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Table of Contents                          
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-31940

F.N.B. CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Pennsylvania25-1255406
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One North Shore Center, 12 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, PA15212
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 800-555-5455
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareFNBNew York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares each representing 1/40th interest in a
share of Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual
Preferred Stock, Series E
FNBPrENew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated FilerSmaller reporting company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ☒
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding voting common stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2020, determined using a per share closing price on that date of $7.50, as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange, was $2,364,996,210.
As of January 31, 2021, the registrant had outstanding 321,523,121 shares of common stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of F.N.B. Corporation’s definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 11, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. F.N.B. Corporation will file its definitive proxy statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before April 15, 2021.


Table of Contents                          
INDEX
PAGE
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.


Table of Contents                          
Glossary of Acronyms and Terms
Acronym
Description
Acronym
Description
ACLAllowance for credit losses
GLB Act
Gramm-Leach Bliley Act of 1999
ADC
Acquisition, development or construction
GSE
Government-sponsored entity
AFS
Available for sale
HTM
Held to maturity
ALCO
Asset/Liability Committee
HUD
Department of Housing and Urban Development
AOCI
Accumulated other comprehensive income
HVCRE
High volatility commercial real estate
ARRCAlternative Reference Rates Committee
IRLC
Interest rate lock commitment
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
LCR
Liquidity Coverage Ratio
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
LGD
Loss given default
AULC
Allowance for unfunded loan commitments
LIBOR
London Inter-bank Offered Rate
BOLI
Bank owned life insurance
LIHTC
Low income housing tax credit
Basel III
Basel III Capital Rules
LTV
Loan-to-value
BHC Act
Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended
MCH
Months of Cash on Hand
CARES Act
Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act
MD&A
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial
Condition and Results of Operations
CECL
Current expected credit losses
MSA
Mortgage servicing asset
CET1
Common equity tier 1
MSRs
Mortgage servicing rights
CFPB
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
NYSE
New York Stock Exchange
COVID-19
Novel coronavirus disease of 2019
OCI
Other comprehensive income
CRA
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
OCC
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
DIF
Deposit Insurance Fund
OREO
Other real estate owned
Dodd-Frank
Act
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer
Protection Act of 2010
OTTI
Other-than-temporary impairment
DOJ
U.S. Department of Justice
PCD
Purchase credit deteriorated
DTA
Deferred tax asset
PCI
Purchase credit impaired
DTL
Deferred tax liability
PDProbability of default
EAD
Exposure at default
Penn-Ohio
Penn-Ohio Life Insurance Company
Economic
Growth Act
Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and
Consumer Protection Act
PPPPaycheck Protection Program
EVE
Economic value of equity
PPPLF
Paycheck Protection Program Liquidity Fund
ERISA
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
QM
Qualified mortgage
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Regency
Regency Finance Company
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
RESPA
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
FDICIA
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Improvement Act of 1991
RRRReference rate reform
FHLB
Federal Home Loan Bank
R&S
Reasonable and Supportable
FICO
Fair Isaac Corporation
SBA
Small Business Administration
FINRA
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission
FNB
F.N.B. Corporation
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
FNBIA
F.N.B. Investment Advisors, Inc.
SOX
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
FNBPA
First National Bank of Pennsylvania
TCJA
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
FNIA
First National Insurance Agency, LLC
TDR
Troubled debt restructuring
FNTC
First National Trust Company
TILA
Truth in Lending Act
FOMC
Federal Open Market Committee
TPS
Trust preferred securities
FSOC
Financial Stability Oversight Council
U.S.
United States of America
FRB
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System
UST
U.S. Department of the Treasury
FTE
Fully taxable equivalent
VIEVariable interest entity
FVO
Fair value option
YDKN
Yadkin Financial Corporation
GAAP
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles



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PART I
Forward-Looking Statements: From time to time F.N.B. Corporation has made and may continue to make written or oral forward-looking statements with respect to our outlook or expectations for earnings, revenues, expenses, capital levels, asset quality or other future financial or business performance, strategies or expectations, or the impact of legal, regulatory or supervisory matters on our business operations or performance. This Annual Report on Form 10-K (the Report) also includes forward-looking statements. See Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information in Item 7 of this Report.
The terms “FNB,” “the Corporation,” “we,” “us” and “our” throughout this Report mean F.N.B. Corporation and its subsidiaries, when appropriate.

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Overview
We are a Pennsylvania corporation, a bank holding company and a financial holding company. With our subsidiaries, we have been in business since 1864. Our principal executive office is located at 12 Federal Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212. As a diversified financial services holding company, FNB, through our subsidiaries, provides a full range of financial services, principally to consumers, corporations, governments and small- to medium-sized businesses in our market areas through our subsidiary network, which is led by our largest subsidiary, FNBPA. Our business strategy focuses primarily on providing quality, consumer- and commercial-based financial services adapted to the needs of each of the markets we serve. We seek to maintain our community orientation by providing local management with certain autonomy in decision making, enabling them to respond to customer requests more quickly and to concentrate on transactions within their market areas. We seek to preserve some decision making at a local level, however, we have centralized legal, loan review, credit underwriting, accounting, investment, audit, loan operations, deposit operations and data processing functions. The centralization of these processes enables us to maintain consistent quality of these functions and to achieve certain economies of scale.
As of December 31, 2020, we have three reportable business segments: Community Banking, Wealth Management and Insurance, with the remaining operations described in Other. As of December 31, 2020, we have 358 Community Banking offices in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.

As of December 31, 2020, we had total assets of $37.4 billion, loans of $25.5 billion and deposits of $29.1 billion. See Item 7, MD&A, and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Report.
Internet Information
Our website is at http://www.fnb-online.com and information regarding FNB and investor relations is located under the heading, "About Us." We use our website to distribute company information, including as a means of disclosing material, non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. We generally post and make accessible before or promptly following first use of financially-related press releases, including earnings releases and supplemental financial information, various SEC filings, including annual, quarterly and current reports and proxy statements, presentation materials associated with earnings and other investor calls or events on our corporate website. Under some circumstances, the information may be relevant to investors but be directed to customers, in which case it may be accessed directly through our websites home page rather than “About Us-Investor Information.” Investors should monitor the Investor Relations portion of our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls and webcasts. For earnings and other conference calls or events, we generally include in our posted materials a cautionary statement regarding forward-looking and non-GAAP financial information, and we provide GAAP reconciliations when we provide non-GAAP financial information. Such GAAP reconciliations may be in materials for the applicable presentations, in materials for prior presentations or in our annual, quarterly or current reports.
Securities and Exchange Commission Reports and Corporate Governance Information
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) and, in accordance with the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available on the "About Us" portion of our website under the heading Investor Information (accessible by clicking on the SEC Filings link) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish them to, the SEC and at the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov.
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Notwithstanding the foregoing, the information contained on our website as referenced in this paragraph is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Also, under the "About Us" portion of our website under the heading Investor Information you may click on Corporate Governance to view the following: (i) our Code of Conduct and Code of Ethics; (ii) our Corporate Governance Guidelines; (iii) the charter of each active committee of our Board of Directors; and (iv) Policy With Respect to Related Persons Transactions. We also intend to disclose any amendments to our Code of Conduct and waivers of our Code of Conduct required to be disclosed by the rules of the SEC and the NYSE on the Investor Information portion of our website. All of these corporate governance materials are also available free of charge in print to shareholders who request them in writing to: F.N.B. Corporation, Attention: Office of the Corporate Secretary, 12 Federal Street, 5th Floor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15212.
Our registered investment adviser subsidiary is subject to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and related rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC. Our investment adviser subsidiary is also subject to additional regulation by states or local jurisdictions. The SEC has active enforcement functions that oversee investment advisers and can bring actions that result in fines, restitution, a limitation on permitted activities, disqualification to continue to conduct certain activities and an inability to rely on certain favorable exemptions. Certain types of infractions and violations also can affect our ability to expeditiously issue new securities into the capital markets.
Business Segments
In addition to the following information relating to our business segments, more detailed information is contained in Note 24, “Business Segments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report. As of December 31, 2020, FNB had three business segments, with the largest being the Community Banking segment consisting of a regional community bank. The Wealth Management segment consists of a trust company, a registered investment advisor and a subsidiary that offers broker-dealer services through a third-party networking arrangement with a non-affiliated licensed broker-dealer entity. The Insurance segment consists of an insurance agency and a reinsurer.
Community Banking
Our Community Banking segment consists of FNBPA, which offers commercial and consumer banking services. Commercial banking solutions include corporate banking, small business banking, investment real estate financing, business credit, capital markets and lease financing. Consumer banking products and services include deposit products, mortgage lending, consumer lending and a complete suite of mobile and online banking services. Additionally, Bank Capital Services, LLC, a subsidiary of FNBPA, offers commercial loans and leases to customers in need of new or used equipment. As of December 31, 2020, our Community Banking segment operated in seven states and the District of Columbia. Our branch network spans several major metropolitan areas including: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland, Ohio; Washington, D.C.; and Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and the Piedmont Triad (Winston-Salem, Greensboro and High Point) in North Carolina.
The goals of the Community Banking segment are to generate high-quality, profitable revenue growth through increased business with our current customers, attract new customer relationships through FNBPA’s current branches and expand into new and existing markets through de novo branch openings and the establishment of loan production offices. We consider the Community Banking segment an important source of revenue opportunity through the cross-selling of products and services offered by our other business segments.
The lending philosophy of the Community Banking segment is to establish high-quality customer relationships, while minimizing credit losses by following strict credit approval standards (which include independent analysis of realizable collateral value), diversifying our loan portfolio by industry, geography, product and borrower, and conducting ongoing review and management of the loan portfolio. Commercial loans are generally made to established businesses within the geographic market areas served by the Community Banking segment.
The Community Banking segment maintains formal policies which establish underwriting standards and processes. Our commercial loan policy requires, among other things, that commercial loans be underwritten to document the borrower’s financial capacity to support the cash flow required to repay the loan. The commercial loan policy also contains additional guidelines and requirements applicable to specific loan products or lines of business. Consumer loan products are designed to meet the diverse credit needs of consumers in our markets for personal and household purposes. Our consumer loan policies and procedures require prospective borrowers to provide appropriate and accurate financial information that will assist our loan underwriting personnel in making credit decisions. Specific information requirements vary based on loan type, risk profile and secondary investor requirements where applicable.
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No material portion of the loans or deposits of the Community Banking segment has been obtained from a single customer or small group of customers, and the loss of any one customer’s loans or deposits or a small group of customers’ loans or deposits by the Community Banking segment would not have a material adverse effect on the Community Banking segment or on FNB. The substantial majority of the loans and deposits have been generated within the geographic market areas in which the Community Banking segment operates.
Wealth Management
Our Wealth Management segment delivers wealth management services to individuals, corporations and retirement funds, as well as existing customers of the Community Banking segment, located primarily within our geographic markets.
Our Wealth Management operations are conducted through three subsidiaries of FNBPA. FNTC provides a broad range of personal and corporate fiduciary services, including the administration of decedent and trust estates. As of December 31, 2020, the fair value of trust assets under management was approximately $7.1 billion. FNTC is required to maintain certain minimum capitalization levels in accordance with regulatory requirements. FNTC periodically measures its capital position to ensure all minimum capitalization levels are maintained.
Our Wealth Management segment also includes two other subsidiaries. First National Investment Services Company, LLC offers a broad array of investment products and services for customers of the Wealth Management segment through a networking relationship with a third-party licensed brokerage firm. FNBIA, an investment advisor registered with the SEC, offers customers of the Wealth Management segment comprehensive investment programs featuring mutual funds, annuities, stocks and bonds.
No material portion of the business of the Wealth Management segment has been obtained from a single customer or small group of customers, and the loss of any one customer’s business or the business of a small group of customers by the Wealth Management segment would not have a material adverse effect on the Wealth Management segment or on FNB.
Insurance
Our Insurance segment operates principally through FNIA, which is a subsidiary of FNB. FNIA is a full-service insurance brokerage agency offering numerous lines of commercial and personal insurance through major carriers to businesses and individuals primarily within FNB’s geographic markets. The goal of FNIA is to grow revenue through cross-selling to existing clients of the Community Banking segment and to gain new clients through its own channels.
Our Insurance segment also includes a reinsurance subsidiary, Penn-Ohio. Penn-Ohio is not actively underwriting new policies. Additionally, FNBPA owns a direct subsidiary, First National Corporation, which offers title insurance products.
No material portion of the business of the Insurance segment has been obtained from a single customer or small group of customers, and the loss of any one customer’s business or the business of a small group of customers by the Insurance segment would not have a material adverse effect on the Insurance segment or on FNB.
Other
We also operate other non-banking subsidiaries which are not considered to be reportable segments of FNB. F.N.B. Capital Corporation, LLC (FNBCC) was formed as a merchant banking subsidiary to offer mezzanine financing options for small- to medium-sized businesses that need financial assistance beyond the parameters of typical commercial bank lending products. FNBCC has a 22.5% funding commitment in Tecum Capital Partners, L.P. (formerly known as F.N.B. Capital Partners, L.P.) (Tecum), a Small Business Investment Company licensed by the U.S. SBA. Tecum is not an affiliate or a subsidiary of FNB. We have three companies that issued TPS to third-party investors: F.N.B. Statutory Trust II, Yadkin Valley Statutory Trust I and FNB Financial Services Capital Trust I, the last two of which were acquired in conjunction with the YDKN acquisition. FNB Financial Services, Inc. and FNB Consumer Financial Services, Inc. are subsidiaries of FNB and are the general partner and limited partner, respectively, of FNB Financial Services, LP, a company established to issue, administer and repay subordinated notes. The proceeds received from these subordinated note issuances are a general funding source for FNB. Certain financial information concerning these subsidiaries, along with the parent company and intercompany eliminations, are included in the “Parent and Other” category in Note 24, “Business Segments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report.

