The various states in which we operate our underwriters regulate the types of assets that qualify for purposes of capital, surplus, and statutory unearned premium reserves. Our investment policy specifically limits duration and non-investment grade allocations in the FNF fixed-income portfolio. Maintaining shorter durations on the investment portfolio allows for the mitigation of interest rate risk. Equity securities and preferred stock are utilized to take advantage of perceived value or for strategic purposes. Due to the magnitude of the investment portfolio in relation to our claims loss reserves, durations of investments are not specifically matched to the cash outflows required to pay claims.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the carrying amount of total investments within our Title segment, which approximates the fair value, excluding investments in unconsolidated affiliates, was $3.7 billion and $4.3 billion, respectively.
 We purchase investment grade fixed maturity securities, selected non-investment grade fixed maturity securities, preferred stock and equity securities. The securities in our portfolio are subject to economic conditions and normal market risks and uncertainties. 
The following table presents certain information regarding the investment ratings of our fixed maturity securities and preferred stock portfolio at December 31, 2020 and 2019:
 December 31,
 20202019
 Amortized% ofFair% ofAmortized% ofFair% of
Rating(1)CostTotalValueTotalCostTotalValueTotal
 (Dollars in millions)
Aaa/AAA$514 21.9 %$536 21.7 %$529 21.4 %$539 21.3 %
Aa/AA201 8.6 214 8.7 239 9.7 247 9.8 
A671 28.7 714 29.0 704 28.5 727 28.7 
Baa/BBB726 31.0 756 30.7 663 26.8 676 26.6 
Lower147 6.3 151 6.1 134 5.4 139 5.5 
Other (2)
83 3.5 94 3.8 204 8.2 204 8.1 
 $2,342 100.0 %$2,465 100.0 %$2,473 100.0 %$2,532 100.0 %
______________________________________
(1)Ratings as assigned by Moody’s or S&P if a Moody's rating is unavailable.
(2)This category is composed of unrated securities.
The following table presents certain information regarding contractual maturities of our fixed maturity securities at December 31, 2020:
 December 31, 2020
 Amortized% ofFair% of
MaturityCostTotalValueTotal
 (Dollars in millions)
One year or less$355 18.0 %$351 16.8 %
After one year through five years1,116 56.5 1,188 56.9 
After five years through ten years308 15.6 337 16.1 
After ten years124 6.3 134 6.4 
Mortgage-backed/asset-backed securities72 3.6 79 3.8 
 $1,975 100.0 %$2,089 100.0 %
 Expected maturities may differ from contractual maturities because certain borrowers have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties. Because of the potential for prepayment on mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, they are not categorized by contractual maturity.
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At December 31, 2020 and 2019, we held $138 million and $131 million, respectively, in investments that are accounted for using the equity method of accounting.
 As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, other long-term investments were $33 million and $153 million, respectively. Other long-term investments include other investments carried at fair value and company-owned life insurance policies carried at cash surrender value.
 Short-term investments, which consist primarily of commercial paper and money market instruments that have an original maturity of one year or less, are carried at amortized cost, which approximates fair value. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, short-term investments amounted to $312 million and $876 million, respectively.
Our investment results for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 were as follows:
 December 31,
 202020192018
 (Dollars in millions)
Net investment income (1)$152 $206 $169 
Average invested assets$3,736 $3,768 $3,291 
Effective return on average invested assets4.1 %5.5 %5.1 %
______________________________________
(1)Net investment income as reported in our Consolidated Statements of Earnings has been adjusted in the presentation above to provide the tax equivalent yield on tax exempt investments and to exclude interest earned on cash and cash equivalents. Net investment income includes fees earned by holding customer funds in escrow (off-balance sheet) during facilitation of tax-deferred property exchanges. See Note E Investments to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report for a detail of our interest income.
F&G
Through our wholly-owned subsidiary, F&G, and its wholly-owned insurance subsidiaries, we market a variety of fixed annuity and life insurance products.
For more than 60 years, F&G has helped middle-income Americans prepare for retirement and for their loved ones' financial security. We partner with leading independent marketing organizations ("IMO") and their agents to serve the needs of the middle-income market and develop competitive products to align with their evolving needs. During 2020, F&G entered the bank and broker dealer distribution channel to connect with even more customers. As of December 31, 2020, F&G has approximately 655,000 policyholders who count on the safety and protection features our fixed annuity and life insurance products provide.
Through the efforts of F&G's 447 employees, most of whom are located in Des Moines, IA, and through a network of approximately 200 IMOs representing approximately 44,000 independent agents, and through leading independent broker dealers and banks, we offer various types of fixed annuities and life insurance products. Our fixed annuities serve as a retirement and savings tool for which our customers rely on principal protection and predictable income streams. In addition, our indexed universal life ("IUL") insurance products provide our customers with a complementary product that allows them to build on their savings and provide a payment to their designated beneficiaries upon the policyholder’s death. Our most popular products are fixed indexed annuities (“FIAs”) that tie contractual returns to specific market indices, such as the S&P 500 Index. Our customers value our FIAs, which provide a portion of the gains of an underlying market index, while also providing principal protection. We believe this mix of “some upside but limited downside” fills the need for middle-income Americans who must save for retirement but who want to limit the risk of decline in their savings.
For the period from June 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020, FIAs generated approximately 69% of our total sales. The remaining 31% of sales were primarily generated from fixed rate annuity sales during the year. We invest the annuity premiums primarily in fixed income securities, options and futures that hedge our risk and replicate the market index returns to our policyholders. We invest predominantly in call options on the S&P 500 Index. The majority of our products contain provisions that permit us to adjust annually the formula by which we provide index credits in response to changing market conditions. In addition, our annuity contracts generally either cannot be surrendered or include surrender charges that discourage early redemptions.
Products. F&G's experience designing and developing annuities and life insurance products will allow us to continue to introduce innovative products and solutions designed to meet customers’ changing needs. We work hand-in-hand with our distributors to devise the most suitable product solutions for the ever-changing market. We believe that, on a practical basis, we have a unique understanding of the safety, accumulation, protection, and income needs of middle-income Americans.
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Through F&G's insurance subsidiaries, we issue a broad portfolio of deferred annuities (fixed indexed and fixed rate annuities) and immediate annuities. A deferred annuity is a type of contract that accumulates value on a tax deferred basis and typically begins making specified periodic or lump sum payments a certain number of years after the contract has been issued. An immediate annuity is a type of contract that begins making specified payments within one annuity period (e.g., one month or one year) and typically pays principal and earnings in equal payments over some period of time.
Deferred Annuities - FIAs. Our FIAs allow contract owners the possibility of earning returns linked to the performance of a specified market index, predominantly the S&P 500 Index, while providing principal protection. The contracts include a provision for a minimum guaranteed surrender value calculated in accordance with applicable law. A market index tracks the performance of a specific group of stocks representing a particular segment of the market, or in some cases an entire market. For example, the S&P 500 Composite Stock Price Index is an index of 500 stocks intended to be representative of a broad segment of the market. All FIA products allow policyholders to allocate funds once a year among several different crediting strategies, including one or more index-based strategies and a traditional fixed rate strategy. High surrender charges apply for early withdrawal, typically for seven to fourteen years after purchase.
The contractholder account value of a FIA contract is equal to the sum of deposits paid, premium bonuses, if any, (described below), and index credits based on the change in the relevant market index (subject to a cap, spread and/or a participation rate) less any fees for riders and any withdrawals taken to-date. Caps (a maximum rate that may be credited) generally range from 2% to 5% when measured annually and 1% to 3% when measured monthly, spreads (a credited rate determined by deducting a specific rate from the index return) generally range from 1% to 6% when measured annually, and participation rates (a credited rate equal to a percentage of index return) generally range from 100% to 140% of the performance of the applicable market index. The cap, spread and participation rate can typically be reset annually and in some instances every two to five years. Certain riders provide a variety of benefits, such as the ability to increase their cap, lifetime income or additional liquidity for a set fee. As this fee is fixed, the contractholder may lose principal if the index credits received do not exceed the amount of such fee.
Approximately 46% of the FIA sales for the period from June 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020 involved “premium bonuses” or vesting bonuses. Premium bonuses increase the initial annuity deposit by a specified rate of 2% to 3%. The vesting bonuses, which range from 1% to 9%, increase the initial annuity deposit liability but are subject to adjustment for unvested amounts in the event of surrender by the policyholder prior to the end of the vesting period. We made compensating adjustments in the commission paid to the agent or the surrender charges on the policy to offset the premium bonus.
Approximately 44% of our FIA contracts were issued with a guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefit (“GMWB”) rider for the period from June 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020. With this rider, a contract owner can elect to receive guaranteed payments for life from the FIA contract without requiring the owner to annuitize the FIA contract value. The amount of the income benefit available is determined by the growth in the policy's benefit base value as defined in the FIA contract rider. Typically this accumulates for 10 years based on a guaranteed rate of 3% to 8%. Guaranteed withdrawal payments may be stopped and restarted at the election of the contract owner. Some of the FIA contract riders that we offer include an additional death benefit or an increase in benefit amounts under chronic health conditions. Rider fees range from 0% to 1%.
