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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-35522
BANC OF CALIFORNIA, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland04-3639825
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)
3 MacArthur Place,Santa Ana,California92707
(Address of principal executive offices)


(Zip Code)



Registrant’s telephone number, including area code -855 361-2262
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareBANCNew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares each representing a 1/40th Interest in a share of 7.375% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series DBANC PRDNew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares each representing a 1/40th Interest in a share of 7.00% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series EBANC PRENew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  



The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price of such stock on the New York Stock Exchange as of June 30, 2020, was $483.6 million. (The exclusion from such amount of the market value of the shares owned by any person shall not be deemed an admission by the registrant that such person is an affiliate of the registrant). As of February 23, 2021, the registrant had outstanding 50,136,630 shares of voting common stock and 477,321 shares of Class B non-voting common stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
PART III of Form 10-K—Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in 2021.



BANC OF CALIFORNIA, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
December 31, 2020
Table of Contents
Page
Part I
Item 1.
Item 1.A.
Item 1.B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7.A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9.A.
Item 9.B.
Part III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV
Item 15.
Item 16.

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Forward-Looking Statements
When used in this report and in documents filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), in press releases or other public stockholder communications, or in oral statements made with the approval of an authorized executive officer, the words or phrases “believe,” “will,” “should,” “will likely result,” “are expected to,” “will continue,” “is anticipated,” “estimate,” “project,” “plans,” or similar expressions are intended to identify “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the “Safe-Harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. These statements may relate to future financial performance, strategic plans or objectives, revenue, expense or earnings projections, or other financial items of Banc of California, Inc. and its affiliates (“BANC,” the “Company”, “we”, “us” or “our”), as well as the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business, operations, financial performance and prospects. By their nature, these statements are subject to numerous uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the statements.
Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results anticipated or projected include, but are not limited to, the following:
i.the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and steps taken by governmental and other authorities to contain, mitigate, and combat the pandemic on our business, operations, financial performance and prospects;
ii.the costs and effects of litigation generally, including legal fees and other expenses, settlements and judgments;
iii.the risk that we will not be successful in the implementation of our capital utilization strategy, new lines of business, new products and services, or other strategic project initiatives;
iv.risks that the Company’s merger and acquisition transactions may disrupt current plans and operations and lead to difficulties in customer and employee retention, risks that the costs, fees, expenses and charges related to these transactions could be significantly higher than anticipated and risks that the expected revenues, cost savings, synergies, and other benefits of these transactions might not be realized to the extent anticipated, within the anticipated timetables, or at all;
v.the credit risks of lending activities, which may be affected by deterioration in real estate markets and the financial condition of borrowers, and the operational risk of lending activities, including but not limited to, the effectiveness of our underwriting practices and the risk of fraud, any of which may lead to increased loan delinquencies, losses, and nonperforming assets in our loan portfolio, and may result in our allowance for credit losses not being adequate and require us to materially increase our credit loss reserves;
vi.the quality and composition of our securities portfolio;
vii.changes in general economic conditions, either nationally or in our market areas, or changes in financial markets;
viii.continuation of, or changes in, the short-term interest rate environment, changes in the levels of general interest rates, volatility in the interest rate environment, the relative differences between short- and long-term interest rates, deposit interest rates, our net interest margin, and funding sources;
ix.fluctuations in the demand for loans, and fluctuations in commercial and residential real estate values in our market area;
x.our ability to develop and maintain a strong core deposit base or other low cost funding sources necessary to fund our activities;
xi.results of examinations of us by regulatory authorities and the possibility that any such regulatory authority may, among other things, limit our business activities, require us to change our business mix, restrict our ability to invest in certain assets, increase our allowance for credit losses, write-down asset values, increase our capital levels, affect our ability to borrow funds or maintain or increase deposits, or impose fines, penalties or sanctions, any of which could adversely affect our liquidity and earnings;
xii.legislative or regulatory changes that adversely affect our business, including, without limitation, changes in tax laws and policies, changes in privacy laws, and changes in regulatory capital or other rules, and the availability of resources to address or respond to such changes;
xiii.our ability to control operating costs and expenses;
xiv.staffing fluctuations in response to product demand or the implementation of corporate strategies that affect our work force and potential associated charges;
xv.the risk that our enterprise risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risk and reducing the potential for losses;
xvi.errors in estimates of the fair values of certain of our assets and liabilities, which may result in significant changes in valuation;
xvii.failures or security breaches with respect to the network and computer systems on which we depend, including but not limited to, due to cybersecurity threats;
xviii.our ability to attract and retain key members of our senior management team;
xix.increased competitive pressures among financial services companies;
xx.changes in consumer spending, borrowing and saving habits;
xxi.the effects of severe weather, natural disasters, pandemics, acts of war or terrorism, and other external events on our business;
xxii.the ability of key third-party providers to perform their obligations to us;
xxiii.changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the financial institution regulatory agencies or the Financial Accounting Standards Board or their application to our business, including additional guidance and interpretation on accounting issues and details of the implementation of new accounting standards;
xxiv.continuing impact of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s credit loss accounting standard, referred to as Current Expected Credit Loss, which requires financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans, and provide for the expected credit losses as allowances for loan losses;
xxv.share price volatility and reputational risks, related to, among other things, speculative trading and certain traders shorting our common shares and attempting to generate negative publicity about us;
xxvi.our ability to obtain regulatory approvals or non-objection to take various capital actions, including the payment of dividends by us or our bank subsidiary, or repurchases of our common or preferred stock; and
xxvii.other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory, and technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services and the other risks described in this report and from time to time in other documents that we file with or furnish to the SEC, including, without limitation, the risks described under “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Glossary of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms
The acronyms, abbreviations, and terms listed below are used in various sections of this Form 10-K, including “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
ACLAllowance for credit lossesFRBBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
ALCOAsset/Liability CommitteeGAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles
ALLAllowance for loan lossesGLBAGramm-Leach-Bliley Act
AOCIAccumulated Other Comprehensive IncomeGNMAGovernment National Mortgage Association
ARMAdjustable Rate MortgageGSEGovernment Sponsored Entity
ASCAccounting Standards CodificationHELOCHome Equity Lines of Credit
ASUAccounting Standards UpdateHLBVHypothetical Liquidation at Book Value
ATOAccount Take-OversHUDHousing and Urban Development
AVMsAutomated Valuation ModelsIRCInternal Revenue Code
BankBanc of California, National AssociationLAFCThe Los Angeles Football Club
BHCABank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amendedLIBORLondon Inter-Bank Offered Rate
BICBorrower-in-CustodyLTVLoan-to-Value
BoardBoard of Director'sMSRsMortgage Servicing Rights
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security ActNBVNet Book Value
CCPACalifornia Consumer Privacy ActNIINet Interest Income
CDCCertified Development CompanyNTMNon-Traditional Mortgage
CECLCurrent Expected Credit LossesNYSENew York Stock Exchange
CEOChief Executive OfficerOCCOffice of the Comptroller of the Currency
CET1Common Equity Tier 1OTTIOther-than-Temporary-Impairment
CFOChief Financial OfficerPCAOBPublic Company Accounting Oversight Board
CFPBConsumer Financial Protection BureauPCD
Purchased Credit Deteriorated
CLOsCollateralized Loan ObligationsPPPPayment Protection Program
CMBSCommercial Mortgage-Backed SecuritiesPrime RateWall Street Journal’s prime rate
COSOCommittee of Sponsoring OrganizationsROURight of Use
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019S&PStandard and Poor’s
CRACommunity Reinvestment Act of 1977, as amendedSARStock Appreciation Right
DC PlanDeferred Compensation PlanSBASmall Business Administration
DIFFederal Deposit Insurance FundSBICSmall Business Investment Company
Dodd-Frank ActDodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection ActSECSecurities and Exchange Commission
DTADeferred Tax AssetSFRSingle Family Residential
EEOPEmployee Equity Ownership PlanSOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
EVEEconomic Value of EquityTCETangible Common Equity
EYErnst & Young LLPTDRsTroubled Debt Restructurings
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards BoardTEUsTangible Equity Units
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance Corporationthe “2013 Plan”2013 Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan
Federal Reserve BankFederal Reserve Bank of San Franciscothe “2018 Plan”2018 Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan
FHLBFederal Home Loan Bankthe CompanyBanc of California, Inc.
