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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 001-39325

ATLANTIC UNION BANKSHARES CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Virginia

54-1598552

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1051 East Cary Street, Suite 1200, Richmond, Virginia 23219

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (804633-5031

 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading

Symbol(s)

Name of exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $1.33 per share

AUB

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Depositary Shares, Each Representing a 1/400th Interest in a Share of 6.875% Perpetual Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series A

AUBAP

The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and such files).   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes   No 

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $1,789,465,089 based on the closing share price on that date of $23.16 per share.

The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 17, 2021 was 78,798,747.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be used in conjunction with the registrant’s 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

ATLANTIC UNION BANKSHARES CORPORATION

FORM 10-K

INDEX

ITEM

PAGE

PART I

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

17

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

36

Item 2.

Properties

36

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

36

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

36

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

37

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

39

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

41

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

78

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

79

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

164

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

164

Item 9B.

Other Information

164

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

165

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

165

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

165

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

166

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

166

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

166

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

169

Signatures

170

i

Table of Contents

Glossary of Acronyms and Defined Terms

Access

Access National Corporation and its subsidiaries

ACL

Allowance for credit losses

AFS

Available for sale

ALCO

Asset Liability Committee

ALLL

Allowance for loan and lease losses, a component of ACL

AOCI

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

ASC

Accounting Standards Codification

ASC 326

ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments and Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments

ASC 350

ASC 350, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

ASC 718

ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation

ASC 805

ASC 805, Business Combinations

ASC 820

ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures

ASC 842

ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842)

ASU

Accounting Standards Update

ATM

Automated teller machine

the Bank

Atlantic Union Bank (formerly, Union Bank & Trust)

BHCA

Bank Holding Company Act of 1956

BOLI

Bank-owned life insurance

bps

Basis points

CAA

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021

CARES Act

Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act

CCPs

Central Counterparty Clearinghouses

CAMELS

International rating system bank supervisory authorities use to rate financial institutions

CDARS

Certificates of Deposit Account Registry Service

CECL

Current expected credit losses

CME

Chicago Mercantile Exchange

CFPB

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

CLP

Commercial Loan Policy

Code

Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended

the Company

Atlantic Union Bankshares Corporation (formerly, Union Bankshares Corporation) and its subsidiaries

COVID-19

COVID-19 global pandemic

CRA

Community Reinvestment Act of 1977

DHFB

Dixon, Hubard, Feinour & Brown, Inc.

DIF

Deposit Insurance Fund

depositary shares

Depositary shares, each representing a 1/400th ownership interest in a share of the Company’s Series A preferred stock, with a liquidation preference of $10,000 per share of Series A preferred stock (equivalent to $25 per depositary share)

Dodd-Frank Act

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010

EGRRCPA

Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act

EPS

Earnings per common share

ESOP

Employee Stock Ownership Plan

Exchange Act

Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended

FASB

Financial Accounting Standards Board

FCMs

Futures Commission Merchants

FDIA

Federal Deposit Insurance Act

FDIC

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

FDICIA

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act

FHLMC

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

FNMA

Federal National Mortgage Association

FRB or Federal Reserve

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve Act

Federal Reserve Act of 1913, as amended

Federal Reserve Bank

Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond

ii

Table of Contents

FHLB

Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta

FICO

Financing Corporation

FinCEN

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

FIRREA

Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act

Form 10-K

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020

FTE

Fully taxable equivalent

GAAP or U.S. GAAP

Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States

GNMA

Government National Mortgage Association

HTM

Held to maturity

IDC

Interactive Data Corporation

LCH

London Clearing House

LIBOR

London Interbank Offered Rate

March 22 Joint

The five federal bank regulatory agencies and the Conference of State Bank Supervisors

Guidance

guidance issued on March 22, 2020 (subsequently revised on April 7, 2020)

MSLP

Main Street Lending Program

MBS

Mortgage-Backed Securities

NASDAQ

National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations exchange

NOW

Negotiable order of withdrawal

NOL

Net operating losses

NPA

Nonperforming assets

NSF

Nonsufficient funds

OAL

Outfitter Advisors, Ltd.

OCI

Other comprehensive income

ODCM

Old Dominion Capital Management, Inc.

OFAC

Office of Foreign Assets Control

OREO

Other real estate owned which includes foreclosed properties and former bank premises

OTTI

Other than temporary impairment

PCA

Prompt Corrective Action

PCI

Purchased credit impaired

PCD

Purchased credit deteriorated

PD/LGD

Probability of default/loss given default

PPPLF

Paycheck Protection Program Liquidity Facility

PPP

Paycheck Protection Program

PSU

Performance stock unit

REVG

Real Estate Valuation Group

ROA

Return on average assets

ROE

Return on average common equity

ROTCE

Return on average tangible common equity

ROU Asset

Right of Use Asset

RSA

Restricted stock award

RSU

Restricted stock unit

RVI

Residual value insurance

SAB

Staff Accounting Bulletin

SBA

Small Business Administration

SCC

Virginia State Corporation Commission

SEC

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Securities Act

Securities Act of 1933, as amended

Series A preferred stock

6.875% Perpetual Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series A, par value $10.00 per share

Shore Premier

Shore Premier Finance, a division of the Bank

Shore Premier sale

The sale of substantially all of the assets and certain specific liabilities of Shore Premier

SSFA

Simplified supervisory formula approach

Tax Act

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017

TDR

Troubled debt restructuring

TFSB

The Federal Savings Bank

Topic 606

ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)”

Topic 848

ASU No. 2020-01, “Reference rate Reform (Topic 848)”

iii

Table of Contents

UIG

Union Insurance Group, LLC

UISI

Union Investment Services, Inc.

UMG

Union Mortgage Group, Inc.

VFG

Virginia Financial Group, Inc.

Xenith

Xenith Bankshares, Inc. and its subsidiaries

iv

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this Form 10-K may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements that include, without limitation, projections, predictions, expectations, or beliefs about future events or results or otherwise are not statements of historical fact. Such forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions as of the time they are made, and are inherently subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such statements are often characterized by the use of qualified words (and their derivatives) such as “expect,” “believe,” “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “will,” “may,” “view,” “opportunity,” “potential,” or words of similar meaning or other statements concerning opinions or judgment of the Company and its management about future events. Although the Company believes that its expectations with respect to forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions within the bounds of its existing knowledge of its business and operations, there can be no assurance that actual future results, performance, or achievements of, or trends affecting, the Company will not differ materially from any projected future results, performance, achievements or trends expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Actual future results, performance, achievements or trends may differ materially from historical results or those anticipated depending on a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, the effects of or changes in:

changes in interest rates,
general economic and financial market conditions in the United States generally and particularly in the markets in which the Company operates and which its loans are concentrated, including the effects of declines in real estate values, an increase in unemployment levels, and slowdowns in economic growth, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic,
the quality or composition of the loan or investment portfolios and changes therein,
demand for loan products and financial services in the Company’s market area,
the Company’s ability to manage its growth or implement its growth strategy,
the effectiveness of expense reduction plans,
the introduction of new lines of business or new products and services,
the Company’s ability to recruit and retain key employees,
the incremental cost and/or decreased revenues associated with exceeding $10 billion in assets,
real estate values in the Bank’s lending area,
an insufficient ACL,
changes in accounting principles relating to the CECL methodology,
the Company’s liquidity and capital positions,
concentrations of loans secured by real estate, particularly commercial real estate,
the effectiveness of the Company’s credit processes and management of the Company’s credit risk,
the Company’s ability to compete in the market for financial services and increased competition from fintech companies,
technological risks and developments, and cyber-threats, attacks or events,
the potential adverse effects of unusual and infrequently occurring events, such as weather-related disasters, terrorist acts or public health events (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), and of governmental and societal responses thereto; these potential adverse effects may include, without limitation, adverse effects on the ability of the Company's borrowers to satisfy their obligations to the Company, on the value of collateral securing loans, on the demand for the Company's loans or its other products and services, on supply chains and methods used to distribute products and services, on incidents of cyberattack and fraud, on the Company’s liquidity or capital positions, on risks posed by reliance on third-party service providers, on other aspects of the Company's business operations and on financial markets and economic growth,
the effect of steps the Company takes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the severity and duration of the pandemic, the uncertainty regarding new variants of COVID-19 that have emerged, the speed and efficacy of vaccine and treatment developments, the impact of loosening or tightening of government restrictions, the pace of recovery when the pandemic subsides and the heightened impact it has on many of the risks described herein,
the discontinuation of LIBOR and its impact on the financial markets, and the Company’s ability to manage operational, legal and compliance risks related to the discontinuation of LIBOR and implementation of one or more alternate reference rates,
performance by the Company’s counterparties or vendors,

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deposit flows,
the availability of financing and the terms thereof,
the level of prepayments on loans and mortgage-backed securities,
legislative or regulatory changes and requirements, including the impact of the CARES Act, as amended by the CAA, and other legislative and regulatory reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic,
potential claims, damages, and fines related to litigation or government actions, including litigation or actions arising from the Company’s participation in and administration of programs related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including, among other things, under the CARES Act, as amended by the CAA,
the effects of changes in federal, state or local tax laws and regulations,
monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. government including policies of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve,
changes to applicable accounting principles and guidelines, and
other factors, many of which are beyond the control of the Company.

More information on risk factors that could affect the Company’s forward-looking statements is included under the section entitled “Risk Factors” set forth herein. All risk factors and uncertainties described herein should be considered in evaluating forward-looking statements, all forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-K are expressly qualified by the cautionary statements contained in this Form 10-K, and undue reliance should not be placed on such forward-looking statements. The actual results or developments anticipated may not be realized or, even if substantially realized, they may not have the expected consequences to or effects on the Company or its businesses or operations. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. The Company does not intend or assume any obligation to update, revise or clarify any forward-looking statements that may be made from time to time by or on behalf of the Company, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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PART I

ITEM 1. - BUSINESS.

GENERAL

The Company is a financial holding company and a bank holding company organized under Virginia law and registered under the BHCA. The Company, headquartered in Richmond, Virginia is committed to the delivery of financial services through its subsidiary Atlantic Union Bank and non-bank financial services affiliates. As of February 16, 2021, the Company’s bank subsidiary and certain non-bank financial services affiliates were:

Bank Subsidiary

Atlantic Union Bank

    

Richmond, Virginia

Non-Bank Financial Services Affiliates

Atlantic Union Equipment Finance, Inc.

Atlanta, Georgia

Dixon, Hubard, Feinour & Brown, Inc.

Roanoke, Virginia

Middleburg Investment Services, LLC

Reston, Virginia

Old Dominion Capital Management, Inc.

Charlottesville, Virginia

Outfitter Advisors, Ltd.

McLean, Virginia

Union Insurance Group, LLC

Richmond, Virginia

History

The Company was formed in connection with the July 1993 merger of Northern Neck Bankshares Corporation and Union Bancorp, Inc. Although the Company was formed in 1993, Union Bank & Trust Company, a predecessor of Atlantic Union Bank, was formed in 1902, and certain other of the community banks that were acquired and ultimately merged to form what is now Atlantic Union Bank were among the oldest in Virginia at the time they were acquired.

The table below indicates the year each community bank was formed, acquired by the Company, and merged into what is now Atlantic Union Bank.

    

Formed

    

Acquired

    

Merged

Atlantic Union Bank

 

1902

 

n/a

 

2010

Northern Neck State Bank

 

1909

 

1993

 

2010

King George State Bank

 

1974

 

1996

 

1999

Rappahannock National Bank

 

1902

 

1998

 

2010

Bay Community Bank

 

1999

 

de novo bank

 

2008

Guaranty Bank

 

1981

 

2004

 

2004

Prosperity Bank & Trust Company

 

1986

 

2006

 

2008

First Market Bank, FSB

 

2000

 

2010

 

2010

StellarOne Bank

 

1994

 

2014

 

2014

Xenith Bank

 

1987

 

2018

 

2018

Access National Bank

 

1999

 

2019

 

2019

On January 1, 2018, the Company completed its acquisition of Xenith and the merger of Xenith’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Xenith Bank, with and into the Bank, with the Bank surviving.

On February 1, 2019, the Company completed its acquisition of Access and the merger of Access’ wholly-owned subsidiary, Access National Bank, with and into the Bank, with the Bank surviving. In connection with the foregoing, the Company acquired the former subsidiaries of Access and Access National Bank (as applicable), including, without limitation, Middleburg Investment Services, LLC and Middleburg Trust Company.