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Market Area and Competition
We operate in seven states and the District of Columbia. Our market coverage spans several major metropolitan areas including: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland, Ohio; Washington, D.C.; and Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and the Piedmont Triad (Winston-Salem, Greensboro and High Point) in North Carolina.
We compete for loans, deposits and financial services business with a large number of bank and non-bank financial institutions and other lenders engaged in the business of extending credit, including financial technology companies and marketplace lenders. Competition for loans comes principally from commercial banks, savings banks, mortgage banking companies, credit unions, insurance companies and other financial services companies. The most direct competition for deposits comes from commercial banks, savings banks and credit unions. Additional competition for deposits comes from non-depository competitors such as financial technology companies, mutual funds, securities and brokerage firms and insurance companies. In providing wealth and asset management services, as well as insurance brokerage services, our subsidiaries compete with many other financial services firms, brokerage firms, mutual fund complexes, investment management firms, trust and fiduciary service providers and insurance agencies. Competition for loans and deposits depends on a number of factors, including, among others, customer service, quality and range of products and services offered, price, reputation, interest rates on loans and deposits and lending limits. Also, our ability to continue to compete effectively depends in large part on retaining and motivating our employees and our ability to attract new employees, while effectively managing compensation and other expenses.
The ability to deploy and use technology effectively is an important competitive factor in the financial services industry. Technology is not only important with respect to the delivery of financial services, risk management, regulatory compliance and security of customer information, but also in processing information. FNB and each of our subsidiaries must continually make technological investments to remain competitive in the financial services industry. FNBPA has executed several initiatives that have integrated and streamlined its physical branch and e-delivery channels.
Human Capital
We are committed to the attraction, retention, and development of exceptional talent. This commitment also extends to building a diverse workforce that reflects different cultures, ethnicities and backgrounds which foster creativity, innovation, and overall success. To support this focus on our human capital, we employ several strategies to foster an engaged workforce in a safe environment that helps to identify, promote and grow future leaders. Our special culture has contributed to the nearly 30 workplace awards we have received over the past decade. In early 2021, we continued to add to this impressive list with our first-ever national recognition as an employer, having been named a Top Workplace U.S.A. by Energage, an independent research firm, based on employee feedback. As part of this award program, we were also named a national Top Workplace in the financial services industry. As of January 31, 2021, FNB and our subsidiaries had 3,819 full-time and 378 part-time employees.
Recruitment. We are committed to building a diverse and inclusive workforce and have found great success cultivating and fostering mutually beneficial partnerships with job and recruiting centers, colleges and universities and organizations that help to identify and attract diverse candidates. In addition to posting positions with these organizations, our leaders participate in events hosted by these partners to further our brand as an employer of choice.
Employee Development. We focus resources on programs to develop leaders and promote internal advancement within the organization. This includes a mentor program, succession planning and a leadership program, all administered through our dedicated training department team to further develop the talent which our recruitment efforts have attracted.
Diversity. We have an active Diversity Council which takes a proactive, leadership role in promoting diversity, equity and inclusion in our culture. The Diversity Council is responsible for promoting an inclusive culture that attracts, retains and develops the best talent from a broad spectrum to create a diverse, highly productive workforce, at all levels of the organization. The Diversity Council supports our mission to build a workforce in which employees can learn, grow and prosper, and our commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion within the workforce. It supports both corporate and employee initiatives on diversity, equity and inclusion.
The membership composition of the Diversity Council reflects the diversity within our organization. In addition, the membership represents every region in the organization, and various lines of business and position levels.
Engagement. We regularly seek feedback from our employees and in 2020 conducted our biannual engagement survey. This engagement survey collects insights about employees’ experiences to help shape our future success. The results are reviewed at
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various levels of the organization up to, and including, the Board of Directors. Managers create action plans targeting opportunities in areas that the survey highlights. Our scores in the overall engagement focus area, consistently place us in the outstanding category when compared across multiple industries.
Compensation. Our compensation philosophy is to create a program that supports our mission and values. The compensation program is a management tool that, when aligned with an effective communication plan, is designed to support, reinforce, and align our values, business strategy, operational and financial needs with our strategic goals.
We believe that compensation programs, through competitive base salary, short-term incentive plans, and long-term incentive plans, are essential for providing the behavior to set performance expectations, improving service quality and productivity, and recognizing contributions to our success.
The oversight and review of our compensation philosophy and programs are conducted by the Management Compensation Committee. This team, chaired by FNB’s Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, regularly meets to promote compensation programs that are equitable, to achieve a performance-driven work culture that generates company growth, rewarding employees for focusing on customer needs and demonstrating appropriate risk management behaviors.
At the start of 2020 we accomplished our goal to provide a minimum starting compensation of $15/hour, which was the final phase of a commitment started in 2018 to increase the financial commitment to entry level and front-line employees.
Values & Training. We strive to maintain sound financial practices and governance processes through a commitment to ethical behavior, a solid reputation and a firm record of compliance and stability that these strengths create, both within our Corporation and for our customers.
Employees complete quarterly and annual job specific training, including regulatory and compliance requirements, to increase knowledge of standards required of the financial services industry.
Additionally, employees are provided various avenues to report unethical behavior without repercussions to them, such as FNB’s Ethics Hotline. Employees are asked to report any issues that could result in financial or reputational harm to us.
Wellness. Our commitment to the personal and professional well-being of each employee extends beyond a competitive compensation and benefits package. Innovative employee-friendly programs and policies designed to help team members maintain a healthy, meaningful work/life balance by providing resources to support mental, physical and financial health are offered and regularly expanded. This includes parental and caregiver leave, adoption assistance and back-up child-care programs built to provide employees with the financial support and time away from work that they need to focus on their new family members.
Safety. Employee and customer safety are key concerns for us. The COVID-19 pandemic created unique challenges in 2020 that no organizations had faced before. Employee safety and support were key pillars to our response to the pandemic. Highlights of the employee actions we enacted in the spring of 2020 and throughout the remainder of the year include:
Approximately half of the workforce was mobilized to a work-from-home arrangement by sourcing and procuring the necessary equipment and tools.
Established an employee information portal updated daily with information related to the pandemic, adjusted operational procedures, and a robust employee Q&A process.
Provided all employees additional days off and expanded existing leave programs to assist in supporting personal or family illness and childcare.
Increased safety protocols such as personal protection equipment, sanitization protocols, thermal scanning devices, social distancing signage, furniture modification and other measures were implemented for the safety of employees that needed to continue to work in our facilities during the national emergency.
Government Supervision and Regulation
The following summary sets forth certain material elements of the regulatory framework applicable to FNB, FNBPA and our subsidiaries and affiliates. The financial services industry is subject to extensive regulatory oversight and, in particular, bank holding companies, banks and their affiliates (depending upon charter and business activities) are subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the FRB, OCC, FDIC, CFPB, SEC, FINRA and various state regulatory agencies. The statutory
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and regulatory framework that governs FNB and our affiliates is generally intended to protect depositors and customers, the federal insurance fund, the U.S. banking and financial system, and financial markets as a whole; however, this framework is not specifically for the protection of security holders. Significant elements of the laws and regulations applicable to FNB and our affiliates are described in this section. To the extent that the following information describes statutory and regulatory provisions or governmental policies, such descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations and policies referenced herein. In addition, certain of FNB’s public disclosure, internal control environment, risk and capital management and corporate governance principles are subject to SOX, the Dodd-Frank Act, as modified by the 2018 Economic Growth Act, and related regulations and rules of the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. Also, FNB is subject to the rules of the NYSE for listed companies.
Political, economic, industry events and other factors typically result in the banking laws, regulations and policies to be continually subject to review by Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies. In addition to laws and regulations, state and federal bank regulatory agencies may issue policy statements, interpretive letters and similar written guidance, which sometimes materially changes regulatory expectations. Any change in the statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to us, including changes in their interpretation, expectations or implementation, could have a material effect on our business or organization.
Both the scope of the laws and regulations, as well as expectations regarding risk management, and the intensity of the supervision to which we are subject have increased in recent years in response to the financial crisis, as well as other factors such as technological and market changes. Regulatory enforcement and fines have also significantly increased across the banking and financial services sector. Many of these changes have occurred as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations, most of which are now in place.
The OCC regulations implemented under the Economic Growth Act raised the minimum asset threshold for covered banks to conduct stress tests from $10 billion to $250 billion. This resulted in FNB and FNBPA no longer being subject to Dodd-Frank Act stress testing requirements, however we will continue to voluntarily perform capital stress testing consistent with the safety and soundness expectations of our banking regulators.
The Economic Growth Act also enacted several important changes in some technical compliance areas, for which the banking agencies have now issued certain corresponding guidance documents and/or proposed final rules, including:
Prohibiting federal banking regulators from imposing higher capital standards on HVCRE exposures unless they are for ADC loans, and clarifying ADC status;
Requiring the federal banking agencies to amend the LCR Rule such that all qualifying investment-grade, liquid and readily-marketable municipal securities are treated as level 2B liquid assets, making them more attractive investment alternatives;
Exempting from appraisal requirements certain transactions involving real property in rural areas and valued at less than $400,000; and
Directing the CFPB to provide guidance on the applicability of the TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure rule to mortgage assumption transactions and construction-to-permanent home loans, as well as the extent to which lenders can rely on model disclosures that do not reflect recent regulatory changes. (See discussion under Risk Factors - caption “We could be adversely affected by changes in the law, especially changes in the regulation of the banking industry”).
GENERAL
FNB is a legal entity separate and distinct from our subsidiaries. As a financial holding company and a bank holding company, FNB is regulated under the BHC, as amended, and is subject to regulation, inspection, examination and supervision by the FRB.
Under the BHC Act, FRB is the “umbrella” regulator of a financial holding company. In addition, a financial holding company’s operating entities, meaning its subsidiary broker-dealers, investment managers, investment advisory companies, insurance companies and banks, as applicable, are subject to the jurisdiction of various federal and state “functional” regulators and self-regulatory organizations, such as FINRA.
Our subsidiary bank, FNBPA, and FNBPA’s subsidiary trust company, FNTC, are organized as national banking associations, which are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the OCC, which is a bureau of the UST. FNBPA is also subject to certain regulatory requirements of the CFPB, the FDIC, the FRB and other federal and state regulatory agencies,
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including but not limited to requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, capital requirements, limitations regarding dividends, restrictions on the types and amounts of loans that may be granted and the interest that may be charged on loans, affiliate transactions, CRA, consumer compliance and anti-discrimination laws and unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices prohibitions, monitoring obligations under the federal bank secrecy act and anti-money laundering requirements, limitations on the types of investments that may be made, cybersecurity and consumer privacy requirements, activities that may be engaged in and types of services that may be offered. In addition to banking laws, regulations and regulatory agencies, FNB and our subsidiaries are subject to various other laws and regulations and supervision and examination by other regulatory agencies, all of which directly or indirectly affect the operations and management of FNB and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. If we fail to comply with these or other applicable laws and regulations, we may be subject to civil monetary penalties, imposition of cease and desist orders or other written directives, removal of management and, in certain cases, criminal penalties.
Pursuant to the GLB Act, bank holding companies such as FNB that have qualified as financial holding companies because they are “well-capitalized” and “well managed” have broad authority to engage in activities that are financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity, including insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking, securities underwriting, dealing and market-making; and such additional activities as the FRB in consultation with the Secretary of the UST determines to be financial in nature, incidental thereto or complementary to a financial activity. As a result of the GLB Act, a bank holding company may engage in those activities directly or through subsidiaries by qualifying as a “financial holding company.” As a financial holding company, FNB may engage directly or indirectly in activities considered financial in nature, either de novo or by acquisition, provided the FNB continues such status and gives the FRB after-the-fact notice of the new activities. The GLB Act also permits national banks, such as FNBPA, to engage in activities considered financial in nature through a financial subsidiary, subject to certain conditions and limitations and with the approval of the OCC (see discussion under the caption, “Financial Holding Company Status and Activities”).
As a regulated financial holding company, FNB’s relationships and good standing with our regulators are of fundamental importance to the continuation and growth of our businesses. The FRB, OCC, FDIC, CFPB and SEC have broad enforcement powers and authority to approve, deny or refuse to act upon applications or notices of FNB or our subsidiaries to open new or close existing offices, conduct new activities, acquire or divest businesses or assets or reconfigure existing operations. In addition, FNB, FNBPA, FNTC and other affiliates are subject to examination by the various federal and state regulators, which involves periodic examinations and supervisory inquiries, the reports of which are not publicly available and can affect ratings that can impact the conduct and growth of our businesses. These examinations consider not only safety and soundness principles, but also compliance with applicable laws and regulations, including anti-money laundering requirements, loan quality and administration, capital levels, asset quality and risk management ability and performance, earnings, liquidity, consumer compliance, anti-discrimination laws, unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices prohibitions, community reinvestment, cybersecurity and consumer privacy requirements, and various other factors. The federal banking interagency Guidelines for Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness set forth compliance considerations and guidance with respect to the following operations of banking organizations: (1) internal controls and information systems; (2) internal audit systems; (3) loan documentation; (4) credit underwriting; (5) interest rate exposure; (6) asset growth; (7) executive compensation, fees and benefits; (8) asset quality; and (9) earnings. Significant adverse findings reporting safety and soundness or violations of laws or regulations by any of FNB’s federal bank regulators could potentially result in the imposition of significant fines, penalties, reimbursements, enforcement actions as well as limitations and prohibitions on the activities and growth of FNB and our subsidiaries.
There are numerous laws, regulations and rules governing the activities of financial institutions - including non-bank financial institutions, such as financial technology companies and marketplace lenders, which provide products and services comparable to banking organizations - financial holding companies and bank holding companies. The following discussion is general in nature and seeks to highlight some of the more significant of these regulatory requirements, but does not purport to be complete or to describe all of the laws and regulations that apply to us and our subsidiaries.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
The Dodd-Frank Act continues to have a broad impact on the financial services industry by imposing significant regulatory and compliance requirements including, among other things:
enhanced authority over troubled and failing banks and their holding companies;
increased capital and liquidity requirements;
increased regulatory examination fees;
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increased assessments banks must pay the FDIC for federal deposit insurance; and
specific provisions designed to improve supervision and oversight of bank safety and soundness and consumer practices, by imposing restrictions and limitations on the scope and type of banking and financial activities.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act established a new framework for systemic risk oversight within the financial system that is enforced by new and existing federal regulatory agencies and authorities, including the FSOC, FRB, OCC, FDIC and CFPB. The following description briefly summarizes certain impacts of the Dodd-Frank Act on the operations and activities, both currently and prospectively, of FNB, FNBPA, and our subsidiaries and affiliates.
Deposit Insurance.  The Dodd-Frank Act established a $250,000 deposit insurance limit for insured deposits. Amendments to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act also revised the assessment base against which an insured depository institution’s deposit insurance premiums paid to the FDIC’s DIF are calculated. Under the amendments, the FDIC assessment base is no longer the institution’s deposit base, but rather its average consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity. The Dodd-Frank Act requires a phase-in of the minimum designated reserve ratio for the DIF, increasing it from 1.15% to 1.35% of the estimated amount of total insured deposits which was achieved as of the third quarter of 2018. FDIC regulations provide that, among other things, upon reaching the minimum, surcharges on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more will cease. The last quarterly surcharge was reflected in FNBPA’s December 2018 assessment invoice, which covered the assessment period from July 1, 2018 through September 30, 2018. FNBPA’s assessment invoices have not included a quarterly surcharge since that time. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the requirement of the FDIC to pay dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds. The FDIC has set the target designated reserve ratio at 2%. Assessment rates, which declined for all banks when the reserve ratio first surpassed 1.15% in the third quarter of 2016, are expected to remain unchanged. Assessment rates are scheduled to decrease when the reserve ratio exceeds 2%. The DIF and the DIF ratio were $117.9 billion and 1.29%, respectively, at December 31, 2020.
In addition, TCJA, which was signed into law on December 22, 2017, disallows the deduction of FDIC deposit insurance premium payments for banking organizations with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. For banks with less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets, such as FNBPA, the premium deduction is phased-out based on the proportion of the bank’s assets exceeding $10 billion.
In December 2019, the FDIC issued a proposed rule to modernize its brokered deposit regulations. The proposal would, among other things, establish a new framework for analyzing whether deposits placed through deposit placement arrangements qualify as brokered deposits. Notable aspects of the proposed rule include language: (i) defining the operative prongs of the definition of a “deposit broker;” (ii) creating three general tests to determine the applicability of the “primary purpose” exception; (iii) establishing an application process for entities that wish to make use of the primary purpose exception; and (iv) allowing wholly owned subsidiaries of insured depository institutions to make use of the “insured depository institution” (the “own bank”) exception. The prospects and timing for the adoption of a final rule are uncertain at this time.
Interest on Demand Deposits.  Under the Dodd-Frank Act, depository institutions are permitted to pay interest on demand deposits. In accordance therewith, we pay interest on certain classes of commercial demand deposits.
Volcker Rule. Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act (known as the Volcker Rule) prohibits insured depository institutions and their holding companies from engaging in proprietary trading, except under limited circumstances, and prohibits them from owning equity interests in excess of three percent (3%) of Tier 1 capital in private equity and hedge funds. In December 2013, the federal banking agencies adopted the Volcker Implementing Rules. The Volcker Implementing Rules prohibit banking entities from (1) engaging in short-term proprietary trading for their own accounts, and (2) having certain ownership interests in and relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds, which are referred to as “covered funds.” The Volcker Implementing Rules are intended to provide greater clarity with respect to both the extent of those primary prohibitions and of the related exemptions and exclusions. The Volcker Rule also requires each regulated entity to establish an internal compliance program that is consistent with the extent to which it engages in activities covered by the Volcker Rule, which must include (for the largest entities) making regular reports about those activities to the entity’s regulators. Historically, this meant that reporting requirements were tied to a bank’s total assets, where banks with assets at or below $10 billion had less stringent reporting requirements and banks with more than $10 billion had increasingly more stringent requirements, as the size of the bank increased.
Effective January 1, 2020, five federal banking agencies revised certain aspects of the Volcker Rule by specifying that compliance requirements will be based on the amount of assets and liabilities that a bank trades. Firms with significant trading activities (i.e., those with $20 billion or more in trading assets and liabilities) will have heightened compliance obligations. Compliance with the revised Volcker Rule were required on January 1, 2021.
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In June, 2020, five federal financial regulators modified the “covered funds” portion of the Volcker Rule by streamlining the rule, addressing the treatment of certain foreign funds, and permitting banking entities to offer financial services and engage in other permissible activities that do not raise concerns that the Volcker Rule was intended to address.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.  The CFPB’s responsibility is to establish, implement and enforce laws, rules and regulations under certain federal consumer financial laws, as defined by the Dodd-Frank Act and interpreted by the CFPB, with respect to the conduct of both bank and non-bank providers of certain consumer financial products and services. The CFPB has rulemaking and enforcement authority over many of the statutes that govern products and services banks offer to consumers. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products and services. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and regulations that are more stringent than those regulations promulgated by the CFPB, and state attorneys general will have the authority to enforce consumer protection rules that the CFPB adopts against state-chartered institutions and against, with respect to certain non-preempted laws, national banks. Compliance with any such new regulation or other precedent established by the CFPB and/or states could reduce our revenue, increase our cost of operations and compliance, and limit, prevent, or make more costly, our ability to expand into certain products and services. Over the past several years, the CFPB has been active in bringing enforcement actions against banks and non-bank financial institutions to enforce federal consumer financial laws. Other federal financial regulatory agencies, including the OCC, as well as state attorneys general and state banking agencies and other state financial regulators also have been increasingly active in this area with respect to institutions over which they have jurisdiction. We have incurred and may in the future incur additional costs in complying with these requirements.
Debit Card Interchange Fees.  The FRB, pursuant to its authority under the Dodd-Frank Act, has issued rules regarding interchange fees charged for electronic debit transactions by payment card issuers having assets over $10 billion, adopting a per-transaction interchange cap base of $0.21 plus 0.05% of the transaction total (and an additional one cent to account for fraud protection costs).
Transactions with Affiliates.  Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, as implemented by Regulation W, banks are subject to restrictions that limit certain types of transactions between banks and their non-bank affiliates. In general, banks are subject to quantitative and qualitative limits on extensions of credit, purchases of assets and certain other transactions involving non-bank affiliates. Also, transactions between banks and their non-bank affiliates are required to be on arms-length terms and consistent with safe and sound banking practices. The Dodd-Frank Act enhances the requirements for certain transactions with affiliates under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, including an expansion of the definition of “covered transactions” to include the borrowing or lending of securities or derivative transactions, and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be maintained. In addition, the provisions of the Volcker Rule apply similar restrictions on transactions between a bank and any “covered fund” that the bank advises or sponsors.
Transactions with Insiders.  The Dodd-Frank Act expands insider transaction limitations through the strengthening of loan restrictions to insiders and extending the types of transactions subject to the various requirements to include derivative transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements and securities lending and borrowing transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act also places restrictions on certain asset sales to and from an insider of an institution, including requirements that such sales be on market terms and, in certain circumstances, receive the approval of the institution’s board of directors.
Enhanced Lending Limits.  Federal banking law limits a national bank’s ability to extend credit to one person or group of related persons to an amount that does not exceed certain thresholds. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of these restrictions to include credit exposure arising from derivative transactions, repurchase agreements and securities lending and borrowing transactions.
The changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act continue to impact our profitability, including limitations on fee income opportunities, increased compliance costs, imposition of more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage requirements that affect our business. We cannot predict what effect any newly implemented, presently contemplated or future changes in the laws or regulations or their interpretations may have on us.
Capital and Operational Requirements
The FRB, OCC and FDIC issued substantially similar risk-based and leverage capital guidelines applicable to U.S. banking organizations. In addition, these regulatory agencies may from time to time require that a banking organization maintain capital above the minimum levels, due to its financial condition or actual or anticipated growth.
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FNB, like other bank holding companies, through December 31, 2019 was required to maintain CET1, tier 1 and total capital (the sum of tier 1 and tier 2 capital) equal to at least 7.00%, 8.50% and 10.50%, respectively, of our total risk-weighted assets (including various off-balance sheet items). The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in credit and market risk profiles among banks and financial holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposure, and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Assets and off-balance sheet items are assigned to broad risk categories, each with appropriate weights. The resulting capital ratios represent capital as a percentage of total risk-weighted assets and off-balance sheet items. At December 31, 2020, our CET1, tier 1 and total capital ratios under these guidelines were 9.8%, 10.2% and 12.3%, respectively. At December 31, 2020, we had $316.3 million of capital securities and subordinated debt that qualified as tier 2 capital.
In addition, the FRB has established minimum leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies. These guidelines currently provide for a minimum ratio of tier 1 capital to average total assets, less goodwill and certain other intangible assets (the leverage ratio), of 4.0% for bank holding companies that meet certain specified criteria, including the highest regulatory rating. The guidelines also provide that bank holding companies, depending on the types, quality and quantity of risk associated with its activities (e.g., acquisitions, internal growth), will be expected to maintain strong capital positions above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. Our leverage ratio at December 31, 2020 was 7.8%.
Increased Capital Standards and Enhanced Supervision
The Dodd-Frank Act’s regulatory capital requirements are intended to ensure that “financial institutions hold sufficient capital to absorb losses during future periods of financial distress” and requires the federal banking agencies to establish minimum leverage and risk-based capital requirements on a consolidated basis for insured depository institutions, their holding companies and non-bank financial companies that have been determined to be systemically important by the FSOC.
Basel III Capital Rules
In July 2013, the FRB published Basel III establishing a new comprehensive capital framework for U.S. banking organizations. The rules implement the Basel Committee’s December 2010 framework for strengthening international capital standards as well as certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Basel III substantially revised the risk-based capital requirements applicable to bank holding companies and depository institutions, including FNB and FNBPA, compared to the then-existing U.S. risk-based capital rules. Basel III defines the components of capital and addresses other issues affecting the numerator in banking institutions’ regulatory capital ratios. Basel III also addresses risk weights and other issues affecting the denominator in a banking institution’s regulatory capital ratios.
Basel III, among other things, (i) introduces the concept of CET1, (ii) specifies that tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1” capital instruments meeting specified requirements, (iii) defines CET1 narrowly by requiring that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital and (iv) expands the scope of the deductions/adjustments as compared to existing regulations.
Basel III requires FNB and FNBPA to maintain (i) a minimum ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.5%, plus a 2.5% “capital conservation buffer” (which is added to the 4.5% CET1 ratio as that buffer is phased in, effectively resulting in a minimum ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7% upon full implementation), (ii) a minimum ratio of tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.0%, plus the capital conservation buffer (which is added to the 6.0% tier 1 capital ratio as that buffer is phased in, effectively resulting in a minimum tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5% upon full implementation), (iii) a minimum ratio of total capital (that is, tier 1 plus tier 2) to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0%, plus the capital conservation buffer (which is added to the 8.0% total capital ratio as that buffer is phased in, effectively resulting in a minimum total capital ratio of 10.5% upon full implementation) and (iv) a minimum leverage ratio of 4%, calculated as the ratio of tier 1 capital to average quarterly assets (as compared to a prior minimum leverage ratio of 3% for banking organizations that either have the highest supervisory rating or have implemented the appropriate federal regulatory authority’s risk-adjusted measure for market risk).
Under Basel III, the effects of certain accumulated other comprehensive items are not excluded; however, banking organizations which do not use the advanced approach, such as FNB and FNBPA, may make a one-time permanent election to continue to exclude these items. FNB and FNBPA made this election in order to avoid significant variations in the level of capital depending upon the impact of interest rate fluctuations on the fair value of FNB’s AFS securities portfolio. Basel III also precludes certain hybrid securities, such as TPS, as tier 1 capital of bank holding companies, subject to phase-out. TPS no longer included in FNB’s tier 1 capital may nonetheless be included as a component of tier 2 capital on a permanent basis without phase-out.
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With respect to FNBPA, Basel III also revises the “prompt corrective action” regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as discussed below under the caption “Prompt Corrective Action.”
Basel III prescribes a standardized approach for risk weightings that expands the risk-weighting categories from the four Basel I-derived categories (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%) to a much larger and more risk-sensitive number of categories, depending on the nature of the assets, generally ranging from 0% for U.S. government and agency securities, to 600% for certain equity exposures, and resulting in higher risk weights for a variety of asset categories.
In addition, Basel III provides more advantageous risk weights for derivatives and repurchase-style transactions cleared through a qualifying central counterparty and increases the scope of eligible guarantors and eligible collateral for purposes of credit risk mitigation. In November 2017, the federal banking agencies adopted a final rule to extend the regulatory capital treatment applicable during 2017 under Basel III for certain items, including regulatory capital deductions, risk weights, and certain minority interest limitations. The relief provided under the final rule applies to banking organizations that are not subject to the capital rules’ advanced approaches, such as FNB. Specifically, the final rule extends the current regulatory capital treatment of MSAs, DTAs arising from temporary differences that could not be realized through net operating loss carrybacks, significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions in the form of common stock, non-significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions, significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions that are not in the form of common stock, and CET1 minority interest, tier 1 minority interest, and total capital minority interest exceeding applicable minority interest limitations. Management believes that, as of December 31, 2020, FNB and FNBPA meet all capital adequacy requirements under Basel III on a fully phased-in basis as if such requirements had been in effect.