FICOFair Isaac CorporationTPMOThird-Party Mortgage Origination
VIEVariable Interest Entity
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PART I
Item 1. Business
General
Banc of California, Inc., a Maryland corporation, was incorporated in March 2002 and serves as the holding company for its wholly owned subsidiary, Banc of California, National Association (the Bank), a California-based bank. When we refer to the “parent” or the “holding company", we are referring to Banc of California, Inc., the parent company, on a stand-alone basis. When we refer to “we,” “us,” “our,” or the “Company”, we are referring to Banc of California, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries including the Bank, collectively. We are regulated as a bank holding company by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the FRB) and the Bank is regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the OCC).
Our principal executive office is currently located at 3 MacArthur Place, Santa Ana, California, and our telephone number is (855) 361-2262. Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol of “BANC”.
Business Overview
The Bank is a relationship-focused business bank. We deliver comprehensive products and solutions for businesses, business owners, and individuals within our footprint through our 29 full service branches extending from San Diego to Santa Barbara. We have served California markets since 1941 through the Bank and its predecessors. The Bank offers a variety of financial products and services designed around our clients in order to serve their banking and financial needs.
Strategy
Our strategic objective is to be the premier relationship-focused business bank in Southern California by delivering outstanding service to our banking clients through our team's ability to collaborate, execute and perform superior to our competition. This involves listening to our clients to understand their needs so that we can actively develop and deliver customized solutions to meet their business objectives. It also involves executing promptly and holding ourselves accountable to the promises we make our clients. We are focused on fostering relationships with businesses in our markets and verticals to establish this understanding and provide an exceptional level of service. We offer a wide variety of deposit, loan and other financial services to both large and small businesses, non-profit organizations, business owners, entrepreneurs, professionals, and high-net worth individuals. Our deposit products include checking, savings, money market, certificates of deposit, retirement accounts and safe deposit boxes. Additional products and services leverage other technology and include automated bill payment, cash and treasury management, master demand accounts, foreign exchange, interest rate swaps, card payment services, remote and mobile deposit capture, automated clearing house origination, wire transfer, and direct deposit. Our lending activities are focused on providing thoughtful financing solutions to our clients. We consistently invest in automated solutions and our technology infrastructure to gain operating efficiencies and to improve the client experience as we deliver our high standard of service.
Products Offered
We offer a full array of competitively priced and client-tailored commercial loan and deposit products and services.
Loan Products
We offer a number of commercial loan products including commercial and industrial loans; commercial real estate loans and multifamily loans; SBA loans; construction loans; and other consumer loans. In addition, we have a SFR mortgage loan portfolio that we service, however we no longer originate this type of loan product, although we may purchase SFR loans from time to time.
At December 31, 2020, our total loans held-for-investment and loans held-for-sale were $5.90 billion, or 74.9% of total assets, and $1.4 million, or 0.02% of total assets, respectively, compared to $5.95 billion or 76.0% of total assets and $22.6 million or 0.3% of total assets at December 31, 2019, respectively. For additional information concerning changes in our loan portfolio, see "Loans Receivable, Net" and "Loans Held-for-Sale" included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Commercial and Industrial Loans
Commercial and industrial loans are made to finance operations, provide working capital, finance the purchase of fixed assets, equipment or real property, business acquisitions, warehousing lending, and other business lines of credit. A borrower’s cash flow from operations is generally the primary source of repayment. Accordingly, our policies provide specific guidelines regarding debt coverage and other financial ratios. Commercial and industrial loans include lines of credit, commercial term loans and owner occupied commercial real estate loans. Commercial lines of credit are extended to businesses generally to finance operations and working capital needs. Commercial term loans are typically made to finance the acquisition of fixed assets, refinance short-term debt originally used to purchase fixed assets or make business acquisitions. Owner occupied commercial real estate loans are extended to purchase or refinance real property and are usually 50% or more occupied by the underlying business and the business's cash flow is the primary source of repayment. Warehouse lending is a line of credit
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given to a loan originator, the funds from which are used to finance a mortgage that a borrower uses to purchase SFR property or refinance an existing mortgage.
Commercial and industrial loans are extended based on the financial strength and integrity of the borrower and guarantor(s) and are generally collateralized by the borrower's assets such as accounts receivable, loans, inventory, equipment or real estate and typically have a term of 1-5 years.
Commercial and industrial loans may be unsecured for well-capitalized and highly profitable borrowers. The interest rates on these loans generally are adjustable and usually are indexed to The Wall Street Journal’s prime rate (Prime Rate) and will vary based on market conditions and be commensurate to the perceived credit risk. Loans are generally written with a floor rate of interest typically set at the initial rate on the loan. Some of the owner-occupied commercial real estate loans may be fixed for periods of up to 10 years and many have prepayment penalties. Commercial and industrial loans generally are made to businesses that have had profitable operations and have a conservative debt-to-net worth ratio, good payment histories as evidenced by credit reports, acceptable working capital, and operating cash flow sufficient to demonstrate the ability to pay obligations as they become due.
Our commercial credit banking standard includes credit file documentation and analysis of the borrower’s background, capacity to repay the loan, the adequacy of the borrower’s capital and collateral as well as an evaluation of macro- and microeconomic conditions affecting the borrower and the industry in which they participate. Detailed analysis of the borrower’s past, present and future cash flow is also an important aspect of the credit analysis, as it is the primary source of repayment. In addition, commercial and industrial loans are typically monitored periodically to provide an early warning for deteriorating cash flow. All commercial and industrial loans must have well-defined primary and secondary or, at times, tertiary sources of repayment.
In order to mitigate the risk of borrower default, we generally require collateral to support the credit and, in the case of loans made to businesses, we typically obtain personal guarantees from their owners. We attempt to control the risk by generally requiring LTV ratios as of the origination date to be lower than 80%, or in the case of SBA loans that are secured by owner occupied commercial real estate loans, to be lower than 75%, and by regularly monitoring the amount and value of the collateral in order to maintain that ratio. However, the collateral securing the loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise or may fluctuate in value based on the success of a business. Because of the potential value reduction, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial and industrial loans may be substantially dependent on the success of the business itself, which, in turn, is often dependent, in part, upon general economic conditions. See “Asset Quality” under "Loans Receivable, Net" included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Commercial and industrial loan growth also assists in the growth of our deposits because many commercial and industrial loan borrowers establish deposit accounts and utilize treasury management services. Those deposit accounts help us to reduce the overall cost of funds and those banking service relationships provide a source of noninterest fee income.
Commercial Real Estate and Multifamily Loans
Commercial real estate and multifamily loans are secured primarily by multifamily dwellings, industrial/warehouse buildings, anchored and non-anchored retail centers, office buildings and, on a limited basis, hospitality properties primarily located in our market area.
Loans secured by commercial real estate and multifamily properties are originated with either a fixed or an adjustable interest rate. The interest rate on adjustable rate loans is based on a variety of indices, generally determined through negotiation with the borrower. LTV ratios on these loans typically do not exceed 75% of the appraised value of the property securing the loan. These loans typically require monthly payments, may contain balloon payments and generally have maturities of 15 years with maximum maturities of 30 years for multifamily loans and 10 years for commercial real estate loans.