The Company’s headquarters are located in Richmond, Virginia, and its operations center is located in Ruther Glen, Virginia.

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Product Offerings and Market Distribution

The Company is a financial holding company and bank holding company organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia and headquartered in Richmond, Virginia. The Company provides a full range of financial services through its bank subsidiary, Atlantic Union Bank (formerly, Union Bank & Trust), throughout Virginia and in portions of Maryland and North Carolina. The Bank is a commercial bank chartered under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia that provides banking, trust, and wealth management services. As of February 16, 2021, the Bank had 129 branches and approximately 150 ATMs located throughout Virginia, and portions of Maryland and North Carolina. Middleburg Financial is a brand name used by Atlantic Union Bank and certain affiliates when providing trust, wealth management, private banking, and investment advisory products and services. Certain non-bank affiliates of the Company include: Old Dominion Capital Management, Inc., and its subsidiary Outfitter Advisors, Ltd., Dixon, Hubard, Feinour & Brown, Inc., which provide investment advisory services; and Middleburg Investment Services LLC, which provides brokerage services; and Union Insurance Group, LLC, which offers various lines of insurance products.

The Bank is a full-service bank offering consumers and businesses a wide range of banking and related financial services, including checking, savings, certificates of deposit, and other depository services, as well as loans for commercial, industrial, residential mortgage, and consumer purposes. The Bank offers credit cards through an arrangement with Elan Financial Services and delivers ATM services through the use of reciprocally shared ATMs in the major ATM networks as well as remote ATMs for the convenience of customers and other consumers. The Bank also offers mobile and internet banking services and online bill payment for all customers, whether retail or commercial. Additionally, the Bank’s wealth management division offers a wide variety of financial planning, wealth management and trust services.

Middleburg Investment Services, LLC offers brokerage services and executes securities transactions through Raymond James, Inc., an independent broker dealer.

The Bank has loan production offices in North Carolina and Maryland.

In the fourth quarter of 2018, the Bank completed a wind-down of the operations of UMG, the reportable mortgage segment. As a result of the acquisition of Access, the Bank now operates a mortgage business as a division of the Bank under the Atlantic Union Bank Home Loans Division brand. The Atlantic Union Bank Home Loans Division business lends to borrowers nationwide.

On June 29, 2018, the Bank entered into an agreement to sell substantially all of the assets and certain specific liabilities of Shore Premier.

UIG, an insurance agency, is owned by the Bank. This agency operates in an agreement with Bankers Insurance, LLC, a large insurance agency owned by community banks across Virginia and managed by the Virginia Bankers Association. UIG generates revenue through sales of various insurance products through Bankers Insurance LLC, including long-term care insurance and business owner policies. UIG also maintains ownership interests in two title agencies owned by community banks across Virginia and generates revenues through sales of title policies in connection with the Bank’s lending activities.

ODCM is a registered investment advisory firm with offices in Charlottesville and Alexandria, Virginia. ODCM and its subsidiary, OAL, offer investment management and financial planning services primarily to families and individuals. Securities are offered through a third-party contractual agreement with Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., an independent broker dealer.

DHFB is a Roanoke, Virginia based investment advisory firm.

Following the Company’s acquisition of Access, (i) Capital Fiduciary Advisors, L.L.C., formerly a registered investment advisor, provided wealth management services to high net worth individuals, businesses, and institutions; and (ii) Middleburg Trust Company provided trust services to high net worth individuals, businesses and institutions. Capital Fiduciary Advisors, L.L.C. ceased operations in 2019. During the second quarter of 2019, the business of Middleburg Trust Company, which had provided trust services, was combined into the trust division of the Bank. Middleburg Trust Company was subsequently dissolved.

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Additionally, on October 22, 2019, the Bank announced a new division of the Bank, Atlantic Union Equipment Finance, which provides equipment financing to commercial and corporate customers. This business includes providing financing for a wide array of equipment types, including marine, tractors, trailers, buses, construction, manufacturing and medical, among others. Effective January 1, 2020, the Bank transferred this equipment finance business to Atlantic Union Equipment Finance, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Bank.

SEGMENTS

The Company has one reportable segment: its traditional full-service community banking business. For more financial data and other information about the Company’s operating segment, refer to Note 19 “Segment Reporting & Discontinued Operations” in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” contained in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Effective May 23, 2018, the Bank began winding down the operations of UMG, the reportable mortgage segment. The decision to exit the UMG mortgage business was based on a number of strategic priorities and other factors, including the additional investment in the business required to achieve the necessary scale to be competitive.

EXPANSION AND STRATEGIC ACQUISITIONS

The Company expands its market area and increases its market share through organic growth (internal growth and de novo expansion) and strategic acquisitions. Strategic acquisitions by the Company to date have included whole bank acquisitions, branch and deposit acquisitions, purchases of existing branches from other banks, and registered investment advisory firms. The Company generally considers acquisitions of companies in strong growth markets or with unique products or services that will benefit the entire organization. Targeted acquisitions are priced to be economically feasible with expected minimal short-term drag to achieve positive long-term benefits. These acquisitions may be paid for in the form of cash, stock, debt, or a combination thereof. The amount and type of consideration and deal charges paid could have a short-term dilutive effect on the Company’s earnings per share or book value. However, management anticipates that the cost savings and revenue enhancements in such transactions will provide long-term economic benefit to the Company.

On May 31, 2016, the Bank acquired ODCM, which currently operates as a stand-alone direct subsidiary of the Bank from its offices in Charlottesville and Alexandria, Virginia. On July 1, 2018, ODCM completed its acquisition of OAL, a McLean, Virginia based investment advisory firm. Together, ODCM and OAL have an aggregate of approximately $876.1 million in assets under management at December 31, 2020.

On January 1, 2018, the Company acquired Xenith, pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Merger Agreement dated May 19, 2017. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Xenith’s common shareholders received 0.9354 shares of the Company’s common stock in exchange for each share of Xenith’s common stock, resulting in the Company issuing 21,922,077 shares of common stock. As a result of the transaction, Xenith Bank, Xenith’s wholly-owned bank subsidiary, was merged with and into the Bank.

On April 1, 2018, the Bank completed its acquisition of DHFB, a Roanoke, Virginia based investment advisory firm with approximately $627.3 million in assets under management at December 31, 2020.

On February 1, 2019, the Company acquired Access, pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Reorganization dated as of October 4, 2018, as amended December 7, 2018, including a related Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement"). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Access’s common shareholders received 0.75 shares of the Company’s common stock in exchange for each share of Access’s common stock, with cash paid in lieu of fractional shares, resulting in the Company issuing 15,842,026 shares of common stock. In connection with the transaction, Access National Bank, Access’s wholly-owned bank subsidiary, was merged with and into the Bank.

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HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES

The Company continuously works towards balancing its commitments to its key stakeholders: its teammates, customers, shareholders, regulators and communities. In order to accomplish this, it is crucial that the Company attract and retain talent who desire to enrich the lives of the people and communities the Company serves. To facilitate talent attraction and retention, the Company strives to make itself an inclusive, safe and healthy workplace, providing opportunities for its teammates to grow and develop in their careers, supported by strong compensation, benefits, health and welfare programs.

Employee Profile

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had 1,879 full-time equivalent employees (which the Company refers to as “teammates”), including executive officers, loan and other banking officers, branch personnel, and operations and other support personnel. None of the Company’s teammates are represented by a union or covered under a collective bargaining agreement. 

As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s workforce was comprised of approximately 65% women and 20% self-identified minorities. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s average tenure was 7.6 years.

Compensation and Benefits

The Company’s compensation programs are designed to attract, retain and motivate high performing talent and provide market aligned pay programs in support of the Company’s business strategies and are tied to both individual and Company’s performance. All compensation policies and procedures are designed to ensure proper governance and acceptable levels of risk. Individual teammate total pay is influenced by the nature and scope of the job, what other employers pay for comparable jobs, experience and individual performance. Minimum wage levels are established for all jobs through a formal salary structure that establishes a defined salary range for each position. In addition to base wages, annual merit-based salary increases are provided to eligible teammates. Further, approximately 65% of the Company’s teammates are provided with an incentive opportunity under a formal incentive plan with measurable goals and metrics. All incentive programs have both upside and downside potential and are linked to both individual and Company’s performance. The Company’s benefits program includes a Company-maintained ESOP, healthcare and insurance benefits, paid time off, all-inclusive parental leave, a 401(k) Company match, flexible work arrangements, Employee Assistance Programs and tuition expense reimbursements.

Talent Development and Training

The Company uses the term “teammates” to describe its employees because the Company views itself as one team. The Company believes its human capital is its most important asset and is committed to investing in the growth and development of its teammates. The Company’s performance development program is vital to delivering business results and helps gain greater alignment between strategic goals, business goals and individual goals. The program is based around a culture of coaching and development by means of continuous conversations to ensure alignment on goals, business objectives, personal development, and career aspirations. The program is structured to operate on an annual basis starting with goal setting and development planning and ending with an annual review. Teammates are encouraged to take ownership of their development and seek guidance from their managers on goals and development areas.

The Company also provides training opportunities to foster growth and development, enhance teammate skillsets, and prepare teammates to be successful in their roles. For example, the Company offers specific, targeted training to all new hires. In addition to professional development, role based, and regulatory, the Company also offers the following training resources: leadership, diversity, equity, and inclusion, policies/procedures, information security, anti-bribery, ethics, product training, anti-money-laundering, technical/systems, and compensation/benefits.

All teammates have access to training opportunities through an e-learning management system. The majority of the Company’s training material is regulation based and is managed through a regulatory and compliance program. In addition to job specific training, all teammates are required to complete mandatory annual compliance courses in response to regulatory requirements and changes. In 2020, teammates completed:

27,443 hours of required training; and

15,600 hours of all other training.

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Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

The Company is committed to fostering, cultivating and preserving a culture of a diversity, equity and inclusion. The Company believes that the collective sum of the individual differences, life experiences, knowledge, inventiveness, innovation, self-expression, unique capabilities and talent that its teammates invest in their work represents a significant part of not only the Company’s culture, but its reputation and achievement as well. The Company strives to foster a culture and workplace that, among other things, is inclusive and welcoming and that promotes diversity of thoughts, ideas, perspective and values. From the Company’s community involvement and charitable giving to its teammate hiring and retention strategies and daily interactions, diversity, equity and inclusion is integral to how the Company approaches its business. 

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Name (Age)

    

Title and Principal Occupation
During at Least the Past Five Years

John C. Asbury (55)

Chief Executive Officer of the Company since January 2017 and President since October 2016; Chief Executive Officer of the Bank since October 2016 and President of the Bank from October 2016 until September 2017 and May to September 2018; President and Chief Executive Officer of First National Bank of Santa Fe from February 2015 until August 2016; Senior Executive Vice President and Head of the Business Services Group at Regions Bank from May 2010 until July 2014, after joining Regions Bank in March 2008 as Business Banking Division Executive; Senior Vice President at Bank of America in a variety of roles; joined the Company’s Board of Directors in 2016.

Robert M. Gorman (62)

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company since joining the Company in July 2012; Senior Vice President and Director of Corporate Support Services in 2011, and Senior Vice President and Strategic Financial Officer of SunTrust Banks, Inc., from 2002 to 2011; serves as a member of the Board of Directors of certain of the Company’s affiliates.

Maria P. Tedesco (60)

Executive Vice President of the Company and President of the Bank since September 2018; Chief Operating Officer for Retail at BMO Harris Bank based in Chicago from 2016 to 2017; Senior Executive Vice President and Managing Director of the Retail Bank at Santander Bank, N.A. from 2014 to 2015; various positions with Citizens Financial Group, Inc. from 1994 to 2014.

David G. Bilko (62)

Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer of the Company since joining the Company in January 2014; Chief Risk Officer of StellarOne Corporation from January 2012 to January 2014; Chief Audit Officer of StellarOne Corporation from June 2011 to January 2012; Corporate Operational Risk Officer of SunTrust Banks, Inc. from May 2010 to May 2011; Chief Audit Executive of SunTrust Banks, Inc. from November 2005 to April 2010; various positions with SunTrust Banks, Inc. from 1987 to 2011; serves as a member of the Board of Directors of ODCM and DHFB.

