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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934


For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission file number: 001-31262
 
ASBURY AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware01-0609375
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2905 Premiere Parkway NW,Suite 300
Duluth,Georgia30097
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(770) 418-8200
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Trading
Title of each classSymbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 par value per shareABGNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
a
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o


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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer  Accelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of
the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.
7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No x
Based on the closing price of the registrant's common stock as of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $1.48 billion (based upon the assumption, solely for purposes of this computation, that all of the officers and directors of the registrant were affiliates of the registrant).
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 26, 2021 was 19,328,753.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
List hereunder the following documents if incorporated by reference and the Part of the Form 10-K into which the document is incorporated:
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed within 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10 through 14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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ASBURY AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31, 2020

  Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV








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PART I.
Forward-Looking Information
Certain of the discussions and information included or incorporated by reference in this report may constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements are statements that are not historical in nature and may include statements relating to our goals, plans and projections regarding industry and general economic trends, our expected financial position, results of operations or market position and our business strategy. Such statements can generally be identified by words such as "may," "target," "could," "would," "will," "should," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "plan," "intend," "foresee," and other similar words or phrases. Forward-looking statements may also relate to our expectations and assumptions with respect to, among other things:

the seasonally adjusted annual rate of new vehicle sales in the United States;
general economic conditions and its expected impact on our revenue and expenses;
our expected parts and service revenue due to, among other things, improvements in vehicle technology;
our ability to limit our exposure to regional economic downturns due to our geographic diversity and brand mix;
manufacturers' continued use of incentive programs to drive demand for their product offerings;
our capital allocation strategy, including as it relates to acquisitions and divestitures, stock repurchases and capital expenditures;
our revenue growth strategy;

the growth of the brands that comprise our portfolio over the long-term and other factors;
The declines in sales and service revenue and ongoing disruptions in our operations, the operations of our vehicle and parts manufacturers and other suppliers, vendors and business partners, and the global economy in general due to the COVID-19 pandemic;
the expected financial and operational performance of the Park Place Dealership (as defined elsewhere herein) group; and

our estimated future capital expenditures, including with respect to the operations of the Park Place Dealership group.

Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual future results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Such factors include, but are not limited to:

the degree to which declines in sales and service revenue and ongoing disruptions in our operations, the operations of our vehicle and parts manufacturers and other suppliers, vendors and business partners, and the global economy in general due to the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows;

the ability to successfully integrate the operations of the Park Place Dealership group into our existing operations and the diversion of management's attention from ongoing business and regular business responsibilities to effect such integration;

the effects of increased expenses or unanticipated liabilities incurred as a result of, or due to activities related to, the Park Place Dealership group acquisition;

difficulty maintaining relationships with customers or suppliers of the Park Place Dealership group;

changes in general economic and business conditions, including changes in employment levels, consumer confidence levels, consumer demand and preferences, the availability and cost of credit, fuel prices, levels of discretionary personal income and interest rates;
our ability to generate sufficient cash flows, maintain our liquidity and obtain any necessary additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, stock repurchases, debt maturity payments and other corporate purposes, if necessary or desirable;
4

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significant disruptions in the production and delivery of vehicles and parts for any reason, including the COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters, severe weather, civil unrest, product recalls, work stoppages or other occurrences that are outside of our control;
our ability to execute our automotive retailing and service business strategy while operating under restrictions and best practices imposed or encouraged by governmental and other regulatory authorities;
our ability to attract and retain skilled employees;
adverse conditions affecting the vehicle manufacturers whose brands we sell, and their ability to design, manufacture, deliver and market their vehicles successfully;
changes in the mix and total number of vehicles we are able to sell;
our outstanding indebtedness and our continued ability to comply with applicable covenants in our various financing and lease agreements, or to obtain waivers of these covenants as necessary;
high levels of competition in our industry, which may create pricing and margin pressures on our products and services;
our relationships with manufacturers of the vehicles we sell and our ability to renew, and enter into new framework and dealer agreements with vehicle manufacturers whose brands we sell, on terms acceptable to us;
the availability of manufacturer incentive programs and our ability to earn these incentives;
failure of our or those of our third-party service providers, management information systems;
any data security breaches with regard to personally identifiable information ("PII");
changes in laws and regulations governing the operation of automobile franchises, including trade restrictions, consumer protections, accounting standards, taxation requirements and environmental laws;
changes in, or the imposition of, new tariffs or trade restrictions on imported vehicles or parts;
adverse results from litigation or other similar proceedings involving us;
our ability to consummate planned mergers, acquisitions and dispositions;
any disruptions in the financial markets, which may impact our ability to access capital;
our relationships with, and the financial stability of, our lenders and lessors;
our ability to execute our initiatives and other strategies;
our ability to leverage gains from our dealership portfolio; and
in addition to the Revised Transaction, our ability to successfully integrate businesses we may acquire, or that any business we acquire may not perform as we expected at the time we acquired it.
Many of these factors are beyond our ability to control or predict, and their ultimate impact could be material. Moreover, the factors set forth under "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" below and other cautionary statements made in this report should be read and considered as forward-looking statements subject to such uncertainties. We urge you to carefully consider those factors.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statement contained herein.
Additional Information
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to such reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are made available free of charge on our website at http://www.asburyauto.com as soon as practical after such reports are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "Commission"). In addition, the proxy statement that will be delivered to our stockholders in connection with our 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, when filed, will also be available on our website, and at the URL
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stated in such proxy statement. We also make available on our website copies of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws, and other materials that outline our corporate governance policies and practices, including:
 
the respective charters of our audit committee, governance and nominating committee, compensation and human resources committee, and capital allocation and risk management committee;
 
our criteria for independence of the members of our board of directors, audit committee, and compensation and human resources committee;
 
our Corporate Governance Guidelines; and
 
our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Directors, Officers, and Employees.
We intend to provide any information required by Item 5.05 of Form 8-K (relating to amendments or waivers of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Directors, Officers, and Employees) by disclosure on our website.
You may also obtain a printed copy of the foregoing materials by sending a written request to: Investor Relations Department, Asbury Automotive Group, Inc., 2905 Premiere Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Duluth, Georgia 30097. In addition, the Commission makes available on its website, free of charge, reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as us, that file electronically with the Commission. The Commission's website is http://www.sec.gov. Unless otherwise specified, information contained on our website, available by hyperlink from our website or on the Commission's website, is not incorporated into this report or other documents we file with, or furnish to, the Commission.
Except as the context otherwise requires, "we," "our," "us," "Asbury," and "the Company" refer to Asbury Automotive Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Item 1. BUSINESS
Asbury Automotive Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation organized in 2002, is one of the largest automotive retailers in the United States. Our store operations are conducted by our subsidiaries.
As of December 31, 2020, we owned and operated 112 new vehicle franchises, representing 31 brands of automobiles at 91 dealership locations, 25 collision centers and one auto auction in 16 metropolitan markets within nine states. Our stores offer an extensive range of automotive products and services, including new and used vehicles; parts and service, which includes vehicle repair and maintenance services, replacement parts and collision repair services (collectively referred to as "parts and services" or "P&S"); and finance and insurance products ("F&I"), including arranging vehicle financing through third parties and aftermarket products, such as extended service contracts, guaranteed asset protection ("GAP") debt cancellation, prepaid maintenance, and credit life and disability insurance.
Park Place Acquisition
As previously announced, on December 11, 2019, the Company entered into transaction agreements with certain members of the Park Place Dealership family of entities, Park Place Mid-Cities, Ltd., a Texas limited partnership, and the identified principal (collectively, "Park Place") to acquire substantially all of the assets of, and certain real property related to, the Park Place business including the purchase of 19 franchises, two collision centers and an auto auction. On March 24, 2020, Asbury delivered notice to the sellers terminating the Transaction Agreements pursuant to the terms thereof in exchange for the payment of $10.0 million of liquidated damages. Please refer to Liquidity and Capital Resources for additional details regarding the impact on financing transactions.
As a result of the Company's efforts to attempt to mitigate the financial impact of COVID-19, along with a strong May and June 2020 performance, the Company reengaged on the Park Place Dealership group acquisition under more favorable pricing and more flexible financing terms, including limiting the purchase of luxury dealership franchises to those most aligned with the Company's core strategic business. On July 6, 2020, the Company entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the "Revised Asset Purchase Agreement") with Park Place to acquire substantially all of the assets of, and lease the real property related to, 12 new vehicle dealership franchises (3 Mercedes-Benz, 3 Sprinter, 2 Lexus, 1 Jaguar, 1 Land Rover, 1 Porsche, and 1 Volvo), two collision centers and an auto auction comprising the Park Place Dealership group (collectively, the "Revised Transaction") for a purchase price of $889.9 million. The Revised Transaction was completed on August 24, 2020. The purchase price was financed through a combination of cash, floor plan facilities and seller financing.
In addition to the Park Place Dealership group acquisition, during the year ended December 31, 2020, we acquired the assets of three franchises (one dealership location) in the Denver, Colorado market for a combined purchase price of $63.6 million.
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During the year ended December 31, 2020, we sold two franchises (two dealership locations) in the Atlanta, Georgia market, we sold six franchises (five dealership locations) and one collision center in the Jackson, Mississippi market, and we sold one franchise (one dealership location) in the Greenville, South Carolina market. In connection with these divestitures the Company recorded a pre-tax gain totaling $62.3 million, which is presented in our accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income as Gain on dealership divestitures, net.
Asbury Automotive
The following charts present the contribution to total revenue and gross profit by each line of business for the year ended December 31, 2020:
abg-20201231_g1.jpgabg-20201231_g2.jpg
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Our new vehicle franchise retail network is made up of dealerships located in 16 metropolitan markets in nine states operating primarily under 11 locally-branded dealership groups. The following chart provides a detailed breakdown of our markets, brand names, and franchises as of December 31, 2020:
Dealership Group Brand NameMarketFranchise
Coggin Automotive GroupFort Pierce, FLAcura, BMW, Honda, Mercedes-Benz
Jacksonville, FLBuick, Chevrolet, Ford, GMC, Honda(a), Nissan(a), Toyota
Orlando, FLFord, Honda(a), Hyundai
Courtesy AutogroupTampa, FLChrysler, Dodge, Genesis, Honda, Hyundai, Infiniti, Jeep, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Sprinter, Toyota
Crown Automotive CompanyDurham, NCHonda
Fayetteville, NCDodge, Ford
Greensboro, NCAcura, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Honda, Jeep, Nissan, Volvo
Charlottesville, VABMW
Richmond, VAAcura, BMW(a), MINI
David McDavid Auto GroupAustin, TXAcura
Dallas/Fort Worth, TXAcura, Ford, Honda(a), Lincoln
Hare & Bill Estes Automotive GroupsIndianapolis, INBuick, Chevrolet(b), Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, GMC, Honda, Isuzu, Jeep, Toyota
Greenville Automotive GroupGreenville, SCJaguar, Land Rover, Nissan, Porsche, Toyota, Volvo
Mike ShawDenver, COSubaru, Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep
Nalley Automotive GroupAtlanta, GAAcura, Audi, Bentley, BMW, Chevrolet, Honda, Hyundai, Infiniti(a), Kia, Lexus(a), Nissan, Toyota(b), Volkswagen
Park Place AutomotiveDallas/Fort Worth, TXJaguar, Lexus(a), Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz(b), Porsche, Volvo, Sprinter(b)
Plaza Motor CompanySt. Louis, MOAudi, BMW, Infiniti, Jaguar, Land Rover, Lexus, Mercedes-Benz(a), Sprinter(a)
_____________________________
(a)This market has two of these franchises.
(b)This market has three of these franchises.

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Operations
New Vehicle Sales
The following table reflects the number of franchises we owned as of December 31, 2020 and the percentage of new vehicle revenues represented by class and franchise for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Class/FranchiseNumber of
Franchises Owned
% of New
Vehicle Revenues
Luxury
Mercedes-Benz10 %
Lexus
BMW
Acura
Infiniti
Audi
Volvo
Land Rover
Jaguar*
Porsche
Lincoln
Bentley
Genesis*
Total Luxury45 39 %
Import
Honda12 16 %
Toyota12 
Nissan
Hyundai
Kia
Subaru
Volkswagen
Sprinter
MINI*
Isuzu*
Total Import40 41 %
Domestic
Ford%
Chevrolet
Dodge
Jeep
GMC
Chrysler*
Buick*
Total Domestic27 20 %
Total Franchises112 100 %
* Franchise accounted for less than 1% of new vehicle revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Our new vehicle revenues include new vehicle sales and lease transactions arranged by our dealerships with third-party financial institutions. We believe that leasing provides a number of benefits to our other business lines, including the historical customer loyalty to the leasing dealership for repairs and maintenance services and the fact that lessors typically give the leasing dealership the first option to purchase the off-lease vehicle.