Loans secured by commercial real estate and multifamily properties are underwritten based on the income producing potential of the property and the financial strength of the borrower and/or guarantor. The net operating income, which is the income derived from the operation of the property less all operating expenses, must be sufficient to cover the payments related to the outstanding debt. We generally require an assignment of rents or leases in order to be assured that the cash flow from the project will be used to repay the debt. Appraisals on properties securing commercial real estate and multifamily loans are performed by independent state licensed appraisers approved by management. In order to monitor the adequacy of cash flows on income-producing properties, the borrower is generally required to provide periodic financial information. Because payments on loans secured by commercial real estate and multifamily properties are often dependent on the successful operation or management of the properties, adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy may affect repayment of these loans. If the cash flow from the project is reduced, or if leases are not obtained or renewed, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. See “Asset Quality” under "Loans Receivable, Net" included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Small Business Administration Loans
We provide SBA loan products through the Bank and have earned the Preferred Lender Program designation which delegates loan approval, as well as closing and most servicing and liquidation authority to the Bank. We currently provide the following SBA products:
7(a)—These loans generally provide the Bank with a guarantee from the SBA for up to 85% of the loan amount for loans up to $150,000 and 75% of the loan amount for loans of more than $150,000, with a maximum loan amount of $5 million. The CARES Act temporarily increased the guarantee to 90% for SBA 7(a) loans funded through September 30, 2021. These are term loans that can be used for a variety of purposes including commercial real estate, business acquisition, working capital, expansion, renovation, new construction, and equipment purchases. Depending on collateral, these loans can have terms ranging from 7 to 25 years. The guaranteed portion of these loans is often sold into the secondary market.
PPP— These SBA loans are originated as part of the program established by the CARES Act have additional credit enhancement provided by the U.S. Small Business Administration for up to 100% of the loan amount. PPP loans may be forgiven in full depending on use of funds and eligibility. PPP loans have a term of two to five years.
504 Loans—These are real estate loans in which the lender can advance up to 90% of the purchase price; retain 50% as a first trust deed; and have a CDC retain the second trust deed for 40% of the total cost. CDCs are licensed by the SBA. Required equity of the borrower is 10%. Terms of the first trust deed are typically similar to market rates for conventional real estate loans, while the CDC establishes rates and terms for the second trust deed loan.
SBA loans are subject to federal legislation that can affect the availability and funding of the program. This dependence on legislative funding might cause future limitations and uncertainties with regard to the continued funding of such programs, which could potentially have an adverse financial impact on our business. Our portfolio of SBA loans is subject to certain risks, including, but not limited to: (i) the effects of economic downturns on the economy; (ii) interest rate increases; (iii) deterioration of the value of the underlying collateral; and (iv) deterioration of a borrower's or guarantor's financial capabilities. We attempt to mitigate these risks through: (i) reviewing each loan request and renewal individually; (ii) adhering to written loan policies; (iii) adhering to SBA policies and regulations; (iv) obtaining independent third party appraisals; and (v) obtaining external independent credit reviews. SBA loans normally require monthly installment payments of principal and interest and therefore are continually monitored for past due conditions. In general, we review financial statements and other documents of borrowers on an ongoing basis during the term of the relationship and respond to any identified deterioration. We may, in the future, originate small business loans and small business lines of credit utilizing a digital lending platform.
Construction Loans
We provide short-term construction loans primarily relating to single family or multifamily residential properties. Construction loans are typically secured by first deeds of trust and guarantees of the borrower. The economic viability of the projects, borrower’s creditworthiness, and borrower’s and contractor’s experience are primary considerations in the loan underwriting decision. We utilize independent state licensed appraisers approved by management and monitor projects during construction through inspections and a disbursement program tied to the percentage of completion of each project. We may, in the future, originate or purchase loans or participations in construction, renovation and rehabilitation loans on residential, multifamily and/or commercial real estate properties.
Single Family Residential Mortgage Loans
We previously originated SFR mortgage loans but discontinued offering this loan product during 2019. Our SFR portfolio generally consists of mortgage loans that are secured by a first deed of trust on single family residences mainly throughout California. The SFR portfolio includes non-conforming SFR mortgage loans where the loan amount exceeded Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac limits, or the loans otherwise did not conform to Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac guidelines. The SFR portfolio generally includes mortgage loans that earn interest on either a fixed or an adjustable rate basis. The SFR portfolio generally includes mortgage loans underwritten based on the applicant’s income and credit history and the appraised value of the subject property. Properties secured by SFR mortgage loans were appraised by independent fee appraisers approved by management at origination. We required borrowers to obtain title insurance, hazard insurance, and flood insurance, if necessary. A majority of SFR mortgage loans originated by us were made to finance the purchase or the refinance of existing loans on owner occupied homes, with a smaller percentage used to finance non-owner occupied homes.
The majority of the SFR mortgage loans in the portfolio are Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) loans tied to a variety of indices which were offered with flexible initial repricing dates, ranging from 1 to 10 years, and periodic repricing dates through the life of the loan. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we purchased $149.7 million of held-for-investment SFR ARM loans with terms up to 30 years. At December 31, 2020, $1.13 billion, or 91.6% of the SFR mortgage portfolio, were adjustable rate and this compares to $1.56 billion, or 97.9% of the SFR mortgage portfolio, at December 31, 2019.
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The SFR portfolio also includes interest only loans, which have payment features that allow interest only payments during the first five or seven years during which time the interest rate is fixed before converting to fully amortizing payments. Following the expiration of the fixed interest rate period, the interest rate and payment begin to adjust on an annual basis, with fully amortized payments that include principal and interest calculated over the remaining term of the loan. The loan could be secured by owner or non-owner occupied properties that include single family units and second homes. For additional information, see “Non-Traditional Mortgage Portfolio” and “Non-Traditional Mortgage Loan Credit Risk Management” under “Loans Receivable, Net” included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Other Consumer Loans
We previously originated consumer loans but discontinued offering this loan product during 2019. Consumer loans generally have shorter terms to maturity or variable interest rates, which reduces our exposure to changes in interest rates, and carry higher rates of interest than SFR mortgage loans.
Lending Limits
Our lending is subject to legal lending limits. Legal lending limits are calculated in conformance with OCC regulations, which prohibit a national bank from lending to any one individual or entity or its related interests any amount that exceeds 15% of a bank’s capital and surplus, plus an additional 10% of a bank’s capital and surplus, if the amount that exceeds a bank’s 15% general limit is fully secured by readily marketable collateral. At December 31, 2020, the Bank’s authorized legal lending limits for loans to one borrower were $151.7 million for unsecured loans and an additional $101.2 million for specific secured loans.
Deposit Products and Sources of Funds
General
Our primary sources of funds are deposits, certificates of deposits, payments (including interest and principal) on outstanding loans and investment securities, other short-term investments and funds provided from operations and sales of loans and investment securities. While scheduled payments from loans and investment securities and maturing investment securities and short-term investments are relatively predictable sources of funds, deposit flows and loan prepayments are greatly influenced by general interest rates, economic conditions, and competition. In addition, we invest excess funds in short-term interest-earning assets, which provide liquidity to meet known and unknown lending commitments and deposit flows of our clients. We also generate cash through borrowings mainly by utilizing the FHLB advances to leverage our capital base, to provide funds for our lending activities, as a source of liquidity, and to enhance our interest rate risk management.
Deposits
We offer a variety of deposit products to our clients with a wide range of interest rates and terms. Deposits consist of interest-bearing and noninterest-bearing demand accounts, savings accounts, money market deposit accounts, and certificates of deposit. We solicit deposits primarily in our market area, excluding brokered deposits. We primarily rely on our relationships from our lending activities, competitive pricing policies, marketing and exceptional client service to attract and retain deposits. Deposit levels are influenced significantly by general economic conditions, prevailing interest rates and competition. The variety of deposit products we offer has allowed us to be competitive in obtaining funds and to respond with flexibility to changes in demand from actual and prospective clients.
We manage the pricing of deposits in keeping with our asset/liability management, liquidity and profitability objectives, subject to market competitive factors. Based on our experience, we believe that our deposits are a relatively stable source of funds. Despite this stability, our ability to attract and maintain these deposits and the rates paid on them have been and will continue to be significantly affected by market conditions.
