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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Transition Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________
Commission File Number: 000-50058
PRA Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware75-3078675
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

120 Corporate Boulevard, Norfolk, Virginia 23502
(888) 772-7326
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code, telephone number)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per sharePRAANASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer     Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was $1,729,557,356 based on the $38.66 closing price as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
The number of shares of the registrant's Common Stock outstanding as of February 23, 2021 was 45,593,525.
Documents incorporated by reference
Portions of the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



Table of Contents

Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
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Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
2


Table of Contents
continued
Item 10.
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Signatures

3


All references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Form 10-K") to "PRA Group," "our," "we," "us," the "Company" or similar terms are to PRA Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Forward-Looking Statements:
This report contains forward-looking statements as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements, including statements regarding overall cash collection trends, operating cost trends, liquidity and capital needs and other statements of expectations, beliefs, future plans, strategies and anticipated events or trends. Our results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, or our forward-looking statements could be wrong, as a result of risks, uncertainties and assumptions including the following:
the impact of the novel coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic on the markets in which we operate, including business disruptions, unemployment, economic disruption, overall market volatility and the inability or unwillingness of consumers to pay the amounts owed to us;
our inability to successfully manage the challenges associated with a disease outbreak, including epidemics, pandemics or similar widespread public health concerns, including the COVID-19 pandemic;
a deterioration in the economic or inflationary environment in the markets in which we operate;
our inability to replace our portfolios of nonperforming loans with additional portfolios sufficient to operate efficiently and profitably and/or purchase nonperforming loans at appropriate prices;
our inability to collect sufficient amounts on our nonperforming loans to fund our operations, including as a result of restrictions imposed by federal, state and international laws and regulations;
changes in accounting standards and their interpretations;
the recognition of significant decreases in our estimate of future recoveries on nonperforming loans;
the occurrence of goodwill impairment charges;
loss contingency accruals that are inadequate to cover actual losses;
our inability to manage risks associated with our international operations;
adverse effects from the exit of the United Kingdom ("UK") from the European Union ("EU");
changes in federal, state, local or international laws or the interpretation of these laws, including tax, bankruptcy and collection laws;
changes in the administrative practices of various bankruptcy courts;
our inability to comply with existing and new regulations of the collection industry;
investigations, reviews, or enforcement actions by governmental authorities, including the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB");
our inability to comply with data privacy regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR");
adverse outcomes in pending litigation or administrative proceedings;
our inability to retain, expand, renegotiate or replace our credit facilities and our ability to comply with the covenants under our financing arrangements;
our inability to manage effectively our capital and liquidity needs, including as a result of changes in credit or capital markets;
changes in interest or exchange rates;
default by or failure of one or more of our counterparty financial institutions;
uncertainty about the future of the London Inter-Bank Offer Rate ("LIBOR");
disruptions of business operations caused by cybersecurity incidents or the underperformance or failure of information technology infrastructure, networks or communication systems; and
the "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Form 10-K and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").
You should assume that the information appearing in this Form 10-K is accurate only as of the date it was issued. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date. The future events, developments or results described in, or implied by, this Form 10-K could turn out to be materially different. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to publicly update or revise our forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K and you should not expect us to do so.
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PART I
Item 1. Business.
General
PRA Group Inc. is a global financial and business services company with operations in the Americas, Europe and Australia.
Our primary business is the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans. The accounts we purchase are primarily the unpaid obligations of individuals owed to credit originators, which include banks and other types of consumer, retail and auto finance companies. We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans at a discount in two broad categories: Core and Insolvency. Our Core operation specializes in purchasing and collecting nonperforming loans, which we purchased since either the credit originator and/or other third-party collection agencies have been unsuccessful in collecting the full balance owed. Our Insolvency operation consists primarily of purchasing and collecting on nonperforming loan accounts where the customer is involved in a bankruptcy proceeding or the equivalent in some European countries. We also provide fee-based services on class action claims recoveries and by servicing consumer bankruptcy accounts in the United States ("U.S.").
As part of our strategic plans, we have expanded through various acquisitions and organic growth. In 2014, we acquired Aktiv Kapital AS, a Norway-based company specializing in the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans throughout Europe and Canada. In 2015, we expanded into South America by acquiring 55% of the equity interest in RCB Investimentos S.A. ("RCB"), a servicing platform for nonperforming loans and established a business that purchases nonperforming loans in Brazil. Our subsequent sale of 79% of our interest in RCB to Banco Bradesco S.A. completed in 2019, had no impact on the nonperforming loan purchasing business we established. In 2016, we acquired DTP S.A., a Polish-based debt collection company, furthering our in-house collection efforts in Poland. In 2020, we began operations in Australia, leveraging an entity we established in 2011.
We have one reportable segment based on similarities among the operating units, including the nature of the products and services, the nature of the production processes, the types or classes of customers for our products and services, the methods used to distribute our products and services and the nature of the regulatory environment.
For discussion of COVID-19, refer to "Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Form 10-K.
Nonperforming Loan Portfolio Acquisitions
To identify purchasing opportunities, we maintain an extensive marketing effort with our senior officers contacting known and prospective sellers of nonperforming loans. From these sellers, we have acquired a variety of nonperforming loans including Visa® and MasterCard® credit cards, private label and other credit cards, installment loans, lines of credit, deficiency balances of various types, legal judgments and trade payables. Sellers of nonperforming loans include major banks, credit unions, consumer finance companies, retailers, utilities, automobile finance companies and other credit originators. The price at which we purchase portfolios depends on the age of the portfolio, whether it is a Core or Insolvency portfolio, geographic region, the seller's selection criteria, our historical experience with a certain asset type or credit originator and other similar factors.
We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans from credit originators through auctions and negotiated sales. In an auction process, the seller will assemble a portfolio of nonperforming loans and will seek purchase prices from specifically invited potential purchasers. In a privately negotiated sale process, the credit originator will contact one or more purchasers directly, receive a bid and negotiate the terms of sale. In either case, typically, invited purchasers will have already successfully completed a qualification process that can include the seller's review of any or all of the following: the purchaser's experience, reputation, financial standing, operating procedures, business practices and compliance oversight.
We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans through either single portfolio transactions, referred to as spot sales, or through the pre-arranged purchase of multiple portfolios over time, referred to as forward flow sales. Under a forward flow contract, we agree to purchase statistically similar nonperforming loan portfolios from credit originators on a periodic basis, at a negotiated price over a specified time period, typically from three to 12 months.