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Used Vehicle Sales
We sell used vehicles at all of our franchised dealership locations. Used vehicle sales include the sale of used vehicles to individual retail customers ("used retail") and the sale of used vehicles to other dealers at auction ("wholesale") (the terms "used retail" and "wholesale" collectively referred to as "used").
Gross profit from the sale of used vehicles depends primarily on our dealerships' ability to obtain a high quality supply of used vehicles and our use of technology to manage our inventory. Our new vehicle operations typically provide our used vehicle operations with a large supply of trade-ins and off-lease vehicles, which we believe are good sources of high quality used vehicles. We also purchase a portion of our used vehicle inventory at "open" auctions and auctions restricted to new vehicle dealers. Additionally, our used vehicle sales benefit from our ability to sell certified pre-owned vehicles from our franchised dealerships.
Parts and Service
We provide vehicle repair and maintenance services, sell replacement parts, and recondition used vehicles at all of our dealerships. In addition, we provide collision repair services at our 25 free-standing collision repair centers that we operate either on the premises of, or in close proximity to, our dealerships. Historically, parts and service revenues have been more stable than those from vehicle sales. Industry-wide, parts and service revenues have consistently increased over time primarily due to the increased cost of maintaining vehicles, the added technical complexity of vehicles, and the increasing number of vehicles on the road.
The automotive parts and service industry tends to be highly fragmented, with franchised dealerships and independent repair shops competing for this business. We believe, however, that the increased use of advanced technology in vehicles is making it difficult for independent repair shops to compete effectively with franchised dealerships as they may not be able to make the investment necessary to perform major or technical repairs. In an effort to maintain the necessary knowledge to service vehicles and further develop our technician staff, we focus on our internal and manufacturer specific training and development programs for new and existing technicians. We believe our parts and service business is also well-positioned to benefit from the service work potentially generated through the sale of extended service contracts to customers who purchase new and used vehicles from us, as historically these customers tend to have their vehicles serviced at the location where they purchased the extended service contract. In addition, our franchised dealerships benefit from manufacturer policies requiring that warranty and recall related repairs be performed at a franchised dealership. We believe our collision repair centers provide us with an attractive opportunity to grow our business due to the high margins provided by collision repair services and the fact we are able to source original equipment manufacturer parts from our franchised dealerships.
Finance and Insurance
We offer a wide variety of automotive F&I products to our customers. We arrange third-party financing for the sale or lease of vehicles to our customers in exchange for a fee paid to us by the third-party financial institution. We do not directly finance our customers' vehicle purchases or leases, therefore our exposure to losses in connection with those third-party financing arrangements is limited generally to the fees we receive. The fees we receive are subject to chargeback, or repayment, to the finance company if a customer defaults or prepays the retail installment contract typically during some limited time period at the beginning of the contract term. We have negotiated agreements with certain lenders pursuant to which we receive additional fees upon reaching a certain volume of business.
We offer our customers a variety of vehicle protection products in connection with the purchase of vehicles. These products are underwritten and administered by independent third-parties. Under our arrangements with the providers of these products, we primarily sell the products on a straight commission basis. We are subject to chargebacks for insurance contracts as a result of early termination, default, or prepayment of the contract. In addition, we participate in future profits associated with the performance of the third-party held underlying portfolio for certain products pursuant to retrospective commission arrangements. The following is a brief description of some of the vehicle protection products we offer to our customers:
Extended service contracts – covers certain repair work after the expiration of the manufacturer warranty;
GAP debt cancellation – covers the customer after a total loss for the difference between the value of the vehicle and the outstanding loan or lease obligation after insurance proceeds;
Prepaid maintenance – covers certain routine maintenance work, such as oil changes, cleaning and adjusting of brakes, multi-point vehicle inspections, and tire rotations; and
Credit life and disability – covers the remaining amounts due on an auto loan or a lease in the event of death or disability.
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Business Strategy
We seek to create long-term value for our stockholders by striving to drive operational excellence and deploy capital to its highest risk adjusted returns. To achieve these objectives, we employ the strategies described below.
Provide an exceptional customer experience in our stores and through our omni-channel strategy
We are focused on providing a high level of customer service and have designed our dealerships' services to meet the needs of an increasingly sophisticated and demanding automotive consumer. We endeavor to establish relationships that we believe will result in both repeat business and additional business through customer referrals. Furthermore, we provide our dealership managers with appropriate incentives to employ efficient selling approaches, engage in extensive follow-up to develop long-term relationships with customers, and extensively train our sales staff to meet customer needs.
As part of our omni-channel strategy, we implemented ClicklaneTM, a communications technology ecosystem, which offers our customers an easy, convenient and seamless approach to purchase new and used vehicles completely online. Our Clicklane platform provides our customers the ability to (i) select a new or used vehicle for lease or purchase, (ii) arrange for and obtain financing from a variety of lenders, (iii) obtain an offer on their trade-in vehicle, (iv) obtain an exact pay-off amount on any existing loan on a trade-in vehicle, (v) select and purchase finance and insurance products designed for the customer’s vehicle and then (vi) complete the vehicle purchase and financing or lease by signing the transaction documents and scheduling in-store pickup or home delivery with each step performed entirely online. As of February 19, 2021, we have implemented Clicklane across approximately one-third of our stores and expect to complete the rollout across all of our stores by the end of the first quarter of 2021. Although we developed our Clicklane platform together with a third-party vendor, certain technology elements of the platform were developed solely by us and are subject to trade secret protection. In addition, our other omni-channel tools offer our customers the ability to arrange vehicle service appointments, receive service updates and pay for maintenance and repair services online. We continue to invest in and develop omni-channel initiatives designed to deliver an exceptional customer experience.
Invest in and attract top talent to improve backend operations and front-line service
We believe the core of our business success lies in our talent pool, so we are focused on attracting, hiring and retaining the best people. We also invest in resources to train and develop our employees. Our executive management team has extensive experience in the auto retail sector, and is able to leverage experience from all positions throughout the Company. In addition, we believe that local management of dealership operations enables our retail network to provide market specific responses to sales, customer service and inventory requirements. The general manager of each of our dealerships is responsible for the operations, personnel and financial performance of that dealership as well as other day-to-day operations.
Implement best practices and improve productivity
We have discipline-specific executives who focus on increasing the penetration of current services and expanding the breadth of our offerings to customers through the implementation of best practices and continuous training on our technology solutions throughout our dealership network. In addition, we have marketing initiatives designed to attract customers to our online channels and mobile applications.
We tie management and employee compensation at various operational levels to performance through incentive-based pay systems based on various metrics, including dealership profitability, departmental profitability, customer satisfaction and individual performance, as appropriate. In addition, a portion of management's compensation is variable-based in nature, including an annual cash bonus based on achieving certain earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization ("EBITDA") targets and a component of equity compensation tied to our financial performance in comparison to our peer group.
Centralize, streamline, and automate processes
Our Dealership Support Center ("DSC") management is responsible for our capital expenditure and operating strategy, while the implementation of our operating strategy rests with our market-based management teams and each dealership management team based on the policies and procedures established by DSC management. DSC management and our market-based management teams continuously evaluate the financial and operating results of our dealerships, as well as each dealership's geographical location, and from time to time, make decisions to evaluate new technologies and/or processes to further refine our operational processes. We also leverage our scale when implementing new technologies and processes.