In July 2019, the federal banking agencies adopted a final rule simplifying certain aspects of Basel III, the key elements of which apply solely to banking organizations that are not subject to the advanced approaches capital rules. Under the final rule, non-advanced approaches banking organizations, such as FNB and FNBPA, apply a more simple regulatory capital treatment for MSAs; certain DTAs; investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions than those currently applied; and capital issued by a consolidated subsidiary of a banking organization and held by third parties (sometimes referred to as a minority interest) that is includable in regulatory capital. Specifically, the final rule eliminates: (i) the 10 percent CET1 capital deduction threshold that applies individually to MSAs, temporary difference DTAs, and significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions in the form of common stock; (ii) the aggregate 15 percent CET1 capital deduction threshold that subsequently applies on a collective basis across such items; (iii) the 10 percent CET1 capital deduction threshold for non-significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions; and (iv) the deduction treatment for significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions not in the form of common stock. Basel III no longer has distinct treatments for significant and non-significant investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions, but instead now requires that non-advanced approaches banking organizations deduct from CET1 capital any amount of MSAs, temporary difference DTAs, and investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions that individually exceeds 25 percent of CET1 capital.
In December 2019, the federal banking agencies issued a final rule on the capital treatment of HVCRE exposures. The final rule aligns the regulatory definition of “HVCRE exposure” with the statutory definition of “HVCRE ADC” in the Economic Growth Act. The final rule also clarifies the capital treatment for loans that finance the development of land under the revised HVCRE exposure definition and establishes the requirements for certain exclusions from HVCRE exposure capital treatment.
In December 2017, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the last version of the Basel III accord, generally referred to as “Basel IV.” The Basel Committee stated that a key objective of the revisions incorporated into the framework is to reduce excessive variability of risk-weighted assets, which will be accomplished by enhancing the robustness and risk sensitivity of the standardized approaches for credit risk and operational risk, which will facilitate the comparability of banks’ capital ratios; constraining the use of internally modelled approaches; and complementing the risk-weighted capital ratio with a finalized leverage ratio and a revised and robust capital floor.  Leadership of the FRB, OCC, and FDIC, who are tasked with implementing Basel IV, supported the revisions. Although it is uncertain at this time, we anticipate some, if not all, of the Basel IV accord may be incorporated into the regulatory capital requirements framework applicable to FNB and FNBPA.
Current Expected Credit Loss Treatment
In June 2016, the FASB issued an accounting standard update, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which replaces the prior “incurred loss” model for recognizing credit losses with an “expected loss” model referred to as the CECL model. We adopted CECL on January 1, 2020. Under the CECL model, we are required to present certain financial assets carried at amortized cost, such as loans held for investment and HTM debt securities, at the net amount expected to be collected. The measurement of expected credit losses is to be based on information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and R&S forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported
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amount. On December 21, 2018, the federal banking agencies approved a final rule modifying their regulatory capital rules and providing an option to phase in over a period of three years the day-one regulatory capital effects of the CECL model. The CARES Act allows for an optional five-year phase in period for the day-one regulatory capital effects of the CECL adoption. FNB has elected this option. The final rule also revises the agencies’ other rules to reflect the update to the accounting standards. The final rule took effect April 1, 2019. See Note 2, New Accounting Standards, for more information on our CECL adoption.
Stress Testing
As part of the regulatory relief provided by the Economic Growth Act, the asset threshold requiring insured depository institutions to conduct and report to their primary federal bank regulators annual company-run stress tests was raised from $10 billion to $250 billion in total consolidated assets and makes the requirement “periodic” rather than annual. The Economic Growth Act also provided that bank holding companies under $100 billion in assets were no longer subject to stress testing requirements and provided the FRB with discretion to subject bank holding companies with more than $100 billion in total assets to enhanced supervision. Notwithstanding these amendments, the federal banking agencies indicated through interagency bank regulatory guidance that the capital planning and risk management practices of institutions with total assets less than $100 billion would continue to be reviewed through the regular supervisory process. We will continue to monitor and stress test our capital consistent with the safety and soundness expectations of our banking regulators.
Prompt Corrective Action
FDICIA, among other things, classifies insured depository institutions into five capital categories (well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized) and requires the respective federal regulatory agencies to implement systems for “prompt corrective action” for insured depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements within such categories. FDICIA imposes progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management and capital distributions, depending on the category in which an institution is classified. Failure to meet the capital guidelines could also subject a banking institution to capital-raising requirements, restrictions on its business and a variety of enforcement remedies, including the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, and in certain circumstances the appointment of a conservator or receiver. An “undercapitalized” bank must develop a capital restoration plan and its parent holding company must guarantee that bank’s compliance with the plan. The liability of the parent holding company under any such guarantee is limited to the lesser of five percent of the bank’s assets at the time it became ”undercapitalized” or the amount needed to comply with the plan. Furthermore, in the event of the bankruptcy of the parent holding company, the obligation under such guarantee would take priority over the parent’s general unsecured creditors. In addition, FDICIA requires the various regulatory agencies to prescribe certain non-capital standards for safety and soundness relating generally to operations and management, asset quality and executive compensation and permits regulatory action against a financial institution that does not meet such standards.
The various regulatory agencies have adopted substantially similar regulations that define the five capital categories identified by FDICIA, using the total risk-based capital, tier 1 risk-based capital, CET1 and leverage capital ratios as the relevant capital measures. Such regulations establish various degrees of corrective action to be taken when an institution is considered undercapitalized. Under the regulations, a “well-capitalized” institution must have a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, a tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.0% and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0% and not be subject to a capital directive order. Under these guidelines, FNBPA was considered well-capitalized as of December 31, 2020.
When determining the adequacy of an institution’s capital, federal regulators must also take into consideration (a) concentrations of credit risk; (b) interest rate risk (when the interest rate sensitivity of an institution’s assets does not match the sensitivity of its liabilities or its off-balance sheet position) and (c) risks from non-traditional activities, as well as an institution’s ability to manage those risks. This evaluation is made as part of the institution’s regular safety and soundness examination. In addition, any bank with significant trading activity, must incorporate a measure for market risk in their regulatory capital calculations.
Community Reinvestment Act and Fair Lending
The CRA requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practices. Under the CRA, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit to and investments in low and moderate-income individuals and communities. Depository institutions are periodically examined for compliance with the CRA and are assigned ratings. In order for a financial holding company to commence any new activity permitted by the BHC Act, or to acquire any company engaged in any new
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activity permitted by the BHC Act, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the CRA. In its most recent CRA examination, FNBPA received a “satisfactory” rating. Furthermore, banking regulators take into account CRA ratings when considering approval of a proposed transaction.
On December 12, 2019, the OCC and the FDIC issued a proposed rule that would modernize their respective agencies’ regulations under the CRA. The proposed rule would: (i) clarify what activities qualify for CRA credit and (ii) require banks to identify an additional assessment area based on where they receive a significant portion of their domestic retail deposits, thus, creating two assessment areas: a deposit-based assessment area and a facility-based assessment area. The OCC has not adopted the final amendments to the CRA regulations, and it is not anticipated to do so until after the new Comptroller of the Currency is appointed in 2021.
Fair lending laws prohibit discrimination in the provision of banking services, and the enforcement of these laws has been an increasing focus for the CFPB, HUD, and other regulators. Fair lending laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act, which outlaw discrimination in credit and residential real estate transactions on the basis of prohibited factors including, among others, race, color, national origin, gender, and religion. A lender may be liable for policies that result in a disparate treatment of or have a disparate impact on a protected class of applicants or borrowers. If a pattern or practice of lending discrimination is alleged by a regulator, then that agency may refer the matter to the DOJ for investigation. In December 2012, the DOJ and CFPB entered into a Memorandum of Understanding under which the agencies have agreed to share information, coordinate investigations and have generally committed to strengthen their coordination efforts. The new Presidential Administration had indicated a focus on prioritizing enforcement of the federal anti-discrimination laws, and we anticipate that such coordination will continue to occur. FNBPA is required to have a fair lending program that is of sufficient scope to monitor the inherent fair lending risk of the institution and that appropriately remediates issues which are identified.
Financial Privacy
In accordance with the GLB Act, federal banking regulators adopted rules that limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a non-affiliated third party. The privacy provisions of the GLB Act affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors.

