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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the transition period from  to .
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-31924
NELNET, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nebraska
84-0748903
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
121 South 13th Street, Suite 100

Lincoln,
Nebraska68508
(Address of principal executive offices)
 (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (402) 458-2370
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, Par Value $0.01 per ShareNNINew York Stock Exchange
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☒                    Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐                    Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes    No ☒
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), based upon the closing sale price of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock on that date of $47.74 per share, was $918,743,888. The registrant’s Class B Common Stock is not listed for public trading on any exchange or market system, but shares of Class B Common Stock are convertible into shares of Class A Common Stock at any time on a share-for-share basis. For purposes of this calculation, shares of common stock beneficially owned by any director or executive officer of the registrant or by any person who beneficially owns greater than 10 percent of the Class A Common Stock or who is otherwise believed by the registrant to be in a control position have been excluded, since such persons may be deemed to be affiliates of the registrant. This determination of affiliate status is not conclusive for other purposes.
As of January 31, 2021, there were 27,195,862 and 11,155,571 shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding, respectively (excluding 11,305,731 shares of Class A Common Stock held by wholly owned subsidiaries).
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, scheduled to be held May 20, 2021, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



NELNET, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
December 31, 2020






FORWARD-LOOKING AND CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS
This report contains forward-looking statements and information that are based on management's current expectations as of the date of this document. Statements that are not historical facts, including statements about the Company's plans and expectations for future financial condition, results of operations or economic performance, or that address management's plans and objectives for future operations, and statements that assume or are dependent upon future events, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “future,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “scheduled,” “should,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions, as well as statements in future tense, are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and analyses made by management in light of management's experience and its perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments, and other factors that management believes are appropriate under the circumstances. These statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors that may cause the actual results and performance to be materially different from any future results or performance expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These factors include, among others, the risks and uncertainties set forth in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report, and include such risks and uncertainties as:
risks and uncertainties related to the severity, magnitude, and duration of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) pandemic, including changes in the macroeconomic environment and consumer behavior, restrictions on business, educational, individual, or travel activities intended to slow the spread of the pandemic, and volatility in market conditions resulting from the pandemic, including interest rates, the value of equities, and other financial assets;
risks related to the ability to successfully maintain and increase allocated volumes of student loans serviced by the Company under existing and any future servicing contracts with the U.S. Department of Education (the "Department"), which current contracts accounted for 27 percent of the Company's revenue in 2020, risks to the Company related to the Department's initiatives to procure new contracts for federal student loan servicing, including the pending and uncertain nature of the Department's NextGen and ISS procurement processes (under which awards of new NextGen contracts have been made to other service providers), the possibility that awards or evaluations of proposals may be challenged by various interested parties and may not be finalized or implemented for an extended period of time or at all, risks that the Company may not be successful in obtaining any of such potential new contracts, and risks related to the Company's ability to comply with agreements with third-party customers for the servicing of Federal Direct Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program (the "FFEL Program" or "FFELP"), and private education and consumer loans;
loan portfolio risks such as interest rate basis and repricing risk resulting from the fact that the interest rate characteristics of the student loan assets do not match the interest rate characteristics of the funding for those assets, the risk of loss of floor income on certain student loans originated under the FFEL Program, risks related to the use of derivatives to manage exposure to interest rate fluctuations, uncertainties regarding the expected benefits from purchased securitized and unsecuritized FFELP, private education, and consumer loans and initiatives to purchase additional FFELP, private education, and consumer loans, and risks from changes in levels of loan prepayment or default rates;
financing and liquidity risks, including risks of changes in the general interest rate environment, including the availability of any relevant money market index rate such as LIBOR or the relationship between the relevant money market index rate and the rate at which the Company's assets and liabilities are priced, and changes in the securitization and other financing markets for loans, including adverse changes resulting from unanticipated repayment trends on student loans in FFELP securitization trusts that could accelerate or delay repayment of the associated bonds, which may increase the costs or limit the availability of financings necessary to purchase, refinance, or continue to hold student loans;
risks from changes in the terms of education loans and in the educational credit and services markets resulting from changes in applicable laws, regulations, and government programs and budgets, such as changes resulting from the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act") and the expected decline over time in FFELP loan interest income due to the discontinuation of new FFELP loan originations in 2010 and potential government initiatives or legislative proposals to consolidate existing FFELP loans to the Federal Direct Loan Program or otherwise allow FFELP loans to be refinanced with Federal Direct Loan Program loans;
risks related to a breach of or failure in the Company's operational or information systems or infrastructure, or those of third-party vendors, including cybersecurity risks related to the potential disclosure of confidential loan borrower and other customer information, the potential disruption of the Company's systems or those of third-party vendors or customers, and/or the potential damage to the Company's reputation resulting from cyber-breaches;
uncertainties inherent in forecasting future cash flows from student loan assets and related asset-backed securitizations;
risks and uncertainties of the expected benefits from the November 2020 launch of Nelnet Bank operations, including the ability to successfully conduct banking operations and achieve expected market penetration;
risks related to the expected benefits to the Company and to ALLO Communications LLC (“ALLO”) from the recapitalization and additional funding for ALLO and the Company’s continuing investment in ALLO, and risks related to investments in solar projects, including risks of not being able to realize tax credits which remain subject to recapture by taxing authorities;
risks and uncertainties related to other initiatives to pursue additional strategic investments, acquisitions, and other activities, such as the planned transactions associated with the sale by Wells Fargo of its private education loan portfolio, including activities that are intended to diversify the Company both within and outside of its historical core education-related businesses; and
risks and uncertainties associated with litigation matters and with maintaining compliance with the extensive regulatory requirements applicable to the Company's businesses, reputational and other risks, including the risk of increased regulatory costs resulting from the politicization of student loan servicing, and uncertainties inherent in the estimates and assumptions about future events that management is required to make in the preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements.
All forward-looking statements contained in this report are qualified by these cautionary statements and are made only as of the date of this document. Although the Company may from time to time voluntarily update or revise its prior forward-looking statements to reflect actual results or changes in the Company's expectations, the Company disclaims any commitment to do so except as required by law. In this report, unless the context indicates otherwise, references to "Nelnet," "the Company," "we," "our," and "us" refer to Nelnet, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
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PART I.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Nelnet is a diverse company with a purpose to serve others and a vision to make customers' dreams possible by delivering customer focused products and services. The largest operating businesses engage in loan servicing and education technology, services, and payment processing, and the Company also has a significant investment in communications. A significant portion of the Company's revenue is net interest income earned on a portfolio of federally insured student loans. The Company also makes investments to further diversify both within and outside of its historical core education-related businesses, including, but not limited to, investments in real estate, early-stage and emerging growth companies, and renewable energy. Substantially all revenue from external customers is earned, and all long-lived assets are located, in the United States.
The Company was formed as a Nebraska corporation in 1978 to service federal student loans for two local banks. The Company built on this initial foundation as a servicer to become a leading originator, holder, and servicer of federal student loans, principally consisting of loans originated under the Federal Family Education Loan Program. A detailed description of the FFEL Program is included in Appendix A to this report.
The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (the “Reconciliation Act of 2010”) discontinued new loan originations under the FFEL Program, effective July 1, 2010, and requires that all new federal student loan originations be made directly by the Department through the Federal Direct Loan Program. This law does not alter or affect the terms and conditions of existing FFELP loans.
As a result of the Reconciliation Act of 2010, the Company no longer originates new FFELP loans. However, a significant portion of the Company's income continues to be derived from its existing FFELP student loan portfolio. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had a $20.2 billion loan portfolio, consisting primarily of FFELP loans, that management anticipates will amortize over the next approximately 20 years and has a weighted average remaining life of 9.8 years. Interest income on the Company's existing FFELP loan portfolio will decline over time as the portfolio is paid down. However, since July 1, 2010, which is the effective date on and after which no new loans can be originated under the FFEL Program, the Company has purchased $27.9 billion of FFELP loans from other FFELP loan holders looking to exit or adjust their FFELP businesses. The Company believes there may be additional opportunities to purchase FFELP portfolios to generate incremental earnings and cash flow. However, since all FFELP loans will eventually run off, a key objective of the Company is to reposition itself for the post-FFELP environment.
To reduce its reliance on interest income from FFELP loans, the Company has expanded its services and products. This expansion has been accomplished through internal growth and innovation as well as business acquisitions. The Company is also actively expanding its private education and consumer loan portfolios, and in November 2020 launched Nelnet Bank (as further discussed below). In addition, the Company has been servicing federally owned student loans for the Department since 2009.
Recent Developments
ALLO’s Recapitalization and Additional Funding
On October 1, 2020, the Company entered into various agreements with SDC Allo Holdings, LLC (“SDC”), a third party global digital infrastructure investor, and ALLO, then a majority owned communications subsidiary of the Company, to recapitalize and provide additional funding for ALLO. On October 15, 2020, ALLO received proceeds of $197.0 million from SDC for the issuance of membership units of ALLO, and redeemed $160.0 million of non-voting preferred membership units of ALLO held by the Company. As a result of the receipt of required regulatory approvals on December 21, 2020, SDC, the Company, and members of ALLO’s management own approximately 48 percent, 45 percent, and 7 percent, respectively, of the outstanding voting membership interests of ALLO, and the Company deconsolidated ALLO from the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Upon the deconsolidation of ALLO, the Company recorded its 45 percent voting membership interests in ALLO at fair value of $133.0 million, and accounts for such investment under the Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value (“HLBV”) method of accounting. In addition, the Company recorded its remaining non-voting preferred membership units in ALLO at fair value of $228.5 million, and accounts for such investment as a separate equity investment. As a result of the deconsolidation of ALLO on December 21, 2020, the Company recognized a gain of $258.6 million in the fourth quarter of 2020.
On January 19, 2021, ALLO closed on certain private debt financing facilities from unrelated third-party lenders providing for an aggregate financing of up to $230.0 million. With proceeds from this transaction, ALLO redeemed a portion of its non-
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voting preferred membership units held by the Company in exchange for an aggregate redemption price payment to the Company of $100.0 million.
See note 2 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information related to the ALLO recapitalization. ALLO’s results of operations, prior to deconsolidation, are presented by the Company as a reportable operating segment.
Nelnet Bank
On November 2, 2020, the Company obtained final approval from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) for federal deposit insurance and for a bank charter from the Utah Department of Financial Institutions (“UDFI”) in connection with the establishment of Nelnet Bank, and Nelnet Bank launched operations. Nelnet Bank operates as an internet Utah-chartered industrial bank franchise focused on the private education loan marketplace, with a home office in Salt Lake City, Utah. Nelnet Bank operates as a subsidiary of the Company, and the industrial bank charter allows the Company to maintain its other diversified business offerings.
Operating Segments
The Company’s reportable operating segments are summarized below. Business activities and operating segments that are not reportable are combined and included in "Corporate and Other Activities."
Loan Servicing and Systems (“LSS”)
Referred to as Nelnet Diversified Services (“NDS”)
Focuses on student and consumer loan origination services and servicing, loan origination and servicing-related technology solutions, and outsourcing business services
Includes the brands Nelnet Diversified Solutions, Nelnet Loan Servicing, Nelnet Servicing, Great Lakes Educational Loan Services, Inc. (“Great Lakes”), Firstmark Services, GreatNet, and Nelnet Renewable Energy
Education Technology, Services, and Payment Processing (“ETS&PP”)
Referred to as Nelnet Business Services (“NBS”)
Includes the brands FACTS, Nelnet Campus Commerce, PaymentSpring, FACTS Education Solutions, Aware3, HigherSchool Instructional Services, Catholic Faith Technologies, CD2 Learning, and Nelnet International
Services include tuition payment plans and billing, financial needs assessment services, online payment and refund processing, school information system software, payment technologies, and professional development and educational instruction services
Communications
Includes the operations of ALLO prior to the deconsolidation of ALLO on December 21, 2020
Focuses on providing fiber optic service directly to homes and businesses for internet, telephone, and television services
Asset Generation and Management (“AGM”)
Also referred to as Nelnet Financial Services
Includes the acquisition and management of student and other loan assets
Nelnet Bank
Internet Utah-chartered industrial bank focused on the private education loan marketplace
A more detailed description of each of the Company's reportable operating segments and Corporate and Other Activities is provided below.
Loan Servicing and Systems
The primary service offerings of this operating segment include:
Servicing federally-owned student loans for the Department
Servicing FFELP loans
Originating and servicing private education and consumer loans
Backup servicing for FFELP, private education, and consumer loans
Providing student loan servicing software and other information technology products and services

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Customer acquisition, management services, and backup servicing for community solar developers
Providing outsourced services including call center, processing, technology, and marketing services
As of December 31, 2020, the Company serviced $490.2 billion of loans for 15.2 million borrowers. See Part II, Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (the “MD&A”) - “Loan Servicing and Systems Operating Segment - Results of Operations - Student Loan Servicing Volumes” for additional information related to the Company's servicing volume.
Servicing federally-owned student loans for the Department
Nelnet Servicing, LLC (“Nelnet Servicing”), a subsidiary of the Company, and Great Lakes, acquired by the Company in February 2018, are two of the four large private sector companies (referred to as Title IV Additional Servicers, or “TIVAS”) that have student loan servicing contracts awarded by the Department in June 2009 to provide servicing for loans owned by the Department. The Department has also awarded contracts to four not-for-profit entities (“NFP”) to service loans owned by the Department. These loans include Federal Direct Loan Program loans originated directly by the Department and FFEL Program loans purchased by the Department. Under the servicing contracts, Nelnet Servicing and Great Lakes earn a monthly fee from the Department for each unique borrower who has loans owned by the Department and serviced by Nelnet Servicing or Great Lakes, respectively. The amount paid per each unique borrower is dependent on the status of the borrower (e.g., in school or in repayment). As of December 31, 2020, Nelnet Servicing was servicing $191.7 billion of student loans for 5.6 million borrowers under its contract, and Great Lakes was servicing $251.6 billion of student loans for 7.6 million borrowers under its contract. The Department is the Company's largest customer, representing 27 percent of the Company's revenue in 2020 and 66 percent of the LSS operating segment’s revenue.
The current servicing contracts with the Department are currently scheduled to expire on June 14, 2021, but provide the potential for an additional six-month extension at the Department’s discretion through December 14, 2021. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, signed into law on December 27, 2020, provides that the Department may extend the period of performance for the servicing contracts scheduled to expire on December 14, 2021 for up to two additional years to December 14, 2023.
The Department is conducting a contract procurement process entitled Next Generation Financial Services Environment (“NextGen”) for a new framework for the servicing of all student loans owned by the Department. On January 15, 2019, the Department issued solicitations for certain NextGen components, including the NextGen Enhanced Processing Solution (“EPS”), which is for a technology servicing system and certain processing functions the Department planned to use under NextGen to service the Department's student loan customers, and the NextGen Business Processing Operations (“BPO”), which is for the back office and call center operational functions for servicing the Department's student loan customers.
On June 24, 2020, the Department awarded and signed contracts with five other companies in connection with the BPO solicitation. On July 10, 2020, the Department cancelled the solicitation for the EPS component. In the Department's description of its cancellation of the EPS solicitation component, the Department indicated that it continues to be committed to the goals and vision of NextGen, and that it would be introducing a new solicitation to continue the NextGen strategy in the future. On October 28, 2020, the Department issued a new federal loan servicing solicitation for an Interim Servicing Solution ("ISS"). ISS was a follow-on to the existing contracts, which would award a full system and servicing solution to two providers. Under ISS, the selected providers would have provided the technology platform to host the Department's student loan portfolio; customer service (including contact centers) and back-office processing; digital engagement layer including borrower-facing website and mobile-applications; intake, imaging, and fulfillment; and portfolio-level operations. As the companies awarded BPO contracts are onboarded, contact center and back-office operations would have shifted from the ISS contract to the BPO providers. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 contains provisions directing certain aspects of the NextGen process, including that any new federal student loan servicing environment shall provide for the participation of multiple student loan servicers and the allocation of borrower accounts to eligible student loan servicers based on performance, and directed the suspension of awarding any ISS contract for at least 90 days. On January 9, 2021, the Department suspended the ISS solicitation. In the Department’s description of the suspension, it indicated that in consideration of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, the Government is reassessing its needs and will amend or cancel the subject solicitation in the future.
The Department currently allocates new loan volume among the TIVAS and NFP servicers based on the following performance metrics:
Two metrics measure the satisfaction among separate customer groups, including borrowers (35 percent) and Department personnel who work with the servicers (5 percent).
Three metrics measure the success of keeping borrowers in an on-time repayment status and helping borrowers avoid
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default as reflected by the percentage of borrowers in current repayment status (30 percent), percentage of borrowers more than 90 days but fewer than 271 days delinquent (15 percent), and percentage of borrowers over 270 days and fewer than 361 days delinquent (15 percent). The loans are evaluated in 15 different loan portfolio stratifications to account for differences in portfolios.
The allocation of ongoing volume is determined twice each year based on the performance of each servicer in relation to the other servicers. Quarterly results are compiled for each servicer. The average of the September and December quarter-end results are used to allocate volume for the period from March 1 to August 31, and the average of the March and June quarter-end results are used to allocate volume for the period from September 1 to February month end, of each year.
Under the most recent publicly announced performance metrics measurements used by the Department for the quarterly periods January 1, 2020 through June 30, 2020, Great Lakes' and Nelnet Servicing's overall rankings among the then-current nine servicers for the Department at that time were first and tied for fifth, respectively. Based on these results, Great Lakes' and Nelnet Servicing's allocation of new student loan servicing volumes for the period September 1, 2020 through February 28, 2021 are 20 percent and 10 percent, respectively.
In October 2020, the Department communicated to its servicers that a not-for-profit servicer requested to end its contract with the Department. Effective October 23, 2020, the percent of allocated new student loan servicing volume that previously was awarded to this servicer will be split among the remaining servicers, resulting in Great Lakes' allocation to increase by two percent and each remaining servicer to obtain an additional one percent allocation.
Incremental revenue components earned by Nelnet Servicing or Great Lakes from the Department (in addition to loan servicing revenues) include:
Administration of the Total and Permanent Disability (TPD) Discharge program. Nelnet Servicing processes applications for the TPD discharge program and is responsible for discharge, monitoring, and servicing TPD loans. Individuals who are totally and permanently disabled may qualify for a discharge of their federal student loans, and the Company processes applications under the program and receives a fee from the Department on a per application basis, as well as a monthly servicing fee during the monitoring period. Nelnet Servicing is the exclusive provider of this service to the Department.
Origination of consolidation loans. The Department outsources the origination of consolidation loans whereby each of the servicers receive Federal Direct Loan consolidation origination volume based on borrower choice. The Department pays the Company a fee for each completed consolidation loan application it processes. Nelnet Servicing and Great Lakes each service the consolidation volume it originates.
Servicing FFELP loans
NDS services the Company's student loan portfolio and the portfolios of third parties. The loan servicing activities include loan conversion activities, application processing, borrower updates, customer service, payment processing, due diligence procedures, funds management reconciliations, and claim processing. These activities are performed internally for the Company's portfolio, in addition to generating external fee revenue when performed for third-party clients.
The Company uses proprietary systems to manage the servicing process. These systems provide for automated compliance with most of the federal student loan regulations adopted under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (the “Higher Education Act”).
The Company serviced FFELP loans on behalf of 124 third-party servicing customers as of December 31, 2020. The Company's FFELP servicing customers include national and regional banks, credit unions, and various state and nonprofit secondary markets. The majority of the Company's external FFELP loan servicing activities are performed under “life of loan” contracts, which essentially provide that as long as the applicable loan exists, the Company shall be the sole servicer of that loan; however, the agreement may contain “deconversion” provisions where, for a fee, the lender may move the loan to another servicer.
The discontinuation of new FFELP loan originations in July 2010 has caused and will continue to cause FFELP servicing revenue to decline as these loan portfolios are paid down. However, the Company believes there may be opportunities to service additional FFELP loan portfolios from current FFELP participants as the program winds down.