M. Dean Brown (56)

Executive Vice President and Enterprise Operations & Chief Information Officer since joining the Company in February 2015; Chief Information and Back Office Operations Officer of Intersections Inc. from 2012 to 2014; Chief Information Officer of Advance America from 2009 to 2012; Senior Vice President and General Manager of Revolution Money from 2007 to 2008; Executive Vice President, Chief Information Officer and Chief Operating Officer from 2006 to 2007, and Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer from 2005 to 2007, of Upromise LLC.

Loreen A. Lagatta (52)

Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer of the Company since 2015; Senior Vice President and Director of Human Resources of the Bank from 2011 to 2015; Director of Human Resources of Capital One Financial Corporation from June 2008 to October 2011; Vice President, Compensation - Brokerage Division of Wells Fargo Securities (formerly, Wachovia Corporation) from 2006 to June 2008; Vice President, Senior HR Business Partner - Alternative Investments of Citigroup, Inc. from 2000 to 2006, and various positions with Citigroup, Inc. from 1991 to 2000.

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Name (Age)

    

Title and Principal Occupation
During at Least the Past Five Years

Shawn E. O’Brien (49)

Executive Vice President and Consumer Banking Group Executive of the Bank since February 2019; Executive Vice President, Consumer Segment Group and Business Planning for BBVA Compass Bank from 2013 to 2018; various positions at BBVA Compass Bank, including Deposit and Payment Products, Strategic Planning and Corporate Planning and Analysis, from 2005 to 2013; retail brand strategy and product management at Huntington National Bank from 1998 to 2005.

David V. Ring (57)

Executive Vice President and Commercial Banking Group Executive since joining the Company in September 2017; Executive Vice President and Executive Managing Director at Huntington National Bank from December 2014 to May 2017; Managing Director and Head of Enterprise Banking at First Niagara Financial Group from April 2011 to December 2014; various positions at Wells Fargo and predecessor banks from January 1996 to April 2011, including Wholesale Banking Executive for Virginia to Massachusetts at Wachovia and Greater New York & Connecticut Region Manager.

COMPETITION

The financial services industry remains highly competitive and is constantly evolving. The Company experiences strong competition in all aspects of its business. In its market areas, the Company competes with large national and regional financial institutions, credit unions, other independent community banks, as well as consumer finance companies, mortgage companies, loan production offices, mutual funds, life insurance companies and fintech companies. Competition for deposits and loans is affected by various factors including, without limitation, interest rates offered, the number and location of branches and types of products offered, digital capabilities, and the reputation of the institution. Credit unions increasingly have been allowed to expand their membership definitions, and because they enjoy a favorable tax status, they have been able to offer more attractive loan and deposit pricing. The Company’s non-bank affiliates also operate in highly competitive environments. The Company believes its community focused banking framework and philosophy provide a competitive advantage, particularly with regard to larger national and regional institutions, allowing the Company to compete effectively. The Company has a strong market share within the markets it serves. The Company’s deposit market share in Virginia was 7.5% of total bank deposits as of June 30, 2020, making it the largest regional bank headquartered in Virginia at that time.

ECONOMY

The economies in the Company’s market areas are widely diverse and include local and federal government, military, agriculture, and manufacturing. Based on Virginia Employment Commission data, the state’s seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate is 4.9% as of December 31, 2020, compared to 2.6% at year-end 2019 and continues to be below the national rate of 6.7% at year-end 2020.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and is continuing to have, a wide range of economic impacts in the United States and around the world, with the possibility of an extended economic recession. The pandemic has severely disrupted supply chains and adversely affected production, demand, and sales across a range of industries, including in the Company’s market areas.

The Company’s management continues to consider the COVID-19 pandemic and future economic events and their impact on the Company’s performance while focusing attention on managing nonperforming assets, controlling costs, and working with borrowers to mitigate and protect against risk of loss.

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

The Company and the Bank are extensively regulated under both federal and state laws. The following description briefly addresses certain historic and current provisions of federal and state laws and certain regulations, proposed regulations, and the potential impacts on the Company and the Bank. To the extent statutory or regulatory provisions or proposals are described in this Form 10-K, the description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory or regulatory provisions or proposals.

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The Company is subject to additional regulations, increased supervision and increased costs because the Company’s assets exceed $10 billion. The Company has invested meaningful financial, human capital and other resources in regulatory compliance processes.

The Company

General. As a financial holding company and a bank holding company registered under the BHCA, the Company is subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the Federal Reserve. The Company elected to be treated as a financial holding company by the Federal Reserve in September 2013. The Company is also registered under the bank holding company laws of Virginia and is subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the SCC.

Enacted in 2010, the Dodd-Frank Act has significantly changed the financial regulatory regime in the United States. Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, U.S. banks and financial services firms, such as the Company and the Bank, have been subject to enhanced regulation and oversight. Several provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act remain subject to further rulemaking, guidance, and interpretation by the federal banking agencies.

On May 14, 2018, the President of the United States signed into law the EGRRCPA which, among other things, amended certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act as well as statutes administered by the Federal Reserve and the FDIC. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and changes thereto resulting from the enactment of EGRRCPA that may affect the Company and the Bank are discussed below in more detail.

Permitted Activities. The permitted activities of a bank holding company are limited to managing or controlling banks, furnishing services to or performing services for its subsidiaries, and engaging in other activities that the Federal Reserve determines by regulation or order to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. In addition, bank holding companies that qualify and elect to be financial holding companies, such as the Company, may engage in any activity, or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in any activity, that is either (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity (as determined by the Federal Reserve in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally (as solely determined by the Federal Reserve), without prior approval of the Federal Reserve. Activities that are financial in nature include but are not limited to securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting, and making merchant banking investments.

To maintain financial holding company status, a financial holding company and all of its depository institution subsidiaries must be “well capitalized” and “well managed.” A depository institution subsidiary is considered to be “well capitalized” if it satisfies the requirements for this status under applicable Federal Reserve capital requirements. A depository institution subsidiary is considered “well managed” if it received a composite rating and management rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination. A financial holding company’s status will also depend upon it maintaining its status as “well capitalized” and “well managed” under applicable Federal Reserve regulations. If a financial holding company ceases to meet these capital and management requirements, the Federal Reserve’s regulations provide that the financial holding company must enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. Until the financial holding company returns to compliance, the Federal Reserve may impose limitations or conditions on the conduct of its activities, and the company may not commence any of the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies or acquire a company engaged in such financial activities without prior approval of the Federal Reserve. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the Federal Reserve may require the financial holding company to divest its depository institution subsidiaries or to cease engaging in any activity that is financial in nature (or incident to such financial activity) or complementary to a financial activity.

In order for a financial holding company to commence any new activity permitted by the BHCA or to acquire a company engaged in any new activity permitted by the BHCA, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. See below under “The Bank – Community Reinvestment Act.”

Despite prior approval, the Federal Reserve may order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable cause to believe

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that a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company may result from such an activity.

Banking Acquisitions; Changes in Control. The BHCA and related regulations require, among other things, the prior approval of the Federal Reserve in any case where a bank holding company proposes to (i) acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the outstanding voting stock of any bank or bank holding company (unless it already owns a majority of such voting shares), (ii) acquire all or substantially all of the assets of another bank or bank holding company, or (iii) merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company. In determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition, the Federal Reserve will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, the public benefits expected to be received from the acquisition, any outstanding regulatory compliance issues of any institution that is a party to the transaction, the projected capital ratios and levels on a post-acquisition basis, the financial condition of each institution that is a party to the transaction and of the combined institution after the transaction, the parties’ managerial resources and risk management and governance processes and systems, the parties’ compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering requirements, and the acquiring institution’s performance under the CRA and its compliance with fair housing and other consumer protection laws.

Subject to certain exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with the applicable regulations, require Federal Reserve approval (or, depending on the circumstances, no notice of disapproval) prior to any person or company’s acquiring “control” of a bank or bank holding company. A conclusive presumption of control exists if an individual or company acquires the power, directly or indirectly, to direct the management or policies of an insured depository institution or to vote 25% or more of any class of voting securities of any insured depository institution. A rebuttable presumption of control exists if a person or company acquires 10% or more but less than 25% of any class of voting securities of an insured depository institution and either the institution has registered its securities with the SEC under Section 12 of the Exchange Act or no other person will own a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the acquisition. The Company’s common stock is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act.

In addition, Virginia law requires the prior approval of the SCC for (i) the acquisition by a Virginia bank holding company of more than 5% of the voting shares of a Virginia bank or a Virginia bank holding company, or (ii) the acquisition by any other person of control of a Virginia bank holding company or a Virginia bank.

Source of Strength. Federal Reserve policy has historically required bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. The Dodd-Frank Act codified this policy as a statutory requirement. Under this requirement, the Company is expected to commit resources to support the Bank, including times when the Company may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

Safety and Soundness. There are a number of obligations and restrictions imposed on bank holding companies and their subsidiary banks by law and regulatory policy that are designed to minimize potential loss to the depositors of such depository institutions and the DIF in the event of a depository institution insolvency, receivership, or default. For example, under the FDICIA, to avoid receivership of an insured depository institution subsidiary, a bank holding company is required to guarantee the compliance of any subsidiary bank that may become “undercapitalized” with the terms of any capital restoration plan filed by such subsidiary with its appropriate federal bank regulatory agency up to the lesser of (i) an amount equal to 5% of the institution’s total assets at the time the institution became undercapitalized, or (ii) the amount that is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the institution into compliance with all applicable capital standards as of the time the institution fails to comply with such capital restoration plan.

Under the FDIA, the federal bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards. These guidelines establish general standards relating to capital management, internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, information systems, data security, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure and risk management, vendor management, corporate governance, asset growth and compensation, fees, and benefits. In general, the guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risk and exposures specified in the guidelines.

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Capital Requirements. The Federal Reserve imposes certain capital requirements on bank holding companies under the BHCA, including a minimum leverage ratio and a minimum ratio of “qualifying” capital to risk-weighted assets. These requirements are described below under “The Bank – Capital Requirements”. Subject to its capital requirements and certain other restrictions, the Company is able to borrow money to make a capital contribution to the Bank, and such loans may be repaid from dividends paid by the Bank to the Company.

Limits on Dividends and Other Payments. The Company is a legal entity, separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. A significant portion of the revenues of the Company result from dividends paid to it by the Bank. There are various legal limitations applicable to the payment of dividends by the Bank to the Company and to the payment of dividends by the Company to its shareholders. The Bank is subject to various statutory and regulatory restrictions on its ability to pay dividends to the Company. Under current regulations, prior approval from the Federal Reserve is required if cash dividends declared by the Bank in any given year exceed net income for that year, plus retained net profits of the two preceding years. The payment of dividends by the Bank or the Company may be limited by other factors, such as requirements to maintain capital above regulatory guidelines. Bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit the Bank or the Company from engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting its respective business. The payment of dividends, depending on the financial condition of the Bank, or the Company, could be deemed to constitute such an unsafe or unsound practice.

Under the FDIA, insured depository institutions such as the Bank, are prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distributions, the institution would become “undercapitalized” (as such term is used in the statute). Based on the Bank’s current financial condition, the Company does not expect that this provision will have any impact on its ability to receive dividends from the Bank. The Company’s non-bank subsidiaries pay dividends to the Company periodically, subject to certain statutory restrictions.

In addition to dividends it receives from the Bank, the Company receives management fees from its affiliated companies for expenses incurred related to corporate actions. The fees are eliminated from the financial statements in the consolidation process.

The Bank

General. The Bank is supervised and regularly examined by the Federal Reserve and the SCC. The various laws and regulations administered by the bank regulatory agencies affect corporate practices, such as the payment of dividends, incurrence of debt, and acquisition of financial institutions and other companies; they also affect business practices, such as the payment of interest on deposits, the charging of interest on loans, types of business conducted, and location of offices. Certain of these law and regulations are referenced above under “The Company.”

Interchange Fees. Under the Durbin Amendment to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve adopted rules establishing standards for assessing whether the interchange fees that may be charged with respect to certain electronic debit transactions are “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by issuers for processing such transactions.

Interchange fees, or “swipe” fees, are charges that merchants pay to the Bank and other card-issuing banks for processing electronic payment transactions. Under the final rules, which are applicable to financial institutions that have assets of $10.0 billion or more, the maximum permissible interchange fee is equal to the sum of 21 cents plus 5 bps of the transaction value for many types of debit interchange transactions. The rules permit an upward adjustment to an issuer’s debit card interchange fee of no more than one cent per transaction if the issuer develops and implements policies and procedures reasonably designed to achieve certain fraud-prevention standards. The Federal Reserve also has rules governing routing and exclusivity that require issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product.

