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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                     TO                     

Commission File Number 1-36389

 

GRUBHUB INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

46-2908664

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

111 W. Washington Street, Suite 2100

Chicago, Illinois

 

60602

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (877585-7878

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

GRUB

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

Non-accelerated filer

☐ 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on The New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020, was $5,297,564,059.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of February 19, 2021 was 93,256,029.

Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Stockholders, tentatively scheduled to be held on June 16, 2021, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Form 10-K

Item No.

 

Name of Item

 

 

Page

Part I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

 

3

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

11

 

 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

25

 

 

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

25

 

 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

26

 

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

26

 

Part II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Grubhub Inc.’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

 

26

 

 

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

27

 

 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

39

 

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

40

 

 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

71

 

 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

71

 

 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

73

 

Part III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

74

 

 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

74

 

 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

74

 

 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

74

 

 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

74

 

Part IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

82

 

 

 

 


 

The following should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Unless otherwise stated, the discussion below primarily reflects the historical condition and results of operations for Grubhub Inc. for the periods presented and the results of acquired businesses from the relevant acquisition dates. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect the plans, estimates, and beliefs of the Company (as defined below). Actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences, such as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID-19”), include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are made as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” below for additional information.

PART I.

Item 1.

Business

Company Overview

Grubhub Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the “Company,” “Grubhub,” “we,” “us,” and “our”) is a leading online and mobile platform for restaurant pick-up and delivery orders, which the Company refers to as takeout. The Company currently connects more than 300,000 restaurants, of which more than 265,000 are partnered, with hungry diners in thousands of cities across the United States and is focused on transforming the takeout experience. For restaurants, Grubhub generates higher margin takeout orders at full menu prices. The Grubhub platform empowers diners with a “direct line” into the kitchen, avoiding the inefficiencies, inaccuracies and frustrations associated with paper menus and phone orders. The Company has a powerful takeout marketplace that creates additional value for both restaurants and diners as it grows. The Company’s takeout marketplace, and related platforms where the Company provides marketing services to generate orders, are collectively referred to as the “Platform”.

For restaurants, takeout enables them to grow their business without adding seating capacity or wait staff. Advertising for takeout, typically done through the distribution of menus to local households or advertisements in local publications, is often inefficient and requires upfront payment with no certainty of success. In contrast, Grubhub provides restaurants on its Platform with an efficient way to generate more takeout orders. Grubhub enables restaurants to access local diners at the moment when those diners are hungry and ready to purchase takeout. In addition, the Company does not charge the restaurants on its Platform any upfront or subscription fees, does not require any discounts from their full price menus and only gets paid for the orders the Company generates for them, providing restaurants with a low-risk, high-return solution. The Company charges restaurant partners on the Platform a per-order commission that is primarily percentage-based. In many markets, the Company also provides delivery services to restaurants on its Platform that do not have their own delivery operations. As of December 31, 2020, the Company was providing delivery services in more than 460 of the largest core-based statistical areas across the country.

For diners, the traditional takeout ordering process is often a frustrating experience—from using paper menus to communicating an order by phone to a busy restaurant employee. In contrast, ordering on Grubhub is enjoyable and a dramatic improvement over the “menu drawer.” The Company provides diners on the platform with an easy-to-use, intuitive and personalized interface that helps them search for and discover local restaurants and then accurately and efficiently place an order from any Internet-connected device. Grubhub also provides diners with information and transparency about their orders and status and solves problems that may arise. In addition, the Company makes re-ordering convenient by storing previous orders, preferences and payment information, helping to promote diner frequency and drive strong repeat business.

The Company generates revenues primarily when diners place an order on its Platform. Restaurant partners pay a commission, typically a percentage of the transaction, on orders that are processed through the Company’s Platform. Most of the restaurant partners on the Company’s Platform can choose their level of commission rate, at or above the base rate. A restaurant partner can choose to pay a higher rate, which affects its prominence and exposure to diners on the Platform. Additionally, restaurant partners that use the Company’s delivery services pay an additional commission on the transaction for the use of those services. The Company also recognizes as revenue any fees charged directly to the diner including fees for GH+, our subscription product. GH+ subscribers receive unlimited deliveries with $0 delivery fee on qualifying orders from GH+ restaurants.

For most orders, diners use a credit card to pay the Company for their meal when the order is placed. For these transactions, the Company collects the total amount of the diner’s order net of payment processing fees from the payment processor and remits the net proceeds to the restaurant less commission and other fees. The Company generally accumulates funds and remits the net proceeds to the restaurant partners on at least a monthly basis. The Company also deducts commissions for other transactions that go through its Platform, such as cash transactions for restaurants partners, from the aggregate proceeds received. Additionally, the Company provides consolidated invoicing for its corporate and campus program customers generally on a monthly basis.

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Organization

Grubhub was founded in 2004 and Seamless was founded in 1999. Unless otherwise stated or the context requires otherwise, references to “Seamless” mean the operations for Seamless Holdings Corporation and Seamless North America, LLC through August 8, 2013, when the merger of Grubhub Holdings Inc. and Seamless was completed (the “Merger”). The Merger enabled the Company to expand its two-sided network, connecting customers in the geographies it serves with more restaurants. The Merger also enabled the Company to eliminate duplicative expenses and take advantage of a complementary geographic footprint.

On April 4, 2014, the Company completed an initial public offering (the “IPO”) and its common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the ticker symbol “GRUB”.

Merger, Acquisitions of Business and Other Intangible Assets

On June 10, 2020, the Company entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (as amended on September 4, 2020, the “Merger Agreement”) with Just Eat Takeaway.com N.V. (“JET”) whereby JET is to acquire 100% of the Company’s shares in an all-stock transaction (the “Transaction”). JET, headquartered in Amsterdam, is a leading global online food delivery marketplace. The Transaction represents JET’s entry into online food delivery in the United States. Under the terms of the Transaction, Grubhub shareholders will be entitled to receive American depositary shares representing 0.6710 Just Eat Takeaway.com ordinary shares in exchange for each share of Grubhub common stock, representing implied value of $75.15 for each Grubhub share based on JET’s then-current stock price at the time the Transaction was announced and implying total equity consideration (on a fully diluted basis) of approximately $7.3 billion. The Transaction is expected to be completed in the first half of 2021 and is subject to certain conditions including Grubhub shareholder approval and certain customary closing conditions. The Transaction has received all required regulatory clearances and JET shareholders have approved the Transaction. For additional information, see Part II, Item 8, Note 3, Merger Agreement.

On November 7, 2018, the Company acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of Tapingo Ltd. (“Tapingo”), a leading platform for campus food ordering with direct integration into college meal plans and point of sale systems.

On September 13, 2018, the Company acquired SCVNGR, Inc. d/b/a LevelUp (“LevelUp”), a leading provider of mobile diner engagement and payment solutions for national and regional restaurant brands.

On October 30, 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of substantially all of the restaurant and diner network assets of OrderUp, Inc. (“OrderUp”), an online and mobile food-ordering company. The Company previously acquired certain assets of OrderUp on September 14, 2017 from Groupon, Inc.

For a description of the Company’s acquisitions, see Note 5, Acquisitions, to the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Growth Strategy

The Company strives to make Grubhub an integral part of everyday life for restaurants and diners through the following growth strategies:

 

Grow the Takeout Marketplace. The Company intends to continue to grow the number of independent and national and regional chain (“Enterprise”) restaurants on its Platform, in existing and new geographic markets by providing them with opportunities to generate more takeout orders and by offering delivery services. The Company intends to continue to grow the number of diners and orders placed on the Platform primarily through word-of-mouth referrals and marketing that encourages adoption of the Company’s ordering Platform and increased order frequency.

 

Enhance the Platform. The Company plans to continue to invest in its websites and mobile products and its independent delivery network, develop new products and better leverage the significant amount of order data that the Company collects.

 

Deliver Excellent Customer Care. By meeting and exceeding the expectations of both restaurants and diners through customer service, the Company seeks to gain their loyalty and support for the Platform.

 

Pursue Strategic Acquisitions and Partnerships. The Company intends to continue to pursue expansion opportunities in existing and new markets, as well as in core and adjacent categories through strategic acquisitions and partnerships that help accelerate the growth of the takeout marketplace.

Key Metrics

For a description of the Company’s key metrics, including Active Diners, Daily Average Grubs and Gross Food Sales, see Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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The Grubhub Solution

The Company focuses on providing value to both restaurants and diners through its takeout marketplace. Grubhub provides restaurants with more orders, helps them serve diners better, facilitates delivery logistics in many markets, and enables them to improve the efficiency of their takeout business. For diners, Grubhub makes takeout accessible, simple and enjoyable, enabling them to discover new restaurants and accurately and easily place their orders anytime and from anywhere.

Restaurant Benefits

With more than 300,000 restaurants currently on the Company’s Platform, of which the Company partners with more than 265,000, management believes that Grubhub provides restaurants with the following key benefits:

 

 

More Orders. Through Grubhub, restaurants in the network receive more orders at full menu prices.

 

Targeted Reach. Restaurants in the network gain an online and mobile presence with the ability to reach their most valuable target audience—hungry diners in their area.

 

Low Risk, High Return. Grubhub generates higher margin takeout orders for its restaurant partners by enabling them to leverage their existing fixed costs.

 

Efficiency. Restaurant partners in the network can receive and handle a larger volume of takeout orders more accurately, increasing their operational efficiency while providing their takeout diners with a high-quality experience. Grubhub also offers customizable integrated technologies that support digital orders with point-of-sale system integration and customer relationship management programs, including loyalty.

 

Insights. Grubhub provides restaurant partners with actionable insights based on the significant amount of order data the Company gathers, helping them to optimize their delivery footprints, menus, pricing and online profiles.

 

Delivery. In many markets, the Company offers delivery services to the restaurants on its Platform. By providing delivery services, the Company allows restaurants to focus on making great food while Grubhub handles the complexity of operating the delivery networks.

Diner Benefits

With 31.4 million Active Diners as of December 31, 2020 and more than 622,700 combined Daily Average Grubs during the year ended December 31, 2020, management believes that Grubhub provides diners with the following key benefits:

 

 

Discovery. Grubhub aggregates menus and enables ordering from restaurants across more than 4,000 cities in the United States as of December 31, 2020, in most cases providing diners with more choices than the “menu drawer” and allowing them to discover hidden gems from local restaurants on the platform.

 

Convenience. Using Grubhub, diners do not need to place their orders over the phone. Grubhub provides diners with an easy-to-use, intuitive and personalized platform that makes ordering simple from any connected device.

 

Control and Transparency. The Grubhub Platform empowers diners with a “direct line” into the kitchen, without having to talk to a distracted order-taker in an already error-prone process.

 

Service. For diners, Grubhub’s role is similar to that of the waiter in a restaurant, providing a critical layer of customer care that is typically missing in takeout.

Challenges

The Company faces several key challenges in continuing to grow its business and maintaining profitability. These challenges include that:

 

online takeout ordering is a competitive industry. Existing competitors could continue to grow and new competitors could emerge in the Company’s markets. These competitors may have greater resources and other advantages than Grubhub and could impact the Company’s growth rates and ability to maintain profitability.

 

long-term growth depends on the Company’s ability to continue to expand its takeout marketplace of restaurants and diners in a cost-effective manner;

 

the ability to realize the benefits of the investment in the Company’s delivery network depends on the efficient utilization and expansion of such network; and

 

the ability to realize the benefits of acquired businesses depends on the successful integration of the operations of the acquired businesses with those of the Company.

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Other Factors Affecting Performance

 

Seasonality. In metropolitan markets, the Company generally experiences a relative increase in diner activity from September to April and a relative decrease in diner activity from May to August. In addition, the Company benefits from increased order volumes in campus markets when school is in session and experiences a decrease in order volumes when school is not in session (during summer breaks and other vacation periods). However, COVID-19 temporarily, we believe, mitigated the impact of seasonality on the Company’s business in 2020, as the dynamics that typically drive seasonal increases in ordering, including more time at home and less in-restaurant dining, were persistent throughout the year.

 

Weather. Diner activity can also be impacted by colder or more inclement weather, which typically increases order volumes, and warmer or sunny weather, which typically decreases order volumes.

Products and Services

The following is a list of the Company’s primary products and services. A significant portion of the Company’s revenues are the commissions earned from restaurant partners for consumer orders generated on its Platform.

Mobile Apps and Mobile Website

The Company offers diners access to the Platform through its mobile applications designed for iPhone®, Android™, iPad® and Apple TV® devices. To use the mobile applications, diners either enter their delivery address or use geo-location and are presented with local restaurants that provide takeout. Diners can further refine their search results using the search capability, enabling them to filter results across cuisine types, restaurant names, menu items, proximity, ratings, diner rewards, GH+ restaurants and other criteria. Once diners have found what they are looking for, they place their orders using easy-to-use and intuitive menus, enabling them to discover food choices, select options and provide specific instructions on a dish-by-dish basis. Once an order is received, the Company transmits it to the restaurant, while saving the diners’ preferences for future orders, thus providing diners with a convenient repeat order experience. Diners can also access the Platform from their mobile devices through the mobile website using any mobile browser.