As of December 31, 2020, the distribution of the FIA account values by cap rate and by strategy was as follows:
Cap rate
Strategy 0% to 3% 3% to 5%> 5%Total
(In millions)
1 year gain trigger$605 $185 $26 $816 
1-2 year monthly average791 412 151 1,354 
1-3 year monthly point-to-point4,724 14 — 4,738 
1-3 year annual point-to-point2,396 1,673 733 4,802 
3 year step forward— 19 100 119 
$8,516 $2,303 $1,010 $11,829 
As of December 31, 2020, the distribution of the FIA account values by cap rate and by index was as follows:
Cap rate
Index 0% to 3% 3% to 5%> 5%Total
(In millions)
S&P 500$8,478 $2,097 $962 $11,537 
Dow Jones— 103 — 103 
Nasdaq— — 
Gold38 102 48 188 
$8,516 $2,303 $1,010 $11,829 
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Deferred Annuities - Fixed Rate Annuities. Fixed rate annuities include annual reset and multi-year rate guaranteed policies. Fixed rate annual reset annuities issued by us have an annual interest rate (the “crediting rate”) that is guaranteed for the first policy year. After the first policy year, we have the discretionary ability to change the crediting rate once annually to any rate at or above a guaranteed minimum rate. Multi-year guaranteed annuities ("MYGA") are similar to fixed rate annual reset annuities except that the initial crediting rate is guaranteed for a specified number of years before it may be changed at our discretion. As of December 31, 2020, crediting rates on outstanding (i) single-year guaranteed annuities generally ranged from 2% to 6% and (ii) MYGA ranged from 1% to 6%. The average crediting rate on all outstanding fixed rate annuities at December 31, 2020 was 3%.
As of December 31, 2020, the distribution of the fixed rate annuity account values by crediting rate was as follows (in millions):
Crediting rate 1% to 2%  2% to 3%  3% to 4%  4% to 5%  5% to 6% Total
Account value (gross)$28 $1,014 $2,828 $418 $$4,291 

As of December 31, 2020, the MYGA expiring guaranty account values, net of reinsurance, by year were as follows (in millions):
Year of expiry:Account Value
2021$667 
2022752 
20231,111 
2024559 
2025576 
Thereafter353 
Total$4,018 

Withdrawal Options for Deferred Annuities. After the first year following the issuance of a deferred annuity policy, holders of deferred annuities are typically permitted penalty-free withdrawals up to 10% of the prior year’s value, subject to certain limitations. Withdrawals in excess of allowable penalty-free amounts are assessed a surrender charge if such withdrawals are made during the penalty period of the deferred annuity policy. The penalty period typically ranges from seven to fourteen years for FIAs and three to ten years for fixed rate annuities. This surrender charge initially ranges from 0% to 15% of the contract value for FIAs and 0% to 10% of the contract value for fixed rate annuities and generally decreases by approximately one to two percentage points per year during the penalty period. The average surrender charge is 8% for our FIAs and 6% for our fixed rate annuities as of December 31, 2020.
The following table summarizes our deferred annuity account values and surrender charge protection as of December 31, 2020 (dollars in millions):
Fixed Rate and Fixed Indexed Annuities Account ValuePercent of TotalWeighted Average Surrender Charge
SURRENDER CHARGE EXPIRATION BY YEAR
Out of surrender charge$2,576 11 %— %
20211,082 %%
2022-20244,407 19 %%
2025-20263,778 16 %%
2027-20283,879 17 %%
Thereafter7,270 32 %11 %
Total$22,992 100 %%

Subsequent to the penalty period, the policyholder may elect to take the proceeds of the surrender either in a single payment or in a series of payments over the life of the policyholder or for a fixed number of years (or a combination of these payment options). In addition to the foregoing withdrawal rights, policyholders may also elect to have additional withdrawal benefits by purchasing a GMWB.
We also sell single premium immediate annuities (or “SPIAs”), which provide a series of periodic payments for a fixed period of time or for the life of the policyholder, according to the policyholder’s choice at the time of issue. The amounts, frequency and length of time of the payments are fixed at the outset of the annuity contract. SPIAs are often purchased by persons at or near retirement age who desire a steady stream of payments over a future period of years.
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The following table presents the deposits (also known as “sales”) on annuity policies issued for the period from June 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020 as well as reserves required by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for all policies in force for the period presented:
Period from June 1 to December 31, 2020
Deposits  on
Annuity
Policies
U.S.
GAAP
Reserves
Products (net of reinsurance)(In millions)
Fixed indexed annuities$1,966 $20,239 
Fixed rate annuities631 5,144 
Single premium immediate annuities129 3,443 
$2,726 $28,826 

Life Insurance. We currently offer IUL insurance policies and have previously sold universal life, term and whole life insurance products. Holders of universal life insurance policies earn returns on their policies, which are credited to the policyholder’s cash value account. The insurer periodically deducts its expenses and the cost of life insurance protection from the cash value account. The balance of the cash value account is credited interest at a fixed rate or returns based on the performance of a market index, or both, at the option of the policyholder, using a method similar to that described above for FIAs.
Almost all of the life insurance policies in force, except for the return of premium benefits on term life insurance products and universal life contracts issued after March 1, 2010, are subject to an arrangement with Wilton Reassurance Company (“Wilton Re”). See section titled “Reinsurance-Wilton Re Transaction” in Item 1. Business.
As of December 31, 2020, the distribution of the retained IUL account values by cap rate and by strategy was as follows:
Cap rate
Strategy 2.5%-5.0% 5.0-7.5% 7.5%-10.0% 10.0-12.5% 12.5+Total
(In millions)
1 year annual point-to-point, Gold Index$— $— $— $— $56 $56 
1 year monthly point-to-point, S&P Index34 — — — — 34 
1 year annual point-to-point with 100% par rate, S&P Index14 65 226 135 441 
1 year annual point-to-point with 140% par rate, S&P Index26 — — 33 
$51 $$91 $226 $191 $564 

Distribution. We distribute our products through three main channels of distribution: independent agents, bank, and broker dealers.
In our independent agent channel, the sale of our products typically occurs as part of a four-party, three stage sales process between Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company (“FGL Insurance”), an IMO, the agent and the customer. FGL Insurance designs, manufactures, issues, and services the product. The IMOs will typically sign contracts with multiple insurance carriers to provide their agents with a broad and competitive product portfolio. The IMO provides training and discusses product options with agents in preparation for meetings with clients. The IMO staff also provide assistance to the agent during the selling and application process. The agent may get customer leads from the IMOs. The agent conducts a fact find and presents suitable product choices to the customers. We monitor the business issued by each distribution partner for pricing metrics, mortality, persistency, as well as market conduct and suitability.
We offer our products through a network of approximately 200 IMOs, representing approximately 44,000 agents. We identify "Power Partners" as those we believe have the ability to generate significant production for our F&G business. We currently have 32 Power Partners, comprised of 21 annuity IMOs and 11 life insurance IMOs. During the period from June 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020, these Power Partners accounted for approximately 88% of our sales volume. We believe that our relationships with these IMOs are strong. The average tenure of the top ten Power Partners is approximately 17 years.
Our Power Partners play an important role in the development of our products by providing feedback integral to the development process and by securing “shelf space” for new products. Over the last ten years, the majority of our best-selling products have been developed with our Power Partners. We intend to continue to involve Power Partners in the development of our products in the future.
In 2020, we launched a new set of fixed and indexed annuity products to be distributed specifically to banks and broker dealers, and gained selling agreements with some of the largest banks and broker dealers in the United States. The financial advisers at our bank and broker dealer partners are able to offer their clients guaranteed rates of return, protected growth, and
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income for life through our Secure series of annuity products. We employ a hybrid distribution model in this channel, whereby some financial institutions partner directly with F&G and our sales team, and others work with an intermediary. As such, we partner with a select number of IMOs who have expertise in the channel and maintain the appropriate field wholesaling forces to be successful in this channel.
The top five states for the distribution of FGL Insurance’s products in the period from June 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020 were California, Texas, Florida, Arizona and New Jersey, which together accounted for 41% of FGL Insurance’s premiums.
Investments. Within our F&G segment, we embrace a long-term conservative investment philosophy, investing nearly all the insurance premiums we receive in a wide range of fixed income interest-bearing securities.
FGL Insurance, and certain subsidiaries of the F&G, entered into investment management agreements (“IMAs”) with Blackstone ISG-I Advisors LLC (“BISGA”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Blackstone on December 1, 2017. On December 31, 2019, effective as of October 31, 2019, FGL Insurance and certain subsidiaries of the F&G entered into amended and restated IMAs (the “Restated IMAs”) with BISGA, pursuant to which BISGA was appointed as investment manager of the F&G’s general accounts (the “F&G Accounts”). Pursuant to the terms of the IMAs, BISGA may delegate any or all of its discretionary investment, advisory and other rights, powers, functions and obligations under the IMAs to one or more sub-managers, including its affiliates. Pursuant to the Restated IMAs, BISGA delegated certain investment services to its affiliates, Blackstone Real Estate Special Situations Advisors L.L.C. (“BRESSA”) and GSO Capital Advisors II LLC (“GSO Capital Advisors”), pursuant to sub-management agreements executed between BISGA and each of BRESSA and GSO Capital Advisors. Additionally, three other subsidiaries of F&G entered into Investment Management Agreements with BISGA on substantially the same terms as the FGL Insurance IMA (the “Additional Investment Management Agreements” and collectively with the FGL Insurance IMA, the “Investment Management Agreements”).