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Leverage our scale and cost structure to improve our operating efficiencies
We are positioned to leverage our significant scale so that we are able to achieve competitive operating margins by centralizing and streamlining various back-office functions. We are able to improve financial controls and lower servicing costs by maintaining key store-level accounting and administrative activities in our shared service centers, and we leverage our scale to reduce costs related to purchasing certain equipment, supplies, and services through national vendor relationships. Similarly, we are able to leverage our scale to implement these best practices when integrating newly acquired dealerships allowing us to continue to improve our operating efficiencies.
Successfully integrate Park Place and maximize the benefits of this transformational Acquisition
We have a well-defined integration plan for Park Place. Park Place already performed at a high level and is operated by seasoned general managers, with an average tenure of approximately 20 years. Our integration strategy is focused on achieving cost savings at a corporate level from duplicative functions and implementing our training programs and F&I product offerings at Park Place to achieve higher F&I income per vehicle sold. Park Place utilized the same operational, human resources and accounting information technology systems as Asbury prior to the acquisition, which supported the integration process. Additionally, we have ample internal resources at Asbury to manage the integration process.
Deploy capital to highest risk adjusted returns
Our capital allocation decisions are made within the context of maintaining sufficient liquidity and a prudent capital structure. We believe our cash position and borrowing capacity, combined with our current and expected future cash generation capability, provides us with financial flexibility to enhance shareholder value through capital deployment by reinvesting in our business, acquiring dealerships as well as repurchasing shares, when prudent while targeting a net leverage ratio of less than 3.0X.
Continue to invest in our business
We continually evaluate our existing dealership network and seek to make strategic investments that will increase the capacity of our dealerships and improve the customer experience. In addition, we continue to execute on our strategy of selectively acquiring our leased properties where financing rates make it attractive to be an owner and provide us a further means to finance our business.
Evaluate opportunities to refine our dealership portfolio
We continually evaluate the financial and operating results of our dealerships, as well as each dealership's geographical location and, based on various financial and strategic rationales, may make decisions to dispose of dealerships to refine our dealership and real estate portfolio. We also evaluate dealership acquisition opportunities based on market position and geography, brand representation and availability, key personnel and other factors.
Execute our five-year strategic plan to target an increase in our annual revenue to $20 billion by 2025
We continually evaluate additional opportunities to drive revenue growth while maintaining our disciplined approach to capital allocation. In December 2020, we announced our five-year strategic plan, targeting an increase in our revenue to $20 billion by 2025. We intend to execute on this strategic plan by focusing on a variety of growth efforts including, driving same-store revenue growth, acquiring additional revenue through strategic acquisitions and adding incremental revenue through our Clicklane platform.
Competition
The automotive retail and service industry is highly competitive with respect to price, service, location, and selection. For new vehicle sales, our dealerships compete with other franchised dealerships, primarily in their regions. Our new vehicle store competitors also have franchise agreements with the various vehicle manufacturers, and as such, generally obtain new vehicle inventory from vehicle manufacturers on the same terms as us. The franchise agreements grant the franchised dealership a non-exclusive right to sell the manufacturer's (or distributor's) brand of vehicles and offer related parts and service within a specified market area. State automotive franchise laws restrict competitors from relocating their stores or establishing new stores of a particular vehicle brand within a specified area that is served by our dealership of the same vehicle brand. Recently, certain electric vehicle manufacturers have been permitted to circumvent the state automotive franchise laws of several states in the United States thereby permitting them to sell their new vehicles directly to consumers. We rely on our advertising and merchandising, sales expertise, service reputation, strong local branding, and location of our dealerships to assist in the sale of new vehicles.
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Our used vehicle operations compete with other franchised dealerships, non-franchised automotive dealerships, regional and national vehicle rental companies, and internet-based vehicle brokers for the supply and resale of used vehicles.
We compete with other franchised dealerships to perform warranty and recall-related repairs and with other franchised dealerships and independent service centers for non-warranty repair and maintenance services. We compete with other automobile dealers, service stores, and auto parts retailers in our parts operations. We believe that we have a competitive advantage in parts and service sales due to our ability to use factory-approved replacement parts, our skilled manufacturer trained and certified technicians, our competitive prices, our familiarity with manufacturer brands and models, and the quality of our customer service.
We compete with a broad range of financial institutions in arranging financing for our customers vehicle purchases. In addition, many financial institutions are now offering F&I products through the internet, which has increased competition and may reduce our profits on certain of these items. We believe the principal competitive factors in providing financing are convenience, interest rates, and flexibility in contract length.
Seasonality
The automobile industry has historically been subject to seasonal variations. Demand for new vehicles is generally highest during the second, third, and fourth quarters of each year and, accordingly, we expect our revenues and operating results to generally be higher during these periods. In addition, we typically experience higher sales of luxury vehicles which have higher average selling prices and gross profit per vehicle retailed in the fourth quarter. Revenues and operating results may be impacted significantly from quarter to quarter by changing economic conditions, vehicle manufacturer incentive programs, or adverse weather events.
Dealer and Framework Agreements
Each of our dealerships operate pursuant to a dealer agreement between the dealership and the manufacturer (or in some cases the distributor) of each brand of new vehicles sold and/or serviced at the dealership. The dealer agreements grant the franchised dealership a non-exclusive right to sell the manufacturer's (or distributor's) brand of vehicles and offer related parts and service within a specified market area. Each dealer agreement also grants our dealerships the right to use the manufacturer's trademarks and service marks in connection with the dealerships operations and they also impose numerous operational requirements related to, among other things, the following:
inventories of new vehicles and manufacturer replacement parts; 
maintenance of minimum net working capital requirements, and in some cases, minimum net worth requirements; 
achievement of certain sales and customer satisfaction targets; 
advertising and marketing practices; 
facilities and signs; 
products offered to customers;  
dealership management; 
personnel training; 
information systems;
geographic market, including but not limited to requirements to meet sales and service targets within an assigned market area, geographic limitations on where the dealership may locate or advertise, and restrictions on the export of vehicles; and 
dealership monthly and annual financial reporting.
Our dealer agreements are for various terms, ranging from one year to indefinite. We expect that we will be able to renew expiring agreements in the ordinary course of business. However, typical dealer agreements give the manufacturer the right to terminate or the option of non-renewal of the dealer agreement under certain circumstances, subject to applicable state automotive dealership franchise laws, including:
insolvency or bankruptcy of the dealership;
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failure to adequately operate the dealership or to maintain required capitalization levels;
impairment of the reputation or financial condition of the dealership;
change of ownership or management of the dealership without manufacturer consent;
certain extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger or sale of all or substantially all of our assets without manufacturer consent;
failure to complete facility upgrades required by the manufacturer or agreed to by the dealer;
failure to maintain any license, permits or authorization required to conduct the dealership's business;
conviction of a dealer/manager or owner for certain crimes; or
material breach of other provisions of a dealer agreement.
Notwithstanding the terms of any dealer agreement, the states in which we operate have automotive dealership franchise laws that provide that it is unlawful for a manufacturer to terminate or not renew a franchise unless "good cause" exists.
In addition to requirements under dealer agreements, we are subject to provisions contained in supplemental agreements, framework agreements, dealer addenda and manufacturers' policies, collectively referred to as "framework agreements." Framework agreements impose requirements on us in addition to those described above. Such agreements also define other standards and limitations, including:
company-wide performance criteria;
capitalization requirements;
limitations on changes in our ownership or management;
limitations on the number of a particular manufacturer's franchises owned by us;
restrictions or prohibitions on our ability to pledge the stock of certain of our subsidiaries; and
conditions for consent to proposed acquisitions, including sales and customer satisfaction criteria, as well as limitations on the total local, regional, and national market share percentage that would be represented by a particular manufacturer's franchises owned by us after giving effect to a proposed acquisition.
Some dealer agreements and framework agreements grant the manufacturer the right to terminate or not renew our dealer and framework agreements, or to compel us to divest our dealerships, for a number of reasons, including default under the agreement, any unapproved change of control (which specific changes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but which include material changes in the composition of our Board of Directors during a specified time period, the acquisition of 5% or more of our voting stock by another vehicle manufacturer or distributor, the acquisition of 20% or more of our voting stock by third parties, and the acquisition of an ownership interest sufficient to direct or influence management and policies), or certain other unapproved events (including certain extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger or sale of all or substantially all of our assets). Triggers of the clauses are often based upon actions by our stockholders and are generally outside of our control. Some of our dealer agreements and framework agreements also give the manufacturer a right of first refusal if we propose to sell any dealership representing the manufacturer's brands to a third-party. These agreements may also attempt to limit the protections available under applicable state laws and require us to resolve disputes through binding arbitration. For additional information, please refer to the risk factor captioned "We are dependent upon our relationships with the manufacturers of vehicles that we sell and are subject to restrictions imposed by, and significant influence from, these vehicle manufacturers. Any of these restrictions or any changes or deterioration of these relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows."
Our framework agreements with certain manufacturers contain provisions that, among other things, attempt to limit the protections available to dealers under these laws. If these laws are repealed in the states in which we operate, manufacturers may be able to terminate our franchises without providing us with advance notice, an opportunity to cure or a showing of good cause. Without the protection of these laws, it may also be more difficult for us to renew our dealer agreements upon expiration.
Changes in laws that provide manufacturers the ability to terminate our dealer agreements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if a manufacturer seeks protection from creditors in bankruptcy, courts have held that the federal bankruptcy laws may supersede these laws, resulting in either the termination,
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non-renewal or rejection of franchises by such manufacturers, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. For additional information, please refer to the risk factor captioned "If state laws that protect automotive retailers are repealed, weakened, or superseded by our framework agreements with manufacturers, our dealerships will be more susceptible to termination, non-renewal or renegotiation of their dealer agreements which could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations."
Regulations
We operate in a highly regulated industry. In every state in which we operate, we must obtain one or more licenses issued by state regulatory authorities in order to operate our business. In addition, we are subject to numerous complex federal, state, and local laws regulating the conduct of our business, including those relating to our sales, operations, finance and insurance, marketing, and employment practices. These laws and regulations include state franchise laws and regulations, product standards and recalls, consumer protection laws, privacy and data security laws, anti-money laundering laws, and other extensive laws and regulations applicable to new and used motor vehicle dealers. These laws also include federal and state wage and hour, anti-discrimination, and other laws governing employment practices.
Industry Regulations
The Federal Trade Commission has regulatory authority over automotive dealers pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, and other legislation, and has implemented enforcement initiatives relating to the marketing practices of automotive dealers. Our operations are also subject to the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and other product standards promulgated by the United States Department of Transportation, and the rules and regulations of various state motor vehicle regulatory agencies.
Our financing activities with customers are subject to federal truth-in-lending, consumer leasing, and equal credit opportunity laws and regulations, as well as state and local motor vehicle finance laws, leasing laws, installment finance laws, usury laws, and other installment state and leasing laws and regulations. Some U.S. states regulate fees and charges that may be collected as a result of vehicle sales and service. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law may be asserted against us or our stores by individuals or governmental entities and may expose us to significant damages, fines or other penalties, including revocation or suspension of our license to conduct store operations. Our financing activities, as well as our sale of finance and insurance products, may also be impacted indirectly by laws and regulations that govern automotive finance companies and other financial institutions, including regulations adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the "CFPB").
For additional information, please refer to the risk factor captioned "Our operations are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations. If we are found to be in purported violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws or regulations, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our operations, our business, our reputation, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could suffer."
Environmental, Health and Safety Laws and Regulations
We are subject to a wide range of environmental laws and regulations, including those governing discharges into water, air emissions, storage of petroleum substances and chemicals, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, remediation of various types of contamination, and otherwise relating to health, safety and protection of the environment. For example and without creating an exhaustive list: as with automobile dealerships generally, and service and parts and collision repair center operations in particular, our business involves the generation, use, handling, and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances and wastes and the use of above ground and underground storage tanks (ASTs and USTs). Operations involving the management of wastes and the use of ASTs and USTs are subject to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, analogous state statutes, and their implementing regulations. Pursuant to these laws, federal and state environmental agencies have established approved methods for handling, storing, treating, transporting, and disposing of regulated substances and wastes with which we must comply. We also are subject to laws and regulations governing responses to any releases of contamination at or from our facilities or at facilities that receive our hazardous wastes for treatment or disposal. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA") and similar state statutes, can impose strict and joint and several liability for cleanup costs on those that are considered to have contributed to the release of a "hazardous substance." We also are subject to the Clean Water Act, analogous state statutes, and their implementing regulations which, among other things, prohibit discharges of pollutants into regulated waters without permits, require containment of potential discharges of oil or hazardous substances, and require preparation of spill contingency plans.
In response to the COVID-19 global pandemic, various federal agencies issued mandates and recommendations intended to minimize the spread of infectious disease; similar mandates and recommendations have been issued by several state and local governments where we conduct business. Currently, we are not aware of any non-compliance with these or any other
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environmental requirements applicable to our operations, nor are we aware of any material remedial liabilities to which we are subject.
We have incurred, and will continue to incur, costs and capital expenditures to comply with these laws and regulations. We believe that our operations currently are being conducted in substantial compliance with all applicable regulations. From time to time, we may experience incidents and encounter conditions that are not in compliance with regulations. We may occasionally receive notices from governmental agencies regarding potential violations of these laws or regulations. In such cases, we will work with the agencies to address any issues and to implement appropriate corrective action when necessary. However, none of our dealerships have been subject to any material liabilities in the past, nor do we know of any fact or condition that would result in any material liabilities being incurred in the future.
Human Capital
Mission and Vision
At Asbury, our North Star and our mission is to be the most guest-centric automotive retailer. Our success depends on our employees and their commitment to delivering a consistent and exceptional guest experience. Our employees work at locations in Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia. We believe that our employees help to set us apart from our competitors, and, therefore, we understand they are our greatest asset. As a result, a critical part of our business strategy is investing in supporting and developing our employees so that they are trained and incentivized to provide best-in-class service to our guests.
As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 7,600 full-time and 300 part-time employees, none of whom were covered by collective bargaining agreements. We believe we have good relations with our employees.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We strive to recruit new employees based on their diversity of thought, background and experience as well as diversity of personal characteristics to best reflect our guests and communities we serve.
With the help and guidance of an outside consulting firm, we developed a diversity and inclusion ("D&I") initiative and launched a company-wide effort in November 2020 to identify our strengths and areas of opportunity related to our D&I initiative. The goal of our D&I initiative is to create more welcoming and inclusive workplaces throughout our dealerships and offices. Based on the results of this effort, each store and support location is expected to develop action plans to drive improvements in both employee behaviors and corporate systems that support our D&I initiative.
Community Outreach
In 2020, we established the Asbury Cares program to support selected community partner organizations to focus on reducing social inequality. To ensure widespread support for our outreach program, we awarded all of our employees with an additional 40 hours of paid time off per year that can only be used to volunteer with our community partners.
Recruitment and Talent Development
When recruiting for open positions, we search for people of varying backgrounds, perspectives, and experiences in order to support a diverse and inclusive culture. We also partner with local colleges and trade schools to develop apprenticeship and internship programs. This allows us to help provide valuable training to entry-level candidates while also growing our pipeline.
Our goal is to promote employees from within to career growth opportunities whenever possible. In support of this goal, we invest resources to train and develop our employees to reach their career goals. For example, our employees have access to an online career path tool, which helps them plan their desired career path and see the required performance goals and milestones to be considered for a promotion. Our fixed operations organization encourages technicians to obtain and maintain certification status with our vehicle manufacturers, and in most cases, our dealership pays for the training. Our employees also attend vehicle manufacturer-sponsored and industry training events.
We pride ourselves on rewarding and developing talented and tenured employees. We also expect to make significant additional investments into building a training continuum for team members in every store position and preparing them for greater opportunities within our organization.
Compensation and Benefits
We offer competitive compensation and benefits to attract and retain the best people, including the following benefits for our full-time team employees:
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Health, dental, and vision benefits;
Discount on healthcare premium for completing biometric screening and premium-free healthcare for frontline team members in certain positions;
Up to 4 weeks paid time off;
401(k) match;
Paid pregnancy leave;
Short term disability and long term disability insurance;
Accident insurance, hospital indemnity, employee critical illness insurance;
Employer paid life insurance;
Supplemental life insurance;
Employee Assistance Program; and
Annual scholarship program.
We also lead the industry by offering equity awards to frontline employees because we want them to be owners of our Company and committed to our long-term success.
Health and Safety; Proactive Covid-19 Actions
The health and safety of our team members and guests is of the utmost importance. In 2020, as the Covid-19 global pandemic impacted our dealerships and business, Asbury implemented the following actions:
Mandatory mask-wearing for team members, guests and vendors in all locations;
Personal protective equipment such as steering wheel covers and seat covers for guest cars in for service;
Additional hand sanitizing stations at our dealerships and offices;
Remote work arrangements offered where appropriate;
Guaranteed pay to commissioned team members; and
Free health benefits for furloughed team members.
Insurance
Due to the inherent risk in the automotive retail industry, our operations expose us to a variety of liabilities. These risks generally require significant levels of insurance covering liabilities such as claims from employees, customers, or other third parties, for personal injury and property related losses occurring in the course of our operations. We may be subject to fines and civil and criminal penalties in connection with alleged violations of federal and state laws or regulatory environments. Further, the automobile retail industry is subject to substantial risk of real and personal property loss, due to the significant concentration of property values located at the various dealership locations.
Under our self-insurance programs, including property and casualty, workers’ compensation, and medical, the Company retains various levels of aggregate loss limits and per claim deductibles. In addition, the Company maintains separate insurance policies to address potential cyber and directors and officers exposures. We are self-insured for certain employee medical claims and maintain stop-loss insurance for individual claims.
Provisions for retained losses and deductibles are made by charges to expense based upon periodic evaluations of the estimated ultimate liabilities on reported and unreported claims. The insurance companies that underwrite our insurance require we secure certain of our obligations for deductible reimbursements with collateral. Our collateral requirements are set by the insurance companies and, to date, have been satisfied by posting surety bonds, letters of credit, and/or cash deposits. Our collateral requirements may change from time to time based on, among other things, our claims experience.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors
In addition to the other information contained, referred to or incorporated by reference into this report, you should consider carefully the following factors when evaluating our business and before making an investment decision. Our business, operations, ability to implement our strategy, reputation, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and prospects may be materially adversely affected by the risks described below. In addition, other risks or uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently do not deem material could arise, any of which could also materially adversely affect us.
Risks Related to Our Business
Operating Risks
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic had, and may continue to have, a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 global pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted consumer spending and global supply chains, and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets. We expect the COVID-19 global pandemic may continue to have an adverse impact on our business, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on our business, such as our ability to execute our near-term and long-term business strategies and initiatives in the expected time frame, will depend on uncertain and unpredictable future developments, including the duration and scope of the pandemic.
As a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, and in response to government mandates or recommendations, such as "shelter-in-place" and self-quarantines, as well as decisions we have made to protect the health and safety of our employees, consumers and communities, we have modified our business practices, to include implementing reduced hours at certain of our dealerships, implementing social distancing plans, restricting employee travel, limiting physical participation in meetings, and cancelling events and industry and other conferences. As a result of the government mandates and recommendations, our dealerships, including our parts and services businesses, may not operate at full capacity currently or in the future, resulting in a loss of sales and profits. Additionally, the existing or future closures of, and/or reduced availability of services from the department of motor vehicles in various states have, and may continue to have, an adverse effect on our ability to obtain license plates for our fleet and our customers and perfect liens on sold vehicles, as well as on our customers' ability to obtain valid driver licenses. All of these factors present challenges to our operations, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We are presently considered an essential business, but we may face future operational restrictions or challenges that may limit operations or require us to further restrict access to or close dealerships due to, among other factors, evolving governmental restrictions, including public health directives, quarantine policies, social distancing measures or positive diagnoses for COVID-19 among our employees at certain dealership locations.
Any significant reduction in consumer visits to, or spending at, our dealerships caused by COVID-19, would result in a loss of sales and profits and other material adverse effects. Voluntary or mandatory self-quarantine or "shelter-in-place" measures may reduce customer visits to our dealerships. We also expect consumer fears about contracting the virus to continue, which may further reduce traffic to our dealerships. Consumer spending generally may also be negatively impacted by general macroeconomic conditions and consumer confidence, including the impacts of any recession, resulting from the COVID-19 global pandemic. For example, COVID-19 has resulted in employee furloughs and increased unemployment across the United States, thereby reducing consumer demand for our products and services, as well as the number of consumers who would qualify for an extension of credit for a vehicle purchase or a lease, either on favorable terms or at all. All of these factors may negatively impact sales and profitability.
Our profitability is, to a great extent, dependent on various aspects of vehicle manufacturers' operations. As a result of COVID-19, certain vehicle manufacturers and other suppliers have ceased or slowed production of new vehicles, parts and other supplies. We cannot predict with any certainty how long these production slowdowns in the automotive retail industry will persist and when normalized production will resume at these manufacturers. This disruption in our supply network has negatively impacted, and will continue to impact, our ability to maintain a desirable mix of popular new vehicles and parts that consumers demand at the time and in the volumes desired, all of which would adversely impact our revenues. While the supply disruption has reduced our new vehicle inventory supply, it has positively impacted our gross profit per vehicle retailed. As new vehicle inventories return to historic levels we would expect our new vehicle gross profit to return to pre-COVID levels.
Our principal intangible assets are goodwill and our rights under our franchise agreements with vehicle manufacturers. Goodwill and franchise rights are subject to impairment assessments at least annually or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred. The effects of the COVID-19 global pandemic on the operating results of our business have resulted in a $23.0 million non-cash impairment charge related to our intangible manufacturer franchise rights assets in the first quarter of 2020. We may be required to record additional impairment charges if
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the COVID-19 global pandemic continues, and we cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any additional impairment charge at this time; however, any such impairment charge could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders' equity.
In addition, the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on macroeconomic conditions may impact the proper functioning of financial and capital markets, foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices and interest rates. Even after the COVID-19 global pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of an economic recession or depression that has occurred or may occur in the future. The continued disruption of global financial markets as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic could have a negative impact on our ability to access capital in the future.
As information regarding the duration and severity of the COVID-19 global pandemic is rapidly evolving, the extent of its impact on our business is highly uncertain and difficult to predict. At this time, we cannot reasonably estimate the duration and severity of the COVID-19 global pandemic, or the overall impact it may have on our business. Even after the COVID-19 global pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of increased unemployment and any economic recession or depression that has occurred or may occur in the future. Any of these events could amplify the other risks and uncertainties described below and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or stock price.
For more information on the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations, see "Impact of COVID-19 on our Business" contained in this report.
Property loss or other uninsured liabilities could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
We are subject to substantial risk of property loss due to the significant concentration of property at dealership locations, including vehicles and parts. We have historically experienced business interruptions from time to time at several of our dealerships, due to actual or threatened adverse weather conditions or natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, hail storms or other extraordinary events. Concentration of property at dealership locations also makes the automotive retail business particularly vulnerable to theft, fraud and misappropriation of assets. Illegal or unethical conduct by employees, customers, vendors, and unaffiliated third parties can result in loss of assets, disrupt operations, impact brand reputation, jeopardize manufacturer and other relationships, result in the imposition of fines or penalties, and subject us to governmental investigations or lawsuits. While we maintain insurance to protect against a number of losses, this insurance coverage often contains significant deductibles. In addition, we "self-insure" a portion of our potential liabilities, meaning we do not carry insurance from a third-party for such liabilities, and are wholly responsible for any related losses including for certain potential liabilities that some states prohibit the maintenance of insurance to protect against. In certain instances, our insurance may not fully cover a loss depending on the applicable deductible or the magnitude and nature of the claim. Additionally, changes in the cost or availability of insurance in the future could substantially increase our costs to maintain our current level of coverage or could cause us to reduce our insurance coverage and increase our self-insured risks. To the extent we incur significant additional costs for insurance, suffer losses that are not covered by in-force insurance or suffer losses for which we are self-insured, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely impacted.
If we are unable to acquire and successfully integrate additional dealerships into our business, our revenue and earnings growth may be adversely affected.
We believe that the automotive retailing industry is a mature industry whose sales are significantly impacted by the prevailing economic climate, both nationally and in local markets. Accordingly, we believe that our future growth depends in part on our ability to manage expansion, control costs in our operations and acquire and effectively integrate acquired dealerships into our organization. When seeking to acquire other dealerships, we often compete with several other national, regional and local dealership groups, and other strategic and financial buyers, some of which may have greater financial resources than us. Competition for attractive acquisition targets may result in fewer acquisition opportunities for us and we may have to forgo acquisition opportunities to the extent we cannot negotiate such acquisitions on acceptable terms.
We also face additional risks commonly encountered with growth through acquisitions. These risks include, but are not limited to: (i) failing to obtain manufacturers’ consents to acquisitions of additional franchises; (ii) incurring significant transaction-related costs for both completed and failed acquisitions; (iii) incurring significantly higher capital expenditures and operating expenses; (iv) failing to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired dealerships and impairing relationships with employees; (v) incorrectly valuing entities to be acquired or incurring undisclosed liabilities at acquired dealerships; (vi) disrupting our ongoing business and diverting our management resources to newly acquired dealerships; (vii) failing to achieve expected performance levels; and (viii) impairing relationships with manufacturers and customers as a result of changes in management.
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We may not adequately anticipate all the demands that our growth will impose on our personnel, procedures and structures, including our financial and reporting control systems, data processing systems, and management structure. Moreover, our failure to retain qualified management personnel at any acquired dealership may increase the risks associated with integrating the acquired dealership. If we cannot adequately anticipate and respond to these demands, we may fail to realize acquisition synergies and our resources will be focused on incorporating new operations into our structure rather than on areas that may be more profitable.
Our inability to execute a substantial portion of our strategic plan could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our inability to execute a substantial portion of our business strategy, including our five-year strategic plan, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. We seek to execute on our strategic plan using a variety of growth efforts including, driving same-store revenue growth, acquiring additional revenue through strategic acquisitions and adding incremental revenue through our Clicklane platform. Many of the factors that impact our ability to execute our strategic plan, such as the advancement of certain technologies, general economic conditions and legal and regulatory obstacles are beyond our control. We may not adequately anticipate all the demands that our growth will impose on our personnel, procedures and structures, including our financial and reporting control systems, data processing systems, and management structure. Furthermore, we may decide to alter or discontinue aspects of our strategic plan and may adopt alternative or additional strategies in response to business or competitive factors or factors or events beyond our control. We cannot give assurance that we will be able to execute a substantial portion of our strategic plan which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We are a holding company and as a result are dependent on our operating subsidiaries to generate sufficient cash and distribute cash to us to service our indebtedness and fund our ongoing operations.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness and fund our ongoing operations depends on our operating subsidiaries' ability to generate cash in the future and distribute that cash to us. It is possible that our subsidiaries may not generate cash from operations in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness. In addition, many of our subsidiaries are required to comply with the provisions of franchise agreements, dealer agreements, other agreements with manufacturers, mortgages, and credit facility providers. Many of these agreements contain minimum working capital or net worth requirements, and are subject to change at least annually. Although the requirements contained in these agreements did not restrict our subsidiaries from distributing cash to us as of December 31, 2020, unexpected changes to our financial metrics or to the terms of our franchise agreements, dealer agreements, or other agreements with manufacturers could require us to alter the manner in which we distribute or use cash. If our operating subsidiaries are unable to generate and distribute sufficient cash to us to service our indebtedness and fund our ongoing operations, our financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Goodwill and manufacturer franchise rights comprise a significant portion of our total assets. We must test our goodwill and manufacturer franchise rights for impairment at least annually, which could result in a material, non-cash write-down of goodwill or manufacturer franchise rights and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders’ equity.
Our principal intangible assets are goodwill and our rights under our franchise agreements with vehicle manufacturers. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, including manufacturer franchise rights, are subject to impairment assessments at least annually (or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred), by applying a qualitative or quantitative assessment. A decrease in our market capitalization or profitability increases the risk of goodwill impairment. The fair value of our manufacturer franchise rights is determined by discounting a sub-set of the projected cash flows at a dealership that we attribute to the value of the franchise. Changes to the business mix or declining cash flows in a dealership increase the risk of impairment.
During the first quarter of 2020, we recorded a $23.0 million non-cash impairment charge related to our intangible manufacturer franchise rights. We may be required to record additional impairment charges if the COVID-19 global pandemic continues. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any additional impairment charge at this time; however, any such impairment charge could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders’ equity.
During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we recognized $7.1 million and $3.7 million, respectively, in pre-tax non-cash impairment charges associated with manufacturer franchise rights recorded at certain dealerships.
Revised Transaction Risks
The consummation of the Park Place acquisition creates numerous risks and uncertainties which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
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After consummation of the Revised Transaction, we have experienced significantly more sales, and have more assets and employees. The integration process will require us to expend significant capital and significantly expand the scope of our operations and financial systems. Our management will be required to devote a significant amount of time and attention to the process of integrating the operations of our business with that of the Park Place Dealership group. There is a significant degree of difficulty and management involvement inherent in that process.