Websites

Diners can access the Platform through www.grubhub.com, www.seamless.com and menupages.com. The websites provide diners with the same functionality as the Company’s mobile applications, including restaurant discovery, search and ordering. For restaurants, all website-based orders are received in the same way as the mobile orders, and the Company charges restaurant partners the same commission for both.

Corporate Program

The Company provides a corporate program that helps businesses address inefficiencies in food ordering and associated billing. The corporate program offers employees a wide variety of food and ordering options, including options for individual meals, group ordering and catering, as well as proprietary tools that consolidate all food ordering into a single online account that enables companies to proactively manage food spend by automating the enforcement of budgets and rules. The corporate tools provide consolidated ordering and invoicing, eliminating the need for employee expense reports and therefore significantly reducing administrative overhead relating to office food ordering.

Delivery Services

The Company offers delivery services to restaurants in many of its markets. By providing delivery services, the Company is able to significantly broaden the number of restaurants it can offer to diners while enhancing the transparency, consistency and reliability of the diner experience. Delivery services benefit the restaurants by allowing them to focus on making great food while Grubhub handles the complexity of operating the delivery networks.

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Grubhub for Restaurants

Restaurants have historically received orders from Grubhub through a facsimile or email and confirmed orders by phone. Though many restaurants on the Company’s Platform still use this traditional method, a large portion of Grubhub’s restaurants use Grubhub for Restaurants, a responsive web application that can be accessed from computers and mobile devices, as well as Grubhub-provided tablets. Grubhub for Restaurants allows restaurants to electronically receive and display orders and provides operators with the capability to acknowledge receipt of the order, update the estimated completion time and status, specify driver pick-up times, monitor delivery status for delivery drivers in Grubhub’s network, update menu items and perform other administrative functions. Grubhub for Restaurants allows the Company to monitor orders throughout the takeout process (receipt, ready for pickup, on the way, etc.). In turn, Grubhub can make that information available to hungry diners who are waiting for their orders, thus providing greater transparency, reducing their frustration and making the takeout experience more enjoyable.

GH+ Subscription Program

The Company offers a subscription program to diners, GH+, which grants membership benefits, including unlimited deliveries with $0 delivery fee on qualifying orders from GH+ restaurants for a flat subscription fee.

Technology and Fulfillment Services

Technology and fulfillment services include order transmission, customer relationship management tools such as loyalty programs, fully integrated online and in-store ordering and fulfillment solutions, quick-response code payment processing scanners, customer support, and functional analytics. The Company also offers mobile application development professional services and integrated access to the Company’s related platforms and services.

Point of Sale Integration

The Company offers the additional benefit of point of sale (“POS”) integration to those restaurants that want to manage Grubhub orders and update their menus directly from their existing POS system, eliminating the need for additional devices. Grubhub has developed integrations with most of the major platforms including, among others, NCR’s Aloha, Oracle’s MICROS systems, Brink, Toast, POSitouch and Clover, and is regularly adding integrations with other platforms. These partnerships help restaurants improve their in-store workflow, eliminate the time required to enter orders, create more transparency and potentially shorten the window between consumer order and meal preparation.

Restaurant-Branded Websites and Mobile Applications

The Company offers the restaurants in its network a turnkey website and mobile application design and hosting service powered by template-driven technology, which provides restaurant partners with a simple yet effective online and mobile presence. Grubhub processes the orders placed on these websites and mobile applications through its platforms. The Company also offers customized ordering links that allow diners to place orders directly through restaurant websites.

Customer Care

Restaurants

Customer care is an important component of Grubhub’s value proposition for restaurants, enabling them to focus on food preparation. The Company provides restaurants with 24/7 service, where representatives are able to assist with problems that may arise. The Company tracks and manages restaurant performance on the Platform, helping restaurants manage capacity issues while ensuring that diners receive the service they expect.

In addition to operations-related services, the Company offers restaurant partners actionable insights based on the significant amount of order data the Company gathers, helping restaurants optimize their delivery footprint, menus, pricing and online profiles.

Diners

The customer care the Company offers to diners is also an important component of Grubhub’s value proposition, helping to generate diner satisfaction and positive word-of-mouth referrals. The Company believes that it is its responsibility to make diners happy. When diners contact the 24/7 customer care center, the Company typically helps them add items to orders that have already been placed and informs them of the status of their orders. The Company believes that its excellent customer care drives diner referrals, more frequent ordering and overall loyalty to the Platform.

Geographic Markets

The Company’s geographic reach included more than 4,000 cities across the United States as of December 31, 2020. The Company generally has greater market penetration in densely populated metropolitan cities in the United States. During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company also generated a nominal amount of foreign revenues through its U.K.

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subsidiary. During 2020, the Company ceased its U.K. operations and is no longer generating revenues in the U.K. as of December 31, 2020.

Sales and Marketing

The Company’s sales team adds new restaurant partners to the network by emphasizing the Grubhub Platform’s low risk, high return proposition: providing more orders, without charging any upfront payments or subscription fees or requiring any discounts from a restaurant’s full price menus, and Grubhub only gets paid for orders it generates for them. The Company’s delivery network has also expanded the Company’s offerings and ability to attract restaurants that do not have their own delivery operations. Leads for new restaurants are generated either directly by the restaurant through the Company’s websites, including allmenus.com, or are self-prospected by the sales team. Once restaurants have joined the Company’s takeout marketplace, Grubhub representatives continue to work with them to maintain quality control and to increase their order volume. The sales team separately focuses on adding new corporate and campus program clients by emphasizing Grubhub’s value proposition. For corporate customers, Grubhub provides a wide variety of ordering options for employees and proprietary tools that provide rule-based ordering and consolidated reporting and invoicing for employers. For campus customers, the Company provides integrated order ahead and meal plan payment processing technology and a mobile ordering application for student diners.

The Company believes that its online ordering platform, innovative products and excellent customer care are its best and most effective marketing tools, helping to generate strong word-of-mouth referrals, which have been the primary driver of the Company’s diner growth. The Company’s integrated marketing efforts are aimed at encouraging new diners to try the Platform and driving existing diners to engage more frequently with the platform. The Company uses both online as well as offline advertising.

Technology

The Company generally develops additional features for its platform in-house, focusing on quick release cycles and constant improvement. Grubhub’s web and mobile properties are either stored on secure remote servers and software networks through a public cloud provider or are hosted by a third-party provider of hosting services. The Company’s primary third-party hosting service provider is located in Illinois. The platform includes a variety of encryption, antivirus, firewall and patch-management technology to protect and maintain systems and computer hardware across the business. The Company relies on third-party off-the-shelf technology as well as internally developed and proprietary products and systems to ensure rapid, high-quality customer care, software development, website integration, updates and maintenance. The Company leverages off-the-shelf hardware and software platforms in order to build and customize its hardware-based products, such as tablets installed with the Grubhub for Restaurants application.

Customers

As of December 31, 2020, the Company served approximately 31.4 million Active Diners and currently serves over 265,000 partnered restaurants. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, none of these Active Diners or restaurants accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s net revenues.

Competition

The Company is a leading online provider of takeout orders in the United States for independent and Enterprise restaurants. The Company competes with the traditional offline ordering process used by the vast majority of restaurants and diners involving paper menus that restaurants distribute to diners, advertising that restaurants place in local publications to attract diners, as well as other online food ordering businesses.

For diners, Grubhub competes with the traditional ordering process by aggregating restaurant and menu information in one place online so that it is easier and more convenient to find a desirable restaurant option and place a customized order without having to interact directly with the restaurants. For restaurants, the Company offers a more targeted marketing opportunity than the yellow pages, billboards or other local advertising mediums since diners typically access the Company’s Platform when they are looking to place a takeout order, and Grubhub captures the transaction right when a diner has made a decision.

The Company’s online competition consists primarily of national and local service providers, such as DoorDash, Inc., as well as the Uber Eats segment of Uber Technologies, Inc. and Postmates Inc., which was acquired by Uber Technologies, Inc. on December 1, 2020, point-of-sale module vendors that serve some independent restaurants who have their own standalone websites and the online interfaces of Enterprise restaurants that also offer takeout. Compared to other online platforms, Grubhub believes that it offers diners a wide range of choices, with over 300,000 restaurants currently on the Company’s platform, including low cost or no cost delivery, menu price parity with other online ordering options and, the Company believes, the most compelling rewards for diners in the industry. The Company also competes for diners with online competitors on the basis of convenience, control, value and customer care. For restaurants, Grubhub competes with other online platforms based on its ability to generate additional orders, manage challenges such as customization, change orders, menu updates and specials and the ability to help them improve their operational

8


efficiency, with product innovations like Grubhub for Restaurants, POS integration, mobile application development, and customer relationship management programs including loyalty tools, as well as providing a seamless diner experience.

Management believes the Company competes favorably based on these factors and its singular focus on connecting restaurants and diners for takeout ordering.

Seasonality

The Company’s business is dependent on diner behavior patterns. In metropolitan markets, the Company generally experiences a relative increase in diner activity from September to April and a relative decrease in diner activity from May to August. In addition, the Company benefits from increased order volume in its campus markets when school is in session and experiences a decrease in order volume when school is not in session, during summer breaks and other vacation periods. However, COVID-19 temporarily, we believe, mitigated the impact of seasonality on the Company’s business in 2020, as the dynamics that typically drive seasonal increases in ordering, including more time at home and less in-restaurant dining, were persistent throughout the year. Diner activity can also be impacted by colder or more inclement weather, which typically increases order volume, and warmer or sunny weather, which typically decreases order volume. Seasonality may cause fluctuations in the Company’s financial results on a quarterly basis.

Intellectual Property

The Company protects its intellectual property through a combination of trademarks, trade dress, domain name registrations, copyrights, trade secrets and patents applications, as well as contractual provisions and restrictions on access to and use of proprietary information.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company owned 53 trademarks registered in the United States and 27 (including WIPO marks and additional UK trademarks due to Brexit) registered abroad, including: “Grubhub,” “Seamless,” “MenuPages,” “Tapingo,” and “LevelUp”. The Company has also filed nine other trademark applications that are currently pending in the United States. The Company may pursue additional trademark registrations to the extent management believes it will be beneficial and cost-effective.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had 32 patents issued in the United States, one of which is scheduled to expire in 2025, one of which is scheduled to expired in 2027, one of which is scheduled to expire in 2030, three of which are scheduled to expire in 2031, six of which are scheduled to expire in 2032, six of which are scheduled to expire in 2033, seven of which are scheduled to expire in 2034, three of which are scheduled to expire in 2035, one of which is scheduled to expire in 2036, one of which is scheduled to expire in 2037, and two of which are scheduled to expire in 2038. The Company also had 13 patent applications pending in the United States as of December 31, 2020, which seek to cover proprietary inventions relevant to the Company’s products and services. The Company may pursue additional patent protection to the extent management believes it will be beneficial and cost effective.

The Company is the registered holder of a variety of domestic and international domain names that include the terms “Grubhub,” “Seamless,” “Allmenus,” “MenuPages,” “DiningIn,” “LevelUp,” “Tapingo,” “ROTR,” “Delivered Dish” and certain other trademarks and similar variations of such terms.

In addition to the protection provided by the Company’s intellectual property rights, the Company enters into confidentiality agreements with its employees, consultants, contractors and business partners who are given access to confidential information. Further, employees and contractors who contribute to the development of material intellectual property on the Company’s behalf are also subject to invention assignment and/or license agreements, as appropriate. The Company further controls the use of its proprietary technology and intellectual property by engaging trademark watch services, as well as through its general websites and product-specific terms of use and policies.

Human Capital

As of February 19, 2021, the Company had approximately 2,841 full-time equivalent employees primarily located in the U.S. None of the Company’s employees is represented by a labor union with respect to his or her employment with Grubhub. The Company also engages hundreds of thousands of independent contractor delivery drivers who help the Company’s restaurant partners connect with diners.