    BISGA manages the bulk of the investment portfolio. For certain asset classes, we utilize experienced third party companies. As of December 31, 2020, 86% of our $29 billion investment portfolio was managed by Blackstone, with 13% managed by other third parties, and the remaining 1% internally managed. BISGA appointed MVB Management, an entity owned by affiliates of our Chairman, as Sub-Adviser of the FGL Account pursuant to a sub-advisory agreement (the “Sub-Advisory Agreement”). Under the Sub-Advisory Agreement, MVB Management will provide investment advisory services, portfolio review, and consultation with regard to the FGL Account (and the accounts of the other F&G subsidiaries party to Investment Management Agreements) and the asset classes and markets contemplated by the investment guidelines specified in the agreement, including such recommendations as the Investment Manager shall reasonably request. Payment or reimbursement of the subadvisory fee to MVB Management is solely the obligation of BISGA and is not an obligation of FGL Insurance or F&G. Subject to certain conditions, the Sub-Advisory Agreement cannot be terminated by BISGA unless FGL Insurance terminates the FGL Insurance IMA.
    F&G and certain subsidiaries entered into amended and restated Investment Management Agreements with BISGA on December 31, 2019, to be effective as of October 1, 2019, pursuant to which BISGA was appointed as investment manager of the F&G’s general accounts (the “F&G Accounts”). The IMAs amend and restate investment management agreements entered into between November 2017 and March 2018 (the “Restated IMAs”). Pursuant to the terms of the IMAs, BISGA may delegate any or all of its discretionary investment, advisory and other rights, powers, functions and obligations under the IMAs to one or more sub-managers, including its affiliates. BISGA delegated certain investment services to its affiliates, BRESSA and GSO Capital Advisors, pursuant to sub-management agreements executed between BISGA and each of BRESSA and GSO Capital Advisors.
Our investment strategy is designed to (i) achieve strong absolute returns, (ii) provide consistent yield and investment income, and (iii) preserve capital. We base all of our decisions on fundamental, bottom-up research, coupled with a top-down view that respects the cyclicality of certain asset classes. The types of assets in which we may invest are influenced by various state laws, which prescribe qualified investment assets applicable to insurance companies. Additionally, we define risk tolerance across a wide range of factors, including credit risk, liquidity risk, concentration (issuer and sector) risk, and caps on specific asset classes, which in turn establish conservative risk thresholds.
Our investment portfolio consists of high quality fixed maturities, including publicly issued and privately issued corporate bonds, municipal and other government bonds, asset-backed securities ("ABS"), residential mortgage-backed securities ("RMBS"), commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS"), commercial mortgage loans ("CMLs"), residential mortgage loans, limited partnership investments, and fund investments. We also maintain holdings in floating rate, and less rate-sensitive investments, including senior tranches of collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), non-agency RMBS, and various types of ABS. It is our expectation that our investment portfolio will broaden in scope and diversity to include other asset classes held by life and annuity insurance writers. We also have a small amount of equity holdings through our funding arrangement with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta.
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Over the last year, we continued to work with BISGA and the other third party asset managers to broaden the portfolio’s exposure to include United States dollar ("USD") denominated emerging market bonds, highly rated preferred stocks and hybrids, and structured securities including ABS. As a result of these portfolio repositionings, we currently maintain:
a well matched asset/liability profile (asset duration, including cash and cash equivalents, of 6.8 years vs. liability duration of 6.6 years); and
a large exposure to less rate-sensitive assets (25% of invested assets).
For further discussion of portfolio activity, see Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report, under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Investment Portfolio.
Derivatives. Our FIA contracts permit the holder to elect to receive a return based on an interest rate or the performance of a market index, most typically the S&P 500 Index. We purchase derivatives consisting predominantly of call options and, to a lesser degree, futures contracts on the equity indices underlying the applicable policy. These derivatives are used to fund the index credits due to policyholders under the FIA contracts based upon policyholders' contract elections. The majority of all such call options are one-year options purchased to match the funding requirements underlying the FIA contracts. On the anniversary dates of the FIA contracts, the market index used to compute the annual index credit under the FIA contract is reset. At such time, we purchase new one-, two-, three-, or five-year call options to fund the next index credit. We manage the cost of these purchases through the terms of our FIA contracts, which permit us to change caps or participation rates, subject to certain guaranteed minimums on each contracts anniversary date. The change in the fair value of the call options and futures contracts is generally designed to offset the equity market related change in the fair value of the FIA contract’s related reserve liability. The call options and futures contracts are marked to fair value with the change in fair value included as a component of "Net investment gains (losses)". The change in fair value of the call options and futures contracts includes the gains and losses recognized at the expiration of the instruments term or upon early termination and the changes in fair value of open positions.
Outsourcing. Our F&G segment outsources the following functions to third-party service providers:
new business administration (data entry and policy issue only);
service of existing policies;
underwriting administration of life insurance applications;
life reinsurance administration;
call centers;
information technology development and maintenance;
valuation of reinsurance liabilities held at fair value;
investment accounting and custody; and
co-located data centers and hosting of financial systems.
We closely manage our outsourcing partners and integrate their services into our operations. We believe that outsourcing such functions allows us to focus capital and our employees on our core business operations and perform differentiating functions, such as investment, actuarial, product development and risk management functions. In addition, we believe an outsourcing model provides predictable pricing, service levels and volume capabilities and allows us to benefit from technological developments that enhance our customer self-service and sales processes. We believe that we have a good relationship with our principal outsource service providers.
Ratings. Within our F&G segment, access to funding and our related cost of borrowing, the attractiveness of certain of our products to customers and requirements for derivatives collateral posting are affected by our credit ratings and insurance financial strength ratings, which are periodically reviewed by the rating agencies. Financial strength ratings and credit ratings are important factors affecting public confidence in an insurer and its competitive position in marketing products.
As of the date of this Annual Report, A.M. Best Company ("A.M. Best"), Fitch Ratings ("Fitch"), Moody’s Investors Service ("Moody's") and S&P Global Ratings ("S&P") had issued credit ratings, financial strength ratings and/or outlook statements regarding us, as listed below. Credit ratings represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding an entity’s ability to repay its indebtedness. Financial strength ratings represent the opinions of rating agencies regarding the ability of an insurance company to meet its financial obligations under an insurance policy and generally involve quantitative and qualitative evaluations by rating agencies of a company’s financial condition and operating performance. Generally, rating agencies base their financial strength ratings upon information furnished to them by the insurer and upon their own investigations, studies and assumptions. Financial strength ratings are based upon factors of concern to policyholders, agents and intermediaries and are
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not directed toward the protection of investors. Credit and financial strength ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold securities and they may be revised or revoked at any time at the sole discretion of the rating organization.
In addition to the financial strength ratings, rating agencies use an “outlook statement” to indicate a medium or long term trend that, if continued, may lead to a rating change. A positive outlook indicates a rating may be raised and a negative outlook indicates a rating may be lowered. A stable outlook is assigned when ratings are not likely to be changed. A developing outlook is assigned when a rating may be raised, lowered, or affirmed. Outlooks should not be confused with expected stability of the issuer’s financial or economic performance. A rating may have a "stable" outlook to indicate that the rating is not expected to change, but a "stable" outlook does not preclude a rating agency from changing a rating at any time without notice.
The rating organizations may take various actions, positive or negative. Such actions are beyond the Company's control and the Company cannot predict what these actions may be and the timing thereof.
A.M. BestS&PFitchMoody's
Holding Company Ratings
F&G Annuities & Life, Inc. (formerly known as FGL Holdings)
Issuer Credit / Default RatingNot RatedBBB-BBBBa2
OutlookStableStableStable
CF Bermuda Holdings Limited
Issuer Credit / Default RatingNot RatedBBB-BBBBa1
OutlookStableStableStable
Fidelity & Guaranty Life Holdings, Inc.
Issuer Credit / Default Ratingbbb-BBB-BBBNot Rated
OutlookStableStableStable
Senior Unsecured Notesbbb-BBBBBBBaa2
OutlookStableStable
Operating Subsidiary Ratings
Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company
Financial Strength RatingA-A-A-Baa1
OutlookStableStableStableStable
Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company of New York
Financial Strength RatingA-A- A-Not Rated
OutlookStableStableStable
F&G Life Re Ltd
Financial Strength RatingNot RatedA-A-Baa1
OutlookStableStableStable
F&G Cayman Re Ltd
Financial Strength RatingNot RatedNot RatedA-Not Rated
OutlookStable
A.M. Best, S&P, Fitch and Moody’s review their ratings of insurance companies from time to time. There can be no assurance that any particular rating will continue for any given period of time or that it will not be changed or withdrawn entirely if, in their judgment, circumstances so warrant. While the degree to which ratings adjustments will affect sales and persistency is unknown, we believe if our ratings were to be negatively adjusted for any reason, we could experience a material decline in the sales of our products and the persistency of our existing business. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors”.
Potential Impact of a Ratings Downgrade. F&G is required to maintain minimum ratings as a matter of routine practice as part of its over-the-counter derivatives agreements on ISDA forms. Under some ISDA agreements, the Company has agreed to maintain certain financial strength ratings. Please refer to "Note F. Derivative Financial Instruments" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for disclosure around the Company's requirement to maintain minimum ratings.
If the insurance subsidiaries held net short positions against a counterparty, and the subsidiaries’ financial strength ratings were below the levels required in the ISDA agreement with the counterparty, the counterparty would demand immediate further collateralization, which could negatively impact overall liquidity. Based on the fair value of our derivatives as of December 31, 2020, we hold no net short positions against a counterparty; therefore, there is currently no potential exposure for us to post collateral.
A downgrade of the financial strength rating of one of our principal insurance subsidiaries could affect our competitive position in the insurance industry and make it more difficult for us to market our products, as potential customers may select
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companies with higher financial strength ratings. A downgrade of the financial strength rating could also impact the Company's borrowing costs.