These difficulties include:

integrating the operations of the Park Place Dealership group during the pandemic while carrying on the ongoing operations of our business;

managing a significantly larger company than before consummation of the Revised Transaction;

the possibility of faulty assumptions underlying our expectations regarding the (i) integration process, including, among other things, unanticipated delays, costs or inefficiencies, and (ii) retention of key employees;

the effects of unanticipated liabilities;

operating a more diversified business;

integrating two separate business cultures, which may prove to be incompatible;

attracting and retaining the necessary personnel associated with the business of the Park Place Dealership group;

creating uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems and controlling the costs associated with such matters; and

integrating information, purchasing, accounting, finance, sales, billing, payroll and regulatory compliance systems.
As a private company, the Park Place Dealership group was not required to obtain an audit of its internal control over financial reporting or otherwise have such internal control assessed, except to the extent required in connection with audits pursuant to GAAP; however, the financial systems of the Park Place Dealership group are being integrated into our financial systems and are now subject to the internal control audit required with respect to the Company as a public company.
If any of these factors limits our ability to integrate the Park Place Dealership group into our operations successfully or on a timely basis, the expectations of future results of operations, including certain run-rate synergies expected to result from the Revised Transaction, might not be met. As a result, we may not be able to realize the expected benefits that we seek to achieve from the Revised Transaction, which could also affect our ability to service our debt obligations. In addition, we may be required to spend additional time or money on integration that otherwise would be spent on the development and expansion of our business, including efforts to further expand our product portfolio.
We may be unable to realize the anticipated cost savings or operational improvements or may incur additional and/or unexpected costs in order to realize them.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to realize the anticipated cost savings or operational improvements from the Revised Transaction in the anticipated amounts or within the anticipated timeframes or costs expectations or at all. We are implementing a series of cost savings initiatives at the combined Company that we expect to result in recurring, annual run-rate cost savings. We expect to incur one-time, non-recurring costs to achieve such synergies.
These or any other cost savings or operational improvements that we realize may differ materially from our estimates. We cannot provide assurances that these anticipated savings will be achieved or that our programs and improvements will be completed as anticipated or at all. In addition, any cost savings that we realize may be offset, in whole or in part, by reductions in revenues or through increases in other expenses.
Failure to realize the expected costs savings and operating synergies related to the Revised Transaction could result in increased costs and have an adverse effect on the combined Company's financial results and prospects.
As part of the Revised Transaction, we assumed certain liabilities of the Park Place Dealership group. There may be liabilities that we failed or were unable to discover in the course of performing due diligence investigations into the Park Place Dealership group. In addition, as the Park Place Dealership group is integrated, we may learn additional information about the Park Place Dealership group, such as unknown or contingent liabilities or other issues relating to the operations of the Park Place Dealership group. Any such liabilities or issues, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on
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our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the Revised Asset Purchase Agreement, the sellers will be liable for certain breaches of representations, warranties and covenants but our recovery may be contingent upon the aggregate damages arising out of any such breaches exceeding specified dollar thresholds and is subject to other time-based and monetary-based limitations. Accordingly, we may not be able to enforce certain claims against the sellers with respect to liabilities of the Park Place Dealership group.
Risks Related to Macroeconomic and Market conditions
The automotive retail industry is sensitive to unfavorable changes in general economic conditions and various other factors that could affect demand for our products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, our ability to implement our strategy and our results of operations.
Our future performance will be impacted by general economic conditions including: changes in employment levels; consumer demand, preferences and confidence levels; the availability and cost of credit; fuel prices; levels of discretionary personal income; and interest rates. We also are subject to economic, competitive, and other conditions prevailing in the various markets in which we operate, even if those conditions are not prominent nationally.
Retail vehicle sales are cyclical and historically have experienced periodic downturns characterized by oversupply and weak demand, which could result in a need for us to lower the prices at which we sell vehicles, which would reduce our revenue per vehicle sold and our margins. Additionally, a shift in consumer’s vehicle preferences driven by pricing, fuel costs or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our revenues, margins and results of operations.
Changes in general economic conditions may make it difficult for us to execute our business strategy. In such an event, we may be required to enter into certain transactions in order to generate additional cash, which may include, but not be limited to, selling certain of our dealerships or other assets or increasing borrowings under our existing, or any future, credit facilities. There can be no assurance that, if necessary, we would be able to enter into any such transactions in a timely manner or on reasonable terms, if at all. Furthermore, in the event we were required to sell dealership assets, the sale of any material portion of such assets could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.
Adverse conditions affecting one or more of the vehicle manufacturers with which we hold franchises or their inability to deliver a desirable mix of vehicles that our consumers demand could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Historically, we have generated most of our revenue through new vehicle sales, and new vehicle sales also tend to lead to sales of higher-margin products and services, such as finance and insurance products and vehicle-related parts and service. As a result, our profitability is dependent to a great extent on various aspects of vehicle manufacturers’ operations, many of which are outside of our control. Our ability to sell new vehicles is dependent on manufacturers’ ability to design and produce, and willingness to allocate and deliver to our dealerships, a desirable mix of popular new vehicles that consumers demand. Popular vehicles may often be difficult to obtain from manufacturers for a number of reasons, including the fact that manufacturers generally allocate their vehicles to dealerships based on sales history and capital expenditures associated with such dealerships. Further, if a manufacturer fails to produce desirable vehicles or develops a reputation for producing undesirable vehicles or produces vehicles that do not comply with applicable laws or government regulations, and we own dealerships which sell that manufacturer’s vehicles, our revenues from those dealerships could be adversely affected as consumers shift their vehicle purchases away from that brand.
Although we seek to limit our dependence on any one vehicle manufacturer, there can be no assurance the brand mix allocated and delivered to our dealerships by the manufacturers will be appropriate or sufficiently diverse, to protect us from a significant decline in the desirability of vehicles manufactured by a particular manufacturer or disruptions in a manufacturer's ability to produce vehicles. For the year ended December 31, 2020, manufacturers representing 5% or more of our revenues from new vehicle sales were as follows:
Manufacturer (Vehicle Brands):% of Total
New Vehicle
Revenues
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. (Toyota and Lexus)
21 %
American Honda Motor Co., Inc. (Honda and Acura)
20 %
Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC (Mercedes-Benz and Sprinter)
10 %
Ford Motor Company (Ford and Lincoln)
%
Nissan North America, Inc. (Nissan and Infiniti)
%
BMW of North America, LLC (BMW and Mini)
%
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Similar to automotive retailers, vehicle manufacturers may be affected by the long-term U.S. and international economic climate. In addition, we remain vulnerable to other matters that may impact the manufacturers of the vehicles we sell, many of which are outside of our control, including: (i) changes in their respective financial condition; (ii) changes in their respective marketing efforts; (iii) changes in their respective reputation; (iv) manufacturer and other product defects, including recalls; (v) changes in their respective management; (vi) disruptions in the production and delivery of vehicles and parts due to natural disasters or other reasons (for example, anticipated shortages in the supply of semi-conductor chips may adversely impact the number of vehicles which manufacturers are able to produce); and (vii) issues with respect to labor relations. Our business is highly dependent on consumer demand and brand preferences for our manufacturers’ products. Manufacturer recall campaigns are a common occurrence that have accelerated in frequency and scope. Manufacturer recall campaigns could (i) adversely affect our new and used vehicle sales or customer residual trade-in valuations, (ii) cause us to temporarily remove vehicles from our inventory, (iii) force us to incur increased costs, and (iv) expose us to litigation and adverse publicity related to the sale of recalled vehicles, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Vehicle manufacturers that produce vehicles outside of the U.S. are subject to additional risks including changes in quotas, tariffs or duties, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, regulations governing imports and the costs related thereto, and foreign governmental regulations.
Adverse conditions that materially affect a vehicle manufacturer and its ability to profitably design, market, produce or distribute desirable new vehicles could in turn materially adversely affect our ability to (i) sell vehicles produced by that manufacturer, (ii) obtain or finance our new vehicle inventories, (iii) access or benefit from manufacturer financial assistance programs, (iv) collect in full or on a timely basis any amounts due therefrom, and/or (v) obtain other goods and services provided by the impacted manufacturer. In addition, we depend on manufacturers’ ability to design, produce, and supply parts to us and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our parts and services business. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected as a result of any event that has an adverse effect on any vehicle manufacturer.
In addition, if a vehicle manufacturer’s financial condition worsens and it seeks protection from creditors in bankruptcy or similar proceedings, or otherwise under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, (i) the manufacturer could seek to terminate or reject all or certain of our franchises, (ii) if the manufacturer is successful in terminating all or certain of our franchises, we may not receive adequate compensation for those franchises, (iii) our cost to obtain financing for our new vehicle inventory may increase or no longer be available from such manufacturer’s captive finance subsidiary, (iv) consumer demand for such manufacturer’s products could be materially adversely affected, especially if costs related to improving such manufacturer’s financial condition are factored into the price of its products, (v) there may be a significant disruption in the availability of consumer credit to purchase or lease that manufacturer’s vehicles or negative changes in the terms of such financing, which may negatively impact our sales, or (vi) there may be a reduction in the value of receivables and inventory associated with that manufacturer, among other things. The occurrence of any one or more of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Furthermore, the automotive manufacturing supply chain spans the globe. As such, supply chain disruptions resulting from natural disasters, adverse weather and other events may affect the flow of vehicle and parts inventories to us or our manufacturing partners. For example, in early 2020, the outbreak of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China led to quarantines of a significant number of cities across the United States and other countries and widespread disruptions to travel and economic activity. Until such time as the coronavirus is contained, we may continue to experience disruptions in the (i) supply of vehicle and parts inventories, (ii) ability and willingness of our customers to visit our stores to purchase products or service their vehicles and (iii) overall health of our labor force. At this time, it is unclear what effect, if any, the outbreak and resulting disruptions may continue to have on the automotive manufacturing vehicle and parts supply chain, the health of our labor force and the ability and willingness of our customers to visit our stores to purchase products or service their vehicles. Such disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Substantial competition in automobile sales and services may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The automotive retail and service industry is highly competitive with respect to price, service, location, and selection. Our competition includes: (i) franchised automobile dealerships in our markets that sell the same or similar new and used vehicles; (ii) privately negotiated sales of used vehicles; (iii) other used vehicle retailers, including regional and national vehicle rental companies; (iv) companies with a primarily internet-based business model, such as Carvana, and used vehicle brokers that sell used vehicles to consumers; (v) service center and parts supply chain stores; and (vi) independent service and repair shops.
We do not have any cost advantage over other retailers in purchasing new vehicles from manufacturers. We typically rely on our advertising, merchandising, sales expertise, service reputation, strong local branding and dealership location to sell new vehicles. Because our dealer agreements only grant us a non-exclusive right to sell a manufacturer’s product within a specified market area, our revenues, gross profit and overall profitability may be materially adversely affected if competing dealerships
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expand their market share. Further, our vehicle manufacturers may decide to award additional franchises in our markets in ways that negatively impact our sales.
The internet has become a significant part of the advertising and sales process in our industry. Customers are using the internet to shop, and compare prices, for new and used vehicles, automotive repair and maintenance services, finance and insurance products and other automotive products. If we are unable to effectively use the internet to attract customers to our own online channels, such as our Clicklane platform, and mobile applications, and, in turn, to our stores, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. Additionally, the growing use of social media by consumers increases the speed and extent that information and opinions can be shared, and negative posts or comments on social media about us or any of our stores could damage our reputation and brand names, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Additionally, if one or more companies are permitted to circumvent the state franchise laws of several states in the United States, such as Tesla, thereby permitting them to sell their new vehicles directly to consumers without the requirements of establishing a dealer network, they may be able to have a competitive advantage over the traditional dealers, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales in those states, which in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are dependent upon our relationships with the manufacturers of vehicles that we sell and are subject to restrictions imposed by, and significant influence from, these vehicle manufacturers. Any of these restrictions or any changes or deterioration of these relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are dependent on our relationships with the manufacturers of the vehicles we sell, which have the ability to exercise a great deal of control and influence over our day-to-day operations, as a result of the terms of our dealer, framework and related agreements. We may obtain new vehicles from manufacturers, service vehicles, sell new vehicles and display vehicle manufacturers’ trademarks only to the extent permitted under these agreements. The terms of these agreements may conflict with our interests and objectives and may impose limitations on key aspects of our operations, including acquisition strategy and capital spending.
For example, manufacturers can set performance standards with respect to sales volume, sales effectiveness and customer satisfaction, and require us to obtain manufacturer consent before we can acquire dealerships selling a manufacturer’s automobiles. From time to time, we may be precluded under agreements with certain manufacturers from acquiring additional franchises, or subject to other adverse actions, to the extent we are not meeting certain performance criteria at our existing stores (with respect to matters such as sales volume, customer satisfaction and sales effectiveness) until our performance improves in accordance with the agreements, subject to applicable state franchise laws. In addition, many vehicle manufacturers place limits on the total number of franchises that any group of affiliated dealerships may own and certain manufacturers place limits on the number of franchises or share of total brand vehicle sales that may be maintained by an affiliated dealership group on a national, regional or local basis, as well as limits on store ownership in contiguous markets. If we reach any of these limits, we may be prevented from making further acquisitions, or we may be required to dispose of certain dealerships, which could adversely affect our future growth. We cannot provide assurance that manufacturers will approve future acquisitions timely, if at all, which could significantly impair the execution of our acquisition strategy.
In addition, certain manufacturers use a dealership’s manufacturer-determined customer satisfaction index ("CSI") score as a factor governing participation in incentive programs. To the extent we do not meet minimum score requirements, our future payments may be materially reduced or we may be precluded from receiving certain incentives, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Manufacturers also typically establish facilities and minimum capital requirements for dealerships on a case-by-case basis. In certain circumstances, including as a condition to obtaining consent to a proposed acquisition, a manufacturer may require us to remodel, upgrade or move our facilities, and capitalize the subject dealership at levels we would not otherwise choose to fund, causing us to divert our financial resources away from uses that management believes may be of higher long-term value to us. Delays in obtaining, or failing to obtain, manufacturer consent, would impede our ability to execute acquisitions that we believe would integrate well with our overall strategy and limit our ability to expand our business.
Manufacturers can also establish new franchises or relocate existing franchises, subject to applicable state franchise laws. The establishment or relocation of franchises in our markets could have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition and results of operations of our dealerships in the market in which the action is taken.
Manufacturers may also limit our ability to divest one or more of our dealerships in a timely manner or at all. Most of our dealer agreements provide the manufacturer with a right of first refusal to purchase any of the manufacturer’s franchises we
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seek to sell. Divestitures may also require manufacturer consent and failure to obtain consent would require us to find another potential buyer or wait until the buyer is able to meet the requirements of the manufacturer. A delay in the sale of a dealership could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Manufacturers may terminate or may not renew our dealer and framework agreements, or may compel us to divest our dealerships, for a number of reasons, including default under the agreement, any unapproved change of control (which specific changes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but which include material changes in the composition of our Board of Directors during a specified time period, the acquisition of 5% or more of our voting stock by another vehicle manufacturer or distributor, the acquisition of 20% or more of our voting stock by third parties, and the acquisition of an ownership interest sufficient to direct or influence management and policies), or certain other unapproved events (including certain extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger or sale of all or substantially all of our assets). Triggers of these clauses are often based upon actions by our stockholders and are generally outside of our control. Restrictions on any unapproved changes of ownership or management may adversely impact our value, as they may prevent or deter prospective acquirers from gaining control of us. In addition, actions taken by a manufacturer to exploit its bargaining position in negotiating the terms of renewals of franchise agreements or otherwise could also have a material adverse effect on our revenues and profitability.
There can be no assurances that we will be able to renew our dealer and framework agreements on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected to the extent that our rights become compromised or our operations are restricted due to the terms of our dealer or framework agreements or if we lose franchises representing a significant percentage of our revenues due to termination or failure to renew such agreements.
If vehicle manufacturers reduce or discontinue sales incentive, warranty or other promotional programs, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
We benefit from certain sales incentive, warranty, and other promotional programs of vehicle manufacturers that are intended to promote and support their respective new vehicle sales. Key incentive programs include: (i) customer rebates on new vehicles; (ii) dealer incentives on new vehicles; (iii) special financing or leasing terms; (iv) warranties on new and used vehicles; and (v) sponsorship of used vehicle sales by authorized new vehicle dealers.
Vehicle manufacturers often make many changes to their incentive programs. Any reduction or discontinuation of manufacturers’ incentive programs for any reason, including a supply and demand imbalance, may reduce our sales volume which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
Technological advances, including increases in ride sharing applications, electric vehicles and autonomous vehicles in the long-term could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The automotive industry is predicted to experience change over the long-term. Shared vehicle services such as Uber and Lyft provide consumers with increased choice in their personal mobility options. The effect of these and similar mobility options on the retail automotive industry is uncertain, and may include lower levels of new vehicles sales. In addition, technological advances are facilitating the development of driverless vehicles. The eventual timing of widespread availability of driverless vehicles is uncertain due to regulatory requirements, additional technological requirements, and uncertain consumer acceptance of these vehicles. The effect of driverless vehicles on the automotive retail industry is uncertain and could include changes in the level of new and used vehicles sales, the price of new vehicles, and the role of franchised dealers, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The widespread adoption of electric and battery powered vehicles also could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of our parts and service business.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financial Matters
