12/31Independent Bank Corp0000776901false2020FYYesNoYes33,018,46137403043992.732.202.732.0200000231,000BALANCE SHEET OFFSETTING
The Company does not offset fair value amounts recognized for derivative instruments or repurchase agreements. The Company does net the amount recognized for the right to reclaim cash collateral against the obligation to return cash collateral arising from derivative instruments executed with the same counterparty under a master netting arrangement. Collateral legally required to be maintained at dealer banks by the Company is monitored and adjusted as necessary.
The following tables present the Company's asset and liability derivative positions and the potential effect of netting arrangements on its financial position, as of the dates indicated:
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Statement of Financial Position
Gross Amounts Recognized in the Statement of Financial PositionGross Amounts Offset in the Statement of Financial PositionNet Amounts Presented in the Statement of Financial PositionFinancial Instruments (1)Collateral Pledged (Received)Net Amount
December 31, 2020
(Dollars in thousands)
Derivative Assets
Interest rate swaps$47,576 $— $47,576 $— $— $47,576 
Loan level derivatives125,242 — 125,242 — — 125,242 
Customer foreign exchange contracts4,359 — 4,359 — — 4,359 
$177,177 $— $177,177 $— $— $177,177 
Derivative Liabilities
Interest rate swaps$1,261 $— $1,261 $— $— $1,260 
Loan level derivatives125,232 — 125,232 — — 125,232 
Customer foreign exchange contracts4,349 — 4,349 — — 4,349 
$130,842 $— $130,842 $— $— $130,842 
(1)     Reflects offsetting derivative positions with the same counterparty.
Gross Amounts Not Offset in the Statement of Financial Position
Gross Amounts Recognized in the Statement of Financial PositionGross Amounts Offset in the Statement of Financial PositionNet Amounts Presented in the Statement of Financial PositionFinancial Instruments (1)Collateral Pledged (Received)Net Amount
December 31, 2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Derivative Assets
Interest rate swaps$23,140 $— $23,140 $23,140 $— $— 
Loan level derivatives52,374 — 52,374 1,742 — 50,632 
Customer foreign exchange contracts1,191 — 1,191 — — 1,191 
$76,705 $— $76,705 $24,882 $— $51,823 
Derivative Liabilities
Interest rate swaps$197 $— $197 $— $197 $— 
Loan level derivatives52,369 — 52,369 24,882 25,296 2,191 
Customer foreign exchange contracts1,149 — 1,149 — — 1,149 
$53,715 $— $53,715 $24,882 $25,493 $3,340 
(1)     Reflects offsetting derivative positions with the same counterparty.
4,3594,3490.432.1823.043.244.0923.043.244.092.483.4519.118.311.0885557410021008510085100757540943740304399
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number:1-9047

Independent Bank Corp.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
MA04-2870273
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Office Address:2036 Washington Street,Hanover,MA02339
Mailing Address:288 Union Street,Rockland,MA02370
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)


Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(781) 878-6100
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each ClassTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareINDBNASDAQ
 Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    
Yes  x No   o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o  No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  x        No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x        No  o





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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated FilerxAccelerated fileroNon-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its managements's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes         No  x

As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price of such stock on June 30, 2020 was approximately $2,184,109,691.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date. February 24, 2021 - 33,018,461

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated into Part III, Items 10-14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The 2021 definitive proxy statement will be filed within 120 days of December 31, 2020.


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INDEPENDENT BANK CORP.
2020 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  
Page #
Part I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Table 3 - Closed Residential Real Estate Loans
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INDEPENDENT BANK CORP.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Part III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV
Item 15.
Item 16.

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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
    
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report"), including Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and elsewhere, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements are not historical facts and include expressions about management’s confidence and strategies and management’s expectations about new and existing programs and products, acquisitions, relationships, opportunities, taxation, technology, market conditions and economic expectations. These statements may be identified by such forward-looking terminology as "should," "expect," "believe," "view," "opportunity," "allow," "continues," "reflects," "typically," "usually," "anticipate," "could" or similar statements or variations of such terms. Such forward-looking statements involve certain risks and uncertainties and our actual results may differ materially from such forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements in addition to those risk factors discussed in Part I. Item 1A of this Report include, but are not limited to, the following:

further weakening in the United States economy in general and the regional and local economies within the New England region and the Company’s market area, including future weakening caused by the COVID-19 pandemic;
the magnitude and duration of , and length and extent of economic contraction as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
unanticipated loan delinquencies, loss of collateral, decreased service revenues, and other potential negative effects on our business caused by severe weather, pandemics or other external events;
adverse changes or volatility in the local real estate market;
adverse changes in asset quality and any unanticipated credit deterioration in our loan portfolio including those related to one or more large commercial relationships;
acquisitions may not produce results at levels or within time frames originally anticipated and may result in unforeseen integration issues or impairment of goodwill and/or other intangibles;
additional regulatory oversight and related compliance costs, including the additional costs associated with the Company's increase in assets to over $10 billion;
changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies and laws, including interest rate policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System;
higher than expected tax expense, resulting from failure to comply with general tax laws, changes in tax laws, or failure to comply with requirements of the federal New Markets Tax Credit program;
changes in market interest rates for interest earning assets and/or interest bearing liabilities and changes related to the phase-out of LIBOR;
increased competition in the Company’s market areas;
adverse weather, changes in climate, natural disasters, the emergence of widespread health emergencies or pandemics, other public health crises or man-made events that could negatively affect our local economies or disrupt our operations, which would have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations;
a deterioration in the conditions of the securities markets;
a deterioration of the credit rating for U.S. long-term sovereign debt;
inability to adapt to changes in information technology, including changes to industry accepted delivery models driven by a migration to the internet as a means of service delivery;
fraudulent activity, electronic or otherwise, within the financial services industry, especially in the commercial banking sector;
adverse changes in consumer spending and savings habits;
the effect of laws and regulations regarding the financial services industry;
changes in laws and regulations (including laws and regulations concerning taxes, banking, securities and insurance) generally applicable to the Company’s business;
the Company's potential judgments, claims, damages, penalties, fines and reputational damage resulting from pending or future litigation and regulatory and government actions, including as a result of our participation in and execution of government programs related to the COVID-19 pandemic;
changes in accounting policies, practices and standards, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies as well as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, and other accounting standard setters including, but not limited to, changes to how the Company accounts for credit losses;
cyber security attacks or intrusions that could adversely impact our businesses; and
other unexpected material adverse changes in our operations or earnings.

Further, the foregoing factors may be exacerbated by the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is unknown at this time. Statements about the COVID-19 pandemic and its potential impact on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may constitute forward-looking statements and are subject to
3

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the risk that actual results may differ, possibly materially, from what is reflected in such statements due to factors and future developments that are uncertain, unpredictable and, in many cases, beyond our control, including the scope, duration and extent of the pandemic and any resurgences, actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic and the direct and indirect impact on the Company’s employees, customers, business and third-parties with which the Company conducts business.

Except as required by law, the Company disclaims any intent or obligation to update publicly any such forward-looking statements, whether in response to new information, future events or otherwise. Any public statements or disclosures made by the Company following the date of this Report which modify or impact any of the forward-looking statements contained in this Report will be deemed to modify or supersede such statements.

