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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
_____________________________________________
Commission file number: 001-34180
FLUIDIGM CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 77-0513190
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization I.R.S. Employer Identification No.
2 Tower Place, Suite 2000
South San Francisco,
CA
94080
Address of principal executive officesZip Code
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 266-6000
_____________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per shareFLDMThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
_____________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $282,343,691, based on the closing sale price on that date. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each other person who may be deemed to be an affiliate of the Registrant have been excluded from this computation. The determination of affiliate status for this purpose is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of January 31, 2021, there were 74,546,957 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement in connection with the registrant’s annual meeting of stockholders, scheduled to be held in May 2021, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report. Except as expressly incorporated by reference, the registrant’s Proxy Statement shall not be deemed to be part of this report.



Fluidigm Corporation
Fiscal Year 2020
Form 10-K
Annual Report
______________________________________
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
PART I
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART II
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
PART III
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
i


Special Note Regarding Forward-looking Statements and Industry Data
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (Form 10-K) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act, that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk factors,” and “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.” Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future cash flow, revenue, sources of revenue and results of operations, cost of product revenue and product margin, operating and other expenses, unit sales and the selling prices of our products, business strategies, financing plans, expansion of our business, competitive position, industry environment, potential growth opportunities, market growth expectations, and the effects of competition. Forward-looking statements include statements that are not historical facts and can be identified by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts, “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We discuss these risks in greater detail in the section entitled “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements represent our management’s beliefs and assumptions only as of the date of this Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future. You should read this Form 10-K completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
This Form 10-K also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain of our products, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market, and other data from reports, research surveys, studies, and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data, and similar sources.
____________________________
Fluidigm®, the Fluidigm logo, Access Array™, Advanta™, Biomark™, Bringing new insights to life™, C1™, Callisto™, Cell-ID™, CyTOF®, D3™, Delta Gene™, Direct™, Dynamic Array™, EP1™, EQ™, FC1™, Flex Six™, Helios™, High-Precision 96.96 Genotyping™, HTI™, Hyperion™, IMC™, Imaging Mass Cytometry™, Immune Profiling Assay™, Juno™, Maxpar®, MCD™, MSL®, Nanoflex™, Open App™, Pathsetter™, Polaris™, qdPCR 37K™, Script Builder™, Script Hub™, Singular™, SNP Trace™, and SNP Type™ are trademarks or registered trademarks of Fluidigm Corporation. Other service marks, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.
____________________________
Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “Fluidigm,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Fluidigm Corporation and its subsidiaries.




PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Fluidigm improves life by driving meaningful insights in health and disease. Our innovative technologies explore the biological complexities of disease to advance human health through research, diagnostics and clinical applications. We create, manufacture, and market a range of products and services, including instruments, consumables, reagents and software that are used by researchers and clinical labs worldwide. Our customers are leading academic and government laboratories, as well as pharmaceutical, biotechnology, plant and animal research organizations, and clinical laboratories worldwide. Together with our customers, we strive to increase the quality of life for all.
Our mass cytometry Helios™ system deeply profiles cell phenotype and function. Referenced by more than one thousand peer-reviewed publications around the world, mass cytometry has set a new standard in human immune profiling. Transforming biological imaging, our Hyperion™ Imaging System enables highly multiplexed protein biomarker detection in tissues and tumors while still preserving tissue architecture and cellular morphology information using Imaging Mass Cytometry™ (IMC™).
Our microfluidic systems complement our mass cytometry offerings by providing highly scalable and automated workflows for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gene expression, copy number variation analysis, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation. Used to detect somatic and genomic variations from a range of different sample types, these automated systems provide the cost efficiencies, flexibility and proven analytical performance that customers need to meet the increasing demands of molecular biomarker analysis for diagnostics and research applications.
Market Opportunity
We believe that we have large, multi-billion-dollar market opportunities for our products. We are a leader in the high-growth cytometry market for high parameter applications and high-plex imaging. Through our work with outside consultants and internal market analysis, we believe that the current potential market for mass cytometry high-parameter applications and addressable markets for spatial imaging is just under $1 billion, but expected to be approximately $3 billion by 2025, growing at a compound annual growth rate of approximately 27% over the next five years. We believe we will gain greater access to this market as use of our products expands beyond research to translational and clinical use.
For our microfluidics products, our work with outside consultants and market analysis reflect a large potential respiratory and COVID-19 molecular diagnostics market opportunity. We believe that our differentiated PCR microfluidics products are well-suited to serve the needs of the diagnostics market and our participation in COVID-19 testing provides an entry point for Fluidigm to build a long-term durable diagnostics business. The current markets for our products address a broad range of biological analysis approaches, including the genome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome and microbiome used by academic life science research customers, as well as applied markets customers, including diagnostic and clinical research laboratories, biopharmaceutical companies, biorepositories and agricultural biotechnology entities. Our markets are increasingly looking to study data sets spanning these approaches in a concerted manner to reveal, understand, and address the biological complexities of disease.
Strategy
Key elements of our strategy include:
Offering innovative, differentiated products to researchers based on our mass cytometry and microfluidic technologies.
Mass cytometry is a leading, highly multiplexed solution to analyze many cell-surface and intracellular proteins simultaneously in cell suspensions including blood and disassociated tissues. Our products enable innovative methods to characterize cells and other sample types not commonly achieved with other conventional technologies.
IMC™ is a pioneering technology allowing for highly multiplexed imaging to understand the composition of tissue microenvironments at a subcellular 1-micron resolution. Together with Mass Cytometry, these products provide researchers the capabilities to gain deeper insights into immune function.
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Our microfluidic technologies enable a scalable and sensitive solution in fields requiring high-throughput molecular biomarker analysis, whether it be for the analysis of gene expression profiles, genotyping, analysis of proteomic biomarkers, or library preparation in advance of gene sequencing.
With the COVID-19 pandemic, key aspects of our microfluidic technologies make such technologies competitive in the global COVID-19 testing market. This has created a new market opportunity that has been incorporated in our 2021 strategy.
Expanding addressable markets through assay content development, workflow efficiency, software improvements, desirable strategic partnerships and inorganic growth opportunities.
Our strategy is to provide expanded and enhanced applications, workflows and analytics to allow our customers better productivity, increasing the value of our mass cytometry and microfluidics product lines.
In response to the need for testing to detect SARS-CoV-2, we developed our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay for use by authorized laboratories with Fluidigm microfluidics instruments. We received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for this assay in August 2020, and we also supported customer efforts to develop their own laboratory developed tests and respiratory panels using our microfluidics-based products.
Our customers have been using our award winning sample-to-answer workflow for comprehensive human immune profiling, for use with our Helios system, has played an important role in immune profiling of COVID-19 patient samples. Our spatial imaging mass cytometry capabilities are also used for immune profiling of lung tissue samples that may inform research and development of new treatment approaches for COVID-19. This workflow and our products are already being used by our customers in ongoing research for cancer, chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmune and infectious diseases with inclusion in over 1,380 publications and use in 127 clinical trials as of December 31, 2020.
We have collaborated with industry partners to enable workflows and software for both the Helios and Hyperion systems. In 2020, we also launched our Therapeutic Insights Services and opened a Japan service lab, expanding accessibility of sample-to-answer mass cytometry and Imaging Mass Cytometry services for a broad range of translational and clinical research needs.
We have leveraged both in-house development as well as externally partnered solutions to drive new applications and sample-to-answer functionality across all our platforms. In 2020, we developed and collaborated with strategic partners to build our applications, software and assays on our microfluidic platforms for diagnostics, as well as gene expression, genotyping and sequencing library preparations.
In 2020:
We executed a definitive contract with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a project under the NIH Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx) program. The project encompasses expanding our production capacity and throughput capabilities for COVID-19 tests, with funding of up to $34.0 million upon achievement of certain milestones.
We expanded an existing collaboration with Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai to include COVID-19-related diagnostics and research work. This study is being funded by the U.S. Department of Defense.
We entered into an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) development agreement with a customer to develop products based on our microfluidics technology with payments of up to $11.7 million during the development stage, with some of these payments recognized in 2020.
Products
We market innovative technologies and life science tools, including preparatory and analytical instruments for Mass Cytometry, PCR, Library Prep, Single Cell Genomics, and consumables, including integrated fluidic circuits (IFCs), assays, and reagents. Our primary product offerings are summarized in the table below:
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ProductProduct DescriptionApplications
Mass Cytometry
Analytical Systems:
Helios™, a CyTOF system
The Helios mass cytometry system performs high-parameter (>50) single-cell analysis using antibodies conjugated to metal isotopes.
Mass Cytometry
Hyperion™ Imaging SystemThe Hyperion Imaging System brings together imaging capability with proven high-parameter CyTOF technology to enable the simultaneous detection of up to 38 protein markers in the spatial context of the tissue microenvironment.Imaging Mass Cytometry
Hyperion™ Tissue ImagerThe Hyperion Tissue Imager scans tissues at 1 micron resolution. It can be purchased as an upgrade for the Helios system to enable imaging capability, then referred to as Hyperion Imaging System.Imaging Mass Cytometry
Flow ConductorFlow Conductor is an integrated sample preparation system for flow or mass cytometry assays. Mass Cytometry
Assays and Reagents:
Maxpar® ReagentsMaxpar® reagents are included in multiple product lines addressing needs in functional and phenotypic profiling of single cells, as well as nucleic acid detection. The product lines include more than 800 pre-conjugated antibodies, application-specific kits, and custom antibody labeling services.Mass Cytometry and Imaging Mass Cytometry
Maxpar Human Immune Monitoring Panel Kit and Workflow
The kit contains 29 pre-titrated antibodies designed and optimized for deep immune profiling of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Enables identification and characterization of key immune cell populations. The workflow includes protocol and data analysis.Mass Cytometry
Maxpar Direct Immune Profiling Assay
The assay enables identification and characterization of 37 immune cell populations with automated software. The kit contains 30 pre-titrated antibodies provided in a dry single-tube format and is also compatible with additional expansion panels focusing on specific cell populations.
Mass Cytometry
Maxpar IMC Panel Kits for Immuno-oncologyContains a mix of non-overlapping metal-conjugated antibodies to deeply profile tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, immune cell activation states or tissue architecture. These new panels can be easily mixed and matched or combined as an 18-marker panel to broadly profile immune infiltrates.Mass Cytometry
Software:
CyTOF Software v7.0Streamlines the selection and acquisition of multiple Regions of Interest (ROI) from each slide.Mass Cytometry
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ProductProduct DescriptionApplications
Microfluidics
Preparatory Instruments:
Juno System
An integrated system that automates the preparation of RNA-seq and amplicon-based libraries for next-generation sequencing (NGS). Additionally, Juno automates microfluidic-based PCR workflows by processing IFCs prior to analysis on Biomark HD or EP1 platforms.
Library preparation for RNA-seq and targeted NGS. PCR applications include sequence detection, sample identification, genotyping, gene expression, and real-time digital PCR
Analytical Instruments:
Biomark HD SystemReal-time PCR analytical instrument for microfluidics-based workflows using Fluidigm IFCs.Sequence detection, sample identification, genotyping, gene expression, and real-time digital PCR Expression
EP1 SystemEnd-point PCR analytical instrument for microfluidics-based workflows using Fluidigm IFCs.Genotyping, sample identification, and digital PCR
Integrated Fluidic Circuits (IFCs):
Library Preparation (LP) IFCsLP and 48.Atlas IFCs for NGS LP supporting RNA-Seq and targeted amplicon-based sequencing.
Library preparation for RNA-seq and targeted NGS
Juno Genotyping IFCIFC that incorporates preamplification for genotyping of 96 samples and 96 markers in a single run.Genotyping, sample identification
Dynamic Array IFCsIFCs based on matrix architecture, allowing users to (i) individually assay up to 24 samples against up to 192 assays, (ii) individually assay up to 48 samples against up to 48 assays, (iii) individually assay up to 96 samples against up to 96 assays, or (iv) individually assay up to 192 samples against up to 24 assays.
Real-time and end-point PCR; Sequence detection, sample identification, genotyping, gene expression, and real-time digital PCR
Digital Array IFCsIFCs based on partitioning architecture allowing users to (i) individually assay up to 12 samples or panels across 765 chambers, or to (ii) individually assay up to 48 samples across 770 chambers per IFC.
Real-time and end-point digital PCR, Copy Number Variation and variant detection
Flex Six IFCIFC that incorporates six 12 X 12 partitions that can be organized in any configuration, in up to six separate experimental runs.Gene Expression and SNP Genotyping
Assays and Reagents:
Advanta RNA-Seq NGS Library Prep KitIntegrated solution for automated NGS library prep. Used with the Juno system with the Advanta RNA-Seq reagents and 48.Atlas IFCs, supports simultaneous processing of up to 48 total RNA samples.
RNA-seq library preparation for NGS
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ProductProduct DescriptionApplications
Advanta™ Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR AssayqPCR-based test that takes advantage of Fluidigm proprietary microfluidics technology and the Juno™ and Biomark™ HD systems.Enables reliable, high-capacity testing of saliva samples from patients suspected by their health care providers of COVID-19 (coronavirus) infection to support diagnostic decision making
 Delta Gene and SNP Type AssaysCustom designed assays targeted to genomic regions of interest for genotyping and gene expression.Gene Expression, Single-Cell Targeted Gene Expression, SNP Genotyping
Access Array Target-Specific Primers and Targeted Sequencing Prep PrimersCustom designed assays for NGS library preparation using Access Array chemistry on the Access Array or Juno systems.Library preparation for targeted NGS
Targeted DNA Seq Library AssaysCustom designed assays for NGS library preparation using Targeted DNA Sequencing Library Preparation chemistry on the Juno systems.Library preparation for targeted NGS
Single Cell Microfluidics
Preparatory Instrument:
 C1 SystemSample preparation system that rapidly and reliably isolates and processes individual cells for genomic analysis.Single-Cell NGS library preparation for RNA sequencing including full-length, end-counting, and total RNA applications; single-cell targeted gene expression by real-time PCR including microRNA analysis; single-cell epigenetics and multi-omic applications including ATAC-seq and REAP-Seq (RNA and Protein); single-cell NGS library preparation for DNA sequencing including targeted, whole exome and whole genome applications
Preparatory Analytical Instruments:
C1 IFCsIFCs that capture up to 800 cells between 5-25 microns in diameter and then automatically process the cells for a variety of genomic analysis using thermal and pneumatic controls at nanoliter scale.Single-Cell NGS library preparation for RNA sequencing including full-length, end-counting, and total RNA applications; single-cell targeted gene expression by real-time PCR including microRNA analysis; single-cell epigenetics and multi-omic applications including ATAC-seq and REAP-Seq (RNA and Protein); single-cell NGS library preparation for DNA sequencing including targeted, whole exome and whole genome applications
Technology
Multi-Layer Soft Lithography
Our IFCs are manufactured using multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) technology to create valves, chambers, channels and other fluidic components on our IFCs that allow nanoliter quantities of fluids to be precisely manipulated within the
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IFC. We have developed commercial manufacturing processes to fabricate valves, channels, vias, and chambers with dimensions in the ten to 100 micron range, at high density and with high yields.
Integrated Fluidic Circuits
Our IFCs incorporate several different types of technology that together enable us to use MSL technology to rapidly design and deploy new microfluidic applications. The first level of our IFC technology is a library of components that perform basic microfluidic functions, such as pumps, mixers, single-cell capture chambers, separation columns, control logic, and reaction chambers. The second level of our IFC technology comprises the architectures we have designed to exploit our ability to conduct thousands of reactions on a single IFC. The third level of our IFC technology involves the interaction of our IFCs with the actual laboratory environment. Our IFCs are built on specially designed input frames that are compatible with most commonly used laboratory systems.
Instrumentation and Software
Our mass cytometry instrumentation technology includes a custom-designed inductively coupled plasma ion source, ion-optical and vacuum systems, and instrument control electronics. With our Helios system, individual cells are atomized, ionized, and extracted. A time-of-flight mass analyzer separates atomic ions of different mass-to-charge ratios, providing information on temporal distribution of ions. The Hyperion Imaging System combines mass cytometry technology with imaging capability to enable simultaneous interrogation of up to 38 protein markers in the spatial context of the tissue microenvironment. Our systems have the ability to utilize up to 135 channels to detect additional parameters to meet future market needs. Lastly, our Flow Conductor sample preparation system provides sample preparation capabilities for both flow and mass cytometry assays. The Flow Conductor system can process up to 100 antibodies at a time and simultaneously stain and prepare up to 18 specimens.
Our Biomark HD system includes our custom thermal cycler, the FC1 cycler, and a sophisticated fluorescence imaging system. Our EP1 instrument is a fluorescence reader designed for end-point imaging, suitable for genotyping and digital PCR applications. Our C1 system combines the hardware elements of our IFC controllers and FC1 cycler with sophisticated scripting and protocol control software to enable automation of single-cell capture and preparation for subsequent analysis. Certain capabilities of the C1 system have been used to create our Juno system, which serves as a universal controller and cycler for our Dynamic Array IFCs. Our Polaris system combines the capabilities of all these instruments by incorporating thermal cycling, IFC control, environmental regulation, and imaging.
We have developed instrumentation technology to load samples and reagents onto our IFCs and to control and monitor reactions within our IFCs. Our line of IFC controllers consists of commercial pneumatic components and both custom and commercial electronics. They apply precise control of multiple pressures to move fluid and control valve states in a microfluidic IFC.
We also offer specialized software to manage and analyze the unusually large amounts of data produced by our systems. We offer Fluidigm Cytobank, our cloud-based platform of analytical tools, FCS Express7 Flow, and Maxpar Pathsetter data analysis packages for use with the Helios system. For our Imaging Mass Cytometry platform, Hyperion, we offer various state of the art software packages to enable data analysis from basic to translational research: CyTOF Software 7.0, MCD Viewer, histoCAT, Visiopharm Phenomap and Indica Lab Halo. Our bioinformatic toolset, the Singular software, facilitates the analysis and visualization of single-cell gene expression data. More recently, we extended the scope of the toolset to include DNA analysis tools. We also developed the C1 Script Builder software to enable customers to take full advantage of the flexibility of C1 IFC architecture by allowing them to program their own control scripts for the C1 system.
Assays and Reagents
We manufacture over 800 metal-conjugated antibodies for use with our mass cytometry and Imaging Mass Cytometry instruments to allow detection of up to approximately 44 protein targets simultaneously in a single cell for a total of more than 50 detected cellular parameters. Our metal-conjugated antibodies are manufactured using metal-chelating polymers, which are produced using proprietary polymerization processes and subsequent post-polymerization modifications.
Our Delta Gene and single nucleotide polymorphism type (SNP Type) assay products consist of assay design and custom content delivery systems for gene expression and genotyping, respectively. These offerings provide low-cost alternatives to other available chemistries and allow customers to use IFCs in more flexible ways. PCR assay reagents need to be specific to the gene targets of interest but the process of designing a set of assays may delay the implementation experiments or require the use of expensive pre-designed assays. We have developed a process to provide customers with validated assays for their targets of interest.