Risk Management. Risk management is a critical part of our business. We seek to assess risk to our business through a formalized process involving (i) identifying short-term and long-term strategic and operational objectives, (ii) development of risk appetite statements that establish what the company is willing to accept in terms of risks to achieving its goals and objectives, (iii) identifying the levers that control the risk appetite of the company, (iv) establishing the overall limits of risk acceptable for a given risk driver, (v) establishing operational risk limits that are aligned with the tolerances, (vi) assigning risk limit quantification and mitigation responsibilities to individual team members within functional groups, (vii) analyzing the potential qualitative and quantitative impact of individual risks, including but not limited to stress and scenario testing covering over eight economic and insurance related risks, (viii) mitigating risks by appropriate actions and (ix) identifying, documenting and communicating key business risks in a timely fashion.
The responsibility for monitoring, evaluating and responding to risk is assigned first to our management and employees, second to those occupying specialist functions, such as legal compliance and risk teams, and third to those occupying supervisory functions, such as internal audit and the board of directors.
Reinsurance. Within our F&G business, we both cede reinsurance and assume reinsurance from other insurance companies. We use reinsurance to diversify risks and earnings, to manage loss exposures, to enhance our capital position, and to manage new business volume. The effects of certain reinsurance agreements are not accounted for as reinsurance as they do not transfer the risks of the reinsured policies.
In instances where we are the ceding company, we pay a premium to a reinsurer in exchange for the reinsurer assuming a portion of our liabilities under the policies we issued and collect expense allowances in return for our administration of the ceded policies. Use of reinsurance does not discharge our liability as the ceding company because we remain directly liable to our policyholders and are required to pay the full amount of our policy obligations in the event that our reinsurers fail to satisfy their obligations. We collect reimbursement from our reinsurers when we pay claims on policies that are reinsured. In instances where we assume reinsurance from another insurance company, we accept, in exchange for a reinsurance premium, a portion of the liabilities of the other insurance company under the policies that the ceding company has issued to its policyholders.
We monitor the credit risk related to the ability of our reinsurers to honor their obligations under various agreements. To minimize the risk of credit loss on such contracts, we generally diversify our exposures among many reinsurers and limit the amount of exposure to each based on financial strength ratings, which are reviewed annually. We are able to further manage risk via funds withheld arrangements.
See “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for further discussion on credit risk and counterparty risk.
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for further discussion of credit risk related to reinsurance agreements. A description of significant ceded reinsurance transactions appears below.
Wilton RE Transaction. Pursuant to the agreed upon terms, Wilton Re has reinsured a 100% quota share of certain FGL Insurance policies that are subject to redundant reserves, reported on a statutory basis, under Regulation XXX and Guideline AXXX, as well as another block of FGL Insurance’s in-force traditional, universal life and IUL insurance policies. The effects of this agreement are accounted for as reinsurance as it satisfies the risk transfer requirements for GAAP.
Hannover Reinsurance Transaction. FGL Insurance has a reinsurance agreement with Hannover Life Reassurance Company of America (Bermuda) Ltd. ("Hannover Re"), an unaffiliated reinsurer,  to reinsure an in-force block of its FIA and fixed deferred annuity contracts with Guaranteed Minimum Withdraw Benefit (“GMWB”) and Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit (“GMDB”) guarantees.  In accordance with the terms of this agreement, the Company cedes 70% net retention of secondary guarantee payments in excess of account value for GMWB and GMDB guarantees. The effects of this agreement are not accounted for as reinsurance as it does not satisfy the risk transfer requirements for GAAP, and deposit accounting is applied.
Canada Life Transaction. Effective May 1, 2020, FGL Insurance entered into an indemnity reinsurance agreement with Canada Life Assurance Company United States Branch, a third party reinsurer, to reinsure FIA policies with guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefits ("GMWB"). In accordance with the terms of this agreement, FGL Insurance cedes a quota share percentage of the net retention of guarantee payments in excess of account value for GMWB. The effects of this agreement are not accounted for as reinsurance as it does not satisfy the risk transfer requirements for GAAP, since it is not “reasonably possible” that the reinsurer may realize significant loss from assuming the insurance risk.
Kubera Reinsurance Transactions. FGL Insurance has a reinsurance agreement with Kubera Insurance (SAC) Ltd. ("Kubera"), an unaffiliated reinsurer, to cede certain MYGA and deferred annuity statutory reserves on a coinsurance funds withheld basis, net of applicable existing reinsurance. As the policies ceded to Kubera are investment contracts, there is no
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significant insurance risk present and therefore deposit accounting is applied. The application of deposit accounting for this agreement, however, results in accounting for and presentation similar to other reinsurance agreements that apply reinsurance accounting.
FGL Insurance has a reinsurance agreement with Kubera to cede certain FIA statutory reserves on a coinsurance funds withheld basis, net of applicable existing reinsurance. In accordance with the terms of this agreement, FGL Insurance cedes an 80% and 90% quota share percentage of these annuity plans for issue years 2013 through 2014 and 2007 and prior, respectively. As the policies ceded to Kubera are investment contracts, there is no significant insurance risk present and therefore deposit accounting is applied. For financial statement presentation, we net the deposit asset with the funds withheld liability.
The CARVM Facility. Life insurance companies operating in the United States must calculate required reserves for life and annuity policies based on statutory principles. These methodologies are governed by “Regulation XXX” (applicable to term life insurance policies), “Guideline AXXX” (applicable to universal life insurance policies with secondary guarantees) and the Commissioners Annuity Reserve Valuation Method, known as “CARVM” (applicable to annuities). Under Regulation XXX, Guideline AXXX and CARVM, insurers are required to establish statutory reserves for such policies that exceed economic reserves. The industry has reduced or eliminated redundancies thereby increasing capital using a variety of techniques including reserve facilities.
FGL Insurance has a yearly renewable term indemnity reinsurance agreement with Raven Reinsurance Company ("Raven Re"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of FGL Insurance (the “Raven Reinsurance Agreement”), pursuant to which FGL Insurance ceded a 100% quota share of its CARVM liability for annuity benefits where surrender charges are waived. To collateralize its obligations under the Raven Reinsurance Agreement, Raven Re entered into a reimbursement agreement with Nomura Bank International plc (“NBI”), an affiliate of Nomura Securities International, Inc., and FGL (the “Reimbursement Agreement”) whereby a subsidiary of NBI issued trust notes and NBI issued a $295 million letter of credit that, in each case, were deposited into a reinsurance trust as collateral for Raven Re’s obligations under the Raven Reinsurance Agreement (the “NBI Facility”). Pursuant to the NBI Facility, FGL Insurance takes full credit on its statutory financial statements for the CARVM reserve ceded to Raven Re. The letter of credit facility was amended to reduce the available amount to $85 and extend the termination date to October 1, 2022, although the facility may terminate earlier, in accordance with the terms of the Reimbursement Agreement. Under the terms of the reimbursement agreement, in the event the letter of credit is drawn upon, Raven Re is required to repay the amounts utilized, and FGLH is obligated to repay the amounts utilized if Raven Re fails to make the required reimbursement. FGLH also is required to make capital contributions to Raven Re in the event that Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus falls below certain defined levels. As of December 31, 2020 Raven Re’s statutory capital and surplus was $29 in excess of the minimum level required under the Reimbursement Agreement.
F&G Life Re and F&G Cayman Re transactions. Effective December 31, 2020, FGL Insurance executed a Coinsurance Agreement with F&G Life Re Ltd. ("Reinsurer"), an affiliated Bermuda reinsurer, to reinsure a quota share of FIA policies to F&G Life Re Ltd. Concurrently, the Reinsurer and F&G Cayman Re Ltd., an affiliated reinsurer of both FGL Insurance and F&G Life Re Ltd., entered into a Retrocession Agreement. The cession from FGL Insurance to the Reinsurer is on a 100% quota share basis, net of applicable existing reinsurance and the retrocession to F&G Cayman Re Ltd. from the Reinsurer is on a 45% quota share basis. Additionally, both treaties are maintained on a funds withheld basis. FGL Insurance ceded and F&G Life Re Ltd retroceded approximately $5 billion and $2.2 billion, respectively, in certain FIA Statutory Reserves and Interest Maintenance Reserve.
All intercompany balances have been eliminated in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements. However, these agreements have a material impact on the regulatory capital position of FGL Insurance and the effective tax rate of F&G. See “Note P. Reinsurance” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Regulation. FGL Insurance, Fidelity & Guaranty Life Insurance Company of New York (“FGL NY Insurance”) and Raven Re are subject to comprehensive regulation and supervision in their domiciles, Iowa, New York and Vermont, respectively, and in each state in which they do business. FGL Insurance does business throughout the United States, except for New York. FGL NY Insurance only does business in New York. Raven Re is a special purpose captive reinsurance company that only provides reinsurance to FGL Insurance under the CARVM Treaty. FGL Insurance’s principal insurance regulatory authority is the Iowa Insurance Division ("IID"); however, state insurance departments throughout the United States also monitor FGL Insurance’s insurance operations as a licensed insurer. The New York State Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”) regulates the operations of FGL NY Insurance. The purpose of these regulations is primarily to protect policyholders and beneficiaries and not general creditors and shareholders of those insurers. Many of the laws and regulations to which FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject are regularly re-examined and existing or future laws and regulations may become more restrictive or otherwise adversely affect their operations.