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

General
Independent Bank Corp. (the "Company") is a state chartered, federally registered bank holding company headquartered in Rockland, Massachusetts that was incorporated under Massachusetts law in 1985. The Company is the sole stockholder of Rockland Trust Company ("Rockland Trust" or the "Bank"), a Massachusetts trust company chartered in 1907. Rockland Trust is a community-oriented commercial bank, and the community banking business is the Company’s only reportable operating segment. The community banking business is managed as a single strategic unit and derives its revenues from a wide range of banking services, including lending activities, acceptance of demand, savings, and time deposits, and investment management. At December 31, 2020, the Company had total assets of $13.2 billion, total deposits of $11.0 billion, and stockholders’ equity of $1.7 billion.
The Company is currently the sponsor of Independent Capital Trust V, a Delaware statutory trust, Central Bancorp Capital Trust I, a Delaware statutory trust, and Central Bancorp Statutory Trust II, a Connecticut statutory trust, each of which was formed to issue trust preferred securities. These statutory trusts are not included in the Company's consolidated financial statements in accordance with the requirements of the consolidation topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC").
As of December 31, 2020, the Bank had the following corporate subsidiaries, all of which were wholly owned by the Bank and included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements:

Six Massachusetts security corporations, namely Rockland Borrowing Collateral Securities Corp., Rockland Deposit Collateral Securities Corp., Taunton Avenue Securities Corp., Goddard Ave Securities Corp., MFLR Securities Corporation, and BH Security Corporation;

Rockland Trust Community Development Corporation, which has two wholly-owned subsidiaries, Rockland Trust Community Development LLC and Rockland Trust Community Development Corporation II, and which also serves as the manager of three Limited Liability Company subsidiaries wholly-owned by the Bank, Rockland Trust Community Development III LLC, Rockland Trust Community Development IV LLC, and Rockland Trust Community Development V LLC, which are all qualified as community development entities under federal New Markets Tax Credit Program criteria;

Rockland MHEF Fund LLC, established as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Rockland Trust, created with Massachusetts Housing Equity Fund, Inc. as the third party nonmember manager and established to invest in certain low-income housing tax credit projects;

RTC LIHTC Investments LLC, established to invest primarily in Massachusetts-based low-income housing tax credit projects;

Rockland Trust Phoenix LLC, formed for the purpose of holding, maintaining, and disposing of certain foreclosed properties;

Bright Rock Capital Management LLC, which was established to act as a registered investment advisor under the Investment Advisors Act of 1940; and

Compass Exchange Advisors LLC, which provides like-kind exchange services pursuant to section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code.

    Periodically, Compass Exchange Advisors LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank, acts as an Exchange Accommodation Titleholder ("EAT") in connection with customers' like-kind exchanges under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code. When Compass Exchange Advisors LLC provides EAT services, it establishes an EAT entity to hold title to property for its customers for up to 180 days in accordance with Internal Revenue Service guidelines. EAT entities are considered the property owner solely for federal income tax purposes, and in no other instances, in order to facilitate a customer's like kind exchange. A typical EAT entity is a Massachusetts corporation whose directors are all Rockland Trust officers and which has Compass Exchange Advisors LLC as its sole shareholder. The EAT entity owns all of the membership interest in a LLC which holds title to the property and is managed by the customer. All financial benefits and burdens of
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property ownership are borne by the customer. EAT entities are therefore not consolidated onto Compass Exchange Advisors LLC's balance sheet in accordance with requirements of the consolidation topic of the ASC.

Market Area and Competition
The Bank contends with considerable competition both in generating loans and attracting deposits. The Bank’s competition for generating loans is primarily from other commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, finance companies, online lenders or online banks, and other institutional lenders. Competitive factors considered for loan generation include interest rates, terms offered, loan fees charged, loan products offered, services provided, and geographic locations and a simplified application process.
In attracting deposits, the Bank’s primary competitors are savings banks, commercial and co-operative banks, credit unions, internet banks, as well as other nonbank institutions that offer financial alternatives such as brokerage firms and insurance companies. Competitive factors considered in attracting and retaining deposits include deposit and investment products and their respective rates of return, brand awareness, liquidity, and risk, among other factors, such as convenient branch locations and hours of operation, personalized customer service, online and mobile access to accounts and automated teller machines.
Amidst the pandemic, the Bank saw a substantial increase in the usage of mobile and remote banking options for both consumers and business owners. While branch traffic expectedly declined, there was a surge in the Bank’s call center volumes, mobile deposit activity, online banking usage and online account opening. Customers visiting the branch took advantage of the Bank’s Video Teller services which provide a hybrid approach to banking balancing both the fast-paced transactional nature of ATMs and the personalized experience of interacting with a live banker. Commercial and mortgage customers were able to leverage the Bank’s electronic signature tool and new streamlined commercial loan platform.
The Bank’s market area is attractive and entry into the market by financial institutions previously not competing in the market area may continue to occur which could impact the Bank’s growth or profitability. The Bank’s market area is generally comprised of Eastern Massachusetts, including Greater Boston, the South Shore, Cape Cod and the Islands, South Coast as well as Worcester County and Rhode Island.