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Genomics
One primary area of focus within life science research is genetic analysis, the study of genes and their functions. The hereditary material or nucleic acid of an organism is often referred to as its genome, the protein-encoding regions of which are commonly known as genes. Analysis of variations in genomes, genes and gene activity in and between organisms can provide valuable insight into their health and functioning. Single-cell genomics is the study of the sequence and expression of genes and their ultimate functions at the individual cell level.
There are several forms of genetic analysis in use today, including genotyping, gene expression analysis and NGS:
Genotyping involves the analysis of DNA variations across individual genomes. There are multiple forms of variants, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), insertion-deletions and copy number variation. A common application of genotyping focuses on analyzing SNPs to determine whether a SNP or group of SNPs are associated with a particular genetic trait, such as propensity for a disease.
Gene expression analysis involves measuring the levels of particular ribonucleic acid sequences known as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which have been transcribed from genes. Determining these levels is important because mRNAs are often translated by the cell into proteins and may affect the activity of the cell or the larger organism.
NGS is a process by which researchers are able to determine the particular order of nucleotide bases that comprise all or a portion of a particular gene or genome (in the case of DNA sequencing) or gene transcript or sample transcriptome (in the case of RNA sequencing). NGS is routinely used for studies across the research continuum including basic research, biomarker discovery, translational research, and clinical research.
Gene expression and genotyping are studied through a combination of various technology platforms that characterize gene function and genetic variation. These platforms often rely on PCR amplification to generate exponential copies of a DNA sample to provide sufficient signal to facilitate detection. Real-time quantitative PCR (real-time qPCR) is a more advanced form of PCR that makes it possible to quantify the number of copies of DNA present in a sample.
Proteomics
Another focus within life science research is single cell protein analysis, the study of proteins and their structures and functions. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, signaling response to stimuli and transporting molecules from one location to another. The proteome varies and is dynamic. Every cell in an individual organism has the same set of genes, but the set of proteins produced in different tissues differ from one another and are dependent on gene expression. Protein analysis is required to profile and understand cellular function as well as the interaction in tissues and other complex microenvironments.
There are several forms of high-throughput protein analysis in use today, including mass spectrometry, traditional flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and both suspension and Imaging Mass Cytometry.
Mass spectrometry is an analytical chemistry technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio in molecules using external electric and magnetic fields. Mass spectrometry techniques are limited to bulk samples and provide an understanding of global protein dynamics on a tissue or organism level, but do not, by themselves, enable researchers to analyze data at a single cell level.
Traditional flow cytometry utilizes a suspension of cells in a stream of fluid and passes them through an electronic detection apparatus to allow simultaneous multi-parameter analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of cells per second. Although traditional flow cytometry technologies are high-throughput with single-cell analysis capabilities, a key limitation is the use of fluorescent dyes to label antibodies for detection. These fluorescent labels have emission spectra that typically overlap, making it challenging to optimize reagents to analyze many protein markers at once. In general, the number of protein targets for conventional flow cytometry is less than about 10 with significant reagent optimization often involved.
Immunohistochemistry is a method by which cells in a tissue section are stained with antibodies and then imaged with a conventional or fluorescent microscope. Antibodies selected to bind to proteins of interest can be conjugated with either chromogenic or fluorescent labels, allowing cellular proteins to be visualized in spatial context. Immunohistochemistry is used broadly throughout the life sciences industry, and in clinical research to better understand the characteristics and relationship of cancerous versus normal cells in biopsy tissue. In general, the number of simultaneously imageable proteins is less than five, with researchers only able to achieve a higher-
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parameter resolution using serial sections (several adjacent sections of the same tissue) or other highly laborious, more serial staining methods.
Suspension mass cytometry is similar to traditional flow cytometry but is based primarily on antibodies using heavy metal isotope labels rather than fluorescent labels for detection of proteins, enabling the significant expansion of the number of parameters analyzed per individual cell versus conventional flow cytometry technologies, as well as providing superior data quality. With high-throughput, single-cell analysis capabilities and the ability to analyze more protein markers per individual cell, researchers have more granular information, which allows them to identify and characterize even finer subpopulations of cells.
Imaging mass cytometry is similar to immunohistochemistry, but is also based primarily on antibodies using heavy metal isotope labels rather than fluorescent or chromogenic labels for detection of proteins. This method enables a significant expansion of the number of parameters simultaneously analyzed per tissue section rather than in adjacent sections or via serial staining protocols.
Customers
With the exception of our Advanta™ Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay (Rx Only), which is for In Vitro Diagnostic use under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and CE-IVD, being performed on our instruments, we sell our instruments for research use only to leading academic research institutions, translational research and medicine centers, cancer centers, clinical research laboratories, and biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, and plant and animal research companies. No single customer represented more than 10% of our total revenue for 2020, 2019, or 2018.
Marketing, Sales, Service and Support
We distribute our systems through our direct sales force and support organizations located in North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific, and through distributors or sales agents in several European, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and Asia-Pacific countries. Our sales and marketing efforts are targeted at laboratory directors and principal investigators at leading academic, translational research, healthcare consortiums, and biopharmaceutical companies who need reliable life science automation solutions to power their disease research with the goal of providing actionable insights.
Our sales process often involves numerous interactions and demonstrations with multiple people within an organization. Some potential customers conduct in-depth evaluations of the system, including running experiments on our system and competing systems. In addition, in most countries, sales to academic or governmental institutions require participation in a tender process involving preparation of extensive documentation and a lengthy review process. As a result of these factors and the budget cycles of our customers, our sales cycle, the time from initial contact with a customer to our receipt of a purchase order, can often be 12 months or longer.
Manufacturing
Our manufacturing operations are primarily located in Singapore and Canada. Our facility in Singapore manufactures our IFCs and manages production of our microfluidics instruments, which are assembled by our contract manufacturer located within our Singapore facility. All of our IFCs for commercial sale and some IFCs for our research and development purposes are also fabricated at our Singapore facility. Our mass cytometry instruments for commercial sale, as well as for internal research and development purposes, are manufactured at our facility in Canada.  
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for certain components and materials used in our products. Key components in our products that are supplied by sole or limited source suppliers include a specialized polymer and other specialized materials from which our IFC cores are fabricated, specialized custom camera lenses, fiber light guides, and other components required for the reader of our Biomark system; specialized pneumatic and electronic components for our C1, Juno, Callisto, and Polaris systems; the electron multiplier detector included in, and certain metal isotopes used with, our Helios system; specially developed lasers used in our Hyperion Imaging System; and certain raw materials for our Delta Gene and SNP Type assays and Access Array Target-Specific primers. The loss of a single or sole source supplier would require significant time and effort to locate and qualify an alternative source of supply, if at all, and could adversely impact our business. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Risk factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Research and Development
We have assembled experienced research and development teams at our South San Francisco, California, Markham, Ontario, Canada, and Singapore locations with the scientific, engineering, software, bioinformatic, and process talent that we believe is required to grow our business.
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The largest component of our current research and development effort is in the areas of new products, new applications and new content. In the area of mass cytometry, we developed an initial prototype Imaging Mass Cytometry instrument in 2016, and successfully launched the commercial Hyperion Imaging System in October 2017. The Hyperion Imaging System provides spatial resolution of protein expression in complex tissue samples at the single-cell level, quantitative measurement using metal isotope tags, and analysis of up to 38 proteins. We also developed metal-labeled antibodies compatible with formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples, to be used with the Hyperion Imaging System. We also invest significantly in research and development efforts to expand our microfluidics applications. For example, we continue to develop and commercialize various panel sets for cancer research for use with our systems. In 2017, we successfully launched the Advanta™ Immuno-Oncology Gene Expression Assay, which is a 170-gene expression qPCR assay that enables profiling of tumor immunobiology and new biomarker identification. In 2019, we launched the Advanta™ RNA-Seq NGS Library Prep Kit. Designed to drive significant improvement in the RNA-seq workflow, the Advanta RNA-Seq NGS Library Prep Kit together with the Juno™ system delivers an integrated solution for automated, cost-efficient NGS library prep. In 2020, we expanded our microfluidics franchise to develop products for the COVID-19 testing marketplace. We launched the AdvantaDx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay. In addition, we secured significant development partnerships, including for development of OEM systems using our microfluidics technology.
In 2019, we launched the Maxpar Direct Immune Profiling Assay, a sample-to-answer workflow for comprehensive human immune profiling for use with our Helios system, that puts pre-titrated antibodies in dry format in a single tube, with automated software that provides data analysis in as few as five minutes. This assay is reproducible from site-to-site and lot-to-lot, which is important for translational and pharma/biotech research work. We have collaborated with industry partners to enable workflows and software for both the Helios and Hyperion systems. Also in 2019, we added seven new metal antibody labels, becoming the first company to enable 50-plex cytometry panels, and launched three Imaging Mass Cytometry panel kits as well as CyTOF Software v7.0, an updated CyTOF software application.
The second component of our research and development effort is to continuously develop new manufacturing processes and test methods to drive down manufacturing costs, increase manufacturing throughput, widen fabrication process capability, and support new microfluidic devices and designs.
Our research and development expenses were $36.5 million, $31.6 million and $30.0 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018 respectively.
Competition
The life science markets are highly competitive and expected to grow more competitive with the increasing knowledge gained from ongoing research and development. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our target markets include competition for human resources; cost of capital equipment and supplies; reputation among customers; innovation in product offerings; flexibility and ease of use; accuracy and reproducibility of results; and compatibility with existing laboratory processes, tools, and methods.
We compete with both established and development stage life science companies that design, manufacture, and market instruments for gene expression analysis, genotyping, other nucleic acid detection, protein expression analysis, imaging, and additional applications. In addition, a number of other companies and academic groups are in the process of developing novel technologies for life science markets. Many of our competitors enjoy several competitive advantages over us, including significantly greater name recognition; greater financial and human resources; broader product lines and product packages; larger sales forces and e-commerce channels; larger and more geographically dispersed customer support organization; substantial intellectual property portfolios; larger and more established customer bases and relationships; greater resources dedicated to marketing efforts; better established and larger scale manufacturing capability; and greater resources and longer experience in research and development. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Risk factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
To successfully compete with existing products and future technologies, we need to demonstrate to potential customers that the performance of our technologies and products, the solutions we provide our customers, as well as our customer support capabilities, are superior to those of our competitors. To differentiate our company from other, larger enterprises, we need to introduce new and innovative offerings regularly and maintain a well-staffed commercial team “in the field” to successfully communicate the advantages of our products and overcome potential obstacles to acceptance of our products. In addition, ongoing collaborations and partnerships with key opinion leaders are desirable to demonstrate both biological innovation and applications that solve customer problems.
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Intellectual Property
Patents
We have developed a portfolio of issued patents and patent applications directed to commercial products and technologies in development. As of December 31, 2020, we owned or licensed more than 440 patents and we had approximately 140 pending patent applications worldwide. Our patents have expiration dates ranging up to 2037.
License Agreements
We have entered into licenses for technologies from various companies and academic institutions.
Microfluidic Technologies. Our core microfluidics technology originated at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in the laboratory of Professor Stephen Quake, who is a co-founder of Fluidigm. We license microfluidics technology from Caltech, Harvard University, and Caliper Life Sciences, Inc. (Caliper), now a PerkinElmer company.
We exclusively license from Caltech relevant patent filings relating to developed technologies that enable the production of specialized valves and pumps capable of controlling fluid flow at nanoliter volumes. The license agreement will terminate as to each country and licensed product upon expiration of the last-to-expire patent covering licensed products in each country. The U.S. issued patents we have licensed from Caltech expire between now and 2030.
We have entered into a co-exclusive license agreement with Harvard University for the license of relevant patent filings relating to microfluidic technology. The license agreement will terminate with the last-to-expire of the licensed patents. The U.S. issued patents we have licensed from Harvard University expire between now and 2027.
Mass Cytometry. Some of the intellectual property rights covering our mass cytometry products were subject to a license agreement (the Original License Agreement) between Fluidigm Canada Inc. (Fluidigm Canada), and PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. (PerkinElmer). Under the Original License Agreement, Fluidigm Canada received an exclusive, royalty bearing, worldwide license to certain patents owned by PerkinElmer in the field of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) -based mass cytometry, including the analysis of elemental tagged materials in connection therewith (the Patents), and a non-exclusive license for reagents outside the field of ICP-based mass cytometry. In November 2015, we entered into a patent purchase agreement with PerkinElmer pursuant to which we purchased the Patents for a purchase price of $6.5 million and a patent assignment agreement pursuant to which PerkinElmer transferred and assigned to us all rights, title, privileges, and interest in and to the Patents and the Original License Agreement. Accordingly, we have no further financial obligations to PerkinElmer under the Original License Agreement. Contemporaneously with the purchase of the Patents, we entered into a license agreement with PerkinElmer pursuant to which we granted PerkinElmer a worldwide, non-exclusive, fully paid-up license to the Patents in fields other than (i) ICP-based mass analysis of atomic elements associated with a biological material, including any elements that are unnaturally bound, directly or indirectly, to such biological material (Mass Analysis) and (ii) the development, design, manufacture, and use of equipment or associated reagents for such Mass Analysis.  The license will terminate on the last expiration date of the Patents, currently expected to be in December 2025, unless earlier terminated pursuant to the terms of the license agreement.
InstruNor AS. In January 2020, we completed the acquisition of InstruNor AS (InstruNor) for $7.2 million, including $5.2 million in cash and $2.0 million in stock. InstruNor provides automated sample preparation solutions for mass cytometry and flow cytometry instrument markets and is now part of Fluidigm’s mass cytometry business. Included in this acquisition were certain intellectual property portfolio assets comprising patents and/or patent applications directed to various aspects of automated cell pretreatment instruments. The putative patent expiration dates for this patent portfolio begin in March 2033.
Any loss, termination, or adverse modification of our licensed intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Risk factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Other
In addition to pursuing patents and licenses on key technologies, we have taken steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology by entering into confidentiality agreements and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, corporate partners, and, when needed, our advisers.
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Government Regulation
Under section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), the FDA has authority to allow certain unapproved medical products or unapproved uses of approved medical products to be used during a public health emergency. In issuing an EUA, the FDA will consider the totality of scientific evidence available to the FDA regarding safety, efficacy and known and potential risks of such products and availability of alternatives to the emergency use products, among others. EUAs issued by the FDA will specify the scope of authorization and conditions of authorization, including limitations on distribution and conditions related to product advertising and promotion. Once granted, an EUA is effective until the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of the emergency use is terminated under Section 564(b)(2) of the FD&C Act or the EUA is revoked under Section 564(g) of the FD&C Act, after which the product must be cleared or approved by the FDA under a traditional pathway in order to remain on the market or to continue commercialization of the product.
In August 2020, the FDA granted an EUA for our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay for qualitative detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimens from individuals suspected by their healthcare providers of having COVID-19. As set forth in the EUA, we are required to comply with the conditions of authorization, including certain requirements pertaining to FDA notification, distribution, printed materials, advertising and promotion. If we, our distributors, or authorized laboratories do not comply with the EUA requirements, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted, and we may be subject to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, penalties, or fines, among other adverse actions.
If the FDA’s policies and guidance change unexpectedly and/or materially or if we misinterpret them, potential sales of our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay could be adversely impacted. In addition, the FDA will revoke an EUA where it is determined that the underlying public health emergency no longer exists or warrants such authorization, or if new evidence becomes available that indicates the test does not meet the conditions of authorization or perform as provided in the EUA application. We cannot predict how long this EUA will remain effective. The termination or revocation of the EUA and changing policies and regulatory requirements could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Given the uncertain nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and future legislation and regulation in this space, we can provide no assurance with respect to our ability to achieve or sustain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.
Except for the Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay authorized by the FDA under the EUA granted in August 2020, all of our other products are currently labeled and sold for research purposes only, and we sell them to academic institutions, life sciences and clinical research laboratories that conduct research, and biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for non-diagnostic and non-clinical purposes. Our products are not intended or promoted for use in clinical practice in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, and they are labeled, “For research use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.” Accordingly, they are not subject to pre- and post-market controls for medical devices by the FDA. The FDA regulations require that research use only products be labeled, “For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures,” or RUO products.
In November 2013, the FDA issued a final guidance document stating that merely including a labeling statement that the product is for research purposes only will not necessarily render the device exempt from the FDA’s clearance, approval, or other regulatory requirements if the totality of circumstances surrounding the distribution of the product indicate that the manufacturer knows its product is being used by customers for diagnostic uses or the manufacturer intends such a use. These circumstances may include, among other things, written or verbal marketing claims regarding a product’s performance in clinical diagnostic applications and a manufacturer’s provision of technical support for such activities. In the future, certain of our products or related applications could become subject to regulation as medical devices by the FDA. If we wish to label and market our products for use in performing clinical diagnostics, thus subjecting them to regulation by the FDA under pre-market and post-market control as medical devices, unless an exemption applies, we would be required to obtain either prior 510(k) clearance or prior pre-market approval (PMA) from the FDA before commercializing the product. The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes. Devices deemed to pose lower risk to the patient are placed in either class I or II, which, unless an exemption applies, requires the manufacturer to submit a pre-market notification requesting FDA clearance for commercial distribution pursuant to Section 510(k) of the FD&C Act. This process, known as 510(k) clearance, requires that the manufacturer demonstrate that the device is substantially equivalent to a previously cleared and legally marketed 510(k) device or a “pre-amendment” class III device for which pre-market approval applications (PMAs) have not been required by the FDA. This FDA review process typically takes from four to twelve months, although it can take longer. Most class I devices are exempted from this 510(k) premarket submission requirement. Devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting, or implantable devices, or those deemed not substantially equivalent to a legally marketed predicate device, are placed in class III. Class III devices typically require PMA approval. To obtain PMA approval, an applicant must demonstrate the reasonable safety and effectiveness of the device based, in part, on data obtained in clinical studies. PMA reviews generally last between one and
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two years, although they can take longer. Both the 510(k) and the PMA processes can be expensive and lengthy and may not result in clearance or approval. If we are required to submit our products for pre-market review by the FDA, we may be required to delay marketing and commercialization while we obtain pre-market clearance or approval from the FDA. There would be no assurance that we could ever obtain such clearance or approval.
In some cases, our customers may use our RUO products in their own laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) or in other FDA-regulated products for clinical diagnostic use. The FDA has historically exercised enforcement discretion in not enforcing the medical device regulations against LDTs and LDT manufacturers. However, on October 3, 2014, the FDA issued two draft guidance documents that set forth the FDA’s proposed risk-based framework for regulating LDTs, which are designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. In January 2017, the FDA announced that it would not issue final guidance on the oversight of LDTs and LDT manufacturers, but would seek further public discussion on an appropriate oversight approach and give Congress an opportunity to develop a legislative solution. More recently, the FDA has issued warning letters to genomics labs for illegally marketing genetic tests that claim to predict patients’ responses to specific medications, noting that the FDA has not created a legal “carve-out” for LDTs and retains discretion to take action when appropriate, such as when certain genomic tests raise significant public health concerns. As laboratories and manufacturers develop more complex genetic tests and diagnostic software, the FDA may increase its regulation of LDTs. Any future legislative or administrative rule making or oversight of LDTs and LDT manufacturers if and when finalized, may impact the sales of our products and how customers use our products, and may require us to change our business model in order to maintain compliance with these laws.