Cybersecurity

The federal banking agencies have adopted guidelines for establishing information security standards and cybersecurity programs for implementing safeguards under the supervision of a banking organization’s board of directors. These guidelines, along with related regulatory materials, increasingly focus on risk management, processes related to information technology and operational resiliency, and the use of third parties in the provision of financial services. In October 2016, the federal banking agencies issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would apply to large and interconnected banking organizations and to services provided by third parties to these firms. These enhanced standards would apply only to depository institutions and depository institution holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more; however, it is possible that, if these enhanced standards are implemented, the OCC will consider them in connection with the examination and supervision of banks below the $50 billion threshold. The federal banking agencies have not yet taken further action on these proposed standards. The OCC, however, as part of its bank supervision operational plan has prioritized review of national bank’s information security, data protection and third-party risk management, including the extent to which national banks are positioned to assess the evolving cyber-threat environment and maintain resilient defenses against such threats.
In February 2018, the SEC announced interpretive guidance to assist public companies in preparing disclosures about cybersecurity risks and incidents. The guidance provides the SEC’s views about public companies’ disclosure obligations under existing law with respect to matters involving cybersecurity risk and incidents.  It also addresses the importance of cybersecurity policies and procedures and the application of disclosure controls and procedures, insider trading prohibitions, and Regulation FD and selective disclosure prohibitions in the cybersecurity context. FNB has reviewed and assessed the SEC guidance in connection with its business operations.
Anti-Money Laundering Initiatives and the USA PATRIOT Act
A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), which amended the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970,
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substantially broadened the scope of U.S. anti-money laundering laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. The UST has issued a number of regulations that apply various requirements of the USA PATRIOT Act to financial institutions such as FNBPA. These regulations require financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of their customers. In 2016, these regulations were amended, effective May 2018, to include express requirements regarding risk-based procedures for conducting ongoing customer due diligence. Such procedures require banks to take appropriate steps to understand the nature and purpose of customer relationships. In addition, absent an applicable exclusion, banks must identify and verify the identity of the beneficial owners of all legal entity customers at the time a new account is established. The failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal, including criminal law enforcement, and reputational consequences for the institution.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. has instituted economic sanctions which affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. These are typically known as the “OFAC rules” because they are administered by the UST Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). The OFAC-administered sanctions target countries in various ways. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country, and prohibitions on “U.S. persons” engaging in financial transactions which relate to investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g., property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution.
Consumer Protection Statutes and Regulations
In addition to the consumer regulations promulgated by the FRB, OCC and state agencies, and the regulations that may be issued by the CFPB pursuant to its authority under the Dodd-Frank Act, FNBPA is subject to various federal consumer protection statutes including the TILA, Truth in Savings Act, Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Fair Housing Act, RESPA, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, and regulations and guidance promulgated thereunder by the CFPB and the federal banking agencies. Among other things, these acts and regulations:
require banks to disclose credit terms in meaningful and consistent ways;
prohibit discrimination against an applicant in any consumer or business credit transaction;
prohibit discrimination in housing-related lending activities;
require banks to collect and report applicant and borrower data regarding loans for home purchases or improvement projects;
require lenders to provide borrowers with more detailed information regarding the nature and cost of real estate settlements;
prohibit certain lending practices and limit escrow account amounts with respect to real estate transactions;
prescribe possible penalties for violations of the requirements of consumer protection statutes and regulations;
require prescribed consumer disclosures and the adoption of error resolution procedures and other consumer protection protocols with respect to electronic fund transfers; and
prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices in connection with consumer loans, the collection of debt, and the provision of other consumer financial products and services.
The CFPB has implemented a series of final consumer protection and disclosure rules related to mortgage loan origination and mortgage loan servicing designed to address the Dodd-Frank Act mortgage lending protections. In particular, the CFPB issued a rule implementing the ability-to-repay and QM provisions of the TILA, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act (the QM Rule). The ability-to-repay provision requires creditors to make reasonable, good faith determinations that borrowers are able to repay their mortgages before extending the credit based on a number of factors and consideration of financial information about the
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borrower from reasonably reliable third-party documents. Under the Dodd-Frank Act and the QM Rule, loans meeting the definition of QM are entitled to a presumption that the lender satisfied the ability-to-repay requirements. The presumption is a conclusive presumption/safe harbor for prime loans meeting the QM requirements, and a rebuttable presumption for higher-priced/subprime loans meeting the QM requirements. The definition of a “qualified mortgage” incorporates the statutory requirements, such as not allowing negative amortization or terms longer than 30 years. The QM Rule also adds an explicit maximum 43% debt-to-income ratio for borrowers if the loan is to meet the QM definition, though some mortgages that meet underwriting guidelines of U.S. GSEs, the Federal Housing Administration and the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs may, for a period not to exceed seven years, meet the QM definition without being subject to the 43% debt-to-income limits. Additionally, regulations governing the servicing of residential mortgages have placed additional requirements on mortgage servicers that often lengthen the process for foreclosing on residential mortgages. The CFPB also adopted integrated disclosure requirements related to mortgage originations under RESPA and TILA and each statute’s implementing regulations. These disclosure requirements became effective in October 2015. The CFPB issued proposed amendments to the requirements in July 2016, which were finalized in July 2017. The CFPB also issued interpretive guidance and updated model disclosure forms in 2017.

As discussed, the CFPB has the authority to take supervisory and enforcement action against banks and other financial services companies under the agency’s jurisdiction that fail to comply with federal consumer financial laws. As an insured depository institution with total assets of more than $10 billion, FNBPA is subject to the CFPB’s supervisory and enforcement authorities. The Dodd-Frank Act also permits states to adopt more strict consumer protection laws and state attorneys general to enforce consumer protection rules issued by the CFPB. We continuously evaluate the impact of the consumer rules issued by the CFPB to determine if they will have any long-term impact on our mortgage loan origination and servicing activities. Compliance with these rules will likely increase our overall regulatory compliance costs. The CFPB has historically been active in bringing enforcement actions against banks and other financial institutions to enforce consumer financial laws. The federal financial regulatory agencies, including the OCC and state attorneys general, have also become increasingly active in this area with respect to institutions over which they have jurisdiction. We have incurred and may in the future incur additional costs in complying with these requirements.
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC has backup enforcement authority over a depository institution holding company, such as FNB, if the conduct or threatened conduct (including any acts or omissions) of such holding company poses a risk to the DIF, although such authority may not be used if the holding company is in generally sound condition and does not pose a foreseeable and material risk to the DIF. The Dodd-Frank Act may have a material impact on FNB and FNBPA's operations, particularly through increased compliance costs resulting from possible future consumer and fair lending regulations.
Dividend Restrictions
Our primary source of funds for cash distributions to our stockholders, and funds used to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness, is dividends received from FNBPA. FNBPA is subject to federal laws and regulations governing its ability to pay dividends to FNB, including requirements to maintain capital above regulatory minimums. Under federal law, the amount of dividends that a national bank, such as FNBPA, may pay in a calendar year is dependent on the amount of its net income for the current year combined with its retained net income for the two preceding years. The OCC has the authority to prohibit the payment of dividends by a national bank on the bases that paying dividends that deplete a bank's capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings. In addition to dividends from FNBPA, other sources of parent company liquidity for FNB include cash, short-term investments and issuance of debt instruments, as well as dividends and loan repayments from other subsidiaries.
In addition, the ability of FNB and FNBPA to pay dividends may be affected by the various minimum capital requirements previously described in the “Capital and Operational Requirements,” “Basel III Capital Rules” and “Stress Testing” discussions herein, and the capital and non-capital standards established under FDICIA, as described above. The right of FNB, our stockholders and our creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of our subsidiaries is further subject to the prior claims of creditors of the respective subsidiaries.
Source of Strength
According to the Dodd-Frank Act and FRB policy, a financial or bank holding company is expected to act as a source of financial strength to each of its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support each such subsidiary. Consistent with the “source of strength” policy, the FRB has stated that, as a matter of prudent banking, a bank or financial holding company generally should not maintain a rate of cash dividends unless its net income has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends and
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the prospective rate of earnings retention appears to be consistent with our capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. This support may be required at times when the parent holding company may not be able to provide such support.
In addition, if FNBPA was no longer “well-capitalized” and “well-managed” within the meaning of the BHC Act and FRB rules (which take into consideration capital ratios, examination ratings and other factors), the expedited processing of certain types of FRB applications would not be available to us. Moreover, examination ratings of “3” or lower, “unsatisfactory” ratings, capital ratios below well-capitalized levels, regulatory concerns regarding management, controls, assets, operations or other factors can all potentially result in the loss of financial holding company status, practical limitations on the ability of a bank or bank (or financial) holding company to engage in new activities, grow, acquire new businesses, repurchase its stock or pay dividends or continue to conduct existing activities.
Financial Holding Company Status and Activities
Under the BHC Act, an eligible bank holding company may elect to be a “financial holding company” and thereafter may engage in a range of activities that are financial in nature and that were not previously permissible for banks and bank holding companies. FNB is a financial holding company under the BHC Act. The financial holding company may engage directly or through a subsidiary in certain statutorily authorized activities (subject to certain restrictions and limitations imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act). A financial holding company may also engage in any activity that has been determined by rule or order to be financial in nature, incidental to such financial activity, or (with prior FRB approval) complementary to a financial activity and that does not pose substantial risk to the safety and soundness of an institution or to the financial system generally. In addition to these activities, a financial holding company may engage in those activities permissible for a bank holding company that has not elected to be treated as a financial holding company.
For a bank holding company to be eligible for financial holding company status, all of its subsidiary U.S. depository institutions must be “well-capitalized” and “well-managed.” The FRB generally must deny expanded authority to any bank holding company with a subsidiary insured depository institution that received less than a satisfactory rating on its most recent CRA review as of the time it submits its request for financial holding company status. If, after becoming a financial holding company and undertaking activities not permissible for a bank holding company under the BHC Act, the company fails to continue to meet any of the requirements for financial holding company status, the company must enter into an agreement with the FRB to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the FRB may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company that has elected to be treated as a financial holding company.
Activities and Acquisitions
The BHC Act requires a bank or financial holding company to obtain the prior approval of the FRB before:
the company may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank or savings and loan association, if after such acquisition the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control more than five percent of any class of voting securities of the institution;
any of the company’s subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or savings and loan association; or
the company may merge or consolidate with any other bank or financial holding company.
The Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (Interstate Banking Act) generally permits bank holding companies to acquire banks in any state, and preempts all state laws restricting the ownership by a holding company of banks in more than one state. A bank is subject to any state requirement that the bank has been organized and operating for a minimum period of time and the requirement that the bank holding company, after the proposed transaction, controls no more than 10 percent of the total amount of deposits of insured depository institutions in the U.S. and no more than 30 percent or such lesser or greater amount set by the state law of such deposits in that state. The Interstate Banking Act also permits:
a bank to merge with an out-of-state bank and convert any offices into branches of the resulting bank;
a bank to acquire branches from an out-of-state bank; and
a bank to establish and operate de novo interstate branches whenever the host state permits de novo branching of its own state-chartered banks.
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Bank or financial holding companies and banks seeking to engage in mergers authorized by the Interstate Banking Act must be at least adequately capitalized as of the date that the application is filed, and the resulting institution must be well-capitalized and managed upon consummation of the transaction.
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, national and state-chartered banks may open an initial branch in a state other than its home state (e.g., a host state) by establishing a de novo branch at any location in such host state at which a bank chartered in such host state could establish a branch. Applications to establish such branches must still be filed with the appropriate primary federal regulator.
The Change in Bank Control Act prohibits a person, entity or group of persons or entities acting in concert, from acquiring “control” of a bank holding company or bank unless the FRB has been given prior notice and has not objected to the transaction. Under current FRB regulations, the acquisition of 10% or more (but less than 25%) of the voting stock of a corporation would, under the circumstances set forth in the regulations, create a rebuttable presumption of acquisition of control of the corporation.
Effective April 1, 2020, the FRB implemented a rule to codify and simplify its interpretations and opinions regarding regulatory presumptions of control. The rule will likely have a meaningful impact on control determinations related to investments in banks and bank holding companies and investments by bank holding companies in non-bank companies.
Incentive Compensation
Guidelines adopted by the federal banking agencies pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice. The federal banking agencies jointly adopted the Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies intended to ensure that banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. This guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to expose the organization to material amounts of risk, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide employee incentives that appropriately balance risk in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk, (ii) be compatible with effective controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Monitoring methods and processes used by a banking organization should be commensurate with the size and complexity of the organization and its use of incentive compensation. Any deficiencies in the compensation practices of FNB or its subsidiaries and affiliates could lead to supervisory or enforcement action.

Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act required the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, such as FNB, having at least $1 billion in total assets that encourage inappropriate risk-taking by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. In addition, these regulators were required to establish regulations or guidelines requiring enhanced disclosure to regulators of incentive-based compensation arrangements. The federal banking agencies proposed such regulations in April 2011 and issued a second proposed rule in June 2016. The second proposed rule would apply to all banks, among other institutions, with at least $1 billion in average total consolidated assets, for which it would go beyond the Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies discussed above to prohibit certain types and features of incentive-based compensation arrangements for senior executive officers, require incentive-based compensation arrangements to adhere to certain basic principles to avoid a presumption of encouraging inappropriate risk, require appropriate board or committee oversight, establish minimum recordkeeping and mandate disclosures to the appropriate agency. In addition, institutions with at least $50 billion in average total consolidated assets would be subject to additional compensation-related requirements and prohibitions. The prospects for continued consideration of these proposed rules by the SEC and federal banking agencies are uncertain, but implementation of any final rules is not expected in the near term. Nevertheless, incentive compensation and sales practices, particularly in connection with certain products and services that are viewed as high-risk from a supervisory perspective - such as cross-selling and overdraft services - continue to be priority issues on the examination and supervision agendas of the CFPB and the federal banking agencies.
Securities and Exchange Commission
FNBIA is registered with the SEC as an investment advisor and, therefore, is subject to the requirements of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and other applicable SEC regulations. The principal purpose of the regulations applicable to investment advisors is the protection of investment advisory clients and the securities markets, rather than the protection of creditors and stockholders of investment advisors. The regulations applicable to investment advisors cover all aspects of the investment
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advisory business, including limitations on the ability of investment advisors to charge performance-based or non-refundable fees to clients, record-keeping, operating, marketing and reporting requirements, disclosure requirements, limitations on principal transactions between an advisor or its affiliates and advisory clients, as well as other anti-fraud prohibitions. FNBIA also may be subject to certain state securities laws and regulations.
Additional legislation, changes in or new rules promulgated by the SEC and other federal and state regulatory authorities and self-regulatory organizations or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, may directly affect the method of operation and profitability of FNBIA. The profitability of FNBIA could also be affected by rules and regulations that impact the business and financial communities in general, including changes to the laws governing taxation, antitrust regulation, homeland security and electronic commerce.
Under various provisions of the federal and state securities laws, including in particular those applicable to broker-dealers, investment advisors and registered investment companies and their service providers, a determination by a court or regulatory agency that certain violations have occurred at a company or its affiliates can result in a limitation of permitted activities and disqualification to continue to conduct certain activities.
FNBIA also may be required to conduct its business in a manner that complies with rules and regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) under the ERISA, among others. The principal purpose of these regulations is the protection of clients and ERISA plan and individual retirement account assets and beneficiaries, rather than the protection of stockholders and creditors. Significantly, in June 2018, the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a mandate vacating the DOL's "fiduciary rule" and related prohibited transaction exemptions. As a result, although FNBPA may have taken certain measures to comply with the rule on a transitional basis, FNBPA's securities brokerage and investment advisory service and activities will no longer be affected.
Separately, in June 2019, pursuant to the study conducted by the SEC that was required by the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC adopted Regulation Best Interest, which, among other things, established a new standard of conduct for a broker-dealer to act in the best interest of a retail consumer when making a recommendation of any securities transaction or investment strategy involving securities to such consumer. The new rule by the SEC requires us to review and possibly modify our compliance activities, which is causing us to incur some additional costs. In addition, state laws that impose a fiduciary duty also may require monitoring, as well as require that we undertake additional compliance measures.
Standards for Safety and Soundness

The federal banking agencies have adopted the Interagency Guidelines for Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness (the Guidelines). The Guidelines establish certain safety and soundness standards for all depository institutions. The operational and managerial standards in the Guidelines relate to the following: (1) internal controls and information systems; (2) internal audit systems; (3) loan documentation; (4) credit underwriting; (5) interest rate exposure; (6) asset growth; (7) compensation, fees and benefits; (8) asset quality; and (9) earnings. Rather than providing specific rules, the Guidelines set forth basic compliance considerations and guidance with respect to a depository institution. Failure to meet the standards in the Guidelines, however, could result in a request by the OCC to one of the nationally chartered banks to provide a written compliance plan to demonstrate its efforts to come into compliance with such Guidelines. Failure to provide a plan or to implement a provided plan requires the appropriate federal banking agency to issue an order to the institution requiring compliance.
Insurance Agencies
FNIA is subject to licensing requirements and extensive regulation under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the various states in which FNIA conducts its insurance agency business. These laws and regulations are primarily for the protection of policyholders. In all jurisdictions, the applicable laws and regulations are subject to amendment or interpretation by regulatory authorities. Generally, those authorities are vested with relatively broad discretion to grant, renew and revoke licenses and approvals and to implement regulations. Licenses may be denied or revoked for various reasons, including for regulatory violations or upon conviction for certain crimes. Possible sanctions that may be imposed for violation of regulations include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on engaging in a particular business for a specified period of time, revocation of licenses, censures and fines.
Penn-Ohio is subject to examination by the Arizona Department of Insurance. Representatives of the Arizona Department of Insurance periodically determine whether Penn-Ohio has maintained required reserves, established adequate deposits under a reinsurance agreement and complied with reporting requirements under the applicable Arizona statutes.
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Other Laws and Regulations Pertaining to Banks and Financial Services Companies

FNB, FNBPA and our subsidiaries and affiliates are also subject to a variety of other laws and regulations in addition to those already discussed herein with respect to the operation of our businesses, including but not limited to Expedited Funds Availability (and its implementing Regulation CC), Reserve Requirements (and its implementing Regulation D), Margin Stock Loans (and its implementing Regulation U), Right To Financial Privacy Act, Flood Disaster Protection Act, Homeowners Protection Act, Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, Telephone Consumer Protection Act, CAN-SPAM Act, Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, and the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act.

In addition, SOX addresses, among other issues, corporate governance, auditing and accounting, executive compensation, and enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information. As directed by SOX, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer are required to certify that our quarterly and annual reports do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact. The rules adopted by the SEC under SOX have several requirements, including having these officers certify that: they are responsible for establishing, maintaining and regularly evaluating the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting; they have made certain disclosures to our auditors and the audit committee of the Board of Directors about our internal control over financial reporting; and they have included information in our quarterly and annual reports about their evaluation and whether there have been changes in our internal control over financial reporting or in other factors that could materially affect internal control over financial reporting.
Governmental Policies
The operations of FNB and our subsidiaries are affected not only by general economic conditions, but also by the policies of various regulatory authorities and the new Presidential Administration. In particular, the FRB regulates monetary policy and interest rates in order to influence general economic conditions. These policies have a significant influence on overall growth and distribution of loans, investments and deposits and affect interest rates charged on loans or paid for deposits. FRB monetary policies have had a significant effect on the operating results of all financial institutions in the past and may continue to do so in the future. In addition, the new federal bank regulatory and SEC leadership appointees by the new Presidential Administration are anticipated to result in a philosophical change in the priorities and approach to supervision, compliance and enforcement and other policies which may impact our operations.
In view of changing conditions in the national economy and in money markets, as well as the effect of credit policies by monetary and fiscal authorities, including the FRB, it is difficult to predict the impact of possible future changes in interest rates, deposit levels and loan demand, or their effect on our business and earnings or on the financial condition of our various customers (see discussion under Risk Factors - caption “We could be adversely affected by changes in the law, especially changes in the regulation of the banking industry”).
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
The TCJA includes a number of provisions that impact FNB, including the following:
Tax Rate. The TCJA replaced the corporate tax rate of 35% applicable under prior law with a reduced 21% statutory tax rate. Although the reduced tax rate generally should be favorable to us by resulting in increased earnings and capital, it decreased the value of our then-existing DTAs. The effect of remeasuring DTAs due to the reduction in the tax rate was a significant item impacting earnings but is generally not expected to have a substantial adverse impact on our core earnings or capital over the long term. The new Presidential Administration has announced that one if its priorities is to raise the corporate tax rate.
FDIC Insurance Premiums. As discussed above, the TCJA prohibits taxpayers with consolidated assets over $50 billion from deducting any FDIC insurance premiums and prohibits taxpayers with consolidated assets between $10 and $50 billion from deducting the portion of their FDIC premiums equal to the ratio, expressed as a percentage, that (i) the taxpayer’s total consolidated assets over $10 billion, as of the close of the taxable year, bears to (ii) $40 billion. As a result, FNBPA’s ability to deduct its FDIC premiums is now limited.
Employee Compensation. A “publicly held corporation” is not permitted to deduct compensation in excess of $1 million per year paid to certain employees. The TCJA eliminated certain exceptions applicable under prior law for performance-based compensation, such as equity grants and cash bonuses that are paid only on the attainment of performance goals. As a result, our ability to deduct certain compensation paid to our most highly compensated employees is now limited.
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Business Asset Expensing. The TCJA allows taxpayers immediately to expense the entire cost (instead of only 50%, as under prior law) of certain depreciable tangible property and real property improvements acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017 and before January 1, 2023 (with an additional year for certain property). This 100% “bonus” depreciation is phased down proportionately for property placed in service on or after January 1, 2023 and before January 1, 2027 (with an additional year for certain property).
Interest Expense. The TCJA limits a taxpayer’s annual deduction of business interest expense to the sum of (i) business interest income and (ii) 30% of “adjusted taxable income,” defined as a business’s taxable income without taking into account business interest income or expense, net operating losses, and, for 2018 through 2021, depreciation, amortization and depletion. Because we generate significant amounts of net interest income, we do not expect to be impacted by this limitation.
Available Information

We make available through our website at www.fnbcorporation.com, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K (and amendments to any of the foregoing) as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this document and should not be considered part of this Report. Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “FNB”.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
We are subject to numerous risks, many of which are inherent to our business. As a financial services organization, we must balance revenue generation and profitability with the risks associated with our business activities. For information about how our risk oversight and management process operates, see Item 7 of this Report, MD&A – "Risk Management.” The following discussion highlights specific risks that could affect us and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Based on the information currently known, we believe that the following information identifies the material risk factors affecting us. The risks and uncertainties we face are not limited to those described below. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
You should carefully consider each of the following risks and all of the other information set forth in this Report. If any of the following risks and uncertainties develop into actual events or if the circumstances described in the risks and uncertainties occur or continue to occur, these events or circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. These events could also have a negative effect on the trading price of our securities.
1. Global/Regional Market and Environmental Influences
The COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and the ultimate impacts of the pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations will depend on future developments and other factors that are highly uncertain and will be impacted by the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic.
The ongoing COVID-19 global and national health emergency has caused significant disruption in the international and U.S. economies and financial markets and is having an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The spread of COVID-19 has caused death, illness, quarantines, cancellation of events and travel, business and school shutdowns, reduction in business activity and financial transactions, supply chain interruptions and overall economic and financial market instability. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the governments of the states in which we have branch offices, and of most other states, have taken preventative or protective actions, such as imposing restrictions on travel and business operations, advising or requiring individuals to limit or forego their time outside of their homes. These restrictions and other consequences of the pandemic have resulted in significant adverse effects for many different types of businesses, and have resulted in a significant number of layoffs and furloughs of employees nationwide and in the regions in which we operate.
The ultimate effects of COVID-19 on the broader economy and the markets that we serve are not known nor is the ultimate length of the restrictions described above and any accompanying effects. Moreover, the FOMC has taken action to lower the Federal Funds rate, which may negatively affect our interest income and, therefore, earnings, financial condition and results of operations. Additional impacts of COVID-19 on our business could be widespread and material, and may include, or exacerbate, among other consequences, the following:
employees, including, key executives, contracting COVID-19;
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reductions in our operating effectiveness as our employees work from home;
a work stoppage, forced quarantine, or other interruption of our business;
unavailability of key personnel necessary to conduct our business activities;
effects on key employees, including operational management personnel and those charged with preparing, monitoring and evaluating our financial reporting and internal controls;
sustained longer-term closures of our branch lobbies or the offices of our customers;
declines in demand for loans and other banking services and products;
reduced consumer spending due to both job losses and other effects attributable to COVID-19;
unprecedented volatility in U.S. financial markets;
volatile performance of our investment securities portfolio;
decline in the credit quality of our loan portfolio, owing to the effects of COVID-19 in the markets we serve, leading to a need to increase our ACL and the potential for higher loan losses;
declines in the net worth and liquidity of borrowers and loan guarantors, impairing their ability to honor commitments to us; and
declines in demand resulting from businesses being deemed to be “non-essential” by governments in the markets we serve, and from “non-essential” and “essential” businesses suffering adverse effects from reduced levels of economic activity in our markets.

These factors, together or in combination with other events or occurrences that are not yet known or anticipated, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in meaningfully lower stock prices for many companies, including the financial services sector, as well as the trading prices for many other securities. The further spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as ongoing or new governmental, regulatory and private sector responses to the pandemic, may materially disrupt banking and other economic activity generally and in the geographic areas in which we operate. This could result in further decline in demand for our banking products and services, and could negatively impact, among other things, our liquidity, regulatory capital and our growth strategy. Any one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are taking precautions to protect the safety and well-being of our employees and customers. However, no assurance can be given that the steps being taken will be adequate or deemed to be appropriate, nor can we predict the level of disruption which will occur to our employee’s ability to provide customer support and service. If we are unable to recover from a business disruption on a timely basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. We may also incur additional costs to remedy damages caused by such disruptions, which could further adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additional COVID-19 outbreaks, spikes and "second or subsequent" waves, new COVID-19 strains and widespread ineffectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines may lead to efforts by federal, state and local governments and health authorities to engage in efforts to contain or mitigate the pandemic's impact.
The ongoing COVID-19 global and national health emergency may continue to cause significant disruption in the U.S. economy and the U.S. financial and labor markets by imposing or extending restrictions on movement or business activities. Additionally, the potential expiration of the current fiscal unemployment relief or the failure to provide for additional COVID-19 related stimulus relief may adversely impact our business and financial performance by prolonging the U.S. economic recovery and possibly adversely impact the demand and profitability of our products and services, the valuation of assets and our ability to meet the financial and banking needs of our clients.
Interest rates on our outstanding financial instruments might be subject to change based on developments related to LIBOR, which could adversely affect revenue, expenses, and the value of those financial instruments.