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Originating and servicing private education and consumer loans
NDS conducts origination and servicing activities for private education and consumer loans. Private education loans are non-federal private credit loans made to students or their families; as such, the loans are not issued or guaranteed by the federal government. These loans are used primarily to bridge the gap between the cost of higher education and the amount funded through financial aid, federal loans, or the borrowers' personal resources. Although similar in terms of activities and functions as FFELP loan servicing (e.g., application processing, disbursement processing, payment processing, customer service, statement distribution, and reporting), private education loan servicing activities are not required to comply with provisions of the Higher Education Act and may be more customized to individual client requirements.
The Company has invested and currently plans to continue to invest in modernizing key technologies and services to position its consumer loan servicing business for the long-term, expanding services to include personal loan products and other consumer installment assets. The Company is in the process of a complete modernization of its private education and consumer loan origination and repayment servicing systems. Improvements in systems will allow for diversified products to be both originated and serviced with state-of-the-art application and servicing platforms to drive growth for the Company's client partners. Presenting a very wide market opportunity of new entrants and existing players, consumer lending is currently expected to be a growth area. In both backup servicing and full servicing partnerships, the Company is a valuable resource for consumer lenders and asset holders as it allows for leveraged economies of scale, high compliance, and secure service to client partners.
NDS serviced private education and consumer loans on behalf of 39 third-party servicing customers as of December 31, 2020.
The Company expects that private education loan servicing revenue will increase beginning in the first half of 2021 as a result of the Company being selected to service all of the approximately $10 billion portfolio of private education loans (representing approximately 475,000 borrowers) that Wells Fargo announced in December 2020 it had agreed to sell to investors.
Backup servicing for FFELP, private education, and consumer loans
NDS offers protection against unexpected business failure or any event that stretches a third party service provider’s resources beyond its capability to perform essential services through backup servicing. Backup servicing for loan asset owners, investors, financiers, and other stakeholders is a way to safeguard assets and mitigate financial risk, generally in conjunction with a structured long-term financing of the assets (like an asset-backed securitization).
NDS’s backup service provides a trigger response plan with pre-built system profiles that remain on standby, ready to be utilized if a contracted asset manager or service provider cannot perform its duties. The Company performs testing and maintenance against the loan transfer process each month with backup clients and certifies compliance. For a monthly fee, these arrangements require a 30 to 90 day notice from a triggering event to transfer the customer's servicing volume to the Company's platform and becoming a full servicing customer. NDS offers backup servicing for FFEL, private education, and consumer loan programs that leverages existing servicing systems and full service experience. NDS provides backup servicing arrangements to assist 17 entities for more than 5.6 million borrowers.
Providing student loan servicing software and other information technology products and services
NDS provides data center services, student loan servicing software for servicing private education and federal loans, guaranty servicing software, and consulting and professional services to support the technology platforms. These proprietary software systems are used internally by the Company and/or licensed to third-party student loan holders and servicers. These software systems have been adapted so they can be offered as hosted servicing software solutions that can be used by third parties for guaranty servicing and to service various types of student loans, including Federal Direct Loan Program and FFEL Program loans. The Company earns a monthly fee from its remote hosting customers for each loan or unique borrower on the Company's platform, with a minimum monthly charge for most contracts. As of December 31, 2020, 6.6 million borrowers were hosted on the Company's hosted servicing software solution platforms, including 4.0 million borrowers that were serviced by three of the four NFP servicers that have contracts to service loans for the Department and 2.3 million borrowers that were serviced by the Great Lakes’ former parent company in accordance with a contract that expired in January 2021.
Customer acquisition, management services, and backup servicing for community solar developers
NDS, under the brand Nelnet Renewable Energy, works with solar developers and financiers to provide marketing, sales, and customer engagement services to meet key milestones before solar projects are interconnected to the grid and provide the subsequent operational support for the term of the subscriber agreement, including addressing incoming inquiries, verifying eligibility, billing, payment processing, and reconciliation. The Company earns a one-time fee for subscriber acquisition and a
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recurring fee for subscriber management. Additionally, NDS provides backup servicing capabilities to solar developers and financiers, which provides assurances that projects will still be serviced in the event the primary servicer’s situation changes.
Providing outsourced services including call center, processing, technology, and marketing services
NDS provides business process outsourcing primarily specializing in contact center management. The contact center solutions and services include taking inbound calls, helping with outreach campaigns and sales, and interacting with customers through multi-channels. Processing services include application processing and verification, payment processing, credit dispute, and account management services. NDS also outsources technology expertise and capacity to supplement development needs in organizations.
Competition
The Company's scalable servicing platform allows it to provide compliant, efficient, and reliable service at a low cost, giving the Company a competitive advantage over others in the industry. The principal competitor for existing and prospective FFELP and private education loan servicing business is Navient Corporation (“Navient”), which in 2018 entered into an agreement with First Data, now part of Fiserv, to provide technology solutions for servicing Navient's federal education loans in addition to the technology role they already played with respect to private education loans. Navient is the largest for-profit provider of servicing functions. In contrast to its competitors, the Company has segmented its private education loan servicing on a distinct platform, created specifically to meet the needs of private education student loan borrowers, their families, the schools they attend, and the lenders who serve them. This ensures access to specialized teams with a dedicated focus on servicing these borrowers.
With the elimination of new loan originations under the FFEL Program, four TIVAS servicers, including Nelnet Servicing and Great Lakes, and four NFPs, are servicers of federally-owned loans. The two other TIVAS servicers are FedLoan Servicing (Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency (“PHEAA”)) and Navient. NDS currently licenses its hosted servicing software to three of the four NFP servicers.
NDS is one of the leaders in the development of servicing software for guaranty agencies, consumer and private education loan programs, the Federal Direct Loan Program, and FFELP student loans. Many student loan lenders and servicers utilize the Company's software either directly or indirectly. NDS believes the investments it has made to scale its systems and to create a secure infrastructure to support the Department's servicing volume and requirements increase its competitive advantage as a long-term partner in the loan servicing market.
Education Technology, Services, and Payment Processing
NBS provides services and technology to administrators, teachers, students, and families of K-12 schools and higher education institutions. The Company’s payment processing services and technologies also serve customers outside of education.
The Company's solutions include:
Tuition payment plans
School administration
Payment processing
Financial management
Advancement (giving management)
Enrollment and communications
Professional development
Instructional services

The majority of this segment's customers are located in the United States; however, the Company also provides services and technology in Australia, New Zealand, and Southeast Asia, and currently believes there are opportunities to increase its customer base and revenues internationally.
See the MD&A - “Education Technology, Services, and Payment Processing Operating Segment - Results of Operations” for a discussion of the seasonality of the business in this operating segment.
K-12
In the K-12 market, FACTS comprehensive set of solutions includes (i) financial management, (ii) school administration solutions, (iii) advancement, (iv) enrollment and communications; (v) professional development and educational instruction services, and (vi) innovative technology products that aid in teacher and student evaluations. The Company provides services for more than 11,000 K-12 schools and serves over 4 million students and families. The Company’s K-12 business generated $153.4 million in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020.
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The Company is the market leader in education financial management services, including actively managed tuition payment plans, financial needs assessment (grant and aid), incidental billing, advanced accounting, and payment forms. K-12 educational institutions contract with the Company to administer tuition payment plans that allow families to make recurring payments generally over six to 12 months. The Company earns tuition payment plan services revenue by collecting a fee from either the institution or the payer to administer the plan. Additionally, the Company may earn revenue for payment processing fees when families make tuition payments. The Company's grant and aid assessment service helps K-12 schools evaluate and determine the amount of financial aid to disburse to the families it serves. The Company earns service revenue by charging a fee for grant and aid applications processed. Under the FACTS brand, the Company provides actively managed tuition payment plans in Australia through Nelnet International.
The Company’s school administration solutions include FACTS Student Information System (“SIS”), Family App, and Parent Alert. FACTS SIS automates the flow of information between school administrators, teachers, and parents and includes administrative processes such as admissions, enrollment, scheduling, cafeteria management, attendance, and grade book management. The Company’s information systems software is sold as a subscription service to schools. The Company also offers a streamlined, social, and fully integrated learning management system to enhance classroom instruction for both teachers and students. FACTS Family App provides families with mobile access to the information they need and Parent Alert allows for instant communication with families when needed. The Company offers the school information system to more than 50 countries globally through Nelnet International.
The combination of the Company’s school administration software and tuition management and grant and aid assessment services has significantly increased the value of the Company’s offerings in this area, allowing the Company to deliver a comprehensive suite of solutions to schools.
The Company's advancement solution, FACTS Giving, is a comprehensive donation platform that streamlines donor communications, organizes donor information, and provides access to data analysis and reporting. Enrollment and communications solutions include School Site and Application and Enrollment. School Site offers website design and Application and Enrollment is a simple, cost effective admissions software.
FACTS Education Solutions provides customized professional development services for teachers and school leaders as well as instructional services for students experiencing academic challenges. These services provide continuous advanced learning and professional development while helping private schools identify and attain equitable participation in federal education programs. FACTS Education Solutions also offers an innovative technology product that aids in both teacher and student evaluation. On December 31, 2020, the Company acquired HigherSchool Instructional Services, a services company that provides supplemental instructional services and educational professional development for approximately 50 K-12 schools in New York City. HigherSchool Instructional Services compliments and will integrate operationally with FACTS Education Solutions.
Higher Education
In the higher education market, the Company (known as Nelnet Campus Commerce) offers solutions including (i) tuition payment plans and (ii) payments technology and processing. The Company provides service for more than 1,200 colleges and universities worldwide and serves over 7 million students and families. The Company’s higher education business generated $126.0 million in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Higher education institutions contract with the Company to administer tuition payment plans that allow the student and family to make recurring payments on either a semester or annual basis. The Company earns tuition payment plan services revenue by collecting a fee from either the student or family to administer the plan. Additionally, the Company may earn revenue for payment processing fees when families make tuition payments.
The Company's payment technology solutions allow for electronic billing and payment of campus charges. Payment technologies includes cashiering for face-to-face transactions, campus-wide commerce management, and refunds management, among other activities. The Company earns revenue for e-billing, hosting and maintenance, credit card processing fees, and e-payment transaction fees, which are powered by the Company's secure payment processing systems. The Company also offers a product, CampusKey, which provides students with a mobile app to replace their plastic student ID card.
The Company's payment technology and processing solutions are sold as a subscription service to colleges and universities. The systems process payments through the appropriate channels in the banking or credit card networks to make deposits into the client's bank account. The systems can be further deployed to other departments around campus as requested (e.g., application fees, alumni giving, parking, events, etc.).
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Nelnet International also offers payments technology and processing solutions to higher education institutions in Australia, New Zealand, and Southeast Asia.
Non-education services
Under the brands PaymentSpring and Aware3, the Company has expanded its customer base to include both education and non-education customers. PaymentSpring offers technology and payment services including electronic transfer and credit card processing, reporting, billing and invoicing, mobile and virtual terminal solutions, and specialized integrations to business software. Aware3 is a mobile first technology focused on increasing engagement, online giving, and communication for church and not-for-profit customers. On December 31, 2020, the Company acquired CD2 LLC (“CD2”). CD2 has been operating since 2010 and includes two divisions, CD2 Learning, which is the brand for corporate sales, and Catholic Faith Technologies, which is the brand for churches, schools, and ministries. CD2 provides a platform technology solution that includes five features: learning management, collaboration/workflow, gamification, customer management/document storage, and employee boarding. The acquisition of CD2 further expands NBS’s non-education customer base. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company earned $6.2 million in revenue from its non-education services.
Competition
The Company is the largest provider of tuition management and financial needs assessment services to the private and faith-based K-12 market in the United States. Competitors include financial institutions, tuition management providers, financial needs assessment providers, accounting firms, and a myriad of software companies.
In the higher education market, the Company targets business offices at colleges and universities. In this market, the primary competition is from a relatively small number of campus commerce and tuition payment providers, as well as solutions developed in-house by colleges and universities.
The Company's principal competitive advantages are (i) the customer service it provides to institutions and consumers, (ii) the technology provided with the Company's service, and (iii) the Company's ability to integrate its technology with the institution clients and their third party service providers. The Company believes its clients select products primarily based on technology features, functionality, and the ability to integrate with other systems, but price and service also impact the selection process.
Communications
The Company provided communication services through ALLO, a former majority owned subsidiary, until a recapitalization and additional funding for ALLO resulted in a deconsolidation of ALLO from the Company’s consolidated financial statements on December 21, 2020. See “Recent Developments - ALLO Recapitalization and Additional Funding” above. The Company continues to hold a significant investment in ALLO. ALLO derives its revenue primarily from the sale of telecommunication services, including internet, telephone, and television services, to business, governmental, and residential customers in Nebraska and Colorado, and specializes in high-speed internet and broadband services available through its all-fiber network. ALLO currently serves or has announced plans to serve 13 communities in Nebraska and two in Colorado. ALLO plans to continue to increase market share and revenue in its existing markets and is currently evaluating opportunities to expand to additional communities.
Asset Generation and Management
AGM includes the acquisition, management, and ownership of the Company's loan assets (excluding loan assets held by Nelnet Bank). Loans consist of federally insured student loans (originated under the FFEL Program), private education loans, and consumer loans. Substantially all of AGM’s loan portfolio (97.8 percent as of December 31, 2020) is federally insured. As of December 31, 2020, AGM's loan portfolio was $19.6 billion. The Company generates a substantial portion of its earnings from the spread, referred to as the Company's loan spread, between the yield it receives on its loan portfolio and the associated costs to finance such portfolio. See the MD&A - "Asset Generation and Management Operating Segment - Results of Operations - Loan Spread Analysis,” for further details related to the loan spread. The loan assets are held in a series of lending subsidiaries and associated securitization trusts designed specifically for this purpose. In addition to the loan spread earned on its portfolio, all costs and activity associated with managing the portfolio, such as servicing of the assets and debt maintenance, are included in this segment.
AGM's portfolio of federally insured student loans is subject to minimal credit risk, as these loans are guaranteed by the Department at levels ranging from 97 percent to 100 percent. The Higher Education Act regulates every aspect of the federally insured student loan program, including certain communications with borrowers, loan originations, and default aversion. Failure to service a student loan properly could jeopardize the guarantee on federal student loans. In the case of death, disability, or bankruptcy of the borrower, the guarantee covers 100 percent of the loan's principal and accrued interest. FFELP loans are
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guaranteed by state agencies or nonprofit companies designated as guarantors, with the Department providing reinsurance to the guarantor. Guarantors are responsible for performing certain functions necessary to ensure the program's soundness and accountability. Generally, the guarantor is responsible for ensuring that loans are serviced in compliance with the requirements of the Higher Education Act. When a borrower defaults on a FFELP loan, AGM submits a claim to the guarantor, who provides reimbursements of principal and accrued interest, subject to the applicable risk share percentage.
AGM’s portfolios of private education and consumer loans are subject to credit risk and defaults may increase above current levels based on numerous factors, including a decline in the economy or an increase in unemployment.
Origination and acquisition
The Reconciliation Act of 2010 discontinued originations of new FFELP loans, effective July 1, 2010.  However, the Company believes there may be ongoing opportunities to continue to purchase FFELP loan portfolios from current FFELP participants looking to exit or adjust their FFELP businesses. For example, the Company purchased a total of $1.3 billion of FFELP student loans from various third parties during 2020. However, since all FFELP loans will eventually pay off, a key objective of the Company over the last several years is to reposition itself for the post-FFELP environment. As such, the Company is actively expanding its private education and consumer loan portfolios.
During 2020, the Company purchased $152.0 million of private education loans and $137.0 million of consumer loans.
In December of 2020, Wells Fargo announced the sale of its approximately $10 billion portfolio of private education student loans representing approximately 475,000 borrowers. In conjunction with the sale, the Company was selected as servicer of the portfolio and will begin servicing the portfolio following a series of loan transfers during the first half of 2021. In addition, the Company has entered into agreements to participate in a joint venture to acquire the portfolio. The Company expects to own approximately 8 percent of the interest in the loans and, dependent upon financing, currently expects to invest approximately $100 million as part of the acquisition. In addition, the Company will serve as the sponsor and administrator for loan securitizations on behalf of the purchaser group as the loans are securitized, and provide the required level of risk retention as the loans are permanently financed. This transaction is expected to close during the first half of 2021, with the securitizations occurring subsequent to closing.
AGM's competition for the purchase of FFELP, private education, and consumer loan portfolios includes banks, hedge funds, and other finance companies.
Interest rate risk management
Since the Company generates a significant portion of its earnings from its loan spread, the interest rate sensitivity of the Company's balance sheet is very important to its operations. The current and future interest rate environment can and will affect the Company's interest income and net income. The effects on the Company's results of operations as a result of the changing interest rate environments are further outlined in the MD&A - "Asset Generation and Management Operating Segment - Results of Operations - Loan Spread Analysis" and in Part II, Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Interest Rate Risk.”
Nelnet Bank
As discussed under “Recent Developments - Nelnet Bank” above, Nelnet Bank launched operations on November 2, 2020. Nelnet Bank was funded by the Company with an initial capital contribution of $100 million, consisting of $55.9 million of cash and $44.1 million of student loan asset-backed securities. In addition, the Company made a pledged deposit of $40.0 million with Nelnet Bank, as required under an agreement with the FDIC. Nelnet Bank operates as an internet Utah chartered industrial bank franchise focused on the private education loan marketplace, with a home office in Salt Lake City, Utah. Currently, Nelnet Bank originates school refinance or consolidation loans, which are funded by deposits from custodians and commercial and institutional customers. Throughout Nelnet Bank’s three-year de novo period, Nelnet Bank plans to continue to launch products focused on helping students achieve their dreams, with the origination of in-school student loans and expansion of deposit products to consumers over the next year. As of December 31, 2020, Nelnet Bank had $17.5 million in private education loans.
Corporate and Other Activities
Other business activities and operating segments that are not reportable are combined and included in Corporate and Other Activities. Corporate and Other Activities include the following items:
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The operating results of Whitetail Rock Capital Management, LLC (“WRCM”), the Company's SEC-registered investment advisor subsidiary
Income earned on certain investment activities, including renewable energy (solar) and real estate
Interest expense incurred on unsecured and certain other corporate related debt transactions
Other product and service offerings that are not considered reportable operating segments
Corporate and Other Activities also include certain corporate activities and overhead functions related to executive management, internal audit, human resources, accounting, legal, enterprise risk management, information technology, occupancy, and marketing. These costs are allocated to each operating segment based on estimated use of such activities and services.
Whitetail Rock Capital Management, LLC
As of December 31, 2020, WRCM, the Company's SEC-registered investment advisor subsidiary, had $1.87 billion in assets under management for third-party customers, consisting of student loan asset-backed securities and Nelnet stock. WRCM earns annual management fees of 25 basis points for asset-backed securities under management and up to 50 percent of the gains from the sale of securities or securities being called prior to the full contractual maturity for which it provides advisory services. WRCM earns annual management fees of five basis points for Nelnet stock under management. During 2020, WRCM earned $3.6 million in management fees and generated $7.2 million in performance fees. The Company currently anticipates that assets under management will decrease from current levels and that opportunities to earn meaningful performance fees in future periods will be more limited.
Solar, real estate, and other investments
The Company makes investments to further diversify itself both within and outside of its historical core education-related businesses, including investments in renewable energy resources (solar projects), real estate, and early-stage and emerging growth companies. The Company’s investments in certain tax-advantaged projects promoting renewable energy resources (solar projects) are designed to generate a return primarily through the realization of federal income tax credits, operating cash flows, and other tax benefits, over specified time periods. The solar projects are currently forecasted to generate more than 214 megawatts of power each year. Recent real estate investments have been focused on the development of commercial properties in the Midwest, and particularly in Lincoln, Nebraska, where the Company is headquartered. These investments include projects for the development of properties in Lincoln’s east downtown Telegraph District, where a new facility for the Company’s student loan servicing operations is located, and projects in Lincoln’s Haymarket District, including the new headquarters of Hudl, an online video analysis and coaching tools software company for athletes of all levels. The Company is also a tenant at Hudl's headquarters. David S. Graff, a member of the Company’s board of directors, is a co-founder, the chief executive officer, and a director of Hudl. In addition, the Company has a total equity investment in Hudl of $128.6 million.