Our outstanding indebtedness, ability to incur additional debt and the provisions in the agreements governing our debt, and certain other agreements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
As of December 31, 2020, we had total debt of $1.21 billion, (which excluded $8.9 million mortgage notes payable classified as Liabilities associated with assets held for sale) and total floor plan notes payable of $702.2 million. We have the ability to incur substantial additional debt in the future to finance, among other things, acquisitions, working capital and capital expenditures, subject in each case to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments and other agreements existing at the time such indebtedness is incurred.
Our debt service obligations could have important consequences to us for the foreseeable future, including the following: (i) our ability to obtain additional financing for acquisitions, capital expenditures, working capital or other general corporate
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purposes may be impaired; (ii) a substantial portion of our cash flow from operating activities could be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, potentially reducing the funds available to us for our operations and other corporate purposes; (iii) some of our borrowings are and will continue to be at variable rates of interest, which exposes us to risks of interest rate increases; and (iv) we may be or become substantially more leveraged than some of our competitors, which may place us at a relative competitive disadvantage and make us more vulnerable to changes in market conditions and governmental regulations.
In addition to our ability to incur additional debt in the future, there are operating and financial restrictions and covenants, such as leverage covenants, in certain of our debt and mortgage agreements, including the agreement governing our 2019 Senior Credit Facility and our mortgage agreements and related mortgage guarantees, as well as certain other agreements to which we are a party that may adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs or to pursue certain business activities. These limit, among other things, our ability to incur certain additional debt, create certain liens or other encumbrances and make certain payments (including dividends and repurchases of our common stock and for investments). Certain of these agreements also require us to maintain compliance with certain financial ratios.
Our failure to comply with any of these covenants in the future could constitute a default under the relevant agreement, which could, depending on the relevant agreement, (i) entitle the creditors under such agreement to terminate our ability to borrow under the relevant agreement and accelerate our obligations to repay outstanding borrowings; (ii) require us to repay those borrowings; (iii) entitle the creditors under such agreement to foreclose on the property securing the relevant indebtedness; or (iv) prevent us from making debt service payments on certain of our other indebtedness, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In many cases, a default under one of our debt, mortgage, or other agreements, could trigger cross-default provisions in one or more of our other debt or mortgage agreements. There can be no assurance that our creditors would agree to an amendment or waiver of our covenants. In the event we obtain an amendment or waiver, we would likely incur additional fees and higher interest expense.
In addition to the financial and other covenants contained in our various debt or mortgage agreements, certain of our lease agreements contain covenants that give our landlords the right to terminate the lease, seek significant cash damages, or evict us from the applicable property, if we fail to comply. Similarly, our failure to comply with any financial or other covenants in any of our framework agreements would give the relevant manufacturer certain rights, including the right to reject proposed acquisitions, and may give it the right to repurchase its franchises from us. Events that give rise to such rights, and our inability to acquire additional dealerships or the requirement that we sell one or more of our dealerships at any time, could inhibit the growth of our business, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Manufacturers may also have the right to restrict our ability to provide guarantees of our operating companies, pledges of the capital stock of our subsidiaries and liens on our assets, which could materially adversely affect our ability to obtain financing for our business and operations on favorable terms or at desired levels, if at all.
The occurrence of any one of these events may limit our ability to take strategic actions that would otherwise enable us to manage our business in a manner in which we otherwise would, absent such limitations, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by increases in interest rates.
We generally finance our purchases of new vehicle inventory, have the ability to finance the purchases of used vehicle inventory, and have the availability to borrow funds for working capital under our senior secured credit facilities that charge interest at variable rates. Therefore, our interest expense from variable rate debt will rise with increases in interest rates. In addition, a significant rise in interest rates may also have the effect of depressing demand in the interest rate sensitive aspects of our business, particularly new and used vehicle sales and the related profit margins and F&I revenue per vehicle, because most of our customers finance their vehicle purchases. As a result, rising interest rates may have the effect of simultaneously increasing our capital costs and reducing our revenues. Given our variable interest rate debt and floor plan notes payable outstanding as of December 31, 2020, each one percent increase in market interest rates would increase our total annual interest expense by as much as $6.8 million. When considered in connection with reduced expected sales as and if interest rates increase, any such increase could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our vehicle sales, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by changes in costs or availability of consumer financing.
The majority of vehicles purchased by our customers are financed. Reductions in the availability of credit to consumers have contributed to declines in our vehicle sales in past periods. Reductions in available consumer credit or increased costs of that credit, could result in a decline in our vehicle sales, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
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Lenders that have historically provided financing to those buyers who, for various reasons, do not have access to traditional financing, including those buyers who have a poor credit history or lack the down payment necessary to purchase a vehicle, are often referred to as subprime lenders. If market conditions cause subprime lenders to tighten credit standards, or if interest rates increase, the ability to obtain financing from subprime lenders for these consumers to purchase vehicles could become limited, resulting in a decline in our vehicle sales, which in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters
If state laws that protect automotive retailers are repealed, weakened, or superseded by our framework agreements with manufacturers, our dealerships will be more susceptible to termination, non-renewal, or renegotiation of their dealer agreements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Applicable state laws generally provide that an automobile manufacturer may not terminate or refuse to renew a dealer agreement unless it has first provided the dealer with written notice setting forth "good cause" and stating the grounds for termination or non-renewal. Some state laws allow dealers to file protests or petitions or allow them to attempt to comply with the manufacturer’s criteria within a notice period to avoid the termination or non-renewal. Our framework agreements with certain manufacturers contain provisions that, among other things, attempt to limit the protections available to dealers under these laws, and, though unsuccessful to date, manufacturers’ ongoing lobbying efforts may lead to the repeal or revision of these laws. If these laws are repealed in the states in which we operate, manufacturers may be able to terminate our franchises without providing advance notice, an opportunity to cure or a showing of good cause. Without the protection of these state laws, it may also be more difficult for us to renew our dealer agreements upon expiration. Changes in laws that provide manufacturers the ability to terminate our dealer agreements could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, if a manufacturer seeks protection from creditors in bankruptcy, courts have held that the federal bankruptcy laws may supersede the state laws that protect automotive retailers resulting in either the termination, non-renewal or rejection of franchises by such manufacturers, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business, result of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A failure of any of our information systems or those of our third-party service providers, or a data security breach with regard to personally identifiable information ("PII") about our customers or employees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We depend on the efficient operation of our information systems and those of our third-party service providers. We rely on information systems at our dealerships in all aspects of our sales and service efforts, as well in the preparation of our consolidated financial and operating data. All of our dealerships currently operate on a common dealer management system ("DMS"). Our business could be significantly disrupted if (i) the DMS fails to integrate with other third-party information systems, customer relations management tools or other software, or to the extent any of these systems become unavailable to us or fail to perform as designed for an extended period of time or (ii) our relationship with our DMS provider or any other third-party provider deteriorates. Additionally, any disruption to access and connectivity of our information systems due to natural disasters, power loss or other reasons could disrupt our business operations, impact sales and results of operations, expose us to customer or third-party claims, or result in adverse publicity.
Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, we and our partners receive significant PII about our customers in order to complete the sale or service of a vehicle and related products. We also receive PII from our employees. The regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding, with numerous state and federal regulations, as well as payment card industry and other vendor standards, governing the collection and maintenance of PII from consumers and other individuals. We believe the automotive dealership industry is a particular target of identity thieves, as there are numerous opportunities for a data security breach, including cybersecurity breaches, burglary, lost or misplaced data, scams, or misappropriation of data by employees, vendors or unaffiliated third parties. Because of the increasing number and sophistication of cyber-attacks, and despite the security measures we have in place and any additional measures we may implement or adopt in the future, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, could be vulnerable to security breaches, computer viruses, lost or misplaced data, programming errors, scams, burglary, human errors, acts of vandalism and/or other events. Alleged or actual data security breaches can increase costs of doing business, negatively affect customer satisfaction and loyalty, expose us to negative publicity, individual claims or consumer class actions, administrative, civil or criminal investigations or actions, and infringe on proprietary information, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Our operations are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations. If we are found to be in purported violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws or regulations, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our operations, our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation and prospects could suffer.
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The automotive retail industry, including our facilities and operations, is subject to a wide range of federal, state, and local laws and regulations, such as those relating to motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales, leasing, finance and insurance, marketing, licensing, consumer protection, consumer privacy, escheatment, anti-money laundering, environmental, vehicle emissions and fuel economy, and health and safety. In addition, with respect to employment practices, we are subject to various laws and regulations, including complex federal, state, and local wage and hour and anti-discrimination laws. The violation of the laws or regulations to which we are subject could result in administrative, civil, or criminal sanctions against us, which may include a cease and desist order against the subject operations or even revocation or suspension of our license to operate the subject business, as well as significant fines and penalties. Violation of certain laws and regulations to which we are subject may also subject us to consumer class action or other lawsuits or governmental investigations and adverse publicity. We currently devote significant resources to comply with applicable federal, state, and local regulation of health, safety, environmental, zoning and land use regulations, and we may need to spend additional time, effort, and money to keep our operations and existing or acquired facilities in compliance therewith.
In addition, there is a risk that our employees could engage in misconduct that violates the laws or regulations to which we are subject. It is not always possible to detect or deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If any of our employees were to engage in misconduct or were to be accused of such misconduct, our business and reputation could be adversely affected.
The Dodd-Frank Act, which was signed into law on July 21, 2010, established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), an independent federal agency funded by the United States Federal Reserve with broad regulatory powers and limited oversight from the United States Congress. Although automotive dealers are generally excluded, the Dodd-Frank Act could lead to additional, indirect regulation of automotive dealers, in particular, their sale and marketing of finance and insurance products, through its regulation of automotive finance companies and other financial institutions. In addition, the CFPB possesses supervisory authority with respect to certain non-bank lenders, including automotive finance companies, participating in automotive financing. The Dodd-Frank Act also provided the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") with new and expanded authority regarding automotive dealers. Since then, the FTC has been gathering information on consumer protection issues through roundtables, public comments and consumer surveys. The FTC may exercise its additional rule-making authority to expand consumer protection regulations relating to the sale, financing and leasing of motor vehicles. In 2014, the FTC implemented an enforcement initiative relating to the advertising practices of automotive dealers. In connection therewith, in May 2016, we signed a consent order with the FTC to settle allegations that in certain instances our advertisements did not adequately disclose information about used vehicles with open safety recalls. Under the consent order, we did not agree to make any payments or admit wrong-doing, but we did agree to make certain disclosures in marketing materials and at the point of sale and comply with certain record-keeping obligations.
Continued pressure from the CFPB, FTC, and other federal agencies could lead to significant changes in the manner that dealers are compensated for arranging customer financing, and while it is difficult to predict how any such changes might impact us, any adverse changes could have a material adverse impact on our finance and insurance business and results of operations. Furthermore, we expect that new laws and regulations, particularly at the federal level, in other areas may be enacted, which could also materially adversely impact our business.
Environmental laws and regulations govern, among other things, discharges into the air and water, storage of petroleum substances and chemicals, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, investigation and remediation of contamination. Similar to many of our competitors, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur capital and operating expenditures and other costs to comply with such federal and state statutes. In addition, we may become subject to broad liabilities arising out of contamination at our currently and formerly owned or operated facilities, at locations to which hazardous substances were transported from such facilities, and at such locations related to entities formerly affiliated with us. For such potential liabilities, we believe we are entitled to indemnification from other entities. However, we cannot provide assurance that such entities will view their obligations as we do or will be able or willing to satisfy them. We may have indemnity obligations for liabilities relating to contamination at our currently or formerly owned and/or operated facilities as part of the acquisition or divestiture of certain properties in the ordinary course of business. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or significant additional expenditures required to maintain compliance therewith, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
A significant judgment against us or the imposition of a significant fine could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and future prospects. We further expect that, from time to time, new laws and regulations, particularly in the environmental area will be enacted, and compliance with such laws, or penalties for failure to comply, could significantly increase our costs. For example, vehicle manufacturers are subject to government-mandated fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, which continue to change and become more stringent over time. Failure of a manufacturer to develop passenger vehicles and light trucks that meet these and other government standards could subject the manufacturer to substantial penalties, increase the cost of vehicles sold to us, and adversely affect our ability to market and sell vehicles to meet
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consumer needs and desires, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
We are subject to risks related to the provision of employee health care benefits, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance for health care plans. We record expenses under those plans based on estimates of the costs of expected claims, administrative costs, stop-loss insurance premiums, and expected health care trends. Actual costs under these plans are subject to variability that is dependent upon participant enrollment, demographics and the actual costs of claims made. Negative trends in any of these areas could cause us to incur additional unplanned health care costs, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, if enrollment in our health care plans increases significantly, the additional costs that we will incur may be significant enough to materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are, and expect to continue to be, subject to legal and administrative proceedings, which, if the outcomes are adverse to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation and prospects.
We are involved and expect to continue to be involved in numerous legal proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business, including litigation with customers, employment-related lawsuits, class actions, purported class actions, and actions brought by governmental authorities. We do not believe that the ultimate resolution of any known matters will have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects. However, the results of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, and an unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A decline in our credit rating or a general disruption in the credit markets could negatively impact our liquidity and ability to conduct our operations.
A deterioration of our credit rating, or a general disruption in the credit markets, could limit our ability to obtain credit on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, uncertain economic conditions or the re-pricing of certain credit risks may make it more difficult for us to obtain one or more types of funding in the amounts, or at rates considered acceptable to us, at any given time. Our inability to access necessary or desirable funding, or to enter into certain related transactions, at times and at costs deemed appropriate by us, could have a negative impact on our liquidity and our ability to conduct our operations. Any of these developments could also reduce the ability or willingness of the financial institutions that have extended credit commitments to us, or that have entered into hedge or similar transactions with us, to fulfill their obligations to us, which also could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and our ability to conduct our operations.
We are subject to risks associated with imported product restrictions or limitations, foreign trade and currency valuations.
Our business involves the sale of vehicles, parts or vehicles composed of parts that are manufactured outside the United States. As a result, our operations are subject to risks of doing business outside of the United States and importing merchandise, including import duties, exchange rates, trade restrictions, work stoppages, natural or manmade disasters, and general political and socio-economic conditions in other countries. The United States or the countries from which our products are imported may, from time to time, impose new quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions or limitations, or adjust presently prevailing quotas, duties or tariffs. The imposition of new, or adjustments to prevailing, quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions or limitations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Relative weakness of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies in the future may result in an increase in costs to us and in the retail price of such vehicles or parts, which could discourage consumers from purchasing such vehicles and adversely impact our revenues and profitability.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 2. Properties
We lease our corporate headquarters, which is located at 2905 Premiere Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Duluth, Georgia 30097. As of December 31, 2020, our operations encompassed 91 franchised dealership locations throughout nine states, and 25 collision repair centers as follows:
Dealerships Collision Repair Centers
Dealership Group Brand Name:OwnedLeased OwnedLeased
Coggin Automotive Group12 (a)
Courtesy Autogroup— 
Crown Automotive Company10 (b)— 
David McDavid Auto Group
Hare & Bill Estes Automotive Groups— — 
Greenville Automotive Group(b)— 
Mike Shaw— — — 
Nalley Automotive Group16 
Park Place Automotive— (b)— 
Plaza Motor Company(b)— 
 Total68 23 17 
______________________________________
(a)Includes one dealership that leases a new vehicle facility and operates a separate used vehicle facility that is owned.
(b)Includes one dealership location where we lease the underlying land but own the building facilities on that land.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings

    From time to time, we and our dealerships are involved and will continue to be involved in various claims relating to, and arising out of, our business and our operations. These claims may involve, but are not limited to, financial and other audits by vehicle manufacturers or lenders, and certain federal, state, and local government authorities, which relate primarily to (i) incentive and warranty payments received from vehicle manufacturers, or allegations of violations of manufacturer agreements or policies, (ii) compliance with lender rules and covenants and (iii) payments made to government authorities relating to federal, state, and local taxes, as well as compliance with other government regulations. Claims may also arise through litigation, government proceedings, and other dispute resolution processes. Such claims, including class actions, can relate to, but are not limited to, the practice of charging administrative fees, employment-related matters, truth-in-lending practices, contractual disputes, actions brought by governmental authorities, and other matters. We evaluate pending and threatened claims and establish loss contingency reserves based upon outcomes we currently believe to be probable and reasonably estimable. We do not believe that the ultimate resolution of the claims we are involved in will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flow and prospects.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.     Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE") under the symbol "ABG."
We have not paid any dividends since 2008. On February 26, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $169.45 per share, and there were approximately 515 record holders of our common stock.
Our credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A. ("Bank of America"), as administrative agent, and the other agents and lenders party thereto (the "2019 Senior Credit Facility") and the Indentures governing the New Senior Notes (as defined below) (collectively, the "Indentures") currently allow for us to make certain restricted payments, including payments to repurchase shares of our common stock, among other things, subject to our continued compliance with certain covenants. For additional information, see the "Covenants and Defaults" section within "Liquidity and Capital Resources."
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On January 30, 2014, our Board of Directors authorized our current share repurchase program (the "Repurchase Program"). On October 19, 2018, our Board of Directors reset the authorization under our Repurchase Program to $100.0 million in the aggregate, for the repurchase of our common stock in open market transactions or privately negotiated transactions, from time to time. 
On January 27, 2021, the Board of Directors increased the Company’s share repurchase authorization under our Repurchase Program by $33.7 million to $100.0 million. 
Share repurchases would be implemented through purchases made from time to time in either the open market or private transactions. The share repurchases could include purchases pursuant to a written trading plan in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which allows companies to repurchase shares of stock at times when they might otherwise be prevented from doing so by securities laws or under self-imposed trading blackout periods. The extent that the Company repurchases its shares, the number of shares and the timing of any repurchases will depend on general market conditions, legal requirements and other corporate considerations. The repurchase program may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we did not repurchase any shares of our common stock under the Repurchase Program. We did repurchase 56,607 shares of our common stock for $5.1 million from employees in connection with a net share settlement feature of employee equity-based awards. As of December 31, 2020, we had remaining authorization to repurchase up to an additional $66.3 million of our common stock. Any repurchases will be subject to applicable limitations in our debt or other financing agreements that may be in existence from time to time.
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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph furnished by us shows the value as of December 31, 2020, of a $100 investment in our common stock made on December 31, 2015, as compared with similar investments based on (i) the value of the S&P 500 Index (with dividends reinvested) and (ii) the value of a market-weighted Peer Group Index composed of the common stock of AutoNation, Inc.; Sonic Automotive, Inc.; Group 1 Automotive, Inc.; Penske Automotive Group, Inc.; and Lithia Motors, Inc., in each case on a "total return" basis assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. The market-weighted Peer Group Index values were calculated from the beginning of the performance period. The historical stock performance shown below is not necessarily indicative of future expected performance.
The forgoing graph is not, and shall not be deemed to be, filed as part of our annual report on Form 10-K. Such graph is not, and will not be deemed, filed or incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent specifically incorporated by reference therein by us.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following table sets forth selected consolidated financial data as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016. Certain reclassifications of amounts previously reported have been made to the accompanying income statement data and balance sheet data in order to conform to current presentation. The following information should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto, included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K.
 For the Year Ended December 31,
Income Statement Data:20202019201820172016
 (in millions, except per share data)
REVENUE:
New vehicle$3,767.4 $3,863.3 $3,788.7 $3,561.1 $3,611.9 
Used vehicle2,169.5 2,131.6 1,972.4 1,834.1 1,876.4 
Parts and service889.8 899.4 821.0 786.1 778.5 
Finance and insurance, net305.1 316.0 292.3 275.2 261.0 
TOTAL REVENUE7,131.8 7,210.3 6,874.4 6,456.5 6,527.8 
COST OF SALES5,908.4 6,041.4 5,771.4 5,400.6 5,469.1 
GROSS PROFIT1,223.4 1,168.9 1,103.0 1,055.9 1,058.7 
OPERATING EXPENSES:
Selling, general, and administrative781.9 799.8 755.8 729.7 732.5 
Depreciation and amortization38.5 36.2 33.7 32.1 30.7 
Franchise rights impairment23.0 7.1 3.7 5.1 — 
Other operating expense (income), net9.2 0.8 (1.1)1.3 (2.3)
INCOME FROM OPERATIONS370.8 325.0 310.9 287.7 297.8 
OTHER EXPENSES (INCOME):
Floor plan interest expense17.7 37.9 32.5 22.7 19.3 
Other interest expense, net56.7 54.9 53.1 53.9 53.1 
Swap interest expense— — 0.5 2.0 3.1 
Loss on extinguishment of long-term debt, net20.6 — — — — 
Gain on dealership divestitures, net(62.3)(11.7)— — (45.5)
Total other expenses, net32.7 81.1 86.1 78.6 30.0 
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES338.1 243.9 224.8 209.1 267.8 
Income tax expense83.7 59.5 56.8 70.0 100.6 
NET INCOME$254.4 $184.4 $168.0 $139.1 $167.2 
EARNINGS PER COMMON SHARE:
Basic$13.25 $9.65 $8.36 $6.69 $7.43 
Diluted$13.18 $9.55 $8.28 $6.62 $7.40 