Lending Activities
The Bank’s gross loan portfolio (loans before allowance for credit losses) amounted to $9.4 billion on December 31, 2020, or 71.1% of total assets. The Bank classifies loans as commercial, consumer real estate, or other consumer. Commercial loans consist of commercial and industrial loans, commercial real estate, commercial construction, and small business loans. Commercial and industrial loans generally consist of loans to customers with credit needs in excess of $750,000 and revenue in excess of $2.5 million, and are made for working capital and other business-related purposes and floor plan financing. Commercial real estate loans are comprised of commercial mortgages, including mortgages for construction purposes that are secured by nonresidential properties, multifamily properties, or one-to-four family rental properties. Small business loans, including real estate loans, generally consist of loans to businesses with commercial credit needs of less than or equal to $750,000 and revenues of less than $2.5 million. Consumer real estate consists of residential mortgages and home equity loans and lines of credit that are secured primarily by owner-occupied residences and mortgages for the construction of residential properties. Other consumer loans are mainly personal loans.
The Bank’s borrowers consist of small-to-medium sized businesses and consumers. Substantially all of the Bank’s commercial, consumer real estate, and other consumer loan portfolios consist of loans made to residents of and businesses located in the Bank’s market area. The majority of the real estate loans in the Bank’s loan portfolio are secured by properties located within this market area.
Interest rates charged on loans may be fixed or variable and vary with the degree of risk, loan term, underwriting and servicing costs, loan amount, and the extent of other banking relationships maintained with customers. Rates are further subject to competitive pressures, the current interest rate environment, availability of funds, and government regulations.
The Bank’s principal earning assets are its loans. Although the Bank judges its borrowers' creditworthiness, the risk of deterioration in borrowers’ abilities to repay their loans in accordance with their existing loan agreements is inherent in any lending function. Participating as a lender in the credit market requires a strict underwriting and monitoring process to minimize credit risk. This process requires substantial analysis of the loan application, an evaluation of the customer’s capacity to repay according to the loan’s contractual terms, and an objective determination of the value of the collateral. The Bank also utilizes the services of an independent third-party to provide loan review services, which consist of a variety of monitoring techniques performed after a loan becomes part of the Bank’s portfolio.
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The Bank’s Special Assets Group and Consumer Collections departments are responsible for the management and resolution of nonperforming loans. Nonperforming loans consist of nonaccrual loans and loans that are more than 90 days past due but still accruing interest. In the course of resolving nonperforming loans, the Bank may choose to foreclose on the loan or restructure the contractual terms of certain loans, by modifying the terms of the loan to fit the ability of the borrower to repay in line with its current financial status.
Other Real Estate Owned ("OREO"), when applicable, includes real estate properties which have primarily served as collateral to secure loans that are controlled or owned by the Bank.
Origination and Sale of Loans    Commercial and industrial, commercial real estate, and construction loan applications are obtained through existing customers, solicitation by Bank personnel, referrals from current or past customers, or walk-in customers. Small business loan applications are typically originated by the Bank’s retail staff, through a dedicated team of business officers, by referrals from other areas of the Bank, by referrals from current or past customers, or through walk-in customers. Consumer loan applications primarily result from referrals by real estate brokers, branch referrals, home builders, advertising, direct mail, and existing or walk-in customers who have been made aware of the Bank’s consumer loan services through advertising, direct mail, and other media.
Loans are approved based upon a hierarchy of authority, predicated upon the size of the loan. Levels within the hierarchy of lending authorities range from individual lenders to the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors. In accordance with federal and state banking law, the Bank is permitted, with certain exceptions, to make loans and commitments to any one borrower, including related entities, in the aggregate amount of not more than 20% of the Bank’s stockholders’ equity, or $351.9 million at December 31, 2020, which is the Bank’s legal lending limit. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Bank has established a more restrictive limit of not more than 75% of the Bank’s legal lending limit, or $263.9 million at December 31, 2020, which may only be exceeded with the approval of the Board of Directors. There were no borrowers whose total indebtedness in aggregate exceeded the Bank’s self-imposed restrictive limit. The Bank’s largest relationship as of December 31, 2020 consisted of 9 loans with an aggregate exposure of $132.8 million.
The Bank’s residential mortgage loans are generally originated in compliance with terms, conditions and documentation which permit the sale of such loans to investors in the secondary market. Loan sales in the secondary market provide funds for additional lending and other banking activities. Currently, the Bank sells the servicing of the sold loans for a servicing released premium, simultaneous with the sale of the loan. In the past, the Bank may have opted to sell loans and retain the servicing. In these instances, a mortgage servicing rights asset would have been recognized. As part of its asset/liability management strategy, the Bank may opt to retain certain adjustable rate and fixed rate residential real estate loan originations for its portfolio. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Bank originated $1.1 billion in residential real estate loans, of which $223.5 million were retained in its portfolio.
Participation Loans From time to time, the Bank may purchase or sell participating interests in commercial loans to reposition its loan portfolio with the objectives of diversifying credit risk, growing earning assets and/or increasing liquidity. The Bank’s approach to underwriting and approving participation loans, both purchased and sold, is consistent with its underwriting and approval policies and procedures for non-participated loans originated by the Bank. For participation loans purchased by the Bank, prior to deciding to purchase a participating interest in the loan, the Bank completes its own credit analysis that is independent of the lead or agent bank’s analysis of the offering. For loans originated by the Bank where it sells participating interests, the Bank will generally retain the lead servicing position for the loan. As of December 31, 2020, the unamortized balance of participation loans purchased was $751.7 million, while the sold portion of the unamortized balance of participation loans originated and sold totaled $312.2 million.
Loan Portfolio    The following table shows the balance of the gross loan portfolio by category, the percentage of the gross loan portfolio, and the percentage of total interest income that the loans generated, by category, for the fiscal years indicated:
 As of % of  Total
Loans
% of Total Interest Income
Generated For the Years Ended
December 31,
 December 31, 2020202020192018
 (Dollars in thousands)    
Commercial$7,006,031 74.6 %67.9 %66.8 %67.1 %
Consumer real estate2,364,973 25.2 %23.6 %24.7 %23.6 %
Other consumer21,862 0.2 %0.5 %0.5 %0.3 %
Total$9,392,866 100.0 %92.0 %92.0 %91.0 %
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Commercial Loans    Commercial loans consist of commercial and industrial loans, asset-based loans, commercial real estate loans, commercial construction loans and small business loans. The Bank offers secured and unsecured commercial loans for business purposes. Commercial loans may be structured as term loans or as revolving/nonrevolving lines of credit, and include overdraft protection, credit cards, and automatic clearinghouse ("ACH") exposure. These loans may be collateralized by either owner or nonowner-occupied commercial mortgages or other assets.
    The Company's participation in the Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") resulted in significant loan fundings within the commercial and industrial portfolio, which totaled $791.9 million at December 31, 2020, comprising 37.7% of the total portfolio. Accordingly, the composition of the portfolio by sector is skewed as compared to periods prior to commencement of the PPP, as the PPP loans are reflected within the various sectors below. The following pie chart shows the diversification of the commercial and industrial portfolio as of December 31, 2020:
indb-20201231_g1.jpg
Select Statistics Regarding the Commercial and Industrial Portfolio
(Dollars in thousands)
Average loan size$210 
Largest individual commercial and industrial loan outstanding$20,391 
Commercial and industrial nonperforming loans/commercial and industrial loans1.65 %
Commercial and industrial term loans generally have a repayment schedule of five years or less and, although the Bank occasionally originates some commercial and industrial term loans with interest rates which float in accordance with a designated index rate, the majority of commercial and industrial term loans have fixed rates of interest and are collateralized by equipment, machinery or other corporate assets. In addition, the Bank generally obtains personal guarantees from the principal owners of the borrower for its commercial and industrial loans. At December 31, 2020, there were $1.3 billion of term loans in the commercial and industrial loan portfolio.
Collateral for commercial and industrial revolving lines of credit, including asset-based lines and term loans, may consist of accounts receivable, inventory, or both, as well as other business assets. Commercial revolving lines of credit and asset based lines generally are reviewed on an annual basis and usually require either a borrowing base formula or substantial repayment of principal during the course of a year. The vast majority of these revolving lines of credit have variable rates of interest. At December 31, 2020, there were $789.0 million of revolving lines of credit in the commercial and industrial loan portfolio. Additionally, asset-based revolving lines of credit are typically structured as committed lines with terms of three to five years, have variable rates of interest, and are collateralized by accounts receivable and inventory. Asset-based term loans are typically secured by owner occupied commercial real estate and machinery and equipment.
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Also included in the commercial and industrial portfolio are dealer floor plan financing and loans for boats and recreational vehicles. Floor plan loans are secured by the automobiles, boats, or other vehicles which constitute the dealer’s inventory. Upon the sale of a floor plan unit, the proceeds of the sale are applied to reduce the loan balance. In the event a unit financed under a floor plan line of credit remains in the dealer’s inventory for an extended period, the Bank requires the dealer to pay down the outstanding balance associated with such unit. Contractors hired by the Bank make unannounced periodic inspections of each dealer to review the condition of the underlying collateral and ensure that each unit that the Company has financed is accounted for. At December 31, 2020, there were $112.6 million in floor plan loans, all of which have variable rates of interest.
Small business lending caters to all of the banking needs of businesses with commercial credit requirements and revenues typically less than or equal to $750,000 and $2.5 million, respectively, and uses partially automated loan underwriting capabilities. Additionally, the Company makes use of the Bank’s authority as a preferred lender with the U.S. Small Business Administration ("SBA"). At December 31, 2020, there were $825.7 million of SBA guaranteed loans in the commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loan categories, the majority of which relates to funded PPP loans during the year, and $5.0 million of SBA guaranteed loans in the small business loan category.
The Bank’s commercial real estate portfolio, inclusive of commercial construction, is the Bank’s largest loan type concentration. The Bank believes this portfolio is well diversified with loans secured by a variety of property types, such as owner-occupied and nonowner-occupied commercial, retail, office, industrial, warehouse, industrial development bonds and other special purpose properties, such as hotels, motels, nursing homes, restaurants, churches, recreational facilities, marinas, and golf courses. Commercial real estate also includes loans secured by certain residential-related property types including multi-family apartment buildings, residential development tracts and condominiums.
The following pie chart shows the diversification of the commercial real estate portfolio as of December 31, 2020:
indb-20201231_g2.jpg
Select Statistics Regarding the Commercial Real Estate Portfolio
(Dollars in thousands)
Average loan size$1,119 
Largest individual commercial real estate mortgage outstanding$32,000 
Commercial real estate nonperforming loans/commercial real estate loans0.22 %
Owner occupied commercial real estate loans/commercial real estate loans14.3 %
Although terms vary, commercial real estate loans typically are underwritten with maturities of five to ten years. These loans generally have amortization periods of 20 to 25 years, with interest rates that float in accordance with a designated index
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or that are fixed during the origination process. For loans with terms greater than five years, with certain exceptions, interest rates may be fixed for no longer than five years and are reset typically on the fifth anniversary of the loan. It is the Bank’s practice to obtain personal guarantees from the principals of the borrower on commercial real estate loans and to obtain financial statements at least annually from all actively managed commercial and multi-family borrowers.
Commercial real estate lending entails additional risks as compared to residential real estate lending. Commercial real estate loans typically involve larger loan balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. Development of commercial real estate projects also may be subject to numerous land use and environmental issues. The payment experience on such loans is typically dependent on the successful operation of the real estate project, which can be significantly impacted by supply and demand conditions within the markets for commercial, retail, office, industrial/warehouse and multi-family tenancy.
Also included in the commercial real estate portfolio are industrial developmental bonds. The Bank owns certain bonds issued by various state agencies, municipalities and nonprofit organizations that it categorizes as loans. This categorization is made on the basis that another entity (i.e. the Bank’s customer), not the issuing agency, is responsible for the payment to the Bank of the principal and interest on the debt. Furthermore, credit underwriting is based solely on the credit of the customer (and guarantors, if any), the banking relationship is with the customer and not the agency, there is no active secondary market for the bonds, and the bonds are not available for sale, but are intended to be held by the Bank until maturity. Therefore, the Bank believes that such bonds are more appropriately characterized as loans, rather than securities. At December 31, 2020, the balance of industrial development bonds was $85.1 million.
Construction loans are intended to finance the construction of residential and commercial properties, including loans for the acquisition and development of land or rehabilitation of existing properties. Nonpermanent construction loans generally have terms of at least six months, but not more than two years. They usually do not provide for amortization of the loan balance during the construction term. The majority of the Bank’s commercial construction loans have floating rates of interest. At December 31, 2020, the commercial construction portfolio amounted to $553.9 million.
Construction loans are generally considered to present a higher degree of risk than permanent real estate loans and may be affected by a variety of factors, such as adverse changes in interest rates and the borrower’s ability to control costs and adhere to time schedules. Other construction-related risks may include market risk, that is, the risk that "for-sale" or "for-lease" units may not be absorbed by the market within a developer’s anticipated time frame or at a developer’s anticipated price. When the Company enters into a loan agreement with a borrower on a construction loan, an interest reserve may be included in the amount of the loan commitment to the borrower and it allows the lender to periodically advance loan funds to pay interest charges on the outstanding balance of the loan. The interest may be capitalized and added to the loan balance. Management actively tracks and monitors these accounts.
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Consumer Real Estate Loans    The Bank’s consumer real estate loans consist of loans and lines secured by one-to-four family residential properties. The consumer real estate loan portfolio at December 31, 2020 was as follows:
indb-20201231_g3.jpg
The Bank originates both fixed-rate and adjustable-rate residential real estate loans. The Bank will lend up to 97% of the lesser of the appraised value of the residential property securing the loan or the purchase price, and generally requires borrowers to obtain private mortgage insurance when the amount of the loan exceeds 80% of the value of the property. In certain instances for loans that qualify for the Fannie Mae Home Affordable Refinance Initiative and other similar programs, the Bank will lend up to 105% of the appraised value of the residential property, and such loans are then subsequently sold by the Bank. The rates of these loans are typically competitive with market rates. The Bank’s residential real estate loans are generally originated under terms, conditions and documentation which permit sale in the secondary market. In order to protect the properties securing its residential and other real estate loans, the Bank requires title insurance protecting the priority of its mortgage lien, as well as fire, extended casualty, and flood insurance, when necessary. Independent appraisers assess properties securing all of the Bank’s first mortgage real estate loans, as required by regulatory standards.
Home equity loans and lines may be made as fixed rate term loans or under variable rate revolving lines of credit secured by a first or second mortgage on the borrower’s residence, second home or residential investment properties. At December 31, 2020, 59.2% of the home equity portfolio was in first lien position and 40.8% of the portfolio was in a subordinate position. At December 31, 2020, $400.4 million, or 37.5%, of the home equity portfolio was comprised of term loans and $668.4 million, or 62.5%, of the home equity portfolio was comprised of revolving lines of credit. The Bank will typically originate home equity loans and lines in an amount up to 80% of the appraised value, hybrid valuation methods or automated valuation methods, reduced for any loans outstanding that are secured by such collateral. Home equity loans and lines are underwritten in accordance with the Bank’s loan policy, which includes a combination of credit history, loan-to-value ("LTV") ratio, employment history and debt-to-income ratio.
The Bank periodically supplements performance data with current Fair Isaac Corporation ("FICO") and LTV estimates. Current FICO data is purchased and typically appended to all consumer loans on a quarterly basis. In addition, automated valuation services and broker opinions of value are used to supplement original value data for the residential and home equity portfolios. Use of re-score and re-value data enables the Bank to better understand the current credit risk associated with these loans, but is not the only factor relied upon in determining a borrower’s creditworthiness. See Note 4, "Loans, Allowance for Credit Losses and Credit Quality" within the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report for more information regarding FICO and LTV estimates.
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Other Consumer Loans    Other consumer loans primarily consist of investment management secured lines of credit, installment loans, credit cards and overdraft protection.