Generally, insurance products underwritten by and rates used by FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must be approved by the insurance regulators in each state in which they are sold. Those products are also substantially affected by federal and state tax laws. For example, changes in tax law could reduce or eliminate the tax-deferred accumulation of earnings
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on the deposits paid by the holders of annuities and life insurance products, which could make such products less attractive to potential purchasers. A shift away from life insurance and annuity products could reduce FGL Insurance’s and FGL NY Insurance’s income from the sale of such products, as well as the assets upon which FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance earn investment income. In addition, insurance products may also be subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA").
State insurance authorities have broad administrative powers over FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance with respect to all aspects of the insurance business including:
licensing to transact business;
licensing agents;
prescribing which assets and liabilities are to be considered in determining statutory surplus;
regulating premium rates for certain insurance products;
approving policy forms and certain related materials;
determining whether a reasonable basis exists as to the suitability of the annuity purchase recommendations producers make;
regulating unfair trade and claims practices;
establishing reserve requirements and solvency standards;
regulating the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year;
regulating the availability of reinsurance or other substitute financing solutions, the terms thereof and the ability of an insurer to take credit on its financial statements for insurance ceded to reinsurers or other substitute financing solutions;
fixing maximum interest rates on life insurance policy loans and minimum accumulation or surrender values; and
regulating the type, amounts, and valuations of investments permitted, transactions with affiliates, and other matters.
State insurance laws and regulations require FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re to file reports, including financial statements, with state insurance departments in each state in which they do business, and their operations and accounts are subject to examination by those departments at any time. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re prepare statutory financial statements in accordance with accounting practices and procedures prescribed or permitted by these departments.
The National Association of Insurance Commissioners ("NAIC") has approved a series of statutory accounting principles and various model regulations that have been adopted, in some cases with certain modifications, by all state insurance departments. These statutory principles are subject to ongoing change and modification. Moreover, compliance with any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may not result in compliance with another regulator’s interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. Any particular regulator’s interpretation of a legal or accounting issue may change over time to FGL Insurance’s or FGL NY Insurance’s detriment, or changes to the overall legal or market environment, even absent any change of interpretation by a particular regulator, may cause FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance to change their views regarding the actions they need to take from a legal risk management perspective, which could necessitate changes to FGL Insurance’s or FGL NY Insurance’s practices that may, in some cases, limit their ability to grow and improve profitability.
State insurance departments conduct periodic examinations of the books and records, financial reporting, policy and rate filings, market conduct and business practices of insurance companies domiciled in their states, generally once every three to five years. Examinations are generally carried out in cooperation with the insurance departments of other states under guidelines promulgated by the NAIC. State insurance departments also have the authority to conduct examinations of non-domiciliary insurers that are licensed in their states.
The IID completed a routine examination of FGL Insurance for the five year period ending 2017, and found no material deficiencies and proposed no adjustments to the financial statements as filed. The NYDFS completed a routine financial examination of FGL NY Insurance for the five year period ended December 31, 2017, and found no material deficiencies and proposed no adjustments to the financial statements as filed. The Vermont Department of Financial Regulation has completed a routine financial examination of Raven Re for the five year period ending December 31, 2017, and found no material deficiencies and proposed no adjustments to the financial statements as filed.
The Iowa insurance law and the New York insurance law regulate the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year by FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance, respectively. Pursuant to an order issued by the Iowa Commissioner on November
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28, 2017, FGL Insurance shall not pay any dividend prior to November 28, 2020 without the prior approval of the Iowa Commissioner.
Each year, FGL NY Insurance may pay a certain limited amount of ordinary dividends or other distributions without being required to obtain the prior consent of or the NYDFS. However, to pay any dividends or distributions (including the payment of any dividends or distributions for which prior consent is not required), FGL NY Insurance must provide advance written notice to the NYDFS.
Pursuant to Iowa insurance law, ordinary dividends are payments, together with all other such payments within the preceding twelve months, that do not exceed the greater of (i) 10% of FGL Insurance’s statutory surplus as regards policyholders as of December 31 of the preceding year; or (ii) the net gain from operations of FGL Insurance (excluding realized capital gains) for the 12-month period ending December 31 of the preceding year.
Dividends in excess of FGL Insurance’s ordinary dividend capacity are referred to as extraordinary and require prior approval of the Iowa Commissioner. In deciding whether to approve a request to pay an extraordinary dividend, Iowa insurance law requires the Iowa Commissioner to consider the effect of the dividend payment on FGL Insurance’s surplus and financial condition generally and whether the payment of the dividend will cause FGL Insurance to fail to meet its required RBC ratio. Dividends may only be paid out of statutory earned surplus.
In 2020, FGL Insurance paid ordinary dividends to F&G of $151.
In 2021, F&G's insurance subsidiaries will have the dividend capacity as set forth in this table:
2021
(In millions)
FGL Insurance ordinary dividend capacity$— 
F&G Life Re dividend capacity26 
FSRC dividend capacity
F&G Cayman Re dividend capacity13 

Any payment of dividends by FGL Insurance is subject to the regulatory restrictions described above and the approval of such payment by the board of directors of FGL Insurance, which must consider various factors, including general economic and business conditions, tax considerations, FGL Insurance’s strategic plans, financial results and condition, FGL Insurance’s expansion plans, any contractual, legal or regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends and its effect on RBC and such other factors the board of directors of FGL Insurance considers relevant. For example, payments of dividends could reduce FGL Insurance’s RBC and financial condition and lead to a reduction in FGL Insurance’s financial strength rating. See section titled "Risks Relating to Our Business-A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency could make our products less attractive and increase our cost of capital, and thereby adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations” in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
FGL NY Insurance has historically not paid dividends.
FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to the supervision of the regulators in states where they are licensed to transact business. Regulators have discretionary authority in connection with the continuing licensing of these entities to limit or prohibit sales to policyholders if, in their judgment, the regulators determine that such entities have not maintained the minimum surplus or capital or that the further transaction of business will be hazardous to policyholders.
In order to enhance the regulation of insurers’ solvency, the NAIC adopted a model law to implement RBC requirements for life, health and property and casualty insurance companies. All states have adopted the NAIC’s model law or a substantially similar law. RBC is used to evaluate the adequacy of capital and surplus maintained by an insurance company in relation to risks associated with: (i) asset risk, (ii) insurance risk, (iii) interest rate risk, and (iv) business risk. In general, RBC is calculated by applying factors to various asset, premium and reserve items, taking into account the risk characteristics of the insurer. Within a given risk category, these factors are higher for those items with greater underlying risk and lower for items with lower underlying risk. The RBC formula is used as an early warning regulatory tool to identify possible inadequately capitalized insurers for purposes of initiating regulatory action, and not as a means to rank insurers generally. Insurers that have less statutory capital than the RBC calculation requires are considered to have inadequate capital and are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending upon the level of capital inadequacy. As of the most recent annual statutory financial statements filed with insurance regulators, the RBC ratios for FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance each exceeded the minimum RBC requirements.
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It is desirable to maintain an RBC ratio in excess of the minimum requirements in order to maintain or improve our financial strength ratings. We ended the year with an estimated RBC ratio of over 400% for FGL Insurance. See section titled “Risks Relating to Our Business-A financial strength ratings downgrade, potential downgrade, or any other negative action by a rating agency, could make our product offerings less attractive and increase our cost of capital, and thereby adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations” in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
The NAIC has developed a set of financial relationships or tests known as the Insurance Regulatory Information System ("IRIS") to assist state regulators in monitoring the financial condition of U.S. insurance companies and identifying companies that require special attention or action by insurance regulatory authorities. A ratio falling outside the prescribed “usual range” is not considered a failing result. Rather, unusual values are viewed as part of the regulatory early monitoring system. In many cases, it is not unusual for financially sound companies to have one or more ratios that fall outside the usual range. Insurance companies generally submit data annually to the NAIC, which in turn analyzes the data using prescribed financial data ratios, each with defined “usual ranges”. Generally, regulators will begin to investigate or monitor an insurance company if its ratios fall outside the usual ranges for four or more of the ratios. IRIS consists of a statistical phase and an analytical phase whereby financial examiners review insurers’ annual statements and financial ratios. The statistical phase consists of 12 key financial ratios based on year-end data that are generated from the NAIC database annually; each ratio has a “usual range” of results. As of December 31, 2020, FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re had two, zero and two ratios outside the usual range, respectively.  The IRIS ratios for total affiliated investments to capital and surplus and change in premium for FGL Insurance were outside the usual range.  The IRIS ratio for change in premium and adequacy of investment income for Raven Re were outside the usual range.
In all instances in prior years, regulators have been satisfied upon follow-up that no regulatory action was required. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re are not currently subject to regulatory restrictions based on these ratios.
State insurance laws require insurers to analyze the adequacy of reserves. The respective appointed actuaries for FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re must each submit an opinion on an annual basis that their respective reserves, when considered in light of the respective assets FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re hold with respect to those reserves, make adequate provision for the contractual obligations and related expenses of FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re. FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance and Raven Re have filed all of the required opinions with the insurance departments in the states in which they do business.