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 As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data:20202019201820172016
 (in millions)
Working capital$182.3 $355.6 $249.7 $243.9 $227.5 
Inventories (a)875.2 1,052.7 1,067.6 826.0 894.9 
Total assets3,676.3 2,911.3 2,695.4 2,356.7 2,336.1 
Floor plan notes payable (b)702.2 850.8 966.1 732.1 781.8 
Total debt (b)1,210.7 967.5 905.3 875.5 926.7 
Total shareholders' equity$905.5 $646.3 $473.2 $394.2 $279.7 
(a)Includes amounts classified as Assets held for sale on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.
(b)Includes amounts classified as Liabilities associated with assets held for sale on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.
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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

OVERVIEW
We are one of the largest automotive retailers in the United States. As of December 31, 2020 we owned and operated 112 new vehicle franchises (91 dealership locations), representing 31 brands of automobiles, 25 collision centers, and one auto auction in 16 metropolitan markets, within nine states. Our stores offer an extensive range of automotive products and services, including new and used vehicles; parts and service, which include repair and maintenance services, replacement parts, and collision repair service; and finance and insurance products. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our new vehicle revenue brand mix consisted of 41% imports, 39% luxury, and 20% domestic brands.
Our revenues are derived primarily from: (i) the sale of new vehicles; (ii) the sale of used vehicles to individual retail customers ("used retail") and to other dealers at auction ("wholesale") (the terms "used retail" and "wholesale" collectively referred to as "used"); (iii) repair and maintenance services, including collision repair, the sale of automotive replacement parts, and the reconditioning of used vehicles (collectively referred to as "parts and service"); and (iv) the arrangement of third-party vehicle financing and the sale of a number of vehicle protection products (defined below and collectively referred to as "F&I"). We evaluate the results of our new and used vehicle sales based on unit volumes and gross profit per vehicle sold, our parts and service operations based on aggregate gross profit, and our F&I business based on F&I gross profit per vehicle sold.
Our gross profit margin varies with our revenue mix. Sales of new vehicles generally result in a lower gross profit margin than used vehicle sales, sales of parts and service, and sales of F&I products. As a result, when used vehicle, parts and service, and F&I revenue increase as a percentage of total revenue, we expect our overall gross profit margin to increase.
Selling, general, and administrative ("SG&A") expenses consist primarily of fixed and incentive-based compensation, advertising, rent, insurance, utilities, and other customary operating expenses. A significant portion of our cost structure is variable (such as sales commissions) or controllable (such as advertising), which we believe allows us to adapt to changes in the retail environment over the long-term. We evaluate commissions paid to salespeople as a percentage of retail vehicle gross profit, advertising expense on a per vehicle retailed ("PVR") basis, and all other SG&A expenses in the aggregate as a percentage of total gross profit.
Our continued organic growth is dependent upon the execution of our balanced automotive retailing and service business strategy, the continued strength of our brand mix, and the production and allocation of desirable vehicles from the automobile manufacturers whose brands we sell. Our vehicle sales have historically fluctuated with product availability as well as local and national economic conditions, including consumer confidence, availability of consumer credit, fuel prices, and employment levels. Our vehicle sales may also be impacted by manufacturer imposed stop-sales or open safety recalls.
In addition, our ability to sell certain new and used vehicles can be negatively impacted by a number of factors, some of which are outside of our control. As a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, certain vehicle manufacturers have needed to slow or temporarily halt assembly lines for the safety of their workers. Manufacturers have also been hampered by the lack of availability of parts and key components from suppliers such as semi-conductor chips, which has also caused disruption to production. We cannot predict with any certainty how long the automotive retail industry will continue to be subject to these production slowdowns or when normalized production will resume at these manufacturers. Further, governmental actions, such as travel restrictions imposed in response to national emergencies or the imposition of tariffs or trade restrictions on imported goods may adversely affect vehicle sales and depress demand. Although we cannot adequately predict the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on our business, we continue to believe that any future negative trends in new vehicle sales caused by lack of inventory availability would be partially mitigated by (i) the expected relative stability of our parts and service operations over the long-term, (ii) the variable nature of significant components of our cost structure, and (iii) our diversified brand and geographic mix.
Park Place Acquisition
On December 11, 2019, the Company entered into (1) an Asset Purchase Agreement (the "2019 Asset Purchase Agreement") with certain members of the Park Place Dealership family of entities, Park Place Mid-Cities, Ltd., a Texas limited partnership, and the identified principal (collectively, "Park Place") and (2) a Real Estate Purchase Agreement (the "Real Estate Purchase Agreement" and, together with the 2019 Asset Purchase Agreement, the "Transaction Agreements") with certain members of the Park Place Dealership family of entities to acquire substantially all of the assets of, and certain real property related to, the Park Place business. The 2019 Asset Purchase Agreement included the purchase of 19 franchises (3 Mercedes-Benz, 3 Sprinter, 2 Lexus, 2 Jaguar, 2 Land Rover, 1 Porsche, and 1 Volvo and 5 ultra luxury brands including 1 Bentley, 1 Rolls Royce, 1 McLaren, 1 Maserati and 1 Karma), two collision centers and an auto auction. On March 24, 2020, Asbury delivered notice to the sellers terminating the Transaction Agreements pursuant to the terms thereof in exchange for the
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payment of $10.0 million of liquidated damages. Please refer to Liquidity and Capital Resources for additional details regarding the impact on financing transactions.
As a result of the Company's efforts to mitigate the financial impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic, along with a strong May and June 2020 performance, the Company reengaged on the Park Place Dealership group acquisition under more favorable pricing and more flexible financing terms, including limiting the purchase of luxury dealership franchises to those most aligned with the Company's core strategic business. On July 6, 2020, the Company entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the "Revised Asset Purchase Agreement") with Park Place to acquire substantially all of the assets of, and lease the real property related to, 12 new vehicle dealership franchises (3 Mercedes-Benz, 3 Sprinter, 2 Lexus, 1 Jaguar, 1 Land Rover, 1 Porsche, and 1 Volvo), two collision centers and an auto auction comprising the Park Place Dealership group (collectively, the "Revised Transaction") for a purchase price of $889.9 million. The Revised Transaction was completed on August 24, 2020. The purchase price was financed through a combination of cash, floor plan facilities and seller financing.
Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business
In response to the economic downturn to our business experienced as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic, in early April 2020 management took various actions in an attempt to mitigate the financial impact. These actions included the furlough of employees, reduced store hours, and the suspension of the Company's 401(k) match. In addition, the Company implemented temporary reductions in pay for all employees and the Company’s directors also agreed to waive portions of their annual cash retainers. We continued to evaluate these actions throughout the second quarter of the 2020 fiscal year and made the difficult decision to permanently reduce the workforce by approximately 1,300 employees to help align our expense structure with the current business environment. By the end of July 2020 we had reinstated full pay to all employees impacted by the temporary reductions and the Company's 401(k) match for eligible employees. We continue to monitor and respond as necessary to the Company’s operational needs during the ongoing outbreak of the COVID-19 global pandemic and the resulting economic uncertainty.
The gradual rebound to our business we began to experience in May and June, continued through the third and fourth quarters of 2020. The seasonally adjusted annual rate ("SAAR") of new vehicle sales in the U.S. during 2020 was 14.6 million compared to 17.1 million in 2019. On a same-store basis, all of our revenue streams declined from the prior year with the exception of used vehicle wholesale revenue. Despite this decline in revenue, we experienced a significant increase in our new and used gross profit margins in 2020 when compared to 2019, as new vehicle supply disruptions as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic reduced the availability of new vehicle inventory, which eventually drove up demand for used vehicles. Our parts and service business also showed signs of a recovery and by year-end was approaching pre-pandemic levels.
We continue to monitor and manage our cash flows and have enacted cost saving measures to respond to the uncertain environment. The Company has significantly reduced its marketing expenses, deferred certain capital expenditures, and managed other controllable expenses. The flexibility of our cost structure has resulted in profitability throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, with profitability in the second half of 2020 exceeding that of the prior year period.
At this time, we cannot predict the duration or scope, and future effects, of the impacts from the pandemic. Vaccines are currently being administered with the objective of having the country return to some sense of normalcy by the second half of 2021. However, vaccine availability, distribution, efficacy to new strains of the virus and the public's willingness to get vaccinated all remain challenges, which could lengthen the duration of the impacts of the pandemic. We continue to manage the business as appropriate in order to preserve our financial flexibility during this challenging time.
During the first quarter of 2020, we recorded a $23.0 million non-cash impairment charge related to our intangible manufacturer franchise rights. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues, future outbreaks in the markets in which we operate may cause changes in customer behaviors, including a potential reduction in traffic at our dealerships and could result in additional impairment charges. The uncertainties in the global economy may negatively impact our suppliers and other business partners, which may interrupt our supply chain and require other changes to our operations. These and other factors may adversely impact our financial condition, liquidity and cash flow. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any additional impairment charge at this time, however, any such impairment charge could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders’ equity.
Our top priority continues to be the safety and protection of our customers, team members and their families. We have modified certain business practices to conform to government restrictions and are taking precautionary measures as directed by government and regulatory authorities. Following the CDC’s recommendation, we are providing face masks to employees and guests as required. Additionally, we increased the frequency of dealership cleanings, implemented the use of plastic seat and steering wheel covers when performing service on guest vehicles, performed thorough cleaning and sanitizing of loaner vehicles after each use, and secured extra supplies of hand sanitizer, alcohol wipes, gloves and disinfectants for both employee
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and guest use at our dealerships. Many of our stores are also offering complimentary pick-up and delivery services to our customers, and we continue to offer online purchasing of new and used vehicles with delivery to the customer.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND SIGNIFICANT ESTIMATES
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, requires management to make estimates and assumptions, that affect the amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities, as of the date of the financial statements, and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates their estimates and assumptions and the effects of any such revisions are reflected in the financial statements, in the period in which they are determined to be necessary. Actual outcomes could differ materially from those estimates in a manner that could have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements. Set forth below are the policies and estimates that we have identified as critical to our business operations and understanding our results of operations, based on the high degree of judgment or complexity in their application.
Goodwill and Manufacturer Franchise Rights—
Goodwill represents the excess cost of an acquired business over the fair market value of its identifiable assets and liabilities. We have determined, based on how we integrate acquisitions into our business, how the components of our business share resources and interact with one another, and how we review the results of our operations, that we have several geographic market-based operating segments. We have determined the dealerships in each of our operating segments are components that are aggregated into several geographic market-based reporting units for the purpose of testing goodwill for impairment, as they (i) have similar economic characteristics, (ii) offer similar products and services (all of our franchised dealerships offer new and used vehicles, parts and service, and arrange for third-party vehicle financing and the sale of insurance products), (iii) have similar customers, (iv) have similar distribution and marketing practices (all of our dealerships distribute products and services through dealership facilities that market to customers in similar ways) and (v) operate under similar regulatory environments.
Our only other significant identifiable intangible assets are our rights under franchise agreements with manufacturers, which are recorded at an individual franchise level. The fair value of our manufacturer franchise rights are determined at the acquisition date, by discounting the projected cash flows specific to each franchise. We have determined that manufacturer franchise rights have an indefinite life as there are no economic, contractual or other factors that limit their useful lives, and they are expected to generate cash flows indefinitely due to the historically long lives of the manufacturers' brand names. Furthermore, to the extent that any agreements evidencing our manufacturer franchise rights would expire, we expect that we would be able to renew those agreements in the ordinary course of business. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed quantitative impairment tests as of March 31, 2020, and identified eleven dealerships with franchise rights carrying values that exceeded their fair values, and as a result, recorded non-cash impairment charges of $23.0 million. No additional franchise right impairments were identified in 2020.
We do not amortize goodwill and other intangible assets that are deemed to have indefinite lives. We review goodwill and manufacturer franchise rights for impairment annually as of October 1st, or more often if events or circumstances indicate that any impairment may have occurred. We are subject to financial statement risk to the extent that goodwill becomes impaired due to decreases in the fair value of our automotive retail business or manufacturer franchise rights become impaired due to decreases in the fair value of our individual franchises.
F&I Chargeback Reserves
We receive commissions from third-party lending and insurance institutions for arranging customer financing and from the sale of vehicle service contracts, guaranteed asset protection (known as "GAP") debt cancellation, and other insurance to customers (collectively "F&I"). F&I commissions are recorded at the time the associated vehicle is sold.
We may be charged back for F&I commissions in the event a contract is prepaid, defaulted upon, or terminated ("chargebacks"). F&I commissions, net of estimated future chargebacks, are included in Finance and Insurance, net in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income. We reserve for chargebacks on finance, insurance, or vehicle service contract commissions received. The reserve is established based on historical operating results and the termination provisions of the applicable contracts and is evaluated on a product-by-product basis.
Our F&I cash chargebacks for the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 were $38.0 million, $40.6 million, and $37.5 million, respectively. Our chargeback reserves were $47.3 million and $48.2 million as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Total chargebacks as a percentage of F&I commissions for the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, were 12%, 13%, and 13%, respectively. A 100 basis point change in our estimated reserve rate for future
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chargebacks, would change our finance and insurance chargeback reserve by approximately $3.2 million as of December 31, 2020.
Insurance Reserves—
We are self-insured for employee medical claims and maintain stop loss insurance for large-dollar individual claims. We have large deductible insurance programs for workers compensation, property and general liability claims. We maintain and review our claim and loss history to assist in assessing our expected future liability for these claims. We also use professional service providers, such as account administrators and actuaries, to help us accumulate and assess this information. Provisions for retained losses and deductibles are made by charges to expense based upon periodic evaluations of the estimated ultimate liabilities on reported and unreported claims.
We had $17.9 million and $17.0 million of insurance reserves for incurred and expected employee medical, workers' compensation, property, and general liability claims, net of anticipated insurance recoveries, as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Expenses associated with employee medical, workers' compensation, property, and general liability claims, including premiums for insurance coverage, for the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, totaled $37.9 million, $33.3 million, and $29.9 million, respectively.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2019 
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
 (Dollars in millions, except per share data)
REVENUE:
New vehicle$3,767.4 $3,863.3 $(95.9)(2)%
Used vehicle2,169.5 2,131.6 37.9 %
Parts and service889.8 899.4 (9.6)(1)%
Finance and insurance, net305.1 316.0 (10.9)(3)%
TOTAL REVENUE7,131.8 7,210.3 (78.5)(1)%
GROSS PROFIT:
New vehicle218.5 159.5 59.0 37 %
Used vehicle156.6 134.1 22.5 17 %
Parts and service543.2 559.3 (16.1)(3)%
Finance and insurance, net305.1 316.0 (10.9)(3)%
TOTAL GROSS PROFIT1,223.4 1,168.9 54.5 %
OPERATING EXPENSES:
Selling, general, and administrative781.9 799.8 (17.9)(2)%
Depreciation and amortization38.5 36.2 2.3 %
Franchise rights impairment23.0 7.1 15.9 NM
Other operating expenses, net9.2 0.8 8.4 NM
INCOME FROM OPERATIONS370.8 325.0 45.8 14 %
OTHER EXPENSES (INCOME):
Floor plan interest expense17.7 37.9 (20.2)(53)%
Other interest expense, net56.7 54.9 1.8 %
Loss on extinguishment of long-term debt, net20.6 — 20.6 — %
Gain on dealership divestitures, net(62.3)(11.7)(50.6)NM
Total other expenses, net32.7 81.1 (48.4)(60)%
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES338.1 243.9 94.2 39 %
Income tax expense83.7 59.5 24.2 41 %
NET INCOME$254.4 $184.4 $70.0 38 %
Net income per common share—Diluted$13.18 $9.55 $3.63 38 %
______________________________
NMNot Meaningful