Investment Activities
The Bank’s securities portfolio primarily consists of U.S. government agency securities, agency mortgage-backed securities, agency collateralized mortgage obligations, and small business administration pooled securities. Also included in the Company's security portfolio are trading and equity securities related to certain employee benefit programs. The majority of these securities are investment grade debt obligations with average lives of five years or less. U.S. government agency securities entail a lesser degree of risk than loans made by the Bank by virtue of the guarantees that back them, require less capital under risk-based capital rules than noninsured or nonguaranteed mortgage loans, are more liquid than individual mortgage loans, and may be used to collateralize borrowings or other obligations of the Bank. The Bank views its securities portfolio as a source of income and liquidity. Interest and principal payments generated from securities provide a source of liquidity to fund loans and meet short-term cash needs. The Bank’s securities portfolio is managed in accordance with the Rockland Trust Company Investment Policy (the "Investment Policy") approved by the Board of Directors. Two members of the Asset-Liability Committee of the Bank ("ALCO"), one of whom must be the Chief Executive Officer or the Chief Financial Officer, must approve purchases or sales, between meetings. These purchases are subject to limits on the type, size and quality of all investments, which are specified in the Investment Policy. The Bank’s ALCO, or its appointee, is required to evaluate any purchase from the standpoint of overall diversification of the portfolio. At December 31, 2020, the Company's securities totaled $1.2 billion, and generated interest and dividends of 7.5%, 7.3%, and 8.2% of total interest income for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. The Company reviews its security portfolio for impairment and to evaluate collection of principal and interest. If any securities are deferring interest payments, as they may be contractually entitled to do, the Company would place these securities on nonaccrual status and reverse any accrued but uncollected interest.