We would become subject to additional FDA requirements if our products are determined to be medical devices or if we elect to seek 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval. We would need to continue to invest significant time and other resources to ensure ongoing compliance with FDA quality system regulations and other post-market regulatory requirements. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Risk factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
International sales of medical devices are subject to foreign government regulations, which vary substantially from country to country. Outside of the EU, regulatory approval needs to be sought on a country-by-country basis in order to market medical devices. Although there is a trend towards harmonization of quality system, standards and regulations in each country may vary substantially which can affect timelines of introduction.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to many federal, state, local, and foreign environmental regulations. To comply with applicable regulations, we have and will continue to incur significant expense and allocate valuable internal resources to manage compliance-related issues. In addition, such regulations could restrict our ability to expand or equip our facilities, or could require us to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant expenses to comply with the regulations. For example, the Restriction on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (RoHS) and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), both enacted in the European Union, regulate the use of certain hazardous substances in, and require the collection, reuse, and recycling of waste from, products we manufacture. Certain of our products sold in these countries are subject to RoHS and WEEE requirements. If we fail to comply with any present and future regulations, we could be subject to future fines, penalties, and restrictions, such as the suspension of manufacturing of our products or a prohibition on the sale of products we manufacture. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Risk factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Additionally, our research and development and manufacturing processes involve the controlled use of hazardous materials, including flammables, toxics, corrosives, and biologics. Our research and manufacturing operations produce hazardous biological and chemical waste products. We seek to comply with applicable laws regarding the handling and disposal of such materials. The volume of such materials used or generated at our facilities is small. However, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or discharge and any resultant injury from these materials. We do not currently maintain separate environmental liability coverage and any such contamination or discharge could result in significant cost to us in penalties, damages, and suspension of our operations.
Geographic Area Information
During the last three years, a significant portion of our revenue was generated outside of the United States. Total revenue received from customers outside the United States equaled $66.2 million, or 48% of our total revenue, in 2020, compared to $73.9 million, or 63% of our total revenue, in 2019, and $64.8 million, or 57% of our total revenue, in 2018. The majority of our long-lived assets are located within the United States, in Singapore and in Canada. Please see Note 6 and Note 16 to our audited consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding geographic areas.
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Seasonality
Our business is not subject to significant seasonality. However, the timing of customer orders and shipments, customer budget and spending cycles, and new product releases can result in variability in our quarterly revenues.
Raw Materials
Certain raw materials used in our Delta Gene and SNP Type assays and Access Array target-specific primers are available from a limited number of sources. Additionally, certain metals used in our Maxpar reagents are available from a sole source. Currently, we do not have supply agreements with these suppliers. While we generally attempt to keep our inventory at minimal levels, we purchase incremental inventory as circumstances warrant to protect our supply chain.
Backlog
We manufacture products based on forecasts of our customers’ demand and advance non-binding commitments from customers as to future purchases. Our customers generally do not place purchase orders far in advance. A substantial portion of our products are sold on the basis of standard purchase orders that are cancellable prior to shipment without penalty. Accordingly, backlog at any given time is not a meaningful indicator of future sales.
Human Resource Capital
Our team members share our commitment to improving the human condition and, in turn, Fluidigm strives to create an environment where our people can do their best work. We know that our employees, who supply the ideas, energy, and innovation that powers our business, are our most valued assets.
We are a values-driven organization. We believe strong shared values are essential for Fluidigm to evolve and grow and to be successful for the long-term. Our values inform our relationships with customers, suppliers, investors and each other. They ensure that we model respect and inclusiveness in our words and actions. Our core values, conceived and developed by our employees, define us when we are at our best and guide us in all that we do. Our core values are to:
Create what customers need next
Drive to make a difference
Collaborate and learn
Step up
A Growing Global Workforce
As of December 31, 2020, Fluidigm had 627 employees worldwide, 44% of whom were female. In the United States, 35% of our employees were female as of December 31, 2020. None of our employees are represented by a labor union nor are they subject to a collective bargaining agreement.
The table below provides an overview of our employees by function, geographic location, and gender as of December 31, 2020:
 United StatesCanadaSingaporeOtherTotalMaleFemaleTotal
Manufacturing 1679881838796183
Research and Development41651611238142123
Sales and Marketing932978521412985214
General and Administration59172741075156107
Total20919013890627348279627
Employee Safety and COVID-19
Employee safety has always been paramount at Fluidigm, a commitment very much in evidence as we continue to navigate the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the outset of the crisis, we tasked a global, interdisciplinary team of leaders in environmental health and safety, human resources, facilities and information technology to develop guidelines and processes for new health and well-being protocols. Also developed were new practices for cross-functional, remote teamwork, operating disciplines and training programs.
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To keep our employees safe, we provide to those who can work remotely the tools and resources to do so. Our pivot to remote work has been successful, with employees taking advantage of our technology resources. Essential work continues not only at our facilities and labs, but also every day in home offices, living rooms, kitchens and spare rooms, made possible by our IT systems and the collective commitment of our people. Many of our employees have worked on-site in labs and other facilities throughout the pandemic, and we have adopted a range of protocols and practices to keep them safe.
We have empowered each Fluidigm business location to adopt health and safety recommendations that address local requirements, and we have made site-specific COVID-19 prevention plans readily available for all our employees. In addition, we provide team members practical recommendations based on guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and other regional government entities. We are committed to updating these recommendations and communicating new pertinent information when available.
Each Fluidigm site will determine how and when more people return, based on site-specific factors related to health and safety, the needs of the business and each individual’s ability to work remotely versus needing to be onsite. We are prepared to be flexible as new information becomes available or as conditions change. As we consider a return to the workplace for more people, safety is our priority.
Compensation and Benefits
The primary goal of our compensation program is to ensure that we attract, hire, and retain talented and highly skilled team members who are motivated to achieve or exceed our corporate goals.
We offer competitive total reward packages comprising various elements including market-driven base pay, short- and long-term incentives in the form of performance-based cash and equity, as well as comprehensive health and welfare benefits that include medical, dental, vision, group life, disability, and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, as well as our 401(k) or comparable non-U.S. retirement plans, subject to applicable law. We also provide vacation and other paid holidays to all employees at levels that we believe are comparable to those provided at peer companies.
Our intention is to align our compensation practices with the changing marketplace, working to exceed our peer competitors. By doing so, we strive to provide incentives to our team members to achieve short- and long-term business goals, ensuring they feel rewarded for their performance and contributions.
Professional Development
In addition to providing attractive and competitive total rewards packages, Fluidigm believes in fostering individual and organizational effectiveness by offering our team members a variety of professional development programs. These programs are designed to:
inform, educate, and inspire our people to reach their professional goals;
provide professional growth opportunities in different, easily accessible ways to accommodate diverse learning styles, including via classroom/live instructor-led trainings, online/e-learning modules, webinar/virtual trainings, blended learning, and professional coaching;
provide individuals and the organization with the knowledge and skills to respond effectively to customer needs as well as current and future business demands; and
provide ongoing support to the organization’s development efforts.
Our culture is one that actively supports participation in learning activities and the application of new knowledge and skills on the job. As such, we strive to create a work environment that both challenges and supports all our team members to do their best work.
Diversity and Inclusion
At Fluidigm, our commitment to diversity, inclusion and equity is woven into our values and the belief that our global company is strongest when we embrace the full spectrum of humanity, regardless of what we look like, where we come from, or who we love. As an equal opportunity workplace and affirmative action employer, our ongoing commitment is to recruit and reward team members based on capability and performance—regardless of race, color, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, lifestyle, genetic information, marital status, pregnancy, educational background, national origin, religion, veteran status, physical ability, or any legally protected status. As Fluidigm evolves, we will continue to work together on building an inclusive and diverse culture that empowers all of us to connect, belong, and grow.
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Corporate and Available Information
We were incorporated in California in May 1999 as Mycometrix Corporation, changed our name to Fluidigm Corporation in April 2001, and reincorporated in Delaware in July 2007. Our principal executive offices are located at Two Tower Place, South San Francisco, California 94080. Our telephone number is (650) 266-6000. Our website address is www.fluidigm.com. We make available on our website, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our SEC reports can be accessed through the investor relations page of our website located at http://investors.fluidigm.com. The SEC also maintains an Internet site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
The contents of our website are not a part of, and are not incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report or document we file with the SEC. Any reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only.
We intend to use our website, www.fluidigm.com as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under SEC Regulation FD. Such disclosures will be included on our website under “About Us > Investors.” Accordingly, investors should monitor the “Investors” section of our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, and public conference calls and webcasts.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
We operate in a rapidly changing environment that involves numerous uncertainties and risks. The following risks and uncertainties may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. You should consider these risks and uncertainties carefully, together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. Our business is also subject to the risks that affect many other companies, such as employment relations, general economic conditions, global sociopolitical events and international operations. Further, additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may in the future materially and adversely affect our business, operations, liquidity and stock price. If any of these risks occur, our business, results of operations, or financial condition could suffer, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Summary of Risk Factors
Risks Related to our Business, Industry, and Strategy
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected our business operations.
Our financial results and revenue growth rates have varied significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year, and may not be consistent with market expectations.
We have incurred losses since inception, and we may continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future.
The life science markets are highly competitive and subject to rapid technological change.
If our research and product development efforts do not result in commercially viable products within anticipated timelines, if at all, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Market opportunities may not develop as quickly as we expect, limiting our ability to successfully sell our products.
Our future success is dependent upon our ability to expand our customer base and introduce new applications.
If our products fail to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, our revenue will be adversely affected.
We may not be able to develop new products or enhance the capabilities of our existing systems.
Our business growth strategy involves the potential for significant acquisitions.
Our efficiency and cost-savings initiatives could be disruptive to our operations.
Implementation of a company-wide enterprise resource planning (ERP) system could adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to Operations and Reliance on Third Parties
We may experience development or manufacturing problems or delays.
Our business depends on research and development spending levels of our customers.
If one or more of our manufacturing facilities become unavailable or inoperable, we will be unable to continue manufacturing our instruments, IFCs, assays and/or reagents.
Disruption of our manufacturing facilities or other operations, or in the operations of our customers or business partners, could result in cancellation of orders, delays in deliveries or other business activities, or loss of customers.
Any disruption or delay in the shipping or off-loading of our products may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are dependent on single and sole source suppliers for some of the components and materials used in our products.
Our business operations depend upon the continuing efforts of our management team and other key employees.
Security breaches, loss of data, cyberattacks, and other IT failures could adversely affect our business.
To use our analytical systems, customers typically need to purchase specialized reagents.
Our distribution capabilities and direct sales, field support, and marketing forces must be sufficient to meet our customers’ needs.
Risks Related to Quality and the Regulatory Environment
Our products could have defects or errors.
Although the FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay in August 2020, this authorization is only valid during the COVID-19 public health emergency.
Our contract with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) could expose us to risks and costs.
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To the extent we elect to label and promote any of our non-EUA products as medical devices, we would be required to obtain prior approval or clearance by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority.
Our products could become subject to regulation as medical devices by the FDA or other regulatory agencies.
Compliance or the failure to comply with current and future regulations affecting our products and business operations worldwide could cause us significant expense and adversely impact our business.
Risks Related to Economic Conditions and Operating a Global Business
We generate a substantial portion of our revenue internationally.
Adverse conditions in the global economy may significantly harm our revenue, profitability, and results of operations.
We are subject to fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies.
Financial, Tax, and Accounting Risks
Our future capital needs are uncertain and we may need to raise additional funds in the future.
Any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect our business.
We may not realize the value of our goodwill or other intangible assets.
If we fail to comply with the covenants and other obligations under our Revolving Credit Facility, the lenders may be able to accelerate amounts owed under the facilities and may foreclose upon the assets securing our obligations.
We are subject to risks related to taxation in multiple jurisdictions.
Changes in accounting principles, or interpretations thereof, could impact our financial position and results of operations.
We have a significant amount of outstanding indebtedness.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
Our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology is uncertain.
We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and proprietary rights.
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets.
We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us.
We are subject to certain manufacturing restrictions related to licensed technologies that were developed with the financial assistance of U.S. governmental grants.
We are subject to certain obligations and restrictions relating to technologies developed in cooperation with Canadian government agencies.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our stock price is volatile.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
We will have broad discretion over the use of the proceeds to us from our ATM equity offering program.
If securities or industry analysts publish unfavorable research about us or cease to cover our business, our stock price and/or trading volume could decline.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult.
Any conversions of our 2014 Notes or 2019 Notes will dilute the ownership interest of our existing stockholders.
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RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS, INDUSTRY, AND STRATEGY
The global COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected our business operations and could adversely impact our financial position and cash flows to an extent that is unknown and difficult to predict.
The pandemic and international public health emergency caused by SARS-CoV-2, the novel strain of coronavirus that causes the disease commonly known as COVID-19, has spread throughout all the countries in which we and our customers, suppliers, and other business partners operate, causing significant disruption and volatility in global financial markets and raising the prospect of an extended global recession. Public health problems resulting from COVID-19 and precautionary measures instituted by governments and businesses to mitigate its spread, including travel restrictions and quarantines, could continue to contribute to a general slowdown in the global economy, cause increasingly adverse impacts on our customers, suppliers, and other business partners, and further disrupt our operations. Changes in our operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in inefficiencies and delays, including in sales and product development efforts, and additional costs related to business continuity initiatives that cannot be fully mitigated through succession planning, employees working remotely, or teleconferencing technologies.
The COVID-19 pandemic and related governmental reactions have had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on our business, liquidity, results of operations, and stock price due to the occurrence of some or all of the following events or circumstances among others:
reduced demand for some of our products and services due to the impact of COVID-19 on our customers, including in the global academic research community;
diminished business productivity due to inefficiencies in employees working from home or increasing physical distancing and other pandemic response protocols in our production facilities;
increased susceptibility to the risk of information technology security breaches and other disruptions due to increased volumes of remote access to our information systems from our employees working at home;
the negative impact of travel restrictions and social distancing policies on our sales operations, marketing efforts, and customer field support;
impaired ability to hire and effectively train new personnel due to travel restrictions and physical distancing protocols;
increased operating costs if one of our facilities were to experience a COVID-19 outbreak;
disruption of the operations of our contract manufacturers, suppliers, and other business partners; and
increased volatility in our stock price due to financial market instability.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to adversely impact our business and financial results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the continued spread of the disease, the duration of the public health emergency, and actions taken in the United States and elsewhere to contain the virus and prevent new outbreaks, such as social distancing and quarantines, business closures or business disruptions.
Because the severity, magnitude, and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences are uncertain and rapidly changing, we are unable to predict the impact of COVID-19 on our operations, our financial performance, and our ability to successfully execute our business strategies and initiatives. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations and financial performance depends on many factors that are not within our control, including, but not limited, to: governmental, business, and individual actions that have been and continue to be taken in response to the pandemic (including restrictions on travel, transport and workforce pressures); the impact of the pandemic and actions taken in response on global and regional economies, travel, and economic activity; the availability of federal, state, local or non-U.S. funding programs; general economic uncertainty in key global markets and financial market volatility; global economic conditions and levels of economic growth; and the pace of recovery when the COVID-19 pandemic subsides.
As the COVID-19 crisis continues to adversely affect our operating and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in our other risk factors below. COVID-19 may also affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not expect to present significant risks to our operations or financial results, particularly if the pandemic and its associated impacts reoccur in the coming months.
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Our financial results and revenue growth rates have varied significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year due to a number of factors, and a significant variance in our operating results or rates of growth from market expectations, if any, could lead to substantial volatility in our stock price.
Our revenue, results of operations, and revenue growth rates have varied in the past and may continue to vary significantly from quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year. We may experience substantial variability in our product mix from period-to-period as revenue from sales of our instruments relative to sales of our consumables may fluctuate or deviate significantly from expectations. Our revenue increased year-over-year in 2019 compared to 2018, and again in 2020 compared to 2019, but we may not be able to achieve similar revenue growth in future periods. Variability in our quarterly or annual results of operations, mix of product revenue, including any decline in our revenue related to the COVID-19 pandemic, or variability in rates of revenue growth, if any, may lead to volatility in our stock price as research analysts and investors respond to these fluctuations. These fluctuations are due to numerous factors that are difficult to forecast, including:
fluctuations in demand for our products; changes in customer budget cycles and capital spending;
seasonal variations in customer operations;
tendencies among some customers to defer purchase decisions to the end of the quarter;
the large unit value of our systems, particularly our proteomics systems;
changes in our pricing and sales policies or the pricing and sales policies of our competitors;
our ability to design, manufacture, market, sell, and deliver products to our customers in a timely and cost-effective manner;
fluctuations or reductions in revenue from sales of legacy instruments that may have contributed significant revenue in prior periods;
quality control or yield problems in our manufacturing operations;
our ability to timely obtain adequate quantities of the materials or components used in our products, which in certain cases are purchased through sole and single source suppliers;
new product introductions and enhancements by us and our competitors;
unanticipated increases in costs or expenses;
our complex, variable and, at times, lengthy sales cycle;
global economic conditions; and
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
Additionally, we have certain customers who have historically placed large orders in multiple quarters during a calendar year. A significant reduction in orders from one or more of these customers could adversely affect our revenue and operating results, and if these customers defer or cancel purchases or otherwise alter their purchasing patterns, our financial results and actual results of operations could be significantly impacted. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could harm our results.
The foregoing factors, as well as other factors, could materially and adversely affect our quarterly and annual results of operations and rates of revenue growth, if any. We have experienced significant revenue growth in the past but we may not achieve similar growth rates in future periods. You should not rely on our operating results for any prior quarterly or annual period as an indication of our future operating performance. If we are unable to achieve adequate revenue growth, our operating results could suffer and our stock price could decline. In addition, a significant amount of our operating expenses are relatively fixed due to our manufacturing, research and development, and sales and general administrative efforts. Any failure to adjust spending quickly enough to compensate for a shortfall relative to our anticipated revenue could magnify the adverse impact of such shortfalls on our results of operations. We expect that our sales will continue to fluctuate on an annual and quarterly basis and that our financial results for some periods may be below those projected by securities analysts, which could significantly decrease the price of our common stock.
We have incurred losses since inception, and we may continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future.
We have incurred significant losses in each fiscal year since our inception, including net losses of $53.0 million, $64.8 million and $59.0 million during the years 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $676.8 million. These losses have resulted principally from costs incurred in our research and development programs, and from our manufacturing costs and selling, general, and administrative expenses. To date, we have funded our operations primarily through equity offerings, the issuance of debt instruments, and from sales of our products. Until
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we are able to generate additional revenue to support our level of operating expenses, we will continue to incur operating and net losses and negative cash flow from operations.
We believe that our continued investment in research and development, sales, and marketing is essential to our long-term competitive position and future revenue growth and, as a result, we may incur operating losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve profitability.
The life science markets are highly competitive and subject to rapid technological change, and we may not be able to successfully compete.
