SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
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DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the "Proxy Statement"), to be filed within 120 days of the registrant's year ended December 31, 2020, are incorporated by reference in Part II and Part III of this Report on Form 10-K. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Form 10-K.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not statements of historical or current facts, such as those under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements discuss our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business. These statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “outlook,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “projection,” “seek,” “may,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “can,” “can have,” “likely,” the negatives thereof and other words and terms of similar meaning.
Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions; they are not guarantees of performance. You should not place undue reliance on these statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. Although we believe that our assumptions made in connection with the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that the assumptions and expectations will prove to be correct.
You should understand that the following important factors could affect our future results and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements:
|●||our ability to commercialize and grow sales of our products, particularly in light of current global challenges stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|●||our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our products and any product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product;|
|●||the size of the markets for our products and any product candidates, and our ability to service those markets;|
|●||the success of competing products that are or become available;|
|●||our ability to obtain and maintain reimbursement and third-party payor contracts with favorable terms for our products;|
|●||the costs of commercialization activities, including marketing, sales and distribution;|
|●||the rate and degree of market acceptance of our products;|
|●||changing market conditions for our products;|
|●||the outcome of any patent infringement, opioid-related or other litigation that may be brought by or against us, including litigation with Purdue Pharma, L.P.;|
|●||the outcome of any governmental investigation related to the manufacture, marketing and sale of opioid medications;|
|●||the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;|
|●||our ability to secure adequate supplies of active pharmaceutical ingredient for each of our products and to manufacture adequate quantities of commercially salable inventory and to maintain our supply chain in the face of global challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|●||our ability to effectively manage our relationships with licensors and to commercialize products that we in-license from third parties;|
|●||our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;|
|●||our ability to obtain funding for our operations and business development;|
|●||our ability to comply with the terms of our outstanding indebtedness;|
|●||regulatory developments in the United States;|
|●||our ability to obtain and maintain sufficient intellectual property protection for our products and any product candidates;|
|●||our ability to comply with stringent government regulations relating to the manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products, including U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (“DEA”) compliance;|
|●||the loss of key commercial, scientific or management personnel;|
|●||our customer concentration, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations;|
|●||the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, revenue, capital requirements and need for additional financing; and|
|●||the other risks, uncertainties and factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.|
In light of these risks and uncertainties, expected results or other anticipated events or circumstances discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (including the exhibits hereto) might not occur. We undertake no obligation, and specifically decline any obligation, to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, even if experience or future developments make it clear that projected results expressed or implied in such statements will not be realized, except as may be required by law.
These and other risks are described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Those factors and the other risk factors described therein are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause actual results or developments to differ materially from those expressed in any of our forward-looking statements. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results. Consequently, there can be no assurance that actual results or developments anticipated by us will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will have the expected consequences to, or effects on, us. Given these uncertainties, prospective investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
Item 1. Business
We are a specialty pharmaceutical company committed to being the leader in responsible pain management. Our portfolio includes Xtampza ER, an abuse-deterrent, extended-release, oral formulation of oxycodone and Nucynta ER and Nucynta IR (collectively, the “Nucynta Products”), which are extended-release (“ER”) and immediate-release (“IR”) formulations of tapentadol. Xtampza ER was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) in April 2016 for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. We commercially launched Xtampza ER in June 2016.
Nucynta ER is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment, including neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in adults, and for which alternate treatment options are inadequate. Nucynta IR is indicated for the management of acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate in adults. We initially licensed the right to commercialize the Nucynta Products in the United States through a Commercialization Agreement with Assertio Therapeutics, Inc. (formerly known as Depomed) (“Assertio”) entered into in December 2017 (the “Nucynta Commercialization Agreement”) and began marketing the Nucynta Products in February 2018. On February 13, 2020, we closed our acquisition of certain assets related to the Nucynta Products, including the right to commercialize the Nucynta Products in the United States and certain regulatory and supply chain assets (the “Nucynta Acquisition”), from Assertio for an aggregate purchase price of $375.0 million, subject to certain adjustments as set forth in the Asset Purchase Agreement, dated as of February 6, 2020, between us and Assertio (the “Nucynta Purchase Agreement”).
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, we generated $310.0 million in net revenues, comprised of $128.0 million from sales of Xtampza ER and $182.0 million from sales of the Nucynta Products.
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global economic activity, and federal and state governments, as well as numerous foreign countries, have reacted to the outbreak by instituting quarantines, mandating business and school closures and restricting travel. The travel restrictions and “social distancing” recommendations resulting from the spread of COVID-19, as well as the closure or limited operations of many physicians’ offices, have impacted our sales professionals’ ability to travel to and meet with healthcare providers in person. As of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken to contain it have impacted revenue (due to fewer new patients beginning therapy with our products and the pandemic’s adverse impact on our ability to promote products) and decreased certain operating expenses, including travel, marketing and expenses associated with participation in congresses that have been postponed. We believe that the disruptions caused by COVID-19 will continue in the near term, and there remains substantial uncertainty as to when such disruptions will cease (or ease).
Pain, Pain Management and Opioid Abuse in the United States
Acute and Chronic Pain
Pain can be classified along many different variables, including severity, duration and etiology. There are two broad categories of pain based on duration: acute pain, or pain that is self-limited and generally requires treatment for no more than up to a few weeks, and chronic pain, or pain that lasts beyond the healing of an injury or that persists longer than 3-6 months. According to a 2019 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) report, it is estimated that chronic pain affects at least 40 million U.S. adults annually, with at least 14 million of those adults experiencing high impact chronic pain, defined as chronic pain that interferes with daily life or work activities most days or every day. Acute pain is even more prevalent and can occur after an injury, burn, trauma or surgery.
Chronic pain leads to over $560 billion in healthcare and productivity costs annually, according to a 2011 report from the Institute of Medicine. In addition, studies suggest that healthcare costs for people suffering from chronic pain are higher, and often substantially higher, than for those without chronic pain.
The Role of Prescription Opioids in the Treatment of Pain
Prescription opioids continue to serve as important tools in the treatment of acute and chronic pain where alternative treatments have been inadequate. Prescription opioids are available in immediate-release formulations as well as in extended-release formulations, which incorporate a time-release mechanism designed to deliver steady amounts of opioid, typically over 12 to 24 hours. Extended-release opioids are designed to offer more convenient dosing with a longer period of consistent blood levels of the active drug as compared to immediate-release formulations.
In 2020, there were approximately 157.1 million prescriptions for opioids written in the United States, representing an 8% decline from 2019 levels and including approximately 3.2 million prescriptions for branded extended-release opioids, approximately 13.1 million prescriptions for generic extended-release opioids, and greater than 140.8 million prescriptions for immediate-release opioids. After marked increases in opioid prescriptions from 2000 to 2015, prescriptions have decreased each year since 2015, correlated with rising awareness of the extent and impact of the opioid crisis. Prescription levels for 2020 represent a return to levels similar to these seen in the year 2000, when 143.8 million prescriptions for opioid were written in the United States, including 11.4 million prescriptions for extended-release opioids and 132.3 million prescriptions for immediate-release opioids
Increasingly, practitioners and regulators are focusing on multidisciplinary, multimodal approaches to pain management, including exercise, physical therapy and psychotherapy, and opioid and non-opioid medications. Recognizing the role that opioid therapy continues to play in effective management of moderate to severe pain in appropriate patients, these groups are advocating for best practices that support appropriate opioid prescribing practices that may help mitigate the risks of abuse, addiction and other adverse events to patients.
Prescription Opioid Abuse in the United States
Prescription opioids of all kinds, including both immediate-release and extended-release formulations, are subject to manipulation, misuse, and abuse. Besides their accepted uses for analgesia, opioids produce a general sense of well-being or euphoria by reducing tension, anxiety, and aggression. These effects contribute to the attractiveness of opioids for abuse and, indeed, the CDC has described abuse of prescription drugs in the United States as a vast and deadly epidemic. The beginning of the opioid overdose epidemic in the late 1990s was marked by a rise in prescription opioid overdose deaths. For a variety of reasons, heroin use began increasing in the mid-2000s, and had surpassed prescription opioids as a cause of opioid-related overdose by 2016, reaching a rate of 4.9 per 100,000 persons in 2018. Meanwhile, the predominant opioid cause of death in 2018 involved synthetic opioids other than methadone. While opioid-involved overdose deaths declined slightly in 2018 (in contrast to the sharp increases during 2014 to 2017), the number of drug overdose deaths was still four times higher in 2018 than in 1999. Moreover, and despite the decrease in prescription opioid utilization, the rate of opioid-involved overdose deaths rose slightly again in 2019 (from 20.7 per 100,000 to 21.6), and there are early indications that widespread social isolation, coupled with reduced access to harm reduction services, has been correlated with a substantial upswing in such deaths beginning in early 2020.
The opioid epidemic has, in addition to its death toll, imposed significant burdens on the U.S. healthcare system. In 2016, there were an estimated 91,840 hospitalizations and 197,970 emergency department visits for opioid-related poisonings in the United States. A nonprofit group that studies the health economy recently estimated that the opioid epidemic has cost the United States more than a trillion dollars since 2001, based on CDC mortality data through June 2017. The greatest financial cost of the epidemic, according to the report, is in lost earnings and productivity losses to employers.
Despite the reduction in opioid prescriptions in recent years and the heightened awareness of the risks associated with opioid use, abuse of prescription opioids, including extended-release formulations, continues to be a major public health issue. In 2019, an estimated 10.1million, or 3.7% of persons aged 12 and older, reported opioid misuse in the prior year.
Extended-release opioids may be especially attractive to people who abuse opioids because, if the extended release mechanism can be defeated through tampering, many extended-release products quickly deliver a relatively large amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (an effect known as “dose dumping”). By manipulating these products, therefore, people who abuse opioids achieve a more intense euphoria as a result of rapid increases in the blood concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.
In response to issues surrounding abuse of prescription opioids, pharmaceutical companies have developed novel, abuse-deterrent formulation strategies. Abuse-deterrent formulations, including the DETERx platform that is incorporated in Xtampza ER, target the known or expected routes of abuse, such as crushing in order to snort or dissolving in order to inject, for the specific opioid drug substance. The FDA has encouraged the development of prescription opioids with abuse-deterrent formulations to help combat the opioid crisis, and expanding access to abuse deterrent formulations is part of the FDA’s comprehensive Opioids Action Plan. These technologies, however, do not eliminate the possibility of misuse and abuse. Moreover, no abuse deterrence technology, including DETERx, is able to deter the most common form of abuse—swallowing a number of intact capsules or tablets to achieve a feeling of euphoria.
Legislative and Regulatory Actions
In response to widespread prescription opioid abuse, the U.S. government and a number of state legislatures have in recent years enacted new legislation and regulations intended to fight the opioid epidemic. At the federal level (in addition to the DEA and FDA efforts discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K), in 2016 the CDC issued prescribing guidelines intended to reduce opioid-related harms by encouraging primary care physicians to limit the amount of morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) that they prescribe for chronic pain patients.
While much, if not most, of the state level efforts have focused primarily on increasing people’s access to substance abuse treatment and harm reduction measures, some initiatives more directly impact manufacturers and distributors of prescription opioid products; these laws include requirements that manufacturers fund statewide drug take-back programs or pay opioid-specific taxes or “impact fees” and laws that limit the amount of opioid products that a physician may prescribe. Recent years have also seen a variety of proposed and enacted laws and regulations at the federal, state and local level intended to reduce, or limit increases in, pharmaceutical prices, including particularly prescription drug price disclosure laws. Other jurisdictions may enact similar or novel measures intended to reduce or constrain the growth of pharmaceutical spending or otherwise impose policy measures (either opioid-specific or applicable to the pharmaceutical industry as a whole) that could increase our operating costs associated with compliance.
The Collegium Portfolio
Our mission is to be the leader in responsible pain management. We have leveraged our research and development efforts as well as licensing relationships with third parties, to develop a portfolio of meaningfully differentiated products for use in the treatment of moderate to severe pain.
In April 2016, the FDA approved our New Drug Application (“NDA”) for Xtampza ER (extended-release oxycodone) for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. The approved labeling for Xtampza ER includes human abuse potential studies, as well as data supporting the administration of the product as a sprinkle or through feeding tubes. In June 2016, we launched Xtampza ER in the United States. Xtampza ER is formulated using our novel abuse-deterrent technology platform, DETERx, which provides extended-release delivery, while also providing barriers to common methods of abuse and misuse (e.g., crushing, chewing, heating and injecting). This technology combines an active opioid ingredient with a fatty acid and waxes to form microspheres that are filled into a capsule. These wax-based microspheres are designed to resist particle size reduction and dose dumping when subjected to physical and chemical manipulation. Xtampza ER’s label indicates a dosing regimen of one capsule every 12 hours and it must be taken with food.
Xtampza ER, OxyContin from Purdue, and the authorized generic version of OxyContin (which is identical to the branded version) are the only extended-release oxycodone products marketed in the United States as of January 2021. In 2020, the extended-release oxycodone (OER) market generated approximately $1.4 billion in gross U.S. sales and there were approximately 2.4 million prescriptions written. OxyContin is the largest selling extended-release oxycodone (and largest-selling branded extended-release opioid) in the United States by dollars and prescription volume, with approximately $1.0 billion in U.S. gross sales and approximately 1.9 million prescriptions written in 2020. Relative to 2019, dollars generated by sales for OxyContin and its authorized generic forms written in the United States in 2020 declined 17%, with a 20% decline prescription volume. In 2020, approximately 566,000 prescriptions for Xtampza ER were written.
Xtampza ER and OxyContin (along with its authorized generic) feature the same active pharmaceutical ingredient and feature abuse-deterrent technologies – though the abuse deterrent technologies are designed differently. In November 2017, we announced FDA approval of a Supplemental New Drug Application (“sNDA”) for Xtampza ER to include comparative oral pharmacokinetic data from a clinical study evaluating the effect of physical manipulation by crushing Xtampza ER compared with OxyContin and a control (oxycodone hydrochloride immediate-release). In the study, Xtampza ER maintained its extended-release pharmacokinetic profile when crushed, while OxyContin showed a rapid release of oxycodone when crushed with common household tools; crushed OxyContin was bioequivalent to crushed oxycodone IR. The sNDA also added results from an oral human abuse potential study and an oral abuse deterrent claim to the label, making Xtampza ER the only single-agent extended-release oxycodone with oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse-deterrent labeling.
We believe Xtampza ER is well-positioned to capture a significant share of extended-release oxycodone market.
Nucynta ER and Nucynta IR
Nucynta ER is an extended-release formulation of tapentadol that is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long term opioid treatment, and for which alternate treatment options are inadequate. Nucynta ER is also the only extended-release opioid approved by the FDA for management of the neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Nucynta IR is an immediate-release formulation of tapentadol that is indicated for the management of acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate in adults. Nucynta ER and Nucynta IR are the only tapentadol-based products marketed in the United States and the drug substance is patent-protected.
Nucynta ER’s label includes data from separate clinical trials that demonstrate its efficacy in improving pain intensity for patients suffering from chronic low back pain and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Nucynta IR’s label includes data from a clinical trial that demonstrates its efficacy in improving pain intensity for post-surgical acute pain.
In December 2017, we entered into the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement, pursuant to which Assertio agreed to grant us a sublicense of certain of its intellectual property related to the Nucynta Products for commercialization of such products in the United States. On January 9, 2018, we amended the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement and consummated the transactions contemplated thereby. On February 13, 2020, we closed the Nucynta Acquisition.