Regulation and Supervision
The Company's operating segments and industry partners are heavily regulated by federal and state government regulatory agencies. The following provides a summary of the more significant existing and proposed legislation and regulations affecting the Company. A failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject the Company to substantial fines, penalties, and remedial and other costs, restrictions on business, and the loss of business. Regulations and supervision can change rapidly, and changes could alter the Company's business plan and increase the Company's operating expenses as new or additional regulatory compliance requirements are addressed.
Loan Servicing and Systems
NDS, which services Federal Direct Loan Program, FFELP, and private education and consumer loans, is subject to federal and state consumer protection, privacy, and related laws and regulations. Some of the more significant federal laws and regulations include:
The Higher Education Act, which establishes financial responsibility and administrative capability requirements that govern all third-party servicers of federally insured student loans
The Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”), which governs communication methods that may be used to contact customers
The Truth-In-Lending Act (“TILA”) and Regulation Z, which govern disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers
The Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”) and Regulation V, which govern the use and provision of information to consumer reporting agencies
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The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“ECOA”) and Regulation B, which prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or other prohibited factors in extending credit
The Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (“SCRA”), which applies to all debts incurred prior to commencement of active military service and limits the amount of interest, including certain fees or charges that are related to the obligation or liability
The Military Lending Act (“MLA”), which protects active duty members of the military, their spouses, and their dependents from certain lending practices
The Electronic Funds Transfer Act (“EFTA”) and Regulation E, which protect individual consumers engaged in electronic fund transfers (“EFTs”)
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) and Regulation P, which govern a financial institution’s treatment of nonpublic personal information about consumers and require that an institution, under certain circumstances, notify consumers about its privacy policies and practices
The General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), a European Union (“EU”) regulation which places specific requirements on businesses that collect and process personal data of individuals residing in the EU, and provides for significant fines and other penalties for non-compliance
The California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which enhances the privacy rights and consumer protection for residents of California
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”), which provides temporary relief measures currently in place through September 30, 2021 for federal student loans held by the Department, during the COVID-19 pandemic
Laws prohibiting unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices (“UDAAP”)
Various laws, regulations, and standards that govern government contractors
As a student loan servicer for the federal government and for financial institutions, including the Company’s FFELP student loan portfolio, the Company is subject to the Higher Education Act (“HEA”) and related laws, rules, regulations, and policies. The HEA regulates every aspect of the federally insured student loan program. Failure to comply with the HEA could result in fines, the loss of the insurance and related federal guarantees on affected FFELP loans, expenses required to cure servicing deficiencies, suspension or termination of the right to participate as a FFELP servicer, negative publicity, and potential legal claims. The Company has designed its servicing operations to comply with the HEA, and it regularly monitors the Company's operations to maintain compliance. While the HEA is required to be reviewed and reauthorized by Congress every five years, Congress has not reauthorized the HEA since 2008, choosing to temporarily extend the HEA each year since 2013 while Congress works on the next reauthorization. The Company continuously monitors for potential changes to HEA and evaluates possible impacts to its business operations.
Under the TCPA, plaintiffs may seek actual monetary loss or damages of $500 per violation, and courts may treble the damage award for willful or knowing violations. In addition, TCPA lawsuits have asserted putative class action claims.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), which has broad authority to regulate a wide range of consumer financial products and services. The Company's student loan servicing business is subject to CFPB oversight authority.
In 2015, the CFPB conducted a public inquiry into student loan servicing practices throughout the industry and issued a report discussing public comments submitted in response to the inquiry, and suggesting a framework to improve borrower outcomes and reduce defaults, including the creation of consistent, industry-wide standards for the entire servicing market.
The CFPB has authority to draft new regulations implementing federal consumer financial protection laws, to enforce those laws and regulations, and to conduct examinations of the Company's operations to determine compliance. The CFPB’s authority includes the ability to assess financial penalties and fines and provide for restitution to consumers if it determines there have been violations of consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB also provides consumer financial education, tracks consumer complaints, requests data from industry participants, and promotes the availability of financial services to underserved consumers and communities. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices and to ensure that all consumers have access to fair, transparent, and competitive markets for consumer financial products and services. The CFPB’s scrutiny of financial services has impacted industry participants’ approach to their services, including how the Company interacts with consumers.
The Dodd-Frank Act empowers state attorneys general and state regulators to bring civil actions to remedy violations of state law. Most states also have statutes that prohibit unfair and deceptive practices. To the extent states enact requirements that
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differ from federal standards or state officials and courts adopt interpretations of federal consumer laws that differ from those adopted by the CFPB under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Company's ability to offer the same products and services to consumers nationwide may be limited.
As a third-party service provider to financial institutions, the Company is subject to periodic examination by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (“FFIEC”). FFIEC is a formal interagency body of the U.S. government empowered to prescribe uniform principles, standards, and report forms for the federal examination of financial institutions by the Federal Reserve Banks, the FDIC, and the CFPB, and to make recommendations to promote uniformity in the supervision of financial institutions.
Several states have enacted laws regulating and monitoring the activity of student loan servicers. Some of these laws stipulate additional licensing fees which increase the Company’s cost of doing business. Where the Company has obtained licenses, state licensing statutes may impose a variety of requirements and restrictions on the Company. In addition, these statutes may also subject the Company to the supervisory and examination authority of state regulators in certain cases, and the Company will be subject to and experience exams by state regulators. If the Company is found to not have complied with applicable laws, regulations, or requirements, it could: (i) lose one or more of its licenses or authorizations, (ii) become subject to a consent order or administrative enforcement action, (iii) face lawsuits (including class action lawsuits), sanctions, or penalties, or (iv) be in breach of certain contracts, which may void or cancel such contracts. The Company anticipates additional states adopting similar laws.
Education Technology, Services, and Payment Processing
NBS provides tuition management services and school information software for K-12 schools and tuition management services and payment processing solutions for higher education institutions. The Company also provides payment technologies and payment services for software platforms, businesses, and nonprofits beyond the K-12 and higher education space. As a service provider that takes payment instructions from institutions and their constituents and sends them to bank partners, the Company is directly or indirectly subject to a variety of federal and state laws and regulations. The Company's contracts with clients and bank partners require the Company to comply with these laws and regulations.
The Company's payment processing services are subject to the EFTA and Regulation E, which govern automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of debit cards and certain other electronic banking services. The Company assists bank partners with fulfilling their compliance obligations pursuant to these requirements.
The Company's payment processing services are also subject to the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA”) requirements, which include operating rules and sound risk management procedures to govern the use of the Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) Network. These rules are used to ensure that the ACH Network is efficient, reliable, and secure for its members. Because the ACH Network uses a batch process, the importance of proper submissions by NACHA members is magnified. The Company is also impacted by laws and regulations that affect the bankcard industry. The Company is registered with Visa, MasterCard, American Express, and the Discover Network as a service provider and is subject to their respective rules.
The Company's higher education institution clients are subject to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (“FERPA”), which protects the privacy of student education records. These clients disclose certain non-directory information concerning their students to the Company, including contact information, student identification numbers, and the amount of students’ credit balances pursuant to one or more exceptions under FERPA. Additionally, as the Company is indirectly subject to FERPA, it may not permit the transfer of any personally identifiable information to another party other than in a manner in which an educational institution may properly disclose it. While the Company believes that it has adequate policies and procedures in place to safeguard the privacy of such information, a breach of this prohibition could result in a five-year suspension of the Company's access to the related client’s records. The Company may also be subject to similar state laws and regulations that restrict higher education institutions from disclosing certain personally identifiable student information.
Some of the Company's K-12 and higher education institution clients choose to charge convenience fees to students, parents, or other payers who make online payments using a credit or debit card. Laws and regulations related to such fees vary from state to state and certain states have laws that to varying degrees prohibit the imposition of a surcharge on a cardholder who elects to use a credit or debit card in lieu of cash, check, or other means.
The Company's contracts with higher education institution clients also require the Company to comply with regulations promulgated by the Department regarding the handling of student financial aid funds received by institutions on behalf of their students under Title IV of the Higher Education Act. These regulations are designed to ensure students have convenient access
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to their Title IV funds, do not incur unreasonable fees, and are not led to believe they must open a financial account to receive such funds.
Asset Generation and Management
The Dodd-Frank Act created a comprehensive regulatory framework for derivatives transactions, with regulatory authority allocated among the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), other prudential regulators, and the SEC. This framework, among other things, subjects certain swap participants to capital and margin requirements, recordkeeping, and business conduct standards and imposes registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants. Even where a securitization trust qualifies for an exemption, many of the Company's derivative counterparties are subject to capital, margin, and business conduct requirements and therefore the Company may be impacted. Where securitization trusts do not qualify for an exemption, the Company may be unable to enter into new swaps to hedge interest rate risk or the costs associated with such swaps may increase. With respect to existing securitization trusts, an inability to amend, novate, or otherwise materially modify existing swap contracts could result in a downgrade of outstanding asset-backed securities. As a result, the Company's business, ability to access the capital markets for financing, and costs may be impacted by these regulations.
Nelnet Bank
Nelnet Bank, chartered in November 2020, is a Utah Industrial Bank that is regulated by the FDIC and the UDFI.
Nelnet Bank, which originates private education loans, is subject to federal and state consumer protection, privacy, and related laws and regulations. In addition to having to comply with the majority of laws and regulations addressed in the Loan Servicing and Systems section, there are additional laws and regulations that Nelnet Bank must comply with. Some of the more significant laws and regulations applicable to Nelnet Bank include:
Regulation W and Federal Reserve Act Sections 23A and 23B - Designed to prevent losses to a bank resulting from affiliate engagement and transfer of a bank’s federal deposit insurance safety net to an affiliate
Community Reinvestment Act - Encourages depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate
Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) Act - Prevents unfair or deceptive acts or practices (UDAP) and ensures consumer privacy (including the Telephone Sales Rule, FTC Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising, and FTC Policy Statement Regarding Advertising Substantiation)
Regulation O - Places limits and conditions on credit extensions that a bank can offer to its executive officers, principal shareholders, directors, and related interests
Right to Financial Privacy Act - Establishes specific procedures that government authorities must follow when requesting a customer’s financial records from a bank or other financial institution
Regulation D, the Truth in Savings Act (reserve requirements), and Regulation DD (disclosure of deposit terms to customers) will be applicable to Nelnet Bank once consumer deposit products are launched, which is tentatively scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2021.
Corporate
Governmental bodies in the United States and abroad have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, laws and regulations restricting the transfer and requiring the safeguarding of nonpublic personal information. For example, in the United States, the Company and its financial institution clients are, respectively, subject to the FTC’s and the federal banking regulators’ privacy and information safeguarding requirements under the GLBA. The GLBA requires financial institutions to periodically disclose their privacy policies and practices relating to sharing such information and enables customers to opt out of the Company’s ability to share information with unaffiliated third parties under certain circumstances. Other federal and state laws and regulations impact the Company’s ability to share certain information with affiliates and non-affiliates for marketing and/or non-marketing purposes, or to contact customers with marketing offers. The GLBA also requires financial institutions to implement a comprehensive information security program that includes administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer records and information. These security and privacy policies and procedures for the protection of personal and confidential information are in effect across all businesses and geographic locations. Federal law also makes it a criminal offense, except in limited circumstances, to obtain or attempt to obtain customer information of a financial nature by fraudulent or deceptive means. Data privacy and data protection are areas of increasing state legislative focus. For example, the CCPA, which became effective on January 1, 2020, applies to for-profit businesses that conduct business in California and meet certain revenue or data collection thresholds. The CCPA gives consumers the right to request disclosure of information collected about them, and whether that information has been sold or shared with others, the right to
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request deletion of personal information (subject to certain exceptions), the right to opt out of the sale of the consumer’s personal information, and the right not to be discriminated against for exercising these rights. The CCPA contains several exemptions, including an exemption applicable to information that is collected, processed, sold, or disclosed pursuant to the GLBA. In addition, the California Privacy Rights and Enforcement Act of 2020, which amends and expands upon the CCPA, will become effective on January 1, 2023. Further, similar laws may be adopted by other states where the Company does business. The federal government may also pass data privacy or data protection legislation. In addition, in the EU, privacy law is now governed by the GDPR, which is directly binding and applicable for each EU member state from May 25, 2018. The GDPR contains enhanced compliance obligations and increased penalties for non-compliance compared to the prior law governing data privacy in the EU.
Intellectual Property
The Company owns numerous trademarks and service marks (“Marks”) to identify its various products and services. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had 64 registered Marks. The Company actively asserts its rights to these Marks when it believes infringement may exist. The Company believes its Marks have developed and continue to develop strong brand-name recognition in the industry and the consumer marketplace. Each of the Marks has, upon registration, an indefinite duration so long as the Company continues to use the Mark on or in connection with such goods or services as the Mark identifies. In order to protect the indefinite duration, the Company makes filings to continue registration of the Marks. The Company owns one patent application that has been published, but has not yet been issued, and has also actively asserted its rights thereunder in situations where the Company believes its claims may be infringed upon. The Company owns many copyright protected works, including its various computer system codes and displays, websites, and marketing materials. The Company also has trade secret rights to many of its processes and strategies and its software product designs. The Company's software products are protected by both registered and common law copyrights, as well as strict confidentiality and ownership provisions placed in license agreements, which restrict the ability to copy, distribute, or improperly disclose the software products. The Company also has adopted internal procedures designed to protect the Company's intellectual property.
The Company seeks federal and/or state protection of intellectual property when deemed appropriate, including patent, trademark/service mark, and copyright. The decision whether to seek such protection may depend on the perceived value of the intellectual property, the likelihood of securing protection, the cost of securing and maintaining that protection, and the potential for infringement. The Company's employees are trained in the fundamentals of intellectual property, intellectual property protection, and infringement issues. The Company's employees are also required to sign agreements requiring, among other things, confidentiality of trade secrets, assignment of inventions, and non-solicitation of other employees post-termination. Consultants, suppliers, and other business partners are also required to sign nondisclosure agreements to protect the Company's proprietary rights.
Human Capital Resources
The Company’s employees (referred to by the Company as associates) are critical to its success, and the executive team puts significant focus on human capital resources. In addition, the executive team regularly updates the Company’s board of directors and its committees on the operation and status of human capital trends and activities. Key areas of focus for the Company include:
Headcount data
Total associate headcount by reportable segment as of December 31, 2020 follows:
NumberPercent of total
NDS4,31469.6 %
NBS1,19519.3 
Nelnet Bank160.3 
AGM110.2 
Corporate and other66310.6 
 6,199100.0 %

None of the Company’s associates are covered by collective bargaining agreements. The Company is not involved in any material disputes with any of its associates, and the Company believes that relations with its associates are good.
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Employee recruitment, engagement, and retention
The Company works diligently to attract the best talent from a diverse range of sources in order to meet the current and future demands of its businesses, and has established relationships with trade schools, universities, professional associations, and industry groups to proactively attract talent. In 2020, the Company hired approximately 1,900 new associates.
In 2020, the Company conducted an associate engagement survey using a leading outside firm that specializes in employee engagement. Ninety-four percent of the Company’s associates participated in the survey, 14 points above the survey provider’s industry benchmark. There were many questions, but the overarching goal of the survey was to determine overall associate engagement through understanding how associates feel about working for the Company and if associates would recommend the Company as a great place to work. The results of that survey were an overall engagement score of 79 out of 100, which was 5 points above the survey provider’s industry benchmark. The Company’s management team has collected all the feedback, and is focusing on making associate-suggested changes to become an even better place to work.
The Company believes its positive associate engagement has resulted in higher levels of associate retention. For 2020, associate voluntary turnover was approximately 20 percent, an 8 percentage point decrease from 2019. The average associate has over 6 years of service.
Diversity and inclusion
The Company embraces diversity among its associates, including their unique backgrounds, experiences, and talents, and the Company strives to cultivate a culture and vision that supports and enhances its ability to recruit, develop, and retain diverse talent at every level. The Company demonstrates its commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion at the highest levels of the Company. An equal number of the Company’s independent directors are women and men.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s workforce was approximately 57 percent women. People of color, as defined by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's EEO-1 race and ethnicity categories for the U.S., represented approximately 20 percent of the Company’s workforce (based on associate self-identification). The Company is making progress in the number of women and people of color working in leadership positions (defined by the Company as an associate with one or more direct report) across the organization. As of December 31, 2020, women and people of color held 50 percent and 8 percent of leadership positions in the Company, respectively. The Company has acknowledged that people of color are underrepresented in leadership positions at Nelnet, and is committed to have its workforce reflect the diversity in its communities.
As part of its diversity and inclusion focus in 2020, the Company made an unwavering commitment to Black lives matter and to stand in support of all people of color and be a part of the long-term solution to systemic racism and inequality in the world. Accordingly, the Company deepened its support of organizations advancing racial and socioeconomic equality and social justice, and in 2020 the Company created the Service, Not Silence fundraising and volunteer campaign. Through this fundraiser, associates could donate to local and national organizations advancing these issues, with donations matched by the Nelnet Foundation 3:1. The campaign raised over $1 million. The Company also revised its scholarship program for the children of Nelnet associates to better recognize minority and low-income students.
To further Nelnet’s objective of creating an inspiring work environment and furthering associate development, the Company developed and launched the Nelnet Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Council (the “Council”), sponsored by the Chief Executive Officer and the Executive Director of People Services. This Council of 25 members represents locations, functions, and business segments across the entire Company. Its top priorities include:
Implementing a comprehensive diversity and inclusion learning and development plan to build awareness and drive inclusive behaviors;
Developing the Company’s diversity pipeline through recruiting, hiring, developing, mentoring, and retaining diverse top talent; and
Promoting a work environment that enables associates to feel safe to express their ideas and perspectives and feel they belong.
During 2020, the Council partnered with Nelnet University to launch a robust mentoring program. The program is available to all associates, prioritizing mentorships for associates from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups. Associates participating in this program are partnered with tenured Nelnet leaders for guidance, support, and coaching. The Council has also provided training sessions for all associates on cultural competence and unconscious bias. In addition, the Company has changed new
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hire recruiting methods and strategies to increase pools of minority, women, veteran, and disabled candidates, and has created other programs to increase diversity throughout the Company focused on race and gender.
Talent, development, and training
The Company’s talent strategy is focused on attracting the best talent from a diverse range of sources, recognizing and rewarding their performance, and continually developing, engaging, and retaining them.
The Company is committed to the continued development of its people. Strategic talent reviews and succession planning occur on a planned cadence annually across all business areas. The executive team convenes meetings with senior leadership and the board of directors to review top enterprise talent. The Company continues to provide opportunities for associates to grow their careers internally, with over half of open management positions filled internally during 2020.
The Company provides a variety of professional, technical, and leadership training courses to help its associates grow in their current roles and build new skills. The Company emphasizes individual development planning as part of its annual goal setting process, and offers mentoring programs, along with change management and project management upskilling opportunities. The Company has leadership development resources for all leaders across the organization and continues to build tools for leaders to develop their teams on the job and in roles to create new opportunities to learn and grow.
Training is provided in a number of formats to accommodate the learner’s style, location, and technological knowledge and access, including instructor-led courses and hundreds of online courses in the Company’s learning management system. The Company also offers tuition assistance to associates for degree programs, non-degree seeking individual classes, or certificate programs that are related to areas of business at Nelnet. During 2020, the Company paid over $400,000 in tuition assistance for its associates.