Core deposits, which we define as low interest-bearing and noninterest-bearing demand deposits, savings, money market deposit accounts, and certificates of deposits, excluding brokered deposits, increased $642 million during the year ended December 31, 2020 and totaled $6.1 billion at December 31, 2020 representing 99.6% of total deposits on that date. We held brokered deposits of $26.2 million, or 0.4% of total deposits at December 31, 2020, compared to 0.2% at December 31, 2019.
FHLB Advances, Other Secured and Unsecured Borrowing Arrangements, and Long Term Debt
Although deposits are our primary source of funds, we may utilize borrowings when they are a less costly source of funds and can be invested at a positive interest rate spread, when we desire additional capacity to fund loan demand or when they meet our asset/liability management goals to diversify funding sources and enhance interest rate risk management.
We utilize FHLB advances and securities sold under repurchase agreements to leverage our capital base, to provide funds for our lending activities, to provide a source of liquidity, and to enhance our interest rate risk management activities. We may obtain advances from the FHLB by collateralizing the advances with certain of our loans and investment securities. These advances may be made pursuant to several different credit programs each of which has its own interest rate, range of maturities
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and call features. At December 31, 2020, we had $546.0 million in FHLB advances outstanding and the ability to borrow an additional $821.7 million.
In addition, we also have the ability to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank and other correspondent banks and counterparties through pre-established secured and unsecured lines of credit and securities sold repurchases agreements. The availability and terms on securities sold under repurchase agreements are subject to the counterparties' discretion and our pledging of investment securities. At December 31, 2020, we had no securities sold under repurchase agreements. We also have the ability to borrow $422.4 million from the Federal Reserve Bank and $185.0 million from unsecured federal funds lines with correspondent banks as of December 31, 2020.
Further, we have outstanding unsecured long term senior notes with an April 15, 2025 maturity date at a stated rate of 5.25% totaling $173.7 million as of December 31, 2020. We also have outstanding unsecured long term fixed-to floating rate subordinated notes with an October 30, 2030 maturity date at a stated rate of 4.375% totaling $82.6 million as of December 31, 2020.
For additional information, see Note 12 — Federal Home Loan Bank and Short-Term Borrowings and Note 13 — Long Term Debt of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8.
Investment Activities
The general objectives of our investment portfolio are to provide liquidity when loan demand is high, to assist in maintaining earnings when loan demand is low and to provide a relatively stable source of interest income while satisfactorily managing risk, including credit risk, reinvestment risk, liquidity risk and interest rate risk. For additional information, see Item 7A — Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Currently, we primarily invest in agency securities, municipal bonds, agency residential mortgage-backed securities, corporate debt securities, and CLOs. For additional discussion of the risks associated with our CLO portfolio, please refer to Part I, Item 1A. - Risk Factors in this Annual Report.
Competition and Market Area
We face strong competition in originating all of our loan products and in attracting deposits. Competition in originating real estate loans comes primarily from other commercial banks, savings institutions and credit unions. With respect to commercial and industrial lending we also encounter vigorous competition from finance companies. We attract deposits through our relationships from our lending activities, community banking branch network, and our treasury management services. Consequently, we have the ability to service client needs with a variety of deposit accounts and products at competitive rates. Competition for deposits is principally from other commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions, as well as mutual funds, broker dealers, registered investment advisors, investment banks, financial institutions, financial service companies, and other alternative investments.
Based on the most recent branch deposit data as of June 30, 2020, provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Bank's share of deposits in Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, and Santa Barbara counties was as follows:
June 30, 2020
Los Angeles County0.41 %
Orange County2.34 %
San Diego County0.30 %
Santa Barbara County0.33 %
Human Capital Resources
We believe that our employees are vital to our success in the banking industry. As a relationship-focused business, the long-term success of our company is tied to our people. Our goal is to ensure that we have the right talent, in the right place, working together to serve our clients and communities. We do that through our focus on attracting, developing and retaining our employees.
We strive to attract and develop individuals who are people-focused and share our values for building relationships among our employees and across our clients and communities. In our recruiting efforts, we strive to have a diverse group of candidates to consider for our roles that reflect the diversity of the Southern California communities we serve. To that end, we post our open positions to dozens of minority-specific recruiting websites. In addition, we recently formed an employee-led Inclusion, Diversity, Engagement, and Awareness (IDEA) Committee to bring together voices and ideas to help fuel and foster a culture of openness and inclusion in all that we do.
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We seek to retain our employees by, among other things, soliciting their feedback with respect to employee-based initiatives that support their needs. In that regard, we prioritize training, communications, recruitment, mentorship and wellness programs. We conduct annual bank-wide employee engagement surveys and host periodic town halls to solicit feedback from our employees in understanding what we are doing well and what we can do better. We also have a formal annual goal setting and performance review process for our employees.
Furthermore, we believe that our compensation structure, including an array of benefit plans and programs, is attractive to our current and prospective employees. We also offer our employees the opportunity to participate in a variety of professional and leadership development programs. In addition, we have offered numerous health and wellness programs to help ensure the physical and mental health of our employees.
As of December 31, 2020, we had 611 full-time employees, almost exclusively in California.
Available Information
We file with the SEC Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, an annual proxy statement and other reports and information. We invite you to visit our website at www.bancofcal.com via the "Investor Relations" link, to access free of charge these filings and amendments to these filings, all of which are made available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with or furnish it to the SEC. We also make available on that website our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, and the charters for all committees of our Board of Directors. Any changes to our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics or waiver of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for senior financial officers, executive officers or directors will be posted on that website. The content of our website is not incorporated into and is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, you can write to us to obtain a free copy of any of these reports or other documents at Banc of California, 3 MacArthur Place, Santa Ana, CA 92707, Attn: Investor Relations. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, located at www.sec.gov.
Risk Governance
We conduct our business activities under a system of risk governance controls. Key elements of our risk governance structure include the risk appetite framework and risk appetite statement. The risk appetite framework we adopted is managed in conjunction with our strategic and capital plans. The strategic and capital plans articulate the Board of Director's (Board's) approved statement of financial condition, loan concentration targets and the appropriate level of capital to manage our business risks properly.
The risk appetite framework includes a risk appetite statement, risk limits, and an outline of roles and responsibilities for risk management activities. The risk appetite statement is an expression of the maximum level of residual risk that we are prepared to accept in order to achieve our business objectives. Defining, communicating, and monitoring our risk is fundamental to a safe and sound control environment and a risk-focused culture.
The Board of Directors establishes our strategic objectives and approves our risk appetite statement, which is developed in collaboration with our executive leadership. The executive team translates the Board-approved strategic objectives and the risk appetite statement into targets and constraints for business lines of business.
Our risk appetite framework includes policies, procedures, controls, and management information systems; through which the risk appetite is established, communicated, managed, and monitored. We utilize a risk assessment process to identify inherent risks across the Company, gauge the effectiveness of internal controls, and establish tolerances for residual risk in each of the following risk categories: strategic, reputational, earnings, capital, liquidity, asset quality (credit), market, operational, compliance, and diversification/concentration.
Each risk category is assigned a qualitative statement as well as specific, measurable, risk metrics. The risk metrics have variance thresholds established which indicate whether the metric is within tolerance or at variance to our risk appetite. Variance(s) to the defined risk appetite are reported and monitored regularly by both executive management and the Board. Where appropriate, remediation measures and/or risk acceptance, is defined and reviewed by executive management and the Board.
We integrate risk appetite and enterprise risk management under a common framework. Key elements of this framework that support our risk management activities include:
Executive management governance committees that govern the management of risks within the organization and within the established risk appetite. These committees review and drive risk and control decisions, address escalated issues and actively oversee our risk mitigation activities with an escalation path to the Board.