The markets for our products are characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, changes in customer needs, emerging competition, new product introductions, and strong price competition. We compete with both established and development stage life science research companies that design, manufacture, and market instruments and consumables for gene expression analysis, single-cell targeted gene expression and protein expression analysis, SNP genotyping, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), digital PCR, flow cytometry, cell imaging, and additional applications using well established laboratory techniques, as well as newer technologies such as bead encoded arrays, microfluidics, next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS), microdroplets, spatial protein expression, and photolithographic arrays. Most of our current competitors have significantly greater name recognition, greater financial and human resources, broader product lines and product packages, larger sales forces, larger existing installed bases, larger intellectual property portfolios, and greater experience and scale in research and development, manufacturing, and marketing than we do.
We consider Agilent Technologies, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (Thermo), Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., NanoString Technologies, Inc. (NanoString), and Agena Bioscience, Inc. to be our principal competitors in the microfluidics space. We believe that Cytek Biosciences, Inc. and Becton, Dickinson and Company are currently our principal competitors for our mass cytometry market share, and that IonPath Inc., Akoya Biosciences, Inc., NanoString, and 10x Genomics, Inc. are our principal competitors for our Imaging Mass Cytometry™ market share. While the aforementioned principal competitors are the largest and most prevalent in their representative technology areas, the combined markets in which we compete have an additional 10 to 20 smaller competitors with competing approaches and technologies that we routinely face in selling situations.
Competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements. In light of these advantages, even if our technology is more effective than the product or service offerings of our competitors, current or potential customers might accept competitive products and services in lieu of purchasing our technology. We anticipate that we will continue to face increased competition in the future as existing companies and competitors develop new or improved products and as new companies enter the market with new technologies. Increased competition is likely to result in pricing pressures, which could reduce our profit margins and increase our sales and marketing expenses. In addition, mergers, consolidations, or other strategic transactions between two or more of our competitors, or between our competitor and one of our key customers, could change the competitive landscape and weaken our competitive position, adversely affecting our business.
If our research and product development efforts do not result in commercially viable products within anticipated timelines, if at all, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Our business is dependent on the improvement of our existing products, our development of new products to serve existing markets, and our development of new products to create new markets and applications that were previously not practical with existing systems. We intend to devote significant personnel and financial resources to research and development activities designed to advance the capabilities of our technology. We have developed design rules for the implementation of our technology that are frequently revised to reflect new insights we have gained about the technology. In addition, we have discovered that biological or chemical reactions sometimes behave differently when implemented on our systems rather than in a standard laboratory environment. Furthermore, many such reactions take place within the confines of single cells, which have also demonstrated unexpected behavior when grown and manipulated within microfluidic environments. As a result, research and development efforts may be required to transfer certain reactions and cell handling techniques to our systems. In the past, product development projects have been significantly delayed when we encountered unanticipated difficulties in implementing a process on our systems. We may have similar delays in the future, and we may not obtain any benefits from our research and development activities. Any delay or failure by us to develop and release new products or product enhancements would have a substantial adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
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Market opportunities may not develop as quickly as we expect, limiting our ability to successfully sell our products, or our product development and strategic plans may change and our entry into certain markets may be delayed, if it occurs at all.
The application of our technologies to high-throughput genomics, single-cell genomics and, particularly, mass cytometry applications are in many cases emerging market opportunities. We believe these opportunities will take several years to develop or mature and we cannot be certain that these market opportunities will develop as we expect. The future growth of our markets and the success of our products depend on many factors beyond our control, including recognition and acceptance by the scientific community, and the growth, prevalence, and costs of competing methods of genetic and protein analysis. Additionally, our success depends on the ability of our sales organization to successfully sell our products into these new markets. If we are not able to successfully market and sell our products, or to achieve the revenue or margins we expect, our operating results may be harmed and we may not recover our product development and marketing expenditures. In addition, our product development and strategic plans may change, which could delay or impede our entry into these markets.
Our future success is dependent upon our ability to expand our customer base and introduce new applications.
Our customer base is primarily composed of academic research institutions, translational research and medicine centers, cancer centers, clinical research laboratories, biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, and plant and animal research companies, and contract research organizations that perform analyses for research and commercial purposes. Our success will depend, in part, upon our ability to increase our market share among these customers, attract additional customers outside of these markets, and market new applications to existing and new customers as we develop such applications. Attracting new customers and introducing new applications require substantial time and expense. For example, it may be difficult to identify, engage, and market to customers who are unfamiliar with the current applications of our systems. Any failure to expand our existing customer base or launch new applications would adversely affect our ability to increase our revenue.
If our products fail to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, our revenue will be adversely affected.
Our success depends on our ability to develop and market products that are recognized and accepted as reliable, enabling and cost-effective. Most of our potential customers already use expensive research systems in their laboratories and may be reluctant to replace those systems. Market acceptance of our systems will depend on many factors, including our ability to convince potential customers that our systems are an attractive alternative to existing technologies. Compared to some competing technologies, our technology is relatively new, and most potential customers have limited knowledge of, or experience with, our products. Prior to adopting our systems, some potential customers may need to devote time and effort to testing and validating our systems. Any failure of our systems to meet these customer benchmarks could result in customers choosing to retain their existing systems or to purchase systems other than ours, and revenue from the sale of legacy instruments that may have contributed significant revenue in prior periods may decrease.
In addition, it is important that our systems be perceived as accurate and reliable by the scientific and medical research community as a whole. Historically, a significant part of our sales and marketing efforts has been directed at convincing industry leaders of the advantages of our systems and encouraging such leaders to publish or present the results of their evaluation of our system. If we are unable to continue to induce leading researchers to use our systems, or if such researchers are unable to achieve and publish or present significant experimental results using our systems, acceptance and adoption of our systems will be slowed and our ability to increase our revenue would be adversely affected.
We may not be able to develop new products or enhance the capabilities of our existing systems to keep pace with rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, revenue, financial condition, and operating results.
Our success depends on our ability to develop new products and applications for our technology in existing and new markets, while improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of our systems. New technologies, techniques, or products could emerge that might offer better combinations of price and performance than our current or future product lines and systems. Existing markets for our products, including high-throughput genomics, single-cell genomics and mass cytometry, as well as potential markets for our products such as high-throughput NGS and molecular applications, are characterized by rapid technological change and innovation. It is critical to our success for us to anticipate changes in technology and customer requirements and to successfully introduce new, enhanced, and competitive technology to meet our customers’ and prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. Developing and implementing new technologies will require us to incur substantial development costs and we may not have adequate resources available to be able to successfully introduce new applications of, or enhancements to, our systems. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain technological advantages over emerging technologies in the future. While we typically plan improvements to our systems, we may not be able to successfully implement these improvements. If we fail to keep pace with emerging technologies, demand for our systems
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will not grow and may decline, and our business, revenue, financial condition, and operating results could suffer materially. In addition, if we introduce enhanced systems but fail to manage product transitions effectively, customers may delay or forgo purchases of our systems and our operating results may be adversely affected by product obsolescence and excess inventory. Even if we successfully implement some or all of these planned improvements, we cannot guarantee that our current and potential customers will find our enhanced systems to be an attractive alternative to existing technologies, including our current products.
Our business growth strategy involves the potential for significant acquisitions, and our operating results and prospects could be harmed if we are unable to integrate future acquisitions successfully.
We may acquire other businesses to improve our product offerings or expand into new markets. Our future acquisition strategy will depend on our ability to identify, negotiate, complete, and integrate acquisitions and, if necessary, to obtain satisfactory debt or equity financing to fund those acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions are inherently risky, and any transaction we complete may not be successful. Any merger or acquisition we may pursue would involve numerous risks, including but not limited to the following:
difficulties in integrating and managing the operations, technologies, and products of the companies we acquire;
diversion of our management’s attention from normal daily operation of our business;
our inability to maintain the key business relationships and the reputations of the businesses we acquire;
our inability to retain key personnel of the acquired company;
uncertainty of entry into markets in which we have limited or no prior experience and in which competitors have stronger market positions;
our dependence on unfamiliar affiliates and customers of the companies we acquire;
insufficient revenue to offset our increased expenses associated with acquisitions;
our responsibility for the liabilities of the businesses we acquire, including those which we may not anticipate;
the possibility that we may not realize the value of acquired assets recorded as goodwill or intangible assets, and would be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets; and
our inability to maintain internal standards, controls, procedures, and policies.
We may be unable to secure the equity or debt funding necessary to finance future acquisitions on terms that are acceptable to us. If we finance acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders will likely experience dilution, and if we finance future acquisitions with debt funding, we will incur interest expense and may have to comply with financial covenants and secure that debt obligation with our assets.
Our efficiency and cost-savings initiatives could be disruptive to our operations and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
From time to time, we have implemented efficiency and cost-savings initiatives intended to stabilize our business operations. These efficiency initiatives have included targeted workforce reductions, optimizing our facilities, and reducing excess space. In 2020, in response to the uncertainty arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, we initiated a range of additional actions aimed at temporarily reducing our operating expenses and preserving liquidity. These actions included implementing temporary enterprise-wide salary reductions of 20% for employees at or above the ‘director’ level and 10% for all others, temporarily reducing our board members’ cash retainers by 20%, and constraining hiring. Although we have discontinued our hiring constraints and pandemic-related pay reductions, actions such as these may be required in the future to preserve liquidity and optimize our organization. For example, we may need to decrease or defer capital expenditures and development activities or implement further operating expense reduction measures. The implementation of further efficiency and cost-savings initiatives could impair our ability to invest in developing, marketing and selling new and existing products, be disruptive to our operations, make it difficult to attract or retain employees, result in higher than anticipated charges, divert the attention of management, result in a loss of accumulated knowledge, impact our customer and supplier relationships, and otherwise adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
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If we seek to implement a company-wide enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, such implementation could adversely affect our business and results of operations or the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting.
We have considered implementing a company-wide ERP system to handle the business and financial processes within our operations and corporate functions. ERP implementations are complex and time-consuming projects that involve substantial expenditures on system software and implementation activities that can continue for several years. ERP implementations also require transformation of business and financial processes in order to reap the benefits of the ERP system. If we decide to implement a company-wide ERP system, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if we experience operating problems and/or cost overruns during the ERP implementation process, or if the ERP system and the associated process changes do not give rise to the benefits that we expect. If we do not effectively implement the ERP system as planned or if the system does not operate as intended, our business, results of operations, and internal controls over financial reporting could be adversely affected.
RISKS RELATED TO OPERATIONS AND RELIANCE ON THIRD PARTIES
We may experience development or manufacturing problems or delays that could limit the potential growth of our revenue or increase our losses.
We may encounter unforeseen situations in the manufacturing and assembly of our products that would result in delays or shortfalls in our production. For example, our production processes and assembly methods may have to change to accommodate any significant future expansion of our manufacturing capacity, which may increase our manufacturing costs, delay production of our products, reduce our product margin, and adversely impact our business. Conversely, if demand for our products shifts such that a manufacturing facility is operated below its capacity for an extended period, we may adjust our manufacturing operations to reduce fixed costs, which could lead to uncertainty and delays in manufacturing times and quality during any transition period.
Additionally, all of our integrated fluidic circuits (IFCs) for commercial sale are manufactured at our facility in Singapore. Production of the elastomeric block that is at the core of our IFCs is a complex process requiring advanced clean rooms, sophisticated equipment, and strict adherence to procedures. Any contamination of the clean room, equipment malfunction, or failure to strictly follow procedures can significantly reduce our yield in one or more batches. We have in the past experienced variations in yields due to such factors. A drop in yield can increase our cost to manufacture our IFCs or, in more severe cases, require us to halt the manufacture of our IFCs until the problem is resolved. Identifying and resolving the cause of a drop in yield can require substantial time and resources.
Furthermore, developing an IFC for a new application may require developing a specific production process for that type of IFC. While all of our IFCs are produced using the same basic processes, significant variations may be required to ensure adequate yield of any particular type of IFC. Developing such a process can be time consuming, and any unexpected difficulty in doing so can delay the introduction of a product.
If our manufacturing activities are adversely impacted, or if we are otherwise unable to keep up with demand for our products by successfully manufacturing, assembling, testing, and shipping our products in a timely manner, our revenue could be impaired, market acceptance for our products could be adversely affected and our customers might instead purchase our competitors’ products.
Our business depends on research and development spending levels of our customers, a reduction in which could limit our ability to sell our products and adversely affect our business.
We expect that our revenue in the foreseeable future will continue to be derived primarily from sales of our systems, IFCs, assays, and reagents to academic research institutions, translational research and medicine centers, cancer centers, clinical research laboratories biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, and plant and animal research companies, and contract research organizations worldwide. Our success will depend upon their demand for and use of our products. Accordingly, the spending policies and practices of these customers—which have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and may additionally be impacted by other factors—could have a significant effect on the demand for our technology. These policies may be based on a wide variety of factors, including concerns regarding any future federal government budget sequestrations, the availability of resources to make purchases, the spending priorities among various types of equipment, policies regarding spending during recessionary periods, and changes in the political climate. In addition, academic, governmental, and other research institutions that fund research and development activities may be subject to stringent budgetary constraints that could result in spending reductions, reduced allocations, or budget cutbacks, which could jeopardize the ability of these customers to purchase our products. Our operating results may fluctuate substantially due to reductions and delays in research and development expenditures by our customers. For example, reductions in operating expenditures by global academic research facilities
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because of the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in lower than expected sales of our mass cytometry instruments. Similar reductions and delays in customer spending may result from other factors that are not within our control, such as:
changes in economic conditions;
natural disasters or public health crises;
changes in government programs that provide funding to research institutions and companies;
changes in the regulatory environment affecting life science and plant and animal research companies engaged in research and commercial activities;
differences in budget cycles across various geographies and industries;
market-driven pressures on companies to consolidate operations and reduce costs;
mergers and acquisitions in the life science and plant and animal research industries; and
other factors affecting research and development spending.
Any decrease in our customers’ budgets or expenditures, or in the size, scope, or frequency of capital or operating expenditures, could materially and adversely affect our operations or financial condition.
If one or more of our manufacturing facilities become unavailable or inoperable, we will be unable to continue manufacturing our instruments, IFCs, assays and/or reagents and, as a result, our business will be harmed until we are able to secure a new facility.
We manufacture our microfluidics analytical and preparatory instruments and IFCs for commercial sale at our facility in Singapore and our mass cytometry instruments, assays, and reagents for commercial sale at our facility in Canada. No other manufacturing facilities are currently available to us, particularly facilities of the size and scope of our Singapore and Canada operations. Our facilities and the equipment we use to manufacture our instruments, IFCs, assays, and reagents would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead times to repair or replace. Our facilities may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to manufacture our products for some period of time. If any of our facilities become unavailable to us, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to secure a new manufacturing facility on acceptable terms, if at all. The inability to manufacture our products, combined with our limited inventory of manufactured supplies, may result in the loss of customers or harm our reputation, and we may be unable to reestablish relationships with those customers in the future. Although we possess insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If our manufacturing capabilities are impaired, we may not be able to manufacture and ship our products in a timely manner, which would adversely impact our business.
Disruption of our manufacturing facilities or other operations, or in the operations of our customers or business partners, due to earthquake, flood, other natural catastrophic events, public health crises, or terrorism could result in cancellation of orders, delays in deliveries or other business activities, or loss of customers and could seriously harm our business.
We have significant manufacturing operations in Singapore and Canada and operations in the United States. In addition, our business is international in nature, with our sales, service and administrative personnel and our customers located in numerous countries throughout the world. Operations at our manufacturing facilities and our subcontractors, as well as our other operations and those of our customers, are subject to disruption for a variety of reasons, including work stoppages, acts of war, terrorism, public health crises (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), fire, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, energy shortages, flooding, or other natural disasters. Such disruption could cause delays in, among other things, shipments of products to our customers, our ability to perform services requested by our customers, or the installation of our products at customer sites.
We cannot provide any assurance that alternate means of conducting our operations (whether through alternate production capacity or service providers or otherwise) would be available if a major disruption were to occur or that, if such alternate means were available, they could be obtained on favorable terms.
Any disruption or delay in the shipping or off-loading of our products, whether domestically or internationally, may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on shipping providers to deliver products to our customers globally. Labor, tariff, or World Trade Organization-related disputes, piracy, physical damage to shipping facilities or equipment caused by severe weather or terrorist incidents, congestion at shipping facilities, complications related to public health crises (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic),
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inadequate equipment to load, dock, and offload our products, energy-related tie-ups, or other factors could disrupt or delay shipping or off-loading of our products domestically and internationally. Such disruptions or delays may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are dependent on single and sole source suppliers for some of the components and materials used in our products, and the loss of any of these suppliers could harm our business.
We rely on single and sole source suppliers for certain components and materials used in our products. Additionally, several of our instruments are assembled at the facilities of contract manufacturers in Singapore. We do not have long-term contracts with our suppliers of these components and materials or our assembly service providers. The loss of a single or sole source supplier of any of the following components and/or materials would require significant time and effort to locate and qualify an alternative source of supply, if at all:
The IFCs used in our microfluidic systems are fabricated using a specialized polymer, and other specialized materials, that are available from a limited number of sources. In the past, we have encountered quality issues that have reduced our manufacturing yield or required the use of additional manufacturing processes.
The electron multiplier detector included in the Hyperion/Helios systems and certain metal isotopes used with the Hyperion/Helios systems are purchased from sole source suppliers.
The raw materials for our Delta Gene and SNP Type assays and Access Array target-specific primers are available from a limited number of sources.
Our reliance on single and sole source suppliers and assembly service providers also subjects us to other risks that could harm our business, including the following:
we may be subject to increased component or assembly costs and
we may not be able to obtain adequate supply or services in a timely manner or on commercially reasonable terms.
We have in the past experienced quality control and supply problems with some of our suppliers, such as manufacturing errors, and may again experience problems in the future. We may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement suppliers, particularly for our single source components, or assembly service providers. Any interruption or delay in the supply of components or materials or assembly of our instruments, or our inability to obtain components, materials, or assembly services from alternate sources at acceptable prices in a timely manner, could impair our ability to meet the demand of our customers and cause them to cancel orders or switch to competitive products.
Our business operations depend upon the continuing efforts of our management team and other skilled and experienced personnel, and if we are unable to retain them or to recruit and train new key executives, scientists, and technical support personnel, we may be unable to achieve our goals.
Our success depends largely on the skills, experience, and performance of our management team and scientific and technical support personnel. The loss of the services of any key member of our management team or our scientific or technical support staff might significantly delay or prevent the development of our products or achievement of other business objectives by diverting management’s attention to transition matters and identification of suitable replacements, if any, and could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our research and product development efforts could also be delayed or curtailed if we are unable to attract, train, and retain highly skilled employees, particularly, senior scientists and engineers. For example, as part of our cost reduction program to manage the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented temporary enterprise-wide salary reductions and delayed implementation of 2020 merit-based salary increases. Although all salaries have been restored as of the date of this filing, any reinstatement of salary reductions or any other failure to maintain competitive levels of compensation may negatively impact our ability to retain the personnel necessary to achieve our goals. We do not maintain fixed term employment contracts or significant key person life insurance with any of our employees.