Competitive pay, benefits, wellness, and safety
The general compensation philosophy of the Company, as an organization that values the long-term success of its shareholders, customers, and associates, is that the Company will pay fair, competitive, and equitable compensation that is designed to encourage focus on the long-term performance objectives of the Company and is differentiated based on both the individual’s performance and the performance of their respective business segment. In carrying out this philosophy, the Company structures its overall compensation framework with the general objectives of encouraging ownership, savings, wellness, productivity, and innovation. In addition, total compensation is intended to be market competitive compared to select industry surveys, internally consistent, and aligned with the philosophy of a performance-based organization. The Company provides a comprehensive benefits package, opportunities for retirement savings, and a robust wellness program. The holistic wellness program focuses on four pillars: personal, professional, physical, and financial well-being.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has implemented and continues to implement safety measures in all its facilities. The Company has implemented adjustments to its operations designed to keep associates safe and comply with federal and local guidelines, including those regarding social distancing. As of March 2020, the majority of associates were working and continue to work from home.
Culture, values, and ethics
The Company believes acting ethically and responsibly is the right thing to do, and embraces core values of open, honest communication in work environments. The Company also believes that it must do its part to improve the world for current and future generations, and as part of this philosophy the Company contributes time, talent, and resources to strengthen the communities where the Company does business. The Company’s associates participate in many initiatives focused on supporting their communities both financially and with their time.
Ethics are deeply embedded in the Company’s values and business processes. The Company has a Code of Ethics and Conduct that all associates are required to read and acknowledge. The Company regularly re-enforces its commitment to ethics and integrity in associate communications, in its everyday actions, and in processes and controls. As a part of the Company’s on-going efforts to ensure its associates conduct business with the highest levels of ethics and integrity, the Company has compliance training programs. The Company also maintains an Ask Ethics email through which associates can raise concerns they may have about business behavior they do not feel comfortable discussing personally with managers or human resources personnel. In addition, the Company maintains a separate anonymous portal for any associate concerns about the Company's financial reporting, internal controls, and related matters.
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Available Information
The Company's internet website address is www.nelnet.com, and the Company's investor relations website address is www.nelnetinvestors.com. Copies of the Company's annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to such reports are available on the Company's investor relations website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The Company routinely posts important information for investors on its investor relations website.
The Company has adopted a Code of Ethics and Conduct that applies to directors, officers, and employees, including the Company's principal executive officer and its principal financial and accounting officer, and has posted such Code of Ethics and Conduct on its investor relations website. Amendments to and waivers granted with respect to the Company's Code of Ethics and Conduct relating to its executive officers and directors, which are required to be disclosed pursuant to applicable securities laws and stock exchange rules and regulations, will also be posted on its investor relations website. The Company's Corporate Governance Guidelines, Audit Committee Charter, People Development and Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Risk and Finance Committee Charter, and Compliance Committee Charter are also posted on its investor relations website.
Information on the Company's websites is not incorporated by reference into this report and should not be considered part of this report.
ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
We operate our businesses in a highly competitive and regulated environment. We are subject to risks including, but not limited to, strategic, market, liquidity, credit, regulatory, technology, operational, security, and other business risks such as reputation damage related to negative publicity and dependencies on key personnel, customers, vendors, and systems. This section discusses material risk factors that could adversely affect our financial results and condition and the value of, and return on, an investment in us. Although this section attempts to highlight key risk factors, other risks may emerge at any time and we cannot predict all risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect us. These risk factors should be read in conjunction with the other information included in this report.
Loan Portfolio
Our loan portfolio is subject to certain risks related to interest rates, and the derivatives we use to manage interest rate risks, prepayment risk, and credit risk, each of which could reduce the expected cash flows and earnings on our portfolio.
Interest rate risk - basis and repricing risk
We are exposed to interest rate risk in the form of basis risk and repricing risk because the interest rate characteristics of our loan assets do not always match the interest rate characteristics of the funding for those assets.
We fund the majority of our FFELP student loan assets with one-month or three-month LIBOR indexed floating rate securities. Meanwhile, the interest earned on our FFELP student loan assets is indexed to one-month LIBOR, three-month commercial paper, and Treasury bill rates. The differing interest rate characteristics of our loan assets versus the liabilities funding these assets result in basis risk, which impacts the excess spread earned on our loans. We also face repricing risk due to the timing of the interest rate resets on our liabilities, which may occur as infrequently as once a quarter, in contrast to the timing of the interest rate resets on our assets, which generally occur daily. In a declining interest rate environment, this may cause our variable student loan spread to compress, while in a rising interest rate environment, it may cause the variable spread to increase.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $17.8 billion, $0.7 billion, and $0.6 billion of FFELP loans indexed to the one-month LIBOR, three-month commercial paper, and three-month Treasury bill rate, respectively, all of which reset daily, and $6.5 billion of debt indexed to three-month LIBOR, which resets quarterly, and $10.7 billion of debt indexed to one-month LIBOR, which resets monthly. While these indices are all short term in nature with rate movements that are highly correlated over a longer period of time, the indices' historically high level of correlation may be disrupted in the future due to capital market dislocations or other factors not within our control. In such circumstances, our earnings could be adversely affected to a material extent.
We have entered into basis swaps to hedge our basis and repricing risk, under which we receive three-month LIBOR set discretely in advance and pay one-month LIBOR plus or minus a spread as defined in the agreements (the "1:3 Basis Swaps").
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Interest rate risk - loss of floor income
FFELP loans originated prior to April 1, 2006 generally earn interest at the higher of the borrower rate, which is fixed over a period of time, or a floating rate based on the Special Allowance Payments ("SAP") formula set by the Department. The SAP rate is based on an applicable index plus a fixed spread that depends on loan type, origination date, and repayment status. We generally finance our student loan portfolio with variable rate debt. In low and/or certain declining interest rate environments, when the fixed borrower rate is higher than the SAP rate, these student loans earn at a fixed rate while the interest on the variable rate debt typically continues to reflect the low and/or declining interest rates. In these interest rate environments, we may earn additional spread income that we refer to as floor income.
Depending on the type of loan and when it was originated, the borrower rate is either fixed to term or is reset to an annual rate each July 1. As a result, for loans where the borrower rate is fixed to term, we may earn floor income for an extended period of time, which we refer to as fixed rate floor income, and for those loans where the borrower rate is reset annually on July 1, we may earn floor income to the next reset date, which we refer to as variable rate floor income.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we earned $116.8 million of fixed rate floor income, which reflects $6.7 million of net settlements paid related to derivatives used to hedge loans earning fixed rate floor income. Absent the use of derivative instruments, a rise in interest rates will reduce the amount of floor income received and this will have an impact on earnings due to interest margin compression caused by increased financing costs, until such time as the federally insured loans earn interest at a variable rate in accordance with their SAP formulas. In higher interest rate environments, where the interest rate rises above the borrower rate and fixed rate loans effectively convert to variable rate loans, the impact of the rate fluctuations is reduced.
Interest rate risk - use of derivatives
We utilize derivative instruments to manage interest rate sensitivity. See note 6 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information on derivatives used by us to manage interest rate risk. Our derivative instruments are intended as economic hedges but do not qualify for hedge accounting; consequently, the change in fair value, called the “mark-to-market,” of these derivative instruments is included in our operating results. Changes or shifts in the forward yield curve can and have significantly impacted the valuation of our derivatives. Accordingly, changes or shifts in the forward yield curve will impact our results of operations.
Developing an effective strategy for dealing with movements in interest rates is complex, and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with such fluctuations. Because many of our derivatives are not balance guaranteed to a particular pool of student loans and we may not elect to fully hedge our risk on a notional and/or duration basis, we are subject to the risk of being under or over hedged, which could result in material losses. In addition, our interest rate risk management activities could expose us to substantial mark-to-market losses if interest rates move in a materially different way than was expected based on the environment when the derivatives were entered into. As a result, our economic hedging activities may not effectively manage our interest rate sensitivity or have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition.
Since June 10, 2013, the CFTC has required over-the-counter derivative transactions to be executed through an exchange or central clearinghouse. Clearing is a process by which a third-party, the clearinghouse, steps in between the original counterparties and guarantees the performance of both, by requiring that each post substantial amounts of liquid collateral on an initial (initial margin) and mark-to-market (variation margin) basis to cover the clearinghouse's potential future exposure in the event of default. The clearing requirements require us to post substantial amounts of liquid collateral when executing new derivative instruments, which could negatively impact our liquidity and capital resources and may prevent or limit us from utilizing derivative instruments to manage interest rate sensitivity and risks.
Interest rate movements have an impact on the amount of payments we are required to settle with our clearinghouse on a daily basis. We attempt to manage market risk associated with interest rates by establishing and monitoring limits as to the types and degree of risk that may be undertaken. However, if interest rates move materially and negatively impact the fair value of our derivative portfolio, the replacement of LIBOR as a benchmark rate as discussed below has significant adverse impacts on our derivatives, or if we enter into additional derivatives in which the fair value of such derivatives becomes negative, we could be required to pay a significant amount of variation margin to our clearinghouse. These payments, if significant, could negatively impact our liquidity and capital resources.
Based on our interest rate swaps outstanding as of December 31, 2020, if the forward interest rate curve was 50 basis points lower for the remaining duration of these derivatives, we would have been required to pay approximately $64.4 million in additional variation margin. In addition, if the forward basis curve between one-month and three-month LIBOR experienced a
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ten basis point reduction in spread for the remaining duration of our 1:3 Basis Swaps (in which we pay one-month LIBOR and receive three-month LIBOR), we would have been required to pay approximately $19.1 million in additional variation margin.
In addition, some of our variable rate debt is floored at zero percent, while the floating side of our fixed rate derivatives hedging the debt are not floored. If one-month LIBOR were to fall below zero percent, we may experience losses. The scope of these losses would depend on three factors - the notional amount of the fixed rate derivative portfolio, the extent to which one-month LIBOR is below zero percent, and the amount of time it remained there.
Interest rate risk - replacement of LIBOR as a benchmark rate
The London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is a widely accepted interest rate benchmark referenced in financial contracts globally and is used to determine interest rates on commercial and consumer loans, bonds, derivatives, and numerous other financial instruments. As of December 31, 2020, the interest earned on a principal amount of $17.8 billion in our FFELP student loan asset portfolio was indexed to one-month LIBOR, and the interest paid on a principal amount of $17.1 billion of our FFELP student loan asset-backed debt securities was indexed to one-month or three-month LIBOR. In addition, the majority of our derivative financial instrument transactions used to manage interest rate risks are indexed to LIBOR.
In July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. Accordingly, there is significant uncertainty regarding the availability of LIBOR as a benchmark rate after 2021. In April 2018, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York commenced publication of three reference rates based on overnight United States Treasury repurchase agreement transactions, including the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which has been recommended as an alternative to United States dollar LIBOR by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee. Uncertainty exists as to the transition process and broad acceptance of SOFR as the primary alternative to LIBOR, including what effect it would have on the value of LIBOR-based securities, financial contracts, and variable rate loans. Although the indentures for student loan asset-backed debt securities issued in our most recent LIBOR-indexed securitization transactions include new interest rate determination fallback provisions emerging in the market for new issuances of LIBOR-indexed debt securities, many of the contracts for our existing LIBOR-indexed assets, liabilities, and derivative instruments from historical transactions do not include provisions that contemplated the possibility of a permanent discontinuation of LIBOR and clearly specified a method for transitioning from LIBOR to an alternative benchmark rate, and it is not yet known how the market in general, specific counterparties in particular, the courts, or regulators will address the significant complexities and uncertainties involved in a transition away from LIBOR to an alternative benchmark rate. Specifically, the Department has not yet indicated any market transition away from the current LIBOR framework for paying special allowance payments to holders of FFELP assets. As a result, we cannot predict the impact that a transition from LIBOR to an alternative benchmark rate would have on our existing LIBOR-indexed assets, liabilities, and derivative instruments, but such impact could have material adverse effects on the value, performance, and related cash flows of such LIBOR-indexed items, including our funding costs, net interest income, loan and other asset values, and asset-liability management strategies. In particular, any such transition could:
adversely affect the interest rates paid or received on, the income and expenses associated with, and the pricing and value of our LIBOR-based assets and liabilities, which include the majority of our FFELP student loan assets and FFELP student loan asset-backed debt securities issued to fund those assets, as well as the majority of our derivative financial instruments we use to manage LIBOR-based interest rate risks associated with such FFELP student loan-related assets and liabilities;
result in uncertainty or differences in the calculation of the applicable interest rate or payment amounts on our LIBOR-based assets and liabilities depending on the terms of the governing instruments, which in turn could result in disputes, litigation, or other actions with counterparties regarding the interpretation and enforceability of certain fallback language in LIBOR-based securities and contracts, and the potential renegotiation of previous contracts;
make future asset-backed securitizations more difficult to complete or more expensive until LIBOR or alternative benchmark rate uncertainties are resolved; and
result in basis risk if the alternative benchmark rate on our loan assets does not match the alternative benchmark rate for the funding for those assets.
In addition, a transition away from LIBOR to an alternative benchmark rate or rates may impact our existing transaction data, systems, operations, pricing, and risk management processes, and require significant efforts to transition to or develop appropriate systems and analytics to reflect a new benchmark rate environment. There can be no assurance that such efforts will successfully mitigate the financial and operational risks associated with a transition away from LIBOR.
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Prepayment risk
Higher rates of prepayments of student loans, including consolidations by the Department through the Federal Direct Loan Program or private refinancing programs, would reduce our interest income.
Pursuant to the Higher Education Act, borrowers may prepay loans made under the FFEL Program at any time without penalty. Prepayments may result from consolidations of student loans by the Department through the Federal Direct Loan Program or by a lending institution through a private education or unsecured consumer loan, which historically tend to occur more frequently in low interest rate environments; from borrower defaults, which will result in the receipt of a guaranty payment; and from voluntary full or partial prepayments; among other things.
Legislative and executive action risk exists as Congress and the President evaluate economic stimulus packages and proposals to reauthorize the Higher Education Act. If the federal government and the Department initiate additional loan forgiveness or cancellation, other repayment options or plans, or consolidation loan programs, such initiatives could further increase prepayments and reduce interest income, and could also reduce servicing fees. Future laws, executive actions, or other policy statements may encourage or force consolidation, create additional income-based repayment or debt forgiveness programs, create broad debt cancellation programs, or establish other policies and programs that impact prepayments on education loans. Even if a broad debt cancellation program only applied to student loans held by the Department, such program could result in a significant increase in consolidations of FFELP loans to Federal Direct Loan Program loans and a corresponding increase in prepayments with respect to our FFELP loan portfolio. Some variability in prepayment levels is expected, although extraordinary or extended increases in prepayment rates could have a materially adverse effect on our revenues, cash flows, profitability, and business outlook, and, as a result, could materially, adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We cannot predict how or what programs or policies will be impacted by any actions that the Administration, Congress, or the federal government may take.
Credit risk
Future losses due to defaults on loans held by us present credit risk which could adversely affect our earnings. Our estimated allowance for loan losses is based on periodic evaluations of the credit risk in our loan portfolios, including the consideration of the following factors (as applicable), for each of our loan portfolios: loans in repayment versus those in nonpaying status; delinquency status; type of private education or consumer loan program; trends in defaults in the portfolio based on internal and industry data; past experience; trends in federally insured student loan claims rejected for payment by guarantors; changes to federal student loan programs; current macroeconomic factors, including unemployment rates, gross domestic product, and consumer price index; and other relevant qualitative factors.
The vast majority (97.8 percent) of our student loan portfolio is federally guaranteed. The federal government currently guarantees 97 percent of the principal and interest on federally insured student loans disbursed on and after July 1, 2006 (and 98 percent for those loans disbursed on and after October 1, 1993 and prior to July 1, 2006), which limits our loss exposure on the outstanding balance of our federally insured portfolio. Federally insured student loans disbursed prior to October 1, 1993 are fully insured for both principal and interest. Our private education and consumer loans are unsecured, with neither a government nor a private insurance guarantee. Accordingly, we bear the full risk of loss on these loans if the borrower and co-borrower, if applicable, default. We are actively expanding our acquisition of private education and consumer loan portfolios, which increases our exposure to credit risk.
On January 1, 2020, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses, which utilizes an “expected loss” model for recognizing credit losses referred to as the Current Expected Credit Loss (“CECL”) model. This differs significantly from the “incurred loss” model (the model used by us to recognize credit losses for all periods prior to January 1, 2020), which delayed recognition until it was probable a loss had been incurred, and the adoption of the CECL model on January 1, 2020 resulted in an increase to our allowance for loan losses of $91.0 million. See note 3 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report for further details on the impact on our consolidated financial statements from the adoption of the CECL accounting standard.
If future defaults on loans held by us are higher than anticipated, which could result from a variety of factors such as downturns in the economy, regulatory or operational changes, and other unforeseen future trends, or actual performance is significantly worse than currently estimated, our estimate of the allowance for loan losses and the related provision for loan losses in our statements of income would be materially affected.
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Our loan portfolio and other assets and operations could suffer adverse consequences to the extent that natural disasters, widespread health crises similar to the COVID-19 pandemic discussed further below, terrorist activities, or international hostilities affect the financial markets or the economy in general or in any particular region.
Natural disasters, widespread health crises similar to the COVID-19 pandemic discussed further below, terrorist activities, or international hostilities affecting the financial markets or the economy in general or in any particular region could lead, for example, to an increase in loan delinquencies, borrower bankruptcies, or defaults that could result in higher levels of nonperforming assets, net charge-offs, and provisions for credit losses, as well as have adverse effects on our other assets and business operations. Our ability to mitigate the adverse consequences of these occurrences is in part dependent on the quality of our resiliency planning, and our ability, if any, to anticipate the nature of any such event that occurs. The adverse impact of natural disasters, widespread health crises, terrorist activities, or international hostilities also could be increased to the extent that there is a lack of preparedness on the part of national or regional emergency responders or on the part of other organizations and businesses that we transact with, particularly those that we depend upon, but have no control over. Additionally, the force and frequency of natural disasters are increasing as the climate changes.
Liquidity and Funding
The current maturities of our loan warehouse financing facilities do not match the maturities of the related funded loans, and we may not be able to modify and/or find alternative funding related to the loan collateral in these facilities prior to their expiration.
The majority of our portfolio of student loans is funded through asset-backed securitizations that are structured to substantially match the maturities of the funded assets, and there are minimal liquidity issues related to these facilities. We also have loans funded in shorter term warehouse facilities. The current maturities of the warehouse facilities do not match the maturity of the related funded assets. Therefore, we will need to modify and/or find alternative funding related to the loan collateral in these facilities prior to their expiration.
We have two FFELP warehouse facilities as described in note 5 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report. The FFELP warehouse facilities have revolving financing structures supported by liquidity provisions, which expire on February 26, 2021 and in May 2021, respectively. In the event we are unable to renew the liquidity provisions for a facility, the facility would become a term facility at a stepped-up cost, with no additional student loans being eligible for financing, and we would be required to refinance the existing loans in the facility by the final maturity dates in February 2023 and May 2022, respectively. The FFELP warehouse facilities also contain financial covenants relating to levels of our consolidated net worth, ratio of recourse indebtedness to adjusted EBITDA, and unencumbered cash. Any noncompliance with these covenants could result in a requirement for the immediate repayment of any outstanding borrowings under the facilities. As of December 31, 2020, $252.2 million was outstanding under the FFELP warehouse facilities and $21.2 million was advanced as equity support.
We also have a consumer loan warehouse facility that has an aggregate maximum financing amount available of $100.0 million, liquidity provisions to April 23, 2021, and a final maturity date of April 23, 2022. As of December 31, 2020, $25.8 million was outstanding and $11.5 million was advanced as equity support under this warehouse facility. In addition, we have a private education loan warehouse facility that has an aggregate maximum financing amount available of $175.0 million, liquidity provisions through February 13, 2022, and a final maturity date of February 13, 2023. As of December 31, 2020, $150.4 million was outstanding and $16.4 million was advanced as equity support under this warehouse facility.