In July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The ARRC, a committee of U.S. financial market participants, has recommended the SOFR as the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to LIBOR for use in
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derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to U.S. dollar-LIBOR. The ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan from LIBOR to SOFR and organizations are currently working on industry-wide and company-specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to LIBOR. We have a significant number of loans, derivatives and other financial instrument contracts that are indexed to LIBOR and are actively monitoring this activity and evaluating the related risks.  The market transition away from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate, including SOFR, is complex and could have a range of adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, any such transition could:

adversely affect the interest rates paid or received on, and the revenue and expenses associated with, our floating rate loans, derivatives and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR, or other securities or financial arrangements given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;
adversely affect the value of our floating rate loans, derivatives and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates, or other securities or financial arrangements given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;
prompt inquiries or other actions from regulators in respect of our preparation and readiness for the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate;
result in disputes, litigation or other actions with counterparties regarding the interpretation and enforceability of certain fallback language in LIBOR-based contracts; and
require the transition to, or development of, appropriate systems and analytics to effectively transition our risk management processes from LIBOR-based products to those based on the applicable alternative pricing benchmark.

The impact of this transition, as well as the effect of these developments on our funding costs, loan and investment securities portfolios, asset-liability management, and business, is uncertain.
Our business could be adversely affected by difficult economic conditions in the regions in which we operate.
We operate in seven states and the District of Columbia. Our market coverage spans several major metropolitan areas including: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Cleveland, Ohio; and Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and the Piedmont Triad (Winston-Salem, Greensboro and High Point) in North Carolina. Most of our customers are individuals and small- and medium-sized businesses that are dependent upon their regional economies. The economic conditions in these local markets may be different from, and in some instances worse than, economic conditions in the U.S. as a whole. Difficult economic and employment conditions in the market areas FNB serves could result in the following consequences, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations:
demand for our loans, deposits and services may decline;
loan delinquencies, problem assets, foreclosures and charge-offs may increase;
weak economic conditions could limit the demand for loans by creditworthy borrowers, limiting our capacity to leverage our retail deposits and maintain our net interest income;
collateral for our loans may decline in value; and
the amount of our low-cost or non-interest-bearing deposits may decrease.
Hurricanes, excessive rainfall, droughts or other adverse weather events could negatively affect the local economies in the North Carolina and South Carolina markets, or disrupt our operations in those markets, which could have an adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
The economy of the coastal regions of North Carolina and South Carolina is affected, from time to time, by adverse weather events, particularly hurricanes. Our market area includes the Outer Banks and other portions of coastal North Carolina. Agricultural interests are highly sensitive to excessive rainfall or droughts. We cannot predict whether, or to what extent, damage caused by future weather conditions will affect our operations, customers or the economies in our North Carolina and South Carolina markets. Weather events could cause a disruption in our day-to-day business activities in branches located in coastal communities, a decline in loan originations, destruction or decline in the value of properties securing our loans, or an increase in the risks of delinquencies, foreclosures, and loan losses. Even if a hurricane does not cause any physical damage in our North Carolina and South Carolina market areas, a turbulent hurricane season could significantly affect the market value of all coastal property.
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2. Lending
As a participating lender in the SBA PPP, we are subject to additional regulatory and DOJ enforcement risks and the risk of litigation from FNBPA’s clients or other parties regarding FNBPA’s processing of loans for the PPP and risks that the SBA may not fund some or all PPP loan guaranties.
Under the CARES Act, enacted in March 2020, Congress allocated $349 billion for the PPP loan program to be administered through the SBA. Under the PPP, small businesses and other entities and individuals applied for loans from existing SBA lenders and other approved regulated lenders that enrolled in the program, subject to various limitations and eligibility criteria. FNBPA participated as a lender in the PPP beginning in April 2020. From the beginning of the PPP, there has been ambiguity and continuously evolving rules, interpretations and guidance regarding the operation of the PPP and the respective obligations of banks and loan applicants, which has exposed banks to risks relating to non-compliance with the PPP by various government investigative agencies and the DOJ, who are charged with investigating PPP loan fraud and pursuing civil and criminal sanctions. Congress has approved additional funding for the PPP and beginning in January 2021, FNBPA elected to participate in the second round of PPP loans. Since the opening of the PPP, several larger banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP. We may be exposed to the risk of litigation, from both clients and non-clients that approached FNBPA regarding PPP loans, regarding our process and procedures used in processing applications for the PPP. If any such litigation is filed against us and is not resolved in a manner favorable to us, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect our reputation. In addition, litigation can be costly, regardless of outcome. Any financial, civil or criminal liability, litigation costs or reputational damage caused by PPP-related litigation could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
FNBPA also has credit risk on PPP loans if a determination is made by the SBA that there is a deficiency in the manner in which the loan was originated, underwritten, certified by the borrower, funded, or serviced by FNBPA, such as an issue with the eligibility of a borrower to receive a PPP loan, which may or may not be related to the ambiguity in the laws, rules and guidance regarding the operation of the PPP. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, certified by the borrower, funded, or serviced by FNBPA, the SBA may deny its liability under its loan guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, deny forgiveness of a PPP loan or, if it has already paid under the guaranty or honored the loan forgiveness, seek recovery of any loss related to the deficiency from us.
Our results of operations are significantly affected by the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans.
Lending money is an essential part of the banking business. However, for various reasons, borrowers do not always repay their loans. The risk of non-payment is affected by:
credit risks of a particular borrower;
changes in economic conditions that impact certain geographic markets or industries;
fluctuations in interest rates on adjustable rate loans;
the duration of the loan; and
in the case of a collateralized loan, uncertainties as to the future value of the collateral.
Generally, commercial loans and leases present a greater risk of non-payment by a borrower than other types of loans. They typically involve larger loan balances and are particularly sensitive to economic conditions. The borrower’s ability to repay usually depends on the successful operation of its business and income stream. In addition, some of our commercial borrowers have more than one loan outstanding with us, which means that an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to significantly greater risk of loss. In the case of commercial and industrial loans, collateral often consists of accounts receivable, inventory and equipment, which may not yield substantial recovery of principal losses incurred, and is susceptible to deterioration or other loss in advance of liquidation of such collateral. These types of loans, however, have historically driven the growth in our loan portfolio and we intend to continue our lending efforts for commercial and industrial products. At December 31, 2020, commercial loans and leases comprised 68.6% of our loan portfolio and consumer loans comprised 31.4% of our loan portfolio. Consumer loans typically have shorter terms and lower balances with higher yields compared to real estate mortgage loans, but generally carry higher risks of default. Consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower’s continuing financial stability, and thus are more likely to be affected by adverse personal circumstances. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on these loans. For additional information, see the Lending Activity section of MD&A, which is included in Item 7 of this Report.
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Our mortgage banking profitability could be significantly reduced if we are not able to originate and resell a high volume of mortgage loans.
Mortgage banking is generally considered a volatile source of income because it depends largely on the volume of loans we originate and sell in the secondary market. If our originations of mortgage loans decrease, resulting in fewer loans that are available to be sold to investors, this would result in a decrease in mortgage revenues and a corresponding decrease in non-interest income.
Mortgage loan production levels are sensitive to changes in economic conditions and activity, strengths or weaknesses in the housing market and interest rate fluctuations. Generally, any sustained period of decreased economic activity or higher interest rates could reduce demand for mortgage loans and refinancings. In addition, our results of operations are affected by the amount of non-interest expense associated with mortgage banking activities, such as salaries and employee benefits, occupancy, equipment and data processing expense and other operating costs. During periods of reduced loan demand, our results of operations may be adversely affected to the extent that we are unable to reduce expenses commensurate with the decline in loan originations.
Our ability to originate and resell mortgage loans readily is dependent upon the availability of an active secondary market. GSEs, including FHLB, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae, account for a substantial portion of the secondary market in residential mortgage loans. Any future changes in laws that significantly affect the activity of these GSEs could, in turn, adversely affect our mortgage banking business. In September 2008, the GSEs were placed into conservatorship by the U.S. government. We cannot predict if, when or how the conservatorship will end, or any associated changes to the business structure and operations of the GSEs that could result. Additionally, there are various proposals to reform the role of the GSEs in the U.S. housing finance market. The extent and timing of any such regulatory reform regarding the housing finance market and the GSEs are uncertain.
Future changes to our eligibility to participate in the programs offered by the GSEs and other secondary purchasers, or the loan criteria of the GSEs and other secondary purchasers could also result in a lower volume of corresponding loan originations.
Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if we must further increase our provision for credit losses or if our ACL is not sufficient to absorb actual losses.
There is no precise method of predicting loan losses. We can give no assurance that our ACL will be sufficient to absorb actual loan losses. Excess loan losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We attempt to maintain an appropriate ACL to provide for estimated current expected credit losses in our loan portfolio as of the corresponding reporting date based on various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of the loan portfolio. We regularly determine the amount of our ACL based upon consideration of several quantitative and qualitative factors including, but not limited to, the following:
a regular review of the quality, mix and size of the overall loan portfolio;
historical loan loss experience;
evaluation of non-performing loans;
geographic or industry concentrations;
assessment of economic conditions and their effects on FNB’s existing portfolio;
the amount and quality of collateral, including guarantees, securing loans; and
geographic or industry economic market conditions.
The level of the ACL reflects the judgment and estimates of management regarding the amount and timing of future cash flows, current fair value of the underlying collateral and other qualitative risk factors that may affect the loan. Determination of the allowance is inherently subjective and is based on factors that are susceptible to significant change. Continuing deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the ACL. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our ACL and may require an increase in the provision for credit losses or the recognition of additional loan charge-offs, based on judgments different from those of management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the ACL, we will need additional provisions to increase the ACL. Any increases in the ACL will result in a decrease in net income and capital and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
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For additional discussion relating to this matter, refer to the Allowance and Provision for Credit Losses section of MD&A, which is included in Item 7 of this Report.
Changes in economic conditions, the impact of COVID-19 and the composition of our loan portfolio could lead to higher loan charge-offs or an increase in our provision for credit losses and may reduce our net income.
Changes in national and regional economic conditions, and in large metropolitan areas within our market, including the economic impact of COVID-19, continue to impact our loan portfolios. For example, an increase in unemployment, a decrease in real estate values or changes in interest rates, as well as other factors, could weaken the economies of the communities we serve. Weakness in the market areas served by FNB could depress our earnings and consequently our financial condition because customers may not want or need our products or services; borrowers may not be able to repay their loans; the value of the collateral securing our loans to borrowers may decline; and the quality of our loan portfolio may decline. Any of the latter three scenarios could require us to charge-off a higher percentage of our loans and/or increase our provision for credit losses, which would reduce our net income. Additionally, changes to macroeconomic conditions and the related CECL modeling considerations may result in volatility in our provision from period to period.
3. Goodwill
Declines in the fair value of our reporting units could result in a goodwill impairment charge and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
COVID-19 impacted worldwide economic conditions and the resulting adverse effects to stock market capitalization negatively impact the valuation of goodwill assets. Goodwill is periodically tested for impairment by comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying amount. If the fair value is greater than the carrying amount, then the reporting unit’s goodwill is deemed not to be impaired. The fair value of a reporting unit is impacted by the reporting unit’s expected financial performance and susceptibility to adverse economic, regulatory and legislative changes. The most significant assumptions affecting our goodwill impairment evaluation are variables including projections of earnings, the discount rates used in the income approach to fair value and the control premium above our current stock price that an acquirer would pay to obtain control of FNB. While these factors provide some relative market information about the estimated fair value of the reporting units, they are not individually determinative and need to be evaluated in the context of the current economic environment. However, significant and sustained declines in our market capitalization or other factors could be an indication of potential goodwill impairment.
Fair value determinations require considerable judgment and are sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions, estimates and market factors. If any estimates, market factors, or assumptions change in the future, these amounts are susceptible to impairments. For additional discussion related to goodwill, refer to Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 9, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.
4. Growth Trends
If we are not able to continue our historical levels of growth, we may not be able to maintain our historical revenue trends.
To achieve our past levels of growth, we have focused on both organic growth and acquisitions. We may not be able to sustain our historical rate of growth or may not be able to grow at all. More specifically, we may not be able to obtain the financing necessary to fund additional growth. Various factors, such as economic conditions and competition, may impede or prohibit the opening of new retail branches or optimizing our existing branch network. Further, we may be unable to attract and retain experienced bankers, which could adversely affect our internal growth. If we are not able to continue our historical levels of growth, we may not be able to maintain our historical revenue trends.
Our growth may require us to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available when it is needed.
We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations (see discussion under “Government Supervision and Regulation” included in Item 1 of this Report). As a financial holding company, we seek to maintain capital sufficient to meet the “well-capitalized” standard set by regulators. We anticipate that our current capital resources will satisfy our capital requirements for the foreseeable future. We may at some point, however, need to raise additional capital to support continued growth, whether such growth occurs organically or through acquisitions.
The availability of additional capital or financing will depend on a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, such as market conditions, the general availability of credit, the overall availability of credit to the financial services industry,
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our credit ratings and credit capacity, marketability of our stock, as well as the possibility that lenders could develop a negative perception of our long- or short-term financial prospects if we incur large credit losses or if the level of business activity decreases due to economic conditions. Accordingly, there can be no assurance of our ability to expand our operations through internal growth or acquisitions. As such, we may be forced to delay raising capital, issue shorter term securities than desired or bear an unattractive cost of capital, which could decrease profitability and significantly reduce financial flexibility. In addition, if we decide to raise additional equity capital, it could be dilutive to our existing stockholders.
5. Regulations, Tax Laws and Political Impacts
Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in tax rules and regulations, or interpretations.
Our income tax expense has differed from the tax computed at the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate due primarily to discrete items. The new Presidential Administration approach to corporate tax rates could affect our future results of operations. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the federal tax rates and in tax rates in jurisdictions where our income is earned, by changes in or our interpretation of tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business, by unexpected negative changes in business and market conditions that could reduce certain tax benefits, or by changes in the valuation of our DTAs and DTLs. Changes in statutory tax rates or DTAs and DTLs may adversely affect our profitability.
Our business and financial performance is impacted significantly by market rates and changes in those rates. The monetary, tax and other policies of governmental agencies, including the UST and the FRB, have a direct impact on interest rates and overall financial market performance over which we have no control and which may not be able to be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
As a result of the high percentage of our assets and liabilities that are in the form of interest-bearing or interest-related instruments, changes in interest rates, in the shape of the yield curve or in spreads between different market interest rates can have a material effect on our business, profitability and the value of our financial assets and liabilities. Such scenarios may include the following:
changes in interest rates or interest rate spreads can affect the difference between the interest that FNBPA can earn on assets and the interest that FNBPA has to pay on liabilities, which impacts FNBPA’s overall net interest income and profitability;
such changes can affect the ability of borrowers to meet obligations under variable or adjustable rate loans and other debt instruments and can, in turn, affect our loss rates on those assets;
such changes may decrease the demand for interest rate-based products or services, including bank loans and deposit products and the subordinated notes offered by our subsidiary, FNB Financial Services, LP;
such changes can also affect our ability to hedge various forms of market and interest rate risks and may decrease the profitability or increase the risk associated with such hedges; and
movements in interest rates also affect mortgage repayment speeds and could result in impairments of mortgage servicing assets or otherwise affect the profitability of such assets.
The monetary, tax and other policies of the U.S. Government and its agencies also have a significant impact on interest rates and overall financial market performance. An important function of the FRB is to regulate the national supply of bank credit and certain interest rates. The actions of the FRB influence the rates of interest that FNBPA may charge on loans and what FNBPA may pay on borrowings and interest-bearing deposits and can also affect the value of FNB’s and FNBPA’s on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet financial instruments. Principally due to the impact of rates and by controlling access to direct funding from the FRB, the FRB’s policies also influence to a significant extent, FNBPA’s cost of funding. We cannot predict the nature or timing of future changes in monetary, fiscal, tax and other policies or the effects that may be implemented by the current Administration or a newly elected Administration and that they may have on FNBPA’s and other affiliates’ activities and financial results.