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Nonperforming Loan Portfolio Collection Operations
Call Center Operations
In higher volume markets, our collection efforts leverage internally staffed call centers. In some newer markets or in markets that have less consistent debt purchasing patterns, most notably outside the U.S., we may utilize external vendors to do some of this work. Whether the accounts are being worked internally or externally, we utilize our proprietary analysis to proportionally direct work efforts to those customers most likely to pay. The analysis driving those decisions relies on models and variables that have the highest correlation to profitable collections from call activity.
Legal Recovery - Core Portfolios
An important component of our collections effort involves our legal recovery operations and the judicial collection of balances from customers who, in general, we believe have the ability, but not the willingness, to resolve their obligations. There are some markets in which the collection process follows a prescribed, time-sensitive and sequential set of legal actions, but in the majority of instances, we use models and analysis to select those accounts reflecting a high propensity to pay in a legal environment. Depending on the characteristics of the receivable and the applicable local collection laws, we determine whether to commence legal action to judicially collect on the receivable. The legal process can take an extended period of time and can be costly, but when accounts are selected properly, it usually generates net cash collections that likely would not have been realized otherwise. We use a combination of internal staff (attorney and support) and external staff to pursue legal collections under certain circumstances, as we deem appropriate.
Insolvency Operations
Accounts that are in an insolvent or bankrupt status are managed by our insolvency operations team. These accounts fall under insolvency plans ranging from Individual Voluntary Arrangements ("IVAs") and Trust Deeds in the UK, to Consumer Proposals in Canada, to various forms of bankruptcy plans in the U.S., Canada, Germany and the UK. We file claims or claim transfers securing our creditor rights in plans, and actively manage these accounts through the entire life cycle of the insolvency proceeding to ensure that we participate in any distributions to creditors. The accounts we manage are derived from two sources: (1) our purchased portfolios of insolvent nonperforming loans and (2) our Core purchased portfolios of nonperforming loans where our customers filed for protection under the insolvency or bankruptcy laws after being purchased by us. We purchase these types of accounts in the U.S., Canada, Germany and the UK.
These accounts are filed under the relevant country's insolvency or bankruptcy codes and may have an associated payment plan that generally ranges from three to seven years in duration. Accounts which are purchased while insolvent can be purchased at any stage in the insolvency or bankruptcy plan life cycle. Portfolios sold close to the filing of the insolvency or bankruptcy plan may take months to generate cash flow; however, aged portfolios sold years after the filing of the insolvency or bankruptcy plan will typically generate cash flows immediately.
Digital
As a complement to our collection operations, we have developed digital capabilities to support our collection efforts. We have developed these platforms in all of our operating markets that provide for inbound collections, as well as outbound collections where the regulatory environment allows us to operate in such a manner.
Equity Investments
We have an 11.7% equity interest in RCB, a servicing platform of nonperforming loans in Brazil.
Fee-Based Services
In addition to the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans, we provide fee-based services including class action claims recovery purchasing and servicing through Claims Compensation Bureau, LLC ("CCB") and third-party servicing of bankruptcy accounts in the U.S.
Seasonality
Although the year ended December 31, 2020 deviated from usual seasonal patterns due to the impact of COVID-19, as discussed under "COVID-19 Update" in Item 7 of this Form 10-K, typically cash collections in the Americas tend to be higher in the first half of the year due to the high volume of income tax refunds received by individuals in the U.S., and trend lower as the year progresses. Customer payment patterns in all of the countries in which we operate can be affected by seasonal employment trends, income tax refunds and holiday spending habits.
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Competition
Purchased portfolio competition is derived from both third-party contingent fee collection agencies and other purchasers of debt that manage their own nonperforming loans or outsource such servicing. Regulatory complexity and burdens, combined with seller preference for experienced portfolio purchasers, create significant barriers to successful entry for new competitors particularly in the U.S. While both remain competitive, the contingent fee industry is more fragmented than the purchased portfolio industry.
We face bidding competition in our purchase of nonperforming loans and on the basis of reputation, industry experience and performance. We believe that our competitive strengths include our disciplined and proprietary underwriting process, the extensive data set we have developed since our founding in 1996, our ability to bid on portfolios at appropriate prices, our capital position, our reputation from previous portfolio purchase transactions, our ability to close transactions in a timely fashion, our strong relationships with credit originators, our team of well-trained collectors who provide quality customer service while complying with applicable collection laws and our ability to efficiently and effectively collect on various asset types.
Government Regulation
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws that establish specific guidelines and procedures that debt collectors must follow when collecting customer accounts, including laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personal information. It is our policy to comply with applicable federal, state, local and international laws in all our activities. To promote compliance with applicable laws and regulations, we provide extensive training upon hire and additional training at least annually. We also continuously monitor and evaluate our collectors in order to provide meaningful and prompt feedback. Our compliance management system and related controls that are embedded in business processes are also tested regularly by our compliance and internal audit departments to foster compliance with laws, regulations and internal policy.
Our failure to comply with these laws could result in enforcement action against us, the payment of significant fines and penalties, restrictions upon our operations or our inability to recover amounts owed to us. Significant laws and regulations applicable to our business include the following:
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act ("FDCPA"), which imposes certain obligations and restrictions on the practices of debt collectors, including specific restrictions regarding the time, place and manner of the communications.
Fair Credit Reporting Act ("FCRA"), which obligates credit information providers to verify the accuracy of information provided to credit reporting agencies and investigate consumer disputes concerning the accuracy of such information.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, which requires that certain financial institutions, including collection agencies, develop policies to protect the privacy of consumers' private financial information and provide notices to consumers advising them of their privacy policies.
Electronic Funds Transfer Act, which regulates electronic fund transfer transactions, including a consumer’s right to stop payments on a pre-approved fund transfer and right to receive certain documentation of the transaction.
Telephone Consumer Protection Act ("TCPA"), which, along with similar state laws, places certain restrictions on users of certain automated dialing equipment and pre-recorded messages that place telephone calls to consumers.
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act ("SCRA"), which gives U.S. military service personnel relief from credit obligations they may have incurred prior to entering military service and may also apply in certain circumstances to obligations and liabilities incurred by a servicemember while serving on active duty.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, which provides standards to protect the confidentiality of patients' personal healthcare and financial information in the U.S.
U.S. Bankruptcy Code, which prohibits certain contacts with consumers after the filing of bankruptcy petitions and dictates what types of claims will or will not be allowed in a bankruptcy proceeding including how such claims may be discharged.
Americans with Disabilities Act, which requires that telecommunications companies operating in the U.S. take steps to ensure functionally equivalent services are available for their consumers with disabilities, and requires accommodation of consumers with disabilities, such as the implementation of telecommunications relay services.
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), United Kingdom Bribery Act ("UK Bribery Act") and Similar Laws. Our operations outside the U.S. are subject to various U.S. and international laws and regulations, such as the FCPA and the UK Bribery Act, which prohibit corrupt payments to governmental officials and certain other individuals. The
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FCPA prohibits U.S. companies and their agents and employees from providing anything of value to a foreign official for the purposes of influencing any act or decision of these individuals in order to obtain an unfair advantage or help obtain or retain business. Although similar to the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act is broader in scope and covers bribes given to or received by any person with improper intent.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), which restructured the regulation and supervision of the financial services industry in the U.S. and created the CFPB. The CFPB has rulemaking, supervisory, and enforcement authority over larger consumer debt collectors. The Dodd-Frank Act, along with the Unfair, Deceptive, or Abusive Acts or Practices ("UDAAP") provisions included therein, and the Federal Trade Commission Act, prohibit unfair, deceptive, and/or abusive acts and practices.
International data protection and privacy laws, which include relevant country specific legislation in the UK and other European countries where we operate that regulate the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information; the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, which aims to protect personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in certain circumstances for purposes of electronic commerce in Canada; and the GDPR, which regulates the processing and free movement of personal data within the EU and transfer of such data outside the EU.
Consumer Credit Act 1974 (and its related regulations), Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations of 1999 and the Financial Conduct Authority's consumer credit conduct of business rules, which apply to our international operations and govern consumer credit agreements.
In addition, certain of our EU subsidiaries are subject to capital adequacy, liquidity and other requirements imposed by regulators, such as the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2020, we employed 3,820 full-time equivalents globally across 18 countries, with approximately 76%, 23% and less than 1% of our workforce distributed across the Americas, Europe and Australia, respectively. Our employees share a common set of values and commitments that define how we treat each other, how we relate to our customers and the responsibilities we have to shareholders, regulators, clients and others. We refer to this shared set of values as C.A.R.E.S, which stands for Committed, Accountable, Respectful, Ethical and Successful. These values are intended to foster a high performing workforce and sense of belonging by working together to build an equitable and inclusive culture where employees can be themselves, to be their best.
In support of these values we offer comprehensive total rewards programs, competitive pay and bonus structures, health and wellness benefits, retirement plans and an employee assistance program. Additionally, we offer tuition reimbursement assistance and have a robust suite of training and development offerings for employees across the globe, many available in multiple languages.
Management considers our employee relations to be good. While none of our North American employees are represented by a union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement, in Europe we work closely with a number of works councils, and in countries where it is the customary local practice, such as Finland and Spain, we have collective bargaining agreements.
Available Information
We make available on or through our website, www.pragroup.com, certain reports that we file with or furnish to the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). These include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act ("SEC Filings"). We make this information available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at: www.sec.gov.
The information contained on, or that can be accessed through our website, is not, and shall not be deemed to be a part of this Form 10-K or incorporated into any of our other SEC Filings.



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Reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available free of charge upon request by contacting our corporate office at:
PRA Group, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
120 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 100
Norfolk, Virginia 23502
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
You should carefully read the following discussion of material factors, events and uncertainties when evaluating our business and the forward-looking information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The events and consequences discussed in these risk factors could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, liquidity and financial condition. While we believe we have identified and discussed below the material risk factors affecting our business, these risk factors do not identify all the risks we face, and there may be additional risks and uncertainties that we do not presently know or that we do not currently believe to be material that may have an adverse effect on our business, performance or financial condition in the future.
Operational and Industry Risks
The continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial results.
We cannot predict the extent to which the continuing COVID-19 pandemic will impact our business, results of operations and financial results due to numerous evolving factors such as the extent to which vaccines will be available and their effectiveness against mutations of COVID-19. However, the continuation or worsening of the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial results if:
the current deterioration in the economic and inflationary environment resulting from the pandemic worsens or continues throughout 2021;
political, legal and regulatory actions and policies in response to the pandemic prevent us from performing our collection activities or result in material increases in our costs to comply with such laws and regulations;
consumers respond to COVID-19 by failing to pay amounts owed to us as a result of their unemployment or other factors that impact their ability to make payments;
we are unable to maintain staffing levels necessary to operate our business due to extended lockdowns, governmental actions that result in our business operations being deemed non-essential or continued spread of COVID-19 causing employees to be unable or unwilling to work;
we are unable to collect on existing nonperforming loans or experience material decreases in our cash collections;
we are unable to purchase nonperforming loans needed to operate our business because credit originators become unable or unwilling to sell their nonperforming loans consistent with historical levels; or
we suffer a cybersecurity incident as a result of increased vulnerability while a larger number of our employees work remotely.
A deterioration in the economic or inflationary environment in the countries in which we operate could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our performance may be adversely affected by economic, political or inflationary conditions in any market in which we operate. These conditions could include regulatory developments, changes in global or domestic economic policy, legislative changes, the sovereign debt crises experienced in several European countries and the uncertainty regarding the EU’s future as a result of the UK's departure from the EU. Deterioration in economic conditions, or a significant rise in inflation could cause personal bankruptcy and insolvency filings to increase, and the ability of consumers to pay their debts could be adversely affected. This may in turn adversely impact our business and financial results.
If global credit market conditions and the stability of global banks deteriorate, the amount of consumer or commercial lending and financing could be reduced, thus reducing the volume of nonperforming loans available for purchase, which could adversely affect our business, financial results and ability to succeed in international markets.
Other factors associated with the economy that could influence our performance include the financial stability of the lenders on our bank loans and credit facilities and our access to capital and credit. The financial turmoil that adversely affected
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the banking system and financial markets during the prior global recession beginning in 2007 resulted in the tightening of credit markets. While the banking system and financial markets recovered from the prior recession, a worsening of current conditions, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could have a negative impact on our business, including the insolvency of lending institutions, notably the lenders providing our bank loans and credit facilities, resulting in our difficulty in or inability to obtain credit. These and other economic factors could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to continually replace our nonperforming loans with additional portfolios sufficient to operate efficiently and profitably, and/or we may not be able to purchase nonperforming loans at appropriate prices.
To operate profitably, we must purchase and service a sufficient amount of nonperforming loans to generate revenue that exceeds our expenses. Costs such as salaries and other compensation expense constitute a significant portion of our overhead and, if we do not replace the nonperforming loan portfolios we service with additional portfolios, we may have to reduce the number of our collection personnel. We would then, have to rehire collection staff if we subsequently obtain additional portfolios. These practices could lead to negative consequences including the following:
low employee morale;
fewer experienced employees;    
higher training costs;    
disruptions in our operations;    
loss of efficiency; and    
excess costs associated with unused space in our facilities.
The availability of nonperforming loan portfolios at prices that generate an appropriate return on our investment depends on a number of factors, including the following:
the continuation of high levels of consumer debt obligations;
sales of nonperforming loan portfolios by credit originators; and
competitive factors affecting potential purchasers and credit originators of receivables.
Furthermore, heightened regulation of the credit card and consumer lending industry or changing credit origination strategies may result in decreased availability of credit to consumers, potentially leading to a future reduction in nonperforming loans available for purchase from credit originators. We cannot predict how our ability to identify and purchase nonperforming loans and the quality of those nonperforming loans would be affected if there were a shift in lending practices, whether caused by changes in the regulations or accounting practices applicable to credit originators or purchasers, a sustained economic downturn or otherwise.
Moreover, there can be no assurance that credit originators will continue to sell their nonperforming loans consistent with historical levels or at all, or that we will be able to bid competitively for those portfolios. Because of the length of time involved in collecting on acquired portfolios and the variability in the timing of our collections, we may not be able to identify trends and make changes in our purchasing strategies in a timely manner. If we are unable to maintain our business or adapt to changing market needs as well as our current or future competitors, we may experience reduced access to nonperforming loan portfolios at appropriate prices and, therefore, reduced profitability.
We may not be able to collect sufficient amounts on our nonperforming loans to fund our operations.