Grubhub recognizes the importance of the growth, development and retention of its employees and fosters a values-driven community that works together to innovate, solve problems, take risks and grow. The Company believes that it offers competitive compensation and benefits packages as well as programs and policies that promote a strong, inclusive culture with numerous growth and development opportunities. For further information on our equity award plans, 401(k) plan and other employee benefit plans, see Note 12, Stock-Based Compensation, and Note 15, Retirement Plan, to the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The Company prioritizes personal and professional development by providing continuous learning opportunities, trainings, as well as coaching and mentorship programs. Because the Company serves millions of diners from different backgrounds and enables

9


them to order from their favorite restaurants, the Company values the importance of a diverse and inclusive workplace and believes that diversity strengthens its success. The Company is committed to diverse representation at all levels in the organization, as well as training and developing leaders that embrace all backgrounds and points of view. The Company sponsors various employee-led resource groups that connect and support employees, raise awareness, and promote inclusion, equity, opportunity and community in the workplace while also helping drive Company initiatives. Additionally, the Company believes in the importance of serving the communities that support its business through volunteer opportunities, grants, non-profit partnerships, donations and donation matching.

Government Regulations

In response to COVID-19, several jurisdictions have implemented or are considering implementing fee caps and similar measures that limit the amount of commission the Company can charge during the pandemic. For a discussion of fee caps and their impact on the Company’s results of operations, see Item 1A, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to our Ability to Grow our Business – Health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, may have an adverse impact on our business” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis – Results of Operations – Operations Review”.

Available Information

The Company is subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and files or furnishes reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are filed with the SEC and are available free of charge on the Company’s website at investors.grubhub.com/investors/sec-filings at the same time as when the reports are available on the SEC’s website. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. The Company also maintains websites at www.grubhub.com and www.seamless.com. The contents of the websites referenced herein are not incorporated into this filing. Further, the Company’s references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

In this section and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we discuss and analyze the results of operations and financial condition of the Company. In addition to historical information about the Company, we also make statements relating to the future called “forward-looking statements,” which are provided under the “safe harbor” of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements involve substantial risks, known or unknown, and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from future results or outcomes expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “contemplates,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “target” or “will” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern the Company’s expectations, strategy, plans or intentions.

We cannot guarantee that any forward-looking statement will be realized. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in Part I. Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, that could affect the future results of the Company and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the Company’s forward-looking statements.

While forward-looking statements are our best prediction at the time they are made, you should not place undue reliance on them. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this document or the date of any document that may be incorporated by reference into this document.

Consequently, you should consider forward-looking statements only as the Company’s current plans, estimates and beliefs. The Company does not undertake and specifically declines any obligation to publicly update or revise forward-looking statements, including those set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, to reflect any new events, information, events or any change in conditions or circumstances unless required by law. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on 8-K and future Annual Reports on 10-K and our other filings with the SEC.

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Item 1A.

Risk Factors

Our business is subject to numerous risks. You should carefully consider the following risk factors and all other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of these risks could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition and our prospects. In addition, risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

Risks Related to the Proposed Transaction with Just Eat Takeaway.com N.V.

The Transaction is subject to customary closing conditions, and if these conditions are not satisfied or waived, the Transaction may not be completed on a timely basis or at all.

The completion of the Transaction is subject to a number of customary conditions to closing and there can be no assurance that such conditions to closing that remain outstanding will be satisfied or waived (to the extent permitted by law). The failure to timely satisfy the required conditions could delay the completion of the Transaction for a significant period of time or prevent the completion of the Transaction from occurring at all. These closing conditions include, among others, (i) the adoption of the Merger Agreement by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of all of the outstanding shares of Company common stock entitled to vote thereon, (ii) the JET ADSs issuable as merger consideration having been approved for listing on the New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq Global Select Market, and the JET Shares underlying the JET ADSs issuable as merger consideration having been admitted (or approved for admission) to the premium listing segment of the Official List of the Financial Conduct Authority of the United Kingdom (the “FCA”) and to trading on the London Stock Exchange’s main market and for listed securities and trading on Euronext Amsterdam, (iii) the effectiveness of applicable registration statements, (iv) obtaining all necessary approvals of JET’s prospectus from the Dutch Authority for the Financial Markets (Autoriteit Financiële Markten) and the FCA (in each case if then applicable), and (v) other customary conditions for a transaction of this type, such as the absence of any legal restraint prohibiting the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement and the absence of a material adverse effect on the Company or JET.

Failure to consummate the Transaction could negatively impact the share price and the future business and financial results of the Company.

If the Transaction is not consummated, the ongoing business of the Company may be adversely affected and, without realizing any of the potential benefits of having consummated the Transaction, the Company will be subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

The Company may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on its stock price;

 

The Company may experience negative reactions from their consumers, restaurant partners and employees;

 

The Company will be required to pay certain costs and expenses relating to the Transaction whether or not the Transaction is consummated;

 

Matters relating to the Transaction (including integration planning) may require substantial Company management time and resources, which could otherwise have been devoted to other beneficial opportunities;

 

The Merger Agreement restricts the Company, without JET’s consent and subject to certain exceptions, from taking certain specified actions until the Transaction occurs or the Merger Agreement terminates. These restrictions may prevent the Company from pursuing otherwise attractive business opportunities, entering into contracts, incurring capital expenditures to grow its business and making other changes to its business prior to completion of the Transaction or termination of the Merger Agreement;

 

The Company could become subject to litigation related to any failure to consummate the Transaction or related to any enforcement proceeding commenced against the Company to perform its obligations under the Merger Agreement; and

 

If the Merger Agreement is terminated in certain circumstances, the Company may be required to pay a termination fee of $144 million to JET.

If the Transaction is not consummated, these risks may materialize and may materially and adversely affect our business, operations, financial results and share price.

The Merger Agreement contains provisions that limit the Company’s ability to pursue alternatives to the Transaction.

Under the Merger Agreement, the Company is subject to certain restrictions on its ability to solicit alternative business combination proposals from third parties, engage in discussion or negotiations with respect to such proposals or provide information in connection with such proposals, subject to certain customary exceptions. Further, other than in response to a superior proposal or an intervening event, the Company’s board of directors may not withdraw or modify its recommendation to the Company’s stockholders in favor of the adoption of the Merger Agreement, and JET generally has a right to match any competing business combination proposals that may be made. The Company may terminate the Merger Agreement and enter into an agreement providing for a superior proposal only if specified conditions have been satisfied, and such a termination would result in the Company being required to pay JET a termination fee equal to $144 million. If the Merger Agreement is terminated and the Company determines to seek another business combination, the Company may not be able to negotiate a transaction with another party on terms comparable to, or better

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than, the terms of the Transaction. While the Company believes these provisions and agreements are reasonable and customary and are not preclusive of other offers, these provisions could discourage a third party that may have an interest in acquiring all or a significant part of the Company from considering or proposing such acquisition, even if such third party were prepared to pay consideration with a higher value than the merger consideration.

Because the number of JET ADSs that our stockholders will be entitled to receive as a result of the Transaction will be based on a fixed exchange ratio, and the value of the JET Shares underlying the JET ADSs has fluctuated and will continue to fluctuate, our stockholders cannot be sure of the value of the merger consideration they will receive.

Upon completion of the Transaction, our stockholders will be entitled to receive 0.6710 JET ADS in exchange for each outstanding and issued share of Company common stock, with each JET ADS representing one JET Share. Because this exchange ratio is fixed and will only be adjusted in certain limited circumstances (including reclassifications, stock splits or combinations, exchanges or readjustments of shares, or stock dividends, reorganization, recapitalization or similar transactions involving the Company or JET), any changes in the market value of JET Shares or Company common stock may affect the value that our stockholders will be entitled to receive upon completion of the Transaction. Share price changes may result from a variety of factors, including changes in the business, operations or prospects of JET or the Company, market assessments of the likelihood that the Transaction will be completed, the timing of the Transaction, regulatory considerations, general market and economic conditions and other factors.

While the Transaction is pending, the Company will be subject to business uncertainties which could adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Uncertainty about the effect of the Transaction on our employees, customers and other business partners may have an adverse effect on the Company. These uncertainties may impair the Company’s ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel until the Transaction is consummated and for a period of time thereafter. If, despite the Company’s retention efforts, key employees depart because of issues relating to the uncertainty and difficulty of integration or a desire not to remain with the combined company, the combined company’s (or, if the Transaction is not consummated, the Company’s) business could be harmed and its ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Transaction could be adversely affected.

Parties with which the Company does business may experience uncertainty associated with the Transaction, including with respect to current or future business relationships with the Company. The Company’s business relationships may be subject to disruption as restaurants and suppliers may attempt to negotiate changes in existing business relationships or consider entering into business relationships with parties other than the Company. These disruptions could have an adverse effect on the businesses, financial condition, results of operations or prospects of the Company, including an adverse effect on the anticipated benefits of the Transaction. The risk and adverse effect of such disruptions could be exacerbated by a delay in completion of the Transaction or termination of the Merger Agreement. Additionally, certain contracts entered into by the Company contain change in control, anti-assignment, or certain other provisions that may be triggered as a result of the Transaction. If the counterparties to these agreements do not consent to the Transaction, the counterparties may have the ability to exercise certain rights (including termination rights), resulting in the combined company incurring liabilities as a consequence of breaching such agreements, or causing the combined company to lose the benefit of such agreements or incur costs in seeking replacement agreements.

If completed, the Transaction may not achieve its intended results.

The Company and JET entered into the Merger Agreement with the expectation that the Transaction will result in various benefits. Achieving the anticipated benefits of the Transaction is subject to a number of uncertainties, including whether the businesses of JET and the Company can be integrated in an efficient and effective manner. Failure to achieve these anticipated benefits could result in increased costs or decreases in the amount of expected revenues and could adversely affect the combined company’s future business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

The Company and JET may be unable to successfully integrate their respective operations. Failure to successfully integrate the businesses of the Company and JET in the expected timeframe may adversely affect the future results of the combined company, and, consequently, the value of the JET ADSs that our stockholders will receive as the merger consideration.

It is possible that the integration process could take longer than anticipated, could give rise to unanticipated costs and could result in the loss of valuable employees, the disruption of each of our and JET’s ongoing businesses, processes and systems or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, practices, policies and compensation arrangements, any of which could adversely affect the combined company’s ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the Transaction. The combined company’s results of operations could also be adversely affected by any issues attributable to either company’s operations that arise or are based on events or actions that occur prior to the completion of the Transaction. The Company and JET may have difficulty addressing possible differences in corporate cultures and management philosophies. The integration process is subject to a number of uncertainties, and no assurance can be given that the anticipated benefits will be realized or, if realized, the timing of their realization.

After the Transaction, our stockholders will have a significantly lower ownership and voting interest in JET than they currently have in the Company and will exercise less influence over management.

Based on the number of shares of Company common stock outstanding as of June 10, 2020, former Company stockholders were expected to own JET ADSs representing approximately 30% of the combined company (on a fully diluted basis), and based on the

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number of shares of Company common stock outstanding as of February 19, 2021, former Company stockholders are expected to own JET ADSs representing approximately 29% of the combined company (on a fully diluted basis). Our stockholders currently have the right to vote for their directors and on other matters affecting the Company. Following the completion of the Transaction, the JET ADSs that each former Company stockholder will receive as merger consideration will represent a percentage ownership of JET that is smaller than such stockholders percentage ownership of the Company before the completion of the Transaction. As a result of this reduced ownership percentage, our former stockholders will have less influence over the management and policies of JET than they currently have over the management and policies of the Company.

The JET ADSs to be received by our stockholders upon completion of the Transaction will be subject to different rights from shares of our common stock.

Upon completion of the Transaction, our stockholders will no longer be stockholders of the Company but will instead become holders of JET ADSs. Certain rights of our stockholders as holders of JET ADSs will be governed by Dutch law, and the terms of JET’s organizational documents are in some respects materially different than the terms of our charter and by-laws, which currently govern the rights of our stockholders. In addition, there can be no guarantee that JET will maintain a listing of the JET ADSs on a U.S. stock exchange.

The Company and JET may be targets of legal proceedings that could result in substantial costs and may delay or prevent the Transaction from being completed.

Although, currently, we are not aware of any legal proceedings having been brought against the Company or JET in connection with the Transaction, securities class action lawsuits, derivative lawsuits and other legal proceedings are often brought against public companies that have entered into merger agreements. Even if such legal proceedings are without merit, defending against these claims can result in substantial costs and divert management time and resources. An adverse judgment could result in monetary damages, which could have a negative impact on our and JET’s respective liquidity and financial condition. Additionally, if a plaintiff is successful in obtaining an injunction prohibiting completion of the Transaction, such injunction may delay or prevent the Transaction from being completed, or from being completed within the expected timeframe, which may adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operation.

The Company and JET will incur substantial transaction fees and costs in connection with the Transaction.

The Company and JET expect to incur a number of non-recurring transaction-related costs associated with completing the Transaction, combining the operations of the two organizations and achieving desired benefits of the Transaction. These fees and costs will be substantial. Non-recurring transaction costs include, but are not limited to, fees paid to legal, financial and accounting advisors, retention, severance, change in control and other integration-related costs, filing fees and printing costs. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the integration of the businesses of the Company and JET. There can be no assurance that the integration process will deliver all or substantially all of the benefits of the Transaction in the near term, the long term or at all.