States regulate the extent to which insurers are permitted to take credit on their financial statements for the financial obligations that the insurers cede to reinsurers. Where an insurer cedes obligations to a reinsurer that is neither licensed nor accredited by the state insurance department, the ceding insurer is not permitted to take such financial statement credit unless the unlicensed or unaccredited reinsurer secures the liabilities it will owe under the reinsurance contract. Under the laws regulating credit for reinsurance issued by such unlicensed or unaccredited reinsurers, the permissible means of securing such liabilities are (i) the establishment of a trust account by the reinsurer to hold certain qualifying assets in a qualified U.S. financial institution, such as a member of the Federal Reserve, with the ceding insurer as the exclusive beneficiary of such trust account with the unconditional right to demand, without notice to the reinsurer, that the trustee pay over to it the assets in the trust account equal to the liabilities owed by the reinsurer; (ii) the posting of an unconditional and irrevocable letter of credit by a qualified U.S. financial institution in favor of the ceding company allowing the ceding company to draw upon the letter of credit up to the amount of the unpaid liabilities of the reinsurer and (iii) a “funds withheld” arrangement by which the ceding company withholds transfer to the reinsurer of the assets, which support the liabilities to be owed by the reinsurer, with the ceding insurer retaining title to and exclusive control over such assets. In addition, on January 1, 2014, the NAIC Model Credit for Reinsurance Act became effective in Iowa, which adds the concept of “certified reinsurer”, whereby a ceding insurer may take financial statement credit for reinsurance provided by an unaccredited and unlicensed reinsurer, which has been certified by the Iowa Commissioner. The Iowa Commissioner certifies reinsurers based on several factors, including their financial strength ratings, and imposes collateral requirements based on such factors. Effective January 1, 2020 reciprocal jurisdiction was added and adopted in Iowa. FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance are subject to such credit for reinsurance rules in Iowa and New York, respectively, insofar as they enter into any reinsurance contracts with reinsurers that are neither licensed nor accredited in Iowa and New York, respectively.
F&G, as the parent company of FGL Insurance and the indirect parent company of FGL NY Insurance, we and entities affiliated for purposes of insurance regulation are subject to the insurance holding company laws in Iowa and New York. These laws generally require each insurance company directly or indirectly owned by the holding company to register with the insurance department in the insurance company’s state of domicile and to furnish annually financial and other information about the operations of companies within the holding company system. Generally, all transactions between insurers and affiliates within the holding company system are subject to regulation and must be fair and reasonable, and may require prior notice and approval or non-disapproval by its domiciliary insurance regulator.
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Most states, including Iowa and New York, have insurance laws that require regulatory approval of a direct or indirect change of control of an insurer or an insurer’s holding company. Such laws prevent any person from acquiring control, directly or indirectly, of F&G Annuities & Life, FGL US Holdings, CF Bermuda, FGLH, FGL Insurance or FGL NY Insurance unless that person has filed a statement with specified information with the insurance regulators and has obtained their prior approval. In addition, investors deemed to have a direct or indirect controlling interest are required to make regulatory filings and respond to regulatory inquiries. Under most states’ statutes, including those of Iowa and New York, acquiring 10% or more of the voting stock of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered a change of control, although such presumption may be rebutted. Accordingly, any person who acquires 10% or more of our voting securities or that of F&G Annuities & Life, FGL US Holdings, CF Bermuda, FGLH, FGL Insurance or FGL NY Insurance without the prior approval of the insurance regulators of Iowa and New York will be in violation of those states’ laws and may be subject to injunctive action requiring the disposition or seizure of those securities by the relevant insurance regulator or prohibiting the voting of those securities and to other actions determined by the relevant insurance regulator.
Each state has insurance guaranty association laws under which insurers doing business in the state may be assessed by state insurance guaranty associations for certain obligations of insolvent insurance companies to policyholders and claimants. Typically, states assess each member insurer in an amount related to the member insurer’s proportionate share of the business written by all member insurers in the state. Although no prediction can be made as to the amount and timing of any future assessments under these laws, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance have established reserves that they believe are adequate for assessments relating to insurance companies that are currently subject to insolvency proceedings.
State insurance laws and regulations include numerous provisions governing the marketplace activities of insurers, including provisions governing the form and content of disclosure to consumers, illustrations, advertising, sales and complaint process practices. State regulatory authorities generally enforce these provisions through periodic market conduct examinations. In addition, FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance must file, and in many jurisdictions and for some lines of business obtain regulatory approval for, rates and forms relating to the insurance written in the jurisdictions in which they operate. FGL Insurance is currently the subject of four ongoing market conduct examinations in various states. Market conduct examinations can result in monetary fines or remediation and generally require FGL Insurance to devote significant resources to the management of such examinations. FGL Insurance does not believe that any of the current market conduct examinations it is subject to will result in any fines or remediation orders that will be material to its business.
FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance, and Raven Re are subject to state laws and regulations that require diversification of their investment portfolios and limit the amount of investments in certain asset categories, such as below investment grade fixed income securities, equity, real estate, other equity investments and derivatives. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations would cause investments exceeding regulatory limitations to be treated as either non-admitted assets for purposes of measuring surplus or as not qualified as an asset held for reserve purposes and, in some instances, would require divestiture or replacement of such non-qualifying investments. We believe that the investment portfolios of FGL Insurance, FGL NY Insurance, and Raven Re as of December 31, 2020 complied in all material respects with such regulations.
F&G Life Re is a Bermuda exempted companies incorporated under the Companies Act 1981, as amended (the “Companies Act”) and registered as Class C insurers under the Insurance Act 1978, as amended, and its related regulations (the “Insurance Act”). F&G Life Re is regulated by the BMA.
The Insurance Act provides that no person may carry on an insurance business in or from within Bermuda unless registered as an insurer under the Insurance Act by the BMA. In deciding whether to grant registration, the BMA has broad discretion to act as it thinks fit in the public interest. The BMA is required by the Insurance Act to determine whether the applicant is a fit and proper body to be engaged in the insurance business and, in particular, whether it has, or has available to it, adequate knowledge and expertise. The registration of an applicant as an insurer is subject to the insurer complying with the terms of its registration and such other conditions as the BMA may impose at any time. The Insurance Act also grants to the BMA powers to supervise, investigate and intervene in the affairs of insurance companies. Bermuda has been awarded full equivalence for commercial insurers under Europe’s Solvency II regime applicable to insurance companies, which regime came into effect on January 1, 2016. In addition, the Insurance Act required BMA approval of increases in control or dispositions of control of an insurance company.
All insurers are required to implement corporate governance policies and processes as the BMA considers appropriate given the nature, size, complexity and risk profile of the insurer and all insurers, on an annual basis, are required to deliver a declaration to the BMA confirming whether or not they meet the minimum criteria for registration under the Insurance Act.
All insurers are required to comply with the Bermuda Insurance Code of Conduct (the “Bermuda Insurance Code”), which is a codification of best practices for insurers provided by the BMA, and to submit annually to the BMA with its statutory financial return a declaration of compliance confirming it complies with the Bermuda Insurance Code of Conduct.
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The BMA utilizes a risk-based approach when it comes to licensing and supervising insurance and reinsurance companies. As part of the BMA’s risk-based system, an assessment of the inherent risks within each particular class of insurer or reinsurer is used to determine the limitations and specific requirements that may be imposed. Thereafter the BMA keeps its analysis of relative risk within individual institutions under review on an ongoing basis, including through the scrutiny of audited financial statements, and, as appropriate, meeting with senior management during onsite visits.
The Insurance Act imposes on Bermuda insurance companies solvency and liquidity standards, as well as auditing and reporting requirements. Certain significant aspects of the Bermuda insurance regulatory framework are set forth below.
Minimum Solvency Margin. The Insurance Act provides that the value of the assets of an insurer must exceed the value of its liabilities by an amount greater than its prescribed minimum solvency margin.
The minimum solvency margin that must be maintained by a Class C insurer is the greater of: (i) $500,000; (ii) 1.5% of assets; and (iii) 25% of that insurer’s enhanced capital requirement (“ECR”). An insurer may file an application under the Insurance Act to waive the aforementioned requirements.
ECR and Bermuda Solvency Capital Requirements (“BSCR”). Class C insurers are required to maintain available capital and surplus at a level equal to or in excess of the applicable ECR, which is established by reference to either the applicable BSCR model or an approved internal capital model. Furthermore, to enable the BMA to better assess the quality of the insurer’s capital resources, a Class C insurer is required to disclose the makeup of its capital in accordance with its 3-tiered capital system. An insurer may file an application under the Insurance Act to have the aforementioned ECR requirements waived.
Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions. In addition to the requirements under the Companies Act (as discussed below), the Insurance Act limits the maximum amount of annual dividends and distributions that may be paid or distributed by F&G Life Re without prior regulatory approval.
F&G Life Re is prohibited from declaring or paying a dividend if it fails to meet its minimum solvency margin, or ECR, or if the declaration or payment of such dividend would cause such breach. If F&G Life Re were to fail to meet its minimum solvency margin on the last day of any financial year, it would be prohibited from declaring or paying any dividends during the next financial year without the approval of the BMA.
In addition, as a Class C insurer, F&G Life Re must: (i) not make any payment from its long-term business fund for any purpose other than a purpose of the insurer’s long-term business, except in so far as such payment can be made out of any surplus certified by the insurer’s approved actuary to be available for distribution otherwise than to policyholders; and (ii) not declare or pay a dividend to any person other than a policyholder unless the value of the assets of its long-term business fund, as certified by the insurer’s approved actuary, exceeds the extent (as to certified) of the liabilities of the insurer’s long-term business. In the event a dividend complies with the above, F&G Life Re must ensure the amount of any such dividend does not exceed the aggregate of (i) that excess and (ii) any other funds properly available for the payment of dividend, being funds arising out of business of the insurer other than long-term business.
Furthermore, as a Class C insurer, F&G Life Re must not declare or pay a dividend to any person other than a policyholder unless the value of the assets of the insurer, as certified by its approved actuary, exceeds its liabilities (as so certified) by the greater of its margin of solvency or its ECR and the amount of any such dividend shall not exceed that excess.
