false2020FY0000891166us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201601Memberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member27.5P5YP1YP1YP1Y000008911662020-01-012020-12-31iso4217:USD00008911662020-06-30xbrli:shares00008911662021-02-2200008911662020-12-3100008911662019-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares00008911662019-01-012019-12-3100008911662018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2017-12-3100008911662017-12-3100008911662017-01-012017-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2017-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2017-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2017-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-12-3100008911662018-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2019-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-31uve:state0000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-01-010000891166srt:MinimumMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166uve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMemberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMemberus-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166uve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMemberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMemberus-gaap:FixedMaturitiesMember2019-12-310000891166uve:AAAComparableRatingMember2020-12-31xbrli:pure0000891166uve:AAAComparableRatingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:AAComparableRatingMember2020-12-310000891166uve:AAComparableRatingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:AComparableRatingMember2020-12-310000891166uve:AComparableRatingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:BBBComparableRatingMember2020-12-310000891166uve:BBBComparableRatingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:BBAndBelowComparableRatingMember2020-12-310000891166uve:BBAndBelowComparableRatingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:NotRatedMember2020-12-310000891166uve:NotRatedMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AgencySecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AgencySecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166uve:NonAgencyMemberus-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166uve:NonAgencyMemberus-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesSecuritizedLoansAndReceivablesMemberus-gaap:CollateralizedAutoLoansMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesSecuritizedLoansAndReceivablesMemberus-gaap:CollateralizedAutoLoansMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesSecuritizedLoansAndReceivablesMemberus-gaap:CollateralizedCreditCardSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesSecuritizedLoansAndReceivablesMemberus-gaap:CollateralizedCreditCardSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesSecuritizedLoansAndReceivablesMemberus-gaap:CollateralizedSecuritiesOtherMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AssetBackedSecuritiesSecuritizedLoansAndReceivablesMemberus-gaap:CollateralizedSecuritiesOtherMember2019-12-310000891166uve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166uve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2019-12-31uve:security0000891166us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2019-12-310000891166srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2020-12-3100008911662020-07-012020-09-300000891166us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:OtherThanSecuritiesInvestmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:OtherThanSecuritiesInvestmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:OtherThanSecuritiesInvestmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166uve:IncomeProducingMember2020-12-310000891166uve:IncomeProducingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:NonIncomeProducingMember2020-12-310000891166uve:NonIncomeProducingMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RealEstateInvestmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RealEstateInvestmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RealEstateInvestmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:StockholdersEquityTotalMemberuve:AmountsDueFromReinsurersMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:FloridaHurricaneCatastropheFundMember2020-12-310000891166uve:FloridaHurricaneCatastropheFundMember2019-12-310000891166srt:StandardPoorsAARatingMemberuve:AllianzRiskTransferBermudaLtdMembersrt:AMBestAPlusRatingMembersrt:MoodysAa3RatingMember2020-12-310000891166srt:StandardPoorsAARatingMemberuve:AllianzRiskTransferBermudaLtdMembersrt:AMBestAPlusRatingMembersrt:MoodysAa3RatingMember2019-12-310000891166srt:StandardPoorsAARatingMemberuve:AllianzRiskTransferMembersrt:AMBestAPlusRatingMembersrt:MoodysAa3RatingMember2020-12-310000891166srt:StandardPoorsAARatingMemberuve:AllianzRiskTransferMembersrt:AMBestAPlusRatingMembersrt:MoodysAa3RatingMember2019-12-310000891166srt:StandardPoorsAPlusRatingMembersrt:MoodysA1RatingMemberuve:RenaissanceReinsuranceLtdMembersrt:AMBestAPlusRatingMember2020-12-310000891166srt:StandardPoorsAPlusRatingMembersrt:MoodysA1RatingMemberuve:RenaissanceReinsuranceLtdMembersrt:AMBestAPlusRatingMember2019-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166uve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyAndUniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MinimumMemberuve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyAndUniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2019-12-310000891166uve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-12-310000891166uve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2019-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMemberus-gaap:SubsequentEventMember2021-02-012021-02-260000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-02-012020-02-290000891166uve:RestrictedCashAndCashEquivalentsMember2020-12-310000891166uve:RestrictedCashAndCashEquivalentsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:InvestmentsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:InvestmentsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:LandMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:LandMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:BuildingMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:BuildingMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2019-12-310000891166uve:AutomobilesAndOtherVehiclesMember2020-12-310000891166uve:AutomobilesAndOtherVehiclesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2019-12-310000891166uve:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentBeforeConstructionInProgressMember2020-12-310000891166uve:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentBeforeConstructionInProgressMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:ConstructionInProgressMember2019-12-310000891166uve:SurplusNoteMember2006-11-090000891166uve:SurplusNoteMember2006-12-310000891166uve:SurplusNoteMember2020-12-310000891166uve:SurplusNoteMember2019-12-310000891166uve:SurplusNoteMember2018-12-310000891166uve:SurplusNoteMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:HurricaneMemberuve:SurplusNoteMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2020-01-012020-03-310000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2020-07-012020-09-300000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2020-04-012020-06-300000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2020-10-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:SeriesAPreferredStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMemberuve:DecemberTwoThousandTwentyShareRepurchaseProgramMember2020-11-030000891166uve:DecemberTwoThousandTwentyShareRepurchaseProgramMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:DecemberTwoThousandTwentyShareRepurchaseProgramMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMemberuve:NovemberTwoThousandNineteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2019-11-060000891166uve:NovemberTwoThousandNineteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:NovemberTwoThousandNineteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166uve:MayTwoThousandNineteenShareRepurchaseProgramMembersrt:MaximumMember2019-05-060000891166uve:MayTwoThousandNineteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:MayTwoThousandNineteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMemberuve:DecemberTwoThousandEighteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2018-12-120000891166uve:DecemberTwoThousandEighteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:DecemberTwoThousandEighteenShareRepurchaseProgramMember2019-01-012019-12-3100008911662020-01-012020-03-3100008911662019-01-012019-03-3100008911662018-01-012018-03-3100008911662020-04-012020-06-3000008911662019-04-012019-06-3000008911662018-04-012018-06-3000008911662019-07-012019-09-3000008911662018-07-012018-09-3000008911662020-10-012020-12-3100008911662019-10-012019-12-3100008911662018-10-012018-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166uve:AmericanPlatinumPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-12-310000891166srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:NewAccountingPronouncementMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:NewAccountingPronouncementMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AccumulatedNetUnrealizedInvestmentGainLossMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166uve:PeriodFromJuneOneTwoThousandTwentyToMayThirtyOneTwoThousandTwentyOneMember2020-12-310000891166uve:PeriodFromJuneOneTwoThousandTwentyToMayThirtyOneTwoThousandTwentyTwoMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MutualFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MutualFundsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberuve:MutualFundsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MutualFundsMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MortgageBackedAndAssetBackedSecuritiesMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:RedeemablePreferredStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MutualFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MutualFundsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberuve:MutualFundsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberuve:MutualFundsMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberuve:SurplusNoteMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberuve:SurplusNoteMember2019-12-310000891166uve:SubrogationMember2020-12-310000891166uve:SubrogationMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortdurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2016Member2016-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortdurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2016Member2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortdurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2016Member2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortdurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2016Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortdurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2016Member2020-12-31uve:Claim0000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2017Member2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2017Member2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2017Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2017Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2018Member2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2018Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractsAccidentYear2018Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractAccidentYear2019Member2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractAccidentYear2019Member2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:ShortDurationInsuranceContractAccidentYear2020Member2020-12-310000891166uve:HurricaneSallyMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:OtherWeatherEventsMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:HurricanesAndAccidentsExcludingHurricanesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166uve:AccidentsExcludingHurricanesMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:HurricaneMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2020-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2020-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2019-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2018-01-012018-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2018-12-310000891166srt:ParentCompanyMember2017-12-310000891166uve:UniversalPropertyAndCasualtyInsuranceCompanyMember2020-12-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2020-01-012020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2020-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2018-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2019-01-012019-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2017-12-310000891166us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2018-01-012018-12-31

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 001-33251 
uve-20201231_g1.jpg
UNIVERSAL INSURANCE HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware65-0231984
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1110 W. Commercial Blvd., Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (954958-1200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered 
Common Stock, $0.01 Par ValueUVENew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).      Yes    ☒  No
Aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2020, the last trading day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $505,691,628
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of Common Stock of Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc. as of February 22, 2021: 31,205,653.




DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference to the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2021, which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Annual Report on Form 10-K relates.




UNIVERSAL INSURANCE HOLDINGS, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Page No.
    
Item 1.  
Item 1A.  
Item 1B.  
Item 2.  
Item 3.  
Item 4.  
    
     
Item 5.  
Item 6.  
Item 7.  
Item 7A.  
Item 8.  
Item 9.  
Item 9A.  
Item 9B.  
    
     
Item 10.  
Item 11.  
Item 12.  
Item 13.  
Item 14.  
    
     
Item 15.  
Item 16.  
 
 

3



CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In addition to historical information, this report may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The forward-looking statements anticipate results based on our estimates, assumptions and plans that are subject to uncertainty. These forward-looking statements may be identified by their use of words like “plans,” “seeks,” “expects,” “will,” “should,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “believes,” “likely,” “targets” and other words with similar meanings. These statements may address, among other things, our strategy for growth, catastrophe exposure and other risk management, product development, investment results, regulatory approvals, market position, expenses, financial results, litigation and reserves. We believe that these statements are based on reasonable estimates, assumptions and plans. However, if the estimates, assumptions or plans underlying the forward-looking statements prove inaccurate or if other risks or uncertainties arise, actual results could differ materially from those communicated in these forward-looking statements. A detailed discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included in the section titled “Risk Factors” (Part I, Item 1A of this report). We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

4


PART I
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Overview
Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc. (“UVE,” and together with its wholly-owned subsidiaries, “we,” “our,” “us,” or the “Company”) is a holding company offering property and casualty insurance and value-added insurance services. We develop, market and underwrite insurance products for consumers predominantly in the personal residential homeowners lines of business and perform substantially all other insurance-related services for our primary insurance entities, including risk management, claims management, and distribution. Our primary insurance entities, Universal Property & Casualty Insurance Company (“UPCIC”) and American Platinum Property and Casualty Insurance Company (“APPCIC” and together with UPCIC, the “Insurance Entities”), offer insurance products through both our appointed independent agent network and our online distribution channels across 19 states (primarily in Florida), with licenses to write insurance in two additional states. The Insurance Entities seek to produce an underwriting profit (defined as earned premium minus losses, loss adjustment expense (“LAE”), policy acquisition costs and other operating costs) over the long term; maintain a conservative balance sheet to prepare for years in which the Insurance Entities are not able to achieve an underwriting profit; and generate investment income on assets.
Trends - Impact of COVID-19
The global COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound worldwide effect on social interactions and on the global, national and local economies. We took early measures in March 2020, in advance of governmental mandates, to help reduce the internal spread of COVID-19 by directing substantially all employees to work from home. In addition to this measure to secure the health and wellness of our employees, we worked to facilitate our personnel being able to continue safely providing services to the Company’s policyholders and independent agents, fulfilling our financial and reporting obligations, including responding to regulatory requirements and guidelines, and generally maintaining business continuity. As a provider of residential homeowners’ insurance offered in hurricane-prone areas and being headquartered in Florida, we had previously developed contingency plans to address catastrophic events and were prepared to maintain operations as COVID-19 unfolded. As a result of our disaster preparedness, most employees were immediately prepared to work from home while the Company addressed emerging workflow issues to enable employees to remain effective in fulfilling their roles. Since the first week of engaging our work from home strategy, nearly all aspects of our business have been, and continue to be, conducted remotely while striving to maintain the quality of our service standards.
Subsequent to March 2020, we have not seen a material impact from COVID-19 on our business, our financial position, our liquidity, or our ability to service our policyholders and maintain critical operations. As a provider of services that have been deemed essential under most directives and guidelines, we are confident in our ability to maintain consistent operations and believe we can continue to manage with our remote workforce as a result of our disaster preparedness planning, with little impact on our business and service levels and our standards of care for both underwriting and claims. We continue to monitor local, state and federal guidance and will adjust workforce activities as appropriate. Although we have not experienced a material impact from COVID-19, the ultimate impact of the pandemic on our business and on the economy in general cannot be predicted.
Our level of direct premiums written during the year ended December 31, 2020 was strong and outperformed the same period in the prior year. We are cautiously optimistic in our belief that our customers and agent force will continue to renew and place business with us, especially our customers in hurricane-exposed states. In the event there is a slow-down in the production and/or collection of premiums, we intend to take measures to maintain liquidity while continuing to protect our capital and policyholders. See “Part II—Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Business Strategy
UVE’s strategic focus is on creating a best-in-class experience for our customers. We have more than 20 years of experience providing protection solutions. In 2020 we continued our focus on disciplined underwriting, maintained a resilient balance sheet backed by our reinsurance programs, enhanced our reserves, expanded our geographic footprint, and implemented our catastrophe rapid response teams during the COVID-19 pandemic, which accelerated our use of digital technology for adjusting claims. We have made substantial efforts in recent years to improve and enhance our claims operation, including reductions in our claim resolution times, utilization of digital applications where applicable to adjust claims, and an intensified effort to collect subrogation for the benefit of the Insurance Entities and their policyholders. Our differentiated capabilities support the Insurance Entities across all aspects of the insurance value chain to provide our customers with a streamlined experience, and we continue to evaluate ways in which we can improve the customer experience.
5


Products and Services
Insurance Products
UPCIC (which accounts for the majority of our Insurance Entities’ business) currently offers the following types of personal residential insurance: homeowners, renters/tenants, condo unit owners, and dwelling/fire. UPCIC also offers allied lines, coverage for other structures, and personal property, liability and personal articles coverages. APPCIC currently writes similar lines of insurance as UPCIC, but for properties valued in excess of $1 million. In addition, APPCIC writes commercial residential multi-peril insurance.
Our Insurance Entities, UPCIC and APPCIC, are both currently rated “A” (“Exceptional”) by Demotech, Inc. (“Demotech”), which is a rating agency specializing in evaluating the financial stability of insurers. In addition, our combined statutory capital surplus was approximately $373.6 million at December 31, 2020.
Risk Management
Our subsidiary, Evolution Risk Advisors, Inc. (“ERA”, formerly Universal Risk Advisors, Inc.), is the managing general agent for the Insurance Entities. In this capacity, ERA advises on actuarial issues, oversees distribution, administers claims payments, performs policy administration and underwriting, and assists with reinsurance negotiations. ERA’s underwriting service evaluates insurance risk and exposures on an individual and portfolio basis and assists the Insurance Entities with pricing risks. All underwriting is performed utilizing our state-approved rate and rule manuals as the basis of our rate-making and risk assessment. ERA collects fees from the Insurance Entities for the services it provides, as well as certain policy fees from insureds. Our subsidiary, Universal Inspection Corporation d/b/a Wicklow Inspection Corporation, complements ERA and our Insurance Entities by conducting inspections as part of our underwriting process.
The Insurance Entities rely heavily on reinsurance to limit potential exposure to catastrophic events. In most years, our single largest cost is the expense for our reinsurance coverage. In conjunction with ERA, our fully-licensed reinsurance intermediary, Blue Atlantic Reinsurance Corporation (“BARC”), partners with a third-party reinsurance broker to place and manage our reinsurance programs for the Insurance Entities. BARC receives commission revenue, net of third-party co-broker fees, from reinsurers in connection with these services.
Claims Management
Our subsidiary, Universal Adjusting Corporation d/b/a Alder Adjusting (“Alder”), manages our claims processing and adjustment functions from claim inception to conclusion, which we believe allows us to increase efficiency and provide a high level of customer service. Alder’s Fast Track initiative (“Fast Track”) has expedited the claims settlement process to close certain types of claims in as little as 24 hours through analysis and on-site field adjusting. The company has increased its use of technology to inspect properties and adjust claims and has adopted certain new precautionary protocols for those inspections still performed in the field. In addition to our in-house claims operation, we assign a certain percentage of field inspections to third-party adjusters. Our relationships with these adjusters enable us to continue to provide high quality and timely service following a catastrophe, such as a hurricane in coastal states, and during any other period of unusually high claim volume. Through our continuous improvement and operational excellence initiatives, we continue to evaluate ways in which we can improve the customer’s claims experience on a rolling basis. Alder’s data intelligence allows the Insurance Entities, ERA and our reinsurance partners to identify trends and refine the underwriting process and guidelines to adequately price risk and identify needed adjustments. Our claims management operations provide cost-effective solutions in servicing claims for the Insurance Entities and generates additional fee income from adjusting claims ceded to reinsurers.
We have substantially grown our in-house claims litigation team to more effectively and efficiently protect our rights in litigation, including through subrogation. Reflecting our substantial efforts in recent years to improve and enhance our claims operations and to address emerging claim trends, approximately 57% of our employees work in our claims management operations, an increase of 19% since February 5, 2020. Of these employees, 38% comprise our in-house claims litigation team. Subrogation is the act of seeking reimbursement from a third party that caused an insurance loss to the insured for the amount we paid on the insured’s behalf.
Distribution
We market and sell our products primarily through our network of over 10,200 licensed independent agents (4,400 in Florida). In addition to our independent agent force, we offer policies through our direct-to-consumer online distribution platforms. Our strong relationships with our independent agents and their relationships with their customers are critical to our ability to identify, attract and retain profitable business. We actively participate in the recruitment and training of our independent agents and provide each agency with training sessions on topics such as underwriting guidelines and submitting claims. We also engage a third-party market representative to assist in ongoing training and recruitment initiatives in all of the states in which we write business.
6