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 For the Year Ended December 31,
 20202019
REVENUE MIX PERCENTAGES:
New vehicles52.8 %53.6 %
Used retail vehicles27.0 %26.9 %
Used vehicle wholesale3.4 %2.6 %
Parts and service12.5 %12.5 %
Finance and insurance, net4.3 %4.4 %
Total revenue100.0 %100.0 %
GROSS PROFIT MIX PERCENTAGES:
New vehicles17.9 %13.6 %
Used retail vehicles11.9 %11.5 %
Used vehicle wholesale0.9 %0.1 %
Parts and service44.4 %47.8 %
Finance and insurance, net24.9 %27.0 %
Total gross profit100.0 %100.0 %
GROSS PROFIT MARGIN17.2 %16.2 %
SG&A EXPENSES AS A PERCENTAGE OF GROSS PROFIT63.9 %68.4 %
Total revenue during 2020 decreased by $78.5 million (1%) compared to 2019, due to a $95.9 million (2%) decrease in new vehicle revenue, a $9.6 million (1%) decrease in parts and service revenue and a $10.9 million (3%) decrease in F&I revenue, partially offset by a $37.9 million (2%) increase in used vehicle revenue. The $54.5 million (5%) increase in gross profit during 2020 was the result of a $59.0 million (37%) increase in new vehicle gross profit, a $22.5 million (17%) increase in used vehicle gross profit, partially offset by a $16.1 million (3%) decrease in parts and service gross profit and a $10.9 million (3%) decrease in F&I gross profit. Our total gross profit margin increased 100 basis points from 16.2% in 2019 to 17.2% in 2020.
Income from operations during 2020 increased by $45.8 million (14%) compared to 2019, primarily due to a $54.5 million (5%) increase in gross profit and a $17.9 million (2%) decrease in selling, general, and administrative expenses partially offset by a $15.9 million increase in franchise rights impairment, an $8.4 million increase in other operating expenses, net and a $2.3 million (6%) increase in depreciation and amortization expenses.
Total other expenses, net decreased by $48.4 million (60)% in 2020, primarily due to a $50.6 million increase in gain on dealership divestitures and a $20.2 million decrease in floor plan interest expense, partially offset by a $20.6 million loss on extinguishment of debt and a $1.8 million increase in other interest expense, net. As a result, income before income taxes increased by $94.2 million (39%) to $338.1 million in 2020. The $24.2 million (41%) increase in income tax expense was primarily attributable to the 39% increase in income before taxes and a 40 basis point increase in the 2020 effective tax rate. Overall, net income increased by $70.0 million (38%) from $184.4 million in 2019 to $254.4 million in 2020.
We assess the organic growth of our revenue and gross profit on a same store basis. We believe that our assessment on a same store basis represents an important indicator of comparative financial performance and provides relevant information to assess our performance. As such, for the following discussion, same store amounts consist of information from dealerships for identical months in each comparative period, commencing with the first month we owned the dealership. Additionally, amounts related to divested dealerships are excluded from each comparative period.







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New Vehicle—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
 (Dollars in millions, except for per vehicle data)
As Reported:
Revenue:
Luxury$1,450.1 $1,318.7 $131.4 10 %
Import1,550.6 1,742.4 (191.8)(11)%
Domestic766.7 802.2 (35.5)(4)%
Total new vehicle revenue$3,767.4 $3,863.3 $(95.9)(2)%
Gross profit:
Luxury$113.7 $83.3 $30.4 36 %
Import59.7 42.1 17.6 42 %
Domestic45.1 34.1 11.0 32 %
Total new vehicle gross profit$218.5 $159.5 $59.0 37 %
New vehicle units:
Luxury25,259 23,988 1,271 %
Import52,201 61,420 (9,219)(15)%
Domestic17,705 19,835 (2,130)(11)%
Total new vehicle units95,165 105,243 (10,078)(10)%
Same Store:
Revenue:
Luxury$1,126.3 $1,271.2 $(144.9)(11)%
Import1,472.7 1,602.5 (129.8)(8)%
Domestic648.1 690.5 (42.4)(6)%
Total new vehicle revenue$3,247.1 $3,564.2 $(317.1)(9)%
Gross profit:
Luxury$81.8 $80.1 $1.7 %
Import56.3 39.1 17.2 44 %
Domestic37.8 28.8 9.0 31 %
Total new vehicle gross profit$175.9 $148.0 $27.9 19 %
New vehicle units:
Luxury20,009 23,085 (3,076)(13)%
Import49,744 56,707 (6,963)(12)%
Domestic15,156 17,205 (2,049)(12)%
Total new vehicle units84,909 96,997 (12,088)(12)%

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New Vehicle Metrics—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
As Reported:
Revenue per new vehicle sold$39,588 $36,708 $2,880 %
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$2,296 $1,516 $780 51 %
New vehicle gross margin5.8 %4.1 %1.7 %
Luxury:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$4,501 $3,473 $1,028 30 %
New vehicle gross margin7.8 %6.3 %1.5 %
Import:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$1,144 $685 $459 67 %
New vehicle gross margin3.9 %2.4 %1.5 %
Domestic:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$2,547 $1,719 $828 48 %
New vehicle gross margin5.9 %4.3 %1.6 %
Same Store:
Revenue per new vehicle sold$38,242 $36,745 $1,497 %
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$2,072 $1,526 $546 36 %
New vehicle gross margin5.4 %4.2 %1.2 %
Luxury:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$4,088 $3,470 $618 18 %
New vehicle gross margin7.3 %6.3 %1.0 %
Import:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$1,132 $690 $442 64 %
New vehicle gross margin3.8 %2.4 %1.4 %
Domestic:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$2,494 $1,674 $820 49 %
New vehicle gross margin5.8 %4.2 %1.6 %
New vehicle revenue decreased by $95.9 million (2%), as a result of a 10% decrease in new vehicle unit sales partially offset by an 8% increase in revenue per new vehicle sold. Same store new vehicle revenue decreased by $317.1 million (9%) as a result of a 12% decrease in new vehicle units sold, partially offset by a 4% increase in revenue per new vehicle sold.
Same store new vehicle gross profit in 2020 increased by $27.9 million (19%), as a result of a 36% increase in gross profit per new vehicle sold partially offset by a 12% decrease in unit volumes. Same store new vehicle gross margin increased 120 basis points to 5.4% in 2020, primarily as a result of a supply shortage for much of 2020 caused by manufacturers reducing or halting production due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
We finished 2020 with a 40 day supply of new vehicle inventory which is below our target of 70 to 75 days primarily as a result of production challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.





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Used Vehicle— 
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
 (Dollars in millions, except for per vehicle data)
As Reported:
Revenue:
Used vehicle retail revenues$1,930.0 $1,941.3 $(11.3)(1)%
Used vehicle wholesale revenues239.5 190.3 49.2 26 %
Used vehicle revenue$2,169.5 $2,131.6 $37.9 %
Gross profit:
Used vehicle retail gross profit$145.3 $133.1 $12.2 %
Used vehicle wholesale gross profit11.3 1.0 10.3 NM
Used vehicle gross profit$156.6 $134.1 $22.5 17 %
Used vehicle retail units:
Used vehicle retail units80,537 88,602 (8,065)(9)%
Same Store:
Revenue:
Used vehicle retail revenues$1,685.8 $1,772.4 $(86.6)(5)%
Used vehicle wholesale revenues190.7 175.5 15.2 %
Used vehicle revenue$1,876.5 $1,947.9 $(71.4)(4)%
Gross profit:
Used vehicle retail gross profit$127.4 $124.1 $3.3 %
Used vehicle wholesale gross profit9.1 1.6 7.5 NM
Used vehicle gross profit$136.5 $125.7 $10.8 %
Used vehicle retail units:
Used vehicle retail units72,468 80,717 (8,249)(10)%

Used Vehicle Metrics—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
As Reported:
Revenue per used vehicle retailed$23,964 $21,910 $2,054 %
Gross profit per used vehicle retailed$1,804 $1,502 $302 20 %
Used vehicle retail gross margin7.5 %6.9 %0.6 %
Same Store:
Revenue per used vehicle retailed$23,263 $21,958 $1,305 %
Gross profit per used vehicle retailed$1,758 $1,537 $221 14 %
Used vehicle retail gross margin7.6 %7.0 %0.6 %

Used vehicle revenue increased by $37.9 million (2%), due to a $49.2 million (26%) increase in used vehicle wholesale revenue partially offset by a $11.3 million (1%) decrease in used retail revenue. Same store used vehicle revenue decreased by $71.4 million (4%) due to an $86.6 million (5%) decrease in used vehicle retail revenue, partially offset by a $15.2 million (9%) increase in used vehicle wholesale revenues.
In 2020, total Company and same store used vehicle retail gross profit margins increased 60 basis points to 7.5% and 7.6%, respectively. We primarily attribute the increases in used vehicle retail gross profit margin to increased demand for used vehicles as a result of new vehicle inventory shortages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
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We believe that our used vehicle inventory continues to be well-aligned with current consumer demand, with approximately 31 days of supply as of December 31, 2020.
Parts and Service—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
 (Dollars in millions)
As Reported:
Parts and service revenue$889.8 $899.4 $(9.6)(1)%
Parts and service gross profit:
Customer pay$310.6 $317.3 $(6.7)(2)%
Warranty92.8 88.8 4.0 %
Wholesale parts22.1 23.8 (1.7)(7)%
Parts and service gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation$425.5 $429.9 $(4.4)(1)%
Parts and service gross margin, excluding reconditioning and preparation47.8 %47.8 %— %
Reconditioning and preparation *117.7 129.4 (11.7)(9)%
Total parts and service gross profit$543.2 $559.3 $(16.1)(3)%
Same Store:
Parts and service revenue$775.4 $840.0 $(64.6)(8)%
Parts and service gross profit:
Customer pay$269.5 $298.7 $(29.2)(10)%
Warranty76.7 83.4 (6.7)(8)%
Wholesale parts19.7 21.8 (2.1)(10)%
Parts and service gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation$365.9 $403.9 $(38.0)(9)%
Parts and service gross margin, excluding reconditioning and preparation47.2 %48.1 %(0.9)%
Reconditioning and preparation *104.9 118.4 (13.5)(11)%
Total parts and service gross profit$470.8 $522.3 $(51.5)(10)%
* Reconditioning and preparation represents the gross profit earned by our parts and service departments for internal work performed and is included as a reduction of Parts and service cost of sales within the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income upon the sale of the vehicle.
The $9.6 million (1%) decrease in parts and service revenue was primarily due to a $11.2 million decrease in wholesale parts revenue and a $0.3 million decrease in customer pay revenue partially offset by a $1.9 million increase in warranty revenue. The wholesale parts business was negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic which significantly reduced demand as a result of fewer miles being driven. Same store parts and service revenue decreased $64.6 million (8%) from $840.0 million in 2019 to $775.4 million in 2020. The decrease in same store parts and service revenue was due to a $33.9 million (7%) decrease in customer pay revenue, a $13.6 million (9%) decrease in warranty revenue, and a $11.1 million (9%) decrease in wholesale parts revenue.
Parts and service gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation, decreased by $4.4 million (1%) to $425.5 million and same store gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation, decreased by $38.0 million (9%) to $365.9 million. The $38.0 million decrease in same store gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation, is primarily due to a $29.2 million (10%) decrease in customer pay gross profit, a $6.7 million (8%) decrease in warranty gross profit, and a $2.1 million (10%) decrease in wholesale parts gross profit. The COVID-19 global pandemic negatively impacted our parts and service business for most of 2020 as a result of people driving fewer miles and therefore requiring less vehicle maintenance. In addition, fewer accidents on the roadways negatively impacted our collision repair business.
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Finance and Insurance, net— 
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20202019
 (Dollars in millions, except for per vehicle data)
As Reported:
Finance and insurance, net$305.1 $316.0 $(10.9)(3)%
Finance and insurance, net per vehicle sold$1,736 $1,630 $106 %
Same Store:
Finance and insurance, net$279.4 $292.3 $(12.9)(4)%
Finance and insurance, net per vehicle sold$1,775 $1,645 $130 %
F&I revenue, net decreased by $10.9 million (3%) in 2020 when compared to 2019 primarily as a result of a 9% decrease in new and used retail unit sales partially offset by a 7% increase in F&I per vehicle retailed.
On a same store basis F&I revenue, net decreased by $12.9 million (4%) in 2020 when compared to 2019 primarily as a result of a 11% decrease in new and used retail unit sales partially offset by a 8% increase in F&I per vehicle retailed.
During 2020 we continued to benefit from a favorable consumer lending environment, which allowed more of our customers to take advantage of a broader array of F&I products and our continued focus on improving the F&I results at our lower-performing stores through our F&I training programs.


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Selling, General, and Administrative Expense—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
% of Gross
Profit Increase (Decrease)