The market price of the JET ADSs after the Transaction may be affected by factors different from those currently affecting the market price of our common stock.

Upon completion of the Transaction, our stockholders will no longer be stockholders of the Company but will instead become holders of JET ADSs. The businesses of JET differ from those of the Company in important respects, and, accordingly, the results of operations of JET after the Transaction, as well as the market price of the JET Shares and JET ADSs, may be affected by factors different from those currently affecting the results of operations of the Company.

Risks Related to our Ability to Grow our Business

Health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, may have an adverse impact on our business.

Our business could be materially and adversely affected by a widespread health pandemic, including the COVID-19 pandemic. Such events could also significantly and adversely impact our industry in the short and long term, potentially resulting in significant changes to our restaurant inventory, diner behavior or cost of providing delivery services, any or all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, in response to COVID-19, several jurisdictions have implemented or are considering implementing fee caps and similar measures that limit the amount of commission we can charge during the pandemic. Emergency orders or legislation limiting the commission that we can charge our restaurant partners remain in place in certain markets, and additional restrictions may be put in place limiting the commission that we can charge our restaurant partners in the future. All of the current and contemplated fee caps are expected to end as the impact of the pandemic wanes, but we cannot reasonably estimate the duration of any such restrictions. While we are not aware of any currently contemplated, permanent or long-term regulations that limit the commission that we can charge our restaurant partners could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and/or prospects.

For a discussion of how COVID-19 has impacted the Company during the year ended December 31, 2020, please see Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

If we fail to retain our existing restaurants and diners or to acquire new restaurants and diners in a cost-effective manner, our revenue may decrease and our business may be harmed.

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We believe that growth of our business and revenue is dependent upon our ability to continue to grow our takeout marketplace in existing geographic markets by retaining our existing restaurants and diners and adding new restaurants and diners. The increase in restaurants attracts more diners to our platform and the increase in diners attracts more restaurants. This takeout marketplace takes time to build and may grow more slowly than we expect or than it has grown in the past. In addition, as we have become larger through organic growth, the growth rates for Active Diners, Daily Average Grubs and Gross Food Sales have at times slowed, and may similarly slow in the future, even if we continue to add restaurants and diners on an absolute basis. Although we expect that our growth rates will continue to slow during certain periods as our business increases in size, if we fail to retain either our existing restaurants (especially our most popular restaurants) or diners, the value of our takeout marketplace will be diminished. In addition, although we believe that many of our new restaurants and diners originate from word-of-mouth and other non-paid referrals from existing restaurants and diners, we also expect to continue to spend to acquire additional restaurants and diners. We cannot assure you that the revenue from the restaurants and diners we acquire will ultimately exceed the cost of acquisition.

While a key part of our business strategy is to add restaurants and diners in our existing geographic markets, we will also continue to expand our operations into new geographic markets. In doing so, we may incur losses or otherwise fail to enter new markets successfully. Our expansion into new markets may place us in unfamiliar competitive environments and involve various risks, including the need to invest significant resources and the possibility that returns on such investments will not be achieved for several years or at all.

We compete with both the traditional offline ordering process and online food ordering businesses. Adherence to this traditional ordering method, together with increasing pressure from existing and new companies that offer online ordering could harm our business and results of operations.

We compete with the traditional offline ordering process used by the vast majority of restaurants and diners involving the telephone and paper menus that restaurants distribute to diners, as well as advertising that restaurants place in local publications to attract diners. Changing traditional ordering habits is difficult and if restaurants and diners do not embrace the transition to online food ordering as we expect, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

In addition to the traditional takeout ordering process, we increasingly compete with other online food ordering businesses, Enterprise restaurants that have their own online ordering platforms and mobile applications, point of sale companies and restaurant delivery services. For example, we face competition from DoorDash, Inc., as well as the Uber Eats segment of Uber Technologies, Inc. and Postmates Inc., which was acquired by Uber Technologies, Inc. on December 1, 2020. Our current and future competitors may enjoy competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, greater market share in certain markets and larger existing user bases in certain markets and substantially greater financial, technical and other resources than we have. Greater financial resources and product development capabilities may allow these competitors to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in restaurant and diner requirements that may render our products less attractive or obsolete. These competitors have and may continue to introduce new products with competitive price and performance characteristics and they may undertake more aggressive marketing campaigns than ours. We may also face competition from other large technology companies, retailers or supermarket chains, if and to the extent that such companies choose to enter our market and compete with us. Furthermore, independent restaurants could determine that it is more cost effective to develop their own platforms to permit online takeout orders rather than use our service.

If we lose existing restaurants or diners in our network, fail to attract new restaurants or diners or are forced to reduce our commission percentage or make pricing concessions as a result of increased competition, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Growth of our business will depend on a strong brand and any failure to maintain, protect and enhance our brand would hurt our ability to retain or expand our base of restaurants and diners and our ability to increase their level of engagement.

We believe that a strong brand is necessary to continue to attract and retain diners and, in turn, the restaurants in our network. We need to maintain, protect and enhance our brand in order to expand our base of diners and increase their engagement with our websites and mobile applications. This will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide differentiated products, and we may not be able to do so effectively. While we may choose to engage in a broader marketing campaign to further promote our brand, this effort may not be successful or cost effective. If we are unable to maintain or enhance restaurant and diner awareness in a cost-effective manner, our brand, business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed. Furthermore, negative publicity about our Company, including delivery problems, issues with our technology and complaints about our personnel or customer service, could diminish confidence in, and the use of, our products, which could harm our results of operations and business.

We rely on restaurants in our network for many aspects of our business, and any failure by them to maintain their service levels could harm our business.

We rely upon restaurants in our network, principally small and local independent businesses, and, to a lesser degree, our independent contractor driver network, to provide quality food to our diners on a timely basis. If these restaurants or our independent contractor driver network experience difficulty servicing diner demand, producing quality food, providing timely delivery and good service or meeting our other requirements or standards, our reputation and brand could be damaged. In addition, if restaurants in our network were to cease operations, temporarily or permanently, face financial distress or other business disruption, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, or if our relationships with restaurants in our network deteriorate, we may not be able to provide diners

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with restaurant choices. This risk is more pronounced in markets where we have fewer restaurants. In addition, if we are unsuccessful in choosing or finding popular restaurants, if we fail to negotiate satisfactory pricing terms with them or if we ineffectively manage these relationships, it could harm our business and results of operations.

We may not continue to grow at historical rates or maintain profitability in the future.

While our revenue has grown in recent periods, this growth rate may not be sustainable and we may not realize sufficient revenue to maintain profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including insufficient growth in the number of restaurants and diners on our platform, increasing competition, as well as other risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays and other unknown factors. We expect to continue to make investments in the development and expansion of our business, which may not result in increased revenue or growth. In addition, as a public company, we incur and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. As a result of these increased expenditures, we will have to generate and sustain increased revenue to maintain profitability. Accordingly, we may not be able to maintain profitability and we may incur significant losses in the future, and this could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our brand, results of operations and business could be harmed.

We have experienced rapid growth in our headcount and operations, both through organic growth and recent acquisitions. This growth places substantial demands on management and our operational infrastructure. Many of our employees have been with us for fewer than 18 months. We have and intend to continue to make substantial investments in our technology, customer care, sales and marketing infrastructure. As we continue to grow, we must effectively integrate, develop and motivate a large number of new employees, while maintaining the beneficial aspects of our Company culture. We may not be able to manage growth effectively. If we do not manage the growth of our business and operations effectively, the quality of our platform and efficiency of our operations could suffer, which could harm our brand, business and results of operations.

We make the restaurant and diner experience our highest priority. Our dedication to making decisions based primarily on the best interests of restaurants and diners may cause us to forego short-term opportunities, which could impact our profitability.

We base many of our decisions upon the best interests of the restaurants and diners who use our platform. We believe that this approach has been essential to our success in increasing our growth rate and the frequency with which restaurants and diners use our platform and has served our long-term interests and those of our stockholders. We believe that it is our responsibility to make our diners happy. In the past, we have foregone, and we may in the future forego, certain expansion or revenue opportunities that we do not believe are in the best interests of our restaurants and diners, even if such decisions negatively impact our business or results of operations in the short term. Our focus on making decisions based primarily on the interests of the restaurants and diners who use our platform may not result in the long-term benefits that we expect, and our business and results of operations may be harmed.

If we do not continue to innovate and provide useful products or if our introduced products do not perform or are not adopted by restaurants in accordance with our expectations, we may not remain competitive and our business and results of operations could suffer.

Our success depends in part on our ability to continue to innovate. To remain competitive, we must continuously enhance and improve the functionality and features of our platform, including our websites and mobile applications. The Internet and the online commerce industry are rapidly changing and becoming more competitive. If competitors introduce new products embodying new technologies, or if new industry standards and practices emerge, our existing websites, technology and mobile applications may become obsolete. Our future success could depend on our ability to:

 

enhance our existing products and develop new products;

 

persuade restaurants to adopt our new technologies and products in a timely manner; and

 

respond to technological advances and emerging industry standards and practices on a cost-effective and timely basis.

Developing our platform, which includes our mobile applications, websites and other technologies entails significant technical and business risks. We may use new technologies ineffectively, or we may fail to adapt to emerging industry standards. If we face material delays in introducing new or enhanced products or if our recently introduced products do not perform in accordance with our expectations, the restaurants and diners in our network may forego the use of our products in favor of those of our competitors.

If use of the Internet via websites, mobile devices and other platforms, particularly with respect to online food ordering, does not continue to increase as rapidly as we anticipate, our business and growth prospects will be harmed.

Our business and growth prospects are substantially dependent upon the continued and increasing use of the Internet as an effective medium of transactions by diners. Internet use may not continue to develop at historical rates, and diners may not continue to use the Internet and other online services to order their food at current or increased growth rates or at all. In addition, the Internet and mobile applications may not continue to be accepted as a viable platform or resource for a number of reasons, including:

 

actual or perceived lack of security of information or privacy protection;

 

possible disruptions, computer viruses or other damage to Internet servers, users’ computers or mobile applications;

 

excessive governmental regulation; and

 

unacceptable delays due to actual or perceived limitations of wireless networks.

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Internet search engines drive traffic to our platform and our new diner growth could decline and our business and results of operations would be harmed if we fail to appear prominently in search results.

Our success depends in part on our ability to attract diners through unpaid Internet search results on search engines like Google, Yahoo! and Bing. The number of diners we attract to our platform from search engines is due in large part to how and where our websites rank in unpaid search results. These rankings can be affected by a number of factors, many of which are not under our direct control and may change frequently. For example, a search engine may change its ranking algorithms, methodologies or design layouts. As a result, links to our websites may not be prominent enough to drive traffic to our websites, and we may not know how or otherwise be in a position to influence the results. In some instances, search engine companies may change these rankings in a way that promotes their own competing products or services or the products or services of one or more of our competitors. Search engines may also adopt a more aggressive auction-pricing system for keywords that would cause us to incur higher advertising costs or reduce our market visibility to prospective diners. Our websites have experienced fluctuations in search result rankings in the past, and we anticipate similar fluctuations in the future. Any reduction in the number of diners directed to our platform could harm our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Laws and Regulations

Grubhub is expanding its independent contractor driver network. The status of the drivers as independent contractors, rather than employees, has been and will likely continue to be challenged. A reclassification of the drivers as employees could harm our business or results of operations.

We are involved or may become involved in legal proceedings and investigations that claim that members of the delivery network who we treat as independent contractors for all purposes, including employment tax and employee benefits, should instead be treated as employees. In addition, there can be no assurance that legislative, judicial or regulatory (including tax) authorities will not introduce proposals or assert interpretations of existing rules and regulations that would mandate that we change our existing practices, including the classification of the drivers. As an example, on January 1, 2020, California Assembly Bill 5 (“AB5”) came into effect, which codified a test to determine whether a worker is an employee or independent contractor under California law. However, in November 2020, a California ballot initiative was passed to supersede AB5. Specifically, Proposition 22 (“Prop 22”) exempts app-based workers, including delivery drivers, from being classified as employees and provides for certain minimum compensation levels, as well as certain other requirements. Prop 22 is now in effect, and therefore our costs related to drivers have increased in California. This cost increase could lead us to charge higher diner fees and higher restaurant commissions, which in turn could lower order volume. Legislation in this area continues to evolve, and in the event we were required to reclassify members of our independent contractor driver network as employees, we could be exposed to various liabilities and additional costs. These liabilities and costs could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations and/or make it cost prohibitive for us to deliver orders using our driver network, particularly in geographic areas where we do not have significant volume. These liabilities and additional costs could include exposure (for prior and future periods) under federal, state and local tax laws, and workers’ compensation, unemployment benefits, labor, and employment laws, as well as potential liability for penalties and interest.