We began shipping and recognizing product sales on the Nucynta Products on January 9, 2018 and we began commercial promotion of the Nucynta Products in February 2018. The Nucynta Commercialization Agreement initially required us to pay guaranteed minimum royalty of $135.0 million per year through December 2021, as well as a variable royalty based on annual net sales over $233.0 million and a variable royalty of 14% on net sales for ultimate payment to Grünenthal Gmbh. On November 8, 2018, we amended certain terms of the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement, which eliminated the $135.0 million guaranteed minimum annual royalties and adjusted the royalty structure such that beginning on January 1, 2019, our obligation to make royalty payments to Assertio became conditional solely upon net sales. Upon the closing of the Nucynta Acquisition and the termination of the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement (except for certain sections that survive in accordance with the Nucynta Purchase Agreement), we assumed all commercialization responsibilities, including sales and marketing, for the Nucynta Products, through the assumption of a license from Grünenthal Gmbh (the “Grünenthal License”). Our prior royalty obligation to Assertio ceased and our only remaining royalty obligation is to pay 14% of net sales of the Nucynta Products directly to Grünenthal Gmbh under the Grünenthal License.
Manufacturing of Our Products
Xtampza ER is manufactured using a proprietary process. This process is reproducible, scalable and cost-efficient, and we believe that the microsphere formulation — and the related manufacturing process — is unique in the extended-release opioid market. To date, we have produced Xtampza ER through a contract manufacturing organization, Patheon, a subsidiary of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. Our microsphere production is currently conducted in an area of the manufacturing plant that is shared with other clients. We have completed the build-out of a dedicated manufacturing suite within the same Patheon site and will be transitioning production to the new suite. Patheon has an established
record of manufacturing FDA-approved products in the United States, including products containing controlled substances. We own all of the intellectual property, including know-how and specialized manufacturing equipment, necessary to be able to qualify the manufacturing equipment currently located at Patheon’s facility as an alternative location (and with an alternative vendor) if necessary.
Pursuant to the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement, Assertio was historically responsible for manufacturing and delivering to us the Nucynta Products for commercialization in the United States. As part of our partnership with Assertio, we participated in a Joint Manufacturing Steering Committee with our counterparts at Assertio, through which we took part in decisions regarding the commercial manufacturing of the Nucynta Products. Effective upon the closing of the Nucynta Acquisition, we assumed responsibility for manufacturing the Nucynta Products for commercialization in the United States. Nucynta ER is produced at a Janssen facility in Puerto Rico pursuant to a supply agreement that we assumed from Assertio in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition. At the time of closing of the Nucynta Acquisition, Assertio had initiated a technology transfer to enable manufacturing of Nucynta ER at Patheon in Cincinnati, Ohio; we have assumed responsibility for completing such technology transfer in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition. Nucynta IR is produced at a contract manufacturing organization, Cambrex, pursuant to a manufacturing and supply agreement that we assumed from Assertio in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition.
The active pharmaceutical ingredient used to formulate Xtampza ER is oxycodone base, which presents as myristate salt in the Xtampza ER formulation. We currently procure this active pharmaceutical ingredient pursuant to a supply agreement with a single U.S.-based manufacturer. We are aware of other suppliers who we would expect to be able to satisfy our commercial orders.
The active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the Nucynta Products is tapentadol, which is supplied by a single U.S.-based manufacturer.
Oxycodone base and tapentadol are classified as narcotic controlled substances under U.S. federal law. Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products are classified by the DEA as Schedule II controlled substances, meaning that they have a high potential for abuse and dependence but are recognized as having an accepted medical use. Consequently, the manufacturing, shipping, dispensing and storing of our products are subject to a high degree of regulation, as described in more detail under the caption “— Governmental Regulation — DEA and Opioid Regulation.”
Marketing and Commercialization
We commercialize Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products in the United States with a dedicated field sales force, consisting of approximately 145 sales representatives and managers, to call on the approximately 11,000 health care professionals who write approximately 65% of the branded extended-release opioid prescriptions in the United States, with a primary focus on pain specialists. In addition, we employ medical science liaisons who engage in peer-to-peer medical science education with respect to pain and opioid pain therapy and respond to clinician inquiries about Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products. We also employ a market-access team to support our formulary approval and payor contracting.
Our marketing strategy focuses on increasing awareness of the differentiated features of Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products. As an integral part of educating clinicians regarding the properties and differentiated profiles of our products, our sales force is trained to share information relating to significant risks associated with prescription opioids, including risks relating to addiction, abuse and misuse.
We primarily sell our products to wholesalers that, in turn, distribute our products to retail outlets (such as drug store and supermarket chains and independent pharmacies), managed health care organizations and government agencies. Customers in the managed health care market include health maintenance organizations, nursing homes, hospitals, clinics, pharmacy benefit management companies and mail order customers. Three of our customers comprised 10% or more of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2020. These customers comprised 34%, 31% and 31% of revenue, respectively.
The protection of patents, designs, trademarks and other proprietary rights that we own or license is critical to our success and competitive position. Xtampza ER is protected by nineteen issued patents in the United States (which cover both the abuse-deterrent technology and methods of using it to treat patients), one granted and two pending applications in the European Patent Office, two issued patents in Canada, and one issued patent in each of Japan and Australia. Finally, we have six patent applications pending in the United States, one pending patent application in each of Canada and Japan, and one pending PCT application. Our issued U.S. patents are projected to expire in 2023, 2025, 2030, and 2036 and our pending patent applications in the United States, if issued, would be projected to expire in 2023, 2030, and 2036. In addition, we use a unique and proprietary process to manufacture our products that requires significant know how, which we currently protect as trade secrets.
We have concluded that some of our technology is best protected as proprietary know-how, rather than through obtaining patents. Except for licenses from Grünenthal GmbH to commercialize the Nucynta Products in the United States and its territories, our technology and products are not in-licensed from any third party, and we own all of the rights to Xtampza ER. We believe we have freedom to operate in the United States and other countries, but there can be no assurance that other companies, known and unknown, will not attempt to assert their intellectual property against us.
We also rely on trademarks and trade designs to develop and maintain our competitive position. We have received trademark registration for Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc., DETERx, and Xtampza ER in the United States, and acquired trademarks associated with the Nucynta Products in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition.
Our business depends upon the skills, knowledge and experience of our scientific and technical personnel, as well as that of our advisors, consultants and other contractors. To help protect our proprietary know-how that is not patentable, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect our interests. To this end, we generally require our employees, consultants and advisors to enter into confidentiality agreements prohibiting the disclosure of confidential information and, in some cases, requiring disclosure and assignment to us of the ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions important to our business. Additionally, these confidentiality agreements require that our employees, consultants and advisors do not bring to us, or use without proper authorization, any third party’s proprietary technology.
Our industry is characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. We face competition and potential competition from a number of sources, including pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, generic drug companies, drug delivery companies and academic and research institutions. Most of the existing and potential competitors have significantly more financial and other resources than we do. We believe the key competitive factors that will affect the commercial success of our products include the therapeutic efficacy, convenience of dosing and distribution and, in the case of Xtampza ER, the degree of abuse deterrence of competing products, as well as their safety, cost and tolerability profiles.
Currently, the only extended-release opioid drugs on the market that have an abuse-deterrent product label, in addition to Xtampza ER, are OxyContin and Hysingla®, both from Purdue. Hysingla is a once a day hydrocodone product.
Xtampza ER may also face competition from commercially available generic and branded extended-release and long-acting opioid drugs other than oxycodone, including morphine sulfate, fentanyl, hydromorphone, oxymorphone and methadone, as well as opioids that are currently in clinical development, including a generic version of Xtampza ER for which Teva submitted an Abbreviated New Drug Application (“ANDA”) to the FDA. Pursuant to a settlement we reached with Teva in September 2020, we agreed to grant Teva a license to market its generic version of Xtampza ER in the United States beginning on or after September 2, 2033 (subject to FDA approval and acceleration under certain circumstances). As a result of the settlement, Teva agreed to a consent judgment confirming that its proposed generic products infringe upon our asserted patents and that those patents are valid and enforceable with respect to Teva’s proposed generic products. For more information regarding the settlement, please refer to Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies.
Xtampza ER competes against all extended-release opioids, including Purdue’s OxyContin and its authorized generics. Although Purdue lists 19 patents for OxyContin in the Orange Book, of which 10 list expiration dates between 2027 and 2030, it is possible that generic forms of OxyContin could become available sooner, in which case Xtampza ER would compete with any such generic oxycodone extended-release products, in addition to all other extended-release opioids and their respective generics.
The Nucynta Products
Nucynta ER competes primarily against other long-acting opioid medications, including: OxyContin; Butrans; Belbuca; and Hysingla. Nucynta ER may also face competition from commercially available generic and branded extended-release and long-acting opioid drugs including oxycodone, morphine sulfate, fentanyl, hydromorphone, oxymorphone and methadone.
Nucynta IR competes primarily against short-acting opioids used for the management of acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate in adults. There are numerous such medicines, including: generic hydrocodone acetaminophen; generic oxycodone; generic oxycodone acetaminophen; and generic tramadol.
FDA Approval Process
In the United States, pharmaceutical products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern the research, development, testing, manufacture, storage, recordkeeping, approval, labeling, promotion and marketing, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, sampling, and import and export of pharmaceutical products. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. requirements may subject a company to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as warning or untitled letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, withdrawal of the product from the market, injunctions, fines, civil penalties, and criminal prosecution. Failure to meet FDA requirements for approval would also result in a medication not being approved for marketing.
The process of developing a pharmaceutical product and obtaining FDA approval to market the medication in the United States typically involves:
|●||completion of preclinical laboratory and animal testing and formulation studies in compliance with the FDA’s good laboratory practices (“GLP”), regulation;|
|●||submission to the FDA of an Investigational New Drug Application (“IND”) for human clinical testing, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin in the United States;|
|●||approval by an independent institutional review board, at each clinical trial site before each trial may be initiated;|
|●||performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with current good clinical practices (“GCP”) to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug product for each indication for which FDA approval is sought;|
|●||satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the facility or facilities at which the product is manufactured to assess compliance with the FDA’s cGMP regulations;|
|●||submission to the FDA of an NDA or, in the case of a generic drug, an ANDA;|
|●||satisfactory completion of a review by an FDA advisory committee, if convened; and|
|●||FDA review and approval of the NDA.|
Satisfaction of FDA pre-market approval requirements typically takes many years and the actual time required may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity, and novelty of the product or disease.
Preclinical tests include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, formulation, stability and toxicity, as well as animal studies to assess the characteristics and potential safety and efficacy of the product. The conduct of the preclinical tests must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including GLPs. The results of preclinical testing are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND along with other information, including information about product chemistry,
manufacturing and controls, and a proposed clinical trial protocol. Long-term preclinical tests, such as animal tests of reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted.
Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational new drug to healthy volunteers or subjects under the supervision of a qualified investigator. Clinical trials must be conducted: (i) in compliance with federal regulations, including GCP, an international standard meant to protect the rights, safety and wellbeing of subjects and to define the roles of clinical trial sponsors, administrators, and monitors; and (ii) under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety, and any effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol involving testing on U.S. subjects and subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND.
Clinical trials to support NDAs for marketing approval are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap or be combined.
|●||Phase 1: The drug is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or patients, and is tested to assess safety, dose tolerance, absorption, metabolism, PK, pharmacological actions, side effects associated with increasing doses, and, in some cases, early evidence of effectiveness.|
|●||Phase 2: The drug is typically tested in a limited patient population to begin to determine the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication, dosage tolerance, and optimum dosage, and to identify common AEs and safety risks. Multiple Phase 2 trials may be conducted by the sponsor to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more extensive Phase 3 clinical trials.|
|●||Phase 3: If a drug demonstrates evidence of effectiveness and an acceptable safety profile in Phase 2 evaluations, Phase 3 trials (often called “pivotal trials”) are undertaken to obtain the additional information about clinical efficacy and safety in a larger number of subjects, typically at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, to permit the FDA to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the drug. In most cases, the FDA requires two adequate and well controlled Phase 3 clinical trials to demonstrate the efficacy of the drug. A single Phase 3 trial with other confirmatory evidence may be sufficient in rare instances where the clinical trial is a large multicenter trial demonstrating internal consistency and a statistically very persuasive finding of a clinically meaningful effect on mortality, irreversible morbidity or prevention of a disease with a potentially serious outcome and confirmation of the result in a second trial would be practically or ethically impossible. Sponsors of clinical trials generally must register and report key parameters of certain clinical trials at the NIH-maintained website ClinicalTrials.gov.|
For products designed to deter abuse, FDA guidance regarding studies and clinical trials dictates what types of studies should be conducted to demonstrate abuse-deterrence, how those studies and clinical trials will be evaluated, and what product labeling claims may be approved based on the results of those studies and clinical trials. There are four categories of abuse-deterrence studies and clinical trials: Categories 1, 2 and 3 consist of pre-marketing studies and clinical trials designed to evaluate a product candidate’s potentially abuse-deterrent properties under controlled conditions, while Category 4, post-marketing clinical trials and studies, assesses the real-world impact of abuse-deterrent formulations. The final guidance also provides examples of product label claims that may be made based on the results of the corresponding studies and clinical trials.
After completion of the required clinical testing, an NDA is prepared and submitted to the FDA. The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs within the first 60 days after submission before accepting them for filing. Pursuant to agreements reached during reauthorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”), the FDA has a goal of acting on most original NDAs within six months or ten months of the application submission or filing date, depending on the nature of the drug. The FDA has a number of programs intended to help expedite testing, review, and approval of drug candidates that meet certain eligibility criteria. The FDA may refer applications for novel drug products, or drug products that present difficult questions of safety or efficacy, to an advisory committee — typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts — for review, evaluation, and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it generally follows such recommendations.
If the FDA’s evaluations of the NDA and of the sponsor’s manufacturing facilities are favorable, the FDA will issue an approval letter, and the sponsor may begin marketing the drug for the approved indications, subject to any post-approval requirements, described further below. If the FDA determines it cannot approve the NDA in its current form, it will issue a complete response letter indicating that the application will not be approved in its current form. The complete response
letter usually describes the specific deficiencies that the FDA identified in the application and may require additional clinical or other data or impose other conditions that must be met in order to obtain approval of the NDA. After receiving a complete response letter, the applicant may resubmit the application addressing all deficiencies in the letter or withdraw the application. Addressing the deficiencies noted by the FDA can be costly and can result in significant delays prior to approval. Moreover, even if the applicant believes it has addressed the deficiencies, it is possible that approval may not ultimately be obtained.
Where a sponsor wishes to expand the originally approved prescribing information, such as by adding a new indication, it must submit and obtain approval of an sNDA. Changes to an indication generally require additional clinical studies, which can be time-consuming and require the expenditure of substantial additional resources. Under PDUFA, the target timeframe for the review of an sNDA to add a new clinical indication is six or ten months from the receipt date, depending on whether or not the sNDA has priority review. As with an NDA, if the FDA determines that it cannot approve an sNDA in its current form, it will issue a complete response letter as discussed above.
The FDA has the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”), either as a condition of the approval of an NDA or after approval to ensure that the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. If the FDA determines a REMS is necessary for a new drug, the drug sponsor must submit a proposed REMS plan as part of its NDA prior to approval. The FDA may also impose a REMS requirement on a drug already on the market if the FDA determines, based on new safety information, that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the drug’s benefits continue to outweigh its risks. A REMS can include medication guides, communication plans for healthcare professionals, and Elements To Assure Safe Use (“ETASU”). In addition, the REMS must include a timetable for periodically assessing the strategy, at a minimum, at 18 months, three years, and seven years after the REMS approval. The requirement for a REMS can materially affect the potential market and profitability of a drug.
In July 2012, the FDA approved a class-wide REMS for extended-release and long-acting opioid products. Extended-release formulations of oxycodone, morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, for example, are required to have a REMS. Manufacturers subject to this class-wide REMS must work together to implement the REMS as part of a single shared system to reduce the burden of the REMS on the healthcare system. The central component of the extended-release/long acting opioid REMS program is an education program for prescribers and patients. Specifically, the REMS includes a Medication Guide available for distribution to patients who are dispensed the drug, as well as a number of ETASU. These ETASU include training for healthcare professionals who prescribe the drug; information provided to prescribers that they can use to educate patients in the safe use, storage, and disposal of opioids; and information provided to prescribers about the existence of the REMS and the strong recommendation that they complete the available training. Prescriber training required to be offered as part of the REMS is conducted by accredited, independent continuing education providers, without cost to healthcare professionals, under unrestricted grants funded by the opioid analgesic manufacturers. Moreover, REMS assessments must be submitted on an annual basis to assess the extent to which the ETASU are meeting the goals of the REMS and whether the goals or elements should be modified.