We utilize an attractive commission-based compensation plan as an incentive for independent agents to place business with us. We also strive to provide excellent service to our independent agents and brokers, which has yielded long-standing partnerships with our independent agents (a number of which have relationships that span more than a decade) that benefit the Company in our target markets through hard and soft market cycles. Our internal staff and specialists support our independent agents by providing access to our in-house technology systems to assist with the delivery of service to our policyholders. This arrangement creates a collaborative environment between the Company and our independent agents on continuous improvement initiatives and allows our independent agents to provide quotes within minutes. Our technology systems have evolved into a highly valued tool that enables agents to quickly understand the status of a policy and assist their clients with policy-related questions.
In addition to distributing our products through our independent agent network, we also utilize our differentiated direct-to-consumer online distribution platforms. Universal DirectSM was launched in 2016 to enable homeowners to directly purchase, pay for and bind homeowners policies online without the need to directly interface with any intermediaries. Universal DirectSM was offered in all 19 states in which we do business as of December 31, 2020.
In 2019, we introduced a multi-rater quote-to-bind platform, CloveredSM, where consumers can receive side-by-side quotes from multiple carriers across multiple states, in addition to educational materials about homeowners insurance policies.
Real Estate
The Grand Palm Development Group (“Grand Palm”) is UVE’s real estate development entity, which we have created to help diversify UVE’s investment portfolio. Grand Palm develops and either operates or sells residential properties. Grand Palm also evaluates undeveloped parcels of land for investment opportunities on an ongoing basis.
Investments
Funds in excess of operating needs from the Insurance Entities and UVE are invested through third-party investment advisers. The Investment Committee of our Board of Directors (the “Board of Directors” or the “Board”) oversees these advisers and reports overall investment results to our Board, at least on a quarterly basis. The investment activities of the Insurance Entities are subject to regulation and supervision by the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation (“FLOIR”). See below under “—Government Regulation.” The Insurance Entities may only make investments that are consistent with regulatory guidelines, and our investment policies for the Insurance Entities accordingly limit the amount of investments in, among other things, non-investment grade fixed maturity securities (including high-yield bonds), preferred stock and common stock, and prohibit purchasing securities on margin. The primary objectives of our investment portfolio are the preservation of capital and providing adequate liquidity for claims payments and other cash needs. The portfolio’s secondary investment objective is to generate a stable risk-commensurate return with an emphasis on investment income while at the same time maintaining the high-quality standards of the portfolio. Our investment guidelines for fixed-income investments require an average duration of 5 years or less and a portfolio average credit rating of A-. In addition, our investment guidelines, including single-issue and aggregate limitations, promote diversification to limit exposure to single-sector risks. While the Insurance Entities seek to promote diversification of investments in their portfolio, UVE is not similarly restricted by statutory investment guidelines governing insurance companies. Therefore, the investments made by UVE may differ from those made by the Insurance Entities.
See “Part II—Item 8—Note 3 (Investments)” and “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Investments” for more information about our investments.
Markets and Competition
Markets
We sell insurance products in the following 19 states: Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia. We have additional licenses to write in Tennessee and Wisconsin. During 2020, our total direct premiums written was 82.4% in Florida and 17.6% in other states. The Florida market as a whole tends to consistently be a top-three personal residential homeowners insurance market in the United States based on direct premium written, due in large part to higher average pricing levels that seek to address the hurricane risk exposure in the state (from June 1 through November 30) and other market conditions.
Hurricanes or other catastrophic events can significantly impact earnings for insurance carriers in Florida and other coastal states, depending on the strength of their reinsurance programs and partners and the level of net retention to which the carriers subscribe. For example, volatility and market dislocation were evident in Florida following Hurricane Andrew in 1992, the 2004 and 2005 hurricane seasons (during which eight hurricanes made landfall in coastal states), as well as following the 2017, 2018 and 2019 hurricane seasons. Given the potential for significant personal property damage, the availability of homeowners insurance and claims servicing are vitally important to coastal states’ residents. The benefits of UVE’s reinsurance strategy in 2020 and the specific programs are further discussed below and in “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
7


Competition
The market for homeowners insurance is highly competitive. In many of the states in which we write business, we compete with small or regional insurers that might have greater familiarity with the local markets than we do.  We also compete with large national insurers, many of which have substantial brand awareness, experience and capital resources. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Our future results are dependent in part on our ability to successfully operate in a highly competitive insurance industry.” Within the Florida marketplace, due to the dislocating weather events of the past couple years and other market conditions, such as a proliferation of first-party litigation, competition has waned as a result of some insurers’ reduced desire, or in some cases lack of capital, to continue writing business in accordance with state regulations and rating agency requirements. We expect the lull in competition to be advantageous to companies with sufficient capital, and expect long term competition to normalize as either new capital explores opportunities that might arise or Florida laws, premiums and products adjust to the current market dynamics.
The personal residential homeowners insurance industry is strictly regulated. As a result, it is difficult for insurance companies to differentiate their products, which creates low barriers to entry (other than regulatory capital and other requirements) and results in a highly competitive market based largely on price and the customer experience. The nature, size and experience of our primary competitors varies across the states in which we do business.
Several states, including Florida, have insurance mechanisms that provide insurance to consumers who are not otherwise able to obtain coverage in the private insurance market. The largest such insurance mechanism is Florida’s Citizens Property Insurance Corporation. The degree to which these state-authorized insurance mechanisms compete with private insurers such as the Insurance Entities varies over time depending on market and public policy considerations beyond our control. Currently, UPCIC and other authorized insurers have filed and received approval of rate increases in Florida that in many instances exceed the amount by which Citizens Property Insurance Corporation may increase its rates in any single year. Accordingly, Citizens Property Insurance Corporation has become, and might increasingly be, price-competitive with UPCIC.
Price
Pricing has generally been defined by “hard” and “soft” cyclical markets. Hard markets are those in which policy premiums are increasing (as a result of periods of capital shortages resulting in a lack of insurance availability, relatively low levels of price competition, and more selective underwriting of risks). Soft markets are those in which pricing has stabilized or is decreasing (as a result of periods of greater capital availability, relatively high levels of price competition and less restrictive underwriting standards). Many factors influence the pricing environment, including, but not limited to, catastrophic events, loss experience, GDP growth/contraction, inflation, interest rates, legislation, primary insurance and reinsurance capacity and availability, share-of-wallet competition, the prevalence of litigation (including abuses with assignments of benefits, solicited claims and other first-party litigation), technological advancements in distribution, underwriting, claims management and overall operational efficiencies, and the risk appetite of competitors.
Our successful track record in writing homeowners insurance in catastrophe-exposed areas has enabled us to develop sophisticated risk selection and pricing techniques that strive to identify desirable risks and accurately price the risk of loss while allowing us to be competitive in our target markets. This risk selection and pricing approach allows us to offer competitive products in areas that have a high demand for property insurance.
The premiums we charge are based on rates specific to individual risks and locations and are generally subject to regulatory review and approval before they are implemented. We periodically submit our rate revisions to regulators as required by law or as we deem necessary or appropriate for our business. The premiums we charge to policyholders are affected by legislative enactments and administrative rules, including state-mandated programs in Florida requiring residential property insurance companies like us to provide premium discounts when policyholders verify that insured properties have certain construction features, such as windstorm loss reduction techniques or devices.
Customer Experience
Drivers of the customer experience include reliability and value, financial strength and ease-of-use. We strive to provide excellent reliability and value through the strength of our distribution networks, high-quality service to our policyholders and independent agents, our claims handling ability and product features tailored to our markets.
The current trends in the industry in regard to ease-of-use suggest an increased focus on utilizing technology in the distribution channel, enabling technology and machine learning in the underwriting domain, as well as utilizing actionable intelligence in claims management services. We believe there is significant opportunity to improve the customer experience across all consumer touch points. We are committed to delivering solutions to enable the consumer to prepare, protect and recover from losses as well as to learn about insurance. We believe effective integration and knowledge transfer to the consumer will result in improved customer satisfaction and encourage consumer retention. In addition, UVE’s strong operating teams and streamlined in-house value-added services strive to provide value to consumers through operating efficiencies across the business. Our monthly weighted average renewal retention rate for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 88.8%.
8


Reinsurance
Reinsurance enables UVE’s Insurance Entities to limit potential exposures to catastrophic events. Reinsurance contracts are typically classified as treaty or facultative contracts. Treaty reinsurance provides coverage for all or a portion of a specified group or class of risks ceded by the primary insurer, while facultative reinsurance provides coverage for specific individual risks. Within each classification, reinsurance can be further classified as quota share or excess of loss. Quota-share reinsurance is where the primary insurer and the reinsurer share proportionally or pro-rata in the direct premiums and losses of the insurer. Excess-of-loss reinsurance indemnifies the direct insurer or reinsurer for all or a portion of the loss in excess of an agreed upon amount or retention.
Developing and implementing our reinsurance strategy to adequately protect our balance sheet and Insurance Entities in the event of one or more catastrophes while maintaining efficient reinsurance costs has been a key strategic priority for UVE. For 2020, UVE utilized excess of loss reinsurance. The benefits of the reinsurance strategy in 2020 and the specific programs are further discussed in “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
In order to limit our potential exposure to catastrophic events, we purchase significant reinsurance from third-party reinsurers and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (the “FHCF”). The FLOIR requires us, like all residential property insurance companies doing business in Florida, to have a certain amount of capital and reinsurance coverage in order to cover losses upon the occurrence of a single catastrophic event and a series of catastrophic events occurring in the same hurricane season. Our 2020-2021 reinsurance program meets and provides reinsurance in excess of the FLOIR’s requirements, which are based on, among other things, the probable maximum loss that we would incur from an individual catastrophic event estimated to occur once in every 100 years, based on our portfolio of insured risks and a series of stress test catastrophe loss scenarios based on past historical events. In respect to the single catastrophic event, the nature, severity and location of the event giving rise to such a probable maximum loss differs for each insurer depending on the insurer’s portfolio of insured risks, including, among other things, the geographic concentration of insured value within the insurer’s portfolio. Accordingly, a particular catastrophic event could be a one-in-100 year loss event for one insurance company while having a greater or lesser probability of occurrence for another insurance company.
FHCF is a state-sponsored entity in Florida that provides a layer of reinsurance protection at a price that is typically lower than what would otherwise be available in the third-party reinsurance market. The purpose of the FHCF is to protect and advance the state’s interest in maintaining insurance capacity in Florida by providing reimbursements to insurers for a portion of their Florida hurricane losses. Most property and casualty insurers operating in Florida, including the Insurance Entities, are subject to assessment if the FHCF lacks sufficient claims-paying resources to meet its reimbursement obligations to insurers. FHCF assessments are added to policyholders’ premiums and are collected and remitted by the Insurance Entities. All homeowner insurance companies that write business in Florida, including the Insurance Entities, are required to obtain a form of reinsurance through the FHCF. Currently, the FHCF provides $17 billion of aggregate capacity annually to its participating insurers, which may be adjusted by statute from time to time and which is allocated among participating insurers according to factors such as the participating insurers’ relative hurricane exposures and their respective coverage elections.
We believe our retention under the reinsurance program is appropriate and structured to protect our customers. We test the sufficiency of our reinsurance program by subjecting our personal residential exposures to statistical testing using a third-party hurricane model, RMS RiskLink v18.1 (Build 1945). This model combines simulations of the natural occurrence patterns and characteristics of hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and other catastrophes with information on property values, construction types and occupancy classes. The model outputs provide information concerning the potential for large losses before they occur, so companies can prepare for their financial impact. Furthermore, as part of our operational excellence initiatives, we continually look to enable new technology to refine our data intelligence on catastrophe risk modeling.
Seasonality
The nature of our business tends to be seasonal during the year, reflecting consumer behaviors in connection with the Florida residential real estate market and the hurricane season. We have historically experienced higher direct premiums written just prior to the second quarter of our fiscal year and lower direct premiums written approaching the fourth quarter, as a result of consumer behaviors in the Florida residential real estate market and the hurricane season affecting coastal states. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Our financial condition and operating results are subject to the cyclical nature of the property and casualty insurance business.”
Government Regulation
We are subject to extensive regulation in the markets we serve, primarily at the state level, and will become subject to the regulations of additional states in which we seek to conduct business in the future. These regulations cover all aspects of our business and are generally designed to protect the interests of policyholders, as opposed to the interests of shareholders. Such regulations relate to authorized lines of business, capital and surplus requirements, allowable rates and forms, investment parameters, underwriting limitations, transactions with affiliates, dividend limitations, changes in control, market conduct, maximum amount allowable for premium financing service charges and a variety of other financial and non-financial components of our business. From time to time, states also enact legislation designed to increase consumer protections and curtail fraud or abuses in the insurance market. In 2019, the Florida legislature adopted laws increasing Florida policyholders’ rights when they assign rights of recovery under their policies to third party vendors.  These laws also aim to reduce lawsuits initiated against the policyholders’ insurers by vendors holding these assignments.  Among other things, the new laws require
9


vendors to notify insurers of amounts in dispute, allow insurers to make pre-suit settlement offers or seek resolution through alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, and in certain situations preclude the vendors from recovering attorneys’ fees or require the vendors to pay the insurers’ attorneys’ fees.  On the other hand, policymakers’ decisions to not change existing laws has allowed, and might continue to allow, certain adverse interpretations of law and resulting litigation to continue or worsen. See “Part I—Item 1A-Risk Factors-Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry-We are subject to extensive regulation and potential further restrictive regulation may increase our operating costs and limit our growth and profitability.”
Examinations
As part of their regulatory oversight process, state insurance departments conduct periodic financial examinations of the books, records, accounts and operations of insurance companies that are authorized to transact business in their states. In general, insurance regulatory authorities defer to the insurance regulatory authority in the state in which an insurer is domiciled; however, insurance regulatory authorities in any state in which we operate may conduct examinations at their discretion. Under Florida law, the periodic financial examinations generally occur every five years, although the FLOIR or other states may conduct limited or full scope reviews more frequently. In addition, state insurance regulatory authorities may make inquiries, conduct investigations and administer market conduct examinations with respect to insurers’ compliance with applicable insurance laws and regulations. These inquiries or examinations may address, among other things, the form and content of disclosures to consumers, advertising, sales practices, underwriting and claims practices, cancellation and nonrenewal procedures and complaint handling. The reports arising from insurance authorities’ examination processes typically are available to the public at the conclusion of the examinations.
Insurance Holding Company Laws
UVE, as the ultimate parent company of the Insurance Entities, is subject to certain laws of the State of Florida governing insurance holding company systems. These laws, among other things, (i) require us to file periodic information with the FLOIR, including information concerning our capital structure, ownership, financial condition and general business operations, (ii) regulate certain transactions between us and our affiliates, including the amount of dividends and other distributions, the terms of surplus notes and amounts that our affiliates can charge the Insurance Entities for services such as policy administration and claims administration, and (iii) restrict the ability of any one person to acquire certain levels of our voting securities without prior regulatory approval.
The Florida Insurance Code prohibits any person from acquiring control of the Insurance Entities or their holding companies unless that person has filed a notification with specified information with the FLOIR and has obtained the FLOIR’s prior approval. Under the Florida Insurance Code, acquiring 10% or more of the voting securities of an insurance company or its parent company is presumptively considered an acquisition of control of the insurance company, although such presumption may be rebutted. Some state insurance laws require prior notification to state insurance regulators of an acquisition of control of a non-domiciliary insurance company doing business in that state.
Insurance holding company regulations also govern the amount any affiliate of the holding company may charge the Insurance Entities for services (e.g., claims adjustment, administration, management fees and commissions). Further, insurance holding company regulations may also require prior approval of insurance regulators for amendments to or terminations of certain affiliate agreements.
Florida holding company laws also require certain insurers to submit an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment, or ORSA, summary report to the FLOIR each year, summarizing the insurer’s evaluation of the adequacy of its risk management framework. The Company filed its most recent ORSA summary report in December 2020.
Capital Requirements
State insurance authorities monitor insurance companies’ solvency and capital requirements using various statutory requirements and industry ratios. Initially, states require minimum capital levels based on the lines of business written by a company and set requirements regarding the ongoing amount and composition of capital. Certain state regulators also require state deposits in their respective states. See “Part II—Item 8—Note 5 (Insurance Operations)” for more information about state deposits. As a company grows, additional capital measures and standards may be implemented by a regulator. Regulatory authorities use a risk-based capital (“RBC”) model published by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) to monitor and regulate the capital adequacy and solvency of licensed property and casualty insurance companies. These guidelines measure three major areas of risk facing property and casualty insurers: (i) underwriting risks, which encompass the risk of adverse loss developments and inadequate pricing, (ii) declines in asset values arising from credit risk and (iii) other business risks. Most states, including Florida, have enacted the NAIC guidelines as statutory requirements, and insurers having less surplus than required by applicable statutes and ratios are subject to varying degrees of regulatory action depending on the level of capital inadequacy. As of December 31, 2020, the Insurance Entities’ RBC ratios exceed applicable statutory requirements. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry—The amount of statutory capital and surplus that each of the Insurance Entities has and the amount of statutory capital and surplus it must hold can vary and are sensitive to a number of factors outside of our control, including market conditions and the regulatory environment and rules.”
10


Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions
As a holding company with no significant business operations of its own, we rely on dividend payments from our subsidiaries as our principal source of cash to pay dividends, purchase our common shares, support subsidiary operations and development, and meet our short- and long-term obligations. Dividends paid by our subsidiaries other than the Insurance Entities are not subject to the statutory restrictions set forth in the Florida Insurance Code. Dividends paid by UVE to our shareholders in 2020 were paid from the earnings of UVE and our subsidiaries other than the Insurance Entities.
State insurance laws govern the payment of dividends by insurance companies. The maximum amount of dividends that can be paid by Florida insurance companies such as the Insurance Entities without prior approval of the Commissioner of the FLOIR is subject to restrictions relating to statutory surplus. The maximum dividend that may be paid by the Insurance Entities to their immediate parent company without prior approval is limited to the lesser of statutory net income from operations of the preceding calendar year or statutory unassigned surplus as of the preceding year end.
Underwriting and Marketing Restrictions
During the past several years, various regulatory and legislative bodies in Florida and in other states have adopted or proposed new laws or regulations to address the cyclical nature of the insurance industry, catastrophic events and insurance capacity and pricing. These regulations (i) restrict certain policy non-renewals or cancellations and require advance notice on certain policy non-renewals and (ii) from a practical standpoint, limit or delay rate changes for a specified period during or after a catastrophe event. Most states, including Florida, also have insurance laws requiring that rate schedules and other information be filed and approved by the insurance regulatory authority in advance of being implemented. The insurance regulatory authority may disapprove a rate filing if it finds that the proposed rates would be inadequate, excessive or unfairly discriminatory. Rates, which are not necessarily uniform for all insurers, vary by many factors including class of business, hazard covered, risk location and size of risk.
Most states, including Florida, require licensure or insurance regulatory authority approval prior to the marketing of new insurance products. Typically, licensure review is comprehensive and includes a review of a company’s business plan, solvency, reinsurance, character and experience of its officers and directors, rates, forms and other financial and non-financial aspects of the company. The insurance regulatory authorities may prohibit entry into a new market by not granting a license or by withholding approval for an insurer to write new lines of business. The Company is subject to comprehensive regulatory oversight and regulations, which include periodic reporting to regulators and regulatory examinations to assure the Company maintains compliance with statutory requirements, and the payment of fees, premium taxes and assessments in order to maintain its licenses.
Privacy and Information Security Regulation
Federal and state laws and regulations require financial institutions to protect the security and confidentiality of non-public personal information and to notify customers and other individuals about their policies and practices relating to their collection and disclosure of customer information and their practices relating to protecting the security and confidentiality of that information. The NAIC issued a model law on cybersecurity, which is leading to adoption of the same or similar provisions in the states where we do business. In addition, some states have adopted, and others might adopt, cybersecurity regulations that differ from proposed model acts or from the laws enacted in other states. Federal and state lawmakers and regulatory bodies may be expected to consider additional or more detailed regulation regarding these subjects and the privacy and security of non-public personal information. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Breaches of our information systems or denial of service on our website could have an adverse impact on our business and reputation.”
Statutory Insurance Organizations
Many states in which the Insurance Entities operate have statutorily-mandated insurance organizations or other insurance mechanisms in which the Insurance Entities are required to participate or to potentially pay assessments. Each state has insurance guaranty association laws providing for the payment of policyholders’ claims when insurance companies doing business in that state become insolvent. These guaranty associations typically are funded by assessments on insurance companies transacting business in the respective states. When the Insurance Entities are subject to assessments, they generally must remit the assessed amounts to the guaranty associations. The Insurance Entities subsequently seek to recover the assessed amounts through recoupments from policyholders. In the event the Insurance Entities are not able to fully recoup the amounts of those assessments, such unrecovered amounts can be credited against future assessments, or the remaining receivable may be written off. While we cannot predict the amount or timing of future guaranty association assessments, we believe that any such assessments will not have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Insurance Industry—Regulations limiting rate changes and requiring us to participate in loss sharing or assessments may decrease our profitability.”
Human Capital Resources
The Company is a vertically integrated insurance holding company with its employees performing substantially all insurance and support related services for our Insurance Entities, including policy underwriting, marketing, online distribution, risk management and claims management. As of February 2, 2021, we had 909 full-time employees, of whom 92% are based in Florida. Reflecting our substantial efforts in recent years to improve and enhance our claims operations and to address emerging
11


claim trends, approximately 57% of our employees work in our claims management operations, an increase of 19% since February 5, 2020. Of these employees, 38% comprise our in-house claims litigation team. In the event we experience an unusually high volume of claims due to a hurricane or severe weather event, in addition to cross-trained staff, the Company utilizes outsourced third-party adjusters and outsourced call center support to maintain regulatory and internal service standards.
Our other policy functions, underwriting & risk management and marketing & online distribution employ approximately 8% and 19% of our employees, respectively. We sell our insurance products primarily through our network of licensed independent agents or through a relatively small team of licensed agents comprising our in-house distribution sales force, mostly limited to online sales. More than 57% of our employees have received insurance licenses from the state of Florida, and we reimburse employees for costs associated with acquiring and maintaining insurance licensing.
Our business is dependent on adequate levels of staff to service our new business and policies in force, adjudicate reported claims and provide support services to the Company. Support services consist of technology, human resources, finance, corporate and internal audit teams. We anticipate staffing needs and make changes to our staff to assure our regulatory requirements are met and our service standards to customers are achieved.
Given our focus on operational excellence and continuous improvement, our objective is to create a collaborative work environment with many opportunities for advancement in order to attract energetic and entrepreneurial talent. To that end, we provide extensive training and development sessions, strong benefits, and competitive pay to employees at all levels in the organization, including equity awards to key contributors.
We continue our support of diversity to create an inclusive culture and deliver a sustainable talent model to enhance performance and broaden perspectives.
We did not furlough or terminate any employees due to COVID-19. None of our employees are represented by a labor union.
Available Information
Our corporate headquarters are located in Fort Lauderdale, FL. Our investor website is UniversalInsuranceHoldings.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments thereto, are available, free of charge, through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after their filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These filings are also available on the SEC’s website at sec.gov.

ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
We are subject to a variety of material risks, which are described below. Our business, results of operations, liquidity and financial condition could be adversely affected by any of these risks or additional risks.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS
The COVID-19 pandemic could have material and long-term adverse consequences on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity and capital resources.
The public health crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting and continuing impact on the global, national and local economies, as well as on the American workforce, could significantly disrupt and materially impact our business, including:
our ability to successfully maintain operations and meet the costs associated with those operations while maintaining the safety and wellness of our employees, independent agents, policyholders and vendors;
the impact on demand for our products by agents and policyholders during the current protracted economic downturn;
the ability or willingness of policyholders to pay premiums;
the prompt payment of receivables by reinsurers and policyholders;
a decline in the value of our investment securities, which make up a significant portion of our financial resources;
a decline in the credit ratings of our debt securities;
our ability to meet regulatory requirements;
our ability to attract and retain, and to effectively train and supervise, employees;
our ability to anticipate, understand and respond to potential changes in consumer or employee behaviors and preferences arising from past and future directives and guidance related to social distancing, teleworking and similar considerations; and
our ability to maintain relationships with key vendors, and those vendors’ willingness or ability to perform services for us as expected.

As a provider of services typically categorized as essential, we are required to maintain operations and continue to pay claims to policyholders. Uncertainty around claims patterns including impediments to adjusting claims in the field could negatively impact our ability to timely and properly pay claims and establish reserves. Access to capital, if needed, could be hampered, and the cost of external capital could be elevated.
12


In addition, COVID-19 has reduced our ability to bring litigated matters to an efficient conclusion. Some courts have been unable to respond effectively to social distancing measures due to lack of technology or infrastructure and to the fragmented nature of local court systems. In many states, all civil trials were suspended or the number of civil trials taking place has been greatly limited. This has caused litigation related to first-party claims we are defending and subrogation actions we are pursuing to be held in suspense and delayed. In turn, this has caused an increase in our number of claims in litigation.

Broader adverse economic consequences and losses incurred by reinsurers as a result of COVID-19 could erode capital and contribute to an increase in the cost of reinsurance as well as an increase in counterparty credit risk. Legislative, regulatory or judicial actions that encourage or mandate premium payment grace periods, prevent cancellations for non-payment of premium, require us to cover losses when our policies did not provide coverage or excluded coverage, or order us to provide premium refunds or make other accommodations, could reduce our liquidity and increase both our losses and operating costs. Forced liquidation of stressed investment securities could result in realized losses during periods of dysfunction and volatility in capital markets. An increase in the demand and frequency of reporting by regulators could place stress on our ability to accurately and timely meet those and existing demands, and a delay or denial in regulatory rate approvals could contribute to financial stress. While most of our workforce is continuing to work remotely, we are more vulnerable to cyber threats.
The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our business will depend on future developments – including any resurgence or variants of COVID-19, the availability of effective treatments and the distribution of vaccines – and while we are not able to estimate the impact that COVID-19 will have on our future financial results and financial condition, it could be material. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our future business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described below.
As a property and casualty insurer, we face significant losses when catastrophes and severe weather events occur.
Because of the exposure of our property and casualty business to catastrophic events, our operating results and financial condition have varied significantly from one period to the next, and our historical results of operations may not be indicative of future results of operations. Property damage resulting from catastrophes is the greatest risk of loss we face in the ordinary course of our business. Catastrophes can be caused by various natural and man-made disasters, including hurricanes, wildfires, tornadoes, tropical storms, sinkholes, windstorms, hailstorms, explosions, earthquakes and acts of terrorism. Because of our concentration in Florida, and in particular in Broward, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties, we are exposed to hurricanes and windstorms, and other catastrophes affecting Florida. We have incurred and may in the future incur catastrophe losses in Florida or elsewhere in excess of those experienced in prior years; those estimated by catastrophe models we use; the average expected level used in pricing; and our current reinsurance coverage limits. We are also subject to claims arising from weather events such as rain, hail and high winds. The nature and level of future catastrophes and the incidence and severity of weather conditions in any future period cannot be predicted and could materially and adversely impact our operations.
The loss estimates developed by the models we use are dependent upon assumptions or scenarios incorporated by a third-party developer and by us. When these assumptions or scenarios do not reflect the characteristics of catastrophic events that affect areas covered by our policies or the resulting economic conditions, then we become exposed to losses not covered by our reinsurance program, which could adversely affect our financial condition, profitability and results of operations. Further, although we use widely recognized and commercially available models to estimate hurricane loss exposure, other models exist that might produce higher or lower loss estimates. See “—We rely on models as a tool to evaluate risk, and those models are inherently uncertain and may not accurately predict existing or future losses.” Despite our catastrophe management programs, we retain material exposure to catastrophic events. Our liquidity could also be constrained by a catastrophe, or multiple catastrophes, which could have a negative impact on our business. Catastrophes have eroded and in the future may erode our statutory surplus or ability to obtain adequate reinsurance which could negatively affect our ability to write new or renewal business. Catastrophic claim severity is impacted by the effects of inflation and increases in insured value and factors such as the overall claims, legal and litigation environments in affected areas, in addition to the geographic concentration of insured property.
Actual claims incurred have exceeded, and in the future may exceed, reserves established for claims, adversely affecting our operating results and financial condition.
We maintain loss reserves to cover our estimated ultimate liability for unpaid losses and LAE for reported and unreported claims as of the end of each accounting period. The reserve for losses and LAE is reported net of receivables for subrogation. Recorded claim reserves in the property and casualty business are based on our best estimates of what the ultimate settlement and administration of claims will cost, both reported and incurred but not reported (“IBNR”). These estimates, which generally involve actuarial projections, are based on management’s assessment of known facts and circumstances, including our experience with similar cases, actual claims paid, historical trends involving claim payment patterns, pending levels of unpaid claims and contractual terms. External factors are also considered, which include but are not limited to changes in the law, court decisions, changes to regulatory requirements, economic conditions and consumer behavior. Many of these factors are not quantifiable and are subject to change over time. The current Florida homeowners’ insurance market is adversely impacted by changes in claimant behaviors resulting in losses and LAE exceeding historical trends, amounts experienced in other states, and amounts we previously estimated. The increases in losses and LAE are attributable to the active solicitation of claims activity by policyholder representatives, high levels of represented claims compared to historical patterns or patterns seen in other states, and a proliferation of inflated claims filed by policyholder representatives and vendors. These trends are facilitated by Florida’s legal climate, including the one-way threat of attorneys’ fees against insurers and the relatively high cost of defending against inflated claims in relation to amounts in dispute.
13


Additionally, there sometimes is a significant reporting lag between the occurrence of an event and the time it is reported to us. The inherent uncertainties of estimating reserves are greater for certain types of liabilities, particularly those in which the various considerations affecting the type of claim are subject to change and in which long periods of time elapse before a definitive determination of liability is made. The deterioration in the current Florida market also has produced an increased number of claims that are filed or re-opened well after the alleged dates of loss. We continually refine reserve estimates as experience develops and as subsequent claims are reported and settled. Adjustments to reserves are reflected in the financial statement results of the periods in which such estimates are changed. The adverse conditions in Florida have resulted in our paid losses exceeding prior reserve estimates and in increases in our current estimates of unpaid losses and LAE. Because setting reserves is inherently uncertain and claims conditions change over time, the ultimate cost of losses has varied and, in the future, may vary materially from recorded reserves, and such variance may continue to adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. The full extent of the ongoing disruptions and claims behaviors in the Florida market is unknown and still unfolding.

Subrogation is a significant component of our total net reserves for losses and LAE. Starting in 2016, there has been a significant increase in our efforts to pursue subrogation against third parties responsible for property damage losses to our insureds. More recently, changes in Florida’s claims environment and legal climate have reduced the effectiveness of our efforts to properly apportion losses through subrogation. Responsible parties are increasingly using delays and defensive tactics to avoid subrogation and increase its costs, which in turn decreases its effectiveness. In some instances, our ability to recover subrogation judgments against responsible parties also is being delayed or impeded by limitations on jury trials and similar changes to judicial processes due to COVID-19. Our ability to recover recorded amounts remains subject to significant uncertainty, including risks inherent in litigation, collectability of the recorded amounts and potential law changes or judicial decisions that can hinder or reduce the effectiveness of subrogation.
When we fail to accurately and adequately price the risks we underwrite, we may not be able to generate sufficient premiums to pay losses and expenses and we may experience other negative impacts on our profitability and financial condition, including harm to our competitive position.
Our results of operations and financial condition depend on our ability to underwrite and set premium rates accurately for a variety of risks. Rate adequacy is necessary to generate sufficient premiums to pay losses, LAE, reinsurance costs and underwriting expenses and to earn a profit. In order to price our products accurately and adequately, we must collect and properly analyze a substantial amount of data; develop, test and apply appropriate rating formulas; closely monitor and timely recognize changes in trends; and project both severity and frequency of losses with reasonable accuracy. We have partnered with an industry leading homeowners insurance data aggregator and have over 22 years of claims experience to leverage during the rate making process, most of which is in the State of Florida. During the Underwriting and rating process we also collect and leverage data points related to age, location, and construction characteristics that have rating implications, and establish Insurance to Value estimates for proper rating. Our ability to price our products accurately and adequately is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which are outside our control, including:
the availability of sufficient and reliable data;
regulatory review periods or delays in approving filed rate changes or our failure to gain regulatory approval;
the uncertainties that inherently underlie estimates and assumptions;
the ability to anticipate unforeseen adverse market trends or other emerging costs in the rate making process;
changes in legal standards, claim resolution practices and restoration costs; and
legislatively imposed consumer initiatives.
As a result, we could underprice risks, which would negatively affect our profit margins and result in significant underwriting losses. We could also overprice risks, which could reduce the number of policies we write and our competitiveness. In either event, our profitability could be materially and adversely affected. If our policies are overpriced or underpriced by geographic area, policy type or other characteristics, we may not be able to achieve desirable diversification in our risks.
Unanticipated increases in the severity or frequency of claims adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.
Changes in the severity or frequency of claims affect our profitability. Changes in homeowners’ claim severity can be and have been driven by inflation in the construction industry, in building materials and in home furnishings and by other economic and environmental factors, including increased demand for services and supplies in areas affected by catastrophes, market conditions and prevailing attitudes towards insurers and the claims process, including increases in the number of litigated claims or claims involving representation. However, changes in the level of the severity of claims are not limited to the effects of inflation and demand surge in these various sectors of the economy. Increases in claim severity can also arise from unexpected events that are inherently difficult to predict. Significant long-term increases in claim frequency have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Further, the level of claim frequency we experience varies from period to period, or from region to region. Although we pursue various loss management initiatives in order to mitigate future increases in claim severity, there can be no assurances that these initiatives will successfully identify or reduce the effect of future increases in claim severity.
14