Our principal business consists of purchasing and collecting nonperforming loans that consumers or others have failed to pay. The credit originators have typically made numerous attempts to recover on their receivables, often using a combination of in-house recovery efforts and third-party collection agencies. These nonperforming loans are difficult to collect, and we may not collect a sufficient amount to cover our investment and the costs of running our business.
Our collections may decrease if certain types of insolvency proceedings and bankruptcy filings involving liquidations increase.
Various economic trends and potential changes to existing legislation may contribute to an increase in the amount of personal bankruptcy and insolvency filings. Under certain of these filings, a debtor's assets may be sold to repay creditors, but because most of the receivables we collect through our collections operations are unsecured, we typically would not be able to collect on those receivables. Although our insolvency collections business could benefit from an increase in personal bankruptcies and insolvencies, we cannot ensure that our collections operations business would not decline with an increase in personal insolvencies or bankruptcy filings or changes in related regulations or practices. If our actual collection experience
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with respect to a nonperforming or insolvent bankrupt receivables portfolio is significantly lower than the total amount we projected when we acquired the portfolio, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
Goodwill impairment charges could negatively impact our net income and stockholders' equity.
We have recorded a significant amount of goodwill as a result of our business acquisitions. Goodwill is not amortized, but is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment annually and between annual tests if events or circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. There are numerous risks that may cause the fair value of a reporting unit to fall below its carrying amount, which could lead to the recognition of a goodwill impairment charge. These risks include:
adverse changes in macroeconomic conditions, the business climate, or the market for the entity's products or services;
significant variances between actual and expected financial results;
negative or declining cash flows;
lowered expectations of future results;
failure to realize anticipated synergies from acquisitions;
significant expense increases;
a more likely-than-not expectation of selling or disposing all, or a portion of, a reporting unit;
the loss of key personnel;
an adverse action or assessment by a regulator;
significant increase in discount rates; or
a sustained decrease in the price per share of our common stock.
Our goodwill impairment testing involves the use of estimates and the exercise of judgment, including judgments regarding expected future business performance and market conditions. Significant changes in our assessment of such factors, including the deterioration of market conditions, could affect our assessment of the fair value of one or more of our reporting units and could result in a goodwill impairment charge in a future period.
Our loss contingency accruals may not be adequate to cover actual losses.
We are involved in judicial, regulatory and arbitration proceedings or investigations concerning matters arising from our business activities. We establish accruals for potential liability arising from legal proceedings when it is probable that such liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. However, there can be no assurance as to the ultimate outcome. We may still incur legal costs for a matter even if we have not accrued a liability. In addition, actual losses may be higher than the amount accrued for a certain matter, or in the aggregate. An unfavorable resolution of a legal proceeding or claim could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity. For more information, refer to the "Litigation and Regulatory Matters" section of Note 15 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K ("Note 15").
International Operations Risks
Our international operations expose us to risks which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
A significant portion of our operations is conducted outside the U.S. This could expose us to adverse economic, industry and political conditions that may have a negative impact on our ability to manage our existing operations or pursue alternative strategic transactions, which could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The global nature of our operations expands the risks and uncertainties described elsewhere in this section, including the following:    
changes in local political, economic, social and labor conditions in the markets in which we operate;
foreign exchange controls on currency conversion and the transfer of funds that might prevent us from repatriating cash earned in countries outside the U.S. in a tax-efficient manner;
currency exchange rate fluctuations, currency restructurings, inflation or deflation and our ability to manage these fluctuations through a foreign exchange risk management program;
different employee/employer relationships, laws and regulations, union recognition and the existence of employment tribunals and works councils;
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laws and regulations imposed by international governments, including those governing data security, sharing and transfer;
potentially adverse tax consequences resulting from changes in tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate or challenges to our interpretations and application of complex international tax laws;
logistical, communications and other challenges caused by distance and cultural and language differences, each making it harder to do business in certain jurisdictions;
volatility of global credit markets and the availability of consumer credit and financing in our international markets;
uncertainty as to the enforceability of contract rights under local laws;
the potential of forced nationalization of certain industries, or the impact on creditors' rights, consumer disposable income levels, flexibility and availability of consumer credit and the ability to enforce and collect aged or charged-off debts stemming from international governmental actions, whether through austerity or stimulus measures or initiatives, intended to control or influence macroeconomic factors such as wages, unemployment, national output or consumption, inflation, investment, credit, finance, taxation or other economic drivers;
the presence of varying levels of business corruption in international markets and the effect of various anti-corruption and other laws on our international operations;
the impact on our day-to-day operations and our ability to staff our international operations given our changing labor conditions and long-term trends towards higher wages in developed and emerging international markets as well as the potential impact of union organizing efforts;
potential damage to our reputation due to non-compliance with international and local laws; and
the complexity and necessity of using non-U.S. representatives, consultants and other third-party vendors.
Any one of these factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Compliance with complex and evolving international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations could increase our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions.
We operate on a global basis with offices and activities in a number of jurisdictions throughout the Americas, Europe and Australia. We face increased exposure to risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including compliance with complex international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations, which could increase our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. These laws and regulations include those related to taxation and anti-corruption laws such as the FCPA and the UK Bribery Act. Given the complexity of these laws, there is a risk that we may inadvertently breach certain provisions of these laws, such as through the negligent behavior of an employee or our failure to comply with certain formal documentation requirements. Violations of these laws and regulations by us, any of our employees or our third-party vendors, either inadvertently or intentionally, could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, restrictions on our operations and ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries. Violations of these laws could also adversely affect our business, brand, international expansion efforts, ability to attract and retain employees and results of operations.
The UK's exit from the EU could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The UK exited the EU effective January 31, 2020 ("Brexit"). Although the parties have agreed on several terms governing their continuing relationship, matters such as data sharing and financial services remain unresolved. As a result of the recency of the agreement and the failure to reach agreement on significant matters, there remains uncertainty about Brexit’s impact on taxes, foreign currency, political stability, economic, regulatory and financial market conditions in the UK, the EU and globally, the movement of goods, services, people and capital between the UK and EU.
As of December 31, 2020, the total estimated remaining collections ("ERC") of our UK portfolios constituted approximately 26% of our consolidated ERC. Our British pound assets are predominantly funded by British pound liabilities. However, British pound net income and retained earnings could be affected when translated to the U.S. dollar, positively or negatively, by foreign currency exchange volatility in the short term resulting from the uncertainty of Brexit. In the longer term, Brexit could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition depending on the terms negotiated by the UK and the EU concerning data sharing, taxes, financial services regulation and other matters that impact our operations.