Sources of Funds
Deposits    At December 31, 2020, total deposits were $11.0 billion. Deposits obtained through the Bank’s branch banking network have traditionally been the principal source of the Bank’s funds for use in lending and for other general business purposes. The Bank has built a stable base of in-market core deposits from consumers, businesses, and municipalities. The Bank offers a range of demand deposits, interest checking, money market accounts, savings accounts, and time certificates of deposit, including free checking accounts with no minimum balance and no monthly fees. Interest rates on deposits are based on factors that include loan demand, deposit maturities, alternative costs of funds, and interest rates offered by competing financial institutions in the Bank’s market area. The Bank believes it has been able to attract and maintain satisfactory levels of deposits based on the level of service it provides to its customers, the convenience of its banking locations, its electronic banking options, and its interest rates, all of which are generally competitive with those of competing financial institutions. Additionally, the Bank has a municipal banking department that focuses on providing core depository services to local municipalities. Municipal deposits totaled $771.2 million as of December 31, 2020.
    The Company also participates in the IntraFi Network, allowing the Bank to provide easy access to multi-million dollar Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") deposit insurance protection on certificate of deposit and money market investments for consumers, businesses and public entities. This channel allows the Company to seek additional funding in potentially large quantities by attracting deposits from outside the Bank’s core market and amounted to $237.9 million and $211.2 million, at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
    In addition, the Company may occasionally raise funds through the use of brokered deposits outside of the IntraFi Network, which totaled $8.5 million and $281.8 million at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
Rockland Trust’s ninety-eight branch locations feature expanded use of video-tellers, and are supplemented by internet and mobile banking services as well as automated teller machine ("ATM") cards and debit cards which may be used to conduct various banking transactions at ATMs maintained at each of the Bank’s full-service offices and twenty-three additional remote ATM locations. The ATM cards and debit cards also allow customers access to a variety of national and international ATM networks. The Bank's mobile banking services give customers the ability to use a variety of mobile devices to check balances, track account activity, pay bills, search transactions, and set up alerts for text or e-mail messages for changes in their account. Customers can also transfer funds between Rockland Trust accounts, deposit checks into their account, and identify the nearest branch or ATM directly from their mobile device.
Borrowings    As of December 31, 2020, total borrowings were $181.1 million. Borrowings consist of short-term and long-term obligations and may consist of Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") advances, federal funds purchased, and junior subordinated debentures.
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Rockland Trust is a member of the FHLB of Boston. The primary reason for FHLB membership is to gain access to a reliable source of wholesale funding, particularly term funding, as a tool to manage liquidity and interest rate risk. As a member of the FHLB of Boston, the Bank is required to purchase stock in the FHLB. Accordingly, the Company had invested $10.3 million in FHLB stock and had $35.7 million outstanding in FHLB borrowings with original maturities ranging from less than 3 months to 20 years at December 31, 2020. In addition, the Bank had $1.4 billion of borrowing capacity remaining with the FHLB at December 31, 2020, inclusive of a $5.0 million line of credit.
Also included in borrowings at December 31, 2020 were $62.9 million of junior subordinated debentures, which are inclusive of unamortized fair value marks associated with previous acquisitions and net of unamortized issuance costs. Total borrowings also includes $49.7 million of subordinated debt, net of unamortized issuance costs. These instruments provide long-term funding as well as regulatory capital benefits.
See Note 9, "Borrowings" within the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report for more information regarding borrowings.

Investment Management
The Rockland Trust Investment Management Group provides investment management and trust services to individuals, institutions, small businesses, and charitable institutions.
Accounts maintained by the Rockland Trust Investment Management Group consist of managed and nonmanaged accounts. Managed accounts are those for which the Bank is responsible for administration and investment management and/or investment advice, while nonmanaged accounts are those for which the Bank acts solely as a custodian or directed trustee. The Bank receives fees dependent upon the level and type of service(s) provided. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Investment Management Group generated gross fee revenues of $27.2 million. Total assets under administration as of December 31, 2020 were $4.9 billion, of which $4.6 billion was related to managed accounts. The Company also has a subsidiary that is a registered investment advisor, Bright Rock Capital Management, LLC, which provides institutional quality investment management services to both institutional and high net worth clients. As of December 31, 2020 there were assets under administration of $369.6 million, relating to the Company's registered investment advisor, included in the amounts above.
The administration of trust and fiduciary accounts is monitored by the Trust Committee of the Bank’s Board of Directors. The Trust Committee has delegated administrative responsibilities to three committees, one for investments, one for administration, and one for operations, all of which are comprised of Investment Management Group officers who meet no less than quarterly.
The Bank has an agreement with LPL Financial ("LPL") and its affiliates and their insurance subsidiary, LPL Insurance Associates, Inc., to offer the sale of mutual fund shares, unit investment trust shares, general securities, fixed and variable annuities and life insurance. Registered representatives who are both employed by the Bank and licensed and contracted with LPL are onsite to offer these products to the Bank’s customer base. These same agents are also approved and appointed with various other Broker General Agents for the purposes of processing insurance solutions for clients. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the retail investments and insurance group generated gross fee revenues of $2.3 million.

Regulation
The following discussion sets forth certain material elements of the regulatory framework applicable to bank holding companies and their subsidiaries and provides certain specific information relevant to the Company. To the extent that the following information describes statutory and regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions. A change in applicable statutes, regulations or regulatory policy may have a material effect on the Company’s business. The laws and regulations governing the Company and the Bank that are described in the following discussion generally have been promulgated to offer protection to customers, including depositors and borrowers and not for the purpose of protecting shareholders.
General    The Company is registered as a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the "BHCA"), and as such is subject to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve"). Rockland Trust is subject to regulation and examination by the Commissioner of Banks of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (the "Commissioner") and the FDIC.
The Bank Holding Company Act    The BHCA prohibits the Company from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of 5% or more of any class of voting shares of any bank, or increasing such ownership or control of any bank, without prior approval of the Federal Reserve. The BHCA also prohibits the Company from, with certain exceptions, acquiring 5% or more of any class of voting shares of any company that is not a bank and from engaging in any business other than banking or managing or controlling banks.
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Under the BHCA, the Federal Reserve is authorized to approve the ownership by the Company of shares in any company, the activities of which the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking or to managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. The Federal Reserve has, by regulation, determined that some activities are closely related to banking within the meaning of the BHCA. These activities include, but are not limited to, operating a mortgage company, finance company, credit card company, factoring company, trust company or savings association; performing data processing operations; providing some securities brokerage services; acting as an investment or financial adviser; acting as an insurance agent for types of credit-related insurance; engaging in insurance underwriting under limited circumstances; leasing personal property on a full-payout, nonoperating basis; providing tax planning and preparation services; operating a collection agency and a credit bureau; and providing consumer financial counseling and courier services. The Federal Reserve also has determined that other activities, including real estate brokerage and syndication, land development, property management and, except under limited circumstances, underwriting of life insurance not related to credit transactions, are not closely related to banking and are not a proper incident thereto.
Capital Requirements    The Federal Reserve has established rules covering a capital framework for U.S. banking organizations, referred to herein as the "Rules". The FDIC has adopted substantially identical rules.

Under the Rules, the minimum capital ratios for the Company and the Bank are as follows:

 4.5% Common Equity Tier 1 ("CET1") to risk-weighted assets.
 6.0% Tier 1 capital (i.e., CET1 plus Additional Tier 1) to risk-weighted assets.
 8.0% Total capital (i.e., Tier 1 plus Tier 2) to risk-weighted assets.
 4.0% Tier 1 leverage capital ratio.