The Companies Act also limits F&G Life Re’s ability to pay dividends and make distributions to its shareholders. F&G Life Re is not permitted to declare or pay a dividend, or make a distribution out of its contributed surplus, if it is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due or if the realizable value of its assets would be less than its liabilities.
Reduction of Capital. F&G Life Re may not reduce its total statutory capital by 15% or more, as set out in its previous year’s financial statements, unless it has received the prior approval of the BMA. Total statutory capital consists of the insurer’s paid in share capital, its contributed surplus (sometimes called additional paid in capital) and any other fixed capital designated by the BMA as statutory capital.
F&G Cayman Re is licensed as a class D insurer in the Cayman Islands by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (“CIMA”). As a regulated insurance company, F&G Cayman Re is subject to the supervision of CIMA and CIMA may at any time direct F&G Cayman Re, in relation to a policy, a line of business or the entire business, to cease or refrain from committing an act or pursing a course of conduct and to perform such acts as in the opinion of CIMA are necessary to remedy or ameliorate the situation.
The laws and regulations of the Cayman Islands require that, among other things, F&G Cayman Re maintain minimum levels of statutory capital, surplus and liquidity, meet solvency standards, submit to periodic examinations of its financial condition and restrict payments of dividends and reductions of capital. Statutes, regulations and policies that F&G Cayman Re is subject to may also restrict the ability of F&G Cayman Re to write insurance and reinsurance policies, make certain investments and distribute funds. Any failure to meet the applicable requirements or minimum statutory capital requirements
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could subject it to further examination or corrective action by CIMA, including restrictions on dividend payments, limitations on our writing of additional business or engaging in finance activities, supervision or liquidation.
Our operations are subject to certain federal and state laws and regulations that require financial institutions and other businesses to protect the security and confidentiality of personal information, including health-related and customer information, and to notify customers and other individuals about their policies and practices relating to their collection and disclosure of health-related and customer information and their practices relating to protecting the security and confidentiality of such information. These laws and regulations require notice to affected individuals, law enforcement agencies, regulators and others if there is a breach of the security of certain personal information, including social security numbers, and require holders of certain personal information to protect the security of the data. Our operations are also subject to certain federal regulations that require financial institutions and creditors to implement effective programs to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft. In addition, our ability to make telemarketing calls and to send unsolicited e-mail or fax messages to consumers and customers and our uses of certain personal information, including consumer report information, are regulated. Federal and state governments and regulatory bodies may be expected to consider additional or more detailed regulation regarding these subjects and the privacy and security of personal information.
In recent years, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and state securities regulators have questioned whether FIAs, such as those sold by us, should be treated as securities under the federal and state securities laws rather than as insurance products exempted from such laws. Treatment of these products as securities would require additional registration and licensing of these products and the agents selling them, as well as cause us to seek additional marketing relationships for these products, any of which may impose significant restrictions on our ability to conduct operations as currently operated. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, annuities that meet specific requirements, including requirements relating to certain state suitability rules, are specifically exempted from being treated as securities by the SEC. We expect the types of FIAs that FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance sell will meet these requirements and; therefore, are exempt from being treated as securities by the SEC and state securities regulators. However, there can be no assurance that federal or state securities laws or state insurance laws and regulations will not be amended or interpreted to impose further requirements on FIAs.
The Dodd-Frank Act made sweeping changes to the regulation of financial services entities, products and markets. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are or may become applicable to us, our competitors or those entities with which we do business, including, but not limited to:
the establishment of federal regulatory authority over derivatives;
the establishment of consolidated federal regulation and resolution authority over systemically important financial services firms;
the establishment of the Federal Insurance Office;
changes to the regulation of broker dealers and investment advisors;
changes to the regulation of reinsurance;
changes to regulations affecting the rights of shareholders;
the imposition of additional regulation over credit rating agencies;
the imposition of concentration limits on financial institutions that restrict the amount of credit that may be extended to a single person or entity; and
the clearing of derivative contracts.
Numerous provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act require the adoption of implementing rules or regulations, some of which have been implemented. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act mandates multiple studies, which could result in additional legislation or regulation applicable to the insurance industry, us, our competitors or those entities with which we do business. Legislative or regulatory requirements imposed by or promulgated in connection with the Dodd-Frank Act may impact us in many ways, including, but not limited to:
placing us at a competitive disadvantage relative to our competition or other financial services entities;
changing the competitive landscape of the financial services sector or the insurance industry;
making it more expensive for us to conduct our business;
requiring the reallocation of significant company resources to government affairs;
increasing our legal and compliance related activities and the costs associated therewith; or
otherwise having a material adverse effect on the overall business climate as well as our financial condition and results of operations.
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Until various studies are completed and final regulations are promulgated pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on investments, investment activities and insurance and annuity products of FGL Insurance and FGL NY Insurance remains unclear.
We may offer certain insurance and annuity products to employee benefit plans governed by ERISA and/or the Code, including group annuity contracts designated to fund tax-qualified retirement plans. ERISA and the Code provide (among other requirements) standards of conduct for employee benefit plan fiduciaries, including investment managers and investment advisers with respect to the assets of such plans, and holds fiduciaries liable if they fail to satisfy fiduciary standards of conduct.
State and federal regulators have been adopting stronger consumer protection regulations that may materially impact our company, business, distribution, and products. The NAIC adopted an amended Suitability in Annuity Transactions Model Regulation in February 2020 incorporating a requirement that agents act in the best interest of consumers without putting their own financial interests or insurer’s interests ahead of consumer interests. The amended model regulation also requires agents to provide certain disclosures to consumers, obligates insurers to supervise agent compliance with the new best interest requirements, and prohibits sales contests or other incentives based on sales of specific annuities within a limited period of time.
At this time seven states have adopted the revised NAIC model regulation, including FGL Insurance’s domiciliary state of Iowa, and at least another nine states are considering adoption of the revised NAIC model regulation. Management has instituted new business procedures to comply with these revised requirements where required. FGL NY Insurance separately instituted new business procedures in response to the New York Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) best interest rule adopted in August 2019 which deviates from the NAIC model regulation and is considered more onerous in certain respects including its broader application to life insurance sales. Management is monitoring a legal challenge to nullify the NYDFS rule.
On December 18, 2020 the U. S. Department of Labor (DOL) issued its final version of an investment advice rule replacing the previous “Fiduciary Rule” that had been challenged by industry and vacated in March 2018 by the United States Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. The rule became effective on February 16, 2021 and could materially affect IRA sales. The final rule reinstates the five-part test for determining whether a person is considered a fiduciary for purposes of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code and sets forth a new prohibited transaction class exemption. The preamble to the final rule also contains the DOL’s reinterpretation of elements of the five-part test that may expand the scope of the test to reach more insurance agents selling IRA products and withdraws the agency’s longstanding position that rollover recommendations out of employer plans are not subject to ERISA. At this time management is considering the impact of the rule on its products and agents. Further guidance is expected to be forthcoming from industry trade groups and DOL.
We believe these emerging developments relating to market conduct standards for the financial services industry may over time materially affect the way in which our agents do business, the role of IMOs, how the company supervises its distribution force, compensation practices, and liability exposure and costs. Management is monitoring these developments closely and will be working with IMOs and distributors to adapt to these evolving regulatory requirements and risks.
New and recently passed legislation may also impact the industry in which we compete. For example, the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019, Pub.L. 116-94 (the “SECURE Act”), which took effect January 1, 2020, creates an opportunity for us and our competitors to pursue sales to employer retirement plan sponsors as well as our traditional customers. In addition, we and our competitors may implement operational changes to adapt to the effect of the new legislation. See section titled “The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019, may impact our business and the markets in which we compete” in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Sustainability
We recognize our duty to conduct our business in an environmentally responsible manner. From eliminating the use of water bottles in favor of filtered water dispensers to participating in recycling programs, all of our locations are helping make a difference in the fight to save our environment.
Other sustainability efforts include records management and the use and disposal of IT equipment. We partner with vendors that have a commitment to sustainability. Our Record Management Centers are undergoing a complete digitization effort to consolidate records facilities and reduce paper. Once paper records are securely destroyed in accordance with federal, state and industry regulations, our vendor disposes of the waste in an environmentally friendly manner. Information technology asset disposal (computers, monitors, servers, mobile devices, etc.) is managed by an e-Steward certified vendor and process. After safely removing any data from the IT asset, it is either reused to maximize its lifecycle or securely recycled. Our vendor safely manages the waste stream of the thousands of pounds of electronics we retire each year.
Our commitment does not stop at our organization alone. Our Digital Strategy Initiative is another way we are making a commitment to moving the title insurance industry as a whole in a more sustainable direction. This initiative seeks to drastically reduce the amount of paper used in the closing process by using customer-focused technology at every point possible in the real estate transaction.
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Human Capital Resources
Employees
As of January 31, 2021, we had 27,058 full-time equivalent employees, which includes 25,586 in our Title segment, 447 in our F&G segment and 1,025 in our Corporate and other segment. In our Title segment, we monitor our staffing levels based on current economic activity. In our F&G segment, our employee base increased approximately 26% during 2020 as our F&G business continues to grow. None of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements. We believe that our relations with employees are generally good.
Diversity
We stand committed to our philosophy that all employees deserve an inclusive workplace, one where each employee feels heard and empowered. All employees – regardless of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation or gender identification – are given equal access to opportunities throughout the organization. We believe that having a variety of employee ideas, perspectives, and experiences are key components of our success. The diversity of our employees allows us to connect to our clientele in important ways and offer them meaningful, customized products and services that resonate with their unique needs. We have a written nondiscrimination policy that is distributed to all employees as part of our employee handbook. Employees must acknowledge our employee handbook and specifically our nondiscrimination policy annually.