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Legal and Regulatory Risks
Our ability to collect and enforce our nonperforming loans may be limited under federal, state and international laws, regulations and policies.
Our operations are subject to licensing and regulation by governmental and regulatory bodies in the many jurisdictions in which we operate. U.S. federal and state laws, and the laws and regulations of the international countries in which we operate, may limit our ability to collect on and enforce our rights with respect to our nonperforming loans regardless of any act or omission on our part. Some laws and regulations applicable to credit issuers may preclude us from collecting on nonperforming loans we acquire if the credit issuer previously failed to comply with applicable laws in generating or servicing those receivables. Collection laws and regulations also directly apply to our business. Such laws and regulations are extensive and subject to change. A variety of state, federal and international laws and regulations govern the collection, use, retention, transmission, sharing and security of consumer data. Consumer protection and privacy protection laws, changes in the ways that existing rules or laws are interpreted or enforced and any procedures that may be implemented as a result of regulatory consent orders may adversely affect our ability to collect on our nonperforming loans and adversely affect our business. Our failure to comply with laws or regulations applicable to us could limit our ability to collect on our receivables, which could reduce our profitability and adversely affect our business.
Failure to comply with government regulation of the collections industry could result in penalties, fines, litigation, damage to our reputation or the suspension or termination of our ability to conduct our business.
The collections industry throughout the markets in which we operate is governed by various laws and regulations, many of which require us to be a licensed debt collector. Our industry is also at times investigated by regulators and offices of state attorneys general, and subpoenas and other requests or demands for information may be issued by governmental authorities who are investigating debt collection activities. These investigations may result in enforcement actions, fines and penalties, or the assertion of private claims and lawsuits. If any such investigations result in findings that we or our vendors have failed to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties, litigation losses and expenses, damage to our reputation, or the suspension or termination of, or required modification to, our ability to conduct collections, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In a number of jurisdictions, we must maintain licenses to purchase or own debt, and/or to perform debt recovery services and must satisfy related bonding requirements. Our failure to comply with existing licensing requirements, changing interpretations of existing requirements, or adoption of new licensing requirements, could restrict our ability to collect in certain jurisdictions, subject us to increased regulation, increase our costs or adversely affect our ability to purchase, own and/or collect our receivables.
Some laws, among other things, also may limit the interest rate and the fees that a credit originator may impose on our consumers, limit the time in which we may file legal actions to enforce consumer accounts and require specific account information for certain collection activities. In addition, local requirements and court rulings in various jurisdictions may affect our ability to collect.
Regulations and statutes applicable to our industry further provide that, in some cases, consumers cannot be held liable for, or their liability may be limited with respect to, charges to their debit or credit card accounts that resulted from unauthorized use of their credit. These laws, among others, may limit our ability to recover amounts owing with respect to the receivables, whether or not we committed any wrongful act or omission in connection with the account.
If we fail to comply with any applicable laws and regulations discussed above, such failure could result in penalties, litigation losses and expenses, damage to our reputation, or otherwise impact our ability to conduct collections efforts, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Investigations, reviews or enforcement actions by governmental authorities may result in changes to our business practices; negatively impact our receivables portfolio acquisition volume; make collection of receivables more difficult; or expose us to the risk of fines, penalties, restitution payments and litigation.
Our debt collection activities and business practices are subject to review from time to time by various governmental authorities and regulators, including the CFPB, which may commence investigations, reviews or enforcement actions targeted at businesses in the financial services industry. These investigations or reviews may involve individual consumer complaints or our debt collection policies and practices generally. Such investigations or reviews could lead to assertions by governmental authorities that we are not complying with applicable laws or regulations. In such circumstances, authorities may request or seek to impose a range of remedies that could involve potential compensatory or punitive damage claims, fines, restitution payments, sanctions or injunctive relief, that if agreed to or granted, could require us to make payments or incur other
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expenditures that could have an adverse effect on our financial position. The CFPB has the authority to obtain cease and desist orders (which can include orders for restitution or rescission of contracts, as well as other kinds of affirmative relief), recover costs, and impose monetary penalties (ranging from $5,000 per day to over $1 million per day, depending on the nature and gravity of the violation). In addition, where a company has violated Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act or CFPB regulations implemented thereunder, the Dodd-Frank Act empowers state attorneys general and other state regulators to bring civil actions to remedy violations under state law. Governmental authorities could also request or seek to require us to cease certain practices or institute new practices. Negative publicity relating to investigations or proceedings brought by governmental authorities could have an adverse impact on our reputation, harm our ability to conduct business with industry participants, and result in financial institutions reducing or eliminating sales of receivables portfolios to us which would harm our business and negatively impact our results of operations. Moreover, changing or modifying our internal policies or procedures, responding to governmental inquiries and investigations and defending lawsuits or other proceedings could require significant efforts on the part of management and result in increased costs to our business. In addition, such efforts could divert management's full attention from our business operations. All of these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The CFPB has issued civil investigative demands to many companies that it regulates and periodically examines practices regarding the collection of consumer debt. As previously reported in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 9, 2015, Portfolio Associates, LLC ("PRA"), our wholly owned subsidiary, entered into a consent order with the CFPB effective September 9, 2015 settling a previously disclosed investigation of certain debt collection practices of PRA (the "Consent Order"). Although we have implemented the requirements of the Consent Order, there can be no assurance that additional litigation or new industry regulations currently under consideration by the CFPB would not have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In fact, the CFPB has recently made civil investigative demands and advised the Company of the CFPB’s belief that we may have violated certain provisions of the Consent Order and applicable law. Refer to Note 15 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for more information.
The regulation of data privacy in the U.S and globally could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition by increasing our compliance costs.
The regulation of data privacy, including interpretations and determinations by regulatory authorities in the U.S. and in the countries in which we operate, continues to evolve. It is not possible to predict the effect of such rigorous data protection regulations over time. For example, GDPR impacts our European operations and required us to adapt our business practices accordingly. Financial penalties for noncompliance with the GDPR can be significant. It is also the case that the U.S. federal government and states within the U.S. have enacted or are considering legislation to enact data privacy protections. Data privacy regulations could result in increased costs of conducting business to maintain compliance with such regulations. Although we take significant steps to protect the security of our data and the personal data of our customers, we may be required to expend significant resources to comply with regulations if third parties improperly obtain and use such data.
Changes in tax provisions or exposures to additional tax liabilities could have an adverse tax effect on our financial condition.
We record reserves for uncertain tax positions based on our assessment of the probability of successfully sustaining tax filing positions. Management exercises significant judgment when assessing the probability of successfully sustaining tax filing positions, in determining whether a tax liability should be recorded and, if so, estimating that amount. Our tax filings are subject to audit by domestic and international tax authorities. If our tax filing positions are successfully challenged, payments could be required that are in excess of reserved amounts or we may be required to reduce the carrying amount of our net deferred tax asset, either of which could be significant to our financial condition or results of operations. Although we believe our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may adversely or beneficially affect our financial results in the period(s) for which such determination is made.
Financial and Liquidity Risks
We expect to use leverage in executing our business strategy, which may adversely affect the return on our assets.
We may incur a substantial amount of debt in the future. Our existing indebtedness is recourse to us, and we anticipate that future indebtedness will likewise be recourse. As of December 31, 2020, we had total consolidated indebtedness of approximately $2.7 billion, all of which, except for $345.0 million outstanding principal amount of our 3.50% Convertible Notes due 2023 (the "2023 Notes") and $300.0 million outstanding principal amount of our 7.375% Senior Notes due 2025 (the "2025 Notes"), was secured indebtedness. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, we had total committed revolving borrowing capacity of $843.2 million available under our credit facilities, all of which if borrowed would be secured indebtedness. Considering borrowing base restrictions and other covenants, the amount available to be borrowed under our credit facilities would have been $408.0 million. Our management team will consider a number of factors when evaluating our level of
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indebtedness and when making decisions regarding the incurrence of any new indebtedness, including the purchase price of assets to be acquired with debt financing, the estimated market value of our assets and the ability of particular assets and the Company as a whole, to generate cash flow to cover the expected debt service.
Incurring a substantial amount of debt could have important consequences for our business, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt, to our trade or other creditors;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic or industry conditions;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures and acquisitions, particularly when the availability of financing in the capital markets is constrained;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations and reducing our ability to use our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate requirements;
increasing the amount of interest expense because most of the indebtedness under our credit facilities bear interest at floating rates, which, if interest rates increase, will result in higher interest expense;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage to less leveraged competitors.
We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us through capital markets financings, under credit facilities or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to enable us to repay our indebtedness, repurchase our 2023 Notes upon a fundamental change or settle conversions in cash, repurchase our 2025 Notes upon a change of control or fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, at or before its scheduled maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in order to finance our operations or to repay existing indebtedness. If we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional debt or equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances. We cannot assure you that any such actions, if necessary, could be effected on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or on terms that would be advantageous to our stockholders or on terms that would not require us to breach the terms and conditions of our existing or future debt agreements. Our ability to access additional future borrowings could be negatively impacted as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global debt and capital markets.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our debt service obligations.
Our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to make scheduled payments on our debt obligations will depend on our current and future financial performance, which is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In the future, we may fail to generate sufficient cash flow from the collection of nonperforming loans to meet our cash requirements. Further, our capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned if, for example, our revenues do not reach expected levels, we have to incur unforeseen expenses, we invest in acquisitions or make other investments that we believe will benefit our competitive position. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to satisfy our debt obligations, including interest payments and the payment of principal at maturity, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our debt, selling assets or seeking to raise additional capital. We cannot provide assurance that any refinancing would be possible, that any assets could be sold, or, if sold, of the timeliness and amount of proceeds realized from those sales, that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms, if at all, or that additional financing would be permitted under the terms of our various debt instruments then in effect. Furthermore, our ability to refinance would depend upon the condition of the finance and credit markets. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or on a timely basis, would materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and may delay or prevent the expansion of our business.
The agreements governing our indebtedness include provisions that may restrict our financial and business operations.
Our credit facilities and the indentures that govern our 2023 Notes and our 2025 Notes contain financial and other restrictive covenants, including restrictions on how we operate our business and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. These restrictions may interfere with our ability to engage in other necessary or desirable business activities, which could materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Failure to satisfy any one of these covenants could result in negative consequences, including the following:
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acceleration of outstanding indebtedness;
exercise by our lenders of rights with respect to the collateral pledged under certain of our outstanding indebtedness;
our inability to continue to purchase nonperforming loans needed to operate our business; or
our inability to secure alternative financing on favorable terms, if at all.
Uncertainty about the future of the LIBOR may adversely affect our business.
It is possible that beginning in 2022 LIBOR will be discontinued as a reference rate. It is unknown whether any proposed alternative reference rates will attain market acceptance as replacements or whether the outstanding issues related to them will be satisfactorily resolved. The availability of our borrowings and the operation of our derivative hedging agreements could be adversely impacted if LIBOR is discontinued and an agreement cannot be reached on an appropriate replacement benchmark rate between us and our lenders and counterparties.
Cybersecurity and Technology Risks
A cybersecurity incident could disrupt our operations, compromise or corrupt our confidential information or damage our reputation, all of which could negatively impact our business and financial results.
Our business is highly dependent on our ability to process and monitor a large number of transactions across markets and in multiple currencies. As we expand geographically, maintaining the security of our information technology systems and infrastructure becomes more significant and challenging. The three primary risks we face from a cybersecurity incident are operational disruption, the exposure of private data including, customer information, our employees' personally identifiable information, or proprietary business information such as underwriting and collections methodologies and reputational damage. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our systems, some of which are internal, some hosted in the cloud and others we have outsourced.
Although we take preventive steps, including patching our systems and infrastructure, monitoring and blocking malicious traffic with intrusion and detection prevention systems, monitoring firewalls to safeguard critical business applications, conducting regular external and internal security penetrations testing and supervising third party providers that have access to our systems, our computer systems, software and network, may still be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses or other malicious code, and other events that could have a security impact. To date, interruptions of our systems and infrastructure have been infrequent and have not had a material impact on operations. However, these measures, as well as our organization's increased awareness of our risk of a cybersecurity incident, do not guarantee that our business, reputation or financial results will not be impacted in a material adverse manner by such an incident. Should such a cybersecurity incident occur, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to notify affected consumers, modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures. Additionally, we may be subject to fines, penalties, litigation costs and settlements and financial losses that may not be fully covered by our cybersecurity insurance.
The underperformance or failure of our information technology infrastructure, networks or communication systems could result in loss in productivity, loss of competitive advantage and business disruption.
We depend on effective information and communication systems to operate our business. We have also acquired and expect to acquire additional systems as a result of business acquisitions. Significant resources are required to maintain or enhance our existing information and telephone systems and to replace obsolete systems. Although we periodically upgrade, streamline, and integrate our systems and have invested in strategies to prevent a failure, our systems are susceptible to outages due to natural disasters, power loss, computer viruses, security breaches, hardware or software vulnerabilities, disruptions, and similar events. Failure to adequately implement or maintain effective and efficient information systems with sufficiently advanced technological capabilities, or our failure to efficiently and effectively consolidate our information systems to eliminate redundant or obsolete applications, could cause us to lose our competitive advantage, divert management’s time, result in a loss of productivity or disrupt business operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
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Item 2. Properties.
Our corporate headquarters and primary domestic operations facilities are located in Norfolk, Virginia. In addition, at December 31, 2020, we had operational centers in the Americas (12 leased and three owned), Europe (11 leased) and Australia (one leased).
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
We and our subsidiaries are from time to time subject to a variety of routine legal and regulatory claims, inquiries and proceedings, most of which are incidental to the ordinary course of our business. We initiate lawsuits against customers and are occasionally countersued by them in such actions. Also, customers, either individually, as members of a class action, or through a governmental entity on behalf of customers, may initiate litigation against us in which they allege that we have violated a state or federal law in the process of collecting on an account. From time to time, other types of lawsuits are brought against us.
Refer to Note 15 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for information regarding legal proceedings in which we are involved.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "PRAA." Based on information provided by our transfer agent and registrar, as of February 15, 2021, there were 46 holders of record.
Stock Performance
The following graph and subsequent table compare from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2020, the cumulative stockholder returns assuming an initial investment of $100 in our common stock (PRAA), the stocks comprising the Nasdaq Financial 100 (IXF) and the stocks comprising the Nasdaq Global Market Composite Index (NQGM) at the beginning of the period. Any dividends paid during the five-year period are assumed to be reinvested.
praa-20201231_g1.jpg
Ticker201520162017201820192020
PRA Group, Inc.PRAA$100 $113 $96 $70 $105 $114 
Nasdaq Financial 100IXF$100 $126 $146 $134 $173 $179 
Nasdaq Global Market Composite IndexNQGM$100 $96 $120 $112 $155 $255 
The comparisons of stock performance shown above are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock. We do not make or endorse any predictions as to our future stock performance.
Dividend Policy
Our board of directors sets our dividend policy. We do not currently pay regular dividends on our common stock and did not pay dividends in the three years ended December 31, 2020; however, our board of directors may determine in the future to declare or pay dividends on our common stock. Our credit facilities and the indentures that govern our 2023 Notes and our 2025 Notes contain financial and other restrictive covenants, including restrictions on how we operate our business and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on conditions then existing, including our results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our Board of Directors may consider relevant.
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Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans see Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Share Repurchase Programs
None.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
None.
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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Overview
We are a global financial and business services company with operations in the Americas, Europe and Australia. Our primary business is the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans.
COVID-19
The COVID-19 outbreak, which was first reported in December 2019 and declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, has impacted all countries in which we operate. In an effort to address the spread of COVID-19, the countries in which we operate have restricted travel, closed country borders, banned gatherings of unrelated individuals, quarantined and isolated infected individuals, closed schools and non-essential businesses and established criteria that must be met before businesses reopen. The global spread of COVID-19 has disrupted normal business operations and resulted in significant unemployment, recessionary economic trends and overall volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption.
To date, we have continued to operate our business considering governmental, legal and regulatory actions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We are able to monitor on a daily basis the impacts of COVID-19 on our business, operations and financial results and to take steps to mitigate adverse effects wherever possible. These include communicating with regulators and government officials concerning legislation and regulations, enabling employees to work remotely and implementing social distancing in the workplaces that remain open.
Specific impacts on our business, results of operations and financial condition during the year ended December 31, 2020 included:
a reduction in U.S. staffing in mid-March 2020, which returned to almost normal levels by the end of April and remains at these levels;
an increase in U.S. Core cash collections, which we believe was due to our increased ability to contact customers and customers choosing to use additional discretionary funds to voluntarily resolve their debts;
a decrease in legal collection costs during the second quarter of 2020, as a result of the following, both of which have returned to normal levels to varying degrees over the remainder of 2020;
a decrease in the volume of U.S. accounts sent through the legal channel, due to our decision to temporarily pause transitioning U.S. accounts into a legal eligible status; and
a decrease in the volume of European accounts sent through the legal channel due to the closure of courts in many of the European countries in which we operate;
a decrease in certain expenses such as communication expenses due to mailing decisions made as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and interruptions in postal mailings and deliveries; and
a decrease in portfolio purchases due to deferrals by sellers and lower levels of bankruptcy filings and charge-offs.
Funds generated from operations, cash collections on finance receivables, existing cash, available borrowings under our revolving credit facilities (including recent modifications to the terms of those facilities) and the addition of our senior notes, have been sufficient to finance our operations, planned capital expenditures, forward flow purchase commitments, debt maturities and portfolio purchases during the pandemic. We continue to monitor the need to expand our access to credit to fund the aforementioned business activities.
Our analysis of the current and future impact of COVID-19 on our operations is based on management’s constant monitoring of key data and information, including (1) changes in laws, regulations and governmental actions, (2) trends in the macroeconomic environment, consumer behavior and key operational metrics such as cash collections and (3) conditions in the nonperforming loan market. However, we cannot predict the full extent to which COVID-19 will impact our business, results of operations and financial condition due to the numerous evolving factors associated with the pandemic. See the "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Frequently Used Terms
We may use the following terminology throughout this Form 10-K:
"Amortization rate" refers to cash collections applied to principal on finance receivables as a percentage of total cash collections (prior to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses" and ASU 2019-19, "Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instrument Credit Losses, collectively referred to as "ASC 326").
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"Buybacks" refers to purchase price refunded by the seller due to the return of ineligible accounts.
"Cash collections" refers to collections on our owned finance receivables portfolios.
"Cash receipts" refers to cash collections on our owned finance receivables portfolios plus fee income.
"Change in expected recoveries" refers to the differences of actual recoveries received when compared to expected recoveries and the net present value of changes in estimated remaining collections.
"Core" accounts or portfolios refer to accounts or portfolios that are nonperforming loans and are not in an insolvent status upon acquisition. These accounts are aggregated separately from insolvency accounts.
"Estimated remaining collections" or "ERC" refers to the sum of all future projected cash collections on our owned finance receivables portfolios.
"Insolvency" accounts or portfolios refer to accounts or portfolios of receivables that are in an insolvent status when we purchase them and as such are purchased as a pool of insolvent accounts. These accounts include IVAs, Trust Deeds in the UK, Consumer Proposals in Canada and bankruptcy accounts in the U.S., Canada, Germany and the UK.
"Negative Allowance" refers to the present value of cash flows expected to be collected on our finance receivables, classified as an asset on the balance sheet.
"Portfolio acquisitions" refers to all portfolios acquired as a result of a purchase, but also includes portfolios added as a result of a business acquisition.
"Portfolio purchases" refers to all portfolios purchased in the normal course of business and excludes those added as a result of business acquisitions.
"Portfolio income" reflects revenue recorded due to the passage of time using the effective interest rate calculated based on the purchase price of portfolios and estimated remaining collections.
"Principal amortization" refers to cash collections applied to principal on finance receivables prior to the adoption of ASC 326.
"Purchase price" refers to the cash paid to a seller to acquire nonperforming loans. Prior to the adoption of ASC 326 purchase price also included certain capitalized costs and adjustments for buybacks.
"Purchase price multiple" refers to the total estimated collections (as defined below) on owned finance receivables portfolios divided by purchase price.
"Recoveries" refers to cash collections plus buybacks and other adjustments.
"Total estimated collections" or "TEC" refers to actual cash collections plus estimated remaining collections on our finance receivables portfolios.
Unless otherwise specified, references to 2020, 2019 and 2018 are for the years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.