The Rules also require the Company and the Bank to maintain a "capital conservation buffer" in an amount greater than 2.5%, on top of the minimum risk-weighted asset ratios. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions that meet the minimum capital requirements of 4.5%, 6.0% and 8.0% for CET1, Tier 1 and Total capital, respectively, but fall below the capital conservation buffer, will face constraints on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers based on the amount of the shortfall. The capital conservation buffer effectively increases the minimum CET1 capital ratio to 7.0%, the minimum Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio to 8.5%, and the minimum total risk-based capital ratio to 10.5%, for banking organizations seeking to avoid the limitations on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. The Company and the Bank maintain all capital ratios above the required capital conservation buffer of 2.5%.

The Rules provided for a number of complex deductions from and adjustments to CET1 and its various capital components.

With respect to the Bank, the Rules also revised the "prompt corrective action" regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, by: (i) introducing a CET1 ratio requirement at each capital quality level (other than critically undercapitalized), with the required CET1 ratio being 6.5% for well-capitalized status; (ii) increasing the minimum Tier 1 capital ratio requirement for each category, with the minimum Tier 1 capital ratio for well-capitalized status being 8% (as compared to the previous 6%); and (iii) requiring a leverage ratio of 5% to be well-capitalized (as compared to the previously required leverage ratio of 3 or 4%). The Rules did not change the total risk-based capital requirement for any "prompt corrective action" category. When the capital conservation buffer is fully phased in, the capital ratios applicable to depository institutions under the Rules will exceed the ratios to be considered well-capitalized under the "prompt corrective action" regulations.

The revised minimum capital levels under the Rules are set forth below:
BankHolding Company
Total Risk-Based RatioTier 1 Risk-Based RatioCommon Equity Tier 1 CapitalTier 1 Leverage Capital RatioTotal Risk-Based RatioTier 1 Risk-Based RatioCommon Equity Tier 1 CapitalTier 1 Leverage Capital Ratio
Category
Well capitalized
> 10%
and
> 8%
and
> 6.5%
> 5%
n/an/a
> 6.5%
n/a
Adequately capitalized
> 8%
and
> 6%
and
> 4.5%
> 4%
> 8%
and
> 6%
and
> 4.5%
> 4%
Undercapitalized< 8%or< 6%or< 4.5%< 4%< 8%or< 6%orn/a< 4%
Significantly undercapitalized< 6%or< 4%or< 3%< 3%n/an/an/an/a
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The Company is currently in compliance with the above-described regulatory capital requirements. See Note 21, "Regulatory Matters" within the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report for more information.
FDIC Deposit Insurance    The Bank's deposit accounts are insured to the maximum extent permitted by law by the Deposit Insurance Fund, which is administered by the FDIC. The FDIC offers insurance coverage on deposits up to the federally insured limit of $250,000.

The Bank is currently assessed a deposit insurance charge from the FDIC based upon the Bank's overall assessment base multiplied by an assessment rate, determined in part from five established risk categories. The Bank's assessment base is defined as average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity, adjusted for the impact of the risk category factors.
Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA")    Pursuant to the CRA and similar provisions of Massachusetts law, regulatory authorities review the performance of the Company and the Bank in meeting the credit needs of the communities served by the Bank. The applicable regulatory authorities consider compliance with this law in connection with applications for, among other things, approval of new branches, branch relocations, the engagement in certain additional financial activities under the GLBA, and acquisitions of banks and bank holding companies. The FDIC and the Massachusetts Division of Banks have assigned the Bank a CRA rating of 'Outstanding' as of the latest examination.
Bank Secrecy Act    The Bank Secrecy Act requires financial institutions to monitor account activity, keep records and file reports that are determined to have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax and regulatory matters, and to implement anti-money laundering programs and compliance procedures.
USA Patriot Act of 2001    The Patriot Act strengthens U.S. law enforcement’s and the intelligence communities’ abilities to work cohesively to combat terrorism on a variety of fronts. The impact of the Patriot Act on financial institutions of all kinds is significant and wide-ranging. The Patriot Act contains sweeping anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws and imposes various regulations, including standards for verifying client identification at account opening, and rules to promote cooperation among financial institutions, regulators and law enforcement entities in identifying parties that may be involved in terrorism or money laundering.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation ("OFAC")    The U.S. Treasury Department’s "OFAC" administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, under authority of various laws, including designated foreign countries, nationals and others. OFAC publishes lists of specially designated targets and countries. The Company and the Bank are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.
Regulation W    Transactions between a bank and its "affiliates" are quantitatively and qualitatively restricted under the Federal Reserve Act. The Federal Deposit Insurance Act applies Sections 23A and 23B to insured nonmember banks in the same manner and to the same extent as if they were members of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve has also issued Regulation W, which codifies prior regulations under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and interpretative guidance with respect to affiliate transactions. Regulation W incorporates the exemption from the affiliate transaction rules, but expands the exemption to cover the purchase of any type of loan or extension of credit from an affiliate. Affiliates of a bank include, among other entities, the bank’s holding company and companies that are under common control with the bank. The Company is considered to be an affiliate of the Bank. In general, subject to certain specified exemptions, a bank and its subsidiaries are limited in their ability to engage in "covered transactions" with affiliates:
to an amount equal to 10% of the bank’s capital and surplus, in the case of covered transactions with any one affiliate; and
to an amount equal to 20% of the bank’s capital and surplus, in the case of covered transactions with all affiliates.
In addition, a bank and its subsidiaries may engage in covered transactions and other specified transactions only on terms and under circumstances that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank or its subsidiary, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with nonaffiliated companies. A "covered transaction" includes:
a loan or extension of credit to an affiliate;
a purchase of, or an investment in, securities issued by an affiliate;
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a purchase of assets from an affiliate, with some exceptions;
the acceptance of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral for a loan or extension of credit to any party; and
the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate.
In addition, under Regulation W:
a bank and its subsidiaries may not purchase a low-quality asset from an affiliate;
covered transactions and other specified transactions between a bank or its subsidiaries and an affiliate must be on terms and conditions that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices; and
with some exceptions, each loan or extension of credit by a bank to an affiliate must be secured by collateral with a market value ranging from 100% to 130%, depending on the type of collateral, of the amount of the loan or extension of credit.
Regulation W generally excludes all nonbank and nonsavings association subsidiaries of banks from treatment as affiliates, except to the extent that the Federal Reserve decides to treat these subsidiaries as affiliates.
New Markets Tax Credit Program    The New Markets Tax Credit Program was created in December 2000 under federal law to provide federal tax incentives to induce private-sector, market-driven investment in businesses and real estate development projects located in low-income urban and rural communities across the nation. The New Markets Tax Credit Program is part of the United States Department of the Treasury Community Development Financial Institutions Fund. The New Markets Tax Credit Program enables investors to acquire federal tax credits by making equity investments for a period of at least seven years in qualified community development entities, which have been awarded tax credit allocation authority by, and entered into an allocation agreement with, the United States Treasury. Community development entities must use equity investments to make loans to, or other investments in, qualified businesses and individuals in low-income communities in accordance with New Markets Tax Credit Program criteria. Investors receive an overall tax credit equal to 39% of their total equity investment, credited at a rate of 5% in each of the first 3 years and 6% in each of the final 4 years. More information on the New Markets Tax Credit Program may be obtained at www.cdfifund.gov. (The Company has included the web address only as inactive textual references and does not intend it to be an active link to the New Markets Tax Credit Program's website.)
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act    During 2010, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"). This significant law affects the lending, deposit, investment, trading and operating activities of financial institutions and their holding companies.
Key provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are as follows:
eliminated the federal prohibitions on paying interest on demand deposits, thus allowing businesses to have interest-bearing checking accounts.
broadened the base for FDIC insurance assessments. The Dodd-Frank Act also permanently increased the maximum amount of deposit insurance for banks, savings institutions and credit unions to $250,000 per depositor.
requires publicly traded companies to give stockholders a nonbinding vote on executive compensation and so-called "golden parachute" payments. The Company provides its shareholders with the opportunity to vote on executive compensation every year.
broadened the scope of derivative instruments, and the Company is subject to increased regulation of its derivative business, including record-keeping, reporting requirements, and heightened supervision.
created a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") with broad powers to supervise and enforce consumer protection laws. As the Bank has now surpassed the $10 billion in assets threshold, it now is also subject to CFPB regulatory supervision and enforcement.  While it will continue to be examined for compliance with consumer protection regulations by both the FDIC and the Massachusetts Division of Banks ("DOB"), it will now also be similarly monitored and assessed by the CFPB.
debit card and interchange fees must be reasonable and proportional to the issuer’s cost for processing the transaction.
Under the Durbin Amendment contained in the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve adopted rules that apply to banks with more than $10 billion in assets, which establish a maximum permissible interchange fee equal to no more than 21 cents plus 5 basis points of the transaction value for many types of debit interchange transactions. The Federal Reserve also adopted a rule to allow a debit card issuer to recover 1 cent per transaction for fraud prevention purposes if the issuer complies with
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certain fraud-related requirements required by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve also has rules governing routing and exclusivity that require issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product. The Bank became subject to the Durbin Amendment, effective July 1, 2020, as a result of crossing the $10 billion in assets threshold.
On May 24, 2018, the EGRRCPA was signed into law, making certain limited amendments to the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as certain targeted modifications to other post-financial crisis regulations. While the EGRRCPA eased some regulatory obligations imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act, including the requirement to conduct stress testing if and when the Company exceeds the $10 billion asset threshold, it had minimal impact on the Company’s operations.
Incentive Compensation The Dodd-Frank Act required the federal bank regulatory agencies and the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, with at least $1 billion in total assets such as the Company and the Bank, that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity.