The failure of the risk mitigation strategies we utilize could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
We utilize a number of strategies to mitigate our risk exposure, such as:
engaging in rigorous underwriting;
carefully evaluating terms and conditions of our policies and binding guidelines; and
ceding risk to reinsurers.
However, there are inherent limitations in all of these strategies, and no assurance can be given that an event or series of events will not result in loss levels in excess of our probable maximum loss models, or that our non-catastrophe forecasts or modeling is accurate, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. It is also possible that losses could manifest themselves in ways that we do not anticipate and that our risk mitigation strategies are not designed to address. Such a manifestation of losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Because we rely on independent insurance agents, the loss of these independent agent relationships and the business they control or our ability to attract new independent agents could have an adverse impact on our business.
We currently market our policies to a broad range of prospective policyholders through approximately 4,400 independent insurance agents in Florida as well as approximately 5,800 independent insurance agents outside of Florida. As a result, our business depends on the marketing efforts of these independent agents and on our ability to offer products and services that meet their and their customers’ requirements. These independent insurance agents maintain the primary customer relationship. Independent agents typically represent other insurance companies in addition to representing us, and such agents are not obligated to sell or promote our products. Other insurance companies may pay higher commissions than we do, provide services to the agents that we do not provide, or may be more attractive to the agents than we are. We cannot provide assurance that we will retain our current relationships, or be able to establish new relationships, with independent agents. The loss of these marketing relationships could adversely affect our ability to attract new agents, retain our agency network, or write new or renewal insurance policies, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on models as a tool to evaluate risk, and those models are inherently uncertain and may not accurately predict existing or future losses.
Along with other insurers in the industry, we use models developed by third-party vendors in assessing our exposure to catastrophe losses, and these models assume various conditions and probability scenarios, most of which are not known to us or are not within our control. These models may not accurately predict future losses or accurately measure losses incurred. Catastrophe models, which have been evolving since the early 1990s, use historical information about various catastrophes, detailed information about our in-force business and certain assumptions or judgments that are proprietary to the modeling firms. While we use this information in connection with our pricing and risk management activities, there are limitations with respect to their usefulness in predicting losses in any reporting period. Examples of these limitations are significant variations in estimates between models and modelers and material increases and decreases in model results due to changes and refinements of the underlying data elements and assumptions. Such limitations lead to questionable predictive capability and post-event measurements that have not been well understood or proven to be sufficiently reliable. In addition, the models are not necessarily reflective of company or state-specific policy language, demand surge for labor and materials, consumer behavior, prevailing or changing claims, legal and litigation environments, or loss settlement expenses, all of which are subject to wide variation by catastrophe.
Reinsurance may be unavailable in the future at reasonable levels and prices or on reasonable terms, which may limit our ability to write new business or to adequately mitigate our exposure to loss.
Our reinsurance program is designed to mitigate our exposure to catastrophes. Market conditions beyond our control determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance we purchase and the ability of the FHCF to reimburse insurers at levels contemplated by their reimbursement contracts. No assurances can be made that reinsurance will remain continuously available to us to the same extent and on the same or similar terms and rates as are currently available. In addition, our ability to afford reinsurance to reduce our catastrophe risk may be dependent upon our ability to adjust premium rates for our costs, and there are no assurances that the terms and rates for our current reinsurance program will continue to be available next year or that we will be able to adjust our premiums. The Insurance Entities are responsible for losses related to catastrophic events with incurred losses in excess of coverage provided by our reinsurance program and the FHCF, and for losses that otherwise are not covered by the reinsurance program. If we are unable to maintain our current level of reinsurance or purchase new reinsurance protection in amounts that we consider sufficient and at prices that we consider acceptable, we would have to either accept an increase in our exposure risk, reduce our insurance writings, seek rate adjustments at levels that might not be approved or might adversely affect policy retention, or develop or seek other alternatives, which could have an adverse effect on our profitability and results of operations.
Reinsurance subjects us to the credit risk of our reinsurers, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Reinsurance does not legally discharge us from our primary liability for the full amount of the risk we insure, although it does make the reinsurer liable to us in the event of a claim. As such, we are subject to credit risk with respect to our reinsurers. The collectability of reinsurance recoverables is subject to uncertainty arising from a number of factors, including (i) our reinsurers’
15


financial capacity and willingness to make payments under the terms of a reinsurance treaty or contract or (ii) whether insured losses meet the qualifying conditions and are recoverable under our reinsurance contracts for covered events or are excluded. Further, if a reinsurer fails to pay an amount due to us within 90 days of such amount coming due, we are required by certain statutory accounting rules to account for a portion of this unpaid amount as a non-admitted asset, which would negatively impact our statutory surplus. Our inability to collect a material recovery from a reinsurer, or to collect such recovery in a timely fashion, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition, liquidity and surplus.
Our financial condition and operating results are subject to the cyclical nature of the property and casualty insurance business.
The property and casualty insurance market is cyclical and has experienced periods characterized by relatively high levels of price competition, less restrictive underwriting standards and relatively low premium rates, followed by periods of relatively lower levels of competition, more selective underwriting standards and relatively high premium rates. As premium levels increase, and competitors perceive an increased opportunity for profitability, new entrants to the market or expansion by existing participants lead to increased competition, a reduction in premium rates, less favorable policy terms and fewer opportunities to underwrite insurance risks. These conditions can have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition to these considerations, changes in the frequency and severity of losses suffered by insureds and insurers, including changes resulting from multiple and/or catastrophic hurricanes, affect the cycles of the property and casualty insurance business significantly. Negative market conditions can impair our ability to write insurance at rates that we consider adequate and appropriate relative to the risk written. To the extent that we cannot write insurance at appropriate rates, our business would be materially and adversely affected. We cannot predict whether market conditions will improve, remain constant or deteriorate. An extended period of negative market conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because we conduct the majority of our business in Florida, our financial results depend on the regulatory, economic and weather conditions in Florida.
Though we are licensed to transact insurance business in other states, we write a majority of our premium in Florida. Therefore, prevailing regulatory, consumer behavior, legal, economic, political, demographic, competitive, weather and other conditions in Florida disproportionately affect our revenues and profitability. Adverse changes in these conditions make doing business in Florida as opposed to other states less attractive for us and have a more pronounced effect on us than it would on other insurance companies that are more geographically diversified throughout the United States. Further, a single catastrophic event, or a series of such events, specifically affecting Florida, particularly in the more densely populated areas of the state, have had and could in the future have a disproportionately adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. This is particularly true in certain Florida counties where we write a high concentration of policies such that a catastrophic event, or series of catastrophic events, in these counties have had and could in the future have a significant impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The fact that our business is concentrated in Florida subjects us to increased exposure to certain catastrophic events and destructive weather patterns such as hurricanes, tropical storms and tornadoes.
Changing climate conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, profitability or cash flows.
Although the incidence and severity of weather conditions are largely unpredictable, the frequency and severity of property claims generally increase when severe weather conditions occur. Longer-term weather trends may be changing, and new types of catastrophe losses may be developing due to climate change, a phenomenon that has been associated with extreme weather events linked to rising temperatures, including effects on global weather patterns, greenhouse gases, sea, land and air temperature, sea levels, rain and snow. To the extent the frequency or severity of weather events is exacerbated due to climate change, we may experience increases in catastrophe losses in both coastal and non-coastal areas. This may cause an increase in claims-related and/or reinsurance costs or may negatively affect our ability to provide homeowners insurance to our policyholders in the future. Governmental entities may also respond to climate change by enacting laws and regulations that may adversely affect our cost of providing homeowners insurance in the future. In addition to the inherent uncertainties associated with studying, understanding and modeling changing climate conditions, available analyses and models in this area typically relate to potential meteorological or sea level impacts and generally are not intended to analyze or predict impacts on insured losses.
We have entered new markets and expect that we will continue to do so, but there can be no assurance that our diversification and growth strategy will be effective.
We seek to take advantage of prudent opportunities to expand our core business into other states where we believe the independent agent distribution channel is strong. As a result of a number of factors, including the difficulties of finding appropriate expansion opportunities and the challenges of operating in unfamiliar markets, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in this diversification even after investing significant time and resources to develop and market products and services in additional states. Initial timetables for expansion may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not be feasible. Because our business and experience are based substantially on the Florida insurance market, we may not understand all of the risks associated with entering into an unfamiliar market. For example, the occurrence of significant winter storms in certain states we have expanded into has in some circumstances limited the effectiveness of our revenue and risk diversification strategy by decreasing revenue we expected to receive outside of the Florida hurricane season or increased our overall risk in ways we had not anticipated when entering those markets. This inexperience in certain new markets could affect our ability to price risks adequately and develop effective underwriting standards. External factors, such as compliance with state regulations,
16


obtaining new licenses, competitive alternatives and shifting customer preferences, may also affect the successful implementation of our geographic growth strategy. Such external factors and requirements may increase our costs and potentially affect the speed with which we will be able to pursue new market opportunities. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in expanding into any one state or combination of states. Failure to manage these risks successfully could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain talented employees, and the loss of any one of our key personnel could adversely impact our operations.
The success of our business depends, in part, on the leadership and performance of our executive management team and key employees and on our ability to attract, retain and motivate talented employees. An absence of the leadership and performance of the executive management team or our inability to retain talented employees could significantly impact our future performance. Competition for these individuals is intense and our ability to operate successfully may be impaired if we are not effective in filling critical leadership positions, in developing the talent and skills of our human resources, in assimilating new executive talent into our organization, or in deploying human resource talent consistent with our business goals.
We could be adversely affected if our controls designed to ensure compliance with guidelines, policies and legal and regulatory standards are not effective.
Our business is highly dependent on the ability to engage on a daily basis in a large number of insurance underwriting, claims processing and investment activities, many of which are highly complex, must be performed expeditiously and involve opportunities for human judgment and errors. These activities often are subject to internal guidelines and policies, as well as legal and regulatory standards. In addition, these legal and regulatory standards can be subject to varying interpretations. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Our failure to comply with these guidelines, policies or standards could lead to financial loss, unanticipated risk exposure, regulatory sanctions or penalties, civil or administrative litigation, or damage to our reputation.
The failure of our claims professionals to effectively manage claims could adversely affect our insurance business and financial results.
We rely primarily on our claims professionals to facilitate and oversee the claims adjustment process for our policyholders. Many factors affect the ability of our claims professionals to effectively manage claims by our policyholders, including:
the accuracy of our adjusters as they make their assessments and submit their estimates of damages;
the training, background and experience of our claims representatives;
the ability of our claims professionals to ensure consistent claims handling;
the ability of our claims professionals to translate the information provided by adjusters into acceptable claims resolutions; and
the ability of our claims professionals to maintain and update our claims handling procedures and systems as they evolve over time based on claims and geographical trends in claims reporting as well as consumer behaviors affecting claims handling.
Any failure to effectively manage the claims adjustment process, including failure to pay claims accurately and failure to oversee third-party claims adjusters, could lead to material litigation, regulatory penalties or sanctions, undermine our reputation in the marketplace and with our network of independent agents, impair our corporate image and negatively affect our financial results.
Litigation or regulatory actions could result in material settlements, judgments, fines or penalties and consequently have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and reputation.
From time to time, we are subject to civil or administrative actions and litigation. This is especially the case in Florida, where insurance companies, including the Insurance Entities, have experienced increases in first-party litigation due largely to the state’s one-way attorneys’ fee statute and resulting litigation climate. Although we strive to pay meritorious claims in a fair and prompt manner, civil litigation can result when we do not pay insurance claims in the amounts or at the times demanded by policyholders or their representatives. We also may be subject to litigation or administrative actions arising from the conduct of our business and the regulatory authority of state insurance departments. Further, we are subject to other types of litigation inherent in operating our businesses, employing personnel, contracting with vendors and otherwise carrying out our affairs. As industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage have arisen and may in the future arise, including judicial expansion of policy coverage and the impact of new theories of liability, plaintiffs targeting property and casualty insurers in purported class-action litigation relating to claims-handling and other practices, and adverse changes in loss cost trends, including inflationary pressures in home repair costs or other legal or regulatory conditions incentivizing increases in disputed or litigated claims. Multiparty or class action claims present additional exposure to substantial economic, non-economic or punitive damage awards. Litigation or regulatory matters have negatively affected and may in the future negatively affect us by resulting in the payment of substantial awards or settlements, increasing legal and compliance costs, requiring us to change certain aspects of our business operations, diverting management attention from other business issues, harming our reputation with agents and customers or making it more difficult to retain current customers and to recruit and retain employees or agents.
17


Our future results are dependent in part on our ability to successfully operate in a highly competitive insurance industry.
The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive. We compete against large national carriers that have greater capital resources and longer operating histories, regional carriers and managing general agencies, as well as newly formed and less-capitalized companies that might have more aggressive underwriting or pricing strategies. Many of these entities may also be affiliated with other entities that have greater financial and other resources than we have. When competitors attempt to increase market share by lowering rates, we can experience reductions in our underwriting margins, or a decline in sales of our insurance policies as customers purchase lower-priced products from our competitors. Competitors also might adopt more prompt or more effective solutions to adverse market conditions than we are able to implement, providing those competitors with a competitive advantage through lower losses and loss adjustment expenses, more competitive premium levels, or the ability to expand their businesses. Because of the competitive nature of the insurance industry, including competition for producers such as independent agents, there can be no assurance that we will continue to develop and maintain productive relationships with independent agents, effectively compete with our industry rivals, or that competitive pressures will not have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
A downgrade in our Financial Stability Rating® may have an adverse effect on our competitive position, the marketability of our product offerings, and our liquidity, operating results and financial condition.
Financial Stability Ratings® and similar ratings are important factors in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies and generally have an effect on an insurance company’s business. On an ongoing basis, rating agencies review the financial performance and condition of insurers and could downgrade or change the outlook on an insurer’s ratings due to, for example, a change in an insurer’s statutory capital; a change in a rating agency’s determination of the amount of risk-adjusted capital required to maintain a particular rating; a change in the perceived adequacy of an insurer’s reinsurance program; an increase in the perceived risk of an insurer’s investment portfolio; a reduced confidence in management or a host of other considerations that may or may not be within an insurer’s knowledge or control. Demotech has assigned a Financial Stability Rating® of A for each Insurance Entity. Because these ratings are subject to continuous review, the retention of these ratings cannot be assured. A downgrade in or withdrawal of these ratings, or a decision by Demotech to require us to make a capital infusion into the Insurance Entities to maintain their ratings, may adversely affect our liquidity, operating results and financial condition. In addition, our failure to maintain a financial strength rating acceptable in the secondary mortgage market would adversely affect our ability to write new and renewal business. Financial Stability Ratings® are primarily directed towards policyholders of the Insurance Entities, and are not evaluations directed toward the protection of our shareholders, and are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold securities.
Breaches of our information systems or denial of service on our website could have an adverse impact on our business and reputation.
Our ability to effectively operate our business depends on our ability, and the ability of certain third-party vendors and business partners, to access our computer systems to perform necessary business functions, such as providing quotes and product pricing, billing and processing premiums, administering claims and reporting our financial results. Our business and operations rely on the secure and efficient processing, storage and transmission of customer and company data, including policyholders’ nonpublic personal information, including financial information, and proprietary business information, on our computer systems and networks. Unauthorized access to personally identifiable information, even if not financial information, could be damaging to all affected parties. Breaches can involve attacks intended to obtain unauthorized access to nonpublic personal information, destroy data, disrupt or degrade service, sabotage systems or cause other damage, including through the introduction of computer viruses or malware, cyberattacks and other means; breaches can also involve human error, such as employees falling victim to phishing schemes or computer coding errors that may inadvertently leave data exposed.
Our computer systems are vulnerable to unauthorized access and hackers, computer viruses and other scenarios in which our data may be exposed or compromised. Cyberattacks can originate from a variety of sources, including third parties who are affiliated with foreign governments or employees acting negligently or in a manner adverse to our interests. Third parties may seek to gain access to our systems either directly or using equipment or security passwords belonging to employees, customers, third-party service providers or other users of our systems. Our systems also may inadvertently expose, through a computer programming error or otherwise, confidential information as well as that of our customers and third parties with whom we interact.
Our computer systems have been, and likely will continue to be, subject to cyber hacking activities, computer viruses, other malicious codes or other computer-related penetrations. To date, we are not aware of a material breach of cybersecurity. We commit significant resources to administrative and technical controls to prevent cyber incidents and protect our information technology, but our preventative actions to reduce the risk of cyber threats may be insufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins and other cyberattacks or security breaches, including those due to human vulnerabilities. Any such event could damage our computers or systems; compromise our confidential information as well as that of our customers and third parties with whom we interact; significantly impede or interrupt business operations, including denial of service on our website; and could result in violations of applicable privacy and other laws, financial loss to us or to our policyholders, loss of confidence in our security measures, customer dissatisfaction, significant litigation exposure and reputational harm, all of which could have a material adverse effect on us. We expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities, exposures, or information security events. Due to the complexity and interconnectedness of our systems, the process of enhancing our protective measures can itself create a risk of systems disruptions and security issues.
18