In September 2018, and pursuant to its Opioids Action Plan, the FDA approved the final class-wide REMS, which includes several measures to facilitate communication of the risks associated with opioid pain medications to patients and health care professionals and, for the first time, applies to immediate-release and extended-release/long-acting opioid analgesics intended for use in an outpatient setting. The REMS requires that training be made available to health care providers who are involved in the management of patients with pain (including nurses and pharmacists) and requires that the education cover broad information about appropriate pain management, including alternatives to opioids for the treatment of pain. In connection with the 2018 REMS, the FDA also approved new product labeling containing information about the health care provider education available through the 2018 REMS.
Advertising and Promotion
The FDA and other federal regulatory agencies closely regulate the marketing and promotion of drugs through, among other things, guidance and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, communications regarding unapproved uses, industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities, and promotional activities involving the internet. A product cannot be commercially promoted before it is approved. After approval, product promotion can include only those claims relating to safety and efficacy that are consistent with the labeling approved by the FDA. Healthcare providers are permitted to prescribe drugs for “off-label” uses — that is, uses not approved by the FDA and therefore not described in
the drug’s labeling — because the FDA does not regulate the practice of medicine. However, FDA regulations impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label uses. Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements and restrictions in this area may subject a company to adverse publicity and enforcement action by the FDA, the U.S. Department of Justice, or the Office of the Inspector General of the HHS, as well as state authorities. This could subject a company to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which a company promotes or distributes drug products.
Once an NDA is approved, a product will be subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to drug listing and registration, recordkeeping, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, adverse event reporting and advertising, marketing and promotion restrictions.
Adverse event reporting and submission of periodic reports is required following FDA approval of an NDA. The FDA also may require, in addition to REMS discussed above, post-market testing, known as Phase 4 testing, and surveillance to monitor the effects of an approved product, or the FDA may place conditions on an approval that could restrict the distribution or use of the product. In addition, quality control, drug manufacture, packaging, and labeling procedures must continue to conform to cGMPs after approval. Drug manufacturers and certain of their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies. Registration subjects entities to periodic announced or unannounced inspections by the FDA or these state agencies, during which the agency inspects manufacturing facilities to assess compliance with cGMPs. Regulatory authorities may withdraw product approvals, request product recalls, or take other punitive action if a company fails to comply with regulatory standards, if it encounters problems following initial marketing, or if previously unrecognized problems are subsequently discovered.
The FDA may require post-approval studies and clinical trials if the FDA finds that scientific data, including information regarding related drugs, warrant them. The purpose of such studies would be to assess a known serious risk or signals of serious risk related to the drug or to identify an unexpected serious risk when available data indicate the potential for such a risk. The FDA may also require a labeling change if it becomes aware of new safety information that it believes should be included in the labeling of a drug.
The Hatch-Waxman Amendments
Orange Book Listing
In seeking approval for a drug through an NDA, applicants are required to list with the FDA each patent with claims that cover the applicant’s product. Upon approval of a drug, each of the patents listed in the application for the drug is then published in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book. Drugs listed in the Orange Book can, in turn, be cited by potential generic competitors in support of approval of an ANDA. An ANDA provides for marketing of a drug product that has the same active pharmaceutical ingredient in the same strengths and dosage form as the listed drug and has been shown through bioequivalence testing to be therapeutically equivalent to the listed drug. Other than the requirement for bioequivalence testing, ANDA applicants are not required to conduct, or submit results of, preclinical or clinical tests to prove the safety or efficacy of their drug product. Drugs approved in this way are commonly referred to as “generic equivalents” to the listed drug and can often be substituted by pharmacists under prescriptions written for the original listed drug.
The ANDA applicant is required to make certain certifications to the FDA concerning any patents listed for the approved product in the FDA’s Orange Book. Specifically, the applicant must certify that: (i) the required patent information has not been filed; (ii) the listed patent has expired; (iii) the listed patent has not expired, but will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration; or (iv) the listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the new product. The ANDA applicant may also elect to submit a section viii statement certifying that its proposed ANDA label does not contain (or carves out) any language regarding the patented method-of-use rather than make certifications concerning a listed method-of-use patent. If the applicant does not challenge the listed patents, the ANDA application will not be approved until all the listed patents claiming the referenced product have expired.
A certification that the new product will not infringe the already approved product’s listed patents, or that such patents are invalid, is called a Paragraph IV certification. If the ANDA applicant has provided a Paragraph IV certification to the
FDA, the applicant must also send notice of the Paragraph IV certification to the NDA and patent holders once the ANDA has been accepted for filing by the FDA. The NDA and patent holders may then initiate a patent infringement lawsuit in response to the notice of the Paragraph IV certification. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days of the receipt of a Paragraph IV certification automatically prevents the FDA from approving the ANDA until the earlier of 30 months, expiration of the patent, settlement of the lawsuit, or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the ANDA applicant.
For further detail regarding our litigation with Teva with respect to Teva’s ANDA relating to Xtampza ER, refer to “Item 3. Legal Proceedings”.
Upon approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity (“NCE”), which is a drug that contains no active moiety that has been approved by FDA in any other NDA, that drug receives five years of marketing exclusivity during which FDA cannot receive any ANDA seeking approval of a generic version of that drug or any Section 505(b)(2) NDA, discussed in more detail below, that relies on the FDA’s findings regarding that drug. A sponsor may obtain a three-year period of exclusivity for a change to an approved drug, such as the addition of a new indication to the labeling or a new formulation, if the supplement includes reports of new clinical trials (other than bioavailability clinical trials) essential to the approval of the supplement.
An ANDA may be submitted one year before NCE exclusivity expires if a Paragraph IV certification is filed. If there is no listed patent in the Orange Book, there may not be a Paragraph IV certification, and, thus, no ANDA may be filed before the expiration of the exclusivity period. No ANDA application will receive final approval before any applicable non patent exclusivity listed in the Orange Book for the referenced product has expired.
Section 505(b)(2) NDAs
A Section 505(b)(2) NDA is a special type of NDA often used by applicants seeking approval for new or improved formulations or new uses of previously approved active moieties. Under Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, in lieu of developing all of the information normally required for approval of an NDA, an applicant may rely, in part, on data developed by another party and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. Most commonly, 505(b)(2) applicants rely on the FDA’s findings of safety and efficacy in a prior approval of a similar product (although they may also rely on information in published literature). A 505(b)(2) application that references a prior approval may seek approve for some or all of the referenced product’s labeled indications and/or for a different indication not included in the referenced product’s label.
To the extent that the Section 505(b)(2) applicant is relying on the FDA’s findings of safety and effectiveness for an already approved product, the applicant is required to certify to the FDA concerning any patents listed for the approved product in the Orange Book to the same extent that an ANDA applicant would. Thus approval of a Section 505(b)(2) NDA can be stalled until all the listed patents claiming the referenced product have expired; until any non-patent exclusivity listed in the Orange Book for the referenced product has expired; and, in the case of a Paragraph IV certification and subsequent patent infringement suit, until the earlier of 30 months, settlement of the lawsuit or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the Section 505(b)(2) applicant. In the interim period, the FDA may grant tentative approval. Tentative approval indicates that the FDA has determined that the applicant meets the standards for approval as of the date that the tentative approval is granted. Final regulatory approval can only be granted if the FDA is assured that there is no new information that would affect final regulatory approval. As with traditional NDAs, a Section 505(b)(2) NDA may be eligible for three-year marketing exclusivity, assuming the NDA includes reports of new clinical trials (other than bioavailability clinical trials) essential to the approval of the NDA. For further detail regarding our litigation with Purdue regarding our Section 505(b)(2) NDA for Xtampza ER, refer to “Item 3. Legal Proceedings”.
DEA and Opioid Regulation
Our products are regulated as “controlled substances” as defined in the Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”), which establishes registration, security, recordkeeping, reporting, storage, distribution, importation, exportation and other requirements administered by the DEA.
The DEA regulates controlled substances as Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances. Schedule I substances by definition have no established medicinal use and may not be marketed or sold in the United States. A pharmaceutical product may be listed as Schedule II, III, IV or V, with Schedule II substances considered to present the highest risk of abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest relative risk of abuse among such substances.
Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products are listed by the DEA as a Schedule II controlled substance under the CSA. Consequently, the manufacturing, shipping, storing, selling and using of our products is subject to a high degree of regulation. Schedule II drugs are subject to the strictest requirements for registration, security, recordkeeping and reporting. Also, distribution and dispensing of these drugs are highly regulated. For example, all Schedule II drug prescriptions must be signed by a physician, presented to a pharmacist and may not be refilled without a new prescription.
Annual DEA registration is required for any facility that manufactures, distributes, dispenses, imports or exports any controlled substance. The registration is specific to the particular location, activity and controlled substance schedule. For example, separate registrations are needed for import and manufacturing, and each registration will specify which schedules of controlled substances are authorized.
In addition, a DEA quota system, which was amended in 2018 to require sponsors to strengthen controls over diversion of controlled substances, controls and limits the availability and production of controlled substances in Schedule I or II. In November 2017, the DEA reduced the amount of almost every Schedule II opiate and opioid medication that may be manufactured in the U.S. in calendar year 2018 by 20%. For 2019, the DEA proposed decreased manufacturing quotas for the six most frequently misused opioids, including oxycodone, by an average of 10% as compared to the 2018 quotas. The DEA proposed further decreasing manufacturing quotas in 2020 for five of the six opioids (fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone), by an average of 28%. In October 2019, the DEA proposed additional regulations to amend the manner in which the agency grants quotas to manufacturers. If finalized, the proposed regulations will establish use-specific quotas, including commercial sales, product development, transfer, replacement and packaging. To decrease the risk of diversion and increase accountability, inventory allowances will be reduced, and procurement quota certifications will be required. In April 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the DEA adjusted the established 2020 aggregate production quotas and assessment of annual needs for select Schedule II substances. The DEA took this action to ensure that the country has an adequate and uninterrupted supply of these substances during the public health emergency.
Distributions of any Schedule I or II controlled substance must also be accompanied by special order forms, with copies provided to the DEA. Because Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products are regulated as a Schedule II controlled substances, they are subject to the DEA’s production and procurement quota scheme. The DEA establishes annually an aggregate quota for how much active opioid ingredients, such as oxycodone and tapentadol, may be produced in total in the United States based on the DEA’s estimate of the quantity needed to meet legitimate scientific and medicinal needs. The limited aggregate amount of opioids that the DEA allows to be produced in the United States each year is allocated among individual companies, who must submit applications annually to the DEA for individual production and procurement quotas. We and our contract manufacturers must receive an annual quota from the DEA in order to produce or procure any Schedule I or Schedule II substance, including oxycodone base for use in manufacturing Xtampza ER. In addition, we and our contract manufacturers must receive an annual quota from the DEA in order to produce or procure tapentadol for use in manufacturing the Nucynta Products. The DEA may adjust aggregate production quotas and individual production and procurement quotas from time to time during the year, although the DEA has substantial discretion in whether or not to make such adjustments.
The DEA also requires drug manufacturers to design and implement a system that identifies suspicious orders of controlled substances, such as those of unusual size, those that deviate substantially from a normal pattern and those of unusual frequency, prior to completion of the sale. A compliant suspicious order monitoring system includes well-defined due diligence, “know your customer” efforts and order monitoring.
To enforce these requirements, the DEA conducts periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Failure to maintain compliance with applicable requirements, particularly as manifested in loss or diversion, can result in administrative, civil or criminal enforcement action that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations or initiate administrative proceedings to revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could result in criminal proceedings.
Individual states also independently regulate controlled substances. We and our contract manufacturers are subject to state regulation on distribution of these products.
Federal laws have been enacted to address the national epidemics of prescription opioid abuse and illicit opioid use. In 2016, the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act (“CARA”), was enacted to address the national epidemics of prescription opioid abuse and heroin use. CARA expands the availability of naloxone for law enforcement and other first responders, forms an interagency task force to develop best practices for pain management with opioid medications and provides resources to improve state monitoring of opioids. The Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (“SUPPORT Act”), which was signed into law in November 2018, includes a number of measures directed towards regulation and improvement of treatment for substance use-disorder and increased coverage by CMS of medically-assisted treatment options. In addition, the SUPPORT Act requires HHS to report to Congress on existing barriers to access to abuse-deterrent opioid formulations by Medicare Part C and D beneficiaries.
Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Laws and Compliance Requirements
We are subject to federal, state and local laws targeting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry, violations of which can lead to civil and criminal penalties, including fines, imprisonment and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. These laws are potentially applicable to us as both a manufacturer and a supplier of products and they also apply to hospitals, physicians and other potential purchasers of our products. The applicable federal fraud and abuse laws apply to products or services reimbursed by federal healthcare programs. Some states, however, have applicable fraud and abuse laws that apply more broadly to include products or services reimbursed by private payors.
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)) prohibits knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, recommending, or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Remuneration is not defined in the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value, including for example, gifts, discounts, coupons, the furnishing of supplies or equipment, credit arrangements, payments of cash, waivers of payments, ownership interests and providing anything at less than its fair market value. Under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the applicable criminal healthcare fraud statutes contained within 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b, a person or entity need not have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b, constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act (discussed below) or the civil monetary penalties statute, which imposes fines against any person who is determined to have presented or caused to be presented claims to a federal healthcare program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent. The federal Anti-Kickback Statute and implementing regulations provide for certain exceptions for “safe harbors” for certain discounting, rebating or personal services arrangements, among other things. However, the lack of uniform court interpretation of the Anti-Kickback Statute makes compliance with the law difficult. Violations of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute can result in significant criminal fines, exclusion from participation in Medicare and Medicaid and follow-on civil litigation, among other things, for both entities and individuals.
Other federal healthcare fraud-related laws also provide criminal liability for violations. The Criminal Healthcare Fraud statute, 18 U.S.C. § 1347 prohibits knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payers. Federal criminal law at 18 U.S.C. § 1001, among other sections, prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.
The civil False Claims Act and similar state laws impose liability on any person or entity who, among other things, knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by a federal healthcare program. The qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act and similar state laws allow a private individual to bring civil actions on behalf of the federal or state government and to share in any monetary recovery. The Federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act and similar state laws impose reporting requirements for various types of payments to physicians and teaching hospitals. Failure to comply with required reporting requirements under these laws could subject manufacturers and others to substantial civil money penalties. In addition, government entities and private litigants have asserted claims under state consumer protection statutes against pharmaceutical and medical device companies for alleged false or
misleading statements in connection with the marketing, promotion and/or sale of pharmaceutical and medical device products, including state investigations and litigation by certain government entities regarding our marketing of opioid products.
Third-Party Payor Coverage and Reimbursement
The commercial success of Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products will depend, in part, upon the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors at the federal, state and private levels. Third-party payors include governmental programs such as Medicare or Medicaid, private insurance plans and managed care plans. These third-party payors may deny coverage or reimbursement for a product or therapy in whole or in part if they determine that the product or therapy was not medically appropriate or necessary. Also, third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage through the use of formularies and other cost-containment mechanisms and the amount of reimbursement for particular procedures or drug treatments. In addition, some third-party payors also require preapproval of coverage for new or innovative devices or drug therapies before they will reimburse healthcare providers who prescribe such therapies.
The cost of pharmaceuticals and devices continues to generate substantial governmental and third-party payor interest. We expect that the pharmaceutical industry will experience pricing pressures due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of managed care organizations and additional legislative proposals. Our results of operations and business could be adversely affected by current and future third-party payor policies as well as healthcare legislative reforms.