Policies and programs that articulate the culture and risk limits of our business and provides clarity around encouraged and discouraged activities. Additional policies cover key risk disciplines (for example, our Commercial Real Estate
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Policy) and other important aspects that support the Bank's activities (for example, policies relating to appraisals, risk ratings, fair lending, etc.).
Processes, personnel and control systems are in place to promote the identification, measurement, assessment, and control of both current and emerging risk.
Three lines of defense that are integrated, include specific roles and responsibilities for risk management activities, and provide credible challenge and appropriate identification and escalation of critical information and issues.
Credit Approval Authorities—All of our material credit exposures are approved by a credit risk management group that is independent of the business units. Above this threshold, credit approvals are made by the chief credit officer or an executive management credit committee of the Bank. The joint enterprise risk committee of the Company's Board of Directors and the Bank's Board of Directors review and approve material loan pool purchases, divestitures, and any other transactions as appropriate.
Asset Quality
Concentration Risk Management Policy—To mitigate and manage the risk within our loan portfolio, the Board adopted a concentration risk management policy, pursuant to which it expects to review and revise concentration risk to tolerance thresholds at least annually and otherwise from time to time as appropriate. It is anticipated that these concentration risk to tolerance thresholds may change at any time when the Board of Directors is considering material strategic initiatives such as acquisitions, new product launches and terminations of products or other factors as the Board of Directors believes appropriate. We developed procedures relating to the appropriate actions to be taken should management seek to increase the concentration guidelines or exceed the guideline maximum based on various factors. Concentration risk to tolerance thresholds are intended to aid management and the Board to ensure that the loan concentrations are consistent with the Board’s risk appetite.
Stress Testing—We have developed a Stress Testing Policy and stress testing methodology as a tool to evaluate our loan portfolio, capital levels and strategic plan with the objective of ensuring that our loan portfolio and balance sheet concentrations are consistent with the Board-approved risk appetite and strategic and capital plans.
Loan Portfolio Management—Our management credit committee formally reviews the loan portfolio on a regular basis. Risk rating trends, loan portfolio performance, including delinquency status, and the resolution of problem assets are reviewed and closely managed.
Regular discussions occur between the areas of Executive Management, Treasury, Treasury Management, Credit and Risk Management and the business units with regard to the pricing of our loan products. These groups meet to ensure that pricing of our products is appropriate and consistent with our strategic and capital plans.
Regulation and Supervision
General
We are extensively regulated under federal laws. As a financial holding company, Banc of California, Inc. is subject to the BHCA, and its primary regulator is the FRB. As a national bank, the Bank is overseen by the OCC, which has responsibility to ensure safety and soundness of the national banking system; ensure fair and equal access to financial services; to enforce anti-money and anti-terrorism finance laws; and for banks under $10 billion in assets to enforce consumer protection regulations. In addition, as an insured depository institution the Bank is also subject to regulation by the FDIC.
Federal and state laws and regulations generally applicable to financial institutions regulate the Company’s and the Bank’s scope of business, investments, reserves against deposits, capital levels, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, mergers, acquisitions, dividends, and other matters. This regulation and supervision by the federal banking agencies is intended primarily for the protection of clients and depositors, the stability of the U.S. financial system, and the Deposit Insurance Fund administered by the FDIC and not for the benefit of stockholders or debt holders. Set forth below is a brief description of material information regarding certain laws and regulations that are applicable to the Company and the Bank. This description, as well as other descriptions of laws and regulations in this Form 10-K, is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to applicable laws and regulations.
Banc of California, Inc.
    Permissible Activities. In general, the BHCA limits the activities permissible for bank holding companies to the business of banking, managing or controlling banks and such other activities as the FRB has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be properly incidental thereto.
As a bank holding company that has elected to be a financial holding company pursuant to the BHCA, Banc of California, Inc. may also engage in activities permitted for bank holding companies and may affiliate with securities firms and insurance companies and engage in other activities that are financial in nature or incidental or complementary to activities that are
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financial in nature. “Financial in nature” activities include securities underwriting, dealing and market making; sponsoring mutual funds and investment companies; insurance underwriting and agency; and merchant banking.
    Acquisitions. The BHCA requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the FRB before: (i) it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank or savings and loan association, if after such acquisition, the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control 5% or more of the voting shares of the institution; (ii) it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or savings and loan association; or (iii) it may merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company. In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, the bank regulatory authorities will consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant's managerial and financial resources, the applicant's performance record under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, as amended (the CRA), fair housing laws and other consumer compliance laws, and the effectiveness of the banks in combating money laundering activities.
    Capital Requirements. As a bank holding company, Banc of California, Inc. is subject to the regulations of the FRB imposing capital requirements for a bank holding company, which establish a capital framework as described in “Capital Requirements” below. As of December 31, 2020, Banc of California, Inc. had capital ratios in excess of the minimums required to be considered "well capitalized".
Repurchases/Redemptions; Dividends. A bank holding company must give the FRB prior notice of any purchase or redemption of its equity securities if the consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the consideration for all such purchases or redemptions in the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of its consolidated net worth. Notice to the FRB would include, but may not be limited to, background information on a redemption, pro-forma financial statements that reflect the planned transaction including impact to the Company and stress testing that incorporates the transaction. The FRB may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would be an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law, regulation, FRB order, or condition imposed in writing by the FRB. This notification requirement does not apply to a bank holding company that qualifies as well-capitalized, received a composite rating and a rating for management of “1” or “2” in its last examination and is not subject to any unresolved supervisory issue. In addition, federal bank regulators are authorized to determine under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. Under the FRB’s policy statement on the payment of cash dividends, a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that its net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with its capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition. FRB policy also provides that a bank holding company should inform the FRB reasonably in advance of declaring or paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in a material adverse change to the bank holding company’s capital structure. Regarding dividends, see “Capital Requirements” below.
    Source of Strength. Under FRB policy and federal law, a bank holding company, such as the Company, must act as a source of financial and managerial strength for their insured depository institution subsidiaries, such as the Bank, particularly when such subsidiaries are in financial distress.
The Bank
    Liquidity. The Bank is subject to a variety of requirements under federal law. The Bank is required to maintain sufficient liquidity to ensure safe and sound operations. For additional information, see Liquidity included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
    Safety and Soundness. The OCC has adopted guidelines establishing safety and soundness standards on such matters as loan underwriting and documentation, asset quality, earnings standards, internal controls and audit systems, interest rate risk exposure, and compensation and other employee benefits. Any institution which fails to comply with these standards must submit a compliance plan.
    Reserve Requirements. The FRB previously required all depository institutions to maintain noninterest bearing reserves at specified levels against their transaction accounts, primarily checking, NOW and Super NOW checking accounts. On March 15, 2020, the FRB announced that it had reduced reserve requirement ratios to 0 percent effective on March 26, 2020, which represented the beginning of the next reserve maintenance period. The FRB took this action in light of the Federal Open Market Committee's announcement in 2019 that it intends to implement monetary policy in an ample reserves regime, where reserve requirements do not play a role. The FRB's action is intended to help support lending to households and businesses.
    Acquisitions. The OCC must approve an acquisition of the Bank and the Bank’s acquisition of other financial institutions and certain other acquisitions. For a discussion of the factors considered by the OCC in connection with such
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acquisitions, see “--Banc of California, Inc.-Acquisitions” above. Generally, the Bank may branch de novo nationwide, but branching by acquisition may be restricted by applicable state law.
    Lending Limits. The Bank’s general limit on loans to one borrower is 15% of its capital and surplus, plus an additional 10% of its capital and surplus if the amount of loans greater than 15% of capital and surplus is fully secured by readily marketable collateral. Capital and surplus means Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital plus the amount of allowance for loan losses not included in Tier 2 capital. The Bank has no loans in excess of its loans-to-one borrower limit.