As the Bank exceeded $10.0 billion in assets on January 1, 2018, effective July 1, 2019 the Bank became subject to the interchange fee cap, and no longer qualifies for the small issuer exemption from the cap. The small issuer exemption applies to any debit card issuer that, together with its affiliates, has total assets of less than $10 billion as of the end of the previous calendar year.

Capital Requirements. The Federal Reserve and the other federal banking agencies have issued risk-based and leverage capital guidelines applicable to U.S. banking organizations. Those regulatory agencies may from time to time require

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that a banking organization maintain capital above the minimum levels because of its financial condition or actual or anticipated growth.

The Federal Reserve has adopted final rules regarding capital requirements and calculations of risk-weighted assets to implement the Basel III regulatory capital reforms from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act.

Under these updated risk-based capital requirements of the Federal Reserve, the Company and the Bank are required to maintain (i) a minimum ratio of total capital (which is defined as core capital and supplementary capital less certain specified deductions from total capital such as reciprocal holdings of depository institution capital instruments and equity investments) to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0% (unchanged from the prior requirement), (ii) a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital (which consists principally of common and certain qualifying preferred shareholders’ equity (including grandfathered trust preferred securities) as well as retained earnings, less certain intangibles and other adjustments) to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.0% (increased from the prior requirement of 4.0%), and (iii) a minimum ratio of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.5% (a new requirement). These rules provide that “Tier 2 capital” consists of cumulative preferred stock, long-term perpetual preferred stock, a limited amount of subordinated and other qualifying debt (including certain hybrid capital instruments), and a limited amount of the general loan loss allowance.

The Tier 1, common equity Tier 1, and total capital to risk-weighted asset ratios of the Company were 11.39%, 10.26%, and 14.00%, respectively, as of December 31, 2020, thus exceeding the minimum requirements for "well capitalized" status. The Tier 1, common equity Tier 1, and total capital to risk-weighted asset ratios of the Bank were 12.42%, 12.42%, and 13.09%, respectively, as of December 31, 2020, also exceeding the minimum requirements for "well capitalized" status.

Each of the federal bank regulatory agencies also has established a minimum leverage capital ratio of Tier 1 capital to average adjusted assets (“Tier 1 leverage ratio”). The guidelines require a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 3.0% for advanced approach banking organizations; all other banking organizations are required to maintain a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0%. In addition, for a depository institution to be considered “well capitalized” under the regulatory framework for PCA, its Tier 1 leverage ratio must be at least 5.0%. Banking organizations that have experienced internal growth or made acquisitions are expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. The Federal Reserve has not advised the Company or the Bank of any specific minimum leverage ratio applicable to either entity. As of December 31, 2020, the Tier 1 leverage ratios of the Company and the Bank were 8.95% and 9.75%, respectively, well above the minimum requirements.

The Federal Reserve’s final rules also imposed a capital conservation buffer requirement that began to be phased in beginning January 1, 2016, at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets, and increased by the same amount each year until fully implemented at 2.5% on January 1, 2019. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions with a ratio of common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases, and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall.

The final rules became fully phased in on January 1, 2019, and require the Company and the Bank to maintain (i) a minimum ratio of common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.5%, plus a 2.5% “capital conservation buffer” (which is added to the 4.5% common equity Tier 1 ratio, effectively resulting in a minimum ratio of common equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7.0%); (ii) a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.0%, plus the 2.5% capital conservation buffer (which is added to the 6.0% Tier 1 capital ratio, effectively resulting in a minimum Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5%); (iii) a minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0%, plus the 2.5% capital conservation buffer (which is added to the 8.0% total capital ratio, effectively resulting in a minimum total capital ratio of 10.5%); and (iv) a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average assets.

With respect to the Bank, the Federal Reserve’s final rules also revised the “prompt corrective action” regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the FDIA by (i) introducing a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio requirement at each level (other than critically undercapitalized), with the required ratio being 6.5% for well-capitalized status; (ii) increasing the minimum Tier 1 capital ratio requirement for each category, with the minimum ratio for well-capitalized status being

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8.0% (as compared to the prior ratio of 6.0%); and (iii) eliminating the provision that provided that a bank with a composite supervisory rating of 1 may have a 3.0% Tier 1 leverage ratio and still be well-capitalized. These new thresholds were effective for the Bank as of January 1, 2015. The minimum total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio (10.0%) and minimum leverage ratio (5.0%) for well-capitalized status were unchanged by the final rules.

The Federal Reserve’s final rules also included changes in the risk weights of assets to better reflect credit risk and other risk exposures. These include a 150% risk weight (up from 100%) for certain high volatility commercial real estate acquisition, development, and construction loans and nonresidential mortgage loans that are 90 days past due or otherwise on nonaccrual status, a 20% (up from 0%) credit conversion factor for the unused portion of a commitment with an original maturity of one year or less that is not unconditionally cancellable, a 250% risk weight (up from 100%) for mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets that are not deducted from capital, and increased risk-weights (from 0% to up to 600%) for equity exposures.

The Federal Reserve’s regulatory capital rules also provide that in some circumstances trust preferred securities may not be considered Tier 1 capital of a bank holding company with total consolidated assets of greater than $15 billion, and instead will qualify as Tier 2 capital. The Company has $155.2 million of trust preferred securities outstanding and approximately $19.6 billion in assets as of December 31, 2020.

On August 26, 2020, the federal bank regulatory agencies adopted a final rule that allows the Company to phase in the impact of adopting the CECL methodology up to two years, with a three-year transition period to phase out the cumulative benefit to regulatory capital provided during the two-year delay. This final rule is substantially similar to the interim final rule issued in March 2020 by the federal bank regulatory agencies. Refer to Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section “Capital Resources” of this Form 10-K for information regarding the impact of this final rule on the Company’s regulatory capital.

Deposit Insurance. The deposits of the Bank are insured up to applicable limits by the DIF of the FDIC and are subject to deposit insurance assessments based on average total assets minus average tangible equity to maintain the DIF. The basic limit on FDIC deposit insurance coverage is $250,000 per depositor. Under the FDIA, the FDIC may terminate deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations as an insured depository institution, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC, subject to administrative and potential judicial hearing and review processes.

As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC has adopted a large-bank pricing assessment structure, set a target “designated reserve ratio” of 2 percent for the DIF, in lieu of dividends, provides for a lower assessment rate schedule, when the reserve ratio reaches 2 percent and 2.5 percent. An institution’s assessment rate is based on a statistical analysis of financial ratios that estimates the likelihood of failure over a three-year period, which considers the institution’s weighted average CAMELS component rating, and is subject to further adjustments including related to levels of unsecured debt and brokered deposits (not applicable to banks with less than $10 billion in assets). At December 31, 2020, total base assessment rates for institutions that have been insured for at least five years with assets of $10 billion range from 1.5 to 40 bps. In addition, institutions with assets over $10 billion are subject to a surcharge equal to 4.5 bps of assets that exceed $10 billion, which is required to be applied until the reserve ratio reaches 1.35 percent. The reserve ratio has exceeded the required minimum level of 1.35 percent since the fourth quarter of 2018; therefore, the Bank has not been required to pay a surcharge as a result. In June 2020, the FDIC adopted a final rule that generally removes the effect of PPP lending when calculating a bank’s deposit insurance assessment by providing an offset to the bank’s total assessment amount for the increase in the assessment base attributable to the bank’s participation in the PPP. This final rule began applying to FDIC deposit insurance assessments during the second quarter of 2020.

For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company paid $8.4 million, $5.4 million and $5.0 million, respectively, in deposit insurance assessments.

Transactions with Affiliates. Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation W, the authority of the Bank to engage in transactions with related parties or “affiliates,” or to make loans to insiders, is limited. Loan transactions with an affiliate generally must be collateralized and certain transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, including the sale of assets, the payment of money or the provision of services, must be on terms and conditions that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those prevailing for comparable

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nonaffiliated transactions. In addition, the Bank generally may not purchase securities issued or underwritten by affiliates.

Loans to executive officers, directors, or to any person who directly or indirectly, or acting through or in concert with one or more persons, owns, controls, or has the power to vote more than 10% of any class of voting securities of a bank (“10% Shareholders”), are subject to Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and their corresponding regulations (Regulation O) and Section 13(k) of the Exchange Act relating to the prohibition on personal loans to executives (which exempts financial institutions in compliance with the insider lending restrictions of Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act). Among other things, these loans must be made on terms substantially the same as those prevailing on transactions made to unaffiliated individuals and certain extensions of credit to those persons must first be approved in advance by a disinterested majority of the entire Board of Directors. Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act prohibits loans to any of those individuals where the aggregate amount exceeds an amount equal to 15% of an institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus plus an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus in the case of loans that are fully secured by readily marketable collateral, or when the aggregate amount on all of the extensions of credit outstanding to all of these persons would exceed the Bank’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Section 22(g) of the Federal Reserve Act identifies limited circumstances in which the Bank is permitted to extend credit to executive officers.

Prompt Corrective Action. Federal banking regulators are authorized and, under certain circumstances, required to take certain actions against banks that fail to meet their capital requirements. The federal bank regulatory agencies have additional enforcement authority with respect to undercapitalized depository institutions. “Well capitalized” institutions may generally operate without additional supervisory restriction. With respect to “adequately capitalized” institutions, such banks cannot normally pay dividends or make any capital contributions that would leave it undercapitalized, they cannot pay a management fee to a controlling person if, after paying the fee, it would be undercapitalized, and they cannot accept, renew, or roll over any brokered deposit unless the bank has applied for and been granted a waiver by the FDIC.

Immediately upon becoming “undercapitalized,” a depository institution becomes subject to the provisions of Section 38 of the FDIA, which: (i) restrict payment of capital distributions and management fees; (ii) require that the appropriate federal banking agency monitor the condition of the institution and its efforts to restore its capital; (iii) require submission of a capital restoration plan; (iv) restrict the growth of the institution’s assets; and (v) require prior approval of certain expansion proposals. The appropriate federal banking agency for an undercapitalized institution also may take any number of discretionary supervisory actions if the agency determines that any of these actions is necessary to resolve the problems of the institution at the least possible long-term cost to the DIF, subject in certain cases to specified procedures. These discretionary supervisory actions include: (i) requiring the institution to raise additional capital; (ii) restricting transactions with affiliates; (iii) requiring divestiture of the institution or the sale of the institution to a willing purchaser; and (iv) any other supervisory action that the agency deems appropriate. These and additional mandatory and permissive supervisory actions may be taken with respect to significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized institutions. The Bank met the definition of being “well capitalized” as of December 31, 2020.

As described above in “The Bank – Capital Requirements,” the Federal Reserve’s final rules to implement the Basel III regulatory capital reforms incorporate new requirements into the PCA framework.

Community Reinvestment Act. The Bank is subject to the requirements of the CRA. The CRA imposes on financial institutions an affirmative and ongoing obligation to meet the credit needs of the local communities, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. If the Bank receives a rating from the Federal Reserve of less than “satisfactory” under the CRA, restrictions on operating activities would be imposed. In addition, in order for a financial holding company, like the Company, to commence any new activity permitted by the BHCA, or to acquire any company engaged in any new activity permitted by the BHCA, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. The Bank received a “satisfactory” CRA rating in its most recent examination.

FHLB. The Bank is a member of the FHLB of Atlanta, which is one of 12 regional Federal Home Loan Banks that provide funding to their members for making housing loans as well as for affordable housing and community development loans. Each Federal Home Loan Bank serves as a reserve, or central bank, for the members within its assigned region, and makes loans to its members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Board of

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Directors of the applicable Federal Home Loan Bank. As a member, the Bank must purchase and maintain stock in the FHLB. At December 31, 2020, the Bank owned $27.8 million of FHLB stock.

Confidentiality of Customer Information. The Company and the Bank are subject to various laws and regulations that address the privacy of nonpublic personal financial information of customers. A financial institution must provide to its customers information regarding its policies and procedures with respect to the handling of customers’ personal information. Each institution must conduct an internal risk assessment of its ability to protect customer information. These privacy laws and regulations generally prohibit a financial institution from providing a customer’s personal financial information to unaffiliated parties without prior notice and approval from the customer.