While we cannot predict whether any proposed cost-containment measures will be adopted or otherwise implemented in the future, these requirements or any announcement or adoption of such proposals could have a material adverse effect on our ability to obtain adequate prices for Xtampza ER, the Nucynta Products and any other products we may seek to commercialize, and to operate profitably.
In the United States, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system that could affect our future results of operations. In particular, there have been and continue to be a number of initiatives at the U.S. federal and state levels that seek to reduce healthcare costs. The Medicare Modernization Act imposed new requirements for the distribution and pricing of prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries. Under Part D, Medicare beneficiaries may enroll in prescription drug plans offered by private entities which will provide coverage of outpatient prescription drugs. Part D plans include both stand-alone prescription drug benefit plans and prescription drug coverage as a supplement to Medicare Advantage plans. Unlike Medicare Part A and B, Part D coverage is not standardized. Part D prescription drug plan sponsors are not required to pay for all covered Part D drugs, and each drug plan can develop its own drug formulary that identifies which drugs it will cover and at what tier or level. However, Part D prescription drug formularies must include drugs within each therapeutic category and class of covered Part D drugs, though not necessarily all the drugs in each category or class. Any formulary used by a Part D prescription drug plan must be developed and reviewed by a pharmacy and therapeutic committee. Government payment for some of the costs of prescription drugs may increase demand for our products. However, any negotiated prices for our products covered by a Part D prescription drug plan will likely be lower than the prices we might otherwise obtain. Moreover, while the Medicare Modernization Act applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own payment rates. Any reduction in payment that results from Medicare Part D may result in a similar reduction in payments from non-governmental payors.
In March 2010, the Affordable Care Act was enacted, which significantly changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among the provisions of the Affordable Care Act of importance to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry are the following:
|●||an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports certain branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;|
|●||an increase in the rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to 23.1% and 13% of the average manufacturer price for branded and generic drugs, respectively;|
|●||a Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% point-of-sale discounts to negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;|
|●||extension of manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;|
|●||expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to additional individuals and by adding new mandatory eligibility categories for certain individuals with income at or below 133% of the Federal Poverty Level, thereby potentially increasing manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability;|
|●||expansion of the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program;|
|●||a licensure framework for follow-on biologic products;|
|●||a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research;|
|●||a requirement to annually report drug samples that manufacturers and distributors provide to physicians; and|
|●||establishment of a Center for Medicare Innovation at CMS in January 2011 to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending.|
The Affordable Care Act has been subject to challenges in the courts. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress. On December 18, 2019, the Fifth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals held that the individual mandate is unconstitutional and remanded the case to the Texas District Court to reconsider its earlier invalidation of the entire Affordable Care Act. An appeal was taken to the U.S. Supreme Court which heard oral arguments in the case on November 10, 2020. A ruling is expected in 2021.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction (created under the Budget Control Act of 2011) did not achieve its targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2012 through 2021, triggering automatic reductions to several government programs, including aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, which will remain in effect through 2030 unless additional action is taken by Congress (although they have been suspended by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security, or CARES, Act, until March 31, 2021).
The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 reduced Medicare payments to several providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on our customers and, accordingly, our financial operations.
In December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) repealed the shared responsibility payment for individuals who fail to maintain minimum essential coverage under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code, commonly referred to as the individual mandate, beginning in 2019. The Joint Committee on Taxation estimates that the repeal will result in over 13 million Americans losing their health insurance coverage over the next ten years, and is likely to lead to increases in insurance premiums. It is uncertain how or whether this legislation may affect our customers and, accordingly, our financial operations.
Other Regulatory Requirements
We are also subject to various laws and regulations regarding laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals, and the use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances in connection with our research. In each of these areas, as above, the FDA and other regulatory authorities have broad regulatory and enforcement powers, including, among other things, the ability to levy fines and civil penalties, suspend or delay issuance of approvals, seize or recall products, and withdraw approvals, any one or more of which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Employees and Human Capital Resources
Investing in, developing, and maintaining human capital is critical to our success. As of December 31, 2020, we had a total of 234 full-time employees. We emphasize a number of measures and objectives in managing our human capital assets, including, among others, employee safety and wellness; talent acquisition and retention; employee engagement,
development, and training; diversity and inclusion; and compensation and pay equity. None of our employees are represented by a labor organization or under any collective-bargaining arrangements. We consider our employee relations to be good.
Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees, advisors and consultants. The principal purposes of our equity and cash incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of stock-based and cash-based compensation awards, in order to increase stockholder value and the success of our company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives.
The success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our employees. Accordingly, we are committed to their health, safety and wellness. We provide our employees and their families with access to a variety of innovative, flexible and convenient health and wellness programs, including benefits that provide protection and security so they can have peace of mind concerning events that may require time away from work or that impact their financial well-being; that support their physical and mental health by providing tools and resources to help them improve or maintain their health status and encourage engagement in healthy behaviors; and that offer choice where possible so they can customize their benefits to meet their needs and the needs of their families. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented significant changes that we determined were in the best interest of our employees, as well as the community in which we operate, and which comply with government regulations. This includes us allowing our employees to work from home, while implementing additional safety measures for employees who chose to work on-site.
Executive Officers of the Company
The following table lists the positions, names and ages of our executive officers as of February 25, 2021:
Director, President and Chief Executive Officer
Executive Vice President and Chief Technical Officer
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer
Executive Vice President and General Counsel
Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer
Joseph Ciaffoni, Director, President and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Ciaffoni has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer since July 2018, and prior to that, served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer since May 2017. Prior to joining us, Mr. Ciaffoni served as President, U.S. Branded Pharmaceuticals of Endo International plc, a specialty pharmaceutical company, from August 2016 to December 2016. Before that, from April 2012 to August 2016, Mr. Ciaffoni held various positions of increasing responsibility at Biogen Idec, including Senior Vice President, Global Specialty Medicines Group, Senior Vice President, U.S. Commercial and Vice President, U.S. Neurology Field Operations and Marketing. Prior to joining Biogen Idec, Mr. Ciaffoni was Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Shionogi Inc. and President of Shionogi Pharmaceuticals from July 2008 to October 2010. Mr. Ciaffoni also previously served as Vice President, Sales for Schering-Plough (now Merck) from May 2004 to June 2008, where he was responsible for the cholesterol franchise, and has held several commercial leadership roles at Sanofi-Synthelabo (now Sanofi) from January 2002 to April 2004 and Novartis from January 1994 to December 2001. Mr. Ciaffoni received a B.A. in Communications in 1993 and an M.B.A. in 2000, both from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Alison Fleming, Ph.D., Chief Technical Officer. Dr. Fleming has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Technical Officer since January 2017. Prior to being our Chief Technical Officer, Dr. Fleming led our development team
as our Vice President, Product Development since October 2002. Prior to joining us, Dr. Fleming's academic research focused on implantable drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Dr. Fleming is an inventor on several U.S. patents and pending patent applications, and has authored numerous scientific publications and poster presentations in the field of novel drug delivery systems and abuse-deterrent opioid formulations. Dr. Fleming graduated from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 1997 with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering and received a Ph.D. in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from Cornell University in 2002.
Paul Brannelly, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Brannelly has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since February 2015. Prior to joining us, Mr. Brannelly served as Senior Vice President, Finance and Administration, and Treasurer of Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from June 2013 to August 2014. From August 2014 to November 2014, Mr. Brannelly served as a consultant to Karyopharm. Prior to joining Karyopharm, Mr. Brannelly served as Vice President, Finance, Treasurer and Secretary at Verastem, Inc. from August 2010 to May 2013. From January 2010 to September 2011, Mr. Brannelly held the position of Chief Financial Officer at the Longwood Fund, a venture capital firm aimed at investing in, managing and building healthcare companies, where he set up the financial and operational infrastructure following the closing of its first fund and eventually served as Chief Financial Officer of its two startup companies, Verastem and OvaScience, Inc. From November 2005 to September 2009, he served as Vice President, Finance at Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company which GlaxoSmithKline plc purchased for $720 million in 2008. Mr. Brannelly started his biopharmaceutical career at Dyax Corporation from September 1999 to May 2002, and subsequently moved on to positions of increasing responsibility at CombinatoRx Inc. from May 2002 to November 2005, including as Vice President, Finance and Treasurer, where he led the initial public offering process. Mr. Brannelly graduated from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst with a B.B.A. in Accounting in 1995.
Scott Dreyer, Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer. Mr. Dreyer has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer since August 2018, and joined us in January 2018 as Senior Vice President, Sales, Marketing and Training. Prior to joining us, Mr. Dreyer served as the Senior Vice President, Sales, Marketing and Commercial Operations at The Medicines Company, a biopharmaceutical company, from September 2016 to December 2017; Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer – US at Biogen from June 2014 to September 2016; and Vice President, Business Development at Publicis Touchpoint Solutions, a healthcare commercialization company, from October 2013 to June 2014. Mr. Dreyer began his career in the pharmaceutical industry at Merck & Co., where he held roles of increasing responsibility from 1994 to 2013, including Vice President of Hospital and Oncology Sales from 2011 to 2012, and Vice President of Primary Care Sales from 2012 until 2013. Mr. Dreyer holds a B.S. in Biology from Messiah College in 1994.
Shirley Kuhlmann, Executive Vice President and General Counsel. Ms. Kuhlmann has served as our Executive Vice President and General Counsel since March 2018. Prior to joining us, Ms. Kuhlmann was a corporate and securities attorney at Pepper Hamilton LLP from September 2007 until March 2018. At Pepper Hamilton, where she was made a partner effective January 2017, Ms. Kuhlmann advised private and public companies on a range of commercial and transactional matters, including financings, corporate governance and disclosure matters, and mergers and acquisitions and other business combination transactions. Ms. Kuhlmann holds a B.A. in Economics/Political Science from Columbia University in 2004 and a J.D. from Emory University School of Law in 2007.
Richard Malamut, M.D., Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer. Dr. Malamut has served as our Chief Medical Officer since April 2019. Prior to joining us, Dr. Malamut served as Chief Medical Officer, Head of Research and Development and Senior Vice President at Braeburn Pharmaceuticals from June 2018 to January 2019; Chief Medical Officer at Avanir Pharmaceuticals from November 2016 to June 2018; and Senior Vice President of Global Clinical Development at Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd from March 2013 to November 2016. Dr. Malamut also previously held roles of increasing responsibility at Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca focusing on early clinical development and translational medicine in neurology and analgesia. Dr. Malamut holds a medical degree from Hahnemann University in June 1985 and a B.S. in Biology from Trinity College in May 1981. Dr. Malamut worked as a board-certified academic and clinical neurologist for 17 years and has more than 50 publications in the fields of pain medicine, neuromuscular disease, autonomic disease and neurodegenerative disease.
Our Corporate Information
We are headquartered in Stoughton, Massachusetts and our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the trading symbol “COLL.”
Our predecessor was incorporated in Delaware in April 2002 under the name Collegium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and in October 2003, our predecessor changed its name to Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. In July 2014, we reincorporated in the Commonwealth of Virginia pursuant to a merger whereby Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc., a Delaware corporation, merged with and into Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc., a Virginia corporation, with the Virginia corporation surviving the merger.
We maintain a website at www.collegiumpharma.com. We make available, free of charge on our website, our Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file those reports with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We also make available, free of charge on our website, the reports filed with the SEC by our officers, directors and 10% shareholders pursuant to Section 16 under the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after copies of those filings are provided to us by those persons. The SEC also maintains a website, at www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding us and other issuers that file electronically. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Investors should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as all other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements, the notes thereto and the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, operating results, prospects and ability to accomplish our strategic objectives could be materially harmed. As a result, the trading price of our common stock could decline and investors could lose all or part of their investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Needs
Our ability to maintain profitability is dependent upon our ability to continue successfully commercializing our products and any products and product candidates that we may develop or acquire in the future. Our failure to do so successfully could impair our growth strategy and plans and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and operating results.
Our ability to maintain profitability depends upon our ability to realize the full commercial potential of our products and to commercialize successfully any other products and product candidates that we may develop, in-license or acquire in the future. Our ability to generate revenue from our current or future products depends on a number of factors, including our ability to:
|●||realize a commercially viable price for our products;|
|●||manufacture commercial quantities of our products at acceptable cost levels;|
|●||sustain a commercial organization capable of sales, marketing and distribution for the products we sell;|
|●||obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement from third parties, including government payors; and|
|●||comply with existing and changing laws and regulations that apply to the pharmaceutical industry, including opioid manufacturers, and to our products specifically, including FDA post-marketing requirements.|
If we fail to maintain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce our operations.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2020, we had a federal net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforward of approximately $226.8 million and state NOL carryovers of approximately $170.3 million, which are available to offset future taxable income. The U.S. federal NOL carryforwards begin to expire in 2022, and the state NOL carryforwards begin to expire in 2030. We also had U.S. federal tax credits of approximately $4.6 million, and state tax credits of approximately $1.2 million. These tax attributes are generally subject to a limited carryover/carryback period and are also subject to the annual limitations that may be imposed under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. As of December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2019, we have provided a full valuation allowance for deferred tax assets including NOL and tax credit carryovers.
We have outstanding indebtedness in the form of our 2.625% Convertible Senior Notes and our Loan Agreement with BioPharma, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In February 2020, in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition, we incurred (i) $143.8 million in principal amount of indebtedness in the form of 2.625% Convertible Senior Notes due in 2026 (the “Convertible Notes”) and (ii) $200.0 million in secured indebtedness pursuant to our Loan Agreement with BioPharma Credit PLC, as collateral agent and lender, and BioPharma Credit Investments V (Master) LP, as lender (as amended from time to time, the “Loan Agreement”). We may also incur additional indebtedness to meet future financing needs. Our existing and future levels of indebtedness could have significant negative consequences for our security holders and our business, results of operations and financial condition by, among other things:
|●||requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, which will reduce the amount of cash available for operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions or general corporate or other purposes;|
|●||limiting our ability to obtain additional financing;|
|●||limiting our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business;|
|●||diluting the interests of our existing shareholders as a result of issuing shares of our common stock upon conversion of the convertible notes;|
|●||placing us at a possible competitive disadvantage with competitors that are less leveraged than we are or have better access to capital;|
|●||increasing our vulnerability to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy in general, including any such downturn related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.|
Holders of our Convertible Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase our Convertible Notes for cash following a fundamental change, or to pay any cash amounts due upon conversion of our Convertible Notes. Further, our noteholders, subject to a limited exception described in the notes, may require us to repurchase their notes following a fundamental change at a cash repurchase price generally equal to the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion, we will satisfy part or all of our conversion obligation in cash unless we elect to settle conversions solely in shares of our common stock. We may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to repurchase the notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. Applicable law, regulatory authorities and the agreements governing our other indebtedness may restrict our ability to repurchase the notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. Additionally, our Loan Agreement contains certain covenants and obligations applicable to us, including, without limitation, covenants that require us and our subsidiaries to maintain $200 million in annual net sales and covenants that limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness or liens, make acquisitions or other investments or dispose of assets outside the ordinary course of business.
Failure to comply with covenants in the indenture governing the Convertible Notes or in the Loan Agreement would constitute an event of default under these instruments, notwithstanding our ability to meet our debt service obligations. Our failure to repurchase notes or to pay the cash amounts due upon conversion when required will constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our other indebtedness, which may result in that other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full. In such event, we may not have sufficient funds to satisfy all amounts due under our other indebtedness (including the Loan Agreement) and the notes. The Loan Agreement includes various customary remedies for the lenders following an event of default, including the acceleration of repayment of outstanding amounts under the Loan Agreement and execution upon the collateral securing obligations under the Loan Agreement. If we fail to comply with such covenants and terms, we may be in default and the maturity of the related debt could be accelerated and become immediately due and payable. In addition, because our assets are pledged as a security under the Loan Agreement, if we are not able to cure any default or repay outstanding borrowings, our assets are subject to the risk of foreclosure by our lenders. Moroever, a default on indebtedness under the Loan Agreement could result in a default under the terms of the indenture governing our Convertible Notes. There is no guarantee that we would be able to satisfy our obligations if any of our indebtedness is accelerated.