If we are unable to obtain cost-effective funding alternatives for the loans in the warehouse facilities prior to the facilities' maturities, our cost of funds could increase, adversely affecting our results of operations. If we cannot find funding alternatives, we would lose our collateral, including the loan assets and cash advances, related to these facilities.
Operations
Risks associated with our operations, as further discussed below, include those related to the importance of maintaining scale by retaining existing customers and attracting new business opportunities, our information technology systems and potential security and privacy breaches, and our ability to manage performance related to regulatory requirements.
Our largest fee-based customer, the Department of Education, represented 27 percent of our revenue in 2020. Failure to extend the Department contracts or obtain new Department contracts in the Department's NextGen or ISS procurement processes, our inability to consistently surpass competitor performance metrics, or unfavorable contract modifications or interpretations, could significantly lower servicing revenue and hinder future service opportunities.
Our subsidiaries Nelnet Servicing, LLC (“Nelnet Servicing”) and Great Lakes Educational Loan Services, Inc. (“Great Lakes”) are two of four large private sector companies that have student loan servicing contracts awarded by the Department in June
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2009 to provide additional servicing capacity for loans owned by the Department. The Department also contracts with four not-for-profit entities to service student loans. As of December 31, 2020, Nelnet Servicing was servicing $191.7 billion of student loans for 5.6 million borrowers under its contract, and Great Lakes was servicing $251.6 billion of student loans for 7.6 million borrowers under its contract. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $326.7 million in revenue from the Department under these contracts, which represented 27 percent of our revenue.
The current servicing contracts with the Department are currently scheduled to expire on June 14, 2021, but provide the potential for an additional six-month extension at the Department’s discretion through December 14, 2021. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, signed into law on December 27, 2020, provides that the Department may extend the period of performance for the servicing contracts scheduled to expire on December 14, 2021 for up to two additional years to December 14, 2023.
The Department is conducting a contract procurement process entitled Next Generation Financial Services Environment (“NextGen”) for a new framework for the servicing of all student loans owned by the Department. The Department has also issued a new federal loan servicing solicitation for an Interim Servicing Solution ("ISS"), which solicitation is currently suspended. For additional information on the NextGen and ISS procurement processes, see Part I, Item 1, “Loan Servicing and Systems - Servicing federally-owned student loans for the Department.”
In the event that our servicing contracts are not extended beyond the current expiration date or we are not chosen as a subsequent servicer, loan servicing revenue would decrease significantly. There are significant risks to us and uncertainties regarding the current Department contracts and potential future Department contracts, including the uncertain nature of the Department's awards of new NextGen contracts to other service providers and the pending and uncertain nature of other components of the NextGen contract procurement process and the ISS contract procurement process, which could be subject to potential delays, cancellations, or material changes to the structure of the contract procurement process; the possibility that new contract awards and evaluations of proposals may be challenged by various interested parties and may not be finalized or implemented for an extended period of time or at all; risks that we may not be successful in obtaining any new contracts with the Department; and risks and uncertainties as to the terms and requirements under a potential new contract or contracts with the Department. We cannot predict the timing, nature, or ultimate outcome of the Department's NextGen contract procurement process or the ISS solicitation.
New loan volume is currently allocated among the eight servicers based on certain performance metrics established by the Department and compared among all loan servicers in this group. The amount of future allocations of new loan volume could be negatively impacted if we are unable to consistently surpass comparable competitor and/or other performance metrics.
In the event the current or any future Department servicing contracts become subject to unfavorable modifications or interpretations by the Department, loan servicing revenue could decrease significantly, performance penalties could be assessed, and/or operating costs to perform the contracts could increase significantly.
Additionally, we are partially dependent on the existing Department contracts to broaden servicing operations with the Department, other federal and state agencies, and commercial clients. The size and importance of these contracts provide us the scale and infrastructure needed to profitably expand into new business opportunities. Failure to extend the Department contracts beyond the current expiration date, or obtain new Department contracts, could significantly hinder future opportunities, as well as result in potential restructuring charges that may be necessary to re-align our cost structure with our servicing operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our results of operations, and is expected to continue to adversely impact our results of operations, as well as adversely impact our businesses, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption to the U.S. and world economies, including significantly higher unemployment and underemployment, significantly lower interest rates, and extreme volatility in the U.S. and world markets. These effects have adversely impacted our results of operations and, if these effects result in sustained economic stress or recession, they could have a material adverse impact on us in a number of ways.
COVID-19 has materially disrupted business operations, resulting in significantly higher levels of unemployment or underemployment. As a result, many individual student and consumer borrowers have experienced financial hardship, making it difficult, if not impossible, to meet loan payment obligations without temporary assistance, and we expect that more borrowers will be similarly affected the longer the COVID-19 pandemic continues. We are monitoring key metrics of financial hardship, including changes in weekly unemployment claims, enrollment in auto-debit payments, requests for new forbearances, enrollment in hardship payment plans, and early delinquency metrics.
We consider the characteristics of our loan portfolios and their expected behavior in forecasted economic scenarios. We update our evaluation of current and forecasted economic conditions each reporting period and adjust our allowance for loan losses as
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appropriate. If future economic conditions as a result of COVID-19 are significantly worse than what was assumed as a part of these assessments, specifically related to the severity and length of the downturn and the timing and extent of subsequent recovery, it could result in additional allowance for loan losses and impairment charges being recorded in future periods.
Our net interest income and profitability have been and could further be negatively affected by volatility in interest rates caused by uncertainties stemming from COVID-19. Higher income volatility from changes in interest rates and spreads to benchmark indices has caused and could cause a loss of net interest income and adverse changes in current fair value measurements of our assets and liabilities. Fluctuations in interest rates have impacted and will continue to impact both the level of income and expense recorded on most of our assets and liabilities and the value of all interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our net income, operating results, or financial condition.
The majority of our employees continue to work from home. We have never had to run our operations to such extent remotely for an extended period of time, and it is possible we will encounter challenges to running our businesses. For example, COVID-19 has presented potential risks to staffing, such as stress on our workforce as a result of homeschooling, caring for themselves and loved ones, and potential burnout, and it is possible that key employees or a significant number of employees may be affected by the virus. In addition, our operations rely on the efficient and secure collection, processing, storage, and transmission of personal, confidential, and other information in a significant number of customer transactions on a continuous basis through our computer systems and networks and those of our third-party service providers. Unanticipated issues arising from handling personal, confidential, and other information in a work-from-home environment could lead to greater risks for us, including cybersecurity and privacy risks.
Beginning in March 2020, schools largely moved to on-line classes for their students. Although many schools moved to on-campus learning beginning with the 2020/2021 academic year, it is uncertain if, and the extent to which, they will have to move back to on-line classes during the academic term if the COVID-19 pandemic increases in severity. The COVID-19 pandemic has and may continue to impact demand for our education technologies, services, and payment processing products and services.
Under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) signed into law on March 27, 2020, federal student loan payments and interest accruals were suspended on all loans owned by the Department. The benefits of the law were applied retroactively to March 13, 2020, when the President declared a state of emergency related to COVID-19, and these federal student loan borrower relief provisions have been extended through September 30, 2021. Beginning March 13, 2020, we received less servicing revenue per borrower from the Department based on the borrower forbearance status than what was earned on such accounts prior to these provisions. As a result of the extension of these CARES Act provisions through September 30, 2021, we currently anticipate Department servicing revenue will be lower in 2021 from recent historical periods due to the lower rates. In addition, revenue from the Department for originating consolidation loans was adversely impacted as a result of borrowers receiving relief on their existing loans, thus not initiating a consolidation. We currently anticipate this revenue will continue to be negatively impacted while student loan payments and interest accruals are suspended.
During 2020, FFELP, private education, and consumer loan servicing revenue was adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, due to reduced or eliminated delinquency outreach to borrowers, holds on claim filings, and reduced or eliminated late fees processing. In addition, origination fee revenue was negatively impacted as borrowers are less likely to refinance their loans when they are receiving certain relief measures from their current lender. We currently anticipate this trend will continue in future periods that are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with the magnitude based on the extent to which existing or additional borrower relief policies and activities are implemented or extended by servicing customers. For additional information on the impacts of COVID-19 on our results of operations, see Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic.”
If new legislative or regulatory student loan borrower relief measures similar to such provisions of the CARES Act were to become effective, the levels and timing of future servicing revenues could continue to be impacted in a similar manner through the extended period of time that such provisions or measures are in effect.
Although the CARES Act does not apply to our FFELP, private education, or consumer loans, several states have announced various initiatives to suspend payment obligations for private education loan borrowers in those states, and we continue to support these initiatives and our FFELP, private education, and consumer loan borrowers. Due to uncertainties regarding, among other things, the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and any new legislation, regulations, guidance, or widely accepted practices with respect to relief to loan borrowers, we are not able to estimate the ultimate impact that debt relief measures will have on our results of operations.
The CARES Act and other COVID-19-related borrower relief measures have resulted in, and may continue to result in, certain processing and other changes within our loan servicing operations, including the processing of automatic forbearances, special
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payment instructions, and special credit reporting. Such changes involve additional regulatory and other complexities, uncertainties, and matters of interpretation, and have resulted in litigation. In addition, such COVID-19 regulatory measures and associated operational changes increase the risk that noncompliance with applicable laws, regulations, and Consumer Financial Protection Bureau guidance could result in penalties, litigation, reputation damage, and a loss of customers.
Legislative risk exists as Congress evaluates additional COVID-19 related economic stimulus packages. If the federal government initiates additional loan forgiveness, other repayment options or plans, or consolidation loan programs, such initiatives could increase prepayments and reduce interest income, and could also reduce servicing fees.
We currently believe our liquidity and capital resources position is strong, and we expect to be able to fund our business operations for the foreseeable future. We also currently plan to continue making regular quarterly dividend payments on our Class A and Class B common stock, subject to future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, and other factors. However, if circumstances surrounding COVID-19 continue to change in significantly adverse ways and/or if the pandemic continues for an extended period of time, our liquidity and capital resources position could be materially and adversely affected, which could adversely impact our businesses, cash flows (including forecasted cash flows from our asset-backed securitizations), and overall financial condition, and could also result in a reduction, suspension, or discontinuation of quarterly dividend payments on our Class A and Class B common stock.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our businesses, results of operations, financial condition, and/or cash flows will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and largely beyond our control, including, among others: the scope, severity, and duration of the pandemic; the number of our employees, borrowers, customers, and vendors adversely affected by the pandemic; the impact of the pandemic on schools, student enrollment, and the need for student and consumer loans; the broader public health and economic dislocations resulting from the pandemic; the actions taken by governmental authorities to limit the public health, financial, and economic impacts of the pandemic; any further legislative or regulatory changes that suspend or reduce payments or cancel or discharge obligations for student or consumer loan borrowers; any reputational damage related to the broader reception and perception of our response to the pandemic; and the impact of the pandemic on local, U.S., and world economies. However, as with many other businesses, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or any other pandemic, on our businesses could be material and adverse. To the extent that the COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect the U.S. and world economies and/or adversely affects our businesses, results of operations, financial condition, and/or cash flows, it may also have the effect of increasing the likelihood and/or magnitude of other risks described in this report.
A failure of our operating systems or infrastructure could disrupt our businesses, cause significant losses, result in regulatory action, and damage our reputation.
We operate many different businesses in diverse markets and depend on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our computer network systems, software, datacenters, cloud services providers, telecommunications systems, and the rest of our operating systems and infrastructure to process and monitor large numbers of daily transactions in compliance with contractual, legal, regulatory, and our own standards. Such systems and infrastructure could be disrupted because of a cyberattack, spikes in transaction volume, power outages, telecommunications failures, degradation or loss of internet or website availability, natural disasters, political or social unrest, and terrorist acts. A significant adverse incident could damage our reputation and credibility, lead to customer dissatisfaction and loss of customers or revenue, and result in regulatory action, in addition to increased costs to service our customers and protect our network. Such event also could result in large expenditures to repair or replace the damaged properties, networks, or information systems or to protect them from similar events in the future. System redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, and our business continuity plans may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Any significant loss of customers or revenue, or significant increase in costs of serving those customers, could adversely affect our growth, financial condition, and results of operations.
Operating system and infrastructure risks continue to increase in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies to support and process customer transactions, the increased number and complexity of transactions being processed, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, nation state threat actors, and other external parties. In addition, to access our services and products, our customers may use personal smartphones, tablet PCs, and other mobile devices that are beyond our control systems.
Malicious and abusive activities, such as the dissemination of computer viruses, worms, and other destructive or disruptive software, internal and external threats, computer hackings, social engineering, process breakdowns, denial of service attacks, ransomware or ransom demands to not expose vulnerabilities in systems, and other malicious activities have become more common. These activities could have adverse consequences on our network and our customers, including degradation of service, excessive call volume, and damage to our or our customers' equipment and data. Although to date we have not experienced a material loss relating to cyberattacks or system outage, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer such
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losses in the future or that there is not a current threat that remains undetected at this time. Our risk and exposure to these matters remains heightened because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, and the size and scale of our services.
We could also incur losses resulting from the risk of unauthorized access to our computer systems, the execution of unauthorized transactions by employees, errors relating to transaction processing and technology, breaches of the internal control system and compliance requirements, and failures to properly execute business continuation and disaster recovery plans. In the event of a breakdown in the internal control system, improper operation of systems, or unauthorized employee actions, we could suffer financial loss, potential legal actions, fines, or civil monetary penalties that could arise as a result of an operational deficiency or as a result of noncompliance with applicable regulatory standards, adverse business decisions or their implementation, and customer attrition due to potential negative publicity and damage to our reputation.
As a result of the above risks, we continue to develop and enhance our training, controls, processes, and practices designed to protect, monitor, and restore our systems, computers, software, data, and networks from attack, damage, or unauthorized access, and this remains a priority for us, each of our business segments, and our Board of Directors. Even though we maintain technology and telecommunication, professional services, media, network security, privacy, injury, and liability insurance coverage to offset costs that may be incurred as a result of a cyberattack, information security breach, or extended system outage, this insurance coverage may not cover all costs of such incidents.
A security breach of our information technology systems could result in the disclosure of confidential customer and other information, significant financial losses and legal exposure, and damage to our reputation.
Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of personal, confidential and other sensitive information in our information technology systems, including customer, personnel, and vendor data. Although we devote significant resources to maintain and regularly upgrade our systems and processes that are designed to protect the security of our systems, software and networks and to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information belonging to us and our customers, we experience increasingly numerous and more sophisticated attacks on our systems, and our cybersecurity measures may not be entirely effective.
We may not be able to anticipate or to implement effective preventive measures against all types of potential security breaches, because the techniques used change frequently, generally increase in sophistication, often are not recognized until launched, sometimes go undetected even when successful, and result in cybersecurity attacks originating from a wide variety of sources, including organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, hostile foreign governments, and other external parties. Those parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers, or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information to gain access to our data or that of our customers, such as through “phishing” schemes. These risks may increase in the future as we continue to increase our mobile and internet-based product offerings and expand our internal usage of web-based products and applications. In addition, our customers often use their own devices, such as computers, smart phones, and tablet computers, to make payments and manage their accounts. We have limited ability to assure the safety and security of our customers’ transactions to the extent they are using their own devices, which could be subject to similar threats. A penetration or circumvention of our information security systems, or the intentional or unintentional disclosure, alteration or destruction by an authorized user of confidential information necessary for our operations, could result in serious negative consequences for us. These consequences may include violations of applicable privacy and other laws; financial loss to us or to our customers; loss of confidence in our cybersecurity measures; customer dissatisfaction; significant litigation exposure; regulatory fines, penalties or intervention; reimbursement or other compensatory costs; additional compliance costs; significant disruption of our business operations; and harm to our reputation. Although to date we have not experienced a material loss relating to information security breaches, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer such losses in the future or that there is not a current threat that remains undetected at this time.
In addition, we routinely transmit, receive, and process large volumes of personal, confidential and proprietary information through third parties. Although we work to ensure that third parties with which we do business maintain information security systems and processes, those measures may not be entirely effective, and an information security breach of a third-party system may not be revealed to us in a timely manner, which could compromise our ability to respond effectively. An interception, misuse or mishandling of personal, confidential or proprietary information being processed, sent to or received from a third party could result in material adverse legal liability, regulatory actions, disruptions, and reputational harm with respect to our businesses.
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We must adapt to rapid technological change. If we are unable to take advantage of technological developments or our software products experience quality problems and development delays, we may experience a decline in the demand for our products and services.
Our long-term operating results depend substantially upon our ability to continually enhance, develop, introduce, and market new products and services. We must continually and cost-effectively maintain and improve our information technology systems and infrastructure in order to successfully deliver competitive and cost effective products and services to our customers. The widespread adoption of new technologies and market demands could require substantial expenditures to enhance system infrastructure and existing products and services. If we fail to enhance and scale our systems and operational infrastructure or products and services, our operating segments may lose their competitive advantage and this could adversely affect financial and operating results.
Our products and services are based on sophisticated software and computing systems that often encounter development delays, and the underlying software may contain undetected bugs or other defects that interfere with its intended operation. Quality problems with our software products and errors or delays in our processing of electronic transactions could result in additional development costs, diversion of technical and other resources from our other development efforts, loss of credibility with current or potential clients, harm to our reputation, or exposure to liability claims.
We rely on third parties for a wide array of services for our customers, and to meet our contractual obligations. The failure of a third party with which we work could adversely affect our business performance and reputation.
We rely on third parties for a wide array of critical operational services, technology, datacenter hosting facilities, cloud computing platforms, and software. We also rely upon data from external sources to maintain our proprietary databases, including data from customers, business partners, and various government sources.
Our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, cyberattacks, telecommunications failures, acts of terrorism, and similar events. They may also be subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism, and similar misconduct, as well as local administrative actions, changes to legal or permitting requirements, and litigation to stop, limit or delay operations. If a third-party service provider experiences an outage, or our services are disrupted, we may temporarily lose the ability to conduct certain business activities, which could impact our ability to serve our customers and meet our contractual, legal or regulatory compliance obligations. Our businesses would also be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our services are unreliable. Even though we have selected the third parties with which we do business carefully and have disaster recovery and business continuity arrangements, our services could be interrupted. Some of our third-party service providers may engage vendors of their own as they provide services or technology solutions for our operations, which introduces the same risks that these “fourth parties” could be the source of operational failures.
Third parties that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearinghouses, payment networks, or financial intermediaries, could also be sources of operational risks to our businesses, including with respect to breakdowns or failures of their systems, misconduct by their employees, or cyberattacks that could affect their ability to deliver a product or service to us or result in the loss or compromise of our information or the information of our customers. Our ability to implement backup systems or other safeguards with respect to third-party systems is limited. Furthermore, an attack on, or failure of, a third-party system may not be revealed to us in a timely manner, which could compromise our ability to respond effectively.
We must satisfy certain requirements necessary to maintain the federal guarantees of our federally insured loans and the federally insured loans that we service for third parties, and we may incur penalties or lose our guarantees if we fail to meet these requirements.
As of December 31, 2020, we serviced $30.8 billion of FFELP loans that maintained a federal guarantee, of which $16.3 billion and $14.5 billion were owned by us and third-party entities, respectively. We must meet various requirements in order to maintain the federal guarantee on federally insured loans, which is conditional based on compliance with origination, servicing, and collection policies set by the Department and guaranty agencies. If we misinterpret Department guidance, or incorrectly apply the Higher Education Act, the Department could determine that we are not in compliance. Federally insured loans that are not originated, disbursed, or serviced in accordance with the Department's and guaranty agency regulations may risk partial or complete loss of the guarantee. If we experience a high rate of servicing deficiencies (including any deficiencies resulting from the conversion of loans from one servicing platform to another, errors in the loan origination process, establishment of the borrower's repayment status, and due diligence or claim filing processes), it could result in the loan guarantee being revoked or denied. In most cases we have the opportunity to cure these deficiencies by following a prescribed cure process which usually involves obtaining the borrower's reaffirmation of the debt. However, not all deficiencies can be cured.