In August 2018, the CFPB published its final rule to update Regulation P pursuant to the amended Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Under this rule, certain qualifying financial institutions are not required to provide annual privacy notices to customers. To qualify, a financial institution must not share nonpublic personal information about customers except as described in certain statutory exceptions which do not trigger a customer’s statutory opt-out right. In addition, the financial institution must not have changed its disclosure policies and practices from those disclosed in its most recent privacy notice. The rule sets forth timing requirements for delivery of annual privacy notices in the event that a financial institution that qualified for the annual notice exemption later changes its policies or practices in such a way that it no longer qualifies for the exemption.

Although these laws and regulations impose compliance costs and create privacy obligations and, in some cases, reporting obligations, and compliance with all of the laws, regulations, and privacy and reporting obligations may require significant resources of the Company and the Bank, these laws and regulations do not materially affect the Bank’s products, services or other business activities.

Required Disclosure of Customer Information. The Company and the Bank are also subject to various laws and regulations that attempt to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. The Bank Secrecy Act requires all financial institutions to, among other things, create a system of controls designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism, and imposes recordkeeping and reporting requirements. The USA Patriot Act added additional regulations to facilitate information sharing among governmental entities and financial institutions for the purpose of combating terrorism and money laundering, imposes standards for verifying customer identification at account opening, and requires financial institutions to establish anti-money laundering programs. Regulations adopted under the Bank Secrecy Act impose on financial institutions customer due diligence requirements, and the federal banking regulators expect that customer due diligence programs will be integrated within a financial institution’s broader Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering compliance program. The OFAC, which is a division of the Treasury, is responsible for helping to ensure that United States entities do not engage in transactions with “enemies” of the United States, as defined by various Executive Orders and Acts of Congress. If the Bank finds a name of an “enemy” of the United States on any transaction, account, or wire transfer that is on an OFAC list, it must freeze such account or place transferred funds into a blocked account, and report it to OFAC.

In December 2020, the U.S. Congress enacted the National Defense Authorization Act (the “NDAA”) for fiscal year 2021. Among its many provisions, the NDAA includes the Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 (the “AMLA”) and the related Corporate Transparency Act of 2019 (the “CTA”). The CTA is a significant update to federal Bank Secrecy Act/Anti-money Laundering (“BSA/AML”) regulations. The CTA aims to eliminate the use of shell companies that facilitate the laundering of criminal proceeds and, for that purpose, directs FINCEN to establish and maintain a national registry of beneficial ownership information for corporate entities. Specifically, corporations and limited liability companies (subject to certain exceptions) must disclose to FinCEN their beneficial owners – defined as an individual who, directly or indirectly, exercises substantial control over the entity or owns or controls not less than 25 percent of the ownership interests of the entity. Beneficial ownership must be disclosed at the time of company formation and upon a change in ownership. The national registry will be confidential; the CTA contains criminal penalties for non-compliance as well as for unauthorized disclosure of reported information.

The CTA’s disclosure requirements are similar to the current FinCEN-promulgated Customer Due Diligence (“CDD”) Rule and related regulations applicable to the entity customers of banks. At this time, the Bank cannot predict how implementation of the new CTA requirements will affect the provisions of the CDD Rule or the Bank’s compliance with the CDD Rule and related BSA/AML regulations. No guidance or proposals with respect to either the CTA or revised CDD Rule requirements have yet been proposed by FinCEN or the other federal banking regulators. FinCEN is

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expected to initiate new CTA-related rulemakings and propose revisions to its CDD rules in the near-term. The Bank continues to monitor legislative, regulatory, and supervisory developments related thereto.

Volcker Rule. The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits insured depository institutions and their holding companies from engaging in proprietary trading except in limited circumstances and prohibits them from owning equity interests in excess of 3% of Tier 1 capital in private equity and hedge funds (known as the “Volcker Rule”). On December 10, 2013, the federal bank regulatory agencies adopted final rules implementing the Volcker Rule. These final rules prohibit banking entities from (i) engaging in short-term proprietary trading for their own accounts, and (ii) having certain ownership interests in and relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds. The final rules are intended to provide greater clarity with respect to both the extent of those primary prohibitions and of the related exemptions and exclusions. The final rules also require each regulated entity to establish an internal compliance program that is consistent with the extent to which it engages in activities covered by the Volcker Rule, which must include (for the largest entities) making regular reports about those activities to regulators. Although the final rules provide some tiering of compliance and reporting obligations based on size, the fundamental prohibitions of the Volcker Rule apply to the Company and the Bank. The EGRRCPA and subsequent promulgation of inter-agency final rules have aimed at simplifying and tailoring requirements related to the Volcker Rule. In August 2019, the FDIC modified the rule to, among other things, eliminate the collection of certain metrics and reduce the compliance burdens associated with the remaining metrics requirements, depending on the banking entity’s total consolidated trading assets and liabilities. In October 2019, the Federal Reserve and the SEC approved the Volcker Rule changes. Due to the changing regulatory landscape, the Company will continue to evaluate the implications of the Volcker Rules on its investments, including new impacts as a result of the changes, but does not expect any material financial implications.

Consumer Financial Protection. The Bank is subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws that extensively govern its relationship with its customers. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act, laws governing flood insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, foreclosure laws, and various regulations that implement some or all of the foregoing. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, collecting loans, and providing other services. If the Bank fails to comply with these laws and regulations, it may be subject to various penalties or enforcement actions. Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in failure to obtain any required bank regulatory approval for merger or acquisition transactions the Bank may wish to pursue or being prohibited from engaging in such transactions even if approval is not required.

The Dodd-Frank Act centralized responsibility for consumer financial protection by creating a new agency, the CFPB, and giving it responsibility for implementing, examining, and enforcing compliance with federal consumer protection laws. The CFPB focuses on (i) risks to consumers and compliance with the federal consumer financial laws, (ii) the markets in which firms operate and risks to consumers posed by activities in those markets, (iii) depository institutions that offer a wide variety of consumer financial products and services, and (iv) non-depository companies that offer one or more consumer financial products or services. The CFPB is responsible for implementing, examining and enforcing compliance with federal consumer financial laws for institutions with more than $10 billion of assets, including, beginning April 1, 2018, the Company and the Bank. The Company and the Bank are subject to federal consumer protection rules enacted by the CFPB.

The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority for a wide range of consumer financial laws that apply to all banks, including, among other things, the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive, or abusive” acts and practices. Abusive acts or practices are defined as those that materially interfere with a consumer’s ability to understand a term or condition of a consumer financial product or service or take unreasonable advantage of a consumer’s (i) lack of financial savvy, (ii) inability to protect himself in the selection or use of consumer financial products or services, or (iii) reasonable reliance on a covered entity to act in the consumer’s interests. The CFPB can issue cease-and-desist orders against banks and other entities that violate consumer financial laws. The CFPB may also institute a civil action against an entity in violation of federal consumer financial law in order to impose a civil penalty or injunction. Further, regulatory positions taken by the CFPB may influence how other regulatory agencies apply the subject consumer financial protection laws and regulations.

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Mortgage Banking Regulation. In connection with making mortgage loans, the Company and the Bank are subject to rules and regulations that, among other things, establish standards for loan origination, prohibit discrimination, provide for inspections and appraisals of property, require credit reports on prospective borrowers, in some cases restrict certain loan features and fix maximum interest rates and fees, require the disclosure of certain basic information to mortgagors concerning credit and settlement costs, limit payment for settlement services to the reasonable value of the services rendered and require the maintenance and disclosure of information regarding the disposition of mortgage applications based on race, gender, geographical distribution and income level. The Company and the Bank are also subject to rules and regulations that require the collection and reporting of significant amounts of information with respect to mortgage loans and borrowers.

The Company’s and the Bank’s mortgage origination activities are subject to Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act. Certain provisions of Regulation Z require creditors to make a reasonable and good faith determination based on verified and documented information that a consumer applying for a mortgage loan has a reasonable ability to repay the loan according to its terms. Creditors are required to determine consumers’ ability to repay in one of two ways. The first alternative requires the creditor to consider the following eight underwriting factors when making the credit decision: (i) current or reasonably expected income or assets; (ii) current employment status; (iii) the monthly payment on the covered transaction; (iv) the monthly payment on any simultaneous loan; (v) the monthly payment for mortgage-related obligations; (vi) current debt obligations, alimony, and child support; (vii) the monthly debt-to-income ratio or residual income; and (viii) credit history. Alternatively, the creditor can originate “qualified mortgages,” which are entitled to a presumption that the creditor making the loan satisfied the ability-to-repay requirements. In general, a “qualified mortgage” is a mortgage loan without negative amortization, interest-only payments, balloon payments, or terms exceeding 30 years. In addition, to be a qualified mortgage, the points and fees paid by a consumer cannot exceed 3% of the total loan amount. Qualified mortgages that are “higher-priced” (e.g., subprime loans) garner a rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ability-to-repay rules, while qualified mortgages that are not “higher-priced” (e.g., prime loans) are given a safe harbor of compliance. To meet the mortgage credit needs of a broader customer base, the Company is predominantly an originator of mortgages that are intended to be in compliance with the ability-to-pay requirements. On November 15, 2019, the CFPB issued an interpretive rule providing that loan originators with temporary authority may act as a loan originator for a temporary period of time, as specified in the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, in a state while that state considers their application for a loan originator license, if they meet certain screening and training requirements. The rule was effective November 24, 2019.

Brokered Deposits. Section 29 of the FDIA and FDIC regulations generally limit the ability of any bank to accept, renew or roll over any brokered deposit unless it is “well capitalized” or, with the FDIC’s approval, “adequately capitalized.” However, as a result of EGRRCPA, the FDIC undertook a comprehensive review of its regulatory approach to brokered deposits, including reciprocal deposits, and interest rate caps applicable to banks that are less than “well capitalized.” On December 15, 2020, the FDIC issued final rules that amend the FDIC’s methodology for calculating interest rate caps, provide a new process for banks that seek FDIC approval to offer a competitive rate on deposits when the prevailing rate in the bank’s local market exceeds the national rate cap, and provides specific exemptions and streamlined application and notice procedures for certain deposit-placement arrangements that are not subject to brokered deposit restrictions. These final rules are effective on April 1, 2021.

Cybersecurity. The federal bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and cybersecurity programs for implementing safeguards under the supervision of a financial institution’s board of directors. These guidelines, along with related regulatory materials, increasingly focus on risk management and processes related to information technology and the use of third parties in the provision of financial products and services. The federal bank regulatory agencies expect financial institutions to establish lines of defense and to ensure that their risk management processes address the risk posed by compromised customer credentials, and also expect financial institutions to maintain sufficient business continuity planning processes to ensure rapid recovery, resumption and maintenance of the institution’s operations after a cyberattack. If the Company or the Bank fails to meet the expectations set forth in this regulatory guidance, the Company or the Bank could be subject to various regulatory actions and any remediation efforts may require significant resources of the Company or the Bank.

In October 2016, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued proposed rules on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would apply to very large financial institutions and to services provided by third parties to these institutions. The comment period for these proposed rules has closed and a final rule has not been published. Although the proposed rules would apply only to bank holding companies and banks with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets, these rules could influence the federal bank regulatory agencies’ expectations and supervisory

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requirements for information security standards and cybersecurity programs of financial institutions with less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets.

Incentive Compensation. In 2010, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of financial institutions do not undermine the safety and soundness of such institutions by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The Interagency Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of financial institutions, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a financial institution’s incentive compensation arrangements should: (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the institution’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks; (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management; and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the financial institution’s Board of Directors.

The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of financial institutions, such as the Company and the Bank, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each financial institution based on the scope and complexity of the institution’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the institution’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the institution’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a financial institution if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk-management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the institution’s safety and soundness and the financial institution is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

In 2016, the SEC and the federal banking agencies proposed rules that prohibit covered financial institutions (including bank holding companies and banks) from establishing or maintaining incentive-based compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risk taking by providing covered persons (consisting of senior executive officers and significant risk takers, as defined in the rules) with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits that could lead to material financial loss to the financial institution. The proposed rules outline factors to be considered when analyzing whether compensation is excessive and whether an incentive-based compensation arrangement encourages inappropriate risks that could lead to material loss to the covered financial institution, and establishes minimum requirements that incentive-based compensation arrangements must meet to be considered to not encourage inappropriate risks and to appropriately balance risk and reward. The proposed rules also impose additional corporate governance requirements on the boards of directors of covered financial institutions and impose additional record-keeping requirements. The comment period for these proposed rules has closed and a final rule has not yet been published.