We face potential liability, expenses for legal claims and harm to our business based on the nature of our business and the content on our platform.

We face potential liability, expenses for legal claims and harm to our business relating to the nature of the takeout food business, including potential claims related to food offerings, delivery and quality. For example, third parties could assert legal claims against us in connection with personal injuries related to food poisoning or tampering or accidents caused by the delivery drivers of restaurants in our network or drivers in our delivery network. Alternatively, we could be subject to legal claims relating to the delivery of alcoholic beverages sold by restaurants on our network to underage diners.

Reports, whether true or not, of food-borne illnesses (such as E. Coli, avian flu, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, hepatitis A, trichinosis or salmonella) and injuries caused by food tampering have severely injured the reputations of participants in the food business and could do so in the future as well. The potential for acts of terrorism on our nation’s food supply also exists and, if such an event occurs, it could harm our business and results of operations. In addition, reports of food-borne illnesses or food tampering, even those occurring solely at restaurants that are not in our network, could, as a result of negative publicity about the restaurant industry, harm our business and results of operations.

In addition, we face potential liability and expense for claims relating to the information that we publish on our websites and mobile applications, including claims for trademark and copyright infringement, defamation, libel and negligence, among others. For example, non-partnered restaurants featured on our Platform may not want to be included on the Platform. Although we remove restaurants from the Platform upon request, restaurants may bring legal claims against relating to their inclusion on the Platform. There is also a risk that state or local law is enacted to prevent online food delivery businesses like ours from including non-partnered restaurants on their platforms. For instance, the California Legislature passed legislation, California Assembly Bill 2149 (“AB 2149”), which became effective on January 1, 2021. AB 2149 prohibits, among other things, food delivery logistics platforms from facilitating deliveries from restaurants in California without the restaurants’ prior consent. Similar prohibitions have also been enacted or are being considered in other jurisdictions.

We have incurred and expect to continue to incur legal claims. Potentially, the frequency of such claims could increase in proportion to the number of restaurants and diners that use our platform and as we grow. These claims could divert management time

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and attention away from our business and result in significant costs to investigate and defend, regardless of the merits of the claims. In some instances, we may elect or be compelled to remove content or may be forced to pay substantial damages if we are unsuccessful in our efforts to defend against these claims. If we elect or are compelled to remove valuable content from our websites or mobile applications, our platform may become less useful to restaurants and diners and our traffic may decline, which could harm our business and results of operations.

Government regulation of the Internet and e-commerce is evolving, and unfavorable changes could substantially harm our business and results of operations.

We are subject to general business regulations and laws as well as federal and state regulations and laws specifically governing the Internet and e-commerce. Existing and future laws and regulations may impede the growth of the Internet, e-commerce or other online services, and increase the cost of providing online services. These regulations and laws may cover sweepstakes, taxation, tariffs, user privacy, data protection, pricing, content, copyrights, distribution, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, broadband residential Internet access and the characteristics and quality of services. It is not clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership, sales, use and other taxes, libel and personal privacy apply to the Internet and e-commerce. Unfavorable resolution of these issues may harm our business and results of operations.

Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business or results of operations.

We are subject to a variety of laws in the United States, including laws regarding data retention, online credit card payments, privacy, data security, distribution of user-generated content, consumer protection, tax and securities laws, which are frequently evolving and developing. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to us are often uncertain and may be conflicting.

In addition, we may be subject to foreign data protection, privacy, and other laws and regulations, including without limitation the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation, which can be more restrictive than those in the United States and could impact our ability to transfer, process and/or receive transnational data. The regulatory framework for privacy and security issues is evolving and may remain in flux for some period of time. It is also likely that if our business grows and evolves and our products are used in a greater number of geographies, we will become subject to laws and regulations in additional jurisdictions. It is difficult to predict how existing laws will be applied to our business and the new laws to which we may become subject.

If we are not able to comply with these laws or regulations or if we become liable under these laws or regulations, we could be harmed, and we may be forced to implement new measures to reduce our exposure to this liability. This may require us to expend substantial resources or to discontinue certain products or features, which would negatively affect our business. In addition, the increased attention focused upon liability issues as a result of lawsuits and legislative proposals could harm our reputation or otherwise impact the growth of our business. Any costs incurred to prevent or mitigate this potential liability could also harm our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Operation of our Business

If our security measures are compromised, or if our platform is subject to attacks that degrade or deny the ability of restaurants and diners to access our content, restaurants and diners may curtail or stop use of our platform.

Like all online services, our platform is vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins, phishing attacks, ransomware attacks, attempts to overload our servers with denial-of-service, credential stuffing attacks, misappropriation of data through website scraping or other attacks and similar disruptions from unauthorized use of our computer systems, any of which could lead to interruptions, delays or website shutdowns, causing loss of critical data or the unauthorized disclosure or use of personally identifiable or other confidential information. Like most Internet companies, we have experienced various security threats and incidents, including, for example, malware identified on Company systems or machines, phishing and social engineering efforts directed at our employees, and non-compliance with internal security requirements and procedures that have impacted data stored on our systems. In addition, we have experienced incidents of fraud on our platform by unauthorized parties who log into Grubhub accounts. Although none of these threats and incidents resulted in regulatory inquiries, litigation, or a material impact on the reputation, business operations or financial performance of Grubhub, any future security incident could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business operations, or financial performance. We have undertaken steps to enhance our data security program, which include adding additional protective security layers around the data, improving security protocols that govern access to systems, and further reducing security risks through risk assessments and regular testing. However, in the event of a prolonged service interruption or significant breach of our security measures, our restaurants and diners may lose trust and confidence in us and decrease their use of our platform or stop using our platform entirely. We may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures against or proactively address techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems because such techniques change frequently, often remain undetected until launched against a target and may originate from remote areas around the world that are less regulated. The impact of cyber security events experienced by third-parties with whom we do business (or upon whom we otherwise rely in connection with our day-to-day operations) could have a similar effect on us. Moreover, even cyber or similar attacks that do not directly affect us or third-parties with whom we do business may result in a loss of consumer confidence generally, which could make users less likely to use or continue to use our platform. Any or all of these issues could harm our ability to attract new restaurants and diners or deter

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current restaurants and diners from returning, reduce the frequency with which restaurants and diners use our platform, or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or other action or liability, thereby harming our business and results of operations.

Our failure to protect personal information provided by our diners against inappropriate disclosure, including security breaches, could violate applicable law and contracts with our service providers and could result in liability to us, damage to our reputation and brand and harm to our business.

We rely on third-party payment processors and encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties that is designed to effect secure transmission of personal information provided by our diners. In some cases, we retain third-party vendors to store data, including personal information. We may need to expend significant resources to protect against impermissible disclosure, including security breaches, or to address problems caused by such disclosure. If we, or our third-party providers, are unable to maintain the security of our diners’ personal information, our reputation and brand could be harmed and we may lose current and potential diners, be exposed to litigation and possible liability.

Because we process and transmit payment card information, we are subject to the Payment Card Industry (“PCI”) and Data Security Standard (the “Standard”). The Standard is a comprehensive set of requirements for enhancing payment account data security that was developed by the PCI Security Standards Council to help facilitate the broad adoption of consistent data security measures. We are required by payment card network rules to comply with the Standard, and our failure to do so may result in fines or restrictions on our ability to accept payment cards. Under certain circumstances specified in the payment card network rules, we may be required to submit to periodic audits, self-assessments or other assessments of our compliance with the Standard. Such activities may reveal that we have failed to comply with the Standard. If an audit, self-assessment or other test determines that we need to take steps to remediate any deficiencies, such remediation efforts may distract our management team and require us to undertake costly and time consuming remediation efforts. In addition, even if we comply with the Standard, there is no assurance that we will be protected from a security breach.

We may not timely and effectively scale and adapt our existing technology and network infrastructure to ensure that our platform is accessible, which would harm our reputation, business and results of operations.

It is critical to our success that restaurants and diners within our geographic markets be able to access our platform at all times. We have previously experienced service disruptions and, in the future, we may experience service disruptions, outages or other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, capacity constraints due to an overwhelming number of diners accessing our platform simultaneously, and denial of service or fraud or security attacks. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve the availability of our platform, especially during peak usage times and as our products become more complex and our diner traffic increases. If our platform is unavailable when diners attempt to access it or it does not load as quickly as they expect, diners may seek other services, and may not return to our platform as often in the future, or at all. This would harm our ability to attract restaurants and diners and decrease the frequency with which they use our platform. We expect to continue to make significant investments to maintain and improve the availability of our platform and to enable rapid releases of new features and products. To the extent that we do not effectively address capacity constraints, respond adequately to service disruptions, upgrade our systems as needed or continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business and results of operations would be harmed.

We are subject to payment-related risks, and if payment processors are unwilling or unable to provide us with payment processing service or impose onerous requirements on us in order to access their services, or if they increase the fees they charge us for these services, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit and debit cards, Apple Pay®, Android Pay™, PayPal, Amex Express Checkout, Venmo, certain campus meal plans and gift cards. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay bank interchange and other fees. These fees may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower our profitability. We rely on third parties to provide payment processing services, including the processing of credit and debit cards. Our business may be disrupted for an extended period of time if any of these companies becomes unwilling or unable to provide these services to us. We are also subject to payment card association operating rules, certification requirements and rules governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and/or lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from diners or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business and results of operations could be harmed.

We rely on third parties, including our payment processor, cloud providers and data center host, and if these or other third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase and our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Our success will depend upon our relationships with third parties, including our payment processor, cloud providers and data center host. We rely on a third-party payment processor and encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties that is designed to effect secure transmission of personal information provided by our diners. We also rely on a combination of a third-party data center host and cloud providers to provide a reliable network backbone with the speed, data capacity, security and hardware necessary for reliable Internet access and services. If our payment processor, a cloud provider or data center host, or another third party, does not perform adequately, terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially

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reasonable terms, we may have difficulty finding an alternate provider on similar terms and in an acceptable timeframe, our costs may increase and our business and results of operations could be harmed.

In addition, we rely on off-the-shelf hardware and software platforms developed by third parties to build and customize our Grubhub for Restaurants tablet and mobile application, quick-response code scanners and in-store ordering kiosks. If third parties fail to continue to produce or maintain these hardware and software platforms, our Grubhub for Restaurants tablet and mobile application, quick-response code scanners and in-store ordering kiosks may become less accessible to restaurants and diners, and our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Unfavorable media coverage could harm our business and results of operations.

We are the subject of media coverage from time to time. Unfavorable publicity regarding our business model, content, personnel, customer care, technology, product changes, product quality or privacy practices could harm our reputation. Such negative publicity could also harm the size of our network and engagement and loyalty of our restaurants and diners, which could adversely impact our business and results of operations.

Our business, and that of our third-party providers and third-party data center, is subject to the risks of severe weather, earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes and other natural catastrophic events and to interruption by man-made problems such as computer viruses or terrorism.

Our business, particularly in areas of significant concentration like New York, Chicago and San Francisco, is subject to damage or interruption from severe weather, earthquakes, fires, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, power losses, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks, acts of war and similar events. For example, severe weather in Chicago, the location of our corporate headquarters and most of our customer care staff, could inhibit the ability of our customer care staff to get to work, which could result in service problems and complaints from restaurants or diners. As we rely heavily on our servers, computer and communications systems, as well as those of our third-party providers and third-party data center, and the Internet to conduct our business and provide high quality customer service, disruptions could harm our ability to run our business, which could harm our results of operations and financial condition. These events could also negatively impact diner activity or the ability of restaurants to continue to operate.

Acquisitions could disrupt our business and harm our business and results of operations.

As part of our business strategy, we have and we will continue to selectively explore acquisition opportunities of companies and technologies to strengthen our platform. For example, in 2018 we completed acquisitions of Tapingo and LevelUp and in 2017 we completed the acquisitions of Eat24 and Foodler. The identification of suitable acquisition candidates can be difficult, time consuming and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete identified acquisitions. The risks we face in connection with acquisitions include:

 

regulatory hurdles;

 

anticipated benefits may not materialize;

 

diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to addressing acquisition integration challenges;

 

transition of the acquired company’s users to our websites and mobile applications;

 

retention of employees from the acquired company;

 

assimilation, integration and maintenance of the acquired company’s business;

 

cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into our organization;

 

integration of the acquired company’s accounting, management information, human resources and other administrative systems;

 

the need to implement or improve controls, procedures and policies at a business that prior to the acquisition may have lacked effective controls, procedures and policies;

 

coordination of product development and sales and marketing functions;

 

liability for activities of the acquired company before the acquisition, including patent and trademark infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities; and

 

litigation or other claims in connection with the acquired company, including claims from terminated employees, users, former stockholders or other third parties.

Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our past or future acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business generally. Future acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses or the impairment of goodwill, any of which could harm our business and results of operations. See also “Risks Related to the Proposed Transaction with Just Eat Takeaway.com N.V.

Risks Related to Human Capital

The loss of key senior management personnel could harm our business and future prospects.

We depend on our senior management and other key personnel. We may not be able to retain the services of any of our senior management or other key personnel. Although we have employment agreements with our key senior management personnel, their

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employment is at-will and they could leave at any time. The loss of any of our executive officers or other key employees could harm our business and future prospects.

We depend on talented personnel to grow and operate our business, and if we are unable to hire, retain, manage and motivate our personnel, or if our new personnel do not perform as we anticipate, we may not be able to grow effectively.

Our future success will depend upon our ability to continue to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain talented personnel. We may not be able to retain the services of any of our employees or other members of senior management in the future. In addition, from time to time, there may be changes in our senior management team that may be disruptive to our business. If our senior management team fails to work together effectively and to execute our plans and strategies, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Our growth strategy also depends on our ability to expand our organization by attracting and hiring high-quality personnel. Identifying, attracting, recruiting, training, integrating, managing and motivating talented individuals will require significant time, expense and attention. Competition for talent is intense, particularly in technology driven industries such as ours. If we are not able to effectively recruit and retain our talent, our business and our ability to achieve our strategic objectives would be harmed.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property could harm our business and results of operations.

Our business depends on our intellectual property, the protection of which is crucial to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, trade secret and copyright law and contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property. In addition, we attempt to protect our intellectual property, technology and confidential information by requiring our employees and consultants who develop intellectual property on our behalf to enter into confidentiality and assignment of inventions agreements and non-competition agreements, and third parties to enter into nondisclosure agreements. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information, intellectual property or technology and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information, intellectual property or technology. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may copy aspects of our website features, software and functionality or obtain and use information that we consider proprietary.

We have registered, among numerous other trademarks, “Grubhub,” “Seamless,” “Tapingo,” “LevelUp,” and “MenuPages” as trademarks in the United States and abroad. Competitors have and may continue to adopt service names similar to ours, thereby harming our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to user confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other trademarks that are similar to our trademarks. Litigation or proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or other governmental authorities and administrative bodies in the United States and abroad may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, which could harm our business and results of operations.

We may be unable to continue to use the domain names that we use in our business, or prevent third parties from acquiring and using domain names that infringe on, are similar to, or otherwise decrease the value of our brand or our trademarks or service marks.

We have registered domain names for our websites that we use in our business, most importantly seamless.com, grubhub.com, thelevelup.com, tapingo.com, MenuPages.com and allmenus.com. If we lose the ability to use a domain name, whether due to trademark claims, failure to renew the applicable registration, or any other cause, we may be forced to market our products under a new domain name, which could cause us substantial harm, or to incur significant expense in order to purchase rights to the domain name in question. In addition, our competitors and others could attempt to capitalize on our brand recognition by using domain names similar to ours. Domain names similar to ours have been registered in the United States and elsewhere. We may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring and using domain names that infringe on, are similar to, or otherwise decrease the value of our brand or our trademarks or service marks. Protecting and enforcing our rights in our domain names may require litigation, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, which could in turn harm our business and results of operations.

Intellectual property infringement assertions by third parties could result in significant costs and harm our business, results of operations and reputation.

We operate in an industry with extensive intellectual property litigation. Other parties have asserted, and in the future may assert, that we have infringed their intellectual property rights. Such litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue, and therefore our own issued and pending patents may provide little or no deterrence. We could be required to pay substantial damages or cease using intellectual property or technology that is deemed infringing.

Furthermore, we cannot predict whether assertions of third-party intellectual property rights or claims arising from such assertions will substantially harm our business and results of operations. The defense of any such claims, whether they are with or without merit or are determined in our favor, may result in costly litigation and diversion of technical and management personnel. Furthermore, an adverse outcome of a dispute may require us to pay damages, potentially including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a party’s patent or copyright rights; cease making, licensing or using products that are alleged to incorporate the intellectual property of others; expend additional development resources to redesign our products; and enter

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into potentially unfavorable royalty or license agreements in order to obtain the right to use necessary technologies. Royalty or licensing agreements, if required, may be unavailable on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In any event, we may need to license intellectual property which would require us to pay royalties or make one-time payments. Even if these matters do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor or without significant cash settlements, the time and resources necessary to resolve them could harm our business, results of operations and reputation.

Some of our products contain open source software, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary software and products.

We use open source software in our products and will use open source software in the future. From time to time, we may face claims from third parties claiming ownership of, or demanding release of, the open source software and/or derivative works that we developed using such software (which could include our proprietary source code), or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could result in litigation and could require us to purchase a costly license or cease offering the implicated products unless and until we can re-engineer them to avoid infringement. This re-engineering process could require significant additional research and development resources. In addition to risks related to license requirements, use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of software. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage, and, if not addressed, could harm our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Financial Performance or General Economic Conditions

Increases in food, labor, energy and other costs could adversely affect results of operations.

An increase in restaurant operating costs could cause restaurants in our network to raise prices or cease operations. Factors such as inflation, increased food costs, increased labor and employee benefit costs, increased rent costs and increased energy costs may increase restaurant operating costs. Many of the factors affecting restaurant costs are beyond the control of the restaurants in our network. In many cases, these restaurants may not be able to pass along these increased costs to diners and, as a result, may cease operations, which could harm our profitability and results of operations. Additionally, if these restaurants raise prices, order volume may decline, which could harm our profitability and results of operations.

We experience significant seasonal fluctuations in our financial results, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.

Our business is highly dependent on diner behavior patterns that we have observed over time. In our metropolitan markets, we generally experience a relative increase in diner activity from September to April and a relative decrease in diner activity from May to August. In addition, we benefit from increased order volume in our campus markets when school is in session and experience a decrease in order volume when school is not in session, during summer breaks and other vacation periods. Diner activity can also be impacted by colder or more inclement weather, which typically increases order volume, and warmer or sunny weather, which typically decreases order volume. Seasonality will likely cause fluctuations in our financial results on a quarterly basis. In addition, other seasonality trends may develop and the existing seasonality and diner behavior that we experience may change or become more significant.

We expect a number of factors to cause our results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly and annual basis, which may make it difficult to predict our future performance.

Our results of operations could vary significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year because of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, comparing our results of operations on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to other risk factors discussed in this section, factors that may contribute to the variability of our quarterly and annual results include:

 

our ability to attract new restaurants and diners and retain existing restaurants and diners in our network in a cost effective manner;

 

our ability to accurately forecast revenue and appropriately plan our expenses;

 

the effects of changes in search engine placement and prominence;

 

the effects of increased competition on our business;

 

our ability to successfully expand in existing markets and successfully enter new markets;

 

the impact of worldwide economic conditions, including the resulting effect on diner spending on takeout;

 

the seasonality of our business, including the effect of academic calendars on college campuses and seasonal patterns in restaurant dining;

 

the impact of weather on our business;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property;

 

our ability to maintain an adequate rate of growth and effectively manage that growth;

 

our ability to maintain and increase traffic to our platform;

 

our ability to keep pace with technology changes in the takeout industry;

 

the success of our sales and marketing efforts;

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costs associated with defending claims, including intellectual property infringement claims and related judgments or settlements;

 

changes in governmental or other regulation affecting our business;

 

interruptions in service and any related impact on our business, reputation or brand;

 

the attraction and retention of qualified employees and key personnel;

 

our ability to choose and effectively manage third-party service providers;

 

changes in diner behavior with respect to takeout;

 

the effects of natural or man-made catastrophic events;

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

the effectiveness of our internal controls;

 

the impact of payment processor costs and procedures;

 

changes in the online payment transfer rate; and

 

changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities.

The impact of economic conditions, including the resulting effect on consumer spending, may harm our business and results of operations.

Our performance is subject to economic conditions and their impact on levels of consumer spending. Some of the factors having an impact on discretionary consumer spending include general economic conditions, unemployment, consumer debt, reductions in net worth, residential real estate and mortgage markets, taxation, energy prices, interest rates, consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors. Consumer purchases of discretionary items generally decline during recessionary periods and other periods in which disposable income is adversely affected. Small businesses that do not have substantial resources, like a substantial number of the restaurants in our network, tend to be more adversely affected by poor economic conditions than large businesses. Also, because spending for food purchases from restaurants is generally considered to be discretionary, any decline in consumer spending may have a disproportionate effect on our business relative to those businesses that sell products or services considered to be necessities. If spending at many of the restaurants in our network declines, or if a significant number of these restaurants go out of business, diners may be less likely to use our service, which could harm our business and results of operations. In addition, significant adverse economic conditions could harm the businesses of our corporate customers, resulting in decreased use of our platform. Restaurants in our network are located in diverse geographic areas across the U.S. and include major metropolitan areas like New York City, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area. To the extent any one of these major metropolitan areas experience any of the above-described conditions to a greater extent than other geographic areas, the harm to our business and results of operations could be exacerbated.

The agreements governing our senior debt contain operating and financial covenants that may restrict our business and financing activities.

We are party to a credit agreement in connection with our secured, revolving credit facility, and an indenture in connection with our senior notes. The credit facility and the senior notes are guaranteed by the Company and its domestic subsidiaries. In addition, the credit facility is secured by a lien on substantially all of the tangible and intangible property of the Company, and by a pledge of all of the equity interests of the Company’s domestic subsidiaries.

The credit agreement and indenture contain customary covenants that, among other things, restrict the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ ability to incur additional debt, create liens, make certain investments and acquisitions, pay dividends and make distributions, transfer and sell material assets and merge or consolidate. In addition, the credit agreement requires the Company to satisfy certain financial covenants. As a result, we are limited in the manner in which we conduct our business, and we may be unable to engage in favorable business activities. These restrictions could place us at a competitive disadvantage to competitors.

Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and we may not be able to meet these covenants. From time to time, we may be required to seek waivers or amendments to the agreements governing our senior debt to maintain compliance with these covenants, and there can be no certainty that any such waiver or amendment will be available, or what the cost of such waiver or amendment, if obtained, would be. Non-compliance with one or more of these covenants could result in our senior debt becoming immediately due and payable, and the termination of the lenders’ commitments under our credit facility.

If we are unable to generate sufficient cash available to repay our debt obligations, if any, when they become due and payable, either when they mature or in the event of a default, we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all.

In addition to the capital available under the credit facility, we may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new features and products or enhance our existing products, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our

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existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any additional debt financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be impaired, and our business may be harmed.

Our business and results of operations may be harmed if we are deemed responsible for the collection and remittance of state sales taxes for our restaurants.

If we are deemed an agent for the restaurants in our network under state tax law, we may be deemed responsible for collecting and remitting sales taxes directly to certain states. It is possible that one or more states could seek to impose sales, use or other tax collection obligations on us with regard to such food sales. These taxes may be applicable to past sales. A successful assertion that we should be collecting additional sales, use or other taxes or remitting such taxes directly to states could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales and additional administrative expenses, which would harm our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

A significant portion of our common stock is held by our existing executive officers, directors and holders of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock, whose interests may differ from yours.

As of February 19, 2021, our current executive officers, directors and holders of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock beneficially owned, in the aggregate, approximately 36% of our outstanding shares of common stock. Some of these persons or entities may have interests that are different from yours. For example, these stockholders may support proposals and actions with which you may disagree or which are not in your interests or which adversely impact the value of your investment. These stockholders will be able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, amendment of our certificate of incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control in us or changes in management and could also make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders, which in turn could reduce the price of our common stock.

The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Since shares of our common stock were sold in our IPO in April 2014 at a price of $26.00 per share, the reported high and low sales prices of our common stock have ranged from $17.77 to $149.35 through February 19, 2021. An active, liquid and orderly market for our common stock may not be sustained, which could depress the trading price of our common stock. The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock since you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our common stock include the following:

 

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

 

volatility in the market prices and trading volumes of technology stocks, particularly Internet stocks;

 

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;

 

sales of shares of our common stock by us or our stockholders;

 

failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our Company or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in those projections or our failure to meet those projections;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of new products;

 

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

 

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;

 

actual or anticipated changes in our results of operations or fluctuations in our results of operations;

 

actual or anticipated developments in our business, our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;

 

litigation involving us, our industry or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;

 

developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

 

announced or completed acquisitions of businesses or technologies by us or our competitors;

 

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;

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changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles;

 

any significant change in our management; and

 

general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets.

In addition, in the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. Such litigation, including the putative class action instituted against us in November 2019, could result in substantial costs, divert our management’s attention and resources and harm our business and results of operations.

We cannot guarantee that we will repurchase additional shares of our common stock pursuant to our ongoing share repurchase program or that our share repurchase program will enhance stockholder value. Share repurchases could also increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and could diminish our cash reserves.