Additionally, to expand our research and product development efforts, we need to retain and recruit scientists skilled in areas such as molecular and cellular biology, assay development, and manufacturing. We also need highly trained technical support personnel with the necessary scientific background and ability to understand our systems at a technical level to effectively support potential new customers and the expanding needs of current customers. Competition for these people is intense and we may face challenges in retaining and recruiting such individuals if, for example, our stock price declines, reducing the retention value of equity awards, or our business or technology is no longer perceived as leading in our field. Because of the complex and technical nature of our systems and the dynamic market in which we compete, any failure to attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees could materially harm our ability to develop and commercialize our technology.
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Security breaches, loss of data, cyberattacks, and other information technology failures could disrupt our operations, damage our reputation, and adversely affect our business, operations, and financial results.
We are dependent upon our data and information technology systems for the effective operation of our business and for the secure maintenance and storage of confidential data relating to our business and third-party businesses. Our information technology systems may be damaged, disrupted or shut down due to attacks by experienced programmers or hackers who may be able to penetrate our security controls and deploy computer viruses, cyberattacks, phishing schemes, or other malicious software programs, or due to employee error or malfeasance, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication or utility failures, catastrophes or other unforeseen events, and our system redundancy and other disaster recovery planning may be ineffective or inadequate in preventing or responding to any of these circumstances. Any such compromise of our information technology systems could result in the unauthorized publication of our confidential business or proprietary information and unauthorized release of customer, supplier or employee data, any of which could expose us to a risk of legal claims or proceedings, liability under privacy or other laws, disruption of our operations and damage to our reputation, which could divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and materially and adversely affect our business, revenues and competitive position. In addition, our liability insurance may not be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to security breaches, cyberattacks and other related breaches. The cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures, either as a response to specific breaches or as a result of evolving risks, could be significant. In addition, our inability to use or access our information systems at critical points in time could adversely affect the timely and efficient operation of our business. Any delayed sales, significant costs or lost customers resulting from these technology failures could adversely affect our business, operations, and financial results.
We have implemented security controls to protect our information technology infrastructure but, despite our efforts, we are not fully insulated from technology disruptions that could adversely impact us. For example, in early 2019, we experienced a ransomware attack that infiltrated and encrypted certain of our information technology systems, including systems containing critical business data. Immediately following the attack, actions were taken to recover the compromised systems and we believe we were able to restore their operation without significant loss of business data. Based on the nature of the attack and its impact on our systems, we do not believe confidential data was lost or disclosed. If, however, confidential data were later determined to have been released in the course of this or any future event, it is possible that we could be the subject of actions by governmental authorities or claims from persons alleging they suffered damages from such a release. We believe our mitigation measures have reduced, but cannot eliminate, the risk of a similar attack, and we anticipate additional work and expense in the future as we continue to enhance our security processes and initiatives in response to ever-evolving information security threats.
In addition to risks affecting our own systems, we could also be negatively impacted by a data breach or cyber incident happening to a third party’s network and affecting us. Third parties with which we conduct business have access to certain portions of our sensitive data, including information pertaining to our customers and employees. In the event that these third parties do not adequately safeguard our data, security breaches could result and negatively impact our business, operations, and financial results.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have an increased number of employees working remotely. As a result, we may have increased cyber security and data security risks, due to increased use of home wi-fi networks and virtual private networks, as well as increased disbursement of physical machines. While we have implemented security controls to reduce the risk of cyberattacks and security breaches, there is no guarantee that these measures will be adequate to safeguard all systems with the increased number of employees working remotely.
To use our products, our Biomark, EP1, Helios/CyTOF 2, and Hyperion systems in particular, customers typically need to purchase specialized reagents. Any interruption in the availability of these reagents for use in our products could limit our ability to market our products.
Our products, our Biomark, EP1, Helios, and Hyperion systems in particular, must be used in conjunction with one or more reagents designed to produce or facilitate the particular biological or chemical reaction desired by the user. Many of these reagents are highly specialized and available to the user only from a single supplier or a limited number of suppliers. Although we sell reagents for use with certain of our products, our customers may purchase these reagents directly from third-party suppliers, and we have no control over the supply of those materials. In addition, our products are designed to work with these reagents as they are currently formulated. We have no control over the formulation of reagents sold by third-party suppliers, and the performance of our products might be adversely affected if the formulation of these reagents is changed. If one or more of these reagents were to become unavailable or were reformulated, our ability to market and sell our products could be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, the use of a reagent for a particular process may be covered by one or more patents relating to the reagent itself, the use of the reagent for the particular process, the performance of that process, or the equipment required to perform the process. Typically, reagent suppliers, who are either the patent holders or their authorized licensees, sell the reagents along with
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a license or covenant not to sue with respect to such patents. The license accompanying the sale of a reagent often purports to restrict the purposes for which the reagent may be used. If a patent holder or authorized licensee were to assert against us or our customers that the license or covenant relating to a reagent precluded its use with our systems, our ability to sell and market our products could be materially and adversely affected. For example, our Biomark system involves real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technology. Leading suppliers of reagents for real-time qPCR reactions include Life Technologies Corporation (now part of Thermo) and Roche Diagnostics Corporation, who are our direct competitors, and their licensees. These real-time qPCR reagents are typically sold pursuant to limited licenses or covenants not to sue with respect to patents held by these companies. We do not have any contractual supply agreements for these real-time qPCR reagents, and we cannot assure you that these reagents will continue to be available to our customers for use with our systems, or that these patent holders will not seek to enforce their patents against us, our customers, or suppliers.
If we are unable to expand our direct sales, field support, and marketing forces or distribution capabilities to adequately address our customers’ needs, our business may be adversely affected.
We may not be able to market, sell, and, distribute our products effectively enough to support our planned growth. We sell our products primarily through our own sales force and through distributors in certain territories. Our future sales will depend in large part on our ability to continue to increase the scope of our marketing efforts and develop and substantially expand our direct sales force and field application specialist and service engineer teams. Our products are technically complex and used for highly specialized applications. As a result, we believe it is necessary to continue to develop a direct sales force that includes people with specific scientific backgrounds and expertise, and a marketing group with technical sophistication. We have experienced significant changes in our sales organization. In addition, as part of our cost reduction program to manage the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented temporary enterprise-wide salary reductions, including with respect to our sales and marketing employees. Although all salaries have been restored to prior levels as of the date of this filing, any reinstatement of salary reductions or any other failure to maintain competitive levels of compensation may negatively impact our ability to maintain the skilled sales and marketing force necessary to support our business activities. As a result, our future success will depend largely on our ability to retain and motivate such personnel. Because competition for such employees is intense, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to retain them on favorable or commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Failure to attract and retain our current personnel or to build an efficient and effective sales and marketing force would negatively impact sales of our products and reduce our revenue and profitability.
In addition, we may continue to enlist one or more sales representatives and distributors to assist with sales, distribution, and customer support globally or in certain regions of the world. If we do seek to enter into such arrangements, we may not be successful in attracting desirable sales representatives and distributors, or we may not be able to enter into such arrangements on favorable terms. If our sales and marketing efforts, or those of any third-party sales representatives and distributors, are not successful, our technologies and products may not gain market acceptance, which would materially and adversely impact our business operations.
RISKS RELATED TO QUALITY AND THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
Our products could have defects or errors, which may give rise to claims against us, adversely affect market adoption of our systems, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our systems utilize novel and complex technology and such systems may develop or contain undetected defects or errors. We cannot assure you that material performance problems, defects, or errors will not arise, and as we increase the density and integration of our systems, these risks may increase. We generally provide warranties that our systems will meet performance expectations and will be free from defects. The costs incurred in correcting any defects or errors may be substantial and could adversely affect our operating margins. For example, we have experienced a performance issue with respect to certain IFCs used in our C1 systems due to the presence of more than one cell in an IFC chamber. Although we have redesigned such C1 IFCs, we may experience additional unexpected product defects or errors that could affect our ability to adequately address these performance issues.
In manufacturing our products, including our systems, IFCs, and assays, we depend upon third parties for the supply of various components, many of which require a significant degree of technical expertise to produce. In addition, we purchase certain products from third-party suppliers for resale. If our suppliers fail to produce components to specification or provide defective products to us for resale and our quality control tests and procedures fail to detect such errors or defects, or if we or our suppliers use defective materials or workmanship in the manufacturing process, the reliability and performance of our products will be compromised.
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If our products contain defects, we may experience:
a failure to achieve market acceptance or expansion of our product sales;
loss of customer orders and delay in order fulfillment;
damage to our brand reputation;
increased cost of our warranty program due to product repair or replacement;
product recalls or replacements;
inability to attract new customers;
diversion of resources from our manufacturing and research and development departments into our service department; and
legal claims against us, including product liability claims, which could be costly and time consuming to defend and result in substantial damages.
In addition, certain of our products are marketed for use with products sold by third parties. For example, certain of our systems are marketed as compatible with major NGS instruments. If such third-party products are not produced to specification, are produced in accordance with modified specifications, or are defective, they may not be compatible with our products. In such case, the reliability and performance of our products may be compromised.
The occurrence of any one or more of the foregoing could negatively affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Although the FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay in August 2020, this authorization is only valid during the COVID-19 public health emergency, and when the federally declared public health emergency ends, we will be required to stop commercial distribution of our assay immediately in the United States unless we can obtain FDA clearance or approval for our assay under a traditional regulatory pathway for in vitro diagnostics, which is lengthy and expensive.
Under section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), the FDA has authority to allow certain unapproved medical products or unapproved uses of approved medical products to be used during a public health emergency under an EUA. In issuing an EUA, the FDA will consider the totality of scientific evidence available to the FDA regarding safety, efficacy and known and potential risks of such products and availability of alternatives to the emergency use products, among others. EUAs issued by the FDA will specify the scope of authorization and conditions of authorization, including limitations on distribution and conditions related to product advertising and promotion. Once granted, an EUA is effective until the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of the emergency use is terminated under Section 564(b)(2) of the FD&C Act or the EUA is revoked under Section 564(g) of the FD&C Act, after which the product must be cleared or approved by the FDA under a traditional pathway and we must comply with the quality system regulation at 21 CFR 820 in order to remain on the market or to continue commercialization of the product.
In August 2020, the FDA granted EUA for our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay for qualitative detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimens from individuals suspected by their healthcare providers of having COVID-19, with the use of the assay limited to authorized laboratories. Three supplements have been submitted and authorized as follows: S001 for addition of the FDA reference Panel Results, S002 for software updates and labeling changes, S003 for addition of alternative source of targets and labeling updates. As set forth in the EUA, we are required to comply with the conditions of authorization, including certain requirements pertaining to FDA notification, distribution, printed materials, advertising and promotion. If we, our distributors, or authorized laboratories do not comply with the EUA requirements, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted, and we may be subject to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, penalties, or fines, among other adverse actions.
If the FDA’s policies and guidance change unexpectedly and/or materially or if we misinterpret them, potential sales of Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR could be adversely impacted. In addition, the FDA will revoke an EUA where it is determined that the underlying public health emergency no longer exists or warrants such authorization, or if new evidence becomes available that indicates the test does not meet the conditions of authorization or perform as provided in the EUA application. We cannot predict how long this EUA will remain effective. The termination or revocation of the EUA and changing policies and regulatory requirements could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The demand for our product and our profitability may decline or be adversely impacted by the federal government’s implementation of a national COVID-19 testing strategy. Given the uncertain nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and future
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legislation and regulation in this space, we can provide no assurance with respect to our ability to achieve or sustain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.
Our contract with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) could expose us to unique risks and costs as an entity contracting with the federal government.
The NIH launched the Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx) program to expedite development, commercialization, and implementation of technologies for COVID-19 testing to help increase testing in the United States. In July 2020, we entered into a letter contract with the NIH for a project under the RADx program. The letter contract provided access to approximately $12.2 million of the total proposed funding for the project prior to execution of a further definitive contract for the project. In September 2020, we executed a definitive contract with the NIH as an amendment to the letter contract (collectively, the NIH Contract) to expand production capacity and throughput capabilities for COVID-19 testing with our microfluidics technology. Pursuant to the terms of the NIH Contract, the funding for the project was increased by approximately $22.0 million, for a total contract value of up to approximately $34.0 million. Release of funding under the NIH Contract is based on the achievement of milestones, including expansion of our manufacturing facilities, addition of production lines, and achieving full production capacity.
There is significant competition among RADx projects, which are evaluated by experts on a rolling basis. Projects with the most potential for success are advanced to the next stage. There is no certainty that we can meet all the milestones in our NIH Contract on a timely basis, if at all. If we do not meet all the milestones, we will not be able to access all $34.0 million in funding under the NIH Contract. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to access all the available funding under the NIH Contract in a timely manner, or at all. We must prioritize among many different opportunities, and we may expend our limited resources on programs that do not yield a successful or profitable product candidate and may forego other more profitable opportunities. Further, the Bayh-Dole Act applies to all NIH research and development funding granted to for-profit organizations, which requires the government to be provided a nonexclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced for or on behalf of the United States any subject invention throughout the world.
Factors that could materially adversely affect our funding under the NIH Contract include:
budgetary constraints affecting U.S. government spending generally, or NIH in particular;
changes in U.S. government or NIH fiscal policies or available funding, including due to changes in Congressional appropriations;
changes in U.S. government or NIH programs, requirements or priorities;
adoption of new laws or regulations;
technological developments;
U.S. government shutdowns, threatened shutdowns or budget delays;
competition and consolidation in our industry; and
general economic conditions.
These or other factors could cause NIH to reduce its funding or future activities under the NIH Contract, or to exercise its right to terminate the NIH Contract for convenience, either of which could have a material adverse effect on the revenue generated by the NIH Contract.
The NIH Contract includes certain provisions from the Federal Acquisition Regulations, some of which are customary or legally required, that give the U.S. government substantial rights and remedies, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts. For example, the NIH Contract contains provisions permitting unilateral termination or modification, in whole or in part, at the convenience of the U.S. government. Under general principles of government contracting law, if the U.S. government terminates a contract for convenience, the government contractor may recover only its incurred or committed costs, settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the U.S. government terminates a contract for default, the government contractor is entitled to recover costs incurred and associated profits on accepted items only and may be liable for excess costs incurred by the government in procuring undelivered items from another source. In addition, government contracts normally contain additional requirements that may increase our costs of doing business, reduce our profits, and expose us to liability for failure to comply with these terms and conditions. These requirements include, for example, mandatory internal control systems and policies, mandatory socioeconomic compliance requirements, including labor standards, non-discrimination and affirmative action programs and environmental compliance requirements and public disclosures of certain contract information, which may enable competitors to gain insights into our research program. If we fail to maintain compliance with these requirements, we may be subject to potential contract or False Claims Act liability and to termination of our NIH Contract.
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Other examples of rights and remedies under the NIH Contract include provisions that allow NIH to:
terminate the NIH Contract, in whole or in part, for any reason or no reason;
unilaterally reduce or modify the U.S. government’s obligations under the NIH Contract, without our consent, including by imposing price adjustments;
claim rights, including intellectual property rights, in or to (i) products, (ii) data, and (iii) facilities, in each case developed under the NIH Contract;
under certain circumstances involving public health and safety, license inventions made under such agreements to third parties;
suspend us from receiving new contracts pending resolution of alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations;
impose U.S. manufacturing requirements for products that embody inventions conceived or first reduced to practice under the NIH Contract;
suspend or debar us from doing future business with the government;
change the course of a development program in a manner that differs from the NIH Contract’s original terms or from our desired development plan, including decisions regarding our partners in the program;
pursue civil or criminal remedies under the False Claims Act and False Statements Act; and
control or prohibit the export of products.
Furthermore, we may be required to enter into agreements and subcontracts with third parties, including suppliers, consultants and other third-party contractors in order to satisfy our contractual obligations pursuant to our agreements with the U.S. government. Negotiating and entering into such arrangements can be time-consuming and we may not be able to reach agreement with such third parties. Any such agreement must also be compliant with the terms of the NIH Contract. Any delay or inability to enter into such arrangements or entering into such arrangements in a manner that is non-compliant with the terms of our contract, may result in violations of our contract.
U.S. government agencies routinely audit and investigate government contractors and recipients of federal grants and contracts. These agencies review a contractor’s performance under its contracts, cost structure and compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. The audit may also include review of the adequacy of, and a contractor’s compliance with, its internal control systems and policies, including the contractor’s accounting, purchasing, property, estimating, compensation and management information systems. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us, which could cause our stock price to decrease.
To the extent we elect to label and promote any of our non-EUA products as medical devices, we would be required to obtain prior approval or clearance by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority, which could take significant time and expense and could fail to result in a marketing authorization for the intended uses we believe are commercially attractive. Obtaining marketing authorization in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining marketing authorization in other jurisdictions where we conduct business.
Except for the Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 Assay authorized by the FDA under an EUA granted in August 2020, our other products are currently labeled, promoted and sold to academic research institutions, translational research and medicine centers, cancer centers, clinical research laboratories, contract research organizations, and biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, and plant and animal research companies as “research use only” (RUO), and are not designed, or intended to be used, for clinical diagnostic tests or as medical devices as currently marketed. If we elect to label and market our products for use as, or in the performance of, clinical diagnostics in the United States, thereby subjecting them to FDA regulation as medical devices, we would be required to obtain premarket 510(k) clearance or premarket approval from the FDA, unless an exception applies.
We are currently registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer, with the reagents for the Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 Assay listed as our sole medical device product. As noted in the issued EUA for the Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 Assay, the FDA has waived certain quality system requirements under 21 CFR Part 820 for the duration of the EUA. We may in the future list some of our other products with the FDA pursuant to an FDA Class I listing for general purpose laboratory equipment if we pursue clinical applications for such equipment. While this regulatory classification is generally exempt from certain FDA requirements, such as the need to submit a premarket notification commonly known as a 510(k), and some of the requirements of the FDA’s Quality System Regulations (QSRs), we would be subject to ongoing FDA “general controls,” which include compliance with FDA regulations for labeling, inspections by the FDA, complaint evaluation, corrections and removals reporting, promotional restrictions, reporting adverse events or malfunctions for our products, and general prohibitions against misbranding and adulteration. If we do not comply with all the requirements of the EUA or the normal
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regulatory requirements for any of our medical device products, including additional regulatory requirements that would apply to the Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 Assay after the expiration or termination of the EUA, we may be subject to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, penalties, or fines, among other adverse actions, any of which may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Compliance with additional or changing regulatory requirements can be time-consuming and costly.
In addition, we may in the future submit 510(k) premarket notifications to the FDA to obtain FDA clearance of certain of our products on a selected basis. It is possible, in the event we elect to submit 510(k) applications for certain of our products, that the FDA would take the position that a more burdensome premarket application, such as a premarket approval application or a de novo application is required for some of our products. If such applications were required, greater time and investment would be required to obtain FDA approval. Even if the FDA agreed that a 510(k) was appropriate, FDA clearance can be expensive and time consuming. It generally takes a significant amount of time to prepare a 510(k), including conducting appropriate testing on our products, and several months to years for the FDA to review a submission. Notwithstanding the effort and expense, FDA clearance or approval could be denied for some or all of our products. Even if we were to seek and obtain regulatory approval or clearance, it may not be for the intended uses we believe are important or commercially attractive.