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Results of Operations
The results of operations include the financial results of the Company and all of our subsidiaries. As of January 1, 2020 we adopted ASC 326 on a prospective basis. Prior period amounts were accounted for under ASC Topic 310-30 "Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality" ("ASC 310-30"). For further information refer to Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K. The following table sets forth Consolidated Income Statement amounts as a percentage of total revenues for the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):
202020192018
Revenues:
Portfolio income$984,036 92.4 %$— — %$— — %
Changes in expected recoveries69,297 6.5 — — — — 
Income recognized on finance receivables— — 998,361 98.2 891,899 98.2 
Fee income9,748 0.9 15,769 1.5 14,916 1.6 
Other revenue2,333 0.2 2,951 0.3 1,441 0.2 
Total revenues1,065,414 100.0 1,017,081 100.0 908,256 100.0 
Net allowance charges— — (24,025)(2.4)(33,425)(3.7)
Operating expenses:
Compensation and employee services295,150 27.7 310,441 30.5 319,400 35.2 
Legal collection fees53,758 5.1 55,261 5.4 42,941 4.7 
Legal collection costs101,635 9.5 134,156 13.2 104,988 11.6 
Agency fees56,418 5.3 55,812 5.5 33,854 3.7 
Outside fees and services84,087 7.9 63,513 6.2 61,492 6.8 
Communication40,801 3.8 44,057 4.3 43,224 4.8 
Rent and occupancy17,973 1.7 17,854 1.8 16,906 1.9 
Depreciation and amortization18,465 1.7 17,464 1.7 19,322 2.1 
Other operating expenses47,426 4.5 46,811 4.6 47,444 5.1 
Total operating expenses715,713 67.2 745,369 73.2 689,571 75.9 
Income from operations349,701 32.8 247,687 24.4 185,260 20.4 
Other income and (expense):
Gain on sale of subsidiaries— — — — 26,575 2.9 
Interest expense, net(141,712)(13.2)(141,918)(14.0)(121,078)(13.3)
Foreign exchange gain/(loss)2,005 0.2 11,954 1.2 (944)(0.1)
Other(1,049)(0.2)(364)(0.1)(316)(0.1)
Income before income taxes208,945 19.6 117,359 11.5 89,497 9.8 
Income tax expense41,203 3.9 19,680 1.9 13,763 1.5 
Net income167,742 15.7 97,679 9.6 75,734 8.3 
Adjustment for net income attributable to noncontrolling interests18,403 1.7 11,521 1.1 10,171 1.1 
Net income attributable to PRA Group, Inc.$149,339 14.0 %$86,158 8.5 %$65,563 7.2 %