Heightened Requirements for Bank Holding Companies with $10 Billion or More in Assets

Various federal banking laws and regulations, including rules adopted by the Federal Reserve pursuant to the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act, impose heightened requirements on certain large banks and bank holding companies. Most of these rules apply primarily to bank holding companies with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets, but certain rules also apply to banks and bank holding companies with at least $10 billion in total consolidated assets. As of January 1, 2020, the Company and the Bank each have total consolidated assets of more than $10 billion.

EGRRCPA. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act, institutions with assets that exceed $10 billion, were required among other things to: perform annual stress tests and establish a dedicated risk committee of the board of directors responsible for overseeing enterprise-wide risk management policies, which must be commensurate with capital structure, risk profile, complexity, activities, size, and other appropriate risk-related factors, and must include as a member at least one risk management expert. In addition, such institutions (i) may be examined for compliance with federal consumer protection laws primarily by the CFPB; (ii) are subject to increased FDIC deposit insurance assessment requirements; (iii) are subject to a cap on debit card interchange fees; and (iv) may be subject to higher regulatory capital requirements.

However, the amendments to the Dodd-Frank Act made by EGRRCPA provide limited regulatory relief for certain financial institutions and additional tailoring of banking and consumer protection laws, which preserve the existing framework under which U.S. financial institutions are regulated, including the discretionary authority of the Federal Reserve and the FDIC to supervise bank holding companies and insured depository institutions, such as the Company and the Bank.

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In particular, following the enactment of EGRRCPA, bank holding companies with less than $100 billion in assets, such as the Company, are exempt from the enhanced prudential standards imposed under Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act (including but not limited to resolution planning and enhanced liquidity and risk management requirements). Nonetheless, the capital planning and risk management practices of the Company and the Bank will continue to be reviewed through the regular supervisory processes of the Federal Reserve.

Furthermore, EGRRCPA increased the asset threshold for requiring a bank holding company to establish a separate risk committee of independent directors from $10 billion to $50 billion. Notwithstanding the changes implemented by EGRRCPA increasing this asset threshold, the Company has retained its separate risk committee of independent directors.

In addition to amendments and changes to the Dodd-Frank Act set forth in the interagency statement regarding the impact of EGRRCPA released by the federal banking agencies on July 6, 2018, EGRRCPA includes certain other banking-related, consumer protection, and securities laws-related provisions. Many of EGRRCPA’s changes must be implemented through rules adopted by federal agencies, and certain changes remain subject to their substantial regulatory discretion. As a result, the full impact of EGRRCPA will remain unclear for some time. The Company and the Bank expect to continue to evaluate the potential impact of EGRRCPA as it is further implemented by the regulators.

Future Regulation

From time to time, various legislative and regulatory initiatives are introduced in Congress and state legislatures, as well as by regulatory agencies. Such initiatives may include proposals to expand or contract the powers of bank holding companies and depository institutions or proposals to substantially change the financial institution regulatory system. Such legislation could change banking statutes and the operating environment of the Company and the Bank in substantial and unpredictable ways. If enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities, or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions. The Company cannot predict whether any such legislation will be enacted, and, if enacted, the effect that it, or any implementing regulations, would have on the financial condition or results of operations of the Company or the Bank.

Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies

The Company’s operations are affected not only by general economic conditions but also by the policies of various regulatory authorities. In particular, the Federal Reserve uses monetary policy tools to impact money market and credit market conditions and interest rates to influence general economic conditions. These policies have a significant impact on overall growth and distribution of loans, investments, and deposits; they affect market interest rates charged on loans or paid for time and savings deposits. Federal Reserve monetary policies have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks, including the Company, in the past and are expected to do so in the future.

Filings with the SEC

The Company files annual, quarterly, and other reports under the Exchange Act with the SEC. These reports and this Form 10-K are posted and available at no cost on the Company’s investor relations website, http://investors.atlanticunionbank.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company files such documents with the SEC. The information contained on the Company’s website is not a part of this Form 10-K or of any other filing with the SEC. The Company’s filings are also available through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

ITEM 1A. - RISK FACTORS

An investment in the Company’s securities involves risks and uncertainties. In addition to the other information set forth in this Form 10-K, including the information addressed under “Forward-Looking Statements,” investors in the Company’s securities should carefully consider the factors discussed below. These factors could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, and capital position and could cause the Company’s actual results to differ materially from its historical results or the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K, in which case the trading price of the Company’s securities could decline. The Risk Factor Summary that follows should be read in conjunction with the detailed description of risk factors below.

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Risk Factor Summary

These risks and uncertainties include:

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting adverse economic conditions have already adversely impacted the Company’s business and results, and could adversely impact its business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Company’s Lending Activities

The Company’s ACL may prove to be insufficient to absorb credit losses in its loan portfolio.
The Bank’s concentration in loans secured by real estate may adversely affect earnings due to changes in the real estate markets.
The Bank has significant credit exposure in commercial real estate, and loans with this type of collateral are viewed as having more risk of default.
The Bank’s loan portfolio contains construction and development loans, and a decline in real estate values or economic conditions could adversely affect the value of the collateral securing the loans and have an adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition.
The Bank’s commercial and industrial loans have contributed significantly to the Bank’s loan growth. A weakening of economic conditions could adversely affect the collectability of the loans and underlying collateral.
Loans that the Bank has made through federal programs are dependent on the federal government’s continuation and support of these programs and on the Bank’s compliance with program requirements.
The Bank relies upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate which secures a significant portion of its loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if the Bank is forced to foreclose upon such loans.
The Company’s credit standards and its on-going credit assessment processes might not protect it from significant credit losses.
The Company’s focus on lending to small to mid-sized community-based businesses may increase its credit risk.
Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s mortgage revenue is cyclical and is sensitive to the level of interest rates, changes in economic conditions, decreased economic activity, and slowdowns in the housing market, any of which could adversely impact the Company’s profits.

Risks Related to Market Interest Rates

Changes in interest rates could adversely affect the Company’s income and cash flows.
The phasing out and ultimate replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate and changes in the manner of calculating other reference rates may adversely impact the value of loans and other financial instruments the Company holds that are linked to LIBOR or other reference rates in ways that are difficult to predict and could adversely impact the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Company’s Business, Industry and Markets

The Company’s business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally.
Adverse changes in economic conditions in Virginia, Maryland, or North Carolina or adverse conditions in an industry on which a local market in which the Company does business relies could negatively impact the Company’s business in a material way.
Changes in U.S. trade policies and other factors beyond the Company’s control, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs, may adversely impact the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company faces substantial competition that could adversely affect the Company’s growth and/or operating results.
The Company’s consumers may increasingly decide not to use the Bank to complete their financial transactions, which would have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operations.

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Risks Related to the Company’s Operations

The Company’s operations may be adversely affected by cyber security risks and cyber-attacks.
The inability of the Company to successfully manage its growth or to implement its growth strategy may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial conditions.
Difficulties in combining the operations of acquired entities with the Company’s own operations may prevent the Company from achieving the expected benefits from acquisitions.
The carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets may be adversely affected.
The Company’s risk-management framework may not be effective in mitigating risk and loss.
The Company’s exposure to operational, technological, and organizational risk may adversely affect the Company.
The Company continually encounters technological change which could affect its ability to remain competitive.
The operational functions of business counterparties over which the Company may have limited or no control may experience disruptions that could adversely impact the Company.
The Company and the Bank rely on other companies to provide key components of their business infrastructure.
The Company depends on the accuracy and completeness of information about clients and counterparties, and its financial condition could be adversely affected if it relies on misleading information.
The Company’s dependency on its management team and the unexpected loss of any of those personnel could adversely affect operations.
The Company may not be able to generate sufficient taxable income to fully realize its deferred tax assets.
Sales of the Company’s common stock in connection with merger or acquisition activity, or other capital transactions may result in an ownership change of control, thus limiting the Company’s ability to realize its deferred tax assets.

Risks Related to the Company’s Regulatory Environment

The Company is subject to additional regulation, increased supervision and increased costs compared to some financial institutions because the Company’s assets exceed $10 billion.
Current and proposed regulation addressing consumer privacy and data use and security could increase the Company’s costs and impact its reputation.
The Company is subject to more stringent capital and liquidity requirements as a result of the Basel III regulatory capital reforms and the Dodd-Frank Act, which could adversely affect its return on equity and otherwise affect its business.
The Bank is subject to the CFPB’s broad regulatory authority and new regulations, or new approaches to regulation or enforcement by the CFPB could adversely impact the Company.
Failure to comply with the USA Patriot Act, OFAC, the Bank Secrecy Act and related FinCEN guidelines and related regulations could have a material impact on the Company.

Risks Related to the Company’s Securities

The Company relies on dividends from its subsidiaries for substantially all of its revenue.
An active trading market in the Company’s common stock may not be sustained.
Future issuances of the Company’s common stock or preferred stock could adversely affect the market price of the common stock and preferred stock and could be dilutive.
Common stock and preferred stock are equity and are subordinate to the Company’s existing and future indebtedness and effectively subordinated to all the indebtedness and other non- equity claims against the Bank and the Company’s other subsidiaries.
The Company’s common stock is subordinate to the Company’s existing and future preferred stock.

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting adverse economic conditions have already adversely impacted the Company’s business and results, and could have a more material adverse impact on its business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The ongoing COVID-19 global and national health emergency has caused significant disruption in the United States and international economies and financial markets. The spread of COVID-19 in the United States has caused illness, quarantines, cancellation of events and travel, business and school shutdowns, reduction in commercial activity and

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financial transactions, supply chain interruptions, increased unemployment, and overall economic and financial market instability. In March 2020, almost all states, including Virginia, where the Company is headquartered, and Maryland and North Carolina, in which the Company has significant operations, issued “stay-at-home orders” and declared states of emergency. Many state and local governments began implementing phased regulations and guidelines for reopening communities and economies, often with reduced capacity and social distancing restrictions. However, recently, many state and local governments have implemented additional restrictions in light of the significant COVID-19 resurgence.

Although banks have generally been permitted to continue operating, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the Company’s business and could cause material disruptions to its business and operations in the future. Impacts to the business have included increases in costs and reductions in operating effectiveness due to additional health and safety precautions implemented at the Company’s branches and offices and the transition of a portion of its workforce to home locations, decreases in customer traffic in its branches, and increases in requests for and the making of loan modifications. The Company anticipates that additional future impacts to its business will include increases in the Company’s customers’ inability to make scheduled loan payments and increases in requests for forbearance. Further, loan payment deferment programs implemented by the Company or under government stimulus programs, like the PPP, may mask credit deterioration in its loan portfolio by making less applicable standard measures of identifying developing financial weakness in a client or portfolio, such as past due monitoring and non-accrual assessments. To the extent that commercial and social restrictions remain in place or increase, the Company’s expenses, delinquencies, charge-offs, foreclosures, and credit losses may materially increase, and the Company could experience reductions in fee income. In addition, any declines in credit quality could significantly affect the adequacy of the Company’s ACL, which would lead to increases in the provision for credit losses and related declines in its net income.

Unfavorable economic conditions and increasing unemployment figures may also make it more difficult for the Company to maintain deposit levels and loan origination volume and to obtain additional financing. Furthermore, such conditions have and may continue to cause the value of the Company’s investment portfolio and of collateral associated with its existing loans to decline. In addition, in March 2020, the Federal Reserve lowered the target range for the federal funds rate to a range from 0 to 0.25 percent in part as a result of the pandemic. A prolonged period of very low interest rates could reduce the Company’s net interest income and have a material adverse impact on its cash flows.

While the Company has taken and is continuing to take precautions to protect the safety and well-being of its employees and customers, no assurance can be given that the steps being taken will be deemed to be adequate or appropriate, nor can the Company predict the continued level of disruption that will occur to its employee's ability to provide customer support and service. The continued, renewed, or increased spread of COVID-19 could negatively impact the availability of key personnel necessary to conduct the Company’s business, the business and operations of its third-party service providers who perform critical services for the business, or the businesses of many of the Company’s customers and borrowers. If COVID-19 is not successfully contained, the Company could experience a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flow.