If we sought and received regulatory clearance or approval for certain of our products, we would be subject to ongoing FDA obligations and continued regulatory oversight and review, including the general controls listed above and the FDA’s QSRs for our development and manufacturing operations. In addition, we would be required to obtain a new 510(k) clearance before we could introduce subsequent material modifications or improvements to such products. We could also be subject to additional FDA post-marketing obligations for such products, any or all of which would increase our costs and divert resources away from other projects. If we sought and received regulatory clearance or approval and are not able to maintain regulatory compliance with applicable laws, we could be prohibited from marketing our products for use as, or in the performance of, clinical diagnostics and/or could be subject to enforcement actions, including warning letters and adverse publicity, fines, injunctions, and civil penalties; recall or seizure of products; operating restrictions; and criminal prosecution.
In addition, to the extent we decide to seek regulatory marketing authorization for certain of our products in countries outside of the United States, we or our partners, or collaborators, will need to obtain regulatory marketing authorization for our products for the intended use in the jurisdiction where such products will be marketed. Regulatory clearance or approval in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining regulatory marketing authorization in other jurisdictions where we conduct business. Sales of such products outside the United States will likely be subject to foreign regulatory requirements, which can vary greatly from country to country. As a result, the time required to obtain clearances or approvals outside the United States may differ from that required to obtain FDA clearance or approval and we may not be able to obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis or at all. In Europe, we need to comply with the In Vitro Diagnostic Directive 98/79/EC and transition to the In Vitro Diagnostic Regulation 2017/746, which became effective May 26, 2017, with an application date of May 26, 2022. This will increase the difficulty of regulatory approvals in Europe in the future. In addition, the FDA regulates exports of medical devices. Failure to comply with these regulatory requirements or obtain and maintain required approvals, clearances and certifications could impair our ability to commercialize our products for diagnostic use outside of the United States.
In February 2021, we announced a supply and distribution agreement to market our CyTOF technology, panels, and reagents to clinical labs in China. As part of the agreement, we are working to seek National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) approval for our CyTOF instrument for diagnostic use in China. As we increase our operations outside of the United States, our compliance and operational costs will increase, and we will be exposed to greater liability under additional laws and regulations.
Our products could become subject to regulation as medical devices by the FDA or other regulatory agencies even if we do not elect to seek regulatory clearance or approval to market our products for diagnostic purposes, which would adversely impact our ability to market and sell our products and harm our business.
As products that are currently labeled, promoted and intended as RUO, our products are not currently subject to regulation as medical devices by the FDA or comparable agencies of other countries. However, the FDA or comparable agencies of other countries could disagree with our conclusion that our products are currently intended for research use only or deem our current sales, marketing and promotional efforts as being inconsistent with research use only products. For example, our customers may independently elect to use our research use only labeled products in their own laboratory developed tests (LDTs) for clinical diagnostic use. The FDA has historically exercised enforcement discretion in not enforcing the medical device regulations against laboratories offering LDTs. However, on October 3, 2014, the FDA issued two draft guidance documents that set forth the FDA’s proposed risk-based framework for regulating LDTs, which are designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The draft guidance documents provide the anticipated details through which the FDA would propose to establish an LDT oversight framework, including premarket review for higher-risk LDTs, such as those that have the same
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intended use as FDA-approved or cleared companion diagnostic tests currently on the market. In January 2017, the FDA announced that it would not issue final guidance on the oversight of LDTs and manufacturers of products used for LDTs, but would seek further public discussion on an appropriate oversight approach, and give Congress an opportunity to develop a legislative solution. More recently, the FDA has issued warning letters to certain genomics labs for illegally marketing genetic tests that claim to predict patients’ responses to specific medications, noting that the FDA has not created a legal “carve-out” for LDTs and retains discretion to take action when appropriate, such as when certain genomic tests raise significant public health concerns. As manufacturers develop more complex genetic tests and diagnostic software, the FDA may increase its regulation of LDTs. Any future legislative or administrative rule making or oversight of LDTs, if and when finalized, may impact the sales of our products and how customers use our products, and may require us to change our business model in order to maintain compliance with these laws. We cannot predict how these various efforts will be resolved, how Congress or the FDA will regulate LDTs in the future, or how that regulatory system will impact our business.
Additionally, on November 25, 2013, the FDA issued Final Guidance “Distribution of In Vitro Diagnostic Products Labeled for Research Use Only.” The guidance emphasizes that the FDA will review the totality of the circumstances when it comes to evaluating whether equipment and testing components are properly labeled as RUO. The final guidance states that merely including a labeling statement that the product is for research purposes only will not necessarily render the device exempt from the FDA’s clearance, approval, and other regulatory requirements if the circumstances surrounding the distribution, marketing and promotional practices indicate that the manufacturer knows its products are, or intends for its products to be, used for clinical diagnostic purposes. These circumstances may include written or verbal sales and marketing claims or links to articles regarding a product’s performance in clinical applications and a manufacturer’s provision of technical support for clinical applications.
In August 2020, as part of the U.S. government’s efforts to combat COVID-19 and consistent with the direction in Executive Orders 13771 and 13924, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced rescission of guidances and other informal issuances of the FDA regarding premarket review of LDTs absent notice-and-comment rulemaking, stating that, absent notice-and-comment rulemaking, those seeking approval or clearance of, or an emergency use authorization, for an LDT may nonetheless voluntarily submit a premarket approval application, premarket notification or an EUA request, respectively, but are not required to do so. However, laboratories opting to use LDTs without FDA premarket review or authorization would not be eligible for liability protection under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act, or the PREP Act. Following this HHS announcement, the FDA announced in October 2020 that it will no longer review EUA requests for COVID-19 LDTs at this time and will continue to prioritize review of EUA requests for point-of-care tests, home collection tests, at-home tests, tests that reduce reliance on test supplies, and high-throughput tests that are widely distributed. While these actions by HHS and the FDA are expected to reduce the regulatory burden on clinical laboratories certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 that develop LDTs, it is unclear how this action as well as legislation and executive orders by the Biden administration and state governments and FDA regulation will impact the industry, including our business and that of our customers. In an FDA FAQ updated on January 13, 2021, FDA indicated that it is reviewing EUA requests from laboratories that offer COVID-19 diagnostic tests and appears to take a different position from the HHS rescission policy. HHS’s policy and the FDA’s position with respect to LDTs in the short term and in general in the long-term may change, especially as the leadership at FDA changes under the Biden administration. Congress could also enact legislation restricting LDTs. Any restrictions on LDTs by the FDA, HHS, Congress, or state regulatory authorities may decrease the demand for our products. The adoption of new restrictions on RUOs, whether by the FDA or Congress, could adversely affect demand for our specialized reagents and instruments. Further, we could be required to obtain premarket clearance or approval from the FDA before we can sell our products to certain customers.
If the FDA determines our products or related applications should be subject to additional regulation as in vitro diagnostic devices based upon customers’ use of our products for clinical diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making purposes, our ability to market and sell our products could be impeded and our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. In addition, the FDA could consider our products to be misbranded or adulterated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and subject to recall and/or other enforcement action.
Compliance or the failure to comply with current and future regulations affecting our products and business operations worldwide, such as environmental regulations enacted in the European Union, could cause us significant expense and adversely impact our business.
We are subject to many federal, state, local, and foreign regulations relating to various aspects of our business operations. Governmental entities at all levels are continuously enacting new regulations, and it is difficult to identify all applicable regulations and anticipate how such regulations will be implemented and enforced. We continue to evaluate the necessary steps for compliance with applicable regulations. To comply with applicable regulations, we have and will continue to incur significant expense and allocate valuable internal resources to manage compliance-related issues. In addition, such regulations could restrict our ability to expand or equip our facilities, or could require us to acquire costly equipment or to incur other
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significant expenses to comply with the regulations. For example, the Restriction on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (RoHS) and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), both enacted in the European Union, regulate the use of certain hazardous substances in, and require the collection, reuse, and recycling of waste from, products we manufacture. Certain of our products sold in these countries are subject to WEEE and RoHS. These and similar regulations that have been or are in the process of being enacted in other countries may require us to redesign our products, use different types of materials in certain components, or source alternative components to ensure compliance with applicable standards, and may reduce the availability of parts and components used in our products by negatively impacting our suppliers’ ability to source parts and components in a timely and cost-effective manner.
The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation (EC) No. 1907/206 is the European Union’s regulation on chemicals and their safe use. The list of chemicals has been updated and some of the updates affect chemicals used in our products. We will request a research exception, but if not granted, we will need to reduce the concentration of some of the chemicals in our products, which will require significant research and development and operations efforts.
Any such redesigns, required use of alternative materials, or limited availability of parts and components used in our products may detrimentally impact the performance of our products, add greater testing lead times for product introductions, reduce our product margins, or limit the markets for our products, and if we fail to comply with any present and future regulations, we could be subject to future fines, penalties, and restrictions, such as the suspension of manufacturing of our products or a prohibition on the sale of products we manufacture. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND OPERATING A GLOBAL BUSINESS
We generate a substantial portion of our revenue internationally and our international business exposes us to business, regulatory, political, operational, financial, and economic risks associated with doing business outside of the United States.
During the years 2020, 2019, and 2018, approximately 54%, 63%, and 57% respectively, of our product and service revenue was generated from sales to customers located outside of the United States. We believe that a significant percentage of our future revenue will continue to come from international sources as we expand our international operations and develop opportunities in other countries. Engaging in international business inherently involves a number of difficulties and risks, including:
required compliance with existing and changing foreign regulatory requirements and laws that are or may be applicable to our business in the future, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation and other data privacy requirements, labor and employment regulations, anticompetition regulations, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and other anticorruption laws, and the RoHS and WEEE directives and REACH regulation, which regulate the use and importation of certain hazardous substances in, and require the collection, reuse, and recycling of waste from, products we manufacture;
required compliance with U.S. laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and other U.S. federal laws and regulations established by the Office of Foreign Assets Control;
export requirements and import or trade restrictions;
laws and business practices favoring local companies;
longer payment cycles and difficulties in enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through certain foreign legal systems;
changes in social, economic, and political conditions or in laws, regulations and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development, and investment both domestically as well as in the other countries and jurisdictions in which we operate and into which we sell our products, including as a result of the separation of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Brexit);
business interruptions resulting from global sociopolitical events, including war and terrorism, public health crises (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), and natural disasters including earthquakes, typhoons, floods and fires;
potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, customs charges, bureaucratic requirements, and other trade barriers;
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations; and
difficulties protecting or procuring intellectual property rights.
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If one or more of these risks occurs, it could require us to dedicate significant resources to remedy, and if we are unsuccessful in finding a solution, our financial results will suffer.
Adverse conditions in the global economy and disruption of financial markets may significantly harm our revenue, profitability, and results of operations.
Adverse economic conditions in the U.S. and international markets, including the worldwide economic disruption related to the COVID-19 pandemic, have negatively affected our revenues and operating results and may continue to do so. Even before the current public health crisis took hold, the global credit and financial markets had been experiencing volatility and disruptions, including diminished liquidity and credit availability, increased concerns about inflation and deflation, and the downgrade of U.S. debt and exposure risks on other sovereign debts, decreased consumer confidence, lower economic growth, volatile energy costs, increased unemployment rates, and uncertainty about economic stability. Geopolitical events including the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States government’s adoption and expansion of trade restrictions, and the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union have caused significant economic, market, political and regulatory uncertainty in some of our markets. Volatility and disruption of financial markets could limit our customers’ ability to obtain adequate financing or credit to purchase and pay for our products in a timely manner or to maintain operations, which could result in a decrease in sales volume that could harm our results of operations. General concerns about the fundamental soundness of domestic and international economies may also cause our customers to reduce their purchases. Changes in governmental banking, monetary, and fiscal policies to address liquidity and increase credit availability may not be effective. Significant government investment and allocation of resources to assist the economic recovery of sectors that do not include our customers may reduce the resources available for government grants and related funding for life science, plant and animal research, and clinical research and development. Continuation or further deterioration of these financial and macroeconomic conditions could significantly harm our sales, profitability, and results of operations.
We are subject to fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies.
A majority of our product sales are currently denominated in U.S. dollars and fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies could decrease demand for our products and adversely impact our financial performance. For example, if the value of the U.S. dollar increases relative to foreign currencies, our products could become more costly to the international consumer and therefore less competitive in international markets, or if the value of the U.S. dollar decreases relative to the Singapore dollar or the Canadian dollar, it would become more costly in U.S. dollars for us to manufacture our products in Singapore and/or in Canada. Additionally, our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies of the countries in which our operations are located, which is primarily in the United States, with a portion of expenses incurred in Singapore and Canada where a significant portion of our manufacturing operations are located. Our results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The volatility of exchange rates depends on many factors that we cannot forecast with reliable accuracy. We have experienced and will continue to experience fluctuations in our net income or loss as a result of transaction gains or losses related to revaluing certain current asset and current liability balances that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the entities in which they are recorded. Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have an adverse impact on our financial results in the future.
FINANCIAL, TAX, AND ACCOUNTING RISKS
Our future capital needs are uncertain and we may need to raise additional funds in the future, which may cause dilution to stockholders or may be upon terms that are not favorable to us.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and availability under our $15.0 million revolving senior credit facility (Revolving Credit Facility) will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements for at least the next 18 months. However, we have continued to experience losses and, if that trend continues, we may need to seek additional sources of financing. In addition, we may need to raise substantial additional capital for various purposes, including:
expanding the commercialization of our products;
funding our operations;
furthering our research and development; and
acquiring other businesses or assets and licensing technologies.
Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:
market acceptance of our products;
the cost of our research and development activities;
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the cost of filing and prosecuting patent applications;
the cost of defending any litigation including intellectual property, employment, contractual or other litigation;
the cost and timing of regulatory clearances or approvals, if any;
the cost and timing of establishing additional sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities;
the cost and timing of establishing additional technical support capabilities;
fluctuations in cash demands (e.g., due to interest or principal payments or payouts under existing cash compensation plans);
variability in sales and timing of related cash collections;
the effectiveness of our efficiency and cost-savings initiatives;
the impact of any natural disasters or public health crises (including the COVID-19 pandemic);
the effect of competing technological and market developments; and
the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products, and technologies, although we currently have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions.
To the extent we draw on our Revolving Credit Facility or otherwise incur additional indebtedness, the risks described above could increase. Further, if we increase our indebtedness, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected. Our cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to repay all of the outstanding debt as it becomes due, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain additional funds on acceptable terms, or at all. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant disruption and volatility in the global capital markets, increasing the cost of—and adversely impacting access to—capital. We entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement (Sale Agreement) with Jefferies LLC (Jefferies) to sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50 million, from time to time, through an at-the-market (ATM) equity offering program under which Jefferies acts as sales agent. During the third quarter of 2020, we sold approximately 2.5 million shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sale Agreement, for aggregate gross proceeds of $20.9 million. Our net proceeds were approximately $20.1 million, after deducting related expenses, including commissions of approximately $0.6 million and issuance costs of approximately $0.2 million. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, either under the ATM program or otherwise, our stockholders will experience dilution. Debt financing in addition to the Revolving Credit Facility, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Any additional debt or equity financing that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders, and our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy.
If we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements with third parties, it may be necessary to relinquish some rights to our technologies or our products, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we do not have or are unable to raise adequate funds, we may have to liquidate some or all of our assets, delay development or commercialization of our products, or license to third parties the rights to commercialize products or technologies that we would otherwise seek to commercialize. We also may have to reduce marketing, customer support, research and development, or other resources devoted to our products, or cease operations. Any of these factors could harm our operating results.
If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be impaired, which could adversely affect our business and our stock price.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. In particular, we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our testing may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses.
Our compliance with Section 404 requires that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management time on compliance-related issues. We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we continue to evaluate our need for additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge. Moreover, if we do not comply with the requirements of Section 404, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
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We may not realize the value of our goodwill or other intangible assets, which would be reflected in an impairment charge.
Our business acquisitions typically result in goodwill and other intangible assets, which affect the amount of future period amortization expense and possible impairment expense. We make estimates and assumptions in valuing such intangible assets that affect our consolidated financial statements. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $148.8 million of goodwill and net intangible assets, including approximately $106.6 million of goodwill and $42.2 million of net intangible assets. These assets represent a significant portion of the assets recorded on our consolidated balance sheet and relate primarily to our acquisition of DVS Sciences, Inc. (DVS) in February 2014 and InstruNor in 2020. In addition, if in the future we acquire additional businesses, technologies, or other intangible assets, a substantial portion of the value of such assets may be recorded as goodwill or intangible assets.
We assess the realizability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. We assess the realizability of definite-lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. These events or circumstances would generally include operating losses or a significant decline in earnings associated with the acquired business or asset. Our ability to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of these businesses. These cash flows in turn depend in part on how well we have integrated these businesses. If we are not able to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets.
If we fail to comply with the covenants and other obligations under our Revolving Credit Facility, the lenders may be able to accelerate amounts owed under the facilities and may foreclose upon the assets securing our obligations.
In April 2020, we amended our Revolving Credit Facility, which provides for secured revolving loans in an aggregate amount of up to $15.0 million, to extend the maturity date to August 2, 2022. The Revolving Credit Facility is secured by substantially all of our assets, other than intellectual property. The Revolving Credit Facility contains customary affirmative and negative covenants which, unless waived by the bank, limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, grant liens, make investments, repurchase stock, pay dividends, transfer assets, enter into affiliate transactions, undergo a change of control, or engage in merger and acquisition activity, including merging or consolidating with a third party. If we fail to comply with the covenants and our other obligations under the Revolving Credit Facility, the lenders would be able to accelerate the required repayment of amounts due under the Loan and Security Agreement dated as of August 2, 2018, between the Company and Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) (as amended by the Default Waiver and First Amendment to Loan and Security Agreement dated September 7, 2018, the Second Amendment to Loan and Security Agreement dated November 20, 2019, and the Third Amendment to Loan and Security Agreement dated April 21, 2020, the Revolving Credit Agreement) and, if they are not repaid, could foreclose upon the assets securing our obligations under the Revolving Credit Facility.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes and other tax benefits may be limited.
Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), imposes an annual limitation on the amount of taxable income that may be offset by net operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) if a corporation experiences an “ownership change.” As provided in Section 382 of the Code, an “ownership change” occurs when a company’s “five-percent shareholders” collectively increase their ownership in the company by more than 50 percentage points (by value) over a rolling three-year period. Various states also have limitations on the use of state NOLs following an ownership change.
Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. If we experience an ownership change, our ability to use our NOLs or other tax benefits could be substantially limited, which could significantly impair their value.  There is no assurance that we will be able to fully utilize our NOLs or other tax benefits, which could adversely impact our results of operations.
We believe that these tax benefits are a valuable asset for us and we monitor our stock ownership to determine whether our NOLs are at material risk of limitation based on an ownership change pursuant to Section 382. If our board of directors determines a potential risk exists that our NOLs could be limited, it could elect to adopt a tax benefit preservation plan in an effort to protect our tax benefits. Adoption of a tax benefit preservation plan could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from acquiring, us or a large block of our common stock.