Our board of directors leads by example in its commitment to diversity. In 2020, Sandra D. Morgan joined our board, and in 2018, our board codified its commitment to consider all aspects of diversity when selecting new director nominees, including candidates with a diversity of age, gender, nationality, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation by integrating it into the director selection criteria in our Corporate Governance Guidelines.
We have many women in leadership roles throughout our organization, and believe it is important to continue to develop our incredible pool of talent. Twenty-five percent of the members of FNF’s Executive Team are women and 66% of our workforce are women. Our annual Women in Leadership Program for female executives, managers, and future managers is designed to encourage and promote women into more active leadership roles within FNF.
Training and Personal Development
We believe that our employees are our greatest asset, and we are committed to providing opportunities for them to expand their knowledge base and develop opportunities for advancement, which in turn results in improved employee performance and morale.
We provide many opportunities for employees to receive training on escrow administration, title loss reduction, title underwriting, and fraud prevention. Many of our departments also provide the opportunity for our employees to receive official Continuing Education (CE) and Continuing Legal Education (CLE) credits for various state land title and legal associations. Our Commercial Sales University is a six-month training course with industry experts for new commercial sales reps.
Our Leadership Development Program helps employees advance their careers through professional development. Candidates are nominated once a year by their manager to participate in this intensive program where they are asked to prepare and present a managers’ report and to participate in the process of preparing an annual budget. In addition, the program includes thought-provoking discussions between candidates and our management team about leadership, business, the economy, and other industry-related topics. Not only do candidates gain a better understanding of our company culture and the expectations of management, they also receive an opportunity for mentorship and engagement with senior executives.
Employees also receive more general training on skills such as software training, soft skills, sales, and time management through their individual operations. We encourage our employees to join professional organizations that further their development, and provide financial assistance to do so. Some operations also offer the ability for employees to receive education reimbursement for courses or programs that they attend.
Financial Information by Operating Segment
For financial information by operating segment, see Note R Segment Information to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report.
Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
 The statements contained in this Annual Report or in our other documents or in oral presentations or other statements made by our management that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), including statements regarding our expectations, hopes, intentions, or strategies regarding the future. These statements relate to, among other things, future financial and operating results of the Company. In many cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,”
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“predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these statements as a result of a number of factors, including, but not limited to the following:
changes in general economic, business, and political conditions, including changes in the financial markets and COVID-19 conditions;
impacts to our business operations caused by the occurrence of a catastrophe, including the COVID19 outbreak
the severity of our title insurance claims;
downgrade of our credit rating by rating agencies;
adverse changes in the level of real estate activity, which may be caused by, among other things, high or increasing interest rates, a limited supply of mortgage funding, increased mortgage defaults, or a weak U.S. economy;
compliance with extensive government regulation of our operating subsidiaries and adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations or in their application by regulators;
failure to successfully integrate the F&G acquisition, that such integration may be more difficult, time-consuming or costly than expected or that the expected benefits of the F&G acquisition will not be realized;
potential impact of the consummation of the F&G acquisition on relationships, including employees, suppliers, customers and competitors;
regulatory investigations of the title insurance industry;
loss of key personnel that could negatively affect our financial results and impair our operating abilities;
our business concentration in the States of California and Texas are the source of approximately 15.2% and 12.3%, respectively, of our title insurance premiums;
our potential inability to find suitable acquisition candidates, as well as the risks associated with acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our traditional areas of focus, or difficulties integrating acquisitions;
our dependence on distributions from our title insurance underwriters as our main source of cash flow;
competition from other title insurance companies; and
other risks detailed in "Risk Factors" below and elsewhere in this document and in our other filings with the SEC.
 We are not under any obligation (and expressly disclaim any such obligation) to update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should carefully consider the possibility that actual results may differ materially from our forward-looking statements.
 Additional Information
 Our website address is www.fnf.com. We make available free of charge on or through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. However, the information found on our website is not part of this or any other report.

Item 1A.      Risk Factors
In addition to the normal risks of business, we are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those listed below and others described elsewhere in this Annual Report. Any of the risks described herein could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
    
Risk Factors Related to COVID-19, Climate Change and Other Catastrophic Events
Our business could be materially and adversely affected by the occurrence of a catastrophe, including natural or man-made disasters.
Any catastrophic event, such as pandemic diseases, terrorist attacks, floods, severe storms or hurricanes or computer cyber-terrorism, could have a material and adverse effect on our business in several respects:
the outbreak of a pandemic disease, like the novel coronavirus COVID-19, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and the operating results of our insurance business due to its impact on the economy and financial markets;
the occurrence of any pandemic disease, natural disaster, terrorist attack or any other catastrophic event that results in our workforce being unable to be physically located at one of our facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service; or
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we could experience long-term interruptions in our service and the services provided by our significant vendors due to the effects of catastrophic events, including but not limited to government mandates to self-quarantine, work remotely and prolonged travel restrictions. Some of our operational systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery and business continuity planning cannot account for all eventualities. Additionally, unanticipated problems with our disaster recovery systems could further impede our ability to conduct business, particularly if those problems affect our computer-based data processing, transmission, storage and retrieval systems and destroy valuable data;
we manage our financial exposure for losses in our title insurance business and in our F&G business with third-party reinsurance. Catastrophic events could adversely affect the cost and availability of that reinsurance;
the value of our investment portfolio may decrease if the securities in which we invest are negatively impacted by climate change, pandemic diseases, severe weather conditions and other catastrophic events.
For example, in the second and third quarters of 2020 we experienced decreases in commercial volumes and commercial fee-per-file as a result of the outbreak of COVID-19. We also experienced a decrease in the number of opened residential purchase orders and increased volatility in our investment portfolio early in the pandemic.

Risk Factors Related to Our Acquisition of F&G
Although we expect our acquisition of F&G will result in cost savings and other benefits to us, we may not realize those benefits because of integration difficulties and other challenges.
The success of our acquisition of F&G will depend in large part on the success of the management of the combined company in integrating the operations, strategies, technologies and personnel of the two companies following the completion of the merger. We may fail to realize some or all of the anticipated benefits of the merger if the integration process takes longer than expected or is more costly than expected. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in successfully integrating the operations of F&G or to otherwise realize any of the anticipated benefits of the merger, including additional cost savings could impair our operations. In addition, we anticipate that the overall integration of F&G will be a time-consuming and expensive process that, without proper planning and effective and timely implementation, could significantly disrupt our business. Potential difficulties we may encounter in the integration process include the following:
• the integration of management teams, strategies, technologies and operations;
• the disruption of ongoing businesses and distraction of their respective management teams from ongoing business concerns;
• the retention of and possible decrease in business from the existing clients of both companies;
• the creation of uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems;
• the reduction of the costs associated with each company's operations;
• the optimization of information technology platforms and administrative infrastructures;
• the integration of corporate cultures and maintenance of employee morale;
• the retention of key employees;
• the possibility of faulty assumptions underlying expectations regarding the integration process; and
• potential unknown liabilities, expenses or delays associated with the mergers.
The anticipated cost savings and other benefits assume a successful integration and are based on projections, which are inherently uncertain, and other assumptions. Even if integration is successful, anticipated cost savings and other benefits may not be achieved.
The market price of our common stock may decline in the future as a result of the acquisition of F&G.
The market price of our common stock may decline in the future as a result of the merger for a number of reasons, including:
• the unsuccessful integration of F&G (including for the reasons set forth in the preceding risk factor);
• the failure to achieve the perceived benefits of the merger, including financial results, synergies, cost savings, innovation and operational efficiencies, as rapidly as or to the extent anticipated by financial or industry analysts.
Additionally, general fluctuations in stock markets could have a material adverse effect on the market for, or liquidity of, the FNF common stock, regardless of the actual operating performance of FNF and F&G.
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The acquisition of F&G may not be accretive and may cause dilution to our earnings per share, which may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
We currently anticipate that the acquisition of F&G will be accretive to earnings per share (on an adjusted net earnings basis) during the first full calendar year after the merger. See "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for further discussion of F&G earnings. This expectation is based on preliminary estimates which may materially change. We could also encounter additional transaction-related costs or other factors such as the failure to realize all of the benefits anticipated in the merger. All of these factors could cause dilution to our earnings per share or decrease or delay the expected accretive effect of the merger and cause a decrease in the market price of our common stock.
Our future results will suffer if the combined company does not effectively manage its expanded operations following the acquisition of F&G.
The size of the business of the combined company has increased significantly. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to manage this expanded business, which may pose substantial challenges for management, including challenges related to the management and monitoring of new operations, including new international operations, and associated increased costs and complexity. There can be no assurances that we will be successful or that we will realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings, revenue enhancements and other benefits currently anticipated from the merger.
We have substantial indebtedness following the acquisition of F&G and our credit ratings or the credit ratings of our subsidiaries may be different from what we currently expect.
We incurred indebtedness in order to provide funds to pay a portion of the cash portion of the merger consideration and other costs and expenses incurred in connection with the merger. As a result, following completion of the merger, we have substantial indebtedness and our credit ratings or the credit ratings of our subsidiaries may be different from what we currently expect.
This substantial indebtedness may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results, including:
• making it more difficult to satisfy our debt service obligations;
• requiring a substantial portion of cash flows from operations for debt service payments, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, and other general corporate purposes;