Among the factors outside the Company’s control that are likely to affect the impact the COVID-19 pandemic will ultimately have on its business are, without limitation:

the pandemic’s duration, nature, and severity;
the uncertainty regarding new variants of COVID-19 that have emerged;
the speed and efficacy of vaccine and treatment developments;
the direct and indirect results of the pandemic, such as recessionary economic trends, including with respect to employment, wages and benefits, commercial activity, the residential housing market, consumer spending and real estate and investment securities market values;
political, legal, and regulatory actions and policies in response to the pandemic, including the effects of restrictions on commerce and banking, such as temporary or required suspensions of collections, foreclosures, and related obligations;
the timing, magnitude, and effect of public spending, directly or through subsidies, its direct and indirect effects on commercial activity and incentives of employers and individuals to resume or increase employment, wages and benefits, and commercial activity;
effects on the Company’s liquidity position due to changes in customers’ deposit and loan activity in response to the pandemic and its economic effects;
the timing and availability of direct and indirect governmental support for various financial assets, including mortgage loans;

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the long-term effect of the economic downturn on the Company’s intangible assets such as its deferred tax asset and goodwill;
potential longer-term effects of increased government spending on the interest rate environment and borrowing costs for non-governmental parties;
the ability of the Company’s employees to work effectively during the course of the pandemic;
the ability of the Company’s third-party vendors to maintain a high-quality and effective level of service;
the possibility of increased fraud, cybercrime, and similar incidents, due to vulnerabilities posed by the significant increase in Company employees and customers handling their banking interactions remotely from home, the quick roll-out of various government-sponsored lending programs, like the PPP, or otherwise;
required changes to the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting to reflect a rapidly changing work environment;
potential longer-term shifts toward mobile banking, telecommuting, and telecommerce;
short- and long-term health impacts;
unforeseen effects of the pandemic; and
geographic variation in the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, including in states in which the Company operates physically such as Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to severe volatility in the financial markets. Depending on the extent and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and perceptions regarding national and global recovery from the pandemic, the price of the Company’s common stock may continue to experience volatility and potential declines.

The Company is continuing to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic and related risks, although the rapid development and fluidity of the situation precludes any specific prediction as to its ultimate impact on the Company. However, if the pandemic continues to spread or otherwise results in a continuation or worsening of the current economic and commercial environments, the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to the Company’s Lending Activities

The Company’s ACL may prove to be insufficient to absorb credit losses in its loan portfolio.

Like all financial institutions, the Company maintains an ACL to provide for loans that its borrowers may not repay in their entirety. The Company believes that it maintains an ACL at a level adequate to absorb expected losses in the loan portfolio as of the corresponding balance sheet date and in compliance with applicable accounting and regulatory guidance. The ACL, however, may not be sufficient to cover expected loan losses and future provisions for loan losses could materially and adversely affect the Company’s operating results. Accounting related to the ACL requires significant estimates that are subject to uncertainty and changes relating to new information and changing circumstances. The significant uncertainties surrounding the ability of the Company’s borrowers to execute their business models successfully through changing economic environments, competitive challenges, and other factors complicate the Company’s estimates of the risk of loss and amount of loss on any loan. Due to the degree of uncertainty and susceptibility of these factors to change, the actual losses may vary from current estimates. The Company expects possible fluctuations in the loan loss provisions due to changes in economic conditions.

The Company’s banking regulators, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review the ACL and may require the Company to increase its ACL by recognizing additional provisions for loan losses charged to expense, or to decrease the ACL by recognizing loan charge-offs, net of recoveries. Any such required additional provisions for loan losses or charge-offs could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, the measure of the Company’s ACL is dependent on the interpretation of accounting standards. On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASC 326, which replaces the incurred loss credit impairment methodology with the CECL methodology. The CECL methodology reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. Accordingly, the implementation of the CECL model changed the Company’s current method of providing ACL and resulted in material changes in the Company’s accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. The CECL model may create more volatility in the Company’s level of ACL, which if the Company is required to materially increase its level of ACL for any reason, such increase could adversely affect its business, financial condition, and results of operations. Refer to Note 1 “Summary of

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Significant Accounting Policies” in the “Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements” contained in Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K for information regarding the Company’s accounting policy and summary of adoption implications of ASC 326.

The Bank’s concentration in loans secured by real estate may adversely affect earnings due to changes in the real estate markets.

The Bank offers a variety of secured loans, including commercial lines of credit, commercial term loans, real estate, construction, home equity, consumer, equipment financing, and other loans. Many of the Bank’s loans are secured by real estate (both residential and commercial). A major change in the real estate markets or in the local or national economy, resulting in deterioration in the value of this collateral or rental or occupancy rates, could adversely affect borrowers’ ability to pay these loans, which in turn could negatively affect the Bank. The Bank tries to limit its exposure to these risks by monitoring extensions of credit carefully; however, risks of loan defaults and foreclosures are unavoidable in the banking industry. As the Bank cannot fully eliminate credit risk; credit losses will occur in the future. Additionally, changes in the real estate market also affect the value of foreclosed assets, and therefore, additional losses may occur when management determines it is appropriate to sell the assets.

The Bank has significant credit exposure in commercial real estate, and loans with this type of collateral are viewed as having more risk of default.

The Bank’s commercial real estate portfolio consists primarily of non-owner-operated properties and other commercial properties. These types of loans are generally viewed as having more risk of default than residential real estate loans. They are also typically larger than residential real estate loans and consumer loans and depend on cash flows from the owner’s business or the property’s tenants to service the debt. Cash flows may be affected significantly by general economic conditions, and a downturn in the local economy or in occupancy rates in the local economy where the property is located could increase the likelihood of default. The Bank’s loan portfolio contains a number of commercial real estate loans with relatively large balances, and thus the deterioration of one or a few of these loans could cause a significant increase in the percentage of non-performing loans. An increase in non-performing loans could result in a loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses and an increase in charge-offs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations.

The Bank’s banking regulators generally give commercial real estate lending greater scrutiny and may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement enhanced risk management practices, which could have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s results of operations. Such practices include underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies, more granular reporting and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for losses and capital levels as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures.

The Bank’s loan portfolio contains construction and development loans, and a decline in real estate values or economic conditions could adversely affect the value of the collateral securing the loans and have an adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition.

Construction and development loans are generally viewed as having more risk than residential real estate loans because repayment is often dependent on completion of the project and the subsequent financing of the completed project as a commercial real estate or residential real estate loan and, in some instances, on the rent or sale of the underlying project.

Although the Bank’s construction and development loans are primarily secured by real estate, the Bank believes that, in the case of the majority of these loans, the real estate collateral by itself may not be a sufficient source for repayment of the loan if real estate values decline. If the Bank is required to liquidate the collateral securing a construction and development loan to satisfy the debt, its earnings and capital may be adversely affected. A period of reduced real estate values may continue for some time, resulting in potential adverse effects on the Bank’s earnings and capital.

The Bank’s commercial and industrial loans have contributed significantly to the Bank’s loan growth. A weakening of economic conditions could adversely affect the collectability of the loans and underlying collateral.

Commercial and industrial loans are generally made to support the Bank’s borrowers’ need for short-term or seasonal cash flow and equipment/vehicle purchases. These loans are typically based on the borrowers’ ability to repay the loans from the cash flow of their businesses. The assets securing these loans may depreciate over time or can be difficult to

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appraise and liquidate, and may fluctuate in value based on the success of the business. This type of collateral may not yield substantial recovery in the event a default occurs and the Bank needs to liquidate the business.

Loans that the Bank has made through federal programs are dependent on the federal government’s continuation and support of these programs and on the Bank’s compliance with program requirements.

The Bank participates in various U.S. government agency loan guarantee programs, including programs operated by the SBA. If the Bank fails to follow any applicable regulations, guidelines or policies associated with a particular guarantee program, any loans the Bank originates as part of that program may lose the associated guarantee, exposing the Bank to credit risk it would not otherwise be exposed to or have underwritten, or result in the Bank’s inability to continue originating loans under such programs, either of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

Federal and state governments have enacted laws and implemented programs intending to stimulate the economy in light of the business and market disruptions related to COVID-19, including the PPP. The Bank participated as a lender in both rounds of the PPP, providing $1.7 billion in loans to over 11,000 customers. The PPP loans are fully guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by the SBA and the Bank believes that the majority of these loans will be forgiven. However, there can be no assurance that the borrowers will use or have used the funds appropriately or will have satisfied the staffing or payment requirements to qualify for forgiveness in whole or in part. Any portion of the loan that is not forgiven must be repaid by the borrower. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded or serviced by the Bank, which may or may not be related to an ambiguity in the laws, rules or guidance regarding operation of the PPP, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if the Bank has already been paid under the guaranty, seek recovery from the Bank of any loss related to the deficiency. Several large banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP. The Bank may be exposed to the risk of litigation, from both customers and non-customers that approached the Bank regarding PPP loans and the Bank’s PPP processes. If any such litigation is filed against the Bank and is not resolved in a manner favorable to the Bank, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect the Bank’s reputation. Any financial liability, litigation costs or reputational damage caused by PPP related litigation could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Bank relies upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate which secures a significant portion of its loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if the Bank is forced to foreclose upon such loans.

A significant portion of the Bank’s loan portfolio consists of loans secured by real estate. The Bank relies upon independent appraisers to estimate the value of such real estate. Appraisals are only estimates of value and the independent appraisers may make mistakes of fact or judgment that adversely affect the reliability of their appraisals. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to increase or decrease. As a result of any of these factors, the real estate securing some of the Bank’s loans may be more or less valuable than anticipated at the time the loans were made. If a default occurs on a loan secured by real estate that is less valuable than originally estimated as evidenced by an updated appraisal, the Bank may not be able to recover the outstanding balance of the loan.

The Company’s credit standards and its on-going credit assessment processes might not protect it from significant credit losses.

The Company assumes credit risk by virtue of making loans and extending loan commitments and letters of credit. The Company manages credit risk through a program of underwriting standards, heightened review of certain credit decisions, and a continuous quality assessment process of credit already extended. The Company’s exposure to credit risk is managed through the use of consistent underwriting standards that emphasize local lending while avoiding highly leveraged transactions and excessive industry and other concentrations. The Company’s credit administration function employs risk management techniques to help ensure that problem loans are promptly identified. While these procedures are designed to provide the Company with the information needed to implement policy adjustments where necessary and to take appropriate corrective actions, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective in avoiding undue credit risk.

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The Company’s focus on lending to small to mid-sized community-based businesses may increase its credit risk.

Most of the Company’s commercial business and commercial real estate loans are made to small business or middle market customers. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities and have a heightened vulnerability to economic conditions. If general economic conditions in the market areas in which the Company operates negatively impact this important customer sector, the Company’s results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. Moreover, a portion of these loans have been made by the Company in recent years, and the borrowers may not have experienced a complete business or economic cycle. Any deterioration of the borrowers’ businesses may hinder their ability to repay their loans with the Company, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

The Company’s nonperforming assets adversely affect its net income in various ways. The Company does not record interest income on nonaccrual loans, which adversely affects its income and increases loan administration costs. When the Company receives collateral through foreclosures and similar proceedings, it is required to mark the related loan to the then fair market value of the collateral less estimated selling costs, which may result in a loss. An increase in the level of nonperforming assets also increases the Company’s risk profile and may affect the minimum capital levels regulators believe are appropriate for the Company in light of such risks. The Company utilizes various techniques such as workouts, restructurings, and loan sales to manage problem assets. Increases in or negative adjustments in the value of these problem assets, the underlying collateral, or in the borrowers’ performance or financial condition, could adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant commitments of time from management and staff, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities, including origination of new loans. There can be no assurance that the Company will avoid further increases in nonperforming assets in the future.

The Company’s mortgage revenue is cyclical and is sensitive to the level of interest rates, changes in economic conditions, decreased economic activity, and slowdowns in the housing market, any of which could adversely impact the Company’s profits.