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We are subject to risks related to taxation in multiple jurisdictions and if taxing authorities disagree with our interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations, our effective income tax rate could be adversely affected and we could have additional tax liability.
We are subject to income taxes in both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments based on interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations are required in determining the provision for income taxes. For example, we have made certain interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations based upon the operations of our business internationally and we have implemented intercompany agreements based upon these interpretations and related transfer pricing analyses. If the U.S. Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authorities disagree with the positions, our effective income tax rate could be adversely affected and we could have additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. From time to time, we may review our corporate structure and tax positions in the various international jurisdictions in which we operate and such review may result in changes to how we structure our international business operations, which may adversely impact our effective income tax rate. Our effective income tax rate could also be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings in tax jurisdictions with different statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in existing tax laws or tax rates, changes in the level of non-deductible expenses (including share-based compensation), changes in our future levels of research and development spending, mergers and acquisitions, or the result of examinations by various tax authorities. Payment of additional amounts as a result of changes in applicable tax law or upon final adjudication of any disputes could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.
Changes in accounting principles, or interpretations thereof, could have a significant impact on our financial position and results of operations.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP). These principles are subject to interpretation by the SEC and various bodies formed to interpret and create appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles can have a significant effect on our reported results and may even retroactively affect previously reported transactions. Additionally, the adoption of new or revised accounting principles may require that we make significant changes to our systems, processes and controls.
It is not clear if or when potential changes in accounting principles may become effective, whether we have the proper systems and controls in place to accommodate such changes and the impact that any such changes may have on our financial position and results of operations.
We have a significant amount of outstanding indebtedness, and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if we do not efficiently manage our liabilities.
We have significant outstanding convertible debt. As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding $1.1 million aggregate principal amount of our 2.75% Senior Convertible Notes due 2034 (2014 Notes) and $55.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 5.25% convertible senior notes due 2024 (2019 Notes). The 2014 Notes will mature on February 1, 2034, unless earlier converted, redeemed, or repurchased in accordance with the terms of the 2014 Notes. On February 6, 2021, holders of $0.5 million of the 2014 Notes caused us to repurchase such 2014 Notes in accordance with the terms of the indenture governing the 2014 Notes (2014 Notes Indenture) at a repurchase price in cash equal to 100% of the principal amount of such 2014 Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon. Pursuant to the terms of the 2014 Notes Indenture, holders of the remaining 2014 Notes may require us to repurchase all or a portion of such remaining 2014 Notes, on the same terms, on each of February 6, 2024 and February 6, 2029. The 2019 Notes will mature on December 1, 2024, unless earlier converted, or repurchased in accordance with the terms of the 2019 Notes.
If we undergo a fundamental change (as defined in the 2014 Notes indenture or the indenture governing the 2019 Notes, as applicable (collectively, the Convertible Notes)), holders of the applicable series of Convertible Notes may require us to repurchase such Convertible Notes in whole or in part for cash at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the applicable series of Convertible Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest. If we refinance all or any portion of the Convertible Notes, we may issue additional convertible notes or other debt, which could include additional company obligations and represent more dilution to existing stockholders and noteholders.
This significant amount of debt has important risks to us and our investors, including:
requiring a portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest payments on this debt;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
reducing the cash flow available to fund capital expenditures and other corporate purposes and to grow our business;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds as needed or take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.
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In addition, to the extent we draw on our Revolving Credit Facility or otherwise incur additional indebtedness, the risks described above could increase. Further, if we increase our indebtedness, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected. Our cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to repay all of the outstanding debt as it becomes due, and we may not be able to borrow money, sell assets or otherwise raise funds on acceptable terms, or at all, to refinance our debt.
RISKS RELATED TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology through patents and other means is uncertain.
Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technologies. We rely on patent protection, where appropriate and available, as well as a combination of copyright, trade secret, and trademark laws, and nondisclosure, confidentiality, and other contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary technology. However, these legal means afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. We apply for patents covering our products and technologies and uses thereof, as we deem appropriate. However, we may fail to apply for patents on important products and technologies in a timely fashion or at all. Our pending U.S. and foreign patent applications may not issue as patents or may not issue in a form that will be sufficient to protect our proprietary technology and gain or keep our competitive advantage. Any patents we have obtained or do obtain may be subject to re-examination, reissue, opposition, or other administrative proceeding, or may be challenged in litigation, and such challenges could result in a determination that the patent is invalid or unenforceable. In addition, competitors may be able to design alternative methods or devices that avoid infringement of our patents. Both the patent application process and the process of managing patent disputes can be time consuming and expensive.
Furthermore, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States, and many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the United States or other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property. We cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be allowed or enforced in our patents or in third-party patents. For example:
we might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by each of our pending patent applications;
we might not have been the first to file patent applications for these inventions;
the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business; and
others may independently develop similar or alternative products and technologies or duplicate any of our products and technologies.
To the extent our intellectual property, including licensed intellectual property, offers inadequate protection, or is found to be invalid or unenforceable, our competitive position and our business could be adversely affected.
We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and proprietary rights, to determine the scope, coverage and validity of others’ proprietary rights, or to defend against third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, any of which could be time-intensive and costly and may adversely impact our business or stock price.
Litigation may be necessary for us to enforce our patent and proprietary rights, determine the scope, coverage, and validity of others’ proprietary rights, and/or defend against third-party claims of intellectual property infringement against us as well as against our suppliers, distributors, customers, and other entities with which we do business. Litigation could result in substantial legal fees and could adversely affect the scope of our patent protection. The outcome of any litigation or other proceeding is inherently uncertain and might not be favorable to us, and we might not be able to obtain licenses to technology that we require. Even if such licenses are obtainable, they may not be available at a reasonable cost. We could therefore incur substantial costs related to royalty payments for licenses obtained from third parties, which could negatively affect our product margins or financial position. Further, we could encounter delays in product introductions, or interruptions in product sales, as we develop alternative methods or products.
As we move into new markets and applications for our products, incumbent participants in such markets may assert their patents and other proprietary rights against us as a means of impeding our entry into such markets or as a means to extract substantial license and royalty payments from us. Our commercial success may depend in part on our non-infringement of the patents or proprietary rights of third parties. Numerous significant intellectual property issues have been litigated, and will likely continue to be litigated, between existing and new participants in our existing and targeted markets. For example, some of
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our products provide for the testing and analysis of genetic material, and patent rights relating to genetic materials remain a developing area of patent law. A recent U.S. Supreme Court decision held, among other things, that claims to isolated genomic DNA occurring in nature are not patent eligible, while claims relating to synthetic DNA may be patent eligible. We expect the ruling will result in additional litigation in our industry. In addition, third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization, and if they are successful in making such claims, we may be forced to enter into license agreements, pay additional royalties or license fees, or enter into settlements that include monetary obligations or restrictions on our business.
Our customers have been sued for various claims of intellectual property infringement in the past, and we expect that our customers will be involved in additional litigation in the future. In particular, our customers may become subject to lawsuits claiming that their use of our products infringes third-party patent rights, and we could become subject to claims that we contributed to or induced our customer’s infringement. In addition, our agreements with some of our suppliers, distributors, customers, and other entities with which we do business may require us to defend or indemnify these parties to the extent they become involved in infringement claims against us, including the claims described above. We could also voluntarily agree to defend or indemnify third parties in instances where we are not obligated to do so if we determine it would be important to our business relationships. If we are required or agree to defend or indemnify any of these third parties in connection with any infringement claims, we could incur significant costs and expenses that could adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition.
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ former employers or other institutions or third parties with which such employees may have been previously affiliated.
Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or other life science or plant and animal research companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. In the future, we may become subject to claims that our employees, or we, have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers or other third parties or institutions with which our employees may have been previously affiliated. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. A resulting loss of key research personnel work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize certain potential products or a loss of or inability to hire key marketing, sales or research and development personnel could adversely affect our future product development, sales and revenues, any of which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against any such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
We depend on certain technologies that are licensed to us. We do not control these technologies and any loss of our rights to them could prevent us from selling our products, which would have an adverse effect on our business.
We rely on licenses in order to be able to use various proprietary technologies that are material to our business, including our core IFC, multi-layer soft lithography, and mass cytometry technologies. In some cases, we do not control the prosecution, maintenance, or filing of the patents to which we hold licenses, or the enforcement of these patents against third parties. Additionally, our business and product development plans anticipate and may substantially depend on future in-license agreements with additional third parties, some of which are currently in the early discussion phase. For example, Fluidigm Canada Inc. (Fluidigm Canada), an Ontario corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of Fluidigm Sciences, was party to an interim license agreement, now expired, with Nodality, Inc., or Nodality, under which Nodality granted Fluidigm Canada a worldwide, non-exclusive, research use only, royalty bearing license to certain cytometric reagents, instruments, and other products. While we were able to secure a license under a new license agreement with Nodality, we cannot provide assurances that we will always be able to obtain suitable license rights to technologies or intellectual property of other third parties on acceptable terms, if at all.
In-licensed intellectual property rights that are fundamental to our business being operated present numerous risks and limitations. For example, all or a portion of the license rights granted may be limited for research use only, and in the event we attempt to expand into diagnostic applications, we would be required to negotiate additional rights, which may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.
Our rights to use the technology we license are also subject to the negotiation and continuation of those licenses. Certain of our licenses contain provisions that allow the licensor to terminate the license upon specific conditions. Our rights under the licenses are subject to our continued compliance with the terms of the license, including the payment of royalties due under the license. Because of the complexity of our products and the patents we have licensed, determining the scope of the license and related royalty obligation can be difficult and can lead to disputes between us and the licensor. An unfavorable resolution of such a dispute could lead to an increase in the royalties payable pursuant to the license. If a licensor believed we were not paying the royalties due under the license or were otherwise not in compliance with the terms of the license, the licensor might
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attempt to revoke the license. If such an attempt were successful and the license is terminated, we might be barred from marketing, producing, and selling some or all of our products, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Potential disputes between us and one of our existing licensors concerning the terms or conditions of the applicable license agreement could result, among other risks, in substantial management distraction; increased expenses associated with litigation or efforts to resolve disputes; substantial customer uncertainty concerning the direction of our product lines; potential infringement claims against us and/or our customers, which could include efforts by a licensor to enjoin sales of our products; customer requests for indemnification by us; and, in the event of an adverse determination, our inability to operate our business as currently operated. Termination of material license agreements could prevent us from manufacturing and selling our products unless we can negotiate new license terms or develop or acquire alternative intellectual property rights that cover or enable similar functionality. Any of these factors would be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition and could result in a substantial decline in our stock price.
We are subject to certain manufacturing restrictions related to licensed technologies that were developed with the financial assistance of U.S. governmental grants.
We are subject to certain U.S. government regulations because we have licensed technologies that were developed with U.S. government grants. In accordance with these regulations, these licenses provide that products embodying the technologies are subject to domestic manufacturing requirements. If this domestic manufacturing requirement is not met, the government agency that funded the relevant grant is entitled to exercise specified rights, referred to as “march-in rights,” which if exercised would allow the government agency to require the licensors or us to grant a non-exclusive, partially exclusive, or exclusive license in any field of use to a third party designated by such agency. All of our microfluidic systems revenue is dependent upon the availability of our IFCs, which incorporate technology developed with U.S. government grants. Our genomics instruments, including microfluidic systems and IFCs, are manufactured at our facility in Singapore. The federal regulations allow the funding government agency to grant, at the request of the licensors of such technology, a waiver of the domestic manufacturing requirement. Waivers may be requested prior to any government notification. We have assisted the licensors of these technologies with the analysis of the domestic manufacturing requirement, and, in December 2008, the sole licensor subject to the requirement applied for a waiver of the domestic manufacturing requirement with respect to the relevant patents licensed to us by this licensor. In July 2009, the funding government agency granted the requested waiver of the domestic manufacturing requirement for a three-year period commencing in July 2009. In June 2012, the licensor requested a continued waiver of the domestic manufacturing requirement with respect to the relevant patents, but the government agency has not yet taken any action in response to this request. If the government agency does not grant the requested waiver or the government fails to grant additional waivers of such requirement that may be sought in the future, then the U.S. government could exercise its march-in rights with respect to the relevant patents licensed to us. In addition, the license agreement under which the relevant patents are licensed to us contains provisions that obligate us to comply with this domestic manufacturing requirement. We are not currently manufacturing instruments and IFCs in the United States that incorporate the relevant licensed technology. If our lack of compliance with this provision constituted a material breach of the license agreement, the license of the relevant patents could be terminated or we could be compelled to relocate our manufacturing of microfluidic systems and IFCs to the United States to avoid or cure a material breach of the license agreement. Any of the exercise of march-in rights, the termination of our license of the relevant patents or the relocation of our manufacturing of microfluidic systems and IFCs to the United States could materially adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.
We are subject to certain obligations and restrictions relating to technologies developed in cooperation with Canadian government agencies.
Some of our Canadian research and development is funded in part through government grants and by government agencies. The intellectual property developed through these projects is subject to rights and restrictions in favor of government agencies and Canadians generally. In most cases the government agency retains the right to use intellectual property developed through the project for non-commercial purposes and to publish the results of research conducted in connection with the project. This may increase the risk of public disclosure of information relating to our intellectual property, including confidential information, and may reduce its competitive advantage in commercializing intellectual property developed through these projects. In certain projects, we have also agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to commercialize intellectual property in Canada, or more specifically in the province of Ontario, for the economic benefit of Canada and the province of Ontario. These restrictions will limit our choice of business and manufacturing locations, business partners and corporate structure and may, in certain circumstances, restrict our ability to achieve maximum profitability and cost efficiency from the intellectual property generated by these projects. In one instance, a dispute with the applicable government funded entity may require mediation, which could lead to unanticipated delays in our commercialization efforts to that project. One of our Canadian government funded projects is also subject to certain limited “march-in” rights in favor of the government of the Province of Ontario, under which we may be required to grant a license to our intellectual property, including background intellectual property developed outside the scope of the project, to a responsible applicant on reasonable terms in circumstances where the
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government determines that such a license is necessary in order to alleviate emergency or extraordinary health or safety needs or for public use. In addition, we must provide reasonable assistance to the government in obtaining similar licenses from third parties required in connection with the use of its intellectual property. Instances in which the government of the Province of Ontario has exercised similar “march-in” rights are rare; however, the exercise of such rights could materially adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR COMMON STOCK
Our stock price is volatile.
Our stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (Nasdaq), but we can provide no assurance that we will be able to maintain an active trading market on Nasdaq or any other exchange in the future. The trading volume of our stock tends to be low relative to our total outstanding shares, and we have several stockholders who hold substantial blocks of our stock. As of December 31, 2020, we had 74,543,141 shares of common stock outstanding, and stockholders holding at least 5% of our stock, individually or with affiliated persons or entities, collectively beneficially owned or controlled approximately 33.6% of such shares. Sales of large numbers of shares by any of our large stockholders could adversely affect our trading price, particularly given our relatively small historic trading volumes. If stockholders holding shares of our common stock sell, indicate an intention to sell, or if it is perceived that they will sell, substantial amounts of their common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Moreover, if there is no active trading market or if the volume of trading is limited, holders of our common stock may have difficulty selling their shares. In addition, the concentration of ownership of our outstanding common stock (approximately 38.3% held by our top six stockholders) means that a relatively small number of stockholders have significant control over the outcomes of stockholder voting.
The trading price of our common stock is highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
the impact of public health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic, on global financial markets;
actual or anticipated quarterly variation in our results of operations or the results of our competitors;
our failure to achieve performance consistent with our financial guidance and/or market expectations;
announcements or communications by us or our competitors relating to, among other things, new commercial products, technological advances, significant contracts, commercial relationships, capital commitments, acquisitions or sales of businesses, and/or misperceptions in or speculation by the market regarding such announcements or communications;
issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations for our stock;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
commencement of, or our involvement in, litigation;
market conditions in the life science, plant and animal research, and contract research organization sectors;
failure to complete significant sales;
manufacturing disruptions that could occur if we are unable to successfully expand our production in our current or an alternative facility;
any future sales of our common stock or other securities in connection with raising additional capital or otherwise;
any major change to the composition of our board of directors or management; and
general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets.
The stock market in general, and market prices for the securities of technology-based companies like ours in particular, have from time to time experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of the underlying companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock regardless of our operating performance.
In several recent situations where the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. As discussed in Item 3 (Legal Proceedings) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, a class action securities lawsuit against us is currently pending. While we are continuing to defend such action vigorously, the defense of this action and any additional actions can be costly, divert the time and attention
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of our management, and harm our operating results, and any judgment against us or any future stockholder litigation could result in substantial costs.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Our stock price could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock or the perception that these sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
In addition, in the future, we may issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or debt securities convertible into common stock in connection with a financing, acquisition, litigation settlement, employee arrangements or otherwise. Any such future issuance, including any issuances pursuant to our ATM equity offering program under our Sale Agreement with Jefferies, could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.
We will have broad discretion over the use of the proceeds to us from our ATM equity offering program and may apply the proceeds to uses that do not improve our operating results or the value of your securities.
We will have broad discretion to use the net proceeds to us from our ATM equity offering program, and investors will be relying solely on the judgment of our board of directors and management regarding the application of these proceeds. Investors will not have the opportunity, as part of their investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. Our use of the proceeds may not improve our operating results or increase the value of the securities offered pursuant to the ATM equity offering program.
If securities or industry analysts publish unfavorable research about us or cease to cover our business, our stock price and/or trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock may rely, in part, on the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control of the analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. The price of our stock could decline if one or more equity research analysts downgrade our stock or issue other unfavorable commentary or research. If one or more equity research analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management, including provisions that:
authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer or the president;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder approvals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, Class I, Class II, and Class III, with each class serving staggered three-year terms;
provide that our directors may be removed only for cause;
provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;
specify that no stockholder is permitted to cumulate votes at any election of directors; and
require a super-majority of votes to amend certain of the above-mentioned provisions.
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These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock to merge or combine with us.
Any conversions of the 2014 Notes or 2019 Notes will dilute the ownership interest of our existing stockholders and may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
Any conversion of some or all of the 2014 Notes or 2019 Notes will dilute the ownership interests of our existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could also adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, holders of the 2014 Notes or 2019 Notes may hedge their position in such Convertible Notes by entering into short positions with respect to the underlying common stock. As a result, any anticipated conversion of the 2014 Notes or 2019 Notes could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We lease approximately 78,000 square feet of office and laboratory space at our headquarters in South San Francisco, California under a lease that commenced in March 2020 for a lease term of approximately 10 years. Additionally, we lease office, laboratory, and manufacturing space in Singapore consisting of approximately 40,000 square feet expiring in June 2022, and approximately 5,000 square feet expiring in January 2022. In Ontario, Canada, we have leased two properties, comprising approximately 44,500 square feet expiring in March 2026 and approximately 19,000 square feet expiring in March 2027. As of December 31, 2020, we also leased office space in Japan, China, and France, with various expiration dates through February 2026. We believe that our properties are in good condition and are adequate and suitable for their purposes. Refer to Note 10 of our consolidated financial statements for additional information about leased properties in this Form 10-K.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In September 2020, a putative class action complaint alleging violations of the federal securities laws was filed against the Company (also naming our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer as defendants) in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (Reena Saintjermain, et al. v. Fluidigm Corporation, et al). The Court appointed a lead plaintiff and lead counsel in December 2020, and an amended complaint was filed on February 19, 2021. The complaint, as amended, seeks unspecified damages on behalf of a purported class of persons and entities who acquired our common stock between February 7, 2019 and November 5, 2019 and alleges securities laws violations based on statements and alleged omissions made by the Company during such period. The Company intends to file a motion to dismiss the complaint, which motion is currently due to be filed in early April 2021. We believe the claims alleged in the complaint lack merit and we intend to defend this action vigorously.