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Year ended December 31, 2020 compared with year ended December 31, 2019
Cash Collections
Cash collections for the periods indicated were as follows (amounts in millions):
20202019Change
   Americas Core$1,271.9 $1,141.5 $130.4 
   Americas Insolvency155.3 180.9 (25.6)
   Europe Core519.7 480.1 39.6 
   Europe Insolvency58.9 38.8 20.1 
Total cash collections$2,005.8 $1,841.3 $164.5 
Cash collections adjusted (1)
$2,005.8 $1,823.1 $182.7 
(1) Cash collections adjusted refers to 2019 cash collections translated using 2020 exchange rates.
Cash collections were $2,005.8 million in 2020, an increase of $164.5 million, or 8.9%, compared to $1,841.3 million in 2019. The increase was largely due to our U.S. call center and other collections, including a higher level of collections through our digital platforms, increasing $144.4 million, or 23.3%, primarily due to what we believe to be various economic circumstances that have provided U.S. consumers with additional discretionary funds and a willingness to voluntarily resolve their debts. This was partially offset by a $14.6 million, or 3.8%, decrease in U.S. legal collections due to a shift in collections from the legal channel to the call centers and digital platforms. Additionally, Europe cash collections increased $59.7 million, or 11.5%, reflecting the impact of record 2019 purchases as well as strong 2020 purchases. Furthermore, Americas Insolvency cash collections decreased by $25.6 million, or 14.2%, mainly reflecting investment levels not offsetting the runoff of older portfolios.
Revenues
Revenue for the years indicated were as follows (amounts in thousands):
20202019
Portfolio income$984,036 $— 
Changes in expected recoveries69,297 — 
Income recognized on finance receivables— 998,361 
Fee income9,748 15,769 
Other revenue2,333 2,951 
Total revenues$1,065,414 $1,017,081 
Total revenues were $1,065.4 million in 2020, an increase of $48.3 million, or 4.7%, compared to $1,017.1 million in 2019. The increase is largely due to record portfolio purchases in 2019 and significant cash collections overperformance primarily in the last three quarters of 2020 recorded as a component of Changes in expected recoveries. This overperformance was partially offset by adjustments to our ERCs to reflect our assumption that the overperformance was primarily due to acceleration in the timing of cash collections rather than an increase to total expected collections. We believe this to be an appropriate assumption as we have continued to generate unprecedented cash collections, primarily in the Americas call centers and digital platforms, with two consecutive record cash collections quarters following the record first quarter of 2020, deviating from typical seasonal patterns. We have assumed that these collections are accelerated due to economic circumstances providing consumers with additional discretionary funds and a willingness to voluntarily repay their debts. If we observe sustained performance over time supporting an increase in our total expected collections, there would be additional revenue in the future. Additionally, we made forecast adjustments deemed appropriate given the current environment.
Net Allowance Charges
In 2019, under ASC 310-30, net allowance charges were recorded for significant decreases in expected cash flows or a change in timing of cash flows which would otherwise require a reduction in the stated yield on a pool of accounts. Effective January 1, 2020, under ASC 326, changes to expected cash flows are recorded in changes in expected recoveries within revenues.
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Operating Expenses
Total operating expenses were $715.7 million in 2020, a decrease of $29.7 million, or 4.0%, compared to $745.4 million in 2019.
Compensation and Employee Services
Compensation and employee service expenses were $295.2 million in 2020, a decrease of $15.2 million, or 4.9%, compared to $310.4 million in 2019. The decrease was primarily attributable to a reduction in the U.S. call center workforce due to efficiencies. Total full-time equivalents decreased 13.4% to 3,820 as of December 31, 2020 from 4,412 as of December 31, 2019. The decrease was slightly offset by a $3.7 million, or 34.2%, increase in share-based compensation expense due to improved actual performance compared to targets and a lower forfeiture rate.
Legal Collection Fees
Legal collection fees represent contingent fees incurred for the cash collections generated by our independent third-party attorney network. Legal collection fees were $53.8 million in 2020, a decrease of $1.5 million, or 2.7%, compared to $55.3 million in 2019 primarily due to a slight decrease in external legal cash collections in the U.S.
Legal Collection Costs
Legal collection costs primarily consist of costs paid to courts where a lawsuit is filed for the purpose of attempting to collect on an account. Legal collection costs were $101.6 million in 2020, a decrease of $32.6 million, or 24.3%, compared to $134.2 million in 2019. The decrease was primarily due to a reduced number of accounts placed into the U.S. legal channel as a result of a shift in collections from the legal channel to the call centers and digital platforms.
Agency Fees
Agency fees primarily represent third-party collection fees. Agency fees were $56.4 million in 2020 compared to $55.8 million in 2019.
Outside Fees and Services
Outside fees and services expenses were $84.1 million in 2020, an increase of $20.6 million, or 32.4%, compared to $63.5 million in 2019. The increase was primarily the result of higher consulting fees, corporate legal expenses and higher fees associated with processing an increased number of debit card transactions due to the increase in cash collections.
Communication
Communication expenses primarily represent postage and telephone related expenses incurred as a result of our collection efforts. Communication expenses were $40.8 million in 2020, a decrease of $3.3 million, or 7.5%, compared to $44.1 million in 2019. The decrease mainly reflects lower postage costs due to mailing decisions made during the COVID-19 pandemic and, to a lesser extent, telephone expenses as a result of improvements in data and analytics that drove efficiencies. These decreases were slightly offset by an increase in digital spending.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net was $141.7 million in 2020 compared to $141.9 million in 2019 as slightly lower overall levels of outstanding borrowings and lower variable interest rates were offset by the addition of senior notes at higher fixed interest rates.
Interest expense, net consisted of the following in 2020 and 2019 (amounts in thousands):
20202019Change
Interest on debt obligations and unused line fees$96,979 $100,477 $(3,498)
Interest on senior notes7,621 — 7,621 
Coupon interest on convertible debt17,064 20,700 (3,636)
Amortization of convertible debt discount10,811 12,398 (1,587)
Amortization of loan fees and other loan costs10,252 10,589 (337)
Interest income(1,015)(2,246)1,231 
Interest expense, net$141,712 $141,918 $(206)
24