The increase in the use of cloud technologies and in consumer preference for online transactions can heighten these and other operational risks. Certain aspects of the security of such technologies are unpredictable or beyond our control, and this lack of transparency may inhibit our ability to discover a failure by cloud service providers to adequately safeguard their systems and prevent cyberattacks that could disrupt our operations and result in misappropriation, corruption or loss of confidential and other information. In addition, there is a risk that encryption and other protective measures, despite their sophistication, may be defeated, particularly to the extent that new computing technologies vastly increase the speed and computing power available.
In addition, any significant data security breach of our independent agents or third-party vendors could harm our business and reputation.
We may not be able to effectively implement or adapt to changes in technology, which may result in interruptions to our business or a competitive disadvantage.
Developments in technology are affecting the insurance business. We believe that the development and implementation of new technologies will require additional investment of our capital resources in the future, and it is possible that we may not be able to effectively implement or adapt to new technologies. We have not determined the amount of resources and the time that this development and implementation may require, which may result in short-term, unexpected interruptions to our business, or may result in a competitive disadvantage in price and/or efficiency, as we endeavor to develop or implement new technologies.
Lack of effectiveness of exclusions and other loss limitation methods in the insurance policies we write or changes in laws and/or potential regulatory approaches relating to them could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or our results of operations.
All of the policies we issue include exclusions or other conditions that define and limit coverage. These exclusions and conditions are designed to manage our exposure to certain risk types or risk characteristics and expanding theories of legal liability. In addition, applicable law limits the time period during which a policyholder may bring a claim under the policy. It is possible that a regulatory authority would refuse to approve or a court could nullify or void an exclusion or limitation or interpret existing coverages more broadly than we anticipate, or that legislation could be enacted modifying or barring the use of these exclusions or limitations. This could result in higher than anticipated losses and LAE by extending coverage beyond our underwriting intent or increasing the number or size of claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. In some instances, the intended effects of approved policy language and court interpretation of the same may not become apparent until sometime after we have issued the insurance policies and case law sets a precedent for legal interpretation of them. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance contracts may not be known for many years after a policy is issued.
RISKS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS
We are subject to market risk, which may adversely affect investment income.
Our primary market risk exposures are changes in equity prices and interest rates, which impact our investment income and returns. Declines in market interest rates have an adverse effect on our investment income to the extent that we invest cash in new interest-bearing investments that yield less than our portfolio’s average rate of return or purchase longer-term or riskier assets in order to obtain adequate investment yields resulting in a duration gap when compared to the duration of liabilities. Increases in market interest rates also have an adverse effect on the value of our investment portfolio by decreasing the fair values of the available-for-sale debt securities that comprise a large portion of our investment portfolio. Similarly, declines in the equities markets adversely affect our existing portfolio. Increases in the equities markets might increase returns on our existing portfolio but reduce the attractiveness of future investments.
Our overall financial performance depends in part on the returns on our investment portfolio.
The performance of our investment portfolio is independent of the revenue and income generated from our insurance operations, and there is typically no direct correlation between the financial results of these two activities. Thus, to the extent that our investment portfolio does not perform well due to the factors discussed above or otherwise, our results of operations may be materially adversely affected even if our insurance operations perform favorably. Further, because the returns on our investment portfolio are subject to market volatility, our overall results of operations could likewise be volatile from period to period even if we do not experience significant financial variances in our insurance operations.
RISKS RELATING TO THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
We are subject to extensive regulation and potential further restrictive regulation may increase our operating costs and limit our growth and profitability.
The laws and regulations affecting the insurance industry are complex and subject to change. Compliance with these laws and regulations may increase the costs of running our business and may even slow our ability to respond effectively and quickly to operational opportunities. Moreover, these laws and regulations are administered and enforced by a number of different governmental authorities, including state insurance regulators, the U.S. Department of Justice, and state attorneys general, each of which exercises a degree of interpretive latitude. Consequently, we are also subject to the risk that compliance with any particular regulator’s or enforcement authority’s interpretation of a legal issue may not result in compliance with another’s
19


interpretation of the same issue, particularly when compliance is judged in hindsight. In addition, there is risk that any particular regulator’s or enforcement authority’s interpretation of a legal issue may change over time to our detriment, or that changes in the overall legal environment may cause us to change our views regarding the actions we need to take from a legal risk management perspective, thus necessitating changes to our practices that may, in some cases, limit our ability to grow and achieve or improve the profitability of our business. We also have been affected by, and in the future may continue to be affected by, decisions or inaction by state legislatures that result in the continuation or worsening of adverse market conditions. Furthermore, in some cases, laws and regulations are designed to protect or benefit the interests of a specific constituency rather than a range of constituencies. For example, state insurance laws and regulations are generally intended to protect or benefit purchasers or users of insurance products, and not shareholders. In many respects, these laws and regulations limit our ability to grow and improve the profitability of our business or effectively respond to changing market conditions, and may place constraints on our ability to meet our revenue and net profit goals.
The Insurance Entities are highly regulated by state insurance authorities in Florida, the state in which each is domiciled, and UPCIC and APPCIC are also regulated by state insurance authorities in the other states in which they conduct business. Such regulations, among other things, require that certain transactions between the Insurance Entities and their affiliates must be fair and reasonable and require prior notice and non-disapproval of such transactions by the applicable state insurance authority. State regulations also limit the amount of dividends and other payments that can be made by the Insurance Entities without prior regulatory approval and impose restrictions on the amount and type of investments the Insurance Entities may make. Other state regulations require insurance companies to file insurance premium rate schedules and policy forms for review and approval, restrict our ability to cancel or non-renew policies and determine the accounting standards we use in preparation of our consolidated financial statements. These regulations also affect many other aspects of the Insurance Entities’ businesses. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations is time consuming and personnel-intensive, and changes in these laws and regulations may materially increase our direct and indirect compliance efforts and other expenses of doing business. If the Insurance Entities fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, the regulatory agencies can revoke or suspend the Insurance Entities’ licenses, withhold required approvals, require corrective action, impose operating limitations, impose penalties and fines or pursue other remedies available under applicable laws and regulations.
State insurance regulatory agencies conduct periodic examinations of the Insurance Entities on a wide variety of matters, including policy forms, premium rates, licensing, trade and claims practices, investment standards and practices, statutory capital and surplus requirements, reserve and loss ratio requirements and transactions among affiliates. Further, the Insurance Entities are required to file quarterly, annual and other reports with state insurance regulatory agencies relating to financial condition, holding company issues and other matters.
Regulatory authorities have relatively broad discretion to deny or revoke licenses for various reasons, including the violation of regulations. If we do not have the requisite licenses and approvals or do not comply with applicable regulatory requirements, insurance regulatory authorities could preclude or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or otherwise penalize us. This could adversely affect our ability to operate our business both directly and potentially indirectly through reputational damage.
State legislatures and insurance regulators regularly re-examine existing laws and regulations applicable to insurance companies and their products. Changes in these laws and regulations, or in interpretations thereof, can be made for the benefit of the consumer, or for other reasons, at the direct or indirect expense of insurers, and thus could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In other instances, decisions by policymakers to not address adverse market conditions through effective changes to underlying statutes has caused, and in the future might continue to cause, an adverse effect on our financial conditions and results of operations.
Over the course of many years, the state insurance regulatory framework has come under public scrutiny and members of Congress have discussed proposals to provide for federal chartering of insurance companies. We can make no assurances regarding the potential impact of state or federal measures that may change the nature or scope of insurance regulation.
UVE is a holding company and, consequently, its cash flow is dependent on dividends and other permissible payments from its subsidiaries.
UVE is a holding company that conducts no insurance operations of its own. All operations are conducted by the Insurance Entities and by other operating subsidiaries, most of which support the business of the Insurance Entities. As a holding company, UVE’s sources of cash flow consist primarily of dividends and other permissible payments from its subsidiaries. The ability of our non-insurance company subsidiaries to pay dividends may be adversely affected by reductions in the premiums or number of policies written by the Insurance Entities, by changes in the terms of the parties’ contracts, or by changes in the regulation of insurance holding company systems. UVE depends on such payments for general corporate purposes, for its capital management activities and for payment of any dividends to its common shareholders. The ability of the Insurance Entities to make such payments is limited by applicable law, as set forth in “Item 1—Business—Government Regulation—Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions.” For more details on our cash flows, see “Part II—Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
20


Regulations limiting rate changes and requiring us to participate in loss sharing or assessments may decrease our profitability.
From time to time, public policy preferences and perceptions affect the insurance market, including insurers’ efforts to effectively maintain rates that allow us to reach targeted levels of rate adequacy and profitability. Despite efforts to address rate needs and other operational issues analytically, facts and history demonstrate that public policymakers, when faced with untoward events and adverse public sentiment, have acted and may in the future act in ways that impede our ability to maintain a satisfactory correlation between rates and risk. This has included, and in the future may include, policymakers’ failures to take steps to address the causes of adverse market conditions. Such acts or failures to act may affect our ability to obtain approval for rate changes that we believe are necessary to attain rate adequacy along with targeted levels of profitability and returns on equity. Our ability to afford reinsurance required to reduce our catastrophe risk also depends in part on our ability to adjust rates for our costs.
Additionally, we are required to participate in guaranty funds for insolvent insurance companies and other statutory insurance entities. The guaranty funds and other statutory entities periodically levy assessments against all applicable insurance companies doing business in the state and the amounts and timing of those assessments are unpredictable. Although we seek to recoup these assessments from our policyholders, we might not be able to fully do so and at any point in time or for any period, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected by any of these factors.
The amount of statutory capital and surplus that each of the Insurance Entities has and the amount of statutory capital and surplus it must hold vary and are sensitive to a number of factors outside of our control, including market conditions and the regulatory environment and rules.
The Insurance Entities are subject to RBC standards and other minimum capital and surplus requirements imposed under applicable state laws. The RBC standards, based upon the Risk-Based Capital Model Act adopted by the NAIC, require us to report our results of RBC calculations to the FLOIR and the NAIC. These RBC standards provide for different levels of regulatory attention depending upon the ratio of an insurance company’s total adjusted capital, as calculated in accordance with NAIC guidelines, to its authorized control level RBC. Authorized control level RBC is determined using the NAIC’s RBC formula, which measures the minimum amount of capital that an insurance company needs to support its overall business operations.
An insurance company with total adjusted capital that (i) is at less than 200% of its authorized control level RBC, or (ii) falls below 300% of its RBC requirement and also fails a trend test, is deemed to be at a “company action level,” which would require the insurance company to file a plan that, among other things, contains proposals of corrective actions the company intends to take that are reasonably expected to result in the elimination of the company action level event. Additional action level events occur when the insurer’s total adjusted capital falls below 150%, 100%, and 70% of its authorized control level RBC. The lower the percentage, the more severe the regulatory response, including, in the event of a mandatory control level event (total adjusted capital falls below 70% of the insurer’s authorized control level RBC), placing the insurance company into receivership.
In addition, the Insurance Entities are required to maintain certain minimum capital and surplus and to limit premiums written to specified multiples of capital and surplus. Our Insurance Entities could exceed these ratios if their volume increases faster than anticipated or if their surplus declines due to catastrophe or non-catastrophe losses or excessive underwriting and operational expenses.
Any failure by the Insurance Entities to meet the applicable RBC or minimum statutory capital requirements imposed by the laws of Florida (or other states where we currently or may eventually conduct business) could subject them to further examination or corrective action imposed by state regulators, including limitations on our writing of additional business, state supervision or liquidation, which could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and financial condition. Any such failure also could adversely affect our Financial Stability Ratings®.
Any changes in existing RBC requirements, minimum statutory capital requirements, or applicable writings ratios may require us to increase our statutory capital levels, which we may be unable to do, or require us to reduce the amount of premiums we write, which could adversely affect our business and our operating results.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
 
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
Real Estate Owned and Used in Operations
We conduct our insurance operations primarily from our general corporate offices located at 1110 West Commercial Boulevard, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309. Substantially all of this space is fully utilized for its intended purpose. We believe that our
21


facilities and equipment are generally well maintained, in good operating conditions and suitable and adequate for our present operations.
Real Estate Owned and Under Development
In 2019, we purchased an office building located at 5341 Northwest 33rd Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309, which will be used to meet our staffing needs to accommodate our foreseeable future insurance operations. Construction began in 2019, and we anticipate completion of the building in early 2021.
There are no mortgage or lease arrangements for our real estate owned property.

ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Lawsuits are filed against the Company from time to time. Many of these lawsuits involve claims under policies that we underwrite and reserve for as an insurer. We are also involved in various other legal proceedings and litigation unrelated to claims under our policies that arise in the ordinary course of business operations. Management believes that any liabilities that may arise as a result of these legal matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. The Company contests liability and/or the amount of damages as appropriate in each pending matter.
In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, the Company establishes an accrued liability for legal matters when those matters present loss contingencies that are both probable and estimable.
Legal proceedings are subject to many uncertain factors that generally cannot be predicted with certainty, and the Company may be exposed to losses in excess of any amounts accrued. The Company currently estimates that the reasonably possible losses for legal proceedings, whether in excess of a related accrued liability or where there is no accrued liability, and for which the Company is able to estimate a possible loss, are immaterial. This represents management’s estimate of possible loss with respect to these matters and is based on currently available information. These estimates of possible loss do not represent our maximum loss exposure, and actual results may vary significantly from current estimates.

ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

22


PART II

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “UVE.” As of February 22, 2021, there were 32 registered shareholders of record of our common stock. A substantially greater number of holders of our common stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, there was one shareholder of our Series A Cumulative Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series A Preferred Stock”). We declared and paid aggregate dividends to this holder of record of the company’s Series A Preferred Stock of $10,000 for each of the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph and table compare the cumulative total stockholder return of our common stock from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020 with the performance of: (i) Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index, (ii) Russell 2000 Index and (iii) S&P Insurance Select Industry Index. We are a constituent of the Russell 2000 Index and the S&P Insurance Select Industry Index. S&P Insurance Select Industry Index consists of all publicly traded insurance underwriters in the property and casualty sector in the United States.
uve-20201231_g2.gif
Period Ended
Index12/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc.$126.52 $125.41 $177.37 $134.38 $75.93 
S&P 500 Index111.96 136.40 130.42 171.49 203.04 
Russell 2000 Index121.31 139.08 123.76 155.35 186.36 
S&P Insurance Select Industry Index121.82 138.00 130.32 166.35 161.70 
23


We have generated these comparisons using data supplied by S&P Global Market Intelligence (Centennial, Colorado). The graph and table assume an investment of $100 in our common stock and in each of the three indices on December 31, 2015 with all dividends being reinvested on the ex-dividend date. The closing price of our common stock as of December 31, 2020 (the last trading day of the year) was $15.11 per share. The stock price performance in the graph and table are not intended to forecast the future performance of our stock and may not be indicative of future price performance.
Dividend Policy
Future cash dividend payments are subject to business conditions, our financial position and requirements for working capital and other corporate purposes, as well as to compliance with the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Subject to these qualifications, we expect to continue our regular practice of paying a comparable quarterly dividend to our stockholders. See “Part I—Restrictions on Dividends and Distributions,” “Item 1A—Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Insurance Industry” and “Part II—Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Registrant Purchases of Equity Securities
The table below presents our common stock repurchased by UVE during the three months ended December 31, 2020.
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
Average Price
Paid per Share (1)
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of
Publicly
Announced
Plans or Programs
Maximum Number
of Shares that
May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Plans or
Programs (2)
10/1/2020 - 10/31/202084,888 $12.21 84,888 — 
11/1/2020 - 11/30/2020104,817 $12.74 104,817 — 
12/1/2020 - 12/31/20202,991 $14.05 2,991 1,284,443 
Total for the three months ended December 31, 2020192,696 $12.53 192,696 1,284,443 
(1)Average price paid per share does not reflect brokerage commissions paid to acquire shares in open market transactions.
(2)Number of shares was calculated using a closing price at December 31, 2020 of $15.11 per share.
We may repurchase shares from time to time at our discretion, based on ongoing assessments of our capital needs, the market price of our common stock and general market conditions. We will fund the share repurchase program with cash from operations. During 2020, there were two authorized repurchase plans in effect:
On November 6, 2019, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $40 million of outstanding shares of our common stock through December 31, 2021 (the “December 2021 Share Repurchase Program”), pursuant to which we repurchased 1,968,220 shares of our common stock at an aggregate cost of approximately $40.0 million. We completed the December 2021 Share Repurchase Program in November 2020.
On November 3, 2020, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $20 million of outstanding shares of our common stock through November 3, 2022 (the “November 2022 Share Repurchase Program”). Under the November 2022 Share Repurchase Program, we repurchased 45,705 shares of our common stock from November 2020 through December 2020 at an aggregate cost of approximately $0.6 million.
In total, during the year ended December 31, 2020, we repurchased an aggregate of 1,610,783 shares of our common stock pursuant to the December 2021 Share Repurchase Program and the November 2022 Share Repurchase Program at an aggregate price of approximately $28.9 million.

ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected historical consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” set forth elsewhere in the Annual Report on Form 10-K. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in any future period.
The following tables present historical selected consolidated financial data of Universal Insurance Holdings, Inc. and Subsidiaries for the five years ended December 31, 2020 (in thousands, except per share data):

24


Years Ended December 31,
20202019201820172016
Statement of Income Data:
Revenue:
Direct premiums written$1,517,479 $1,292,721 $1,190,875 $1,055,886 $954,617 
Change in unearned premium(121,856)(59,600)(69,235)(56,688)(33,390)
Direct premium earned1,395,623 1,233,121 1,121,640 999,198 921,227 
Ceded premium earned(472,060)(390,619)(353,258)(310,405)(288,811)
Premiums earned, net923,563 842,502 768,382 688,793 632,416 
Net investment income (1)20,393 30,743 24,816 13,460 9,540 
Other revenues (2)65,437 55,633 49,876 47,093 41,039 
Total revenue1,072,770 939,351 823,816 751,916 685,289 
Costs and expenses:
Losses and loss adjustment expenses758,810 603,406 414,455 350,428 301,229 
Policy acquisition costs199,102 177,530 157,327 138,846 125,979 
Other operating costs90,627 94,898 99,161 92,158 95,198 
Total expenses1,048,539 875,834 670,943 581,432 522,406 
Income before income taxes24,231 63,517 152,873 170,484 162,883 
Income tax expense5,126 17,003 35,822 63,549 63,473 
Net income$19,105 $46,514 $117,051 $106,935 $99,410 
Per Share Data:
Basic earnings per common share$0.60 $1.37 $3.36 $3.07 $2.85 
Diluted earnings per common share$0.60 $1.36 $3.27 $2.99 $2.79 
Dividends declared per common share$0.77 $0.77 $0.73 $0.69 $0.69 
 As of December 31,
 20202019201820172016
Balance Sheet Data:
Total invested assets$919,924 $914,586 $908,154 $730,023 $651,601 
Cash and cash equivalents167,156 182,109 166,428 213,486 105,730 
Total assets1,758,741 1,719,852 1,858,390 1,454,999 1,060,007 
Unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses322,465 267,760 472,829 248,425 58,494 
Unearned premiums783,135 661,279 601,679 532,444 475,756 
Long-term debt8,456 9,926 11,397 12,868 15,028 
Total liabilities1,309,479 1,225,951 1,356,757 1,015,011 688,817 
Total stockholders’ equity$449,262 $493,901 $501,633 $439,988 $371,190 
Shares outstanding end of period31,137 32,638 34,783 34,735 35,052 
Book value per share$14.43 $15.13 $14.42 $12.67 $10.59 
Return on average equity (ROE)4.1 %9.2 %24.1 %25.7 %29.4 %
Selected Data:
Loss and loss adjustment expense ratio (3)82.2 %71.6 %53.9 %50.9 %47.6 %
General and administrative expense ratio (4)31.4 %32.3 %33.4 %33.5 %34.9 %
Combined Ratio (5)113.6 %103.9 %87.3 %84.4 %82.5 %
(1)Net investment income excludes net realized gains (losses) on sale of investments and net change in unrealized gains (losses) of equity securities.
(2)Other revenue consists of commission revenue, policy fees, and other revenue.
(3)The loss and loss adjustment expense ratio is calculated by dividing losses and loss adjustment expenses by premiums earned, net.
(4)The general and administrative expense ratio is calculated by dividing general and administrative expense, excluding interest expense, by premiums earned, net. Interest expense was $102 thousand, $248 thousand, $346 thousand, $348 thousand and $421 thousand for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
(5)The combined ratio is the sum of the losses and loss adjustment expense ratio and the general and administrative expense ratio.
25



ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to assist in an understanding of our financial condition and results of operations and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in “Item 8—Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” below. Except for the historical information contained herein, the discussions in this MD&A contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our future results could differ materially from those discussed herein. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed above under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Part I, Item 1A—Risk Factors.”
Overview
We develop, market, and underwrite insurance products for consumers predominantly in the personal residential homeowners lines of business and perform substantially all other insurance-related services for our primary insurance entities, including risk management, claims management and distribution. Our primary insurance entities, UPCIC and APPCIC, offer insurance products through both our appointed independent agent network and our online distribution channels across 19 states (primarily in Florida), with licenses to write insurance in an additional two states. The Insurance Entities seek to produce an underwriting profit (defined as earned premium minus losses, LAE, policy acquisition costs and other operating costs) over the long term; maintain a conservative balance sheet to prepare for years in which the Insurance Entities are not able to achieve an underwriting profit; and generate investment income from invested assets.
Revenues
We generate revenue primarily from the collection of insurance premiums. Other sources of revenue include: commissions paid by our reinsurers to our reinsurance intermediary subsidiary BARC on reinsurance it places for the Insurance Entities; policy fees collected from policyholders by our managing general agent subsidiary, ERA (formerly Universal Risk Advisors, Inc.); and financing fees charged to policyholders who choose to defer premium payments. In addition, our subsidiary Alder receives fees from the Insurance Entities for claims-handling services. The Insurance Entities are reimbursed for these fees on claims that are subject to recovery under the Insurance Entities’ respective reinsurance programs. These fees, after expenses, are recorded in the consolidated financial statements as an adjustment to LAE. We also generate income by investing our assets.
The nature of our business tends to be seasonal during the year, reflecting consumer behaviors in connection with the Florida residential real estate market and the hurricane season. The amount of direct premiums written tends to increase just prior to the second quarter and tends to decrease approaching the fourth quarter.
Trends and Geographical Distribution
In recent years, the Florida personal residential insurance market has been characterized by increased losses and LAE due to abuses and inflated claims. These conditions have continued to worsen and have reached levels well beyond historical norms and levels experienced in other jurisdictions. The adverse conditions in the Florida personal residential insurance market can be attributed largely to the proliferation of represented claims, involving both public adjusters and attorneys, as well as by aggressive estimates and demands put forth by remediation and repair companies. In many cases, policyholders have representation even before the claims are filed or before the Company is able to provide an initial assessment of damages. In other instances, policyholder representatives are taking opportunities occasioned by hurricanes or other events to solicit customers to file other claims or to re-open prior claims, sometimes years after the purported dates of loss. These conditions are fostered in large part by the one-way right to attorneys’ fees against insurers provided under the Florida Insurance Code. These actions adversely affect both the frequency and severity of losses as otherwise understood based on historical patterns and patterns experienced in other states. See “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Actual claims incurred have exceeded, and in the future may exceed, reserves established for claims, adversely affecting our operating results and financial condition.”
The Company has taken a series of steps over time to mitigate the financial impact of these negative trends in the Florida market. We also have closely monitored rate levels, especially in the Florida market, and have submitted rate filings based upon evolving data. In addition, the Company has implemented several initiatives in its claims department in response to the adverse market trends. We utilize our process called Fast Track, which is an initiative to handle straightforward, meritorious claims as promptly as possible to mitigate the adverse impacts that can be seen with claims that remain open for longer periods. In addition, we increased our emphasis on subrogation to reduce our net losses while also recovering policyholders’ deductibles when losses are attributable to the actions of others. We have an internal staff of trained water remediation experts to address the extraordinary number of purported water damage claims filed by policyholders and vendors. We developed a specialized in-house unit for responding to the unique aspects of represented claims, and we have substantially increased our in-house legal staff in an effort to address the increase in litigated or represented claims as cost-effectively as possible.
26


Additionally, we have taken steps to implement claim settlement rules associated with the Florida legislation passed in 2019 designed to reduce the negative effects of claims involving assignments of benefits (“AOB”). See “Part I— Item 1—Business—Government Regulation.” An AOB is a document signed by a policyholder that allows a third party to be paid for services performed for an insured homeowner who would normally be reimbursed by the insurance company directly after making a claim. Prior to the AOB reform legislation, the Company experienced an increase in the use of AOBs involving litigation by Florida policyholders. Claims paid under an AOB often involve unnecessary litigation, with the Company required to pay both its own defense costs and those of the plaintiff, and, as a result, cost the Company significantly more than claims settled when an AOB is not involved. In 2019, the Florida legislature passed legislation designed to increase consumer protections against AOB abuses and reduce AOB-related litigation. While the Florida legislation addressing abuses associated with AOBs may be beneficial in reducing one aspect of the concerns affecting the Florida market, the overall impact of the deterioration in claims-related tactics and behaviors, including other first-party litigation, thus far has continued to outpace benefits arising from the 2019 AOB reform legislation.
Despite our initiatives, such as those mentioned above, our costs to settle claims in Florida have increased for the reasons mentioned above. For example, the Company has previously increased its current year loss estimates and increased estimates associated with prior years’ claims. Over the past three years, even as we have increased our estimates of prospective losses each year, we have recorded adverse claim development on prior years’ loss reserves and further strengthened current year losses during the year to address the increasing impact Florida’s market disruptions have had on the claims process and the establishment of reserves for losses and LAE. The full extent and duration of these market disruptions is unknown and still unfolding, and we will monitor the impact of such disruptions on the recording and reporting of claim costs.
Direct premiums written continue to increase across the states we conduct business. As a result of our business strategy, rate changes and marketing and underwriting initiatives, we have seen increases in policy count, in-force premium and total insured value in almost all states for the past three years. Direct premiums written for states outside of Florida increased 17.7%, representing a $40.1 million increase during 2020. Direct premium for Florida increased 17.3%, representing a $184.6 million increase during 2020. The following table provides direct premiums written for Florida and other states for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (dollars in thousands):
 
For the Years EndedGrowth
Year Over Year
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
StateDirect Premiums Written%Direct Premiums Written%$%
Florida$1,250,748 82.4 %$1,066,112 82.5 %$184,636 17.3 %
Other states266,731 17.6 %226,609 17.5 %40,122 17.7 %
Grand total$1,517,479 100.0 %$1,292,721 100.0 %$224,758 17.4 %
We seek to grow and generate long-term rate adequate premium in each state where we offer policies, including Florida. Diversified sources of business are an important objective and premium growth outside Florida is a measure monitored by management toward meeting that objective.

27


The geographical distribution of our policies in force, premium in force and total insured value across all states were as follows, as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (dollars in thousands, rounded to the nearest thousand):
As of December 31, 2020
PremiumTotal Insured
StatePolicy Count%In Force%Value%
Florida728,211 73.9 %$1,252,916 82.4 %$192,504,430 63.6 %
Georgia46,678 4.7 %57,251 3.8 %20,141,751 6.7 %
North Carolina62,849 6.4 %55,307 3.6 %21,500,109 7.1 %
Virginia23,546 2.4 %20,226 1.3 %12,959,884 4.3 %
Massachusetts15,090 1.5 %20,161 1.3 %9,507,917 3.1 %
Indiana19,839 2.0 %18,328 1.2 %7,171,623 2.4 %
Minnesota12,730 1.3 %17,863 1.2 %6,252,822 2.1 %
Alabama13,632 1.4 %17,409 1.2 %4,953,449 1.6 %
South Carolina17,877 1.8 %16,886 1.1 %6,297,270 2.1 %
Pennsylvania17,183 1.7 %14,540 1.0 %7,394,773 2.4 %
New Jersey11,576 1.2 %12,915 0.9 %6,684,386 2.2 %
Maryland5,664 0.6 %4,816 0.3 %2,226,324 0.7 %
Michigan3,494 0.4 %4,290 0.3 %1,478,595 0.5 %
New York1,936 0.2 %2,251 0.2 %1,159,105 0.4 %
Hawaii2,031 0.2 %1,983 0.1 %901,401 0.3 %
Delaware1,581 0.2 %1,908 0.1 %870,728 0.3 %
Illinois497 0.1 %580 — %235,593 0.1 %
New Hampshire409 — %312 — %238,121 0.1 %
Iowa— %— %2,774 — %
Total984,830 100.0 %$1,519,949 100.0 %$302,481,055 100.0 %
 
As of December 31, 2019
PremiumTotal Insured
StatePolicy Count%In Force%Value%
Florida662,343 74.6 %$1,070,034 82.5 %$164,654,848 64.3 %
Georgia42,637 4.8 %49,615 3.8 %17,536,031 6.9 %
North Carolina58,283 6.6 %49,420 3.8 %19,150,001 7.5 %
Massachusetts13,596 1.5 %17,991 1.4 %8,312,929 3.2 %
Indiana18,291 2.1 %16,643 1.3 %6,458,310 2.5 %
Minnesota12,466 1.4 %16,035 1.2 %5,881,338 2.3 %
South Carolina16,682 1.9 %15,705 1.2 %5,575,934 2.2 %
Virginia16,313 1.8 %14,111 1.1 %8,415,470 3.3 %
Pennsylvania16,874 1.9 %13,726 1.1 %6,922,815 2.7 %
Alabama11,186 1.3 %12,998 1.0 %3,923,446 1.5 %
New Jersey7,145 0.8 %7,554 0.6 %3,824,506 1.5 %
Michigan3,417 0.4 %4,089 0.3 %1,399,470 0.5 %
Maryland4,181 0.5 %3,474 0.3 %1,600,113 0.6 %
Hawaii2,090 0.2 %1,930 0.2 %881,476 0.3 %
Delaware1,273 0.1 %1,500 0.1 %673,331 0.3 %
New York1,183 0.1 %1,244 0.1 %646,130 0.3 %
New Hampshire249 — %181 — %135,254 0.1 %
Illinois152 — %166 — %65,006 — %
Total888,361 100.0 %$1,296,416 100.0 %$256,056,408 100.0 %
28


As of December 31, 2018
PremiumTotal Insured
StatePolicy Count%In Force%Value%
Florida637,926 77.0 %$1,015,666 85.1 %$156,118,955 68.3 %
North Carolina55,047 6.6 %43,770 3.7 %17,124,104 7.5 %
Georgia37,652 4.6 %40,395 3.4 %14,584,974 6.4 %
Massachusetts11,796 1.4 %15,522 1.3 %7,020,121 3.1 %
South Carolina15,117 1.8 %14,477 1.2 %4,818,760 2.1 %
Indiana16,059 1.9 %13,305 1.1 %5,464,439 2.4 %
Pennsylvania15,454 1.9 %10,762 0.9 %6,158,602 2.7 %
Minnesota9,466 1.1 %10,632 0.9 %4,352,908 1.9 %
Virginia10,354 1.3 %8,437 0.7 %5,053,973 2.2 %
Alabama6,817 0.8 %7,187 0.6 %2,304,683 1.0 %
New Jersey3,683 0.4 %3,763 0.3 %1,870,394 0.8 %
Michigan2,388 0.3 %2,879 0.2 %940,051 0.4 %
Maryland3,070 0.4 %2,539 0.2 %1,161,678 0.5 %
Hawaii2,176 0.3 %1,937 0.2 %887,555 0.4 %
Delaware1,073 0.1 %1,230 0.1 %555,055 0.2 %
New York461 0.1 %432 0.1 %228,334 0.1 %
New Hampshire114 — %86 — %62,436 — %
Total828,653 100.0 %$1,193,019 100.0 %$228,707,022 100.0 %
Also see “Results of Operations” below and “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Because we conduct the majority of our business in Florida, our financial results depend on the regulatory, economic and weather conditions in Florida” for discussion on geographical diversification.