    Dividends. The Company’s primary source of liquidity is dividend payments from the Bank. OCC regulations impose various restrictions on the ability of a bank to make capital distributions, which include dividends, stock redemptions or repurchases, and certain other items. Generally, a bank may make capital distributions during any calendar year equal to up to 100% of net income for the year-to-date plus retained net income for the two preceding years without prior OCC approval. However, the OCC may restrict dividends by an institution deemed to be in need of more than normal supervision. Dividends can also be restricted if the capital conservation buffer requirement is not met. Regarding dividends, see “Capital Requirements” below.
FDIC Insurance
FDIC-insured banks are required to pay deposit insurance assessments to the FDIC. The amount of the deposit insurance assessment for institutions with less than $10.0 billion in assets is based on its risk category, with certain adjustments for any unsecured debt or brokered deposits held by the insured bank. Institutions assigned to higher risk categories (that is, institutions that pose a higher risk of loss to the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund) pay assessments at higher rates than institutions that pose a lower risk. An institution’s risk classification is assigned based on a combination of its financial ratios and supervisory ratings, reflecting, among other things, its capital levels and the level of supervisory concern that the institution poses to the regulators. In addition, the FDIC can impose special assessments in certain instances.
The Dodd-Frank Act changes the way that deposit insurance premiums are calculated. The assessment base is based upon average consolidated total assets less average tangible equity. The Dodd-Frank Act also increased the minimum designated reserve ratio of the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund from 1.15% to 1.35% of the estimated amount of total insured deposits, eliminated the upper limit for the reserve ratio designated by the FDIC each year, and eliminated the requirement that the FDIC pay dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds.
Capital Requirements
The Company and the Bank are subject to capital regulations adopted by the FRB and the OCC. The current regulations establish required minimum ratios for common equity Tier 1 (CET1) capital, Tier 1 capital and total capital and a leverage ratio; set risk-weighting for assets and certain other items for purposes of the risk-based capital ratios; require an additional capital conservation buffer over the minimum required capital ratios; and define what qualifies as capital for purposes of meeting the capital requirements. Under these capital regulations, the minimum capital ratios are: (i) a CET1 capital ratio of 4.5% of total risk-weighted assets; (ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.0% of total risk-weighted assets; (iii) a total capital ratio of 8.0% of total risk-weighted assets; and (iv) a leverage ratio (the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average total consolidated assets) of 4.0%.
CET1 capital generally consists of common stock, retained earnings, AOCI, except where an institution elects to exclude AOCI from regulatory capital, and certain minority interests, subject to applicable regulatory adjustments and deductions, including deduction of certain amounts of mortgage servicing assets and certain deferred tax assets that exceed specified thresholds. We elected to permanently opt out of including AOCI in regulatory capital. Tier 1 capital generally consists of CET1 capital plus noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and certain additional items less applicable regulatory adjustments and deductions. Tier 2 capital generally consists of subordinated debt, certain other preferred stock, and allowance for loan losses up to 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, less applicable regulatory adjustments and deductions. Total capital is the sum of Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital.
Assets and certain off-balance sheet items are assigned risk-weights ranging from 0% to 1,250%, reflecting credit risk and other risk exposure, to determine total risk-weighted assets for the risk-based capital ratios.
In addition to the minimum CET1, Tier 1, total capital and leverage ratios, the Company and the Bank must maintain a capital conservation buffer consisting of additional CET1 capital greater than 2.5% of risk-weighted assets above the required minimum risk-based capital levels in order to avoid limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying discretionary bonuses.
To be considered "well-capitalized", the Company must maintain on a consolidated basis a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or more and not be subject to any written agreement, capital directive or prompt corrective action directive issued by the FRB to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. For the well-capitalized standard applicable to the Bank, see Prompt Corrective Action below.
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In addition, the Company and the Bank are subject to the final rule adopted by the FRB, OCC and FDIC in July 2019 relating to simplifications of the capital rules applicable to non-advanced approaches banking organizations. These rules were effective for the Company on April 1, 2020, and provided simplified capital requirements relating to the threshold deductions for mortgage servicing assets, deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences that a banking organization could not realize through net operating loss carry backs, and investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions, as well as the inclusion of minority interests in regulatory capital.
In February 2019, the U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies approved a final rule modifying their regulatory capital rules and providing an option to phase in over a three-year period the Day 1 adverse regulatory capital effects of ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326) (“ASU 2016-13”). Additionally, in March 2020, the U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies issued an interim final rule that provides banking organizations an option to delay the estimated CECL impact on regulatory capital for an additional two years for a total transition period of up to five years to provide regulatory relief to banking organizations to better focus on supporting lending to creditworthy households and businesses in light of recent strains on the U.S. economy as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The final rule was adopted and became effective in September 2020. As a result, entities have the option to gradually phase in the full effect of CECL on regulatory capital over a five-year transition period. We implemented its CECL model commencing January 1, 2020 and elected to phase in the full effect of CECL on regulatory capital over the five-year transition period.
Prompt Corrective Action
The Bank is required to maintain specified levels of regulatory capital under the capital and prompt corrective action regulations of the OCC. To be adequately capitalized, an institution must have the minimum capital ratios discussed in “Capital Requirements” above. To be well-capitalized, an institution must have a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.0% and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and not be subject to any written agreement, capital directive or prompt corrective action directive issued by its primary federal banking regulator to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. Institutions that are not well-capitalized are subject to certain restrictions on brokered deposits and interest rates on deposits.
The OCC is authorized and, under certain circumstances, required to take certain actions against an institution that is less than adequately capitalized. Such an institution must submit a capital restoration plan, including a specified guarantee by its holding company, and until the plan is approved by the OCC, the institution may not increase its assets, acquire another institution, establish a branch or engage in any new activities, and generally may not make capital distributions.
For institutions that are not at least adequately capitalized, progressively more severe restrictions generally apply as capital ratios decrease or if the OCC reclassifies an institution into a lower capital category due to unsafe or unsound practices or unsafe or unsound condition. Such restrictions may cover all aspects of operations and may include a forced merger or acquisition. An institution that becomes “critically undercapitalized” because it has a tangible equity ratio of 2.0% or less is generally subject to the appointment of the FDIC as receiver or conservator for the institution within 90 days after it becomes critically undercapitalized. The imposition by the OCC of any of these measures on the Bank may have a substantial adverse effect on its operations and profitability.
Anti-Money Laundering and Suspicious Activity
Several federal laws, including the Bank Secrecy Act, the Money Laundering Control Act and the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the Patriot Act) require all financial institutions, including banks, to implement policies and procedures relating to anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism compliance, suspicious activity and currency transaction reporting and conduct due diligence on clients. The Patriot Act also requires federal bank regulators to evaluate the effectiveness of an applicant in combating money laundering when determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition.
Community Reinvestment Act
The Bank is subject to the provisions of the CRA. Under the terms of the CRA, the Bank has a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of its community, including providing credit to individuals residing in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions, and does not limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community in a manner consistent with the CRA.
The OCC regularly assesses the Bank on its record in meeting the credit needs of the communities it serves, including low-income and moderate-income neighborhoods. In the uniform four-tier- rating system used by federal banking agencies in assessing CRA performance, an "Outstanding" rating is the top tier rating. This CRA rating deals strictly with how well an institution is meeting its responsibilities under the CRA and the OCC takes into account performance under the CRA when considering a bank’s application to establish or relocate a branch or main office or to merge with, acquire assets of, or assume liabilities of another insured depository institution. The bank’s record may be the basis for denying the application.
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Performance under the CRA also is considered when the FRB or the OCC reviews applications to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or, in the case of the FRB, its holding company. In the case of a bank holding company applying for approval to acquire a bank, the FRB will assess the records of each subsidiary depository institution of the applicant bank holding company, and that record may be the basis for denying the application.
On May 20, 2020 the OCC issued a final rule to “strengthen and modernize” its existing Community Reinvestment Act regulation. The final rule is designed to increase CRA-related lending, investment and services in low- and moderate-income communities where there is significant need for credit, responsible lending, and greater access to banking services. The OCC has issued this ruling without achieving consensus with the FDIC and FRB. The final rule went into effect October 1, 2020 and banks subject to the general performance standard banks must comply by January 1, 2023.