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Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in accounting policies, standards and interpretations.
The FASB, regulatory agencies and other bodies that establish accounting standards periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards governing the preparation of our financial statements. Additionally, those bodies that establish and interpret the accounting standards (such as the FASB, SEC and banking regulators) may change prior interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. Changes resulting from these new standards may result in materially different financial results and may require that we change how we process, analyze and report financial information and that we change financial reporting controls.
Significant recent guidance issued was FASB ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), commonly referred to as “CECL,” which introduced new guidance for the accounting for credit losses on instruments within its scope. CECL requires loss estimates for the remaining estimated life of the financial asset using historical experience, current conditions, and R&S forecasts. It also modifies the impairment model for debt securities AFS and provides for a simplified accounting model for purchased financial assets with credit deterioration since their origination. For further information regarding new or updated standards, see Note 2, “New Accounting Standards” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Changes in the federal, state or local tax laws may negatively impact our financial performance.

We are subject to legislative tax rate changes that could increase our effective tax rates. Depending on enactment dates, these law changes may be retroactive to previous periods and as a result could negatively affect our current and future financial performance. For example, the TCJA resulted in a reduction in our corporate tax rate to 21% beginning in 2018, which has a favorable impact on our earnings and capital generation abilities, however, the new Presidential Administration has announced that modification of corporate tax rates is a priority. In addition, the TCJA also enacted limitations on certain deductions, such as the deduction of FDIC deposit insurance premiums, which will partially offset the anticipated increase in net earnings from the lower tax rate. The impact of the TCJA may differ from the foregoing, possibly materially, due to changes in interpretations or in assumptions that we have made, guidance or regulations that may be promulgated, and other actions that we may take as a result of the TCJA. Similarly, FNB’s customers are likely to experience varying effects from both the individual and business tax provisions of the TCJA and such effects, whether positive or negative, may have a corresponding impact on our business and the economy as a whole.
We could be adversely affected by changes in the law, especially changes in the regulation of the banking industry.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and our businesses are subject to supervision and regulation by several governmental agencies, including the SEC, FRB, OCC, CFPB, FDIC, FSOC, DOJ, UST, FINRA, HUD and state attorneys general and banking, financial services, and securities regulators. Regulations are generally intended to provide protection for depositors, borrowers and other customers, as well as the stability of the financial services industry, rather than for investors in our securities. We are subject to changes in federal and state law, regulations, governmental policies, agency supervisory and enforcement policies and priorities, and tax laws and accounting principles. Changes in regulations or the regulatory environment could adversely affect the banking and financial services industry as a whole and could limit our growth and the return to investors by restricting such activities as, for example:
the payment of dividends and stock repurchases;
balance sheet growth;
investments;
loans and interest rates;
assessments of fees, such as overdraft and electronic transfer interchange fees;
the provision of securities, insurance, brokerage or trust services;
mergers with or acquisitions of other institutions or branches;
the types of non-deposit activities in which our subsidiaries may engage; and
offering of new products and services.
Under regulatory capital adequacy guidelines and other regulatory requirements, FNB and FNBPA must meet guidelines subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weightings and other factors. From time to time, the
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regulators implement changes to those regulatory capital adequacy guidelines. Changes to present capital and liquidity requirements could restrict our activities and require us to maintain additional capital. Compliance with heightened capital standards may reduce our ability to generate or originate revenue-producing assets and thereby restrict revenue generation from banking and non-banking operations. If we fail to meet these minimum capital guidelines and other regulatory requirements, our financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

Although significant changes to existing laws, regulations and policies may be proposed by the new Presidential Administration and implemented by Congress and/or the federal banking agencies and the CFPB, it is difficult to predict with precision the changes that will be implemented into law and when such changes may occur. Accordingly, the impact of any legislative or regulatory changes on our competitors and on the financial services industry as a whole cannot be determined at this time. In any event, the laws and regulations to which we are subject are constantly under review by Congress, federal regulatory agencies, and state authorities. These laws and regulations could be changed drastically in the future, which could affect our profitability, our ability to compete effectively, or the composition of the financial services industry in which we compete.
Certain provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws and Pennsylvania law may discourage takeovers.
Our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws contain certain anti-takeover provisions that may discourage or may make more difficult or expensive a tender offer, change in control or takeover attempt that is opposed by our Board of Directors. In particular, our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws:
require shareholders to give us advance notice to nominate candidates for election to our Board of Directors or to make shareholder proposals at a shareholders’ meeting;
permit our Board of Directors to issue, without approval of our common shareholders unless otherwise required by law, preferred stock with such terms as our Board of Directors may determine;
require the vote of the holders of at least 75% of our voting shares for shareholder amendments to our By-laws;
in the case of a proposed business combination with a shareholder owning 10% or more of the voting shares of FNB, the vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the voting shares not owned by such shareholder is required to approve the business combination, unless it is approved by a majority of FNB’s disinterested directors.
Under Pennsylvania law, only shareholders holding at least 25% of a corporation’s outstanding stock may call a special meeting for any purpose. In addition, Pennsylvania law provides that in discharging their duties, including in the context of a takeover attempt, the board of directors, committees of the board and individual directors may consider a broad range of factors as they deem pertinent, which may include but is not limited to shareholders’ interests, in considering the best interests of the corporation.
These provisions of our Articles of Incorporation and By-laws and of Pennsylvania law could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control, even though the holders of a majority of our stock may consider such proposals desirable. Such provisions could also make it more difficult for third parties to remove and replace members of our Board of Directors. Moreover, these provisions could diminish the opportunities for shareholders to participate in certain tender offers, including tender offers at prices above the then-current market price of our common stock, and may also inhibit increases in the trading price of our common stock that could result from takeover attempts.
6. Liquidity
Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due.
Our ability to implement our business strategy will depend on our liquidity and ability to obtain funding for loan originations, working capital and other general purposes. Liquidity is needed to fund various obligations, including credit commitments to borrowers, mortgage and other loan originations, withdrawals by depositors, repayment of borrowings, dividends to shareholders, operating expenses and capital expenditures. Liquidity risk is the potential that we will be unable to meet our obligations as they come due, capitalize on growth opportunities as they arise, or pay regular dividends on our common stock because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis, at a reasonable cost and within acceptable risk tolerances. Our preferred sources for funding are deposits and customer repurchase agreements, which are low cost and stable sources of funding for us. We compete with commercial banks, savings banks and credit unions, as well as non-depository competitors such as mutual funds, securities and brokerage firms and insurance companies, for deposits and customer repurchase agreements. If we are unable to attract and maintain sufficient levels of deposits and customer repurchase agreements to fund our loan growth and liquidity objectives, we may be subject to paying higher funding costs by raising
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interest rates that are paid on deposits and customer repurchase agreements or cause us to source funds from third-party providers which may be higher cost funding.
Secondary sources of liquidity include principal and interest payments on loans; principal and interest payments on investment securities; sale, maturity and prepayment of investment securities; net cash provided from operations; FHLB advances and subordinated notes issued through one of our subsidiaries, which are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by us.
Our liquidity and ability to fund and run our business could be materially adversely affected by a variety of conditions and factors, including financial and credit market disruptions and volatility or a lack of market or customer confidence in financial markets in general, which may result in a loss of customer deposits or outflows of cash or collateral and/or ability to access capital markets on favorable terms. Other conditions and factors that could materially adversely affect our liquidity and funding include a lack of market or customer confidence in, or negative news about, us or the financial services industry generally, which could result in a loss of deposits and negatively affect our ability to access the capital markets and to sell or securitize loans or other assets. If we are unable to continue to fund assets through deposits and customer repurchase agreements or access funding sources on favorable terms, or if we suffer an increase in borrowing costs or otherwise fail to manage liquidity effectively, our liquidity, operating margins, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
7. Financial Industry
The financial soundness of other financial institutions may adversely affect FNB, FNBPA and other affiliates.
Financial institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. FNB, FNBPA and other affiliates are exposed to many different industries and counterparties and they routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks and other institutional clients. Many of these types of transactions expose FNB, FNBPA and other affiliates to credit risk in the event of default of the counterparty or client. In addition, FNBPA and other affiliates’ credit risks may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices that are not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure that we are due.
We are subject to operational risk that could damage our reputation and our business. We engage in a variety of businesses in diverse markets and rely on systems, employees, service providers and counterparties to properly process a high volume of transactions.
Like all businesses, we are subject to operational risk, which represents the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes in our systems, human error and external events. Operational risk also encompasses technology, compliance and legal risk, which is the risk of loss from violations of, or noncompliance with, rules, regulations, prescribed practices or ethical standards, as well as the risk of FNB’s and our subsidiaries’ noncompliance with contractual and other obligations. Many strategic initiatives, such as development of new products, product enhancements, use of technology, staffing reductions, changes in business processes and acquisitions of other financial services companies or their assets, could substantially increase operational risk. We are also exposed to operational risk through our outsourcing arrangements, and the effect the changes in circumstances or capabilities of FNB’s outsourcing vendors can have on our ability to continue to perform operational functions necessary to FNB’s business. We outsource certain data processing and online and mobile banking services to third-party providers. Those third-party providers could also be sources of operational and information security risk to FNB, including from breakdowns or failures of their own systems or capacity constraints. Although we take steps to mitigate operational risks through a system of internal controls which we review on a regular basis and update as required, no system of controls - however well designed and maintained - is infallible, and, to the extent the risks arise from the operations of third-party vendors or customers, we have limited ability to control those risks. Control weaknesses or failures or other operational risk could result in charges, increased operational costs, harm to our reputation, inability to secure insurance, civil litigation, regulatory intervention, including enforcement action and enhanced supervisory scrutiny, foregone business opportunities, the loss of customer business, especially if customers are discouraged from using our mobile bill pay, mobile banking and online banking services, or the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary information.
Additionally, we may seek growth by acquiring financial institutions and branches as well as non-depository entities engaged in permissible activities for our financial institution subsidiaries. We may encounter unforeseen expenses, as well as difficulties and complications in integrating expanded operations and new employees without disruption to our overall operations. Following each acquisition, we must expend substantial resources to integrate the entities. The integration of non-banking entities often involves combining different industry cultures and business methodologies. The failure to integrate acquired entities successfully with our existing operations may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. As we grow, our regulatory costs also may become more significant.
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In addition to acquisitions, we may expand into additional communities or attempt to strengthen our position in our current markets by undertaking additional de novo branch openings. Based on our experience, we believe that it generally takes up to three years for new banking facilities to achieve operational profitability due to the impact of organizational and overhead expenses and the start-up phase of generating loans and deposits. To the extent that we undertake additional de novo branch openings or branch acquisitions, we are likely to continue to experience the effects of higher operating expenses relative to operating income from the new banking facilities, which may have an adverse effect on our net income, earnings per share, return on average stockholders’ equity and return on average assets.
The financial services industry is experiencing leadership changes at the federal banking agencies, which may impact regulations and government policies applicable to us.
The former Presidential Administration had advocated and pursued approaches to reduce financial services banking regulation, supervision and enforcement. The new Presidential Administration is anticipated to advocate a more expansive regulatory, supervisory and enforcement approach and its appointment of the federal bank regulatory agencies' leadership positions will likely reflect this change. At this time, the full impact of the new Presidential Administration's approach to financial services regulation is uncertain. Likewise, it is also difficult to predict the impact that any legislative or regulatory changes will have on our competitors and on the financial services industry as a whole. Regardless, our results of operations also could be adversely affected by changes in the way in which existing statutes, regulations, and laws are interpreted or applied by courts and government agencies as advocated by the current or a new Administration.
Increases in or required prepayments of FDIC insurance premiums may adversely affect our earnings.
In order to maintain a strong funding position and restore reserve ratios of the DIF, the FDIC has increased assessment rates of insured institutions. Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the minimum reserve ratio for the DIF was increased from 1.15% to 1.35% of estimated insured deposits, or the assessment base, and the FDIC was directed to take the steps needed to cause the reserve ratio of the DIF to reach 1.35% of estimated insured deposits by September 30, 2020. The DIF achieved this level in the third quarter of 2018. As part of its long-range management plan to ensure that the DIF is able to maintain a positive balance despite banking crises and steady, moderate assessment rates, despite economic and credit cycles, the FDIC set the DIF’s designated reserve ratio at 2% of estimated insured deposits. The FDIC is required to offset the effect of the increased minimum reserve ratio for banks with assets of less than $10 billion, so smaller community banks will be spared the cost of funding the increase in the minimum reserve ratio. Moreover, as a result of the TCJA’s disallowance of the deduction of FDIC deposit insurance premium payments for certain banking organizations, the after-tax cost of our deposit insurance premium payments has increased.
We generally have limited ability to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance. Any future increases in or required prepayments of FDIC insurance premiums may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In light of our status as a large bank, FNBPA may be required to pay additional amounts to the DIF, which could have an adverse effect on our earnings. If FNBPA’s deposit insurance premium assessment rate increases again, either because of our risk classification, a change in the concentration of our loan portfolio, emergency assessments, or because of another uniform increase, our earnings could be further adversely impacted.
The banking and financial services industry continually encounters technological change, especially in the systems that are used to deliver products to, and execute transactions on behalf of, customers, and if we fail to continue to invest in technological improvements as they become appropriate or necessary, our ability to compete effectively could be severely impaired.
The banking and financial services industry continually undergoes technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better compete for and serve customers and reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to address customer needs by using secure technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our larger competitors have greater resources to invest in technological improvements, and we may not effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or do so as quickly as our competitors. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the banking and financial services industry could negatively affect our revenue and profitability.