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A guaranty agency may also assess an interest penalty upon claim payment if the deficiency does not result in a loan rejection. These interest penalties are not subject to cure provisions and are typically related to isolated instances of due diligence deficiencies. Additionally, we may become ineligible for special allowance payment benefits from the time of the first deficiency leading to the loan rejection through the date that the loan is cured.
As FFELP loan holders, servicers, and guaranty agencies exit the loan program and consolidation within the industry takes place, this increases the complexity of servicing and claim filing due to the amount of loan servicing and loan guaranty transfers and the opportunity for errors at the time a claim is filed.
Failure to comply with federal and guarantor regulations may result in fines, penalties, the loss of the insurance and related federal guarantees on affected FFELP loans, the loss of special allowance payment benefits, expenses required to cure servicing deficiencies, suspension or termination of the right to participate as a FFELP servicer, negative publicity, and potential legal claims, including potential claims by our servicing customers if they lose the federal guarantee on loans that we service for them. If we are subjected to significant fines, or loss of insurance or guarantees on a material number of FFELP loans, or if we lose our ability to service FFELP loans, it could have a material, negative impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Our servicing contracts with the Department of Education expose us to additional risks inherent in government contracts and our third-party FFELP loan servicing business is subject to additional risks inherent in government programs.
The Federal government could engage in a prolonged debate linking the federal deficit, debt ceiling, government shutdown, and other budget issues. If U.S. lawmakers in the future fail to reach agreement on these issues, the federal government could stop or delay payment on its obligations. Further, legislation to address the federal deficit and spending could impose proposals that would adversely affect the FFEL and Federal Direct Loan Programs' servicing businesses.
We contract with the Department to administer loans held by the Department in both the FFEL and Federal Direct Loan Programs, we own a portfolio of FFELP loans, and we service our FFELP loans and loans for third parties. These loan programs are authorized by the Higher Education Act and are subject to periodic reauthorization and changes to the programs by the Administration and U.S. Congress. Any changes, including the potential for borrowers to refinance loans via Direct Consolidation Loans, or broad loan forgiveness, could have a material impact to our cash flows from servicing, interest income, and operating margins. For example, a broad student loan debt cancellation program by the government could result in a significant decrease in our Department servicing revenues and our revenues for servicing FFELP loans for third parties, and even if a broad debt cancellation program only applied to student loans held by the Department, such program could result in a significant increase in consolidations of FFELP loans held by third parties to Federal Direct Loan Program loans, and thus an associated decrease in our third-party FFELP loan servicing revenues.
Government entities in the United States often reserve the right to audit contract costs and conduct inquiries and investigations of business practices. These entities also conduct reviews and investigations and make inquiries regarding systems, including systems of third parties, used in connection with the performance of the contracts. Negative findings from audits, investigations, or inquiries could affect the contractor’s future revenues and profitability. If improper or illegal activities are found in the course of government audits or investigations, we could become subject to various civil and criminal penalties, including those under the civil U.S. False Claims Act. Additionally, we may be subject to administrative sanctions, which may include termination or non-renewal of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions, or debarment from doing business with other agencies of that government. Due to the inherent limitations of internal controls, it may not be possible to detect or prevent all improper or illegal activities.
The Government could change governmental policies, programs, regulatory environments, spending sentiment, and many other factors and conditions, some of which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We cannot predict how or what programs or policies will be impacted by the federal government. The conditions described above could impact not only our contracts with the Department, but also other existing or future contracts with government or commercial entities.
Our ability to continue to grow and maintain our contracts with commercial businesses and government agencies is partly dependent on our ability to maintain compliance with various laws, regulations, and industry standards applicable to those contracts.
We are subject to various laws, regulations, and industry standards related to our commercial and government contracts. In most cases, these contracts are subject to termination rights, audits, and investigations. The laws and regulations that impact our operating segments are outlined in Part I, Item 1, “Regulation and Supervision.” Additionally, our contracts with the federal government require that we maintain internal controls in accordance with the National Institute of Standards and Technologies
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(“NIST”) and our operating segments that utilize payment cards are subject to the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (“PCI DSS”). If we are found to be in noncompliance with the contract provisions or applicable laws, regulations, or standards, or the contracted party exercises its termination or other rights for that or other reasons, our reputation could be negatively affected, and our ability to compete for new contracts or maintain existing contracts could diminish. If this were to occur, our results of operations from existing contracts and future opportunities for new contracts could be negatively affected.
We could face significant legal and reputational harm if we fail to safeguard the privacy of personal information.
We are subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations, both inside and outside of the United States, governing the privacy and protection of personal information of individuals. The protected individuals can include our customers, employees, and the customers and employees of our clients, vendors, counterparties, and other third parties. Ensuring the collection, use, transfer, and storage of personal information complies with applicable laws and regulations in relevant jurisdictions can increase operating costs, impact the development of new products or services, and reduce operational efficiency. Any mishandling or misuse of the personal information of customers, employees, or others by us or a third party affiliate could expose us to litigation or regulatory fines, penalties, or other sanctions. Additional risks could arise if we or an affiliated third party do not provide adequate disclosure or transparency to our customers about the personal information collected from them and its use; fail to receive, document, and honor the privacy preferences expressed by customers; fail to protect personal information from unauthorized disclosure; or fail to maintain proper training on privacy practices for all employees or third parties who have access to personal data. Concerns regarding the effectiveness of our measures to safeguard personal information and abide by privacy preferences, or even the perception that those measures are inadequate, could cause the loss of existing or potential customers and thereby reduce our revenue. In addition, any failure or perceived failure to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws and regulations could result in requirements to modify or cease certain operations or practices, and/or significant liabilities, regulatory fines, penalties, and other sanctions. The regulatory framework for privacy issues is evolving and is likely to continue doing so for the foreseeable future, which creates uncertainty. Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws and privacy standards are still uncertain, it is possible that these laws or privacy standards may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. Any inability to adequately address privacy concerns, even if unfounded, or to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations, and privacy standards, could result in additional cost and liability for us, damage our reputation, and harm our business.
Nelnet Bank’s operations may not achieve expected market penetration and business plan results.
On November 2, 2020, Nelnet Bank, our banking subsidiary, launched operations. Nelnet Bank operates as an internet Utah-chartered industrial bank franchise focused on the private education loan marketplace, and its bank charter allows us to maintain our other diversified business offerings. Nelnet Bank was funded by us with an initial capital contribution of $100.0 million, consisting of $55.9 million of cash and $44.1 million of student loan asset-backed securities. In addition, we made a pledged deposit of $40.0 million with Nelnet Bank, as required under an agreement with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”).
The regulatory landscape surrounding industrial banks continues to be scrutinized. Nelnet Bank will monitor the regulatory environment and any related changes that may impact the charter or its operations. Nelnet Bank has established a 3-year business plan, which requires ongoing monitoring to ensure alignment to financial and asset targets as well as other commitments. Failure to meet these targets and commitments could jeopardize the Nelnet Bank charter.
Our failure to successfully manage business and certain asset acquisitions and other investments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or results of operations.
We have expanded our services and products through business acquisitions and we may acquire other new businesses, products, and services, or enhance existing businesses, products, and services, or make other investments to further diversify our businesses both within and outside of our historical education-related businesses, through acquisitions of other companies, product lines, technologies, and personnel, or through investments in new asset classes. Any acquisition or investment is subject to a number of risks. Such risks may include diversion of management time and resources, disruption of our ongoing businesses, difficulties in integrating acquisitions (including potential delays or errors in converting loan servicing portfolio acquisitions to our servicing platform), loss of key employees, degradation of services, difficulty expanding information technology systems and other business processes to incorporate the acquired businesses, extensive regulatory requirements, dilution to existing shareholders if our common stock is issued in consideration for an acquisition or investment, incurring or assuming indebtedness or other liabilities in connection with an acquisition, unexpected declines in real estate values or the failure to realize expected benefits from real estate development projects, lack of familiarity with new markets, and difficulties in supporting new product lines. Our failure to successfully manage acquisitions or investments, or successfully integrate acquisitions, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or results of operations.
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Correspondingly, our expectations as to the accretive nature of the acquisitions or investments could be inaccurate.
Our significant investments in ALLO and Hudl are subject to a number of risks, including macroeconomic conditions, competition, political and regulatory requirements, technology advancements, cybersecurity threats, retention of key personnel, and other risks. ALLO derives its revenue primarily from the sale of telecommunication services, including internet, telephone, and television services, to business, governmental, and residential customers in Nebraska and Colorado, and specializes in high-speed internet and broadband services available through its all-fiber network. Telecommunications businesses are highly competitive and subject to extensive federal, state, and local regulations. Additionally, our investment in ALLO is dependent on ALLO maintaining and expanding its infrastructure and ability to continue to increase market share in existing and new markets.
Hudl is a leading sports performance analysis company and their software provides more than 4.3 million coaches, athletes, trainers and analysts across 30+ sports the insights to be more competitive. The Hudl business is subject to global market conditions, new competition, advancements in technology, and continued demand for their products and services. The COVID-19 pandemic was significantly disruptive to the Hudl business, and this impact could continue for the duration of the pandemic.
The operating results of these companies could impact the valuation of these investments on our financial statements and we may not be able to fully monetize these investments without a liquidation event.
Regulatory and Legal
Federal and state laws and regulations can restrict our businesses and result in increased compliance expenses, and noncompliance with these laws and regulations could result in penalties, litigation, reputation damage, and a loss of customers.
Our operating segments are heavily regulated by federal and state government regulatory agencies. See Part I, Item 1, "Regulation and Supervision." The laws and regulations enforced by these agencies are proposed or enacted to protect consumers and the financial industry as a whole, not necessarily us, our operating segments, or our shareholders. We have procedures and controls in place to monitor compliance with numerous federal and state laws and regulations. However, because these laws and regulations are complex, differ between jurisdictions, and are often subject to interpretation, or as a result of unintended errors, we may, from time to time, inadvertently be in non-compliance with these laws and regulations. Compliance with these laws and regulations is expensive and requires the time and attention of management. These costs divert capital and focus away from efforts intended to grow our business. If we do not successfully comply with laws, regulations, or policies, we could incur fines or penalties, lose existing or new customer contracts or other business, and suffer damage to our reputation. Changes in these laws and regulations can significantly alter our business environment, limit business operations, and increase costs of doing business, and we cannot predict the impact such changes would have on our profitability.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has the authority to supervise and examine large nonbank student loan servicers, including us. If in the course of such an examination the CFPB were to determine that we were not in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and CFPB guidance, it is possible that this could result in material adverse consequences, including, without limitation, settlements, fines, penalties, public enforcement action, adverse regulatory actions, changes in our business practices, or other actions. The CFPB has also issued student loan servicing rules since its inception, and continues to review servicing areas where new guidance or rules may be issued in the future.
There continues to be uncertainty regarding how the CFPB's recommendations, strategies, and priorities will impact our businesses and our results of operations going forward. Actions by the CFPB could result in requirements to alter our services, causing them to be less attractive or effective and impair our ability to offer them profitably. In the event that the CFPB changes regulations adopted in the past by other regulators, or modifies past regulatory guidance, our compliance costs and litigation exposure could increase.
Several states have enacted laws regulating and monitoring the activity of student loan servicers. Some of these laws stipulate additional licensing fees which increase our cost of doing business. Where we have obtained licenses, state licensing statutes may impose a variety of requirements and restrictions on us. In addition, these statutes may also subject us to the supervisory and examination authority of state regulators in certain cases, and we will be subject to and experience exams by state regulators. If we are found to not have complied with applicable laws, regulations, or requirements, we could: (i) lose one or more of our licenses or authorizations, (ii) become subject to a consent order or administrative enforcement action, (iii) face lawsuits (including class action lawsuits), sanctions, or penalties, or (iv) be in breach of certain contracts, which may void or cancel such contracts. We anticipate additional states adopting similar laws.
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As a result of the Reconciliation Act of 2010, our existing FFELP loan portfolio will continue to decline over time.
The Reconciliation Act of 2010 discontinued new loan originations under the FFEL Program effective July 1, 2010, and requires all new federal loan originations be made through the Federal Direct Loan Program. Although the new law did not alter or affect the terms and conditions of existing FFELP loans, interest income related to existing FFELP loans will decline over time as existing FFELP loans are paid down, refinanced, or repaid by guaranty agencies after default. We currently believe that in the short-term we will not be able to invest the excess cash generated from the FFELP loan portfolio into assets that immediately generate the rates of return historically realized from that portfolio. If we are unable to grow or develop new revenue streams, our consolidated revenue and operating margin will decrease as a result of the decline in FFELP loan volume outstanding.
Exposure related to certain tax issues could decrease our net income.
Federal and state income tax laws and regulations are often complex and require interpretation. From time to time, we engage in transactions in which the tax consequences may be subject to uncertainty. Significant judgment is required in assessing and estimating the tax consequences of these transactions. We prepare and file tax returns based on the interpretation of tax laws and regulations. In the normal course of business, our tax returns are subject to examination by various taxing authorities. Such examinations may result in future tax and interest assessments by these taxing authorities. In accordance with authoritative accounting guidance, we establish reserves for tax contingencies related to deductions and credits that we may be unable to sustain. Differences between the reserves for tax contingencies and the amounts ultimately owed are recorded in the period they become known. Adjustments to our reserves could have a material effect on our financial statements.
We may also be impacted by changes in tax laws, including tax rate changes, new tax laws, and subsequent interpretations of tax laws by federal and state tax authorities. For example, any future tax legislation increasing the corporate federal income tax rate and/or limiting deductions could have a negative impact on the Company’s financial results. In addition, several states are in a deficit position due to the pandemic. Accordingly, states may look to expand their taxable base, alter their tax calculation, or increase tax rates, which could result in an additional cost to the Company.
In addition to corporate tax matters, as both a lender and servicer of student loans, we are required to report student loan interest received and cancellation of indebtedness to individuals and the Internal Revenue Service on an annual basis. These informational forms assist individuals in complying with their federal and state income tax obligations. The statutory and regulatory guidance regarding the calculations, recipients, and timing are complex and we know that interpretations of these rules vary across the industry. The complexity and volume associated with these informational forms creates a risk of error which could result in penalties or damage to our reputation.
We invest in certain tax-advantaged projects promoting renewable energy resources (solar projects). Our investments in these projects are designed to generate a return primarily through the realization of federal income tax credits, operating cash flows, and other tax benefits, over specified time periods. Our investments in these projects may not generate returns as anticipated and may have an adverse impact on our financial results. We are subject to the risk that tax credits recorded currently and previously, which remain subject to recapture by taxing authorities based on compliance features required to be met at the project level, will fail to meet certain government compliance requirements and will not be able to be realized. The possible inability to realize these tax credits and other tax benefits can have a negative impact on our financial results. The risk of not being able to realize the tax credits and other tax benefits depends on many factors outside of our control, including changes in the applicable tax code and the ability of the projects to continue operation.
Principal Shareholder and Related Party Transactions
Our Executive Chairman beneficially owns 82.3 percent of the voting rights of our shareholders and effectively has control over all of our matters.
Michael S. Dunlap, our Executive Chairman and a principal shareholder, beneficially owns 82.3 percent of the voting rights of our shareholders. Accordingly, each member of the Board of Directors and each member of management has been elected or effectively appointed by Mr. Dunlap and can be removed by Mr. Dunlap. As a result, Mr. Dunlap, as Executive Chairman and controlling shareholder, has control over all of our matters and has the ability to take actions that benefit him, but may not benefit other minority shareholders, and may otherwise exercise his control in a manner with which other minority shareholders may not agree or which they may not consider to be in their best interests.
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Our contractual arrangements and transactions with Union Bank and Trust Company ("Union Bank"), which is under common control with us, present conflicts of interest and pose risks to our shareholders that the terms may not be as favorable to us as we could receive from unrelated third parties.
Union Bank is controlled by Farmers & Merchants Investment Inc. ("F&M"), which owns 81.5 percent of Union Bank's common stock and 15.5 percent of Union Bank's non-voting non-convertible preferred stock. Certain grantor retained annuity trusts established by Mr. Dunlap, a significant shareholder, as well as Executive Chairman, and a member of our Board of Directors, and his spouse own a total of 50.4 percent of F&M’s outstanding voting common stock, and a certain grantor retained annuity trust established by Mr. Dunlap’s sister, Angela L. Muhleisen, owns 49.2 percent of F&M’s outstanding voting common stock. In addition, Mr. Dunlap and his family and Ms. Muhleisen and her family own a total of 8.9 percent and 7.9 percent, respectively, of F&M’s outstanding non-voting preferred stock, which amounts are convertible into shares of F&M common stock which would currently represent an additional 3.0 percent and 2.8 percent, respectively, of F&M’s outstanding common stock on an as converted basis. Mr. Dunlap serves as a Director and Chairman of F&M, and as a Director of Union Bank. Ms. Muhleisen serves as a Director and Chief Executive Officer of F&M and as a Director, Chairperson, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Union Bank. Union Bank is deemed to have beneficial ownership of a significant number of shares of Nelnet because it serves in a capacity of trustee or account manager for various trusts and accounts holding shares of Nelnet, and may share voting and/or investment power with respect to such shares. As of December 31, 2020, Union Bank was deemed to beneficially own 10.1 percent of the voting rights of our outstanding common stock, and Mr. Dunlap and Ms. Muhleisen beneficially owned 82.3 percent and 12.1 percent, respectively, of the voting rights of our outstanding common stock (with certain shares deemed under applicable SEC rules to be beneficially owned by both Mr. Dunlap and Ms. Muhleisen).
We have entered into certain contractual arrangements with Union Bank, including loan purchases, loan servicing, loan participations, banking and lending services, 529 Plan administration services, lease arrangements, trustee services, and various other investment and advisory services. The net aggregate impact on our consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 related to the transactions with Union Bank was income (before income taxes) of $15.4 million, $9.7 million, and $9.2 million, respectively. See note 21 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information related to the transactions between us and Union Bank.
We intend to maintain our relationship with Union Bank, which our management believes provides certain benefits to us. Those benefits include Union Bank's knowledge of and experience in the FFELP industry, its willingness to provide services, and at times liquidity and capital resources, on an expedient basis, and the proximity of Union Bank to our corporate headquarters located in Lincoln, Nebraska.
The majority of the transactions and arrangements with Union Bank are not offered to unrelated third parties or subject to competitive bids. Accordingly, these transactions and arrangements not only present conflicts of interest, but also pose the risk to our shareholders that the terms of such transactions and arrangements may not be as favorable to us as we could receive from unrelated third parties. Moreover, we may have and/or may enter into contracts and business transactions with related parties that benefit Mr. Dunlap and his sister, as well as other related parties, that may not benefit us and/or our minority shareholders.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
The Company has no unresolved comments from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission regarding its periodic or current reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The Company's headquarters are located in Lincoln, Nebraska. The Company owns or leases office space facilities primarily in Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Colorado.
The Company believes its existing office space facilities and equipment, which are used by all reportable segments, are in good operating condition and are suitable for the conduct of its business.
ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Note 23, “Legal Proceedings,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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PART II.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's Class A common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “NNI,” while its Class B common stock is not publicly traded. The number of holders of record of the Company's Class A common stock and Class B common stock as of January 31, 2021 was 1,400 and 76, respectively. The record holders of the Class B common stock are Michael S. Dunlap, Shelby J. Butterfield, various members of the Dunlap and Butterfield families, and various other estate planning trusts established by and/or entities controlled by them. Because many shares of the Company's Class A common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, the Company is unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners represented by these record holders.
The Company paid quarterly cash dividends on its Class A and Class B common stock during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 in amounts totaling $0.74 per share and $0.82 per share, respectively. The Company currently plans to continue making comparable regular quarterly dividend payments, subject to future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, and other factors.