Financial Privacy Under the Requirements of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
The Company and its subsidiaries are required periodically to disclose to their retail clients the Company’s policies and practices with respect to the sharing of nonpublic client information with its affiliates and others, and the confidentiality and security of that information. Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the GLBA), retail clients also must be given the opportunity to “opt out” of information-sharing arrangements with non-affiliates, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the GLBA.
Limitations on Transactions with Affiliates and Loans to Insiders
Transactions between the Bank and any affiliate are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. An affiliate of a bank is generally any company or entity which controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the bank but which is not a subsidiary of the bank. The Company and its subsidiaries are affiliates of the Bank. Generally, Section 23A limits the extent to which the Bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10.0% of the Bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limits all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20.0% of such capital stock and surplus. Section 23B applies to “covered transactions” as well as certain other transactions and requires that all transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes a loan by the Bank to an affiliate, the purchase of or investment in securities issued by an affiliate by the Bank, the purchase of assets by the Bank from an affiliate, the acceptance by the Bank of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral security for a loan or extension of credit to any person or company, or the issuance by the Bank of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate. Loans by the Bank to an affiliate must be collateralized.
In addition, subject to certain exceptions, the Federal Reserve Act and related regulations place quantitative and other restrictions on loans to executive officers, directors and principal stockholders of the Bank and its affiliates, including a requirement that loans to directors, executive officers and principal stockholders be made on terms substantially the same as those offered in comparable transactions to other persons, and not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features.
The Company and its affiliates, including the Bank, maintain programs to meet the limitations on transactions with affiliates and restrictions on loans to insiders and the Company believes it and the Bank are currently in compliance with these requirements.
Identity Theft
Under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACT Act), the Bank is required to develop and implement a written Identity Theft Prevention Program to detect, prevent and mitigate identity theft “red flags” in connection with the opening of certain accounts or certain existing accounts. Under the FACT Act, the Bank is required to adopt reasonable policies and procedures to (i) identify relevant red flags for covered accounts and incorporate those red flags into the program: (ii) detect red flags that have been incorporated into the program; (iii) respond appropriately to any red flags that are detected to prevent and mitigate identity theft; and (iv) ensure the program is updated periodically, to reflect changes in risks to clients or to the safety and soundness of the financial institution or creditor from identity theft.
The Bank maintains a program to meet the requirements of the FACT Act and the Bank believes it is currently in compliance with these requirements.
Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations; Other Regulations
The Bank and its affiliates are subject to a broad array of federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations that govern almost every aspect of its business relationships with consumers, including but not limited to the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement in Mortgage Licensing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act, the Consumer Leasing Act, the Fair Credit Billing Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, laws
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governing flood insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, foreclosure laws and various regulations that implement the foregoing. Among other things, these laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with clients when taking deposits, making loans, servicing loans and providing other services. If the Bank fails to comply with these laws and regulations, it may be subject to various penalties.
The Dodd-Frank Act established the CFPB as an independent bureau within the Federal Reserve System that is responsible for regulating consumer financial products and services under federal consumer financial laws. The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority with respect to these laws. While the Company and the Bank are below $10 billion in assets and therefore are not subject to supervision and examination by the CFPB, we continue to be subject to CFPB regulation regarding consumer financial services and products. The CFPB has issued numerous regulations, and is expected to continue to do so in the next few years. The CFPB’s rulemaking, examination and enforcement authority has significantly affected, and is expected to continue to significantly affect, financial institutions involved in the provision of consumer financial products and services, including the Company and the Bank.
State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act became effective on January 1, 2020 and an additional law strengthening the protection was passed in November 2020. We expect this trend of state-level activity and consumer expectations in those areas to continue to heighten, and we are continually monitoring for developments in the states in which our clients are located.
The Dodd-Frank Act also imposes a variety of requirements on entities that service mortgage loans.
The Bank is a member of the FHLB, which makes loans or advances to members. All advances are required to be fully secured by sufficient collateral as determined by the FHLB. To be a FHLB member, financial institutions must demonstrate that they originate and/or purchase long-term home mortgage loans or mortgage-backed securities. The Bank is required to purchase and maintain stock in the FHLB. At December 31, 2020, the Bank had $17.3 million in FHLB stock, which was in compliance with this requirement.
Volcker Rule
The so-called “Volcker Rule” issued under the Dodd-Frank Act, which became effective in July 2015, restricts the ability of the Company and its subsidiaries, including the Bank, to sponsor or invest in private funds or to engage in certain types of proprietary trading. Under the regulations, FDIC-insured depository institutions, their holding companies, subsidiaries and affiliates (collectively, banking entities), are generally prohibited, subject to certain exemptions, from proprietary trading of securities and other financial instruments and from acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in a “covered fund.”
Trading in certain government obligations is not prohibited. These include, among others, obligations of or guaranteed by the United States or an agency or government sponsored entity (GSE) of the United States, obligations of a State of the United States or a political subdivision thereof, and municipal securities. Proprietary trading generally does not include transactions under repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, securities lending transactions and purchases and sales for the purpose of liquidity management if the liquidity management plan meets specified criteria; nor does it generally include transactions undertaken in a fiduciary capacity.
In October 2019, the FRB, OCC, FDIC, Commodity Futures Trading Commission and SEC finalized rules to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. These regulators have also stated their intention to engage in further rulemaking with respect to the implementing regulations relating to covered funds, including potential changes to the definition of “covered fund” and the prohibitions on certain covered transactions. The ultimate impact of any amendments to the Volcker Rule will depend on, among other things, further rulemaking and implementation guidance from the relevant U.S. federal regulatory agencies and the development of market practices and standards. We generally do not engage in the businesses prohibited by the Volcker Rule; therefore, the Volcker Rule does not have a material effect on the operations of the Company and its subsidiaries.
Future Legislation or Regulation
In light of recent conditions in the United States economy and the financial services industry, the Biden administration, Congress, the regulators and various states continue to focus attention on the financial services industry. Additional proposals that affect the industry have been, and will likely continue to be, introduced. We cannot predict whether any of these proposals will be enacted or adopted or, if they are, the effect they would have on our business, our operations or financial condition.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
An investment in our securities is subject to certain risks. These risk factors should be considered by prospective and current investors in our securities when evaluating the disclosures in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer. In that event, the value of our securities could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risk Factors Summary
The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations and financial results.
Risks Relating to Our Operations
Adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
New lines of business, new products and services, or strategic project initiatives may subject us to additional risks.
We are subject to certain risks in connection with our use of technology, including but not limited to, failures or security breaches and other cyber threats with respect to the network and computer systems on which we depend.
To the extent we acquire other assets or other businesses, we may be negatively impacted by certain risks inherent with such acquisitions.
We face significant operational risks.
Our enterprise risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risk.
Managing reputational risk is important to attracting and maintaining clients, investors and employees.
We depend on key management personnel and numerous external vendors.
We have a net deferred tax asset that may or may not be fully realized.
Interest Rate and Credit Risks
Our allowance for credit losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb actual credit losses and our business, financial condition and profitability may suffer.
Our business may be adversely affected by credit risk associated with residential property and a decline in property values.
Our loan portfolio possesses increased risk due to our level of adjustable rate loans.
Our underwriting practices may not protect us against losses in our loan portfolio.
Our non-traditional and interest only SFR loans expose us to increased lending risk.
Risk of environmental liabilities with respect to real properties acquired.
Secondary mortgage market conditions could have a material adverse impact on us.
Any breach of representations and warranties made by us to our residential mortgage loan purchasers or credit default on our loan sales may require us to repurchase such loans.
Impairment charges in our investment securities portfolio could result in losses and adversely affect our continuing operations.
Collateralized loan obligations represent a significant portion of our assets.
Our business may be adversely affected by credit risk and other factors affecting our commercial real estate and multifamily loan portfolio.