Risks Related to our Products
If we cannot continue successfully commercializing Xtampza ER or the Nucynta Products, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected and the price of our common stock may decline.
To date, we have invested substantial resources in the development of Xtampza ER, which has been approved by the FDA. In February 2018, we began marketing the Nucynta Products. Our business and future success are substantially dependent on our ability to continue successfully commercializing these products.
Our ability to continue successfully commercializing Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products will depend on many factors, including but not limited to:
|●||our ability to manufacture commercial quantities of Xtampza ER at reasonable cost and with sufficient speed to meet commercial demand;|
|●||our ability to execute sales and marketing strategies successfully and continually;|
|●||our success in educating physicians, patients and caregivers about the benefits, administration, use and coverage of our products;|
|●||the perceived availability and advantages, relative cost, relative safety and relative efficacy of other abuse-deterrent products and treatments with similar indications;|
|●||our ability to defend successfully any challenges to our intellectual property or suits asserting patent infringement relating to our products;|
|●||the availability and quality of coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products;|
|●||a continued acceptable safety profile of our products; and|
|●||our ability to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements, including any additional manufacturing or packaging requirements that may become applicable to certain opioid products.|
Many of these matters are beyond our control and are subject to other risks described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to continue successfully commercializing or to generate sufficient revenue from our products. If we cannot do so, or are significantly delayed in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
Despite receiving approval by the FDA, additional data may emerge that could change the FDA’s position on the product labeling of Xtampza ER and our ability to market Xtampza ER successfully may be adversely affected.
Xtampza ER was approved with label language describing abuse-deterrent properties of the formulation with respect to the nasal and IV routes of abuse, consistent with Guidance for Industry, “Abuse-Deterrent Opioids- Evaluation and Labeling.” In November 2017, the FDA approved an sNDA for Xtampza ER to include comparative oral pharmacokinetic data from a clinical study evaluating the effect of physical manipulation by crushing Xtampza ER compared with OxyContin and a control (oxycodone hydrochloride immediate-release), results from an oral human abuse potential study and the addition of an oral abuse deterrent claim.
The FDA can require changes to the product labeling for Xtampza ER or the Nucynta Products at any time which can impact our ability to generate product sales. In particular, if the FDA determines that our post-marketing data for Xtampza ER does not demonstrate that the abuse-deterrent properties result in reduction of abuse, or demonstrates a shift to routes of abuse that present a greater risk, the FDA may find that product labeling revisions are needed, and potentially require the removal of our abuse-deterrence claims, which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue successfully commercializing Xtampza ER.
Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products are subject to mandatory REMS programs, which could increase the cost, burden and liability associated with the commercialization of these products.
The FDA has imposed a class-wide REMS on all IR, ER and long acting (“LA”) opioid drug products (known as the Opioid Analgesic REMS). The FDA continually evaluates whether the REMS program is meeting its goal of ensuring that the benefit of these drugs continue to outweigh their risks, and whether the goals or elements of the program should be modified. If the FDA determines that additional measures are necessary, the modification of the Opioid Analgesic REMS to impose additional or more burdensome requirements could increase the costs associated with marketing our products and/or reduce the willingness of healthcare providers to prescribe our products, both which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue successfully commercializing, or to generate sufficient revenue from, our products.
We could fail to promote Xtampza ER’s abuse deterrent labeling in compliance with FDA regulations.
Xtampza ER has FDA-approved product labeling that describes its abuse deterrent features, which allows us to promote those features and differentiate Xtampza ER from other opioid products containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredients. Because the FDA closely regulates promotional materials and other promotional activities, even though the FDA approved product labeling includes a description of the abuse deterrent characteristics of Xtampza ER, the FDA may object to our marketing claims and product advertising campaigns. This could lead to the issuance of warning letters or untitled letters, suspension or withdrawal of our products from the market, recalls, fines, disgorgement of money, operating restrictions, injunctions, and civil or criminal prosecution. Any of these consequences would harm the commercial success of Xtampza ER.
Failure to comply with ongoing governmental regulations for marketing any product, including Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products, could delay or inhibit our ability to generate revenues from their sale and could also expose us to claims or other sanctions.
Advertising and promotion of any pharmaceutical product marketed in the United States, including Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products, is heavily scrutinized by, among others, the FDA, the Department of Justice, the Office of Inspector General for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), state attorneys general, members of Congress and the public. Violations, including promotion of our products for unapproved or off-label uses, are subject to enforcement letters, inquiries and investigations, and civil and criminal sanctions by the FDA or other government agencies.
Engaging in off-label promotion of our products could also subject us to false claims liability under federal and state statutes, and other litigation and/or investigations, which could lead to civil and criminal penalties and fines, and could also require us to enter into agreements that materially restrict the manner in which we promote or distribute our drug products.
In addition, after product approval, subsequent discovery of serious and unanticipated adverse events associated with the product; the emergence of other problems with the product, manufacturer or facility; or our failure to make required regulatory submissions may result in adverse regulatory actions, including withdrawal of the product from the market or the requirement to add or strengthen label warnings about the product. The failure to obtain or maintain requisite governmental approvals or the imposition of additional or stronger warnings could delay or preclude us from further developing, marketing or realizing the full commercial potential of our products.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
Unfavorable outcomes in intellectual property litigation could result in costly litigation and potentially limit our ability to commercialize our products.
Our commercial success depends upon our ability to commercialize products without infringing the intellectual property rights of others. Our current or future products, or any uses of them, may now or in the future infringe third-party patents or other intellectual property rights. We cannot currently determine the ultimate scope and validity of patents which may be granted to third parties in the future or which patents might be asserted to be infringed by the manufacture, use and sale of our products.
If we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue developing or commercializing our products and technology. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing technology or product. In addition, in any such proceeding or litigation, we could be found liable for monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our products or force us to cease some of our business operations.
Any litigation, including any interference or derivation proceedings to determine priority of inventions, oppositions or other post-grant review proceedings to patents in the United States, or litigation against our collaborators may be costly and time consuming and could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition. We expect that litigation may be necessary in some instances to determine the validity and scope of our proprietary rights. Litigation may be necessary in other instances to determine the validity, scope or non-infringement of certain patent rights claimed by third parties to be pertinent to the manufacture, use or sale of our products. Ultimately, the outcome of such litigation, including our pending litigation with Purdue, could compromise the validity and scope of our patents or other proprietary rights or hinder our ability to manufacture and market our products.
If we are unable to obtain or maintain intellectual property rights for our technologies, products or any future product candidates which we may develop, we may lose valuable assets or be unable to compete effectively in our market.
We depend on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on patent and trademark laws, unpatented trade secrets and know-how, and confidentiality, licensing and other agreements with employees and third parties, all of which
offer only limited protection. Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States with respect to our proprietary technology and products.
The steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to preclude misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights in the United States. The rights already granted under any of our currently issued patents and those that may be granted under future issued patents may not provide us with the proprietary protection or competitive advantages we are seeking.
We have been, and may continue to be, forced to litigate to enforce or defend our intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful, and result in the loss of valuable assets.
We have been, and may continue to be, forced to litigate to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights against infringement and unauthorized use by competitors, and to protect our trade secrets. In so doing, we may place our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated, rendered unenforceable or limited or narrowed in scope.
This litigation is expensive and time consuming. Many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to defend their intellectual property rights than we can.
Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property. Litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition. In addition, an adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
In addition to seeking patents for some of our technology and products, we rely on trade secrets, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, to maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect these trade secrets, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts in the United States may be less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent such competitor, or those with whom they communicate, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed or independently developed, our competitive position would be harmed.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submissions, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
The USPTO requires compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. In addition, periodic maintenance fees on issued patents are required to be paid to the USPTO in several stages over the lifetime of the patents. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include, but are not limited to, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees, and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our products, our competitive position would be adversely affected.
Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Products
If we are unable to utilize our own sales and marketing capabilities successfully or enter into strategic alliances with marketing collaborators, we may not continue to be successful in commercializing our products and may be unable to generate sufficient product revenue.
Our commercial organization continues to evolve, and in light of its short history and limited track record, we cannot guarantee that we will continue to be successful in marketing our products. In addition, we compete with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with extensive and well-funded sales and marketing operations to recruit, hire, train and retain sales and marketing personnel. If we are unable to continue to grow and maintain adequate sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, whether independently or with third parties, we may not be able to generate sufficient product revenue and may not remain profitable. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to continue successfully commercializing our products in the United States include:
|●||our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;|
|●||the inability of sales personnel to reach adequate numbers of physicians who may prescribe our products; and|
|●||unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating and maintaining an independent sales and marketing organization.|
If we are not successful in retaining sales and marketing personnel or in maintaining our sales and marketing infrastructure or if we do not preserve strategic alliances with marketing collaborators, agreements with contract sales organizations or collaboration arrangements, we will have difficulty in continuing to commercialize our products.
Additionally, our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities may be hindered as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. In response to the outbreak and the resulting mandatory closure of non-essential businesses and imposition of “social distancing” measures recommended by U.S. public health officials, our sales personnel have transitioned partly or entirely to remote work. The safety and well-being of our employees is our highest priority and we expect to maintain mitigating measures until such time as mandated closures are lifted and public health officials change their recommendations, and we have, and will continue to, equip our personnel with the tools and resources needed to effectively continue their sales and marketing efforts in a manner that complies with all relevant regulations, whether in person or from a remote setting. We face the risk, however, that limitations on activities within the healthcare sector and on economic activity generally will impede our ability to continue successfully commercializing our products. The travel restrictions and “social distancing” recommendations resulting from the spread of COVID-19 have impacted our sales professionals’ ability to travel to and meet with customers in person. The outbreak has also prompted healthcare providers to limit our and our wholesalers’ and distributors’ access to physicians and other key healthcare personnel, which may inhibit our and our customers’ ability to meet existing, or generate new, demand for our products. If we are unable to successfully commercialize our products during the COVID-19 outbreak, our ability to generate sufficient product revenue may be adversely affected.
If the medical community, patients, and healthcare payors do not accept and use our products, we will not achieve sufficient product revenues and our business will suffer.
Physicians and others in the medical community, patients, and healthcare payors may not accept and use our products. Acceptance and use of our products will depend on a number of factors including:
|●||approved indications, warnings and precautions language that may be less desirable than competitive products;|
|●||perceptions by members of the healthcare community, including physicians, about the safety and efficacy of our products;|
|●||perceptions by members of the healthcare community, including physicians, about the relevance and efficacy of our abuse deterrent technology;|
|●||the availability of competitive products;|
|●||the pricing and cost-effectiveness of our products relative to competing products;|
|●||the potential and perceived advantages of our products over alternative treatments;|
|●||the convenience and ease of administration to patients of our products;|
|●||actual and perceived availability and quality of coverage and reimbursement for our products from government or other third-party payors;|
|●||any negative publicity related to our products or negative or positive publicity related to our competitors’ products;|
|●||the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects;|
|●||policy initiatives by FDA, HHS, or other federal or state agencies regarding opioids;|
|●||our ability to comply with the Opioid Analgesic REMS; and|
|●||the effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and any licensees and distributors.|
If our products fail to have an adequate level of acceptance by the medical community, patients, or healthcare payors, we will not be able to generate sufficient revenue to remain profitable. Since we expect to rely on sales generated by Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products for substantially all of our revenues for the foreseeable future, the failure of Xtampza ER or the Nucynta Products to maintain market acceptance would harm our business prospects.
Our products contain, and our future product candidates may contain, controlled substances, the manufacture, use, sale, importation, exportation and distribution of which are subject to regulation by state and federal law enforcement and other regulatory agencies.
Our products contain, and our future product candidates may contain, controlled substances that are subject to state and federal laws and regulations regarding their manufacture, use, sale, importation, exportation and distribution. Xtampza ER’s active ingredient, oxycodone, and the Nucynta Products’ active ingredient, tapentadol, are both classified as Schedule II controlled substances under the CSA and regulations of the DEA. A number of states also independently regulate these drugs, including oxycodone and tapentadol, as controlled substances.
We and our suppliers, manufacturers, contractors, customers and distributors are required to obtain and maintain applicable registrations from state and federal law enforcement and regulatory agencies and comply with state and federal laws and regulations regarding the manufacture, use, sale, importation, exportation and distribution of controlled substances. In light of the COVID-19 public health emergency, the DEA now allows the issuance of a prescription for a controlled substance after examination of a patient through telemedicine technology as an in-person examination may not be possible.
Furthermore, the amount of Schedule II substances that can be obtained for clinical trials and commercial distribution is limited by the CSA and DEA regulations. For more information, see “Business—Government Regulation—DEA and Opioid Regulation.” We may not be able to obtain sufficient quantities of these controlled substances in order to meet commercial demand. If commercial demand for Xtampza ER, or any of our other approved products, increases and we cannot meet such demand in a timely fashion because of our limited supply of its active pharmaceutical ingredient (in the case of Xtampza ER, oxycodone) then physicians may perceive such product as unavailable and may be less likely to prescribe it in the future.
In addition, controlled substances are also subject to regulations governing manufacturing, labeling, packaging, testing, dispensing, production and procurement quotas, recordkeeping, reporting, handling, shipment and disposal. These regulations increase the personnel needs and the expense associated with development and commercialization of our products that include controlled substances. The DEA and some states conduct periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances.
Failure to obtain and maintain required registrations or to comply with any applicable regulations could delay or preclude us from developing and commercializing our products that contain controlled substances and subject us to enforcement action. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations or initiate proceedings to revoke those registrations. In some circumstances, violations could lead to criminal proceedings. Because of their restrictive nature, these regulations could limit commercialization of our products containing controlled substances.
Current and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to continue to commercialize our products and may reduce the prices we are able to obtain for our products.
In the United States, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system generally, and the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of opioids in particular, that could prevent or delay marketing approval of future product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities or affect our ability to profitably sell our products for which we obtain marketing approval. For example, several states, including New York, have recently imposed taxes or fees on the sale of opioids. Other states could impose similar taxes or fees, and such laws and proposals can vary in the tax and fee amounts imposed and the means of calculation. Liabilities for taxes or assessments under any such laws could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
California and several other states have enacted legislation related to prescription drug pricing transparency and it is
unclear the effect this legislation will have on our business. Laws intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for health care and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms may continue the downward pressure on pharmaceutical pricing, especially under the Medicare program, and may also increase our regulatory burdens and operating costs.
Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing of our products may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.
Our products may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations or third-party coverage and reimbursement policies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Such pricing regulations may address the rebates that manufacturers offer to pharmaceutical benefit managers, or the discounts that manufacturers provide others within the pharmaceutical distribution chain.
The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new drug products can vary widely. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in our products.
Our ability to commercialize any product successfully will also depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, determine which medications they will cover and establish reimbursement levels and tiers of preference based on the perceived value and innovation of a given product. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and other third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications and establishing administrative hurdles that incentivize use of generic and/or lower cost products first. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with discounts and rebates from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. We have agreed to provide such discounts and rebates to certain third-party payors. We expect increasing pressure to offer larger discounts and rebates. Additionally, a greater number of third-party payors may seek discounts and rebates in order to offer or maintain access for our products. We cannot be sure that high-quality coverage and reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be and whether it will be satisfactory.
Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. Our inability to expand and maintain coverage and profitable reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for our products could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.
The Affordable Care Act and any changes in healthcare law may increase the difficulty and cost for us to continue to commercialize our products and affect the prices we may obtain.
The United States and many foreign jurisdictions have enacted or proposed legislative and regulatory changes affecting the healthcare system that may affect our ability to profitably sell our product and product candidates, if approved. The United States government, state legislatures and foreign governments also have shown significant interest in implementing cost-containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid healthcare costs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs.