In June 2010, the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. These three principles are incorporated into the proposed joint compensation regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act.

The Federal Reserve reviews, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as the Company, that are not "large, complex banking organizations." These reviews are tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements.


Volcker Rule The Volcker Rule prohibits an insured depository institution and its affiliates from: (i) engaging in "proprietary trading" and (ii) investing in or sponsoring certain types of investment funds (defined as "Covered Funds"). The rule also effectively prohibits short-term trading strategies and prohibits the use of some hedging strategies. The Company has no investments that met the definition of Covered Funds under the foregoing rules.

Consumer Protection Regulations As a financial institution with more than $10 billion in assets, the Bank is supervised by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) for consumer protection purposes. The CFPB’s regulation of the Bank is focused on risks to consumers and compliance with the federal consumer financial laws and includes regular examinations of the Bank. The CFPB, along with the Department of Justice and bank regulatory authorities also seek to enforce discriminatory lending laws. In such actions, the CFPB and others have used a disparate impact analysis, which measures discriminatory results without regard to intent. Consequently, unintentional actions by the Bank could have a material adverse impact on our lending and results of operations if the actions are found to be discriminatory by our regulators.

The Bank is subject to federal consumer protection statutes and regulations promulgated under those laws, including, but not limited to the following:

Truth-In-Lending Act and Regulation Z, governing disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and Regulation C, requiring financial institutions to provide certain information about home mortgage and refinanced loans;
Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, sex, or other prohibited factors in extending credit;
Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V, governing the provision of consumer information to credit reporting agencies and the use of consumer information; and
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, governing the manner in which consumer debts may be collected by collection agencies.

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The Bank’s deposit operations are also subject to the following federal statutes and regulations, among others:

The Truth in Savings Act and Regulation DD, which requires disclosure of deposit terms to consumers;
Regulation CC, which relates to the availability of deposit funds to consumers;
The Right to Financial Privacy Act, which imposes a duty to maintain the confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records; and
Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E, governing electronic deposits to, and withdrawals from, deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services.

The CFPB examines the Bank's compliance with such laws and the regulations under them.
Regulation E    Federal Reserve Regulation E governs electronic fund transfers and provides a basic framework that establishes the rights, liabilities, and responsibilities of participants in electronic fund transfer systems such as automated teller machine transfers, telephone bill-payment services, point-of-sale terminal transfers in stores, and preauthorized transfers from or to a consumer’s account (such as direct deposit and social security payments). The term "electronic fund transfer" generally refers to a transaction initiated through an electronic terminal, telephone, computer, or magnetic tape that instructs a financial institution either to credit or to debit a consumer’s asset account. Regulation E describes the disclosures that financial institutions are required to make to consumers who engage in electronic fund transfers and generally limits a consumer’s liability for unauthorized electronic fund transfers, such as those arising from loss or theft of an access device, to $50 for consumers who notify their bank in a timely manner.
London Interbank Offered Rate    Central banks around the world, including the Federal Reserve, have commissioned working groups of market participants and official sector representatives with the goal of finding suitable replacements for the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") based on observable market transactions because of the probable phase-out of LIBOR. It is expected that a transition away from the widespread use of LIBOR to alternative rates will begin to occur as rates will cease to be published for one-week and two-month LIBOR on December 31, 2021, and the overnight, one-month, three-month, six-month and 12-month LIBOR ceasing to be published on June 30, 2023. Although the full impact of a transition, including the potential or actual discontinuance of LIBOR publication, remains unclear, this change may have an adverse impact on the value of, return on and trading markets for a broad array of financial products, including any LIBOR-based securities, loans and derivatives that are included in the Company’s financial assets and liabilities. A transition away from LIBOR may also require extensive changes to the contracts that govern these LIBOR-based products, as well as the Company’s systems and processes. The Company is currently in the process of reviewing its contracts and existing processes in order to assess the risks and potential impact of the transition.

Human Capital

At Rockland Trust, Where Each Relationship Matters®, management is fully committed to creating a respectful and inclusive environment where everyone is given the chance to succeed.

Rockland Trust has been named one of the Boston Globe’s Top Places to Work for 12 years running and has continued to be the top rated Financial Institution in our category since 2015. Rockland Trust has also been recognized as a Best Place to Work for LGBTQ Equality, scoring 100% on the Human Rights Campaign’s Corporate Equality Index since 2016.

Demographics As of December 31, 2020, Rockland Trust employed 1,432 total colleagues, 577 of which are officers of the Bank. The Company's largest business units, in terms of total headcount, include Retail, Commercial, and Operations employing 43.1%, 15.9% and 9.1% of colleagues, respectively. Other business units include Audit, Executive, Executive Administration, Finance, Human Resources, Investment Management Group (IMG), Information Technology, Marketing, Mortgage, Retail, and Risk. Rockland Trust’s average Full Time Equivalent (FTE) was 1,375, as of December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 64.8% of the Company's workforce was comprised of women and approximately 15.4% was comprised of professionals of color.

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Further, as depicted in the graph below, the workforce is comprised of colleagues of the following generations:

indb-20201231_g4.jpg

Colleague Engagement Rockland Trust is committed to a culture of inclusion, respect, teamwork, and employee engagement. Colleagues are provided with competitive compensation, a comprehensive benefits package and an environment that supports a healthy work-life balance.