Performance Graph
The following graph compares the change in the cumulative total shareholder return on the Company's Class A common stock to that of the cumulative return of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Financials Index. The graph assumes that the value of an investment in the Company's Class A common stock and each index was $100 on December 31, 2015 and that all dividends, if applicable, were reinvested. The performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future performance.
nni-20201231_g1.jpg

Company/Index
12/31/2015
12/31/2016
12/31/2017
12/31/2018
12/31/2019
12/31/2020
Nelnet, Inc.$100.00 $153.11 $167.30 $161.71 $182.14 $225.93 
S&P 500100.00 111.96 136.40 130.42 171.49 203.04 
S&P 500 Financials100.00 122.80 150.04 130.49 172.41 169.49 

The preceding information under the caption “Performance Graph” shall be deemed to be “furnished” but not “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
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Stock Repurchases
The following table summarizes the repurchases of Class A common stock during the fourth quarter of 2020 by the Company or any “affiliated purchaser” of the Company, as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
PeriodTotal number of shares purchased (a)Average price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs (b)Maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs (b)
October 1 - October 31, 202072 $66.88 — 3,246,732 
November 1 - November 30, 2020— — — 3,246,732 
December 1 - December 31, 20203,008 69.34 — 3,246,732 
Total3,080 $69.28 —  

(a)    The total number of shares consist of shares owned and tendered by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations upon the vesting of restricted shares. Unless otherwise indicated, shares owned and tendered by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations were purchased at the closing price of the Company’s shares on the date of vesting.
(b)    On May 8, 2019, the Company announced that its Board of Directors authorized a new stock repurchase program to repurchase up to a total of five million shares of the Company's Class A common stock during the three-year period ending May 7, 2022.
Equity Compensation Plans
For information regarding the securities authorized for issuance under the Company's equity compensation plans, see Part III, Item 12 of this report.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The selected financial data previously required by Item 301 of Regulation S-K has been omitted pursuant to SEC Release No. 33-10890; 34-90459, and the resulting amendments to Item 301 of Regulation S-K effective February 10, 2021.
ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. All dollars are in thousands, except share data, unless otherwise noted.)
The following discussion and analysis provides information that the Company’s management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of the consolidated results of operations and financial condition of the Company. The discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this report. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements subject to various risks and uncertainties and should be read in conjunction with the disclosures and information contained in "Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements" and Item 1A "Risk Factors" included in this report.
A discussion related to the results of operations and changes in financial condition for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 is presented below. A discussion related to the results of operations and changes in financial condition for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018 can be found in Part II, Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in the Company's 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on February 27, 2020.
OVERVIEW
The Company is a diverse company with a purpose to serve others and a vision to make customers' dreams possible by delivering customer focused products and services. The largest operating businesses engage in loan servicing and education technology, services, and payment processing, and the Company also has a significant investment in communications. A significant portion of the Company's revenue is net interest income earned on a portfolio of federally insured student loans. The Company also makes investments to further diversify both within and outside of its historical core education-related businesses, including, but not limited to, investments in real estate, early-stage and emerging growth companies, and renewable energy.
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GAAP Net Income and Non-GAAP Net Income, Excluding Adjustments
The Company prepares its financial statements and presents its financial results in accordance with GAAP. However, it also provides additional non-GAAP financial information related to specific items management believes to be important in the evaluation of its operating results and performance. A reconciliation of the Company's GAAP net income to net income, excluding derivative market value adjustments, and a discussion of why the Company believes providing this additional information is useful to investors, is provided below.
Year ended December 31,
20202019
GAAP net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc.
$352,443 141,803 
Realized and unrealized derivative market value adjustments
28,144 76,195 
Tax effect (a)
(6,755)(18,287)
Net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc., excluding derivative market value adjustments (b)
$373,832 199,711 
Earnings per share:
GAAP net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc.
$9.02 3.54 
Realized and unrealized derivative market value adjustments
0.72 1.90 
Tax effect (a)
(0.17)(0.45)
Net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc., excluding derivative market value adjustments (b)
$9.57 4.99 

(a)    The tax effects are calculated by multiplying the realized and unrealized derivative market value adjustments by the applicable statutory income tax rate.
(b)    "Derivative market value adjustments" includes both the realized portion of gains and losses (corresponding to variation margin received or paid on derivative instruments that are settled daily at a central clearinghouse) and the unrealized portion of gains and losses that are caused by changes in fair values of derivatives which do not qualify for "hedge treatment" under GAAP. "Derivative market value adjustments" does not include "derivative settlements" that represent the cash paid or received during the current period to settle with derivative instrument counterparties the economic effect of the Company's derivative instruments based on their contractual terms.
The accounting for derivatives requires that changes in the fair value of derivative instruments be recognized currently in earnings, with no fair value adjustment of the hedged item, unless specific hedge accounting criteria is met. Management has structured all of the Company’s derivative transactions with the intent that each is economically effective; however, the Company’s derivative instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting. As a result, the change in fair value of derivative instruments is reported in current period earnings with no consideration for the corresponding change in fair value of the hedged item. Under GAAP, the cumulative net realized and unrealized gain or loss caused by changes in fair values of derivatives in which the Company plans to hold to maturity will equal zero over the life of the contract. However, the net realized and unrealized gain or loss during any given reporting period fluctuates significantly from period to period.
The Company believes these point-in-time estimates of asset and liability values related to its derivative instruments that are subject to interest rate fluctuations are subject to volatility mostly due to timing and market factors beyond the control of management, and affect the period-to-period comparability of the results of operations. Accordingly, the Company’s management utilizes operating results excluding these items for comparability purposes when making decisions regarding the Company’s performance and in presentations with credit rating agencies, lenders, and investors. Consequently, the Company reports this non-GAAP information because the Company believes that it provides additional information regarding operational and performance indicators that are closely assessed by management. There is no comprehensive, authoritative guidance for the presentation of such non-GAAP information, which is only meant to supplement GAAP results by providing additional information that management utilizes to assess performance.
GAAP net income increased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the same period in 2019 primarily due to the following factors:
The recognition of a $258.6 million ($196.5 million after tax) gain from the deconsolidation of ALLO Communications LLC (“ALLO”) from the Company’s consolidated financial statements;
The recognition of a $51.0 million ($38.8 million after tax) gain to adjust the carrying value of the Company's investment in Hudl to reflect Hudl's May 2020 equity raise transaction value;
A decrease of $48.1 million ($36.5 million after tax) in net losses related to changes in the fair values of derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting in 2020 as compared to 2019;
An increase of $30.2 million ($23.0 million after tax) in loan spread on the Company’s loan portfolio and related derivative settlements in 2020 as compared to 2019, primarily from an increase in fixed rate floor income;
The recognition of $16.7 million ($12.7 million after tax) of expenses during 2019 to extinguish notes payable in certain asset-backed securitizations prior to the notes' contractual maturities; and
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An increase of $15.8 million ($12.0 million after tax) in gains from the sale of consumer loans in 2020 as compared to 2019.
These factors were partially offset by the following items:
An increase of $35.2 million ($26.8 million after tax) in non-cash losses related to the Company’s solar investments in 2020 as compared to 2019;
The recognition of $24.7 million ($18.8 million after tax) of net provision and impairment charges in 2020 related to the Company's beneficial interest in consumer loan securitizations and certain venture capital investments, respectively, due to adverse economic conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic;
An increase of $24.4 million ($18.5 million after tax) in the provision for loan losses in 2020 as compared to 2019. The provision for loan losses in 2020 was negatively impacted due to the COVID-19 pandemic;
A decrease of $20.4 million ($15.5 million after tax) in net income due to the decrease in the average balance of loans in 2020 as compared to 2019 as a result of the amortization of the FFELP loan portfolio; and
A decrease of $18.2 million in net income from the Company's Loan Servicing and Systems operating segment in 2020 as compared to 2019 due to a decrease in revenue as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and incurring additional costs to meet increased service and security standards under the Department servicing contracts.
Operating Results
The Company earns net interest income on its loan portfolio, consisting primarily of FFELP loans in its Asset Generation and Management ("AGM") operating segment. This segment is expected to generate a stable net interest margin and significant amounts of cash as the FFELP portfolio amortizes. As of December 31, 2020, AGM had a $19.6 billion loan portfolio that management anticipates will amortize over the next approximately 20 years and has a weighted average remaining life of 9.8 years. The Company actively works to maximize the amount and timing of cash flows generated by its FFELP portfolio and seeks to acquire additional loan assets to leverage its servicing scale and expertise to generate incremental earnings and cash flow. However, due to the continued amortization of the Company’s FFELP loan portfolio, over time, the Company's net income generated by the AGM segment will continue to decrease. The Company currently believes that in the short-term it will most likely not be able to invest the excess cash generated from the FFELP loan portfolio into assets that immediately generate the rates of return historically realized from that portfolio.
In addition, the Company earns fee-based revenue through the following reportable operating segments:
Loan Servicing and Systems ("LSS") - referred to as Nelnet Diversified Services ("NDS")
Education Technology, Services, and Payment Processing ("ETS&PP") - referred to as Nelnet Business Services ("NBS")
Further, the Company earned communications revenue through ALLO, formerly a majority owned subsidiary of the Company prior to a recapitalization of ALLO resulting in the deconsolidation of ALLO from the Company’s financial statements on December 21, 2020. The recapitalization of ALLO is not considered a strategic shift in the Company’s involvement with ALLO, and ALLO’s results of operations, prior to the deconsolidation, are presented by the Company as a reportable operating segment.
On November 2, 2020, the Company obtained final approval from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") for federal deposit insurance and for a bank charter from the Utah Department of Financial Institutions ("UDFI") in connection with the establishment of Nelnet Bank, and Nelnet Bank launched operations. Nelnet Bank operates as an internet Utah-chartered industrial bank franchise focused on the private education loan marketplace, with a home office in Salt Lake City, Utah. Nelnet Bank’s operations are presented by the Company as a reportable operating segment.
Other business activities and operating segments that are not reportable are combined and included in Corporate and Other Activities ("Corporate"). Corporate and Other Activities also includes income earned on certain investments and interest expense incurred on unsecured and other corporate related debt transactions. In addition, the Corporate segment includes direct incremental costs associated with Nelnet Bank prior to the UDFI’s approval for its bank charter and certain shared service and support costs incurred by the Company that will not be reflected in Nelnet Bank’s operating results through 2023 (the bank’s de novo period). Such Nelnet Bank-related costs included in the Corporate segment totaled $5.9 million (pre-tax) and $1.7 million (pre-tax) in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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The information below provides the operating results for each reportable operating segment (excluding Nelnet Bank) for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (dollars in millions). See "Results of Operations" for each such reportable operating segment under this Item 7 for additional detail.
LSS (a)ETS&PPALLO (c)AGM (b)
nni-20201231_g2.jpg
nni-20201231_g3.jpg
(a)    Revenue includes intersegment revenue.
(b)    Total revenue includes "net interest income" and "total other income/expense" from the Company's segment statements of income, excluding the impact from changes in fair values of derivatives. Net income excludes changes in fair values of derivatives, net of tax. For information regarding the exclusion of the impact from changes in fair values of derivatives, see "GAAP Net Income and Non-GAAP Net Income, Excluding Adjustments" above.
(c)    On December 21, 2020, the Company deconsolidated ALLO from the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, the 2020 operating results for the Communications operating segment in the table above are for the period January 1, 2020 through December 21, 2020.
Certain events and transactions from 2020, which have impacted, will impact, or could impact the operating results of the Company, are discussed below.
Recapitalization and Additional Funding for ALLO
On October 1, 2020, the Company entered into various agreements with SDC Allo Holdings, LLC (“SDC”), a third party global digital infrastructure investor, and ALLO, then a majority owned communications subsidiary of the Company, to recapitalize and provide additional funding for ALLO. On October 15, 2020, ALLO received proceeds of $197.0 million from SDC for the issuance of membership units of ALLO, and redeemed $160.0 million of non-voting preferred membership units of ALLO held by the Company. As a result of the receipt of required regulatory approvals on December 21, 2020, SDC, the Company, and members of ALLO’s management own approximately 48 percent, 45 percent, and 7 percent, respectively, of the outstanding voting membership interests of ALLO, and the Company deconsolidated ALLO from the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Upon the deconsolidation of ALLO, the Company recorded its 45 percent voting membership interests in ALLO at fair value, and accounts for such investment under the Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value (“HLBV”) method of accounting. In addition, the Company recorded its remaining non-voting preferred membership units in ALLO at fair value, and accounts for such investment as a separate equity investment. As a result of the deconsolidation of ALLO, the Company recognized a gain of $258.6 million in the fourth quarter of 2020.
On January 19, 2021, ALLO closed on certain private debt financing facilities from unrelated third-party lenders providing for aggregate financing of up to $230.0 million. With proceeds from this transaction, ALLO redeemed a portion of its non-voting preferred membership units held by the Company in exchange for an aggregate redemption price payment to the Company of $100.0 million.
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The agreements among the Company, SDC, and ALLO provide that they will use commercially reasonable efforts (which expressly excludes requiring ALLO to raise any additional equity financing or sell any assets) to cause ALLO to redeem, on or before April 2024, the remaining non-voting preferred membership units of ALLO held by the Company, plus the amount of accrued and unpaid preferred return on such units. As of January 19, 2021, the outstanding preferred membership units of ALLO held by the Company was $129.7 million. The preferred membership units earn a preferred annual return of 6.25 percent.
As discussed above, subsequent to the recapitalization and deconsolidation of ALLO, the Company will account for its investment in ALLO under the HLBV method of accounting. The HLBV method of accounting is used by the Company for equity method investments when the liquidation rights and priorities as defined by an equity investment agreement differ from what is reflected by the underlying percentage ownership or voting interests. The Company applies the HLBV method using a balance sheet approach. A calculation is prepared at each balance sheet date to determine the amount that the Company would receive if an equity investment entity were to liquidate its net assets and distribute that cash to the investors based on the contractually defined liquidation priorities. The difference between the calculated liquidation distribution amounts at the beginning and the end of the reporting period, after adjusting for capital contributions and distributions, is the Company’s share of the earnings or losses from the equity investment for the period. Because the Company will be able to utilize certain tax losses related to ALLO’s operations, the equity investment agreements for the Company have liquidation rights and priorities that are sufficiently different from the voting membership interests percentages such that the HLBV method of accounting was deemed appropriate. Accordingly, the recognition of earnings or losses during any reporting period related to the Company’s equity investment in ALLO may or may not reflect its voting membership interests percentage and could vary substantially from those calculated based on the Company’s voting membership interests in ALLO.
Assuming ALLO continues its planned growth in existing and new communities, it will continue to invest substantial amounts in property and equipment to build the network and connect customers. The resulting recognition of depreciation and development costs could result in net operating losses by ALLO under generally accepted accounting principles. Applying the HLBV method of accounting, the Company will recognize a significant portion of ALLO’s anticipated losses over the next several years.
For additional information, see note 2, “Recent Developments - ALLO Recapitalization,” of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report.
Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic
Beginning in March 2020, the coronavirus 2019 or COVID-19 (“COVID-19”) pandemic resulted in many businesses and schools closing or reducing hours throughout the U.S. to combat the spread of COVID-19, and states and local jurisdictions implementing various containment efforts, including lockdowns on non-essential business and other business restrictions, stay-at-home orders, and shelter-in-place orders. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption to the U.S. and world economies, including significantly higher unemployment and underemployment, significantly lower interest rates, and extreme volatility in the U.S. and world markets. As a result of the COVID-19 outbreak and federal, state, and local government responses to COVID-19, the Company has experienced and may in the future experience various disruptions and impacts to the Company's businesses and results of operations. The following provides a summary of how COVID-19 has impacted and may impact the Company's business and operating results.
Corporate
The Company has implemented adjustments to its operations designed to keep employees safe and comply with federal, state, and local guidelines, including those regarding social distancing. As of March 25, 2020, the majority of our associates were working and continue to work from home. Substantially all Company associates working from home are able to connect to their work environment virtually and continue to serve our customers.
The Company has investments in real estate, early-stage and emerging growth companies (venture capital investments), and renewable energy (solar). The Company identified several venture capital investments that were negatively impacted by the distressed economic conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and recognized impairment charges on such investments of $7.8 million (pre-tax) during the first quarter of 2020.
Loan Servicing and Systems
The CARES Act, which was signed into law on March 27, 2020, among other things, provides broad relief for federal student loan borrowers. Under the CARES Act, federal student loan payments and interest accruals were suspended for all borrowers that have loans owned by the Department. The benefits of the law were applied retroactively to March 13, 2020, when the President declared a state of emergency related to COVID-19, and these federal student loan borrower relief provisions have
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been extended through September 30, 2021. Beginning March 13, 2020, the Company received less servicing revenue per borrower from the Department based on the borrower forbearance status through September 30, 2020 than what was earned on such accounts prior to these provisions, and the Department further reduced the monthly rate paid to its servicers for those in a forbearance status for the period from October 1, 2020 through September 30, 2021 from $2.19 per borrower to $2.05 per borrower. As a result of the extension of these CARES Act provisions through September 30, 2021, the Company currently anticipates Department servicing revenue will be lower in 2021 from recent historical periods due to the lower rates. The Company currently anticipates revenue per borrower will return to pre-COVID levels when borrowers begin to re-enter repayment in the fourth quarter of 2021. While federal student loan payments are suspended, the Company's operating expenses have been and will continue to be lower due to a significant reduction of borrower statement printing and postage costs. In addition, revenue from the Department for originating consolidation loans was adversely impacted as a result of borrowers receiving relief on their existing loans, thus not initiating a consolidation. The Company currently anticipates this revenue will continue to be negatively impacted while student loan payments and interest accruals are suspended.
During 2020, FFELP, private education, and consumer loan servicing revenue was adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic due to reduced or eliminated delinquency outreach to borrowers, holds on claim filings, and reduced or eliminated late fees processing. In addition, origination fee revenue was negatively impacted as borrowers are less likely to refinance their loans when they are receiving certain relief measures from their current lender. The Company currently anticipates this trend will continue in future periods that are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with the magnitude based on the extent to which existing or additional borrower relief policies and activities are implemented or extended by servicing customers.
If the student loan borrower relief provisions of the CARES Act were potentially extended past September 30, 2021 and/or new legislative or regulatory student loan borrower relief measures similar to such provisions of the CARES Act were to become effective, the levels and timing of future servicing revenues could continue to be impacted in a similar manner through the extended period of time that such provisions or measures are in effect.
Due to decreased servicing and transaction activity as a result of suspended payments under the CARES Act as discussed above, the Company has been able to transition associates to help state agencies process unemployment claims and conduct certain health contact tracing support activities. Revenue earned on these temporary contracts for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $21.9 million. These contracts were awarded to the Company as a result of the Company's technology, security, compliance, and other capabilities needed to conduct such activities.
Education Technology, Services, and Payment Processing
This segment has been and will continue to be impacted by COVID-19 through lower interest rate levels, which reduce earnings for this business compared to recent historical results as the tuition funds held in custody for schools produce less interest earnings. If interest rates remain at current levels, the Company anticipates this segment will earn minimal interest income in future periods. In addition, as a result of COVID-19, demand for certain of the Company's products and services has been negatively impacted. The Company currently anticipates this trend will continue through the 2020-2021 academic year and could extend longer as a result of trends and shifts in the industry that could be long term as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Communications
As a result of COVID-19, ALLO experienced increased demand from new and existing residential customers to support connectivity needs primarily for work and learn from home applications. Along with offering 60 days free for eligible customers, ALLO partnered with school districts to provide more connectivity to students, often at discounted rates.
In view of the importance of ALLO's technicians being able to connect new customers while maintaining social distance and protecting community and associate health and safety, ALLO adjusted operational procedures by implementing associate health checks, following CDC and local health official safety protocols, facilitating customer screening, and adjusting the installation process to limit the time in the home or business as much as possible.