Our business is subject to interest rate risk.
Uncertainty relating to the LIBOR transition process and potential phasing out of LIBOR may adversely affect us.
Funding and Liquidity Risks
If our investments in other real estate owned are not properly valued or sufficiently reserved to cover actual losses, or if we are required to increase our valuation reserves, our earnings could be reduced.
Repayment of our commercial and industrial loans is often dependent on the cash flows of the borrower and the collateral securing these loans, if any, may not be sufficient to repay the loan in the event of default.
Inability to develop and maintain a strong core deposit base or low cost funding sources.
Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations.
We may elect or be compelled to seek additional capital in the future, but that additional capital may not be available when it is needed or on acceptable terms.
Our holding company relies on dividends from the Bank for substantially all of its income and as the primary source of funds for cash dividends to our stockholders, which is subject to regulatory approval and may be limited.
Legal and Compliance Risks
The costs and effects of litigation.
Changes in tax laws, or audits from tax authorities, could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
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We operate in a highly regulated environment and we may be affected adversely by changes in laws, rules and regulations governing our operations, including changes in accounting standards, or by failure to obtain regulatory approvals for capital actions.
Rulemaking changes may result in higher regulatory and compliance costs.
Non-compliance with laws and regulations, including fair lending laws, could result in fines or sanctions or operating restrictions.
The Volcker Rule covered fund provisions could adversely affect us.
Risks Relating to Markets and External Events
Severe weather, natural disasters, pandemics, acts of war or terrorism and other external events.
We are dependent on the national and local economy, particularly in our market areas.
Our income property loans involve higher principal amounts than other loans and repayment of these loans may be dependent on factors outside our control or the control of our borrowers.
A worsening in economic conditions in the market areas we serve may impact our earnings adversely and could increase the credit risk of our loan portfolio.
Strong competition within our market areas may limit our growth and profitability.
Our business could be negatively affected as a result of actions by activist stockholders.
Short sellers of our stock may drive down the market price of our common stock.
The foregoing summary of risks should be read in conjunction with the more detailed Risk Factors below and is not an exhaustive summary of all risks facing our business.
Risks Relating to Our Operations
Our business, financial condition, liquidity, capital and results of operations have been, and will likely continue to be,
adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created economic and financial disruptions that have adversely affected, and are likely to continue to adversely affect, our business, financial condition, liquidity, capital and results of operations. We cannot predict at this time the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to negatively affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, capital and results of operations. The extent of any continued or future adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and outside our control, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, the direct and indirect impact of the pandemic on our employees, clients, customers, counterparties and service providers, as well as other market participants, and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to (i) increased unemployment and decreased consumer confidence and business generally, leading to an increased risk of delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures; (ii) sudden and significant declines, and significant increases in volatility, in financial markets; (iii) ratings downgrades, credit deterioration and defaults in many industries, including commercial real estate and multifamily; (iv) significant reductions in the targeted federal funds rate (which was reduced to a target rate of between zero and 0.25% in the first quarter of 2020); and (v) heightened cybersecurity, information security and operational risks as a result of work-from-home arrangements. In addition, we also face an increased risk of client disputes, litigation and governmental and regulatory scrutiny as a result of the effects of COVID-19 on market and economic conditions and actions governmental authorities take in response to those conditions.
We are prioritizing the safety of our clients and employees, and have temporarily closed a small number of branches and are operating with limited branch hours at others. Additionally, over 75% of our employees are working remotely. If these measures are not effective in serving our customers or affect the productivity of our employees, they may lead to significant disruptions in our business operations.
Many of our counterparties and third-party service providers have also been, and likely further will be, affected by “stay-at-home” orders, market volatility and other factors that increase their risks of business disruption or that may otherwise affect their ability to perform under the terms of any agreements with us or provide essential services. As a result, our operational and other risks are generally expected to increase until the pandemic subsides.
We are actively engaged with borrowers who are seeking payment relief and waiving certain fees for impacted clients. One method we have deployed is offering forbearance or deferment to qualifying clients making such requests. For SFR loans, the deferments are 90 days in length, subject to extension, and are patterned after the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) guidelines.
With respect to our non-SFR loan portfolio, deferments are also 90 days in length and subject to extension. These assistance efforts may adversely affect our revenue and results of operations. In addition, if such measures are not effective in mitigating the effects of COVID-19 on borrowers, we may experience higher rates of default and increased credit losses in future periods.
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Our earnings and cash flows are dependent to a large degree on net interest income (the difference between interest income from loans and investments and interest expense on deposits and borrowings). Net interest income is significantly affected by market rates of interest. The significant reductions to the federal funds rate have led to a decrease in the rates and yields on U.S. Treasury securities, in some cases declining below zero. If interest rates are reduced further in response to COVID-19, we expect that our net interest income will decline, perhaps significantly. The overall effect of lower interest rates cannot be predicted at this time and depends on future actions the Federal Reserve may take to increase or reduce the targeted federal funds rate in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting economic conditions.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic and market conditions have increased demands on our liquidity as we meet our clients’ needs. In addition, economic forecasts and market conditions have, and may among other things, negatively affect our capital and leverage levels and ratios, increase our provision for credit losses and negatively impact the fair value of our investment portfolio. If these adverse developments persist, our capital and leverage ratios, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted.
Governmental authorities worldwide have taken unprecedented measures to stabilize the markets and support economic growth. The success of these measures is unknown and they may not be sufficient to address the negative effects of COVID-19 or avert severe and prolonged reductions in economic activity.
Other negative effects of COVID-19 that may impact our business, financial condition, liquidity, capital and results of operations cannot be predicted at this time, but it is likely that our business, financial condition, liquidity, capital and results of operations will continue to be adversely affected until the pandemic subsides and the U.S. economy begins to recover. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this Risk Factors section. Until the pandemic subsides, we may experience increased draws on credit facilities and we expect continued pressure on new loan production, reduced revenues from our lending businesses and increased credit losses in our lending portfolios. Even after the pandemic subsides, it is possible that the U.S. and other major economies may experience a recession, which we expect would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, capital and results of operations.
New lines of business, new products and services, or strategic project initiatives may subject us to additional risks.
From time to time, we may seek to implement new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services, we may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible, which could in turn have a material negative effect on our operating results. New lines of business and/or new products or services also could subject us to additional regulatory requirements, increased scrutiny by our regulators and other legal risks.
Additionally, from time to time we undertake strategic project initiatives. Significant effort and resources are necessary to manage and oversee the successful completion of these initiatives. These initiatives often place significant demands on a limited number of employees with subject matter expertise and management and may involve significant costs to implement as well as increase operational risk as employees learn to process transactions under new systems. The failure to properly execute on these strategic initiatives could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
We are subject to certain risks in connection with our use of technology.
Our cyber-security measures may not be sufficient to mitigate losses or exposure to cyber-attack or cyber theft.
Communications and information systems are essential to the conduct of our business, as we use such systems to manage our client relationships, our general ledger and virtually all other aspects of our business. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks. Although we take protective measures and endeavor to modify them as circumstances warrant, the security of our computer systems, software, and networks are vulnerable to breaches, unauthorized access either directly or indirectly through our vendors, misuse, computer viruses, or other malicious code and other types of cyber-attacks. Such risks have increased with the work-from-home arrangements implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. If one or more of these events occur, this could jeopardize our clients' confidential and other information that we process and store, or otherwise cause interruptions in our operations or the operations of our clients or counterparties. The occurrence of cyber-attacks may require us to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures, and we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through our current insurance policies. If a cyber-attack succeeds in disrupting our operations or disclosing confidential data, we could also suffer significant reputational damage in addition to possible regulatory fines or client lawsuits.
We provide internet banking services to our clients which have additional cyber risks related to our client’s personal electronic devices and electronic communication. Any compromise of personal electronic device security could jeopardize the confidential information of our clients (including user names and passwords) and expose our clients to account take-overs (ATO) and the