The Affordable Care Act was intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add transparency requirements for the healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms. There have been significant ongoing judicial, administrative, executive and legislative efforts to modify or eliminate the Affordable Care Act, and the Affordable Care Act has also been subject to challenges in the courts. See “Business—Government Regulation—Healthcare Reform.”
Further changes to and under the Affordable Care Act remain possible, although the new Biden administration has signaled that it plans to build on the Affordable Care Act and expand the number of people who are eligible for subsidies under it. President Biden indicated that he intends to use executive orders to undo changes to the Affordable Care Act made by the Trump administration and would advocate for legislation to build on the Affordable Care Act. It is unknown what form any such changes or any law proposed to replace the Affordable Care Act would take, and how or whether it may affect our business in the future. We expect that changes to the Affordable Care Act, the Medicare and Medicaid programs, changes allowing the federal government to directly negotiate drug prices and changes stemming from other healthcare reform measures, especially with regard to healthcare access, financing or other legislation in individual states, could have a material adverse effect on the healthcare industry.
Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare, Medicaid, or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payers. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue and maintain profitability.
Social issues around the abuse of opioids, including law enforcement concerns over diversion of opioids and regulatory and enforcement efforts to combat abuse, could decrease the potential market for our products and may adversely impact external investor perceptions of our business.
Law enforcement and regulatory agencies may apply policies and guidelines that seek to limit the availability or use of opioids. Such efforts may inhibit our ability to commercialize our products.
Aggressive enforcement and unfavorable publicity regarding, for example, the use or misuse of oxycodone or other opioid drugs; the limitations of abuse-resistant formulations; the ability of people who abuse drugs to discover previously unknown ways to abuse opioid drugs, including Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products; public inquiries and investigations into prescription drug abuse; litigation; or regulatory activity regarding sales, marketing, distribution or storage of opioid drugs could have a material adverse effect on our reputation. Such negative publicity could reduce the potential size of the market for our products, decrease the revenues we are able to generate from their sale and adversely impact external investor perceptions of our business. Similarly, to the extent opioid abuse becomes less prevalent or less urgent of a public health issue, regulators and third party payers may not be willing to pay a premium for abuse-deterrent formulations of opioid.
Federal laws have been enacted to address the national epidemics of prescription opioid abuse and illicit opioid use, including the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act and the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act. These laws are described in more detail under the caption “Business— Governmental Regulation — DEA and Opioid Regulation.”
If the FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities approve generic products with abuse deterrent claims that compete with our products, our sales could decline.
Once an NDA, including a Section 505(b)(2) application, is approved, the product covered thereby becomes a “listed drug” which can, in turn, be cited by potential competitors in support of approval of an ANDA. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, FDA regulations and other applicable regulations and policies provide incentives to manufacturers to create modified, non-infringing versions of a drug to facilitate the approval of an ANDA or other application for generic substitutes. These generic equivalents would be significantly less costly than ours to bring to market and companies that produce generic equivalents are generally able to offer their products at lower prices. Thus, after the introduction of a generic competitor, a significant percentage of the sales of any branded product are typically lost to the generic product. Accordingly, competition from generic equivalents to our products would substantially limit our ability to generate revenues and therefore to obtain a return on the investments we have made in our products. In November 2017, FDA issued a final guidance to assist industry in the development of generic versions of approved opioids with abuse-deterrent formulations, including recommendations about the types of studies that companies should conduct to
demonstrate that the generic drug is no less abuse-deterrent than its brand-name counterpart. In the second half of 2018, the FDA posted three revised product-specific guidances related to generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, including one guidance specifically relating to Xtampza ER, which recommend specific in vivo studies and in vitro study considerations for abuse deterrence evaluations. These guidances are part of FDA’s wider focus on assisting developers of generic abuse-deterrent formulations navigate the regulatory path to market more quickly. Earlier market entry of generic abuse-deterrent formulations could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties
If the third-party manufacturers of Xtampza ER or the Nucynta Products fail to devote sufficient time and resources to these products, or their performance is substandard, and/or we encounter challenges with our dedicated facility at our third-party manufacturer’s site for the manufacturing of Xtampza ER, our costs may be higher than expected and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We do not own any manufacturing facilities and have limited experience in drug development and commercial manufacturing. We currently have no plans to build our own clinical or commercial scale manufacturing facility and do not have the resources and expertise to manufacture and test, on a commercial scale, the technical performance of our products. We currently rely, and expect to continue to rely, on a limited number of experienced personnel and contract manufacturers for our products, as well as other vendors to formulate, test, supply, store and distribute our products and we control only certain aspects of their activities.
In 2020, we completed the build-out of a dedicated manufacturing suite at a site operated by our contract manufacturing organization, Patheon, part of Thermo Fisher Scientific. This dedicated facility requires the maintenance of regulatory approvals and other costs, all of which we will need to absorb. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to leverage the dedicated manufacturing suite in a profitable manner. If the demand for Xtampza ER and any future related products never meets our expectations and forecasts, or if we do not produce the output we plan, we may not be able to realize the return on investment we anticipated, which would have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Although we have identified alternate sources for these services, it would be time-consuming, and require us to incur additional cost, to qualify these sources. Our reliance on a limited number of vendors and, in particular, Patheon as our single manufacturer for Xtampza ER and the future manufacturer of Nucynta ER, exposes us to the following risks, any of which could impact commercialization of our products, result in higher costs, or deprive us of potential product revenues:
|●||Our contract manufacturer, or other third parties we rely on, may encounter difficulties in achieving the volume of production needed to satisfy commercial demand, may experience technical issues that impact quality or compliance with applicable and strictly enforced regulations governing the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, may be affected by natural disasters that interrupt or prevent manufacturing of our products including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, may experience shortages of qualified personnel to adequately staff production operations, may experience shortages of raw materials and may have difficulties finding replacement parts or equipment.|
|●||Our contract manufacturer could default on their agreement with us to meet our requirements for commercial supplies of our products and/or deliver the dedicated facility according to the currently agreed timeline.|
|●||The use of alternate manufacturers may be difficult because the number of potential manufacturers that have the necessary governmental licenses to produce narcotic products is limited. Additionally, the FDA and the DEA must approve any alternative manufacturer of our products, before we may use the alternative manufacturer to produce commercial supplies.|
|●||It may be difficult or impossible for us to find a replacement manufacturer on acceptable terms quickly, or at all. Our contract manufacturer and vendors may not perform as agreed or may not remain in the contract manufacturing business for the time required to produce, store and distribute our products successfully.|
|●||If our contract manufacturer were to terminate our arrangement or fail to meet our commercial manufacturing demands, we may be forced to delay our development and commercial programs.|
Failure to obtain the necessary active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients or components necessary to manufacture our products could adversely affect our ability to continue to commercialize the product, which could in turn adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Certain components of Xtampza ER are naturally derived products, for which we rely on sole suppliers. The inability of any of our raw material suppliers to provide components
that meet our specifications and requirements could adversely impact our ability to manufacture our product. Furthermore, the quota procurement process limits the amount of DEA-controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient we have available for manufacture. Consequently, we are limited in our ability to execute a business strategy that builds appreciable safety stock of finished drug product.
Our reliance on third parties reduces our control over our development and commercialization activities but does not relieve us of our responsibility to ensure compliance with all required legal, regulatory and scientific standards. The FDA and other regulatory authorities require that our products to be manufactured according to cGMP. Any failure by our third-party manufacturer to comply with cGMP or failure to scale up manufacturing processes, including any failure to deliver sufficient quantities of products in a timely manner, could lead to a shortage of commercial product. In addition, such failure could be the basis for the FDA to issue a warning or untitled letter, withdraw approvals for products previously granted to us, or take other regulatory or legal action, including recall or seizure, total or partial suspension of production, suspension of ongoing clinical trials, refusal to approve pending applications or supplemental applications, detention of product, refusal to permit the import or export of products, injunction, imposing civil penalties or pursuing criminal prosecution.
Any stock out, or failure to obtain sufficient supplies of any of our products, or the necessary active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients or components necessary to manufacture each of our products, could adversely affect our ability to commercialize such products, which could in turn adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Because we currently rely on a sole supplier to manufacture the active pharmaceutical ingredient of our products, any production problems with our supplier could have a material adverse effect on us.
We presently depend upon a single supplier for the active pharmaceutical ingredient for Xtampza ER (oxycodone base) and the Nucynta Products (tapentadol), and we contract with this supplier for commercial supply to manufacture our products. Further, and effective January 2021, our sole supplier also supplies our primary competitor in the extended-release oxycodone space, Purdue. Although we have identified an alternate source for oxycodone base for Xtampza ER, it would be time-consuming and costly to qualify this source. Any changes that our supplier makes to the respective drug substance raw materials, intermediates, or manufacturing processes would introduce technical and regulatory risks to our downstream drug product supply. If our supplier were to terminate an arrangement for an active pharmaceutical ingredient, or fail to meet our supply needs (including as a result of disruptions in personnel or the global supply chain resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak), we might incur substantial costs and be forced to delay our development or commercialization programs. Any such delay could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Manufacturing issues may arise that could increase product and regulatory approval costs, delay commercialization or limit commercial supply.
In our current commercial manufacturing operations, and as we scale up manufacturing of our products and conduct required stability testing, we may encounter product, packaging, equipment and process-related issues that may require refinement or resolution in order to proceed with our planned clinical trials, obtain regulatory approval for commercial marketing and build commercial supplies. In the future, we may identify impurities, which could result in increased scrutiny by regulatory authorities, delays in our clinical programs and regulatory approval, increases in our operating expenses, failure to obtain or maintain approval or limitations in our commercial supply.
We depend on wholesale pharmaceutical distributors for retail distribution of our products; if we lose any of our significant wholesale pharmaceutical distributors, that loss may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
A significant percentage of our product shipments are to a limited number of independent wholesale pharmaceutical distributors. Three of our wholesale pharmaceutical distributors represented 34%, 31% and 31% of our product shipments for the year ended December 31, 2020. Our loss of any of these wholesale pharmaceutical distributors’ accounts, or a material reduction in their purchases, a significant disruption to transportation infrastructure or other means of distribution of our products, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. The significance of each wholesale pharmaceutical distributor account to our business adversely impacts our ability to negotiate favorable commercial terms with each such distributor, and as a result, we may be forced to accept terms that adversely impact our results of operations.
In addition, these wholesale customers comprise a significant part of the distribution network for pharmaceutical products in the United States. This distribution network has undergone, and may continue to undergo, significant consolidation marked by mergers and acquisitions. As a result, a small number of large wholesale distributors control a significant share of the market. Consolidation of drug wholesalers has increased, and may continue to increase, competitive and pricing pressures on pharmaceutical products. We cannot guarantee that we can manage these pricing pressures or that wholesaler purchases will not fluctuate unexpectedly from period to period.
Our products could be subject to post-marketing requirements, which requirements may, in some cases, not be capable of timely or satisfactory completion without participation in consortia over which we have limited control.
Our products are subject to a comprehensive regulatory scheme, including post-marketing requirements (“PMRs”) to conduct epidemiological studies and clinical trials. We intend to fulfill our PMRs by virtue of our participation in the Opioid PMR Consortium (“OPC”). Although we retain discretion in how to discharge such PMRs, the scale and scope of the studies required by the FDA make it cost prohibitive to discharge these requirements other than by joining the OPC that was formed to conduct them. We are a member of OPC and engage in decision-making as a member of that organization, but do not have a majority. If the OPC fails to conduct sufficiently rigorous studies or is unable to achieve the patient enrollment or other requirements established by the FDA, we may be unable to satisfy our PMRs and the FDA may choose to withdraw or otherwise restrict its approval of our products. Such withdrawal or restriction would have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition.
We rely on third parties to conduct our non-clinical and clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, or if they terminate their agreement with us, we may not be able to maintain regulatory approval for our products and our business could suffer a material adverse effect.
We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon contract research organizations (“CROs”) to monitor and manage data for any non-clinical and clinical programs that we may conduct, including the OPC PMR studies discussed above. We rely on these parties for execution of our non-clinical and clinical trials, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies and clinical trials are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable GCP and other regulations, including as a result of any recent changes in such regulations, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP requirements. While we have agreements governing the activities of our CROs, we have limited influence over their actual performance. Failure to comply with applicable regulations in the conduct of the clinical trials for our products would have an adverse impact on our commercial efforts.
Risks Related to Our Business and Strategy
Our business may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 has sickened millions of people across the world and, in March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Federal, state and city governments have taken significant measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, including issuing “shelter in place” or similar orders, closing non-essential businesses and imposing severe travel restrictions. The outbreak and any preventative or protective actions that we, our manufacturers, suppliers, licensors and other collaborators or governmental authorities may take with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted and may continue to disrupt our business and the U.S. and global economies as a whole. The COVID-19 pandemic poses the risk that we or our employees, contractors, suppliers, and other partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to a substantial percentage of personnel contracting the virus or due to shutdowns that have been or may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will affect the U.S. and global economies is unknown.
The COVID-19 pandemic has, and will likely continue to have, a substantial impact on the delivery of healthcare services in the United States. Healthcare providers have reduced staffing and limited access for non-patients, including our sales professionals. In addition, as discussed above, travel restrictions due to COVID-19 have impacted our sales
professionals’ ability to travel to customers, which has had, and will continue to have, a negative impact on our sales and the market penetration of our products. Moreover, the spread of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, an impact on the number of patients seeking and receiving treatment for conditions that might otherwise result in the prescription of our products, as patients increasingly make efforts to avoid or postpone seeking non-essential medical care and hospitals cancel elective surgeries due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These circumstances may result in reduced demand for our products and negatively impact our sales and results of operations.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact our results of operation will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19, the rate and manner in which it spreads, the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions imposed by the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruption in the United States and other countries, a reduction in time spent out of home and the actions taken throughout the world, including in our markets, to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact. These actions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and we will continue to monitor the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic closely.
Litigation or regulatory action regarding opioid medications could negatively affect our business.
Beginning in 2018, lawsuits alleging damages related to opioids have been filed naming us as a defendant along with other manufacturers of prescription opioid medications. These lawsuits, filed in multiple jurisdictions, are brought by various local governments as well as private claimants, against various manufacturers, distributors and retail pharmacies throughout the United States. These lawsuits generally contend that we have engaged in improper marketing practices related to Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products. Plaintiffs seek a variety of remedies, including abatement, restitution, civil penalties, disgorgement of profits, treble damages, attorneys’ fees and injunctive relief. In some of the lawsuits, the plaintiffs have alleged joint and several liability among the defendants, meaning that any given defendant may be found liable for the activities of other defendants. None of the complaints specify the exact amount of damages at issue. These cases are generally in early stages of litigation.
In addition, certain governmental and regulatory agencies are focused on the abuse of opioid medications, a concern we share, and we have received Civil Investigative Demands or subpoenas from four state attorneys general investigating our sales and marketing of opioids and seeking documents relating to the manufacture, marketing and sale of opioid medications. We are cooperating fully in these investigations. Managing litigation and responding to governmental investigations is costly and may involve a significant diversion of management attention. Such proceedings are unpredictable and may develop over lengthy periods of time. An adverse resolution of any of these lawsuits or investigations may involve injunctive relief or substantial monetary penalties, either or both of which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and cash flows.
We face substantial competition from other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products more successfully than we do.
The competition in the pain and opioid market is intense. We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and universities and other research institutions. Our products compete with oral opioids, transdermal opioids, local anesthetic patches, stimulants and implantable and external infusion pumps that can be used for infusion of opioids and local anesthetics. Products of these types are marketed by Actavis, BioDelivery Sciences, Endo, Mallinckrodt, Purdue, Teva, and others. Some of these current and potential future competitors may be addressing the same therapeutic areas or indications as we are. Many of our current and potential future competitors have significantly greater research and development capabilities than we do, have substantially more marketing, manufacturing, financial, technical, human and managerial resources than we do, and have more institutional experience than we do.