As a result of the acquisition of Access, the Bank now operates a mortgage business as a division of the Bank under the Atlantic Union Bank Home Loans Division brand. The Atlantic Union Bank Home Loans Division business lends to borrowers nationwide. The success of the Company’s mortgage business is dependent upon its ability to originate loans and sell them to investors, in each case at or near current volumes. Loan production levels are sensitive to changes in the level of interest rates and changes in economic conditions. Loan production levels may suffer if the Company experiences a slowdown in the local housing market or tightening credit conditions. Any sustained period of decreased activity caused by fewer refinancing transactions, higher interest rates, housing price pressure, or loan underwriting restrictions would adversely affect the Company’s mortgage originations and, consequently, could significantly reduce its income from mortgage activities. As a result, these conditions would also adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

Deteriorating economic conditions may also cause home buyers to default on their mortgages. In certain cases, where the Company has originated loans and sold them to investors, the Company may be required to repurchase loans or provide a financial settlement to investors if it is proven that the borrower failed to provide full and accurate information on, or related to, their loan application, if appraisals for such properties have not been acceptable or if the loan was not underwritten in accordance with the loan program specified by the loan investor. In the ordinary course of business, the Company records an indemnification reserve relating to mortgage loans previously sold based on historical statistics and loss rates. If such reserves were insufficient to cover claims from investors, such repurchases or settlements would adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

Risks Related to Market Interest Rates

Changes in interest rates could adversely affect the Company’s income and cash flows.

The Company’s income and cash flows depend to a great extent on the difference between the interest rates earned on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and the interest rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities,

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such as deposits and borrowings. These rates are highly sensitive to many factors beyond the Company’s control, including general economic conditions and the policies of the Federal Reserve and other governmental and regulatory agencies. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, will influence the origination of loans, the prepayment of loans, the fair value of existing assets and liabilities, the purchase of investments, the retention and generation of deposits, the rates received on loans and investment securities, and the rates paid on deposits or other sources of funding. The impact of these changes may be magnified if the Company does not effectively manage the relative sensitivity of its assets and liabilities to changes in market interest rates. In addition, the Company’s ability to reflect such interest rate changes in pricing its products is influenced by competitive pressures. Fluctuations in these areas may adversely affect the Company and its shareholders.

The Company generally seeks to maintain a neutral position in terms of the volume of assets and liabilities that mature or re-price during any period so that it may reasonably maintain its net interest margin; however, interest rate fluctuations, loan prepayments, loan production, deposit flows, and competitive pressures are constantly changing and influence the ability to maintain a neutral position. Generally, the Company’s earnings will be more sensitive to fluctuations in interest rates depending upon the variance in volume of assets and liabilities that mature and re-price in any period. The extent and duration of the sensitivity will depend on the cumulative variance over time, the velocity and direction of changes in interest rates, shape and slope of the yield curve, and whether the Company is more asset sensitive or liability sensitive. Accordingly, the Company may not be successful in maintaining a neutral position and, as a result, the Company’s net interest margin may be affected.

The phasing out and ultimate replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate and changes in the manner of calculating other reference rates may adversely impact the value of loans and other financial instruments the Company holds that are linked to LIBOR or other reference rates in ways that are difficult to predict and could adversely impact the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced in July 2017 that it will no longer persuade or require banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. Intercontinental Exchange, Inc., the company that administers LIBOR, has stated that it intends to cease the publication of one week and two month LIBOR rates immediately after the LIBOR publication on December 31, 2021, and the remaining LIBOR rates immediately following the LIBOR publication on June 30, 2023, and will consult on such intentions. Given LIBOR’s extensive use across financial markets, the transition away from LIBOR presents various risks and challenges to financial markets and institutions, including to the Company, and liquidity in the interbank markets on which those LIBOR estimates are based has been declining. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Efforts in the United States to identify a set of alternative U.S. dollar reference rates include a proposal by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for the market to transition from LIBOR to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR. Whether or not the SOFR attains market acceptance as a LIBOR replacement remains in question and the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. The Company has a significant amount of loans and other financial obligations or extensions of credit that may be adversely affected by the discontinuation of LIBOR and uncertainty regarding its replacement. In addition, uncertainty regarding the nature of such potential changes, alternative reference rates or other reforms may adversely affect the trading market for securities on which the interest or dividend is determined by reference to LIBOR, including the Company’s outstanding fixed-to-floating rate subordinated notes and trust preferred securities. The discontinuation of LIBOR could also result in operational, legal and compliance risks, and if the Company is unable to adequately manage such risks, they could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s reputation and on its business, financial condition, results of operations or future prospects.

Risks Related to the Company’s Business, Industry and Markets

The Company’s business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally.

The banking industry is directly affected by national, regional, and local economic conditions. Management allocates significant resources to mitigate and respond to risks associated with changing economic conditions, however, such conditions cannot be predicted or controlled. Adverse changes in economic conditions, including a reduction in federal government spending, flatter yield curve, extended low interest rates, or negative changes in consumer and business spending, borrowing, and savings habits, could adversely affect the credit quality of the Company’s loans, and/or the

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Company’s results of operations and financial condition. The Company’s financial performance is dependent on the business environment in the markets where the Company operates, in particular, the ability of borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing those loans, as well as demand for loans and other products and services the Company offers. In addition, the Company holds securities which can be significantly affected by various factors, including interest rates and credit ratings assigned by third parties. Rising interest rates or an adverse credit rating on securities held by the Company could result in a reduction of the fair value of its securities portfolio and have an adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition.

Adverse changes in economic conditions in Virginia, Maryland, or North Carolina or adverse conditions in an industry on which a local market in which the Company does business relies could negatively impact the Company’s business in a material way.

The Company provides full-service banking and other financial services throughout Virginia and in portions of Maryland and North Carolina. The Company’s loan and deposit activities are directly affected by, and the Company’s financial success depends on, economic conditions within the local markets in which the Company does business, as well as conditions in the industries on which those markets are economically dependent. A deterioration in local economic conditions or in the condition of an industry on which a local market relies could adversely affect such factors as unemployment rates, business formations and expansions, housing demand, apartment vacancy rates and real estate values in the local market. This could result in, among other things, a decline in loan demand, a reduction in the number of creditworthy borrowers seeking loans, an increase in loan delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures, an increase in classified and nonaccrual loans, a decrease in the value of loan collateral and a decline in the net worth and liquidity of borrowers and guarantors. Any of these factors could negatively impact the Company’s business in a material way.

Changes in U.S. trade policies and other factors beyond the Company’s control, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs, may adversely impact the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

There have been changes and discussions with respect to U.S. trade policies, legislation, treaties and tariffs, including trade policies and tariffs affecting other countries, including China, the European Union, Canada and Mexico and retaliatory tariffs by such countries. Tariffs and retaliatory tariffs have been imposed, and additional tariffs and retaliation tariffs have been proposed. Such tariffs, retaliatory tariffs or other trade restrictions on products and materials that our customers import or export could cause the prices of our customers’ products to increase which could reduce demand for such products, or reduce our customer’s margins, and adversely impact their revenues, financial results and ability to service debt; which, in turn, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, to the extent changes in the political environment have a negative impact on the Company or on the markets in which the Company operates, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted in the future. It remains unclear what the U.S. administration or foreign governments will or will not do with respect to tariffs already imposed, additional tariffs that may be imposed, or international trade agreements and policies. On October 1, 2018, the United States, Canada and Mexico agreed to a new trade deal – the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, or the USMCA – to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement. While ratified by Mexico and approved by the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate, the trade deal is subject to ratification by Canada. The full impact of the USMCA on the Company, its customers and on the economic conditions in the Company’s markets is currently unknown. A trade war or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements or policies has the potential to negatively impact the Company’s and its customers' costs, demand for the Company’s customers' products, and the U.S. economy or certain sectors thereof and, thus, adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company faces substantial competition that could adversely affect the Company’s growth and/or operating results.

The Company operates in a competitive market for financial services and faces intense competition from other financial institutions both in making loans and attracting deposits which can greatly affect pricing for its products and services. The Company’s primary competitors include community, regional, and national banks as well as credit unions and mortgage companies. Many of these financial institutions are significantly larger and have established customer bases, greater financial resources, and higher lending limits. In addition, credit unions are exempt from corporate income taxes, providing a significant competitive pricing advantage compared to banks. Accordingly, some of the Company’s

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competitors in its market have the ability to offer products and services that it is unable to offer or to offer such products and services at more competitive rates.

The Company’s consumers may increasingly decide not to use the Bank to complete their financial transactions, which would have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operations.

Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions through alternative methods that have historically involved banks. For example, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual funds, or general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The Company faces increasing competition from fintech companies, as trends toward digital financial transactions have accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the lower cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Company’s Operations

The Company’s operations may be adversely affected by cyber security risks and cyber-attacks.

In the ordinary course of business, the Company collects and stores confidential and sensitive data, including proprietary business information and personally identifiable information of its customers and employees in systems and on networks. The secure processing, maintenance, and use of this information is critical to the Company’s operations and business strategy. In addition, the Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. Any failure, interruption, or breach in security or operational integrity of these systems, such as "hacking", "identity theft" and "cyber fraud", could result in failures or disruptions in the Company’s customer relationship management, the general ledger, deposits, loans, and other systems. The Company has invested in technologies, and continually reviews its controls, processes and practices that are designed to protect its networks, computers, and data, including customer information from damage or unauthorized access. Despite these security measures, the Company’s computer systems and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance, or other disruptions. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to disable or degrade systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, the Company may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate protective measures.

There can be no assurance that the Company will not suffer cyber-attacks or other information security breaches or be impacted by losses from such events in the future. The Company’s risk and exposure to these matters remain heightened because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, current use of internet banking and mobile banking channels, expanded operations and third-party information systems. Recent instances of attacks specifically targeting financial services businesses indicate that the risk to the Company’s systems remains significant.

A breach of any kind could compromise systems, and the information stored there could be accessed, damaged, or disclosed. A breach in security or other failure could result in legal claims, regulatory penalties, disruption in operations, remediation expenses, costs associated with customer notification and credit monitoring services, increased insurance premiums, fines and costs associated with civil litigation, loss of customers and business partners, loss of confidence in the security of our systems, products and services, and damage to the Company’s reputation, which could adversely affect its business and financial condition. Furthermore, as cyber threats continue to evolve and increase, the Company may be required to expend significant additional financial and operational resources to modify or enhance its protective measures, or to investigate and remediate any identified information security vulnerabilities.

The inability of the Company to successfully manage its growth or to implement its growth strategy may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and financial conditions.

The Company may not be able to successfully implement its growth strategy if it is unable to identify and compete for attractive markets, locations, or opportunities to expand in the future. In addition, the ability to manage growth successfully depends on whether the Company can maintain adequate capital levels, maintain cost controls, effectively manage asset quality, effectively manage increasing regulatory compliance requirements, and successfully integrate any businesses acquired into the organization.

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As consolidation within the financial services industry continues, the competition for suitable strategic acquisition candidates may increase. The Company will compete with other financial services companies for acquisition and expansion opportunities, and many of those competitors will have greater financial resources than the Company does and may be able to pay more for an acquisition than the Company is able or willing to pay. The Company cannot assure that it will have opportunities to acquire other financial institutions, or that the Company will be able to negotiate, finance, and complete any opportunities available to it.

If the Company is unable to effectively implement its strategies for organic growth and strategic acquisitions (if any), the business, results of operations, and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.

Difficulties in combining the operations of acquired entities with the Company’s own operations may prevent the Company from achieving the expected benefits from acquisitions.

The Company may not be able to fully achieve the strategic objectives and operating efficiencies expected in an acquisition. Inherent uncertainties exist in integrating the operations of an acquired entity. In addition, the markets and industries in which the Company and its potential acquisition targets operate are highly competitive. The Company may lose its customers and/or key personnel, or those of acquired entities, as a result of an acquisition. The Company may also not be able to control the incremental increase in noninterest expense arising from an acquisition in a manner that improves its overall operating efficiencies. These factors could contribute to the Company not achieving the expected benefits from its acquisitions within desired time frames, if at all. Future business acquisitions (if any) could be material to the Company and it may issue additional shares of common stock to pay for those acquisitions, which would dilute current shareholders’ ownership interests. Acquisitions also could require the Company to use substantial cash, other liquid assets, or to incur debt; the Company could therefore become more susceptible to economic downturns and competitive pressures. Further, acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of the Company’s tangible book value and net income per share of common stock may occur in connection with any future acquisitions.

The carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets may be adversely affected.

When the Company completes an acquisition, goodwill and other intangible assets are often recorded on the date of acquisition as an asset. Current accounting guidance requires goodwill to be tested for impairment, and the Company performs such impairment analysis at least annually. A significant adverse change in expected future cash flows or sustained adverse change in the Company’s common stock could require the asset to become impaired. If impaired, the Company woul