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
The Company considers the measures and ratios in the following discussion to be key performance indicators for its businesses. Management believes that these indicators are helpful in understanding the underlying trends in the Company’s businesses. Some of these indicators are reported on a quarterly basis and others on an annual basis. Please also refer to “Item 8—Note 2 (Summary of Significant Accounting Policies)” for definitions of certain other terms we use when describing our financial results.
These indicators may not be comparable to other performance measures used by the Company’s competitors and should only be evaluated together with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
Definitions of Key Performance Indicators
Book Value Per Common Share ― the ratio of total stockholders’ equity, adjusted for preferred stock liquidation, divided by the number of common shares outstanding as of a reporting period. Book value per common share is the excess of assets over liabilities at a reporting period attributed to each share of stock. Changes in book value per common share informs shareholders of retained equity in the Company on a per share basis which may assist in understanding market value trends for the Company’s stock.
Combined Ratio ― the combined ratio is a measure of underwriting profitability for a reporting period and is calculated by dividing total operating costs and expenses (which is made up of losses and LAE and general and administrative expenses) by premiums earned, net, which is net of ceded premiums earned. The combined ratio and changes to the ratio over time provide management with an understanding of costs to operate its business in relation to net premiums it is earning and the impact of rate, underwriting and other business management actions on underwriting profitability. A combined ratio below 100 indicates underwriting profit; a combined ratio above 100 indicates underwriting losses.
Core Loss Ratio a common operational metric used in the insurance industry to describe the ratio of current accident year expected losses and LAE to premiums earned. Core loss ratio is an important measure identifying profitability trends of premiums in force. Core losses consists of all other losses and LAE, excluding weather events beyond those expected and prior years’ reserve development. The financial benefit from the management of claims, including claim fees ceded to reinsurers, is recorded in the condensed consolidated financial statements as a reduction to core losses.
Debt-to-Equity Ratio ― long-term debt divided by stockholders’ equity. This ratio helps management measure the amount of financing leverage in place in relation to equity and future leverage capacity.
29


Debt-to-Total Capital Ratio long-term debt divided by the sum of total stockholders’ equity and long-term debt (often referred to as total capital resources). This ratio helps management measure the amount of financing leverage in place (long-term debt) in relation to total capital resources and future leverage capacity.
Direct Premiums Written (“DPW”) ― reflects the total value of policies issued during a period before considering premiums ceded to reinsurers. Direct premiums written, comprised of renewal premiums, endorsements and new business, is initially recorded as unearned premium in the balance sheet which is then earned pro-rata over the next year or remaining policy term. Direct premiums written reflects current trends in the Company’s sale of property and casualty insurance products and amounts that will be recognized as earned premiums in the future.
DPW (Florida) ― includes only DPW in the state of Florida. This measure allows management to analyze growth in our primary market and is also a measure of business concentration risk.
Expense Ratio (Including Policy Acquisition Cost Ratio and Other Operating Cost Ratio) ― calculated as general and administrative expenses as a percentage of premiums earned, net. General and administrative expenses is comprised of policy acquisition costs and other operating costs, which includes such items as underwriting costs, facilities and corporate overhead. The expense ratio, including the sub-expense ratios of policy acquisition cost ratio and other operating cost ratio, are indicators to management of the Company’s cost efficiency in acquiring and servicing its business and the impact of expense items to overall profitability.
Losses and Loss Adjustment Expense Ratio or Loss and LAE Ratio ― a measure of the cost of claims and claim settlement expenses incurred in a reporting period as a percentage of premiums earned in that same reporting period. Losses and LAE incurred in a reporting period includes both amounts related to the current accident year and prior accident years, if any, referred to as development. Ultimate losses and LAE are based on actuarial estimates with changes in those estimates recognized in the period the estimates are revised. Losses and LAE consist of claim costs arising from claims occurring and settling in the current period, an estimate of claim costs for reported but unpaid claims, an estimate of unpaid claim costs for incurred-but-not-reported claims and an estimate of claim settlement expenses associated with reported and unreported claims which occurred during the reporting period. The loss and LAE ratio can be measured on a direct basis, which includes losses and LAE divided by direct earned premiums, or on a net basis, which includes losses and LAE after amounts have been ceded to reinsurers divided by net earned premiums (i.e., direct premium earned less ceded premium earned). The net loss and LAE ratio is a measure of underwriting profitability after giving consideration to the effect of reinsurance. Trends in the net loss and LAE ratio are an indication to management of current and future profitability.
Monthly Weighted Average Renewal Retention Rate ― measures the monthly average of policyholders that renew their policies over the period of a calendar year. This measure allows management to assess customer retention.
Premiums Earned, Net ― the pro-rata portion of current and previously written premiums that the Company recognizes as earned premium during the reporting period, net of ceded premium earned. Ceded premiums are premiums paid or payable by the Company for reinsurance protection. Written premiums are considered earned and are recognized pro-rata over the policy coverage period. Premiums earned, net is a measure that allows management to identify revenue trends.
Policies in Force ― represents the number of active policies with coverage in effect as of the end of the reporting period. The change in the number of policies in force is a growth measure and provides management with an indication of progress toward achieving strategic objectives. Inherent seasonality in our business makes this measure more useful when comparing each quarter’s balance to the same quarter in prior years.
Premium in Force ― is the amount of the annual direct written premiums previously recorded by the Company for policies which are still active as of the reporting date. This measure assists management in measuring the level of insured exposure and progress toward meeting revenue goals for the current year, and provides an indication of business available for renewal in the next twelve months. Inherent seasonality in our business makes this measure more useful when comparing each quarter’s balance to the same quarter in prior years.
Return on Average Equity (“ROAE”) ― calculated by dividing earnings (loss) per common share by average book value per common share. Average book value per common share is computed as the sum of book value per common share at the beginning and the end of a period, divided by two. ROAE is a capital profitability measure of how effectively management creates profits per common share.
Total Insured Value ― represents the amount of insurance limits available on a policy for a single loss based on all policies active as of the reporting date. This measure assists management in measuring the level of insured exposure.
Unearned Premiums represents the portion of direct premiums corresponding to the time period remaining on an insurance policy and available for future earning by the Company. Trends in unearned premiums generally indicate expansion, if growing, or contraction, if reducing, which are important indicators to management. Inherent seasonality in our business makes this measure more useful when comparing each quarter’s balance to the same quarter in prior years.
Weather events an estimate of losses and LAE from weather events occurring during the current accident year that exceed initial estimates of expected weather events when establishing the core loss ratio for each accident year. This metric informs management of factors impacting overall current year profitability.
30



REINSURANCE
Reinsurance enables our Insurance Entities to limit potential exposures to catastrophic events. Reinsurance contracts are typically classified as treaty or facultative contracts. Treaty reinsurance provides coverage for all or a portion of a specified group or class of risks ceded by the primary insurer, while facultative reinsurance provides coverage for specific individual risks. Within each classification, reinsurance can be further classified as quota share or excess of loss. Quota-share reinsurance is where the primary insurer and the reinsurer share proportionally or pro-rata in the direct premiums and losses of the insurer. Excess-of-loss reinsurance indemnifies the direct insurer or reinsurer for all or a portion of the loss in excess of an agreed upon amount or retention.
Developing and implementing our reinsurance strategy to adequately protect our balance sheet and Insurance Entities in the event of one or more catastrophes while maintaining efficient reinsurance costs has been a key strategic priority for us. In order to limit the Insurance Entities’ potential exposure to catastrophic events, we purchase significant reinsurance from third-party reinsurers and the FHCF. The FLOIR requires the Insurance Entities, like all residential property insurance companies doing business in Florida, to have a certain amount of capital and reinsurance coverage in order to cover losses upon the occurrence of a single catastrophic event and a series of catastrophic events occurring in the same hurricane season. The Insurance Entities’ respective 2020-2021 reinsurance programs meet the FLOIR’s requirements, which are based on, among other things, successfully demonstrating cohesive and comprehensive reinsurance programs that protect the policyholders of our Insurance Entities as well as satisfying a series of stress test catastrophe loss scenarios based on past historical events.
We believe the Insurance Entities’ retentions under their respective reinsurance programs are appropriate and structured to protect policyholders. We test the sufficiency of the reinsurance programs by subjecting the Insurance Entities’ personal residential exposures to statistical testing using a third-party hurricane model, RMS RiskLink v18.1 (Build 1945). This model combines simulations of the natural occurrence patterns and characteristics of hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and other catastrophes with information on property values, construction types and occupancy classes. The model outputs provide information concerning the potential for large losses before they occur, so companies can prepare for their financial impact. Furthermore, as part of our operational excellence initiatives, we continually look to enable new technology to refine our data intelligence on catastrophe risk modeling.
Effective June 1, 2020, the Insurance Entities entered into multiple reinsurance agreements comprising our 2020-2021 reinsurance program. See “Part II—Item 8—Note 4 (Reinsurance).”
UPCIC’s 2020-2021 Reinsurance Program
First event All States retention of $43 million; first event Non-Florida retention of $15 million.
All States first event tower extends to $3.36 billion with no co-participation in any of the layers, no limitations on loss adjustment expenses and no accelerated deposit premiums.
Assuming a first event completely exhausts the $3.36 billion tower, the second event exhaustion point would be $1.343 billion.
Full reinstatement available for all private market first event catastrophe layers for guaranteed second event coverage. For all layers purchased between $90 million and the projected FHCF retention, to the extent that all of our coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, UPCIC has purchased enough reinstatement premium protection (“RPP”) limit to pay the premium necessary for the reinstatement of these coverages.
Effective September 1, 2020, UPCIC purchased RPP limit for the layer attaching at $45 million. Combined with the RPP limit purchased at June 1, 2020, UPCIC has purchased enough RPP limit to pay for the premium necessary for the reinstatement of all catastrophe layers between $45 million and the projected FHCF retention.
Specific 3rd and 4th event private market catastrophe excess of loss coverage of $76 million in excess of $35 million provides frequency protection for a multiple event storm season.
For the FHCF Reimbursement Contracts effective June 1, 2020, UPCIC has continued the election of the 90% coverage level. We estimate the total mandatory FHCF layer will provide approximately $2.008 billion of coverage for UPCIC, which inures to the benefit of the open market coverage secured from private reinsurers.
Secured $197 million of new catastrophe capacity with contractually agreed limits that extend coverage to include the 2021 and 2022 wind seasons. In total, UPCIC has $420 million of multi-year capacity with coverage extending to include the 2021 wind season or beyond.
31


Reinsurers
The table below provides the A.M. Best and S&P financial strength ratings for each of the largest third-party reinsurers in UPCIC’s 2020-2021 reinsurance program:

Reinsurer A.M. Best S&P
Allianz Risk TransferA+AA-
Arch Reinsurance LimitedA+A+
Chubb Tempest Reinsurance Ltd. A++AA
Munich ReA+AA-
Renaissance ReA+A+
Various Lloyd’s of London Syndicates AA+
Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (1)N/AN/A
(1)No rating is available, because the fund is not rated.
APPCIC’s 2020-2021 Reinsurance Program
First event All States retention of $3 million.
All States first event tower of $43.6 million with no co-participation in any of the layers, no limitation on loss adjustment expenses and no accelerated deposit premiums.
Full reinstatement available for all private market first event catastrophe layers for guaranteed second event coverage. For the layer purchased between $3 million and the projected FHCF retention, to the extent that all coverage or a portion thereof is exhausted in a catastrophic event and reinstatement premium is due, APPCIC purchased enough RPP limit to pay the premium necessary for the reinstatement of this coverage.
APPCIC also purchases extensive multiple line excess per risk reinsurance with various reinsurers due to the high-value risks it insures in both the personal residential and commercial multiple peril lines of business. Under this multiple line excess per risk contract, APPCIC has coverage of $8.5 million in excess of $0.5 million ultimate net loss for each risk and each property loss, and $1 million in excess of $0.3 million for each casualty loss. A $19.5 million aggregate limit applies to the term of the contract for property-related losses and a $2 million aggregate limit applies to the term of the contract for casualty-related losses. This contract also contains a profit-sharing feature if specific performance measures are met.
For the FHCF Reimbursement Contracts effective June 1, 2020, APPCIC has continued the election of the 90% coverage level. The total mandatory FHCF layer is estimated to provide approximately $22.5 million of coverage for APPCIC, which inures to the benefit of the open market coverage secured from private reinsurers.
Reinsurers
The table below provides the A.M. Best and S&P financial strength ratings for each of the largest third-party reinsurers in APPCIC’s 2020-2021 reinsurance program:
Reinsurer A.M. Best S&P
Chubb Tempest Reinsurance Ltd. A++AA
Lancashire Insurance Company Limited AA-
Various Lloyd’s of London Syndicates AA+
Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (1)N/AN/A
(1)No rating is available, because the fund is not rated.
The total cost of the 2020-2021 reinsurance programs for UPCIC and APPCIC is projected to be $499.8 million, representing approximately 34.0% of estimated direct premium earned for the 12-month treaty period.

32


Results of Operations
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020 COMPARED TO YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019
2020 Financial and Business Highlights (comparisons are to 2019 unless otherwise specified)
Direct premiums written overall grew by $224.8 million, or 17.4%, to $1,517.5 million.
In Florida, direct premiums written grew by $184.6 million, or 17.3%, and in our other states, direct premiums written grew by $40.1 million, or 17.7%.
Premiums earned, net grew by $81.1 million, or 9.6%, to $923.6 million.
Net realized gains were $56.9 million from sales of available-for-sale securities and net realized gains were $6.5 million from the sales of equity securities.
In May 2020, the FLOIR approved an overall 12.4% rate increase for UPCIC on Florida personal residential homeowners line of business, effective May 2020 for new business and July 2020 for renewals.
In December 2020, the FLOIR approved an overall 7.0% rate increase for UPCIC on Florida personal residential homeowners line of business, effective December 2020 for new business and March 2021 for renewals.
Total revenues increased by $133.4 million, or 14.2%, to $1,072.8 million.
Weather events in excess of plan for named hurricanes and other severe weather events occurred during the year ended December 31, 2020, resulting in a $162.0 million impact after reinsurance.
Net loss and LAE ratio was 82.2% as compared to 71.6%, driven by severe weather and prior years’ reserve development.
Diluted earnings per common share (“EPS”) was $0.60 compared to $1.36.
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding were lower by 6.6% to 32.0 million shares as of December 31, 2020 from 34.2 million shares as of December 31, 2019.
Book value per share decreased by $0.70, or 4.6%, to $14.43 at December 31, 2020 from $15.13 at December 31, 2019.
Declared and paid dividends per common share of $0.77, including a $0.13 special dividend in December 2020.
Repurchased 1,610,783 shares in 2020 at an aggregate cost of $28.9 million.
Offered Universal DirectSM in all 19 states in which the Company writes policies as of December 31, 2020.
Contributed $114 million of capital to UPCIC during 2020 to support insurance operations.
UPCIC commenced writing homeowners policies in Iowa.
Received Certificate of Authority from Tennessee.

33


A detailed discussion of our results of operations follows the table below (in thousands, except per share data).
Years Ended December 31,Change
20202019$%
PREMIUMS EARNED AND OTHER REVENUES
Direct premiums written$1,517,479 $1,292,721 $224,758 17.4 %
Change in unearned premium(121,856)(59,600)(62,256)104.5 %
Direct premium earned1,395,623 1,233,121 162,502 13.2 %
Ceded premium earned(472,060)(390,619)(81,441)20.8 %
Premiums earned, net923,563 842,502 81,061 9.6 %
Net investment income20,393 30,743 (10,350)(33.7)%
Net realized gains (losses) on investments63,352 (12,715)76,067 NM
Net change in unrealized gains (losses) of equity securities25 23,188 (23,163)(99.9)%
Commission revenue33,163 26,101 7,062 27.1 %
Policy fees23,773 21,560 2,213 10.3 %
Other revenue8,501 7,972 529 6.6 %
Total premiums earned and other revenues1,072,770 939,351 133,419 14.2 %
OPERATING COSTS AND EXPENSES
Losses and loss adjustment expenses758,810 603,406 155,404 25.8 %
General and administrative expenses289,729 272,428 17,301 6.4 %
Total operating costs and expenses1,048,539 875,834 172,705 19.7 %
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES24,231 63,517 (39,286)(61.9)%
Income tax expense5,126 17,003 (11,877)(69.9)%
NET INCOME$19,105 $46,514 $(27,409)(58.9)%
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes(17,618)28,374 (45,992)NM
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME$1,487 $74,888 $(73,401)(98.0)%
DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE DATA:
Diluted earnings per common share$0.60 $1.36 $(0.76)(55.9)%
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding31,972 34,233 (2,261)(6.6)%
Net income was $19.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to net income of $46.5 million for the same period in 2019.
Diluted EPS for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $0.60 compared to $1.36 in 2019, a decrease of $0.76, or 55.9%. Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding for the year ended December 31, 2020 were lower by 6.6% to 32.0 million shares from 34.2 million shares for the same period of the prior year. Benefiting the year ended December 31, 2020 were increases in premiums earned, net, realized gains on investments, commission revenue, policy fees and other revenue, offset by a decrease in net investment income, a lower level of unrealized gains in the fair value of our equity securities in 2020 and increased total operating costs and expenses. Direct premium earned and premiums earned, net were up 13.2% and 9.6%, respectively, due to growth of policies in almost all states in which we are licensed and writing during the past 12 months and rate increases implemented during 2020, offset by higher costs for reinsurance flowing through to premiums earned, net. Increases in losses and LAE were the result of several factors including (1) increased estimated core losses and LAE for the current year compared to prior year, (2) premium growth and change in mix between Florida and other states and (3) increased adverse weather events. The increase was partially offset by a reduced level of prior years’ reserve development in 2020.
Direct premiums written increased by $224.8 million, or 17.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, driven by growth within our Florida business of $184.6 million, or 17.3%, and growth in our other states business of $40.1 million, or 17.7%, as compared to the same period of the prior year. Rate increases in Florida and in certain other states along with slightly improved retention also contributed to the premium growth. Premium in force increased in every state in which we are writing at December 31, 2020 compared to December 31, 2019. We implemented new guidelines during the year ended December 31, 2020 on new business to address emerging loss trends that have since slowed the rate of growth in Florida in certain territories during December 31, 2020. We actively wrote policies in 19 states during 2020 compared to 18 in 2019. In addition, we are authorized to do business in Tennessee and Wisconsin and are proceeding with product filings in those states. During the second quarter of 2020 the Company withdrew its application to write business in Connecticut. Policies in force, premium in force and total insured value all increased as of December 31, 2020 when compared to December 31, 2019.
34