Benefits include Medical, Dental and Vision Insurance, Long Term Disability Insurance, Life Insurance, 401(k) Voluntary Savings Plan, Additional Defined Contribution Retirement Savings Plan, Vacation Time, Illness/Personal Time, Paid Parental Leave, Childcare Assistance, Wellness Program RockFit, AFLAC, Pet Insurance, and more.

Rockland Trust is committed to strengthening the communities in which it operates and where its stakeholders work and live, and build enduring relationships. To help the Company accomplish its commitment to the communities, colleagues are offered two paid volunteer days per year through the Company's community outreach program, RockCorp. Additionally, Rockland Trust Charitable Foundations and Rockland Trust - Blue Hill Charitable Foundation and its affiliated foundations donated $1.9 million to community non-profit organizations throughout the Company's footprint in 2020. Rockland Trust has been named to the Boston Business Journal’s Top Charitable Contributor list for seven consecutive years.

Colleagues are also offered opportunities for professional growth and career advancement. Formal colleague Development Programs include the Rising Stars Development Program (for entry level colleague career advancement), Commercial Lender Development Program, and the Management Development Program. Colleagues are also invited to participate in our Online Learning Platform and in-house training opportunities. Many of the Company's training and development programs are based on Gestalt based leadership principles, developed by the Gestalt International Study Center. Rockland Trust also offers Tuition Reimbursement through New England Institute of Business at Cambridge College and other colleges and universities. The Company also offers a robust Summer Internship program, typically hiring 10-15 Summer Interns across the Bank each year.

Rockland Trust encourages colleagues to continually seek ways to learn and grow. The Company's Performance Management and Feedback System allows managers to formally recognize colleagues’ achievements and identify goals and areas for improvement. In addition to this annual feedback, colleagues are recognized in many other ways periodically. Colleagues are encouraged to recognize each other's excellent internal and external customer service through a peer recognition, “You Make a Difference” awards. Managers are also provided the opportunity to recognize colleagues privately, through “Kudos”, which have proven to be especially helpful for remote teams. In order to celebrate the academic achievements of colleagues, an annual recognition luncheon is hosted by the Chief Executive Officer, Christopher Oddleifson, when they receive a degree or certification. Colleagues are also recognized for extraordinary efforts through annual “Shining Star” awards and other awards at the annual All Employee Meeting.

Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company made efforts to keep its colleagues safe, healthy and engaged. As an essential business, Rockland Trust colleagues have supported the Bank's customers through the pandemic. In order to keep colleagues, customers, and communities safe and healthy, colleagues were provided with personal protective equipment (PPE) including face masks, cleaning supplies and Plexiglas barriers in branches,
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implemented policies that align with state and CDC guidance and offered mental, physical and financial health resources. Throughout the pandemic, management has conducted regular surveys of our workforce to better understand our colleagues’ experiences and needs. To support colleagues who are parents, guardians and caregivers, the Company has offered flexible time off options, childcare and tutoring assistance and offered many colleagues work from home flexibility. In just a few weeks, the technology team implemented remote work capabilities for hundreds of colleagues. To assist them with this transition, the Company offered its remote colleagues resources to work productively from home and provided managers with guidance on managing remote teams. Additionally, beginning in March of 2020, Rockland Trust and its affiliated foundations approved the distribution of $500,000 over and above its annual giving in response to arising needs brought on by the pandemic. The first phase of giving supported nine front-line organizations across Rockland Trust’s service area, including local United Way chapters and Community Foundations, to address the immediate, basic needs of our communities. The second phase of giving focused on meeting the needs of specific at-risk populations including survivors of domestic violence, homeless and housing insecure individuals and immigrant and vulnerable populations.

Commitment to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion At Rockland Trust, management believes each relationship matters, and that statement goes far beyond our customers. Rockland Trust has an inclusive workforce that enables the Company to better perform for its customers and the diverse communities in which it operates. There has been an established diversity and inclusion program for over sixteen years, which continues to grow and evolve.

The Diversity and Inclusion Council was formed in 2004. Rockland Trust works to ensure colleagues have an opportunity to be heard, valued and engaged. Rockland Trust offers three Employee Resource Groups (ERGs): Inclusion Network, Women of Action, and Pride Alliance. These voluntary, employee-led groups join together to provide opportunities for colleagues to get involved in making our workforce and communities more inclusive and equitable.

In addition to the efforts described above, there are many other ways the Company promotes diversity and inclusion among its workforce. The Diversity and Inclusion Council, which is comprised of Executive and Senior Leaders from all business units, develops strategic priorities and works with the ERGs and business units to execute these priorities. Rockland Trust also partners with diverse organizations to support diverse recruitment efforts and provide professional development opportunities for professionals of color. For example, each year Rockland Trust invites colleagues to participate in The Partnership, a third party organization that offers leadership development programs for racially and ethnically diverse professionals throughout the New England area. Management has also pledged to increase participation in The Partnership in 2021.

Two additional Diversity, Equity and Inclusion initiatives were launched in 2020, which are designed to advance the careers of professionals of color and encourage everyday allyship.


Statistical Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies
The statistical disclosure relating to Independent Bank Corp. required under the SEC's Industry Guide 3, "Statistical Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies," is included in Item 6. "Selected Financial Data", Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 9, "Borrowings" within the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Report.

Available Information

Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Company files periodic and current reports, proxy and information statements and other information with the SEC. These filings can be accessed on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Additionally, the Company’s SEC filings, including its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, amendments to these reports, and additional shareholder information are available free of charge on the Company’s website: www.RocklandTrust.com (within the Investor Relations section) as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with, or furnished to the SEC. The Company’s Code of Ethics and other Corporate Governance documents are also available free of charge on the Company’s website in the Investor Relations section. Information contained on the Company’s website and the SEC website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K. (The Company has included its web address and the SEC website address only as inactive textual references and does not intend them to be active links to the Company's website or the SEC website.)
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting the Company and its customers, counterparties, employees, and third-party service providers, and the full extent of the adverse impacts on the Company's business, financial position, results of operations, and prospects are unknown and could be significant.

The spread of COVID-19 has created a global public-health crisis that has resulted in widespread volatility and deterioration in business, economic, and market conditions and household incomes, including in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts where the Company conducts nearly all of its business. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's capital and liquidity, and on its business, results of operations, financial position and prospects generally will depend on a number of evolving factors, including:
The duration, extent, and severity of the pandemic and any resurgences. COVID-19 has not yet been contained and could affect significantly more households and businesses. The duration and severity of the pandemic, including recent resurgences and the potential for seasonal or other resurgences after any containment, continue to be impossible to predict. In addition, while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved various COVID-19 vaccines, the timing of distribution and availability and efficacy of such vaccines remain uncertain. Following any containment, there is also substantial uncertainty surrounding the pace of economic recovery and the return of business and consumer confidence.
The response of governmental and nongovernmental authorities. Many of the actions intended to contain the spread of COVID-19 have been directed toward curtailing household and business activity while simultaneously deploying fiscal and monetary-policy measures to partially mitigate the adverse effects on individual households and businesses. These actions are not always coordinated or consistent across jurisdictions and, in general, have changed rapidly in scope and intensity, contributing to substantial market volatility.
The effect on the Company's customers, counterparties, employees, and third-party service providers. COVID-19 and its associated consequences and uncertainties, including increased unemployment rates, are affecting individuals, households, and businesses differently and unevenly. Many, however, have changed their behavior in response to governmental mandates and advisories to sharply restrain commercial and social interactions and discretionary spending. As a result, in the near term, the Company's credit, operational, and other risks have generally increased and, for the foreseeable future, may remain elevated or increase further.