Net Foreign Currency Transaction Gains/(Losses)
Net foreign currency transaction gains were $2.0 million in 2020 compared to $12.0 million in 2019. The decrease was primarily related to lower foreign currency gains in Europe and U.S. dollar linked investments held in Brazil. In any given period, we may incur foreign currency transaction losses or gains from transactions in currencies other than the functional currency.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense was $41.2 million in 2020, an increase of $21.5 million, or 109.1%, compared to $19.7 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to higher income before income taxes which increased $91.5 million, or 77.9% and some discrete items. The increase was partially offset by changes in foreign tax rates, return to provision adjustments and the mix of earnings among jurisdictions. In 2020 our effective tax rate was 19.7% compared to 16.8% in 2019.
Year Ended December 31, 2019 compared to year ended December 31, 2018
Refer to "Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our 2019 Form 10-K for a discussion of our fiscal 2019 results compared to fiscal 2018.
25


Supplemental Performance Data
Finance Receivables Portfolio Performance
We purchase nonperforming loans from a variety of credit originators and segregate them into two main portfolio segments: Core or Insolvency, based on the status of the account upon acquisition. In addition, the accounts are further segregated into geographical regions based upon where the account was purchased. The accounts represented in the Insolvency tables below are those portfolios of accounts that were in an insolvency status at the time of purchase. This contrasts with accounts in our Core portfolios that file for bankruptcy/insolvency protection after we purchase them, which continue to be tracked in their corresponding Core portfolio. Core customers sometimes file for bankruptcy/insolvency protection subsequent to our purchase of the related Core portfolio. When this occurs, we adjust our collection practices to comply with bankruptcy/insolvency rules and procedures; however, for accounting purposes, these accounts remain in the original Core pool. Insolvency accounts may be dismissed voluntarily or involuntarily subsequent to our purchase of the Insolvency portfolio. Dismissal occurs when the terms of the bankruptcy are not met by the petitioner. When this occurs, we are typically free to pursue collection outside of bankruptcy procedures; however, for accounting purposes, these accounts remain in the original Insolvency pool.
Purchase price multiples can vary over time due to a variety of factors, including pricing competition, supply levels, age of the receivables acquired and changes in our operational efficiency. Purchase price multiples can also vary among types of finance receivables. For example, we generally incur lower collection costs on our Insolvency portfolio compared with our Core portfolio. This allows us, in general, to pay more for an Insolvency portfolio and experience lower purchase price multiples, while generating similar net income margins when compared with a Core portfolio.
When competition increases and/or supply decreases, pricing often becomes negatively impacted relative to expected collections, and the effective interest rates tend to trend lower. The opposite tends to occur when competition decreases and/or supply increases.
Within a given portfolio type, to the extent that lower purchase price multiples are the result of more competitive pricing and lower net yields, this will generally lead to lower profitability. As portfolio pricing becomes more favorable on a relative basis, our profitability will tend to increase. Profitability within given Core portfolio types may also be impacted by the age and quality of the receivables, which impact the cost to collect those accounts. Fresher accounts, for example, typically carry lower associated collection expenses, while older accounts and lower balance accounts typically carry higher costs and, as a result, require higher purchase price multiples to achieve the same net profitability as fresher paper.
Revenue recognition under ASC 310-10 and ASC 326 is driven by estimates of the amount and timing of collections. We record new portfolio acquisitions at the purchase price which reflects the amount we expect to collect discounted at an effective interest rate. As portfolios are purchased during the year, the annual pool is aggregated and the blended effective interest rate will change to reflect new purchasing and new cash flow estimates until the end of the year. At that time, the effective interest rate is fixed at the amount we expect to collect discounted at the rate to equate purchase price to the recovery estimate. During the first year of purchase, we typically do not reforecast the portfolios' initial recovery estimate. Subsequent to the initial year, as we gain collection experience and confidence with a pool of accounts, we regularly update ERC. As a result, our estimate of total collections has often increased as pools have aged. These processes have tended to cause the ratio of ERC to purchase price for any given year of purchasing to gradually increase over time. Thus, all factors being equal in terms of pricing, one would typically tend to see a higher collection to purchase price ratio from a pool of accounts that was six years from acquisition than a pool that was just two years from acquisition.
The numbers presented in the following tables represent gross cash collections and do not reflect any costs to collect; therefore, they may not represent relative profitability. Due to all the factors described above, readers should be cautious when making comparisons of purchase price multiples among periods and between types of receivables.
26


Purchase Price Multiples
as of December 31, 2020
Amounts in thousands
Purchase Period
Purchase Price (1)(2)
Total Estimated Collections (3)
Estimated Remaining Collections (4)
Current Estimated Purchase Price Multiple
Original Estimated Purchase Price Multiple (5)
Americas Core
1996-2010$1,078,219 $3,398,610 $28,969 315%240%
2011209,602 720,510 19,048 344%245%
2012254,076 653,102 21,655 257%226%
2013390,826 896,381 36,759 229%211%
2014404,117 866,597 58,983 214%204%
2015443,114 927,497 132,263 209%205%
2016455,767 1,092,218 230,039 240%201%
2017532,851 1,210,475 367,123 227%193%
2018653,975 1,362,777 521,466 208%202%
2019581,476 1,240,122 717,793 213%206%
2020435,668 929,706 796,502 213%213%
Subtotal5,439,691 13,297,995 2,930,600 
Americas Insolvency
1996-2010606,395 1,382,682 1,105 228%180%
2011180,432 370,180 567 205%155%
2012251,395 392,605 256 156%136%
2013227,834 354,923 832 156%133%
2014148,420 218,485 2,045 147%124%
201563,170 87,254 1,489 138%125%
201691,442 116,918 9,209 128%123%
2017275,257 348,732 62,593 127%125%
201897,879 130,683 66,033 134%127%
2019123,077 160,804 116,037 131%128%
202062,130 84,622 78,098 136%136%
Subtotal2,127,431 3,647,888 338,264 
Total Americas7,567,122 16,945,883 3,268,864 
Europe Core
201220,409 41,210 — 202%187%
201320,334 25,448 — 125%119%
2014773,811 2,229,255 630,934 288%208%
2015411,340 734,276 274,714 179%160%
2016333,090 556,493 295,560 167%167%
2017252,174 353,557 194,165 140%144%
2018341,775 524,117 361,355 153%148%
2019518,610 778,422 630,040 150%152%
2020324,119 557,289 523,089 172%172%
Subtotal2,995,662 5,800,067 2,909,857 
Europe Insolvency
201410,876 18,223 213 168%129%
201518,973 29,023 2,512 153%139%
201639,338 56,801 10,424 144%130%
201739,235 49,142 20,019 125%128%
201844,908 52,955 36,032 118%123%
201977,218 101,891 77,854 132%130%
2020105,440 135,890 129,591 129%129%
Subtotal335,988 443,925 276,645 
Total Europe3,331,650 6,243,992 3,186,502 
Total PRA Group$10,898,772 $23,189,875 $6,455,366 
(1)Includes the acquisition date finance receivables portfolios that were acquired through our business acquisitions.
(2)For our non-US amounts, purchase price is presented at the exchange rate at the end of the year in which the portfolio was purchased. In addition, any purchase price adjustments that occur throughout the life of the portfolio are presented at the year-end exchange rate for the respective year of purchase.
(3)For our non-US amounts, TEC is presented at the year-end exchange rate for the respective year of purchase.
(4)For our non-U.S. amounts, ERC is presented at the December 31, 2020 exchange rate.
(5)The Original Estimated Purchase Price Multiple represents the purchase price multiple at the end of the year of acquisition.