Direct premium earned increased by $162.5 million, or 13.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, reflecting the earning of premiums written over the past 12 months and changes in rates and policies in force during that time.
Reinsurance enables our Insurance Entities to limit potential exposures to catastrophic events and other covered events. Ceded premium represents amounts paid to reinsurers for this protection. Ceded premium earned increased $81.4 million, or 20.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the same period of the prior year. The increase in reinsurance costs reflects both an increase in costs associated with the increase in exposures we insure, reinstatement premiums emerging during the year and increased pricing when compared to the expired reinsurance program. Reinsurance costs, as a percentage of direct premium earned, increased from 31.7% in 2019 to 33.8% in 2020. During the fourth quarter of 2020 the Company recorded additional ceded written premiums of $18.5 million representing reinstatement premiums on Hurricane Sally losses of which $7.7 million was unearned at December 31, 2020. Reinsurance costs associated with each year’s reinsurance program are earned over the June 1st to May 31st twelve-month coverage period. See the discussion above for the Insurance Entities’ 2020-2021 reinsurance program and “Part II—Item 8— Note 4 (Reinsurance).”
Premiums earned, net of ceded premium earned, grew by 9.6%, or $81.1 million, to $923.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, reflecting an increase in direct premium earned offset by increased costs for reinsurance.
Net investment income was $20.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $30.7 million for the same period in 2019, a decrease of $10.4 million, or 33.7%. The decrease is driven by lower trends in market yields. During 2020, the Company sold most securities in an unrealized gain position to recognize market value appreciation. The total amount of securities sold was $1.1 billion. As a result, the Company reinvested its portfolio into similar securities yielding current market rates, which in many cases is a reduction from the book yields of the portfolio prior to the sale and reinvestment. The book yield of the available-for-sale debt securities was 3.08% at December 31, 2019 compared to 1.16% at December 31, 2020, a reduction of 62.3%. Total invested assets were $919.9 million as of December 31, 2020 compared to $914.6 million as of December 31, 2019. Cash and cash equivalents were $167.2 million at December 31, 2020 compared to $182.1 million at December 31, 2019, a decrease of 8.2%. Cash and cash equivalents are invested short term until needed to settle loss and LAE payments, reinsurance premium payments and operating cash needs or until they are deployed by our investment advisors.
Yields from cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and the available-for-sale debt portfolio are dependent on future market forces, monetary policy and interest rate policy from the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has broadly been lowering and maintaining lower interest rates, which has impacted the effective yields on new available-for-sale portfolio and overnight cash purchases and short-term investments. The overall trend has been lower interest rates on new purchases of securities over the past year and lower returns on cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. As discussed below, due to the significant sale of securities during the third quarter of 2020, it is expected that future portfolio returns will reflect lower book yields based on current market conditions.
We sell investments from our investment portfolio from time to time to meet our investment objectives or take advantage of market opportunities. During the year ended December 31, 2020, sales of available-for-sale debt securities resulted in net realized gain of $56.9 million and sales of equity securities resulted in net realized gain of $6.5 million, in total generating net realized gain of $63.4 million. We took the opportunity to monetize an increase in fair value of these securities to enhance surplus for UPCIC. The proceeds from the sale of available-for-sale debt securities are in the process of reinvestment. During the year ended December 31, 2019, sales of equity securities resulted in net realized losses of $14.4 million, sales of available-for-sale debt securities resulted in net realized gains of $0.5 million and the sale of an investment real estate property resulted in a realized gain of $1.2 million, in total generating net realized loss of $12.7 million. See “Part II—Item 8—Note 3 (Investments).”
There was a nominal favorable net unrealized gain in equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to a $23.2 million favorable net unrealized gain during the year ended December 31, 2019. Unrealized gains or losses reflected on the income statement are the result of changes in the fair market value of our equity securities during the period for securities still held and the reversal of unrealized gains or losses for securities sold during the period. See “Part II—Item 8—Note 3 (Investments).”
During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the financial markets. In the first quarter of 2020, our investment portfolio was negatively impacted, but has since substantially recovered. We took advantage of the recovery with the realization of gains on our available-for-sale debt securities discussed above. We believe the adverse impact to our investment portfolio was minimized during this COVID-19-induced market dislocation as a result of our conservative investment strategy’s focus on capital preservation and adequate liquidity to pay claims. We believe the high credit rating and shorter duration foundation of our portfolio and portfolio diversification will help us weather these difficult market conditions, thereby limiting the impact of future economic financial market downturns on the portfolio. Recent market yields have been lower when compared to prior years and we expect that trend to continue, negatively impacting future investment returns on our portfolio. We will continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on our portfolio. Significant uncertainties and emerging risks still exist regarding the potential long-term impact of COVID-19 on the credit markets and our investment portfolio.
Commission revenue is comprised principally of brokerage commissions we earn from third-party reinsurers (excluding the FHCF) on reinsurance placed for the Insurance Entities. Commission revenue is earned pro-rata over the reinsurance policy period which runs from June 1st to May 31st of the following year. For the year ended December 31, 2020, commission revenue was $33.2 million, compared to $26.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in commission revenue of $7.1 million, or 27.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily due to increased commissions from third-party
35


reinsurers earned on increased reinsurance premiums due to growth in our exposures, as well as the difference in pricing and structure associated with our reinsurance program when compared to the prior year.
Policy fees for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $23.8 million compared to $21.6 million for the same period in 2019. The increase of $2.2 million, or 10.3%, was the result of an increase in the total number of new and renewal policies written during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the same period in 2019.
Other revenue, representing revenue from policy installment fees, premium financing and other miscellaneous income, was $8.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $8.0 million for the same period in 2019.
The following table presents losses and LAE incurred on a direct, ceded and net basis expressed in dollars and as a percent of the respective amounts of earned premium. These amounts are further categorized as 1) core losses, 2) weather events for the current accident year and 3) prior years’ reserve development (dollars in thousands):
For The Year Ended December 31, 2020
DirectLoss RatioCededLoss RatioNetLoss Ratio
Premiums earned$1,395,623 $472,060 $923,563 
Losses and loss adjustment expenses:
Core losses$538,826 38.6 %$316 0.1 %$538,510 58.3 %
Weather events*256,917 18.4 %94,954 20.1 %161,963 17.6 %
Prior years’ reserve development284,315 20.4 %225,978 47.9 %58,337 6.3 %
Total losses and loss adjustment expenses$1,080,058 77.4 %$321,248 68.1 %$758,810 82.2 %
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
DirectLoss RatioCededLoss RatioNetLoss Ratio
Premiums earned$1,233,121 $390,619 $842,502 
Losses and loss adjustment expenses:
Core losses$476,739 38.7 %$51 — %$476,688 56.6 %
Weather events*45,562 3.7 %6,912 1.8 %38,650 4.6 %
Prior years’ reserve development562,303 45.6 %474,235 121.4 %88,068 10.4 %
Total losses and loss adjustment expenses$1,084,604 88.0 %$481,198 123.2 %$603,406 71.6 %
*Includes only current weather events beyond those expected.
See “Part II—Item 8—Note 17 (Liability for Unpaid Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses)” for change in liability for unpaid losses and LAE.
Management evaluates losses and LAE in three areas, as described below and represented in the tables above, each of which have different drivers which impact reported results. As a result, these components of losses and LAE are described separately. Overall losses and LAE, net of reinsurance recoveries, were $758.8 million resulting in a 82.2% net loss and LAE ratio for the year ended December 31, 2020. This compares to $603.4 million resulting in a 71.6% net loss and LAE ratio for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The factors impacting losses and LAE are as follows:
Core losses
Our core losses consist of all losses and LAE, except weather events beyond those expected and prior years’ reserve development. We establish core loss reserves by applying a direct loss percentage (loss pick) to direct premium earned. The loss pick is set by management each year with input coming out of the annual study performed by our independent third-party
36


actuary. Our loss pick before the claims management benefits described below, which we increased in 2019 as a result of higher loss trends in Florida, was increased slightly (0.9 loss ratio points) in 2020.

The core losses and loss ratios in the above table benefit from favorable claim management adjustment benefits derived from certain ceded claim fees or other benefits, which are described below, reducing core losses. Core losses for the year, after favorable claim management adjusting benefits for the year ended 2020 were 38.6% of direct premium earned compared to 38.7% for the same period in 2019. Although the core loss ratio only slightly changed year over year, core loss and LAE has increased and reserves increased resulting from higher premium volume and the impact of primary rate increases approved in 2020.
Weather events beyond those expected
During the year ended December 31, 2020, there were a significant number of storms including Hurricane Sally compared to prior years which in the aggregate exceeded core loss ratio expectations. The number of adverse weather events and resulting claims during the fourth quarter exceeded weather event claims reported during the first three quarters. Reported losses from Hurricane Sally significantly benefited from our catastrophe reinsurance protection. Our reinsurance program reduced our direct estimate of Hurricane Sally ultimate losses of $133.4 million to $43.0 million on a net basis after estimated reinsurance recoveries. Other weather events resulting in losses with only limited benefit from our catastrophe reinsurance protection included Hurricanes Isaias, Eta, Delta and Zeta and other unnamed storms tracked by an industry numerically assigned identifier. These weather events totaled direct losses of $123.5 million and $119.0 million net after reinsurance. In 2020 the Company experienced the highest level of unnamed weather events when compared to the previous three years.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, weather events totaled $45.6 million direct and $38.7 million net, principally for Hurricane Dorian and other weather events beyond those expected.
Prior years’ reserve development
Management identifies two drivers which influence amounts recorded as prior years’ reserve development, namely: (i) changes to prior estimates of direct and net ultimate losses on prior accident years excluding major hurricanes and (ii) changes in prior estimates of direct and net ultimate losses on hurricanes. During the year ended December 31, 2020, prior years’ reserve development totaled $284.3 million of direct losses and $58.3 million of net losses after the benefit of reinsurance.
Prior years’ reserve development, excluding hurricanes described above, was $42.1 million direct and $40.2 million net of reinsurance for the year ended December 31, 2020. This development largely resulted from increased prior-year non-hurricane companion claims in the run up to the expiration of limitations period for Hurricane Irma claims, the emergence of claims associated with AOB litigated claims, and an increase in reopened claims. In 2019, the Florida legislature enacted legislation intended to reduce abuses with claims involving AOB. Prior the effective date of the new law, the Company experienced an increase in claims reported by vendors seeking to pursue their claims under the prior law. In many instances, these claims have since further developed into litigated claims during 2020. Also, Hurricane Irma made landfall in 2017. In accordance with Florida law, the deadline for filing Hurricane Irma claims expired three years later in September 2020. As a result, in 2020 the Company experienced adverse development due to non-hurricane companion claims reported with new Hurricane Irma claims reported as the deadline approached. In 2020, claims associated with these issues continued to adversely develop, Florida’s one-way attorneys’ fee statute and overall negative legal environment have led to increased litigation and higher losses and LAE.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, development of direct and net losses on previously reported hurricanes was $242.2 million direct and $18.1 million net after the benefit of reinsurance. This was principally driven by continued adverse development of previous estimated losses and LAE on Hurricanes Irma, Michael, Florence and Matthew. Net development for the year ended December 31, 2020 principally resulted from an increase in our previously estimated losses and LAE on Hurricane Irma for claims which are not eligible for recovery from the FHCF.
As noted above, Florida law bars new, supplemental or reopened claim for loss caused by the peril of windstorm or hurricane unless notice is provided within three years of the event. In September 2020, the three-year period following Hurricane Irma expired. The Company continues to adjust and settle Hurricane Irma claims that were reported prior to the expiration of the three-year period.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, direct prior years’ reserve development of $562.3 million was principally due to increased ultimate direct losses and LAE for Hurricane Irma, which were fully ceded, while net prior years’ reserve development of $88.1 million was principally due to a change in the allocation of estimated reinsurance recoveries on Hurricane Michael losses from our Non-Florida reinsurance coverage to the All States reinsurance coverage. The Non-Florida reinsurance coverage has a lower retention and the change in the allocation of reinsurance recoveries to the All States reinsurance coverage resulted in higher retained losses.
The net loss and LAE ratio for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 82.2% compared to 71.6% for the prior year. The increase of 10.6% loss ratio points was a result of: (1) increase in weather (13.0% loss ratio points); and (2) an increase in estimated core losses and LAE ratio for the current year (1.7% loss ratio points) principally the result of higher reinsurance costs. The increase was partially offset by a lower level of prior years’ reserve development on prior years’ losses and LAE reserves (4.1% loss ratio points).
37


The Company continues to experience increased costs for losses and LAE in the Florida market where an industry has developed around the solicitation, filing and litigation of personal residential claims, resulting in a pattern of continued increased year over year levels of represented claims, inflation of purported claim amounts, and increased demands for attorneys’ fee. Active solicitation of personal residential claims in Florida by policyholder representatives, remediation companies and repair companies has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of personal residential claims in Florida exceeding historical levels and levels seen in other jurisdictions. A Florida statute providing a one-way right of attorneys’ fees against insurers, coupled with other adverse statutes and judicial rulings, have further produced a legal environment in Florida that encourages litigation, in many cases without regard to the underlying circumstances of the claims.
The market trends in losses and LAE led us to file in February 2020 for an overall 12.4% rate increase in Florida, which was approved effective May 18, 2020 for new business and July 7, 2020 for renewals. In addition we filed and received approval on December 31, 2020 to further increase our rates in Florida by an additional 7.0% in response to higher reinsurance costs associated with the reinsurance program we put into effect June 1, 2020. This rate change was effective December 31, 2020 for new business and March 1, 2021 for renewal business. In addition, we implemented changes to certain new business underwriting guidelines, reduced new business writings in certain Florida counties and developed and implemented specialized claims and litigation management efforts to address market trends which we believe are driving up claim costs. Nonetheless, the deterioration of the Florida residential insurance market, fostered by the proliferation of represented and litigated claims, thus far has outpaced the benefits of these initiatives.
The financial benefit from the management of claims ceded, including claim fees ceded to reinsurers, was $17.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $3.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, driven primarily by the recoveries from reinsurers in excess of costs and the financial impact of internal claim services on the expected core loss ratio. The benefit was recorded in the consolidated financial statements as a reduction to losses and LAE.
General and administrative expenses were $289.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $272.4 million during the same period in 2019 as detailed below (dollars in thousands):
For the Years Ended December 31,Change
20202019$%
$Ratio$Ratio
Premiums earned, net$923,563 $842,502 $81,061 9.6 %
General and administrative expenses:
Policy acquisition costs199,102 21.6 %177,530 21.1 %21,572 12.2 %
Other operating costs (1)90,627 9.8 %94,898 11.2 %(4,271)(4.5)%
Total general and administrative expenses$289,729 31.4 %$272,428 32.3 %$17,301 6.4 %
(1)Other operating costs includes $102 and $248 of interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
General and administrative expenses increased by $17.3 million, which was the result of increases in policy acquisition costs of $21.6 million due to commissions associated with increased premium volume offset by a decrease in other operating costs of $4.3 million. The expense ratio as a percentage of premiums earned, net decreased from 32.3% for the year ended December 31, 2019 to 31.4% for the same period in 2020. Our increase in policy acquisition costs continued to be driven by increased premium volume and continued geographic expansion into states that typically have higher commission rates as compared to Florida. Other operating costs ratio for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 9.8% compared to 11.2% for the year ended December 31, 2019, reflecting lower share-based compensation and performance bonuses in 2020 and economies of scale as other operating costs did not increase at the same rate as premiums earned, net. In addition, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, travel and auto expenses along with meal and entertainment were lower in 2020 when compared to the prior year.
Income tax expense decreased by $11.9 million, or 69.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily as a result of a 61.9% reduction in income before income taxes, when compared with the year ended December 31, 2019. Our estimated tax rate (“ETR”) decreased to 21.2% for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 26.8% for the year ended December 31, 2019. The ETR decreased as a result of a higher ratio of permanent items relative to the amount of income before taxes, principally non-deductible compensation, and a higher level of discrete tax benefits.
Other comprehensive loss, net of taxes for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $17.6 million, compared to other comprehensive income of $28.4 million for the same period in 2019, reflecting reclassifications out of cumulative other comprehensive income for available-for-sale debt securities sold and after-tax changes in fair value of available-for-sale debt securities held in our investment portfolio. See “Part II—Item 8—Note 11 (Other Comprehensive Income (Loss))” for additional information about the amounts comprising other comprehensive income for these periods.

38


YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019 COMPARED TO YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018
A detailed discussion of our results of operations follows the table below (in thousands, except per share data).
(in thousands)  
Years Ended December 31,Change
20192018$%
PREMIUMS EARNED AND OTHER REVENUES
Direct premiums written$1,292,721 $1,190,875 $101,846 8.6 %
Change in unearned premium(59,600)(69,235)9,635 (13.9)%
Direct premium earned1,233,121 1,121,640 111,481 9.9 %
Ceded premium earned(390,619)(353,258)(37,361)10.6 %
Premiums earned, net842,502 768,382 74,120