Asset Generation and Management
AGM's results were adversely impacted during the first quarter of 2020 as a result of COVID-19 due to:
An incremental increase in the provision for loan losses of $63.0 million (pre-tax) resulting from an increase in expected life of loan defaults due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
A $26.3 million (pre-tax) provision charge recognized on the Company's beneficial interest in consumer loan securitizations. The Company's estimate of future cash flows from the beneficial interest in consumer loan
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securitizations was lower than originally anticipated due to the expectation of increased consumer loan defaults within such securitizations due to the distressed economic conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.
As economic factors improved in the third and fourth quarters of 2020, a portion of the charges noted above were reversed.
The CARES Act, among other things, provides broad relief, effective March 13, 2020, for borrowers that have student loans owned by the Department. This relief package excluded FFELP, private education, and consumer loans. Although the Company’s loans are excluded from the provisions of the CARES Act, the Company is providing relief for its borrowers.
For the Company's federally insured and private education loans, effective March 13, 2020 through June 30, 2020, the Company proactively applied a 90 day natural disaster forbearance to any loan that was 31-269 days past due (for federally insured loans) and 80 days past due (for private education loans), and to any current loan upon request. Beginning July 1, 2020, the Company discontinued proactively applying 90 day natural disaster forbearances on past due loans. However, the Company will continue to apply a natural disaster forbearance in 90 day increments to any federally insured and private education loan upon request through September 30, 2021. As of December 31, 2020, federally insured and private education loans in forbearance were $2.0 billion (or 10.3% of the portfolio) and $2.4 million (or 0.7% of the portfolio), respectively. The amount of federally insured and private education loans in forbearance hit their peak in May 2020 at $6.0 billion and $38.6 million, respectively. The Company anticipates that loans in forbearance will continue to decline in 2021, absent any intervening policy change, when borrowers are currently scheduled to exit forbearance. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, a large portion of borrowers continue to make payments according to their payment plans.
In addition, for both federally insured and private education loans, effective March 13, 2020, borrower late fees have been waived.
For the majority of the Company's consumer loans, borrowers are generally being offered, upon request and/or documented evidence of financial distress, up to a two-month deferral of payments, with an option of additional deferrals if the COVID-19 pandemic continues. In addition, effective March 13, 2020, the majority of fees (non-sufficient funds, late charges, check fees) and credit bureau reporting have been suspended. The specific relief terms on the Company's consumer loan portfolio vary depending on the loan program and servicer of such loans.
The Company will continue to review whether additional and/or extended borrower relief policies and activities are needed.
The Company is not contractually committed to acquire FFELP, private education, or consumer loans, so the Company has been and will continue to be selective as to which, if any, loans it purchases during the current period of economic uncertainty.
Other Risks and Uncertainties
The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented and continues to evolve. The extent to which COVID-19 may impact the Company's businesses depends on future developments, which are highly uncertain, subject to various risks, and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate spread, severity, and duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions, stay-at-home or other similar orders and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business and/or school closures and disruptions, and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the virus. For additional information on the risks and uncertainties regarding the impacts of COVID-19, see Part I, Item 1A. "Risk Factors - The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our results of operations, and is expected to continue to adversely impact our results of operations, as well as adversely impact our businesses, financial condition, and/or cash flows" in this report.
Investment in Agile Sports Technologies, Inc. (doing business as "Hudl")
On May 20, 2020, the Company made an additional equity investment of approximately $26.0 million in Hudl, as one of the participants in an equity raise completed by Hudl. As a result of Hudl’s equity raise, the Company recognized a $51.0 million (pre-tax) gain during the second quarter of 2020 to adjust its carrying value to reflect the May 20, 2020 transaction value.
Department of Education Servicing Contracts and Procurements for New Contracts
Nelnet Servicing, a subsidiary of the Company, earns loan servicing revenue from a servicing contract with the Department. Revenue earned by Nelnet Servicing related to this contract was $146.8 million and $158.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In addition, Great Lakes, which was acquired by the Company on February 7, 2018, also earns loan servicing revenue from a similar servicing contract with the Department. Revenue earned by Great Lakes related to this contract was $179.9 million and $185.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Nelnet Servicing and Great Lakes' servicing contracts with the Department are currently scheduled to expire on June 14, 2021, but provide the potential for an additional six-month extension at the Department’s discretion through December 14, 2021. The
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Department is conducting a contract procurement process for a new framework for the servicing of all student loans owned by the Department. For information regarding recent developments related to and the current status of these servicing contracts, and the Department's procurement processes for new servicing contracts, see note 17 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report.
Adoption of New Accounting Standard for Credit Losses
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (“ASC 326”), which replaces the incurred loss methodology with an expected loss methodology that is referred to as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) methodology. The CECL methodology utilizes a lifetime “expected credit loss” measurement objective for the recognition of credit losses for financial assets measured at amortized cost at the time the financial asset is originated or acquired. The expected credit losses are adjusted each period for changes in expected lifetime credit losses.
The new guidance primarily impacted the allowance for loan losses related to the Company’s loan portfolio. Upon adoption, the Company recorded an increase to the allowance for loan losses of $91.0 million, which included a reclassification of the non-accretable discount balance and premiums related to loans purchased with evidence of credit deterioration, and decreased retained earnings, net of tax, by $18.9 million. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2020 are presented under ASC 326 (recognizing estimated credit losses expected to occur over the asset's remaining life) while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with previously applicable GAAP (recognizing estimated credit losses using an incurred loss model); therefore, the comparative information for 2019 is not comparable to the information presented for 2020.
Solar Investments
During the last three years, the Company has invested $148.6 million in tax equity investments in renewable energy solar partnerships to support the development and operations of solar projects throughout the country. The projects are currently forecasted to generate more than 214 megawatts of power each year. These investments provide a federal income tax credit under the Internal Revenue Code, currently at 26 percent (for projects commencing construction in 2020-2022) and 30 percent (for projects commencing construction prior to 2020) of the eligible project cost, with the tax credit available when the project is placed-in-service. The Company is then allowed to reduce its tax estimates paid to the U.S. Treasury based on the credits earned. In addition to the credits, the Company structures the investments to receive quarterly distributions of cash from the operating earnings of the solar project for a period of at least five years (so the tax credits are not recaptured). After that period, the contractual agreements typically provide for the Company’s interest in the projects to be purchased in an exit at the fair market value of the discounted forecasted future cash flows allocable to the Company. Given the expected timing of cash flows, experience the Company has in underwriting these assets, and beneficial impact to the climate, the Company believes these investments are a great fit within its capital deployment initiatives.
These investments are structured such that a significant proportion of the cash distributions and tax items (including the income tax credit) are allocated back to the Company within the first eighteen months of the investment capital contribution, in order to achieve a target after tax return. The cash distributions to the Company are then structured to flatten until exit, typically between years five and six. Given the unique arrangement in which investors share in the profits and losses of the solar investment with cash and tax benefit allocations among the partners changing over the life of the project, the accounting guidance calls for the use of the Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value (“HLBV”) method, which can result in non-linear GAAP income/loss allocation results. Under this method, a balance sheet approach is utilized to determine what each investor would hypothetically receive at each balance sheet date under the liquidation provisions of the contractual agreements, assuming the net assets of the funding structures were liquidated at their recorded amounts determined in accordance with GAAP. As the investor receives a majority of this return through the income tax credit and higher cash distributions at the beginning of the investment, as of the first period of the hypothetical liquidation, the investor’s remaining net claim on assets is relatively low compared to the initial cash contributed. This difference between the initial cash contributions and the first period’s ending net claim on assets through the hypothetical liquidation causes significant GAAP losses on the investment to be recognized through the income statement within the initial periods of the investment. After the carrying value of the investment on the balance sheet is written down to the hypothetical liquidation amount, subsequent year’s earnings are expected to align with and reflect the operating profits or losses of the investment. The Company realizes that application of the HLBV method to its solar investments has a variable impact on its periodic earnings that in the early years is not reflective of the expected long-term economics of the investments. Given the significant amount of investments made in the last couple of years and the associated ramp-up period, the negative impact to earnings in 2020 was significant as the Company recognized a $37.4 million pre-tax loss from these investments under the HLBV method. However, as these investments mature and perform as forecasted, the Company expects to recoup that loss and realize additional income between now and the sale of each of its interests, likely 60 to 72 months from the date the project is placed in service. Thus, the Company expects the economic gain from these investments to be realized in its future earnings, but, due to the hypothetical liquidation valuations as of the balance sheet dates
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during the intended investment horizon, the HLBV method results in some volatility in the Company’s consolidated periodic earnings results.
Private Loan Servicing and Acquisition
In December of 2020, Wells Fargo announced the sale of its approximately $10 billion portfolio of private education student loans representing approximately 475,000 borrowers. In conjunction with the sale, the Company was selected as servicer of the portfolio and will begin servicing the portfolio following a series of loan transfers during the first half of 2021. In addition, the Company has entered into agreements to participate in a joint venture to acquire the portfolio. The Company expects to own approximately 8 percent of the interest in the loans and, dependent upon financing, currently expects to invest approximately $100 million as part of the acquisition. In addition, the Company will serve as the sponsor and administrator for loan securitizations on behalf of the purchaser group as the loans are securitized, and provide the required level of risk retention as the loans are permanently financed. This transaction is expected to close during the first half of 2021, with the securitizations occurring subsequent to closing.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $121.2 million. In addition, the Company had a portfolio of available-for-sale investments, consisting primarily of student loan asset-backed securities, with a fair value of $348.6 million as of December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has participated $118.6 million of these securities, and such participation is reflected as debt on the Company's consolidated balance sheet.
The Company has historically generated positive cash flow from operations. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company’s net cash provided by operating activities was $212.8 million.
The Company has a $455.0 million unsecured line of credit with a maturity date of December 16, 2024. As of December 31, 2020, the unsecured line of credit had $120.0 million outstanding. Subsequent to December 31, 2020, the Company paid down the full balance outstanding on the line of credit, and as of February 25, 2021, $455.0 million was available for future use. The line of credit provides that the Company may increase the aggregate financing commitments, through the existing lenders and/or through new lenders, up to a total of $550.0 million, subject to certain conditions.
On November 2, 2020, Nelnet Bank launched operations. Nelnet Bank was funded by the Company with an initial capital contribution of $100.0 million, consisting of $55.9 million of cash and $44.1 million of student loan asset-backed securities. In addition, the Company made a pledged deposit of $40.0 million with Nelnet Bank, as required under an agreement with the FDIC.
The majority of the Company’s portfolio of student loans is funded in asset-backed securitizations that will generate significant earnings and cash flow over the life of these transactions. As of December 31, 2020, the Company currently expects future undiscounted cash flows from its securitization portfolio to be approximately $2.30 billion, of which approximately $1.51 billion will be generated over the next five years.
The Company has a stock repurchase program to purchase up to a total of five million shares of the Company’s Class A common stock during the three-year period ending May 7, 2022. During 2020, the Company repurchased a total of 1,594,394 shares of stock for $73.4 million ($46.01 per share). As of December 31, 2020, 3,246,732 shares remained authorized for repurchase under the Company's stock repurchase program.
During 2020, the Company paid cash dividends totaling $31.8 million ($0.82 per share).
The Company intends to use its strong liquidity position to capitalize on market opportunities, including FFELP, private education, and consumer loan acquisitions; strategic acquisitions and investments; and capital management initiatives, including stock repurchases, debt repurchases, and dividend distributions. The timing and size of these opportunities will vary and will have a direct impact on the Company’s cash and investment balances.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
An analysis of the Company's operating results for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019 is provided below.
The Company’s operating results are primarily driven by the performance of its existing loan portfolio and the revenues generated by its fee-based businesses and the costs to provide such services. The performance of the Company’s portfolio is driven by net interest income (which includes financing costs) and losses related to credit quality of the assets, along with the cost to administer and service the assets and related debt.
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The Company operates as distinct reportable operating segments as described above. For a reconciliation of the reportable segment operating results to the consolidated results of operations, see note 15 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report. Since the Company monitors and assesses its operations and results based on these segments, the discussion following the consolidated results of operations is presented on a reportable segment basis (except that Nelnet Bank’s results of operations are not discussed since such operations were launched in November 2020 and were not material to the Company’s 2020 consolidated results of operations).
 Year ended December 31,
 20202019Additional information
Loan interest$595,113 914,256 Decrease was due primarily to decreases in the gross yield earned on loans and the average balance of loans, partially offset by an increase in gross fixed rate floor income due to lower interest rates in 2020 as compared to 2019.
Investment interest24,543 34,421 Includes income from unrestricted interest-earning deposits and investments and funds in asset-backed securitizations. Decrease was due to a decrease in interest rates.
Total interest income619,656 948,677 
Interest expense330,071 699,327 Decrease was due primarily to a decrease in cost of funds and a decrease in the average balance of debt outstanding.
Net interest income289,585 249,350 See table below for additional analysis.
Less provision for loan losses63,360 39,000 Increase was due to provision expense recognized in the first quarter of 2020 as a result of an increase in expected defaults due to the COVID-19 pandemic and an increased provision for loan losses on loans acquired in 2020 to reflect life of loan expected losses as compared to loans acquired in 2019 for which the provision for loan losses was recognized based upon an incurred loss methodology. See AGM operating segment - results of operations.
Net interest income after provision for loan losses226,225 210,350 
Other income/expense:  
LSS revenue451,561 455,255 See LSS operating segment - results of operations.
ETS&PP revenue282,196 277,331 See ETS&PP operating segment - results of operations.
Communications revenue76,643 64,269 See Communications operating segment - results of operations.
Other57,561 47,918 See table below for components of “other income.”
Gain on sale of loans33,023 17,261 Gain on sale of loans is from the sale of consumer loans.
Gain from deconsolidation of ALLO258,588 — On December 21, 2020, the Company deconsolidated ALLO from the Company’s consolidated financial statements as a result of ALLO’s recapitalization. See “Overview - Recapitalization and Additional Funding for ALLO” above for additional information.
Impairment expense and provision for beneficial interests(24,723)— 
During the first quarter of 2020, the Company recognized a provision expense of $26.3 million and an impairment charge of $7.8 million related to beneficial interest in consumer loan securitization investments and several venture capital investments, respectively. Such charges were the result of impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic. During the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company reversed $9.7 million of the provision related to beneficial interest in consumer loan securitization investments due to improved economic conditions.
Derivative settlements, net3,679 45,406 The Company maintains an overall risk management strategy that incorporates the use of derivative instruments to reduce the economic effect of interest rate volatility. Derivative settlements for each applicable period should be evaluated with the Company's net interest income. See table below for additional analysis.
Derivative market value adjustments, net(28,144)(76,195)Includes the realized and unrealized gains and losses that are caused by changes in fair values of derivatives which do not qualify for "hedge treatment" under GAAP. The majority of the derivative market value adjustments were related to the changes in fair value of the Company's floor income interest rate swaps. Such changes reflect that a decrease in the forward yield curve during a reporting period results in a decrease in the fair value of the Company's floor income interest rate swaps, and an increase in the forward yield curve during a reporting period results in an increase in the fair value of the Company's floor income interest rate swaps.
Total other income/expense1,110,384 831,245 
Cost of services:   
Cost to provide education technology, services, and payment processing services82,206 81,603 Represents primarily direct costs to provide payment processing services in the ETS&PP operating segment.
Cost to provide communications services22,812 20,423 Represents costs of services primarily associated with television programming costs in the Communications operating segment.
Total cost of services105,018 102,026 
Operating expenses:
Salaries and benefits501,832 463,503 Increase was due to (i) increases in personnel in the LSS and corporate operating segments to meet increased service and security standards under the Department servicing contracts; (ii) increases in personnel in the LSS operating segment to develop a new private education and consumer loan servicing system; and (iii) increases in personnel to support the growth in the customer base and the development of new technologies in the ETS&PP operating segment. In addition, on October 1, 2020 (prior to the deconsolidation of ALLO), ALLO recognized compensation expense of $9.3 million related to the modification of certain equity awards previously granted to members of ALLO’s management.
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Depreciation and amortization118,699 105,049 Increase was primarily due to additional depreciation expense in the corporate operating segment due to recent infrastructure capital expenditures to support the Company’s operating segments, as well as an increase in depreciation expense at ALLO as it continues to develop its network in existing and new markets..
Other expenses160,574 194,272 
Other expenses includes expenses necessary for operations, such as postage and distribution, consulting and professional fees, occupancy, communications, and certain information technology-related costs. Decrease was due to (i) cost savings in the LSS segment from an increase in the adoption of electronic borrower statements and correspondence and a decrease in printing and postage while loan payments are suspended as a result of COVID-19 borrower relief efforts; (ii) reduction of travel expenses and the cancellation of on-site conferences in the ETS&PP segment; and (iii) a decrease in servicing fees paid by the AGM segment to third parties. In addition, the AGM segment recognized $16.7 million of expense during 2019 to extinguish asset-backed notes from certain securitizations prior to their contractual maturity. See each individual operating segment results of operations discussion for additional information.
Total operating expenses781,105 762,824 
Income before income taxes450,486 176,745 
Income tax expense100,860 35,451 The effective tax rate was 22.3% and 20.0% for 2020 and 2019, respectively. The increase in the effective tax rate in 2020 as compared to 2019 was due to the recognition of normal tax credit amounts relative to a much higher pre-tax book income in 2020. The Company expects its future effective tax rate will range between 21 and 24 percent.
Net income349,626 141,294 
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests2,817 509 
Net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc.$352,443 141,803 
Additional information:
Net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc.$352,443 141,803 See "Overview - GAAP Net Income and Non-GAAP Net Income, Excluding Adjustments" above for additional information about non-GAAP net income, excluding derivative market value adjustments.
Derivative market value adjustments, net28,144 76,195 
Tax effect(6,755)(18,287)
Net income attributable to Nelnet, Inc., excluding derivative market value adjustments $373,832 199,711 

The following table summarizes the components of "net interest income" and "derivative settlements, net."
Derivative settlements represent the cash paid or received during the current period to settle with derivative instrument counterparties the economic effect of the Company's derivative instruments based on their contractual terms. Derivative accounting requires that net settlements with respect to derivatives that do not qualify for "hedge treatment" under GAAP be recorded in a separate income statement line item below net interest income. The Company maintains an overall risk management strategy that incorporates the use of derivative instruments to reduce the economic effect of interest rate volatility. As such, management believes derivative settlements for each applicable period should be evaluated with the Company’s net interest income as presented in the table below. Net interest income (net of settlements on derivatives) is a non-GAAP financial measure, and the Company reports this non-GAAP information because the Company believes that it provides additional information regarding operational and performance indicators that are closely assessed by management. There is no comprehensive, authoritative guidance for the presentation of such non-GAAP information, which is only meant to supplement GAAP results by providing additional information that management utilizes to assess performance. See note 6 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information on the Company's derivative instruments, including the net settlement activity recognized by the Company for each type of derivative for the 2020 and 2019 periods presented in the table under the caption "Consolidated Financial Statement Impact Related to Derivatives - Statements of Income" in note 6 and in the table below.
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 Year ended December 31,
 20202019Additional information
Variable loan interest margin$144,871 174,954 Represents the yield the Company receives on its loan portfolio less the cost of funding these loans. Variable loan spread is also impacted by the amortization/accretion of loan premiums and discounts and the 1.05% per year consolidation loan rebate fee paid to the Department. See AGM operating segment - results of operations.
Settlements on associated derivatives10,378 5,214 Represents the net settlements received related to the Company’s 1:3 basis swaps.
Variable loan interest margin, net of settlements on derivatives155,249 180,168 
Fixed rate floor income123,460 49,677 The Company has a portfolio of student loans that are earning interest at a fixed borrower rate which exceeds the statutorily defined variable lender rates, generating fixed rate floor income. See Item 7A, "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Interest Rate Risk" for additional information.
Settlements on associated derivatives(6,699)40,192 Represents the net settlements (paid) received related to the Company’s floor income interest rate swaps.
Fixed rate floor income, net of settlements on derivatives116,761 89,869 
Investment interest24,543 34,421 <