Our competitors have developed or may be in the process of developing technologies that are, or in the future may be, the basis for competitive products that are safer, more effective or less costly than our products and, therefore, present a serious competitive threat to our product offerings. The widespread acceptance of currently available therapies with which our products compete may limit market acceptance of our products. Oral medications, transdermal drug delivery systems, such as drug patches, injectable products and implantable drug delivery devices are currently available treatments for chronic pain, are widely accepted in the medical community and have a long history of use. These
treatments will compete with our products and the established use of these competitive products may limit the potential for our products to receive widespread acceptance.
Commercial sales of our products, and clinical trials of our products and any future product candidates, may expose us to expensive product liability claims, and we may not be able to maintain product liability insurance on reasonable terms or at all.
We currently carry product liability insurance. Product liability claims may be brought against us by patients; clinical trial participants; healthcare providers; or others using, administering or selling our products. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our products caused injuries, we could incur substantial liabilities. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may cause us to incur significant costs to defend the litigation.
Our relationships with customers and payors are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, transparency, and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, exclusion from government healthcare programs, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens, and diminished profits and future earnings.
Healthcare providers, physicians and payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of our products. Our arrangements with payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute our products and any product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval.
Even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors directly, we may provide reimbursement guidance and support regarding our products to our customers and patients. Federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. If a government authority were to conclude that we provided improper advice to our customers and/or encouraged the submission of false claims for reimbursement, we could face action by government authorities. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.
We or the third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by natural disasters and/or health epidemics, and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from a serious disaster.
Natural disasters could severely disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. If a natural disaster, power outage, health epidemic (such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic) or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our facilities, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it might become difficult or, in certain cases, impossible for us to continue our business, and any disruption could last for a substantial period of time.
The disaster recovery and business continuity plans we have in place, and the technology that we may rely upon to implement such plans, may prove inadequate in the event of a serious disaster or similar event. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock may be volatile and you may lose all or part of your investment.
The market price of our common stock is highly volatile and may be subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors described in these Risk Factors, some of which are beyond our control. The stock market in general, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies, including very recently in connection with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in decreased stock prices for many companies notwithstanding the lack of a fundamental change in their underlying business models or prospects. Broad
market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. The realization of any of these risks, or any of a broad range of other risks discussed in this report, could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
We are subject to anti-takeover provisions in our second amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and under Virginia law that could delay or prevent an acquisition of our company, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our shareholders.
Certain provisions of Virginia law, the state in which we are incorporated, and our second amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could hamper a third party’s acquisition of us, or discourage a third party from attempting to acquire control of us. These provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. In addition, these provisions make it more difficult for our shareholders to remove our Board of Directors or management or elect new directors to our Board of Directors.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows accurately, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting. We are required, under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Further, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by NASDAQ, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to capital markets.
Sales of our common stock in the public market, either by us or by our current shareholders, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause a decline in the market price of our securities. Moreover, the exercise of options and warrants and other issuances of shares of common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for shares of common stock will dilute your ownership interests and may adversely affect the future market price of our common stock.
Sales of our common stock in the public market, either by us or by our current shareholders, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause a decline in the market price of our securities. All of the shares of our common stock held by our current shareholders may be immediately eligible for resale in the open market either in compliance with an exemption under Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act, or pursuant to an effective resale registration statement that we have previously filed with the SEC. Such sales, along with any other market transactions, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
As of December 31, 2020, there were outstanding options to purchase an aggregate of 3,860,481 shares of our common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $17.78 per share, of which options to purchase 2,373,097 shares of our common stock were then exercisable. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, we had an outstanding warrant to purchase 1,041,667 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $19.20 per share. The exercise of options and warrants at prices below the market price of our common stock could adversely affect the price of shares of our common stock. Additional dilution may result from the issuance of shares of our common stock in connection with collaborations or manufacturing arrangements or in connection with other financing efforts.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Stoughton, Massachusetts, where we lease 50,678 square feet of office and laboratory space. We use this facility for research and development, commercial and general and administrative purposes. The corporate headquarters lease expires in July 2029 and the lease term may be extended for two additional five-year terms at our election.
We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current and expected future needs. We may seek to negotiate new leases or evaluate additional or alternate space for our operations. We believe that appropriate alternative space is readily available on commercially reasonable terms.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Discussion of legal matters is incorporated by reference from Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is publicly traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “COLL” since May 7, 2015. Prior to May 7, 2015, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
As of January 31, 2021, there were 24 holders of record of our common stock. The number of holders of record does not include beneficial owners whose shares are held by nominees in street name.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph shows a comparison from May 7, 2015, the date on which our common stock first began trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, of the total cumulative shareholder return on an assumed investment of $100.00 in cash in our common stock as compared to the same investment in the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index, all through December 31, 2020. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to
suggest future performance. Data for the NASDAQ Composite Index and NASDAQ Biotechnology Index assume reinvestment of dividends, however no dividends have been declared on our common stock to date.
$100 investment in stock or index
May 7, 2015
Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. (COLL)
NASDAQ Composite Index (IXIC)
NASDAQ Biotechnology Index (NBI)
The performance graph and related information shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the period covered by this Form 10-K.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
The following table sets forth purchases of our common stock for the three months ended December 31, 2020:
(a) Total number of shares purchased (1)
(b) Average Price Paid per Share
(c) Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
(d) Maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
October 1, 2020 through October 31, 2020
November 1, 2020 through November 30, 2020
December 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020
(1) All of the shares were transferred to us from employees in satisfaction of minimum tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted stock units during the period.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results and the timing of certain events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors. We discuss factors that we believe could cause or contribute to these differences below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, including those set forth under “Forward-looking Statements” and “Risk Factors”, as revised and supplemented by those risks described from time to time in other reports which we file with the SEC.
We are a specialty pharmaceutical company committed to being the leader in responsible pain management. Our portfolio includes Xtampza ER, an abuse-deterrent, extended-release, oral formulation of oxycodone, and Nucynta ER and Nucynta IR (collectively, the “Nucynta Products”), which are extended-release (“ER”) and immediate-release (“IR”) formulations of tapentadol.
Xtampza ER was approved by the FDA in April 2016 for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. We commercially launched Xtampza ER in June 2016.
Nucynta ER is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around the clock, long-term opioid treatment, including neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in adults, and for which alternate treatment options are inadequate. Nucynta IR is indicated for the management of acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate in adults. We began shipping and recognizing product sales on the Nucynta Products on January 9, 2018 and began marketing the Nucynta Products in February 2018. We initially licensed the right to commercialize the Nucynta Products in the United States through a Commercialization Agreement with Assertio Therapeutics, Inc. (formerly known as Depomed) (“Assertio”) entered into in December 2017 (the “Nucynta Commercialization Agreement”). On February 6, 2020, we entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Assertio (the “Nucynta Purchase Agreement”), pursuant to which we agreed to acquire from Assertio certain assets related to the Nucynta Products (the “Nucynta Acquisition”), including the license from Grünenthal GmbH (“Grünenthal”), for an aggregate purchase price of $375.0 million. On February 13, 2020, we closed the Nucynta
Acquisition in accordance with the Nucynta Purchase Agreement. Upon closing, the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement was effectively terminated. Our prior royalty obligation to Assertio ceased and our only remaining royalty obligation is to pay 14% of net sales of the Nucynta Products directly to Grünenthal.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, we generated $310.0 million in net revenues, comprised of $128.0 million from sales of Xtampza ER and $182.0 million from sales of the Nucynta Products.
We expect to continue to incur significant commercialization expenses related to marketing, manufacturing, distribution, selling and reimbursement activities. We are promoting Xtampza ER to approximately 11,000 health care professionals who write approximately 65% of the branded extended-release oral opioid prescriptions in the United States with a sales team of approximately 145 sales representatives and managers. We are promoting the Nucynta Products to the same health care professionals to whom we promote Xtampza ER, leveraging our existing sales organization. We have historically paid royalties to Assertio on all revenues from the sale of Nucynta Products based on certain net sales thresholds. Upon the closing of the Nucynta Acquisition and the termination of the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement (except for certain sections that survive in accordance with the Nucynta Purchase Agreement) in February 2020, our prior royalty obligation to Assertio ceased and our only remaining royalty obligation is to pay 14% of net sales of the Nucynta Products directly to Grünenthal.
We were historically not profitable and incurred net losses in each year since inception until 2020. We generated net income of $26.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 and incurred a net loss of $22.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $333.1 million. Substantially all of our net losses resulted from costs incurred in connection with selling, general and administrative costs associated with our operations and research and development programs.
We believe that our cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2020, together with expected cash inflows from the commercialization of our products, will enable us to fund our operating expenses, debt service and capital expenditure requirements under our current business plan for the foreseeable future.
In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus began infecting people in China; since then, the disease caused by that virus, COVID-19, has sickened millions of people across the world and in March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The pandemic has severely impacted global economic activity, and many countries and many states in the United States have reacted to the outbreak by instituting quarantines, mandating business and school closures and restricting travel. As of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we expect the COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken to contain it to impact our revenue (due to fewer new patients beginning therapy with our products and adverse impact on our ability to promote our products due to closure or limited operations of many physicians’ offices) and have decreased certain operating expenses, including travel, marketing and expenses associated with participation in congresses that have been postponed. We believe that the disruptions caused by COVID-19 will continue and there remains substantial uncertainty as to when such disruptions will cease (or ease).
Financial Operations Overview
Product revenue through the year ended December 31, 2020 has been generated from product sales of Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, product sales are recorded upon delivery of products to customers, net of a provision for estimated chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, distribution service fees, and returns.
Cost of Product Revenues
Cost of product revenues include amortization of the intangible asset acquired in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition and the prior Nucynta Commercialization Agreement (“Nucynta Intangible Asset”), royalty expense, the cost of active pharmaceutical ingredient, the cost of producing finished goods that correspond with revenue for the reporting period, as well as certain period costs related to freight, packaging, stability and quality testing. Please refer to
Note 4, License Agreements, and Note 9, Intangible Assets, for further detail around the Nucynta Intangible Asset and royalty expense.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist of costs associated with our research and development activities for our products. These costs are expensed as incurred and include compensation and employee-related costs, including stock-based compensation; costs associated with conducting our clinical and non-clinical activities, including clinical and non-clinical trials that we conduct for post-marketing requirements; and costs for laboratory supplies, depreciation of lab equipment, and other expenses including allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and employee-related costs, including stock-based compensation and travel expenses for our employees in executive, finance, sales and marketing and administrative functions. Other selling, general and administrative expenses include facility-related costs and professional fees for directors, accounting and legal services, and expenses associated with obtaining and maintaining patents. As we continue to invest in the commercialization of our products, we expect our selling, general and administrative expenses to be substantial for the foreseeable future.
Interest expense consists primarily of cash and non-cash interest costs related to the term notes and convertible notes issued in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition. Historically, interest expense has also related to the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement and cash interest costs from the Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”).
Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents.
Provision for Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes consists of state income tax for certain states that enacted changes in tax laws that prevent us from using our state-level NOLs to offset taxable income in 2020. We did not record income tax expense in 2019 due to the utilization of federal and state NOLs carried forward to offset taxable income.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates
Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements. Estimates include revenue recognition, including the estimates of product returns, units prescribed, discounts and allowances related to commercial sales of our products, estimates utilized in the valuation of inventory, estimates of useful lives with respect to intangible assets, accounting for stock-based compensation, contingencies, intangible assets and tax valuation allowances. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available and on various factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this on Form 10-K, we believe the following accounting policies to be most critical to the significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Our accounting policy for revenue recognition will have a substantial impact on reported results and relies on certain estimates. Estimates are based on historical experience, current conditions and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity and the amounts of revenues and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Our only source of revenue to date has been generated by sales of our products, which are primarily sold to distributors (“customers”), which in turn sell the product to pharmacies for the treatment of patients (“end users”). For the year ended December 31, 2020, in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), revenue for product sales is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. This generally occurs upon delivery; when estimated provisions for chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, distribution service fees, and returns are reasonably determinable. Therefore, product sales are recorded upon delivery net of estimated chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, distribution service fees, as well as estimated product returns.
Prior to the adoption of ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, we recognized revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition (“legacy GAAP”), or when there was persuasive evidence of an arrangement; when title and risk of loss had passed to the customer; when estimated provisions for chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowances, distribution service fees, and returns were reasonably determinable; and when collectability was reasonably assured. The satisfaction of these criteria generally occurred upon delivery of products to customers, or the sell-in method of revenue recognition under legacy GAAP. In addition, we recognized the transaction price net of estimated chargebacks, rebates, sales incentives and allowance. Given that timing of recognition for product sales under legacy GAAP and ASC 606 occurred on the delivery of products to customers and there were no differences in transaction price under legacy GAAP and ASC 606, the adoption of Topic 606 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, equity or cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Sales deductions consist primarily of provisions for (1) rebates and incentives, including managed care rebates, government rebates, co-pay program incentives, and sales incentives and allowances; (2) product returns, including return estimates for both the Nucynta Products and Xtampza ER; and (3) trade allowances and chargebacks, including fees for distribution service fees, prompt pay discounts, and chargebacks. We estimate the amount of variable consideration that should be included in revenue under the expected value method for all sales deductions other than trade allowances, which are estimated under the most likely amount method. These provisions reflect our best estimates of the amount of revenue to which we are entitled based on the terms of our contracts.
Provisions for rebates and incentives are based on the estimated amount of rebates and incentives to be claimed on the related sales from the period. As our rebates and incentives are based on products dispensed to patients, we are required to estimate the expected value of claims at the time of product delivery to distributors. Given that distributors sell the product to pharmacies, which in turn dispense the product to patients, claims can be submitted significantly after the related sales are recognized. Our estimates of these claims are based on the historical experience of existing or similar programs, including current contractual and statutory requirements, specific known market events and trends, industry data, and estimated distribution channel inventory levels. Accruals and related reserves required for rebates and incentives are adjusted as new information becomes available, including actual claims. If actual results vary, we may need to adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on revenue and earnings in the period of the adjustment.
Provisions for product returns are based on product-level historical trends, as well as relevant market events and other factors. For the Nucynta Products, estimates of product returns are primarily based on historical trends as the Nucynta Products have been commercially sold for a number of years. For Xtampza ER, since the product has only been commercially sold since June 2016, estimates of product returns are based on a combination of historical returns processed to date, taking into consideration the expiration date of product upon delivery to customers, as well as
forecasted customer buying patterns, shipment and prescription trends, channel inventory levels, and other specifically known market events and trends.
Provisions for trade allowances and chargebacks are primarily based on customer-level contractual terms. Accruals and related reserves are adjusted as new information becomes available, which generally consists of actual trade allowances and chargebacks processed relating to sales recognized in the period.
We record the fair value of finite-lived intangible assets as of the transaction date. Intangible assets are then amortized over their estimated useful lives using either the straight-line method, or if reliably determinable, based on the pattern in which the economic benefit of the asset is expected to be utilized. We test intangible assets for potential impairment whenever triggering events or circumstances present an indication of impairment. If the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows of the intangible assets is less than the carrying amount of such assets, the intangible assets would be written down to the estimated fair value, calculated based on the present value of expected future cash flows.
As of December 31, 2020, our only intangible asset is related to the Nucynta Intangible Asset.
Results of Operations
In this section, we discuss the results of our operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. For a discussion of the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018, please refer to Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
The following table summarizes the results of our operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Years ended December 31,
Product revenues, net
Cost of product revenues
Cost of product revenues (excluding intangible asset amortization)
Intangible asset amortization
Total cost of products revenues
Research and development
Selling, general and administrative
Total operating expenses
Income (loss) from operations
Income (loss) before income taxes
Provision for income taxes
Net income (loss)
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Product revenues, net were $310.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 (“2020”), compared to $296.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 (“2019”). The $13.3 million increase related to an increase in revenue for Xtampza ER of $23.0 million, offset by a decrease in revenue for the Nucynta Products of $9.7 million. For 2020, Xtampza ER revenue was $128.0 million, compared to $105.0 million for 2019. The increase in revenue for Xtampza ER was primarily related to an increase in sales volume due to increasing demand. For 2020, Nucynta IR and ER
revenue was $116.3 million and $65.7 million, respectively, compared to $117.7 million and $74.0 million, respectively, for 2019. The decrease in revenue for the Nucynta Products was primarily related to lower sales volume, partially offset by an increase in price.