On January 22, 2016, our Board of Directors approved a program that authorizes the repurchase of up to $100 million of our common stock exclusive of any fees, commissions or other expenses relating to such repurchases through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions at the prevailing market price at the time of purchase.

Although our Board of Directors has approved the share repurchase program, we are not obligated to repurchase any specific dollar amount or to acquire any specific number of shares. The timing and amount of repurchases, if any, will depend upon several factors, including market and business conditions, the trading price of our common stock and the nature of other investment opportunities. The repurchase program may be limited, suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice, which could result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock. In addition, repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program could affect the trading price of our common stock or increase its volatility. For example, the existence of a share repurchase program could cause our stock price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our common stock. Additionally, our share repurchase program may cause us to incur debt or reduce our cash reserves, and those reserves may be reduced further in the future, which may impact our ability to finance future growth and to pursue possible future strategic opportunities and acquisitions. There is no assurance that our share repurchase program will enhance stockholder value and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain and Delaware law contains provisions, which could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Our corporate governance documents include provisions:

 

creating a classified board of directors whose members serve staggered three-year terms;

 

authorizing “blank check” preferred stock, which could be issued by our board of directors without stockholder approval and may contain voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock;

 

limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;

 

limiting the ability of our stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings;

 

requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals for business to be conducted at meetings of our stockholders and for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors;

 

controlling the procedures for the conduct and scheduling of board of directors and stockholder meetings; and

 

providing our board of directors with the express power to postpone previously scheduled annual meetings and to cancel previously scheduled special meetings.

These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management.

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation law, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our outstanding common stock.

Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

We do not expect to declare any dividends in the foreseeable future.

We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Consequently, investors may need to rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

General Risks

As a public company, we incur significant costs to comply with the laws and regulations affecting public companies which could harm our business and results of operations.

24


As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and the listing requirements of the NYSE, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. These rules and regulations have increased and will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs and have made and will continue to make some activities more time consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations could make it more difficult and more costly for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or our board committees or as executive officers. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and operating results. Although we have hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire more employees in the future, which will increase our costs and expenses.

If securities or industry analysts issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our common stock or do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock is influenced, to some extent, by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. We do not control these analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. If any of the analysts who cover us change their recommendation regarding our common stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who covers us were to cease coverage of our Company or fail to publish reports on us regularly or if analysts elect not to provide research coverage of our common stock, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timeliness of our financial reporting may be adversely affected.

We are responsible for implementing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting and are required, pursuant to Section 404, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment requires disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. While we have determined that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020, as indicated in our Management’s Report and Attestation Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, we must continue to monitor and assess our internal control over financial reporting. If during the evaluation and testing process we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls are effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls or concludes that we have a material weakness in our internal controls, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. In addition, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner each year, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the NYSE or other regulatory authorities which would require additional financial and management resources and could adversely affect the market price of our stock.

In addition, implementing any appropriate changes to our internal controls may distract our officers and employees, entail substantial costs to implement new processes and modify our existing processes and take significant time to complete. Moreover, any such changes do not guarantee that we will be effective in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and harm our business. Furthermore, investors’ perceptions that our internal controls are inadequate or that we are unable to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis may harm our stock price.

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.

Properties

The Company’s principal executive offices are located at 111 W. Washington, Suite 2100, Chicago, Illinois 60602. As of December 31, 2020, the Company leased approximately 164,072 square feet of office space that houses the principal operations in Chicago, Illinois, as well as approximately 81,219 and 74,888 square feet of space at its primary offices in New York, New York, and Boston, Massachusetts, respectively. The Company leases additional office space in various locations throughout the U.S. as well as in Israel as a result of acquisitions and organic growth. The Company believes these facilities are in good condition and sufficient for its current needs but may need to seek additional or expanded facilities if the business continues to grow.

25


Item 3.

For a description of the Company’s material pending legal proceedings, please see Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal, to the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

PART II.

Item 5.

Market for Grubhub Inc.’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matter and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Company’s common stock began trading on the NYSE under the symbol “GRUB” on April 4, 2014. Before then, there was no public market for the Company’s common stock.

 

Holders

As of the close of business on February 19, 2021, there were approximately 22 stockholders of record of the Company’s common stock. The number of holders of record is based upon the actual number of holders registered at such date and does not include holders of shares in “street name” or persons, partnerships, associates, corporations or other entities in security position listings maintained by depositories.

Dividends

There were no distributions to common and preferred stockholders during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the Company currently intends to retain any future earnings and does not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of the Company’s board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

There were no sales of unregistered equity securities during the three months and year ended December 31, 2020.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On January 22, 2016, the Board of Directors of the Company approved a program (the “Repurchase Program”) that authorizes the repurchase of up to $100 million of the Company’s common stock exclusive of any fees, commissions or other expenses relating to such repurchases through open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions at the prevailing market price at the time of purchase. The Repurchase Program was announced on January 25, 2016. Repurchased stock may be retired or held as treasury shares. The repurchase authorizations do not obligate the Company to acquire any particular amount of common stock or adopt any particular method of repurchase and may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time at the Company’s discretion, however, pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, and subject to certain limited exceptions, the Company may not repurchase its common stock.

During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company did not repurchase any of its common stock pursuant to the Repurchase Program and does not expect to repurchase any shares of its common stock in connection with the Repurchase Program prior to the consummation of the Transaction or earlier termination of the Merger Agreement.

See Part II, Item 8, Note 14, Stockholders' Equity, for additional details of common stock repurchased since inception of the program.

Company Stock Performance Graph

The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative total return for the Company’s common stock, the NYSE Composite Index and the RDG Internet Composite Index over the period from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2020. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at market close on December 31, 2015 in each of the Company’s common stock, the NYSE Composite Index and

26


the RDG Internet Composite Index. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance. The cumulative total returns for the NYSE Composite Index and the RDG Internet Composite Index assume reinvestment of dividends.

This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Grubhub Inc. under the Securities Act, or the Exchange Act.

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

Not applicable.

 

Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Overview

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is provided to enhance the reader’s understanding of the Company’s financial condition, changes in its financial condition and results of operations from the perspective of management and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Unless otherwise stated, the discussion below primarily reflects the historical condition and results of operations for Grubhub Inc. for the periods presented and the results of acquired businesses from the relevant acquisition dates. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect the Company’s plans, estimates, and beliefs. Actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences, such as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID-19”), include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors”. This overview summarizes the MD&A, which includes the following sections:

 

Our Business –for a general description of our business, strategy, challenges and products and services see Part I, Item 1, “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Significant Accounting Policies and Critical Estimates – for further discussion of accounting policies that require critical judgments and estimates see Part II, Item 8, Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Operations Review – an analysis of our consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year and non-GAAP financial measures.

27


 

Liquidity and Capital Resources – an analysis of cash flows, contractual obligations and commitments, changes in interest rates and fluctuations in foreign currency and an overview of financial position.

Significant Accounting Policies and Critical Estimates

Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates, judgments and assumptions take into account historical and forward-looking factors that the Company believes are reasonable including, but not limited to, the potential impact arising from the COVID-19 pandemic and measures implemented to prevent its spread. Our actual results could differ from these estimates. We believe our most critical accounting policies and estimates relate to the following:

 

Revenue recognition

 

Website and software development costs

 

Valuation and recoverability of intangible assets with finite lives and other long-lived assets

 

Stock-based compensation

 

Goodwill

 

Income taxes

For a description of our significant accounting policies including critical judgments and estimates, see Part II, Item 8, Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Operations Review

Executive Overview

In 2020, we continued our strong growth trajectory, generating 39% revenue growth and continued growth across all key business metrics as compared to 2019. At the same time, we provided significant support to our restaurant partners in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the form of reduced commissions and fees and marketing and promotional support. Additionally, we made meaningful progress on our restaurant network and diner loyalty initiatives in 2020, including launching our GH+ subscription program and expanding our network to more than 265,000 partnered restaurants.

Compared to 2019, our revenues increased by $507.8 million, or 39%, to $1.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was primarily related to a 26% increase in Daily Average Grubs and a 16% higher average order size. Daily Average Grubs increased to 622,700 during the year ended December 31, 2020 from 492,300 during 2019 driven by improved diner retention and frequency as well as significant growth in Active Diners, which increased from 22.6 million to 31.4 million at the end of each year. The growth in Active Diners and Daily Average Grubs was primarily as a result of increased product and brand awareness by diners largely driven by accelerated adoption of online food ordering as a result of COVID-19, marketing efforts and word-of-mouth referrals, better restaurant choices for diners in our markets and technology and product improvements. The higher average order size was primarily driven by changing diner behavior as a result of COVID-19 including family or group orders. The increase in revenues was partially offset by a 120 basis point decrease in our average revenue capture rate of Gross Food Sales. The decrease in our average revenue capture rate was primarily driven by restaurant support programs including temporary COVID-19 related fee caps, funding coupons and lower restaurant and diner facing fees, which reduced revenue.

Our net loss increased by $137.3 million to $155.9 million or $1.69 per diluted share during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily driven by significant restaurant support and driver safety spending in response to COVID-19 including reduced commissions and fees, marketing and promotional support and bonuses and personal protective equipment for our drivers. Additionally, compensation expense, payment processing costs and certain other expenses increased as a result of organic growth in the business and order volume. The Company also incurred additional legal settlement costs and merger and restructuring expenses in 2020.

Just Eat Takeaway.com Transaction

On June 10, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement with Just Eat Takeaway.com N.V. (“JET”) whereby JET is to acquire 100% of the Company’s shares in an all-stock transaction (the “Transaction”). JET, headquartered in Amsterdam, is a leading global online food delivery marketplace. The Transaction represents JET’s entry into online food delivery in the United States. Under the terms of the Transaction, Grubhub shareholders will be entitled to receive American depositary shares representing 0.6710 Just Eat Takeaway.com ordinary shares in exchange for each share of Grubhub common stock, representing implied value of $75.15 for each Grubhub share based on JET’s then-current stock price at the time the Transaction was announced and implying total

28


equity consideration (on a fully diluted basis) of approximately $7.3 billion. The Transaction is expected to be completed in the first half of 2021 and is subject to certain conditions including Grubhub shareholder approval and certain customary closing conditions. The Transaction has received all required regulatory clearances and JET shareholders have approved the Transaction. For additional information, see Part II, Item 8, Note 3, Merger Agreement.

Impact of COVID-19

Over the past year, the Company has been monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, our industry and the broader economy. The pandemic has had a significant, adverse impact on our restaurant partners, largely due to restrictions on in-restaurant dining, which have contributed to changes in diner behavior.

While the Company initially experienced somewhat reduced order volume at the onset of the pandemic during the first quarter of 2020, the Company saw significantly improved trends in subsequent quarters as new diners and new restaurants joined the Platform and existing diners increased ordering as a substitute for in-restaurant dining. These factors contributed to significant increases in Active Diners, Daily Average Grubs and Gross Food Sales on a year-over-year basis.

However, the sustainability of our restaurant, driver and diner network remains paramount. Therefore, since the onset of the pandemic, the Company has sought out ways to support its restaurants and drivers, including through investments in programs designed to drive more business to our restaurant partners such as promotions, reduced diner fees and product improvements. We also supported our drivers by investing in personal protection kits and higher pay and bonuses. The Company may continue to invest in such programs while the COVID-19 pandemic persists. In addition, governments in certain of the markets where the Company operates introduced temporary emergency orders or legislation limiting the commission that the Company can charge its restaurant partners during the pandemic in order to aid the restaurant sector. We believe that the Company will emerge from these events well positioned for long-term growth and profitability, however, the Company cannot reasonably estimate the duration or severity of the economic impact to diners and restaurants of the restrictions on daily life to curb the spread of COVID-19, or the ultimate impact on the Company’s operations and liquidity. The Company will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions as may be required by federal, state or local or authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our network of restaurants, drivers, diners and employees. For further discussion, see Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, as well as management’s discussion under “Key Business Metrics,” “Results of Operations,” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below.

Key Business Metrics

To analyze our business performance, determine financial forecasts and help develop long-term strategic plans, we review key business metrics which include transactions placed on the Platform where the Company provides marketing services to generate orders. The Platform excludes transactions where the Company exclusively provides technology or fulfillment services. The following key business metrics are reviewed:

Active Diners

We count Active Diners as the number of unique diner accounts from which an order has been placed in the past twelve months through our Platform. Diner accounts from which an order has been placed on one of our websites or one of our mobile applications are included in our Active Diner metrics. Active Diners is an important metric for us because the number of diners using our Platform is a key revenue driver and a valuable measure of the size of our engaged diner community. Some of our diners could have more than one account if they were to set up multiple accounts using a different e-mail address for each account. As a result, it is possible that our Active Diners metric may count certain diners more than once during any given period.