27


Portfolio Financial Information
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Amounts in thousands
Purchase Period
Cash
Collections (1)
Portfolio Income (1)
Changes in Expected Recoveries (1)
Total Portfolio Revenue (1)(2)
Net Finance Receivables as of December 31, 2020 (3)
Americas Core
1996-2010$18,838 $15,419 $(3,156)$12,263 $6,140 
201110,855 10,016 (3,722)6,294 3,142 
201211,805 10,055 (7,485)2,570 6,761 
201323,161 16,709 (10,833)5,876 16,290 
201431,921 23,563 (21,081)2,482 25,525 
201557,223 34,339 (14,111)20,228 56,170 
2016105,905 59,388 796 60,184 93,024 
2017192,524 91,632 25,085 116,717 165,492 
2018337,697 135,689 32,123 167,812 286,204 
2019349,021 175,258 36,325 211,583 380,756 
2020132,945 78,573 18,114 96,687 398,271 
Subtotal1,271,895 650,641 52,055 702,696 1,437,775 
Americas Insolvency
1996-2010844 992 (128)864 — 
2011483 406 79 485 — 
2012925 697 509 1,206 — 
20131,311 1,310 11 1,321 — 
20142,229 2,500 (734)1,766 224 
20157,909 4,036 (1,002)3,034 898 
201614,362 3,402 970 4,372 7,423 
201758,826 15,607 (428)15,179 51,771 
201830,513 8,762 2,960 11,722 55,653 
201931,360 11,293 3,480 14,773 97,250 
20206,525 4,064 (869)3,195 57,929 
Subtotal155,287 53,069 4,848 57,917 271,148 
Total Americas1,427,182 703,710 56,903 760,613 1,708,923 
Europe Core
20121,218 687 531 1,218 — 
2013685 333 353 686 — 
2014149,782 106,875 11,173 118,048 168,604 
201554,252 30,917 (575)30,342 144,112 
201648,333 26,722 (2,260)24,462 172,697 
201736,084 13,521 (5,500)8,021 135,149 
201871,253 26,261 3,519 29,780 235,099 
2019125,712 43,091 (2,837)40,254 416,812 
202032,339 12,507 6,199 18,706 309,229 
Subtotal519,658 260,914 10,603 271,517 1,581,702 
Europe Insolvency
2014802 511 69 580 90 
20152,871 1,367 49 1,416 1,627 
20167,950 3,047 (204)2,843 7,583 
20179,819 1,960 568 2,528 17,602 
201810,315 2,935 (2,229)706 31,143 
201921,082 6,637 1,933 8,570 63,230 
20206,046 2,955 1,605 4,560 102,888 
Subtotal58,885 19,412 1,791 21,203 224,163 
Total Europe578,543 280,326 12,394 292,720 1,805,865 
Total PRA Group$2,005,725 $984,036 $69,297 $1,053,333 $3,514,788 
(1)For our non-U.S., amounts are presented using the average exchange rates during the current reporting period.
(2)Total Portfolio Revenue refers to Portfolio Income and Changes in Expected Recoveries combined.
(3)For our non-U.S. amounts, Net Finance Receivables are presented at the December 31, 2020 exchange rate.


28


Cash Collections by Year, By Year of Purchase (1)
as of December 31, 2020
Amounts in millions
Cash Collections
Purchase Period (2)
Purchase Price (2)(3)
1996-20102011201220132014201520162017201820192020Total
Americas Core
1996-2010$1,078.2 $1,990.5 $367.1 $311.5 $228.4 $157.7 $109.3 $70.2 $46.0 $34.4 $28.4 $18.8 $3,362.3 
2011209.6 — 62.0 174.5 152.9 108.5 73.8 48.7 32.0 21.6 16.6 10.9 701.5 
2012254.1 — — 56.9 173.6 146.2 97.3 60.0 40.0 27.8 17.9 11.8 631.5 
2013390.8 — — — 101.6 247.8 194.0 120.8 78.9 56.4 36.9 23.2 859.6 
2014404.1 — — — — 92.7 253.4 170.3 114.2 82.2 55.3 31.9 800.0 
2015443.1 — — — — — 117.0 228.4 185.9 126.6 83.6 57.2 798.7 
2016455.8 — — — — — — 138.7 256.5 194.6 140.6 105.9 836.3 
2017532.9 — — — — — — — 107.3 278.7 256.5 192.5 835.0 
2018654.0 — — — — — — — — 122.7 361.9 337.7 822.3 
2019581.5 — — — — — — — — — 143.8 349.0 492.8 
2020435.7 — — — — — — — — — — 133.0 133.0 
Subtotal5,439.8 1,990.5 429.1 542.9 656.5 752.9 844.8 837.1 860.8 945.0 1,141.5 1,271.9 10,273.0 
Americas Insolvency
1996-2010606.4 390.9 261.2 270.4 231.0 158.9 51.2 8.6 4.6 2.5 1.4 0.8 1,381.5 
2011180.4 — 15.2 66.4 82.8 85.8 76.9 36.0 3.7 1.6 0.7 0.5 369.6 
2012251.4 — — 17.4 103.6 94.1 80.1 60.7 29.3 4.3 1.9 0.9 392.3 
2013227.8 — — — 52.5 82.6 81.7 63.4 47.8 21.9 2.9 1.3 354.1 
2014148.4 — — — — 37.0 50.9 44.3 37.4 28.8 15.8 2.2 216.4 
201563.2 — — — — — 3.4 17.9 20.1 19.8 16.7 7.9 85.8 
201691.4 — — — — — — 18.9 30.4 25.0 19.9 14.4 108.6 
2017275.3 — — — — — — — 49.1 97.3 80.9 58.8 286.1 
201897.9 — — — — — — — — 6.7 27.4 30.5 64.6 
2019123.1 — — — — — — — — — 13.3 31.4 44.7 
202062.1 — — — — — — — — — — 6.6 6.6 
Subtotal2,127.4 390.9 276.4 354.2 469.9 458.4 344.2 249.8 222.4 207.9 180.9 155.3 3,310.3 
Total Americas7,567.2 2,381.4 705.5 897.1 1,126.4 1,211.3 1,189.0 1,086.9 1,083.2 1,152.9 1,322.4 1,427.2 13,583.3 
Europe Core
201220.4 — — 11.6 9.0 5.6 3.2 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.2 38.3 
201320.3 — — — 7.1 8.5 2.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 0.9 0.7 23.3 
2014773.8 — — — — 153.2 292.0 246.4 220.8 206.3 172.9 149.8 1,441.4 
2015411.3 — — — — — 45.8 100.3 86.2 80.9 66.1 54.3 433.6 
2016333.1 — — — — — — 40.4 78.9 72.6 58.0 48.3 298.2 
2017252.2 — — — — — — — 17.9 56.0 44.1 36.1 154.1 
2018341.8 — — — — — — — — 24.3 88.7 71.2 184.2 
2019518.6 — — — — — — — — — 47.9 125.7 173.6 
2020324.1 — — — — — — — — — — 32.4 32.4 
Subtotal2,995.6 — — 11.6 16.1 167.3 343.3 390.6 407.0 443.4 480.1 519.7 2,779.1 
Europe Insolvency
201410.9 — — — — — 4.3 3.9 3.2 2.6 1.5 0.8 16.3 
201519.0 — — — — — 3.0 4.4 5.0 4.8 3.9 2.9 24.0 
201639.3 — — — — — — 6.2 12.7 12.9 10.7 7.9 50.4 
201739.2 — — — — — — — 1.2 7.9 9.2 9.8 28.1 
201844.9 — — — — — — — — 0.6 8.4 10.3 19.3 
201977.2 — — — — — — — — — 5.1 21.1 26.2 
2020105.4 — — — — — — — — — — 6.1 6.1 
Subtotal335.9 — — — — — 7.3 14.5 22.1 28.8 38.8 58.9 170.4 
Total Europe3,331.5 — — 11.6 16.1 167.3 350.6 405.1 429.1 472.2 518.9 578.6 2,949.5 
Total PRA Group$10,898.7 $2,381.4 $705.5 $908.7 $1,142.5 $1,378.6 $1,539.6 $1,492.0 $1,512.3 $1,625.1 $1,841.3 $2,005.8 $16,532.8 
(1) For our non-U.S. amounts, cash collections are presented using the average exchange rates during the cash collection period.
(2) Includes the finance receivables portfolios that were acquired through our business acquisitions.
(3) For our non-U.S. amounts, Purchase Price is presented at the exchange rate at the end of the year in which the portfolio was purchased. In addition, any purchase price adjustments that occur throughout the life of the pool are presented at the year-end exchange rate for the respective year of purchase.
29


Estimated Remaining Collections
The following chart shows our ERC of $6,455.4 million at December 31, 2020 by geographical region (amounts in millions).
praa-20201231_g2.jpg
The following chart shows our ERC by year as of December 31, 2020. The annual forecast amounts reflect our current estimate of how much we expect to collect on our portfolios. These estimates are translated to U.S. dollar at the December 31, 2020 exchange rate (amounts in millions).
praa-20201231_g3.jpg
Seasonality
Although the year ended December 31, 2020 deviated from usual seasonal patterns due to the impact of COVID-19, typically cash collections in the Americas tend to be higher in the first half of the year due to the high volume of income tax refunds received by individuals in the U.S., and trend lower as the year progresses. Customer payment patterns in all of the countries in which we operate can be affected by seasonal employment trends, income tax refunds, and holiday spending habits.
30


Cash Collections
The following table displays our quarterly cash collections by geography and portfolio type, for the periods indicated (amounts in thousands).
Cash Collections by Geography and Type
20202019
Q4Q3Q2Q1Q4Q3Q2Q1
Americas Core$286,524 $336,322 $343,269 $305,780 $276,639 $279,902 $294,243 $290,723 
Americas Insolvency36,048 37,344 38,685 43,210 40,801 45,759 49,770 44,613 
Europe Core141,471 131,702 115,145 131,340 126,649 118,917 117,635 116,858 
Europe Insolvency17,830 13,971 12,841 14,243 12,520 8,639 8,626 8,977 
Total Cash Collections$481,873 $519,339 $509,940 $494,573 $456,609 $453,217 $470,274 $461,171 
The following table provides additional details on the composition of our Core cash collections for the periods indicated (amounts in thousands).
Cash Collections by Source - Core Portfolios Only
20202019
Q4Q3Q2Q1Q4Q3Q2Q1
Call Center and Other Collections$296,865 $325,898 $319,236 $288,596 $262,570 $254,798 $264,478 $274,221 
External Legal Collections58,481