Cost of product revenues (excluding intangible asset amortization) was $69.5 million for 2020, compared to $178.9 million for 2019. The $109.4 million decrease was primarily related to a decrease in royalty expense for the Nucynta Products. In 2019, we recognized $118.6 million in sales-based royalty expense due to Assertio under the terms of the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement, representing a full year of royalty expense compared to $14.2 million in 2020, when our sales-based royalty obligations to Assertio ceased upon closing of the Nucynta Acquisition on February 13, 2020.
Intangible asset amortization was $60.7 million for 2020, compared to $14.8 million for 2019. The $45.9 million increase was primarily related to the Nucynta Acquisition, in which $367.1 million of consideration was allocated to the existing intangible asset as incremental cost in 2020. The intangible asset is being amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life of approximately six years.
Research and development expenses were $9.8 million for 2020, compared to $10.3 million for 2019. The $568,000 decrease was primarily related to a decrease in trial related costs.
Selling, general and administrative expenses were $113.8 million for 2020, compared to $116.4 million for 2019. The $2.6 million decrease was primarily related to:
|●||a decrease in sales, marketing and consulting costs of $4.1 million, primarily due to lower costs incurred in 2020 to support the ongoing commercialization of our products;|
|●||a decrease in travel, trainings, conferences, and meetings of $3.6 million, primarily due to the restrictions imposed in response to the COVID-19 outbreak;|
|●||a decrease in audit, legal, and other professional fees of $2.7 million, primarily due to lower litigation costs; partially offset by|
|●||an increase in other fees of $2.6 million, primarily due to certain states recently enacting excise taxes on the sale of opioids;|
|●||an increase in salaries, wages and benefits of $1.9 million, primarily due to stock-based compensation expense, wage increases and incentive compensation expense;|
|●||an increase in fees and permits, including fees associated with our pariticpation in the opioid PMR consoritum, of $1.2 million;|
|●||an increase in insurance of $917,000, primarily due to higher premiums;|
|●||an increase in subscriptions, licenses and support of $648,000;|
|●||an increase in rent expense of $436,000, primarily related to higher expenses with vehicle leases for our field-based employees.|
Interest expense was $28.9 million for 2020, compared to $909,000 for 2019. The $28.0 million increase was primarily due to interest expense recognized in 2020 associated with the term notes and convertible notes issued in connection with the Nucynta Acquisition.
Interest income was $232,000 for 2020, compared to $1.9 million for 2019. The $1.7 million decrease was primarily due to lower interest rates earned on money market funds.
Provision for income taxes was $830,000 for 2020, compared to none for 2019. The increase was primarily due to state income tax expense as, in 2020, certain states enacted changes in tax laws that prevent us from using our state-level NOLs to offset taxable income. In addition, we continue to generate more taxable income from sales of our products in states in which we do not have sufficient state-level NOLs to fully offset state taxable income. We did not record income tax expense in 2019 due to the utilization of federal and state NOLs carried forward to offset taxable income.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of liquidity
We have incurred net losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception until 2020. Historically, we have funded our operations primarily through the private placements of our preferred stock and convertible notes, public
offerings of common stock and convertible notes, and commercial bank debt. As of December 31, 2020, we had $174.1 million in cash and cash equivalents.
Borrowing Arrangements and Equity Offerings
The following transactions represent the material changes in borrowing arrangements and equity offerings that were previously disclosed in our most recent Annual Report.
Pharmakon Term Notes
On February 6, 2020, in connection with the execution of the Nucynta Purchase Agreement, we, together with our subsidiary, Collegium Securities Corporation, entered into the Loan Agreement with BioPharma Credit PLC, as collateral agent and lender; and BioPharma Credit Investments V (Master) LP, as lender. The Loan Agreement provides for a $200.0 million secured term loan (the “term notes”), the proceeds of which were used to finance a portion of the purchase price paid pursuant to the Nucynta Purchase Agreement.
The term notes will mature on the calendar quarter end immediately following the 48-month anniversary of the closing of the Nucynta Acquisition, and is guaranteed by our material domestic subsidiaries and is also secured by substantially all of our material domestic assets. The term notes will bear interest at a rate based upon LIBOR (subject to a LIBOR floor of 2.0%), plus a margin of 7.5% per annum. We are required to repay the term notes by making equal quarterly payments.
The Loan Agreement contains certain covenants and obligations of the parties, including, without limitation, covenants that require us to maintain $200.0 million in annual net sales and covenants that limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness or liens, make acquisitions or other investments or dispose of assets outside the ordinary course of business. Failure to comply with these covenants would constitute an event of default under the Loan Agreement, notwithstanding our ability to meet its debt service obligations. The Loan Agreement also includes various customary remedies for the lenders following an event of default, including the acceleration of repayment of outstanding amounts under the Loan Agreement and execution upon the collateral securing obligations under the Loan Agreement. As of December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all of its covenants.
2026 Convertible Notes
On February 13, 2020, in connection with the execution of the Nucynta Purchase Agreement, we issued 2.625% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the “convertible notes”), in the aggregate principal amount of $143.8 million, in a public offering registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The proceeds were used to finance a portion of the purchase price paid pursuant to the Nucynta Purchase Agreement.
The convertible notes are senior, unsecured obligations and will accrue interest at a rate of 2.625% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on August 15, 2020. The notes will mature on February 15, 2026, unless earlier repurchased, redeemed or converted. Before August 15, 2025, noteholders will have the right to convert their notes only upon the occurrence of certain events. From and after August 15, 2025, noteholders may convert their notes at any time at their election until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately before the maturity date. We will settle conversions by paying or delivering, as applicable, cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election. The initial conversion rate is 34.2618 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes, which represents an initial conversion price of approximately $29.19 per share of common stock. The conversion rate and conversion price will be subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events.
Silicon Valley Bank Term Loan Facility
From August 2012 until January 2020, we maintained a term loan facility with Silicon Valley Bank, which was amended in connection with, and as a condition to, consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement. Under the amended term loan, we had a term loan facility in an amount of $11.5 million, which replaced our previously existing term loan facility. The proceeds were used to finance certain payment obligations under the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement and to repay the balance of the previously existing term loan. In January 2020, in anticipation of consummation of the Nucynta Acquisition and related financing activities, we repaid all of our outstanding indebtedness under the amended term loan.
In this section, we discuss cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. For a discussion of the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018, please refer to Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Years ended December 31,
Net cash provided by operating activities
Net cash used in investing activities
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
Operating activities. Cash provided by operating activities was $93.9 million in 2020, compared to cash provided by operating activities of $27.8 million in 2019. The $66.1 million increase in cash provided by operating activities was primarily due to higher net income as adjusted for non-cash adjustments related to the Nucynta Acquisition, which resulted in higher intangible asset amortization and higher non-cash interest expense from the term notes and convertible notes. These increases were partially offset by decreases in working capital accounts.
Investing activities. Cash used in investing activities was $373.8 million in 2020, compared to cash provided by investing activities of $6.4 million in 2019. The $367.4 million increase in cash used in investing activities was primarily related to the Nucynta Acquisition. The remaining change is primarily related to the timing of purchases of property, plant, and equipment primarily for the dedicated production suite at our contract manufacturing organization.
Financing activities. Cash provided by financing activities was $286.5 million in 2020, compared to cash provided by financing activities of $2.0 million in 2019. The $284.5 million increase in cash provided by financing activities was primarily related to net proceeds from the term notes of $192.1 million and issuance of the convertible notes of $138.3 million, both of which were issued in 2020. This increase was partially offset by term note repayments of $37.5 million and the SVB term loan repayment of $11.5 million. The remaining change is primarily related to changes in proceeds from the issuance of shares under our employee stock purchase plan and proceeds from exercises of stock options, offset by payments made for employee restricted stock tax withholdings.
We believe that our cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2020, together with expected cash inflows from the commercialization of our products, will enable us to fund our operating expenses, debt service and capital expenditure requirements under our current business plan for the foreseeable future. However, we are subject to all the risks common to the commercialization and development of new pharmaceutical products, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may adversely affect our business.
Certain economic or strategic considerations may cause us to seek additional cash through private or public debt or equity offerings. Such funds may not be available when needed, or, we may not be able to obtain funding on favorable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our products. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of additional debt or equity securities, it could result in dilution to our existing shareholders, increased fixed payment obligations and the existence of securities with rights that may be senior to those of our common stock. If we incur indebtedness, we could become subject to covenants that would restrict our operations and potentially impair our competitiveness, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. Any of these events could significantly harm our business, financial condition and prospects.
Our forecast that our financial resources will be adequate to support our operations is a forward-looking statement and
involves risks and uncertainties, and actual results could vary as a result of a number of factors. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. The amount and timing of future funding requirements, both near- and long-term, will depend on many factors, including:
|●||the generation of reasonable levels of revenue from products sales;|
|●||the cost of growing and maintaining sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for our products;|
|●||the cost of patent infringement litigation, including our litigation with Purdue, relating to Xtampza ER and the Nucynta Products, which may be expensive to defend;|
|●||the cost of litigation related to opioid marketing and distribution practices;|
|●||the timing and costs associated with manufacturing our products, for commercial sale and clinical trials|
|●||our need to expand our regulatory and compliance functions; and|
|●||the effect of competing technological and market developments.|
If we cannot capitalize on our business opportunities because we lack sufficient capital, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020 that will affect our future liquidity:
1 - 3 years
3 - 5 years
Operating lease obligations (1)
Term notes, including interest
Convertible senior notes, including interest
Purchase obligations (2)
Operating lease obligations represent future minimum lease payments under our non-cancelable operating lease in effect as of December 31, 2020, primarily reflecting remaining lease payments for space at our current headquarters in Stoughton, Massachusetts.
Purchase obligations represent the minimum purchase obligations of up to $3.0 million per year with our contract manufacturer as of December 31, 2020. The disclosed amounts represent the maximum amount that could be payable under the minimum purchase obligations.
We also have employment agreements with executive officers that would require us to make severance payments to them if we terminate their employment without cause or the executives resign for good cause. These payments are contingent upon the occurrence of various future events, and the amounts payable under these provisions depend upon the level of compensation at the time of termination of employment, are therefore not calculable at this time.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
To supplement our financial results presented on a GAAP basis, we have included information about non-GAAP adjusted income and adjusted EBITDA. We use these non-GAAP financial measures to understand, manage and evaluate the Company as we believe they represent the performance of our core business. Because these non-GAAP financial measures are important internal measures for the Company, we believe that the presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures provides analysts, investors, lenders and other third parties insight into management’s view and assessment of the Company’s ongoing operating performance. In addition, we believe that the presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures, when viewed with our results under GAAP and the accompanying reconciliation, provide supplementary information that may be useful to analysts, investors, lenders, and other third parties in assessing the Company’s performance and results from period to period. We report these non-GAAP financial measures to portray the results of our major operations prior to considering certain income statement elements. These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for, or superior to, net income or other financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP.
Non-GAAP Adjusted Income
Non-GAAP adjusted income is not based on any standardized methodology prescribed by GAAP and represents GAAP net income (loss) adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation expense, amortization expense, non-cash interest expense, certain royalty costs recognized in connection with the Nucynta Commercialization Agreement and the provision for income taxes. Non-GAAP adjusted income as used by us may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies.
Three months ended
GAAP net income (loss)
Stock-based compensation expense(1)
Intangible asset amortization(2)
Non-cash interest expense(3)
Nucynta royalty adjustment (4)
Provision for income taxes (5)
Total non-GAAP adjustments
Non-GAAP adjusted income
Adjusted EBITDA represents GAAP net income (loss) adjusted to exclude interest expense, interest income, income tax expense, depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation. Adjusted EBITDA as used by us may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies.
There are several limitations related to the use of adjusted EBITDA rather than net income (loss), which is the nearest GAAP equivalent, such as:
|●||adjusted EBITDA excludes depreciation and amortization, and, although these are non-cash expenses, the assets being depreciated or amortized may have to be replaced in the future, the cash requirements for which are not reflected in adjusted EBITDA;|
|●||we exclude stock-based compensation expense from adjusted EBITDA although (a) it has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense for our business and an important part of our compensation strategy and (b) if we did not pay out a portion of our compensation in the form of stock-based compensation, the cash salary expense included in operating expenses would be higher, which would affect our cash position;|
|●||adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, working capital needs;|
|●||adjusted EBITDA does not reflect provision for income taxes or the cash requirements to pay taxes; and|
|●||adjusted EBITDA does not reflect historical cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments.|
Three months ended
GAAP net income (loss)
Provision for income taxes
Stock-based compensation expense
GAAP net income
Provision for income taxes
Stock-based compensation expense
GAAP net loss
Stock-based compensation expense
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements during the periods presented, as defined under SEC rules.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks
We are exposed to market risk related to changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents consisting of cash and money market funds of $174.1 million. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates, particularly because our money market funds are short-term highly liquid investments. Due to the short-term duration and the low risk profile of
our investments, an immediate 10% change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our portfolio.
Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Our consolidated financial statements, together with the reports of our independent registered public accounting firms, begin on page F-1 of this Form 10-K.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, as of the end of the period covered by this report. The term “disclosure controls and procedures” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2020.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Internal control over financial reporting refers to the process designed by, or under the supervision of, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, and effected by our Board of Directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and includes those policies and procedures that:
(1) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets;
(2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and
(3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
Internal control over financial reporting cannot provide absolute assurance of achieving financial reporting objectives because of its inherent limitations. Internal control over financial reporting is a process that involves human diligence and compliance and is subject to lapses in judgment and breakdowns resulting from human failures. Internal control over financial reporting also can be circumvented by collusion or improper management override. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of such limitations, there is a risk that material misstatements may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by internal control over financial reporting. However, these inherent limitations are known features of the financial reporting process. Therefore, it is possible to design into the process safeguards to reduce, though not eliminate, this risk.
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting, as
such term is defined in Rules 13a 15(f) and 15d 15(f) under the Exchange Act. Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Management has used the framework set forth in the report entitled “Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013)” published by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Based on its evaluation, management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020, the end of our most recent fiscal year.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
As required by Rule 13a-15(d) of the Exchange Act, our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, conducted an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting to determine whether any changes occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer did not identify any change in our internal control over financial reporting during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2020 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, of the Company and our report dated February 25, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP
February 25, 2021
Item 9B. Other Information
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
Other than the information regarding our executive officers provided in Part I of this report under the heading “Business—Executive Officers of the Registrant,” the information required to be furnished pursuant to this item is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of the Shareholders.
Our Board of Directors has adopted a Code of Ethics applicable to all of our employees, executive officers and directors. The Code of Ethics is available on our website at www.collegiumpharma.com. Our Board of Directors is responsible for overseeing compliance with the Code of Ethics, and our Board of Directors or an appropriate committee thereof must approve any waivers of the Code of Ethics for employees, executive officers or directors. Disclosure regarding any amendments to the Code of Ethics, or any waivers of its requirements, will be made on our website.
Item 11. Executive Compensation
The information required by this Item 11 is incorporated herein by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
The information required by this Item 12 is incorporated herein by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
The information required by this Item 13 is incorporated herein by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
The information required by this Item 14 is incorporated herein by reference from our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Consolidated Financial Statements
See Part II, Item 8 for the Consolidated Financial Statements required to be included in this Form 10-K.
Consolidated Financial Statement Schedules
All financial statement schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.