Daily Average Grubs

We count Daily Average Grubs as the number of orders placed on our Platform divided by the number of days for a given period. Daily Average Grubs is an important metric for us because the number of orders processed on our Platform is a key revenue driver and, in conjunction with the number of Active Diners, a valuable measure of diner activity on our Platform for a given period.

Gross Food Sales

We calculate Gross Food Sales as the total value of food, beverages, taxes, prepaid gratuities, and any diner-paid fees processed through our Platform. We include all revenue generating orders placed on our Platform in this metric. Gross Food Sales is an important metric for us because the total volume of food sales transacted through our Platform is a key revenue driver. Because we act as an agent of the merchant in the transaction, revenues are recognized on a net basis for our commissions from the transaction, which are a percentage of the total Gross Food Sales for such transaction.

29


Our key business metrics are as follows for the periods presented:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

Active Diners

 

 

31,417,000

 

 

 

22,621,000

 

 

 

17,688,000

 

 

 

39

%

 

 

28

%

Daily Average Grubs

 

 

622,700

 

 

 

492,300

 

 

 

435,900

 

 

 

26

%

 

 

13

%

Gross Food Sales (in millions)

 

$

8,668.9

 

 

$

5,913.6

 

 

$

5,056.8

 

 

 

47

%

 

 

17

%

 

We experienced growth across all of our key business metrics, Active Diners, Daily Average Grubs and Gross Food Sales, during the periods presented.

2020 compared to 2019

The Company experienced growth across all of its key business metrics during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. This growth was primarily as a result of increased product and brand awareness by diners largely driven by accelerated adoption of online food ordering due to COVID-19, marketing efforts and word-of-mouth referrals, better restaurant choices for diners in our markets and technology and product improvements. COVID-19 impacted all of our key business metrics as a result of changing diner behaviors. Gross Food Sales increased disproportionately to Daily Average Grubs due to higher average order size, which was primarily a result of changing diner behavior as a result of COVID-19. Additionally, the Company’s investment in programs to support restaurants during the COVID-19 pandemic including funding coupons, lower diner facing fees and increased advertising during the year ended December 31, 2020 drove incremental Daily Average Grubs and Gross Food Sales.

For discussion related to 2019 key business metrics compared to 2018, refer to the section titled “Operations Review” in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 (“2019 Form 10-K”).

Basis of Presentation

Revenues

We generate revenues primarily when diners place an order on our Platform through our mobile applications, our websites, or through third-party websites that incorporate our API or one of our listed phone numbers. Restaurant partners pay us a commission, typically a percentage of the transaction on orders that are processed through our Platform. Most of the restaurant partners on our Platform can choose their level of commission rate, at or above the base rate. A restaurant can choose to pay a higher rate which affects its prominence and exposure to diners on the Platform. Additionally, restaurant partners that use our delivery services pay an additional commission for the use of those services. We may also charge fees directly to the diner.

For most orders, diners use a credit card to pay us for their meal when the order is placed. For these transactions, we collect the total amount of the diner’s order net of payment processing fees from the payment processor and remit the net proceeds to the restaurant less commissions and other fees. We generally accumulate funds and remit the net proceeds to the restaurant partners on at least a monthly basis. Non-partnered restaurants are paid at the time of the order. We also deduct commissions for other transactions that go through our platform, such as cash transactions for restaurants in our network, from the aggregate proceeds received.

We periodically provide incentive offers to restaurants and diners to use our Platform. These promotions are generally cash credits to be applied against purchases. These incentive offers are recorded as reductions in revenues, generally on the date the corresponding revenue is recorded.

We also generate revenue from fees paid by diners for GH+, our subscription product. GH+ subscribers receive unlimited deliveries with $0 delivery fee on qualifying orders from GH+ restaurants.

We derive some revenues from mobile application development professional services and access to the respective order ahead platforms and related tools and services.

We generate a small amount of revenues directly from companies that participate in our corporate ordering program and by selling advertising on our allmenus.com website.

We do not anticipate that corporate fees, advertising, professional services or fees to access order ahead platforms and tools will generate a significant portion of our revenues in the foreseeable future.

Costs and Expenses

Operations and Support

Operations and support expenses consist of salaries and benefits, stock-based compensation expense and bonuses for salaried employees and payments to independent contractors engaged in customer care, operations and restaurant delivery services. Operations and support expenses also include payment processing costs for diner orders, costs of uploading and maintaining restaurant menu content, communications costs related to orders, facilities costs allocated on a headcount basis and other expenses related to operating and maintaining an independent delivery network.

30


Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expenses contain advertising expenses including search engine marketing, television, online display, media and other programs. Sales and marketing expenses also consist of salaries, commissions, benefits, stock-based compensation expense and bonuses for restaurant sales, restaurant sales support, corporate and campus program customer sales and marketing employees, payments to contractors and facilities costs allocated on a headcount basis.

Technology (exclusive of amortization)

Technology (exclusive of amortization) expenses consist of salaries and benefits, stock-based compensation expense and bonuses for salaried employees and payments to contractors engaged in the design, development, maintenance and testing of our platform, including our websites, mobile applications and other products. Technology expenses also include facilities costs allocated on a headcount basis but do not include amortization of capitalized website and software development costs.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses consist of salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation expense and bonuses for executive, finance, accounting, legal, human resources and administrative support. General and administrative expenses also include legal, accounting, other third-party professional services, other miscellaneous expenses and facilities costs allocated on a headcount basis.

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization expenses primarily consist of amortization of acquired intangibles and depreciation of computer equipment, furniture and fixtures, leasehold improvements and capitalized website and software development costs.

Income Tax (Benefit) Expense

Income tax (benefit) expense consists of federal and state income taxes in the United States and income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions, deferred income taxes reflecting the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes, excess tax benefits or deficiencies from stock-based compensation and net operating loss carryforwards.

Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented in dollars and as a percentage of our revenues:

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

 

Amount

 

 

% of

revenue

 

 

Amount

 

 

% of

revenue

 

 

Amount

 

 

% of

revenue

 

 

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

Revenues

$

1,819,982

 

 

 

100

%

 

$

1,312,151

 

 

 

100

%

 

$

1,007,257

 

 

 

100

%

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operations and support

 

1,169,126

 

 

 

64

%

 

 

675,471

 

 

 

51

%

 

 

454,321

 

 

 

45

%

 

Sales and marketing

 

402,503

 

 

 

22

%

 

 

310,299

 

 

 

24

%

 

 

214,290

 

 

 

21

%

 

Technology (exclusive of amortization)

 

122,949

 

 

 

7

%

 

 

115,297

 

 

 

9

%

 

 

82,278

 

 

 

8

%

 

General and administrative

 

132,553

 

 

 

7

%

 

 

101,918

 

 

 

8

%

 

 

85,465

 

 

 

8

%

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

141,821

 

 

 

8

%

 

 

115,449

 

 

 

9

%

 

 

85,940

 

 

 

9

%

 

Total costs and expenses(a)

 

1,968,952

 

 

 

108

%

 

 

1,318,434

 

 

 

100

%

 

 

922,294

 

 

 

92

%

 

Income (loss) from operations

 

(148,970

)

 

nm

 

 

 

(6,283

)

 

nm

 

 

 

84,963

 

 

 

8

%

 

Interest expense - net

 

27,988

 

 

 

2

%

 

 

20,493

 

 

 

2

%

 

 

3,530

 

 

 

0

%

 

Income (loss) before provision for income taxes

 

(176,958

)

 

nm

 

 

 

(26,776

)

 

nm

 

 

 

81,433

 

 

 

8

%

 

Income tax (benefit) expense

 

(21,097

)

 

nm

 

 

 

(8,210

)

 

nm

 

 

 

2,952

 

 

 

0

%

 

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders

$

(155,861

)

 

nm

 

 

$

(18,566

)

 

nm

 

 

$

78,481

 

 

 

8

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA(b)

$

109,311

 

 

 

6

%

 

$

186,150

 

 

 

14

%

 

$

233,742

 

 

 

23

%

 

 

(a)

Totals of percentage of revenues may not foot due to rounding

 

(b)

For an explanation of Adjusted EBITDA as a measure of the Company’s operating performance and a reconciliation to net earnings, see “Non-GAAP Financial Measure—Adjusted EBITDA” below.

 

31


 

The following is a discussion of our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. For a discussion related to results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 2018, refer to the section titled “Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our 2019 Form 10-K.

Revenues

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues

$

1,819,982

 

 

$

1,312,151

 

 

$

1,007,257

 

 

 

39

%

 

 

30

%

 

2020 compared to 2019

Revenues increased by $507.8 million, or 39%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily related to a 26% increase in Daily Average Grubs and a 16% higher average order size. Daily Average Grubs increased to 622,700 during the year ended December 31, 2020 from 492,300 during 2019 driven by improved diner retention and frequency as well as significant growth in Active Diners, which increased from 22.6 million to 31.4 million at the end of each year. The growth in Active Diners and Daily Average Grubs was primarily as a result of increased product and brand awareness by diners largely driven by accelerated adoption of online food ordering due to COVID-19, marketing efforts and word-of-mouth referrals, better restaurant choices for diners in our markets and technology and product improvements. The higher average order size was primarily driven by changing diner behavior as a result of COVID-19, including family or group orders. The increase in revenues was partially offset by a 120 basis point decrease in our average revenue capture rate of Gross Food Sales. The decrease in our average revenue capture rate was primarily driven by restaurant support programs, including temporary COVID-19 related fee caps, funding coupons and lower restaurant and diner facing fees which reduced revenue.

Operations and Support

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operations and support

$

1,169,126

 

 

$

675,471

 

 

$

454,321

 

 

 

73

%

 

 

49

%

Percentage of revenues

 

64

%

 

 

51

%

 

 

45

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020 compared to 2019

Operations and support expense increased by $493.7 million, or 73%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. This increase was primarily attributable to an 110% increase in expenses related to delivering orders as well as expenses incurred to support the 47% growth in Gross Food Sales including payment processing costs, customer care and operations personnel costs and other Platform infrastructure expenses. Delivery expenses increased disproportionally with revenue growth during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year due the increase in Grubhub-delivered orders in proportion to total orders as well as incremental expenses for personal protection equipment kits, higher pay and bonuses for drivers in response to COVID-19.

Sales and Marketing

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

$

402,503

 

 

$

310,299

 

 

$

214,290

 

 

 

30

%

 

 

45

%

Percentage of revenues

 

22

%

 

 

24

%

 

 

21

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020 compared to 2019

Sales and marketing expense increased by $92.2 million, or 30%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to an increase of $70.2 million in our advertising campaigns across various media channels including incremental spend to support restaurants in response to COVID-19, as well as an increase in salaries, commissions and stock-based compensation expense due to a 26% growth in our sales and marketing teams and the expansion of our restaurant network. Sales and marketing expense as a percentage of revenue decreased from 24% during the year ended December 31, 2019 to 22% during the same period in 2020.

Technology (exclusive of amortization)

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Technology (exclusive of amortization)

$

122,949

 

 

$

115,297

 

 

$

82,278

 

 

 

7

%

 

 

40

%

Percentage of revenues

 

7

%

 

 

9

%

 

 

8

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32


 

 

2020 compared to 2019

Technology expense increased by $7.7 million, or 7%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to the 8% growth in our technology team to support the growth and development of our platform. Technology team expenses, including related salaries, stock-based compensation expense, and payroll taxes, increased as a result of organic growth.

General and Administrative

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative

$

132,553

 

 

$

101,918

 

 

$

85,465

 

 

 

30

%

 

 

19

%

Percentage of revenues

 

7

%

 

 

8

%

 

 

8

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020 compared to 2019

General and administrative expense increased by $30.6 million, or 30%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to a $12.5 million legal settlement accrual recorded during the year ended December 31, 2020 (see Part II, Item 8, Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies, for additional details), as well as a $9.4 million increase in merger and acquisition expenses primarily related to the Transaction, a $6.9 million increase in restructuring costs primarily related to the closure of certain offices and certain miscellaneous expenses to support the growth of the business.

Depreciation and Amortization

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

 

2018 to 2019

 

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

$

141,821

 

 

$

115,449

 

 

$

85,940

 

 

 

23

%

 

 

34

%

Percentage of revenues

 

8

%

 

 

9

%

 

 

9

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020 compared to 2019

Depreciation and amortization expense increased by $26.4 million, or 23%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily attributable to the increase in capital spending on internally developed software, restaurant facing technology and digital assets to support the growth of the business, partially offset by certain acquired intangible assets becoming fully amortized.

Interest Expense - net

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

% Change

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2019 to 2020

 

2018 to 2019

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense–net

$

27,988

 

 

$

20,493

 

 

$

3,530

 

 

37

%

nm