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8. Cybersecurity
An interruption in or breach in security of our information systems, or other cybersecurity risks, could result in a loss of customer business, increased compliance and remediation costs, civil litigation or governmental regulatory action, and have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
As part of our business, we collect, process and retain sensitive and confidential client and customer information in both paper and electronic form and rely heavily on communications and information systems for these functions. This information includes non-public, personally-identifiable information that is protected under applicable federal and state laws and regulations. Additionally, certain of these data processing functions are not handled by us directly, but are outsourced to third-party providers. We devote significant resources and management focus to ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our systems, including adoption of policies and procedures that involve our third-party providers to prevent, detect and deter cyber-related crimes intended to infiltrate our networks, capture sensitive client and customer information, deny service to customers, or harm electronic processing capabilities and be ready to respond, if necessary. Despite these efforts, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism and other physical security threats, computer viruses or compromises, ransomware attacks, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors or other similar events. Any security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of our confidential business, employee or customer information, whether originating with us, our vendors or retail businesses, could severely damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of civil litigation and liability, require the payment of regulatory fines or penalties or undertaking of costly remediation efforts with respect to third parties affected by a security breach, disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The additional cost of our day-to-day cybersecurity monitoring and protection systems and controls includes the cost of hardware and software, third-party technology providers, consulting and forensic testing firms, insurance premium costs and legal fees, in addition to the incremental cost of our personnel who focus a substantial portion of their responsibilities on cybersecurity. We may also need to expend substantial resources to comply with the data security breach notification requirements adopted by banking regulators and the states, which have varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory or law enforcement notification and remediation requirements in certain circumstances in the event of a security breach.
Cybersecurity risks appear to be growing and, as a result, the cyber-resilience of banking organizations is of increased importance to federal and state banking agencies and other regulators. New or revised laws and regulations may significantly impact our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, the collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer and employee information, and current or planned business activities. Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of cyber incidents, including several well-publicized cyber-attacks that targeted other U.S. companies, including financial services companies much larger than us. These cyber incidents have been initiated from a variety of sources, including terrorist organizations and hostile foreign governments. As technology advances, the ability to initiate transactions and access data has also become more widely distributed among mobile devices, personal computers, automated teller machines, remote deposit capture sites and similar access points, some of which are not controlled or secured by FNB. It is possible that we could have exposure to liability and suffer losses as a result of a security breach or cyber-attack that occurred through no fault of FNB. Further, the probability of a successful cyber attack against us or one of our third-party services providers cannot be predicted. Although we maintain specific “cyber” insurance coverage, which would apply in the event of various breach scenarios, the amount of coverage may not be adequate in any particular case. In addition, cyber threat scenarios are inherently difficult to predict and can take many forms, several of which may not be covered under our cyber insurance coverage. As cyber threats continue to evolve and increase, we may be required to spend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective and preventative measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
9. Reputation
Our key assets include our brand and reputation and our business may be affected by how we are perceived in the market place.
Our brand and our reputation are key assets of FNB. Our ability to attract and retain banking, insurance, wealth management and corporate clients and employees is highly dependent upon external perceptions of our culture, level of service, security, trustworthiness, business practices and financial condition. Negative perceptions or publicity regarding these matters could
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damage our reputation among existing customers and corporate clients and employees, which could make it difficult for us to attract new clients and employees and retain existing ones. Adverse developments with respect to the financial services industry or sociopolitical events and circumstances may also, by association, negatively impact our reputation, or result in greater regulatory or legislative scrutiny or litigation against us. Although we monitor developments for areas of potential risk to our reputation and brand, negative perceptions or publicity could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
10. Human and Vendor Resources
Our day-to-day operations rely heavily on the proper functioning of products, information systems and services provided by third-party, external vendors.
We rely on certain external vendors to provide products, information systems and services necessary to maintain our day-to-day operations. These third parties provide key components of our business operations such as data processing, recording and monitoring transactions, online banking interfaces and services, Internet connections and network access. While we have selected these third-party vendors carefully and we oversee their provision of service to us in accordance with applicable enterprise risk management and third-party vendor risk management standards and in a manner consistent with the supervisory expectations of our regulators, we cannot control the actions of our third-party vendors entirely. Any complications caused by these third parties, including those resulting from disruptions in communication services provided by a vendor, failure of a vendor to handle current or higher volumes, cyber-attacks and security breaches at a vendor, failure of a vendor to comply with applicable laws and regulations or to conform to our internal controls and risk management procedures, and failure of a vendor to provide services for any reason or poor performance of services, could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and otherwise conduct our business. Financial or operational difficulties of a third-party vendor could also hurt our operations if those difficulties interfere with the vendor’s ability to provide services. Furthermore, our vendors could also be sources of operational and information security risk, including from breakdowns or failures of their own systems or capacity constraints. Replacing these third-party vendors could also create significant delay and expense. Problems caused by external vendors could be disruptive to our operations, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to continue to recruit and retain qualified banking professionals could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully and affect our profitability.
Our continued success and future growth depends heavily on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled, diverse and motivated banking professionals. We compete against many institutions with greater financial resources both within our industry and in other industries to attract these qualified individuals. Our failure to recruit and retain adequate talent could reduce our ability to compete successfully and adversely affect our business and profitability.
11. Modeling Assumptions
There may be risks resulting from the extensive use of models in our business.
We rely on quantitative models to measure risks and to estimate certain financial values. Models may be used in such processes as determining the pricing of various products, developing presentations made to market analysts and others, creating loans and extending credit, measuring interest rate and other market risks, predicting losses, assessing capital adequacy, developing strategic planning initiatives, capital stress testing and calculating regulatory capital levels, as well as to estimate the value of financial instruments and Balance Sheet items. Poorly designed or implemented models present the risk that our business decisions based on information incorporating models will be adversely affected due to the inadequacy of such information. Also, information we provide to the public or to our regulators based on poorly designed or implemented models could be inaccurate or misleading. Certain decisions that the regulators make, including those related to capital distributions and dividends to our stockholders, could be adversely affected due to the regulator’s perception that the quality of the models used to generate our relevant information is insufficient.
Our asset valuations may include methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations and this, along with market factors such as volatility in one or more markets or industries, could result in changes to asset valuations that may materially adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
We must use estimates, assumptions and judgments when assets are measured and reported at fair value. Assets carried at fair value inherently result in a higher degree of financial statement volatility. Because the assets are carried at fair value, a decline in their value may cause us to incur losses even if the assets in question present minimal risk. Fair values and information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are based on quoted market prices and/or other observable
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inputs provided by independent third-party resources, when available. When such third-party information is not available, we estimate fair value primarily by using cash flow and other financial modeling techniques utilizing assumptions such as credit quality, liquidity, interest rates and other relative inputs. Changes in underlying factors or assumptions in any of the areas underlying these estimates could materially impact our future financial condition and results of operations.
During periods of market disruption, including periods of significantly rising or high interest rates, rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be more difficult to value certain assets if trading becomes less frequent and/or market data becomes less observable. There may be certain asset classes that were historically in active markets with significant observable data that rapidly become illiquid due to market volatility, a loss in market confidence or other factors. In such cases, valuations in certain asset classes may require more subjectivity and management discretion; valuations may include inputs and assumptions that are less observable or require greater estimation. Further, rapidly changing and unprecedented market conditions in any particular market (e.g., credit, equity, fixed income) could materially impact the valuation of assets as reported within our Consolidated Financial Statements, and the period-to-period changes in value could vary significantly.
We may be required to record future impairment charges if the declines in asset values are considered other-than-temporary. If the impairment charges are significant enough, they could affect the ability of FNBPA to pay dividends to FNB (which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and our ability to pay dividends to stockholders), and could also negatively impact our regulatory capital ratios and result in FNBPA not being classified as “well-capitalized” for regulatory purposes.
12. Investment in Securities
We are dependent on dividends from our subsidiaries to meet our financial obligations and pay dividends to stockholders.
We are a holding company and conduct almost all of our operations through our subsidiaries. We do not have any significant assets other than cash and the stock of our subsidiaries. Accordingly, we depend on dividends from our subsidiaries to meet our financial obligations and to pay dividends to stockholders. Our right to participate in any distribution of earnings or assets of our subsidiaries is subject to the prior claims of creditors of such subsidiaries. Under federal law, the amount of dividends that a national bank, such as FNBPA, may pay in a calendar year is dependent on the amount of our net income for the current year combined with our retained net income for the two preceding years. The OCC has the authority to prohibit FNBPA from paying dividends if it determines such payment would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Likewise, FNB’s state-based entities are subject to state laws governing dividend practices and payments.
Regulatory authorities may restrict our ability to pay dividends on and repurchase our common stock.
Dividends on our common stock will be payable only if, when and as authorized and declared by our Board of Directors. In addition, banking laws and regulations and our banking regulators may limit our ability to pay dividends and make share repurchases. For example, our ability to make capital distributions, including our ability to pay dividends or repurchase shares of our common stock, is subject to the review and non-objection of our annual capital plan by the FRB. In certain circumstances, we will not be able to make a capital distribution unless the FRB has approved such distribution, including if the dividend could not be fully funded by our net income over the last four quarters (net of dividends paid), our prospective rate of earnings retention appears inconsistent with our capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition, or we will not be able to continue meeting minimum required capital ratios. As a bank holding company, we also are required to consult with the FRB before increasing dividends or redeeming or repurchasing capital instruments. Additionally, the FRB could prohibit or limit our payment of dividends if it determines that payment of the dividend would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. There can be no assurance that we will declare and pay any dividends or repurchase any shares of our common stock in the future.
We have outstanding securities senior to the common stock which could limit our ability to pay dividends on our common stock.
We have outstanding TPS and Series E preferred stock that are senior to the common stock and could adversely affect our ability to declare or pay dividends or distributions on our common stock. The terms of the TPS prohibit us from declaring or paying dividends or making distributions on our junior capital stock, including the common stock, or purchasing, acquiring, or making a liquidation payment on any junior capital stock, if: (1) an event of default has occurred and is continuing under the junior subordinated debentures underlying the TPS, (2) we are in default with respect to a guarantee payment under the guarantee of the related TPS or (3) we have given notice of our election to defer interest payments, but the related deferral period has not yet commenced or a deferral period is continuing. We also would be prohibited from paying dividends on our common stock unless all full dividends for the latest dividend period have been declared and paid on all outstanding shares of the Series E preferred stock. If we experience a material deterioration in our financial condition, liquidity, capital, results of
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operations or risk profile, our regulators may not permit us to make future payments on our TPS or preferred stock, which would also prevent us from paying any dividends on our common stock.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
NONE.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters are located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh headquarters, which are leased, are also occupied by employees of the Community Banking, Wealth Management and Insurance segments, including customer support and operations personnel. We also lease office space for regional headquarters in the Cleveland, Ohio, Baltimore, Maryland, and Raleigh, Charlotte and Greensboro, North Carolina markets. In Hermitage, Pennsylvania, we continue to maintain administrative offices, as well as offices for personnel of the Community Banking and Wealth Management segments, in a six-story office building, and a data processing and technology center in a two-story office building, both of which are owned by us. Additionally, we lease other office space in Harrisburg and Hermitage, Pennsylvania, and in Raleigh, North Carolina which house various support departments.
The operating leases for the branches/retail offices of the Community Banking segment expire at various dates through the year 2038 and generally include options to renew. For additional information regarding the lease commitments, see Note 10, “Operating Leases” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report.
Following is a table that shows the branches/retail offices, by state, and the branches/retail offices owned and leased for the Community Banking segment:
December 31, 2020Community Banking
Pennsylvania209 
Ohio29 
Maryland26 
West Virginia
North Carolina86 
South Carolina
Washington, D.C.
Virginia
Total number of branches/retail offices358 
Total branches/retail offices owned206 
Total branches/retail offices leased152 

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved in various pending and threatened legal proceedings in which claims for monetary damages and other relief are asserted. These claims result from ordinary business activities relating to our current and/or former operations. Although the ultimate outcome for any asserted claim cannot be predicted with certainty, we believe that we have valid defenses for all asserted claims. In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, when a loss is considered probable and reasonably estimable, we, in conjunction with internal and outside counsel handling the matter, record a liability in the amount of our best estimate for the ultimate loss. We continue to monitor the matter for further developments that could affect the amount of the accrued liability that has previously been established.
Litigation expense represents a key area of judgment and is subject to uncertainty and factors outside of our control. Significant judgment is required in making these estimates and our financial liabilities may ultimately be more or less than the current estimate.
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The information required by this Item is set forth in the “Other Legal Proceedings” discussion in Note 16, “Commitments, Credit Risk and Contingencies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is included in Item 8 of this Report, and which is incorporated herein by reference in response to this Item.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.


INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The name, age and principal occupation for each of our executive officers as of January 31, 2021 are set forth below:
NameAgePrincipal Occupation
Vincent J. Delie, Jr.56President and Chief Executive Officer of FNB;
Chief Executive Officer of FNBPA
Vincent J. Calabrese, Jr.58Chief Financial Officer of FNB;
Executive Vice President of FNBPA
Gary L. Guerrieri60Chief Credit Officer of FNB;
Executive Vice President of FNBPA
James G. Orie62Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary of FNB;
Executive Vice President of FNBPA
James L. Dutey47Corporate Controller and Senior Vice President of FNB
David B. Mitchell, II63Chief Wholesale Banking Officer of FNBPA
Barry C. Robinson57Chief Consumer Banking Officer of FNBPA
There are no family relationships among any of the above executive officers, and there is no arrangement or understanding between any of the above executive officers and any other person pursuant to which he was selected as an officer. The executive officers are elected by our Board of Directors, subject in certain cases to the terms of an employment agreement between the officer and us.

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PART II.

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND
    ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “FNB.” As of January 31, 2021, there were 15,711 holders of record of our common stock.
The information required by this Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Report.
The following table provides information regarding FNB's purchases of our common stock during the three-month period ended December 31, 2020.

PeriodTotal number of shares purchased Average price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
Maximum number (or approximate dollar value) of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs (1)
October 1 - October 31, 2020584,338 $7.55 584,338 $120,569,186 
November 1 - November 30, 2020400,721 7.47 400,721 117,571,535 
December 1 - December 31, 2020645,490 9.28 645,490 111,571,970 
Total1,630,549 $8.22 1,630,549 

(1) The number shown represents, as of the end of each period, the approximate dollar value of Common Stock that may yet be purchased under publicly-announced share repurchase authorizations. The shares may be purchased, from time-to-time, depending on market conditions.                                

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STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
Comparison of Total Return on F.N.B. Corporation’s Common Stock with Certain Averages
The following five-year performance graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) on our common stock (t), the S&P MidCap 400 Index (n), KBW NASDAQ Regional Banking Index (p), and the Russell 1000 Index (l). This stock performance graph assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2015, and the cumulative return is measured as of each subsequent fiscal year end.
F.N.B. Corporation Five-Year Stock Performance
Total Return, Including Stock and Cash Dividends

fnb-20201231_g1.jpg
    Source: S & P Global Market Intelligence
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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Year Ended December 3120202019
2018 (1)
2017 (2)
2016 (3)
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
Total interest income$1,130 $1,247 $1,170 $980 $679 
Total interest expense208 330 238 134 67 
Net interest income922 917 932 846 612 
Provision for credit losses123 44 61 61 56 
Total non-interest income294 294 276 252 201 
Total non-interest expense750 696 695 681 511 
Net income