In the normal course of business, we are from time to time involved in legal proceedings or potential legal proceedings, including matters involving employment, intellectual property, or others. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we currently believe that the final outcome of any currently pending matters would not have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition, or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market for Our Common Stock; Dividends
Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “FLDM” on February 10, 2011.
We had 85 stockholders of record as of January 31, 2021; however, because many of our outstanding shares are held by brokers or other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners represented by the holders of record.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not expect to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Instead, we anticipate that all of our earnings in the foreseeable future will be used for the operation and growth of our business.
Stock Performance Graph
The following performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Fluidigm Corporation under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
The following graph compares, from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020, the cumulative total return for our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Total Return Index, and the Nasdaq US Benchmark Medical Equipment Index, assuming in each case an initial investment of $100 and reinvestment of all dividends. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance.
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Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock during the year ended December 31, 2020.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We have derived the consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, and consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2019 from audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017, and 2016, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, December 31, 2017, and December 31, 2016 were derived from audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Form 10-K.
 20202019201820172016
 (in thousands, except per share amounts)
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
Total revenue$138,144 $117,243 $112,964 $101,937 $104,446 
Loss from operations(51,036)(51,839)(48,164)(58,360)(73,190)
Net loss (53,020)(64,790)(59,013)(60,535)(75,985)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted(0.74)(0.97)(1.49)(1.84)(2.62)
20202019201820172016
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash, cash equivalents, and short and long-term investments$68,520 $58,639 $95,401 $63,136 $59,430 
Working capital (1)76,873 74,003 100,988 71,565 76,334 
Total assets 324,757 264,812 303,647 287,351 306,395 
Total long-term debt 54,224 53,821 172,058 195,238 194,951 
Total stockholders’ equity 139,050 153,612 72,116 30,935 53,233 
_________________________
(1) Working capital excludes deferred revenue.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about Fluidigm and our industry. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, as more fully described in “Risk factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K, in this Item 7, and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Except as may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available or other events occur in the future.
Overview
Fluidigm improves life by driving meaningful insights in health and disease. Our innovative technologies explore the biological complexities of disease to advance human health through research, diagnostics and clinical applications. We create, manufacture, and market a range of products and services, including instruments, consumables, reagents and software that are used by researchers and clinical labs worldwide. Our customers are leading academic and government laboratories, as well as pharmaceutical, biotechnology, plant and animal research organizations, and clinical laboratories worldwide. Together with our customers, we strive to increase the quality of life for all.
We distribute our systems through our direct sales force and support organizations located in North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific, and through distributors or sales agents in several European, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and Asia-Pacific countries. Our manufacturing operations are located in Singapore and Canada. Our facility in Singapore manufactures our microfluidics instruments, which are assembled by our contract manufacturer located within our Singapore facility. All of our microfluidic products are fabricated at our Singapore facility. Our mass cytometry instruments, assays and reagents are manufactured at our facility in Canada. We also use U.S.-based third-party contract manufacturers for reagent manufacturing.
Our total revenue was $138.1 million in 2020, of which $122.5 million was product and service revenue; $117.2 million in 2019, of which $116.7 million was product and service revenue and $113.0 million in 2018, which was entirely product and service revenue. We have incurred significant net losses since our inception in 1999 and, as of December 31, 2020, our accumulated deficit was $676.8 million.
Recent Developments
We have been responding to the COVID-19 pandemic by taking steps to protect our employees, support our customers, and manage our liquidity. As Fluidigm is a designated essential business, some of our essential workers have been working at our laboratories and offices, and in some cases, at customer sites, while our administrative employees have been working from home. We have implemented health and safety practices in accordance with evolving government and public health agency guidelines in all of our facilities around the world, including maintaining social distancing and enhanced cleaning protocols, facilities modifications, temperature checks in some locations, and usage of face masks and other personal protective equipment where appropriate. Other operational adjustments made in response to COVID-19 include increased stocking levels of raw materials and proactive supplier management. We have taken steps to help keep our workforce healthy and safe, and to ensure a strong data security and internal control environment.
While Fluidigm is a designated essential business, widespread global adoption of work-from-home and shelter-in-place orders resulted in a significant slowdown in customer activities. We also saw near-term COVID-19-related priorities temporarily displace longer term projects and research activities. As customers have returned to work, we have seen some customer ordering recover, but the timing of complete recovery remains uncertain given additional waves of infection and the need to distribute vaccines. We estimate that about 10% of our customers are either closed or working at reduced capacity as of the end of 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to 60% to 70% in the first quarter and an estimated 30% to 40% of our global academic research community either remaining closed or working at a slower pace at the end of the second quarter. Although most of our customers are working, they have not returned to pre-pandemic levels of activity. We believe the impact of COVID-19 on our customers has resulted in the delay of sales of our mass cytometry instrument systems to future periods.
In August 2020, we received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for our Advanta™ Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Assay, a newly developed, extraction-free saliva-based test to detect nucleic acid from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, designed to be run on the Fluidigm® Biomark™ HD microfluidics platform. In January 2021, we received the CE-IVD mark for our saliva-based Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 Assay allowing for commercial sales of this CE-IVD commercial kit in Europe. In addition, Fluidigm is actively supporting customers who are developing lab-developed tests,
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as well as customers who are providing COVID-19 diagnostic tests outside of the U.S. The development of COVID-19 related applications has positively impacted sales of our microfluidics instruments, consumables, and mass cytometry reagents.
We believe our microfluidics and mass cytometry capabilities can play a significant role in virus detection as well as in immune profiling of patients and populations. Furthermore, we believe our technologies and solutions will be important to the durable response from government and medical institutions to be prepared for future outbreaks. Despite these opportunities, there is still uncertainty regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the global economy, our customers, and our business over the near term. Also, though we are now able to sell our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 Assay for diagnostic use and certain clinical laboratory customers are developing lab developed tests using our technology, our experience selling into diagnostic markets is limited and we face significant competition. Many of our target customers in these markets do not have significant prior experience using Fluidigm instruments and consumables and require validation steps and assistance in establishing, integrating and scaling up testing programs using our technology and products. Also, many such laboratories have experience working with certain of our competitors for diagnostic testing, and we have faced, and expect to continue to face, complex sales processes and competition in the COVID-19 testing market. We expect to seek collaborations with third parties to meet the challenges associated with penetrating these markets.
We have actively sought government funding to support our investment to expand our diagnostics capabilities for microfluidics. In September 2020, we executed a contract with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a project under the NIH Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx) program (collectively the NIH Contract). The RADx program provides grants to support a range of new lab-based and point-of-care tests that could significantly increase the number, type and availability of COVID-19 tests. The NIH Contract has a total value of up to $34.0 million upon the achievement of certain milestones. Through December 31, 2020, we have achieved milestones and received funding of $25.4 million. Proceeds from the NIH Contract will be used primarily to expand production capacity for COVID-19 testing with Fluidigm microfluidics technology and, to a lesser extent, to reimburse research and development costs. We have spent approximately $10.2 million for capital expenditures through December 31, 2020 for the expansion of our Singapore facility as a result of the NIH Contract. We expected to complete the NIH Contract and related spending for the expansion in 2021.
The NIH has the right to terminate the NIH Contract for convenience. In the event of termination for convenience, Fluidigm will be paid a percentage of the NIH Contract price reflecting the percentage of the work performed prior to the notice of termination, plus reasonable charges. In the event of termination for cause due to our default, NIH is not liable for supplies or services not accepted. If we fail to deliver within the time specified in the NIH Contract and the delay is due to Fluidigm’s fault or negligence, we are required to pay liquidated damages in the amount of 33% of the amount(s) already disbursed to date under the NIH Contract within six months from the date of termination. We have not paid, and do not currently expect to pay any liquidated damages and are in compliance with the terms of the contract. We are working with the NIH continuously to ensure we are in compliance with the contract requirements and milestones.
In March 2020, we entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement (Sale Agreement) with Jefferies LLC (Jefferies) to sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50 million, from time to time, through an at-the-market equity offering program under which Jefferies acts as sales agent. During the third quarter of 2020, we sold 2.5 million shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, pursuant to the Sale Agreement, for aggregate gross proceeds of $20.9 million. Our net proceeds were approximately $20.1 million, after deducting related expenses, including commissions of approximately $0.6 million and issuance costs of approximately $0.2 million.
In this period of uncertainty, we are actively managing our operating expenses and cash flows in response to the evolving market conditions. In addition, we implemented reductions in our operating expense structure including temporary salary reductions which began in the second quarter and ended in the third quarter of 2020 and constrained hiring until our business returned to more normal volumes. We have also taken advantage of various government programs available to us. For example, we have applied for or received wage subsidies in certain countries. In the U.S., the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act includes provisions relating to refundable payroll tax credits, deferment of the employer portion of certain payroll taxes, and other tax-related provisions. As a result, we have been preserving cash by deferring payment of U.S. payroll taxes.
We are continuing to assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations. For additional information on the various risks posed by the pandemic, refer to Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Form 10-K.
Critical Accounting Policies, Significant Judgments and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other
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assumptions believed to be reasonable, which together form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on numerous evolving factors including, but not limited to, the magnitude and duration of the pandemic, the extent to which it will impact worldwide macroeconomic conditions, including the speed of recovery, and governmental and business reactions to the pandemic. We assessed certain accounting matters that generally require consideration of forecasted financial information, including the unknown impact of COVID-19 as of December 31, 2020. These accounting matters included, but were not limited to, our allowance for doubtful accounts and credit losses, inventory and related reserves and the carrying value of goodwill and other long-lived assets. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates and could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements.
We believe that the following critical accounting policies involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity than our other accounting policies. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to understanding and evaluating our audited 2020 consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue primarily from the sale of our products and services. Product revenue is derived from the sale of instruments and consumables, assays and reagents. Service revenue is primarily derived from the sale of instrument service contracts, repairs, installation, training and other specialized product support services. We also generate revenue from development agreements, license and royalty agreements and grants. Revenue is reported net of any sales, use and value-added taxes we collect from customers as required by government authorities. Research and development cost includes costs associated with development and grant revenue.
We recognize revenue based on the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for the goods and services we transfer to the customer. Our commercial arrangements typically include multiple distinct products and services, and we allocate revenue to these performance obligations based on their relative standalone selling prices. Standalone selling prices (SSP) are generally determined using observable data from recent transactions. In cases where sufficient data is not available, we estimate a product’s SSP by using a cost plus a margin approach or by applying a discount to the product’s list price.
Product Revenue
We recognize product revenue at the point in time when control of the goods passes to the customer and we have an enforceable right to payment. This generally occurs either when the product is shipped from one of our facilities or when it arrives at the customer’s facility, based on the contractual terms. Customers generally do not have a unilateral right to return products after delivery. Invoices are generally issued at shipment and generally become due in 30 to 60 days.
We sometimes perform shipping and handling activities after control of the product passes to the customer. We have made an accounting policy election to account for these activities as product fulfillment activities rather than as separate performance obligations.
Service Revenue
We recognize revenue from repairs, maintenance, installation, training and other specialized product support services at the point in time the work is completed. Installation and training services are generally billed in advance of service. Repairs and other services are generally billed at the point the work is completed.
Revenue associated with instrument service contracts is recognized on a straight-line basis over the life of the agreement, which is generally one to three years. We believe this time-elapsed approach is appropriate for service contracts because we provide services on demand throughout the term of the agreement. Invoices are generally issued in advance of service on a monthly, quarterly, annual or multi-year basis. Payments made in advance of service are reported on our consolidated balance sheet as deferred revenue.
Development Revenue
The Company has entered and may continue to enter into development agreements with third parties that provide for up-front and periodic milestone payments. Our development agreements may include more than one performance obligation. At the inception of the contract, we assess whether each obligation represents a separate performance obligation or whether such obligations should be combined as a single performance obligation. The transaction price for each development agreement is determined based on the amount of consideration we expect to be entitled to for satisfying all performance obligations within the agreement.
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We assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue. In arrangements where we satisfy performance obligation(s) over time, we recognize development revenue typically using an input method based on our costs incurred relative to the total expected cost which determines the extent of our progress toward completion. As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we develop estimates and assumptions that require judgment to determine the transaction price and progress towards completion. We review our estimate of the transaction price and progress toward completion based on the best information available to recognize the cumulative progress toward completion as of the end of each reporting period, and make revisions to such estimates as necessary.
We also generate revenue from development or collaboration agreements that do not include upfront or milestone-based payments and generally recognize revenue on these types of agreements based on the timing of development activities.
Other Revenue
Other revenue consists of license and royalty revenue and grant revenue. We recognize revenue from license agreements when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license. For contracts that include sales-based royalties, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied.
In March 2020, we entered into an agreement to settle intellectual property infringement claims, in which we received a $3.5 million payment in exchange for a perpetual license under certain Fluidigm intellectual property. The settlement is considered a multiple-element arrangement with each element accounted for individually. Accordingly, $3.1 million of the proceeds was recognized as license revenue and $0.4 million was offset against legal costs.
We receive grants from various entities to perform research and development activities over contractually defined periods. Revenue is generally recognized provided that the conditions under which the grants were provided have been met and any remaining performance obligations are perfunctory.
Product Warranties
We generally provide a one-year warranty on our instruments. We accrue for estimated warranty obligations at the time of product shipment. We periodically review our warranty liability and record adjustments based on the terms of warranties provided to customers, and historical and anticipated warranty claim experience. This expense is recorded as a component of cost of product revenue in the consolidated statements of operations.
Significant Judgments
Applying the revenue recognition practices discussed above often requires significant judgment. Judgment is required when identifying performance obligations, estimating SSP and allocating purchase consideration in multi-element arrangements and estimating the future amount of our warranty obligations. Significant judgment is also required when interpreting commercial terms and determining when control of goods and services passes to the customer. Any material changes created by errors in judgment could have a material effect on our operating results and overall financial condition.
Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at net invoice value. We review our exposure to accounts receivable and provide allowances of specific amounts if collectability is no longer reasonably assured based on historical experience and specific customer collection issues. We evaluate such allowances on a regular basis and adjust them as needed. To reduce credit risk, we perform credit evaluations of our customers. We generally do not require collateral to support credit sales.
Inventories, net
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (on a first-in, first-out basis) or net realizable value. Inventory costs include direct materials, direct labor, and normal manufacturing overhead. We regularly review inventory for excess and obsolete products and components. Provisions for slow-moving, excess, and obsolete inventories are recorded when required to reduce inventory values to their estimated net realizable values based on product life cycle, development plans, product expiration, and quality issues.
Leases
We determine if an arrangement is a lease, or contains a lease, at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (ROU) assets, net and current and non-current operating lease liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets. ROU
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assets represent our right-to-use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we generally use our incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated rate of interest for collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments at commencement date. Significant judgment is required in determining the incremental collateralized borrowing rate. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
We elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. For those leases that qualify, we will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for leases with an initial lease term of one year or less. We also elected not to separate lease and nonlease components for our building leases. The nonlease components are generally variable in nature and are expected to represent most of our variable lease costs. Variable costs are expensed as incurred. We have taken a portfolio approach for our vehicle leases by country.
Business Combinations, Goodwill, Intangible Assets and Other Long-Lived Assets
We have completed acquisitions of businesses in the past and may acquire additional businesses or technologies in the future. The results of businesses acquired in a business combination are included in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. We allocate the purchase price, which is the sum of the consideration provided in a business combination, to the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquired business at their acquisition date fair values. The excess of the purchase price over the amount allocated to the identifiable assets and liabilities, if any, is recorded as goodwill. Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management to use significant judgment and estimates, including the selection of valuation methodologies and estimates of future revenue.
Goodwill, which has an indefinite useful life, represents the excess of cost over fair value of net assets acquired. Our intangible assets include developed technology, patents and licenses. The cost of identifiable intangible assets with finite lives is generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the assets’ respective estimated useful lives. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are not subject to amortization but are tested for impairment on an annual basis during the fourth quarter or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Events or changes in circumstances that could affect the likelihood that we will be required to recognize an impairment charge include, but are not limited to, declines in our stock price or market capitalization, economic downturns and other macroeconomic events, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, declines in our market share or revenues, and an increase in our losses, rapid changes in technology, failure to achieve the benefits of capacity increases and utilization, significant litigation arising out of an acquisition, or other matters. Any impairment charges could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and net asset value in the quarter in which we recognize the impairment charge. In evaluating our goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives for indications of impairment, we first conduct an assessment of qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we compare the fair value of our reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of our reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is not considered impaired and no further analysis is required. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then an impairment loss equal to the difference would be recorded to goodwill. There were no indications of impairment in 2020. We did not recognize any impairment of goodwill for any of the periods presented herein.
We evaluate our long-lived assets, including finite-lived intangibles, for indicators of possible impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If any indicator of impairment exists, we assess the recoverability of the affected long-lived assets by determining whether the carrying value of the asset can be recovered through undiscounted future operating cash flows. If impairment is indicated, we estimate the asset’s fair value using future discounted cash flows associated with the use of the asset and adjust the carrying value of the asset accordingly. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we recognized an impairment charge of $0.4 million on patents and licenses that were not used in then current products and were not expected to be used in future product offerings.
Deferred Grant Income
In September 2020, we executed the NIH Contract. The NIH Contract has a total value of up to $34.0 million upon the achievement of certain milestones. Proceeds from the NIH Contract will be used primarily to expand production capacity for COVID-19 testing with Fluidigm microfluidics technology and, to a lesser extent, to offset applicable operating expenses.
Accounting for the NIH Contract does not fall under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as the NIH will not benefit directly from our expansion or product development. As there is no authoritative guidance under U.S. GAAP on accounting for government assistance to for-profit business entities, we applied International Accounting Standards (IAS) 20, Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance, by analogy when accounting for the NIH Contract payments to Fluidigm.
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The NIH Contract proceeds used for production capacity expansion meet the definition of grants related to assets as the primary purpose for the payments is to fund the purchase and construction of capital assets to scale up production capacity. Under IAS 20, government grants related to assets are presented in the statement of financial position either by setting up the grant as deferred income or by deducting the grant in arriving at the carrying amount of the asset. Either of these two methods of presentation of grants related to assets in financial statements are regarded as acceptable alternatives under IAS 20. We have elected to record the grants received as deferred income using the first method.

Under IAS 20, grant proceeds are recognized when there is reasonable assurance the conditions of the grant will be met and the grant will be received. With the NIH Contract, this occurs when either each milestone has been accepted by NIH or management concludes the conditions of the grant have been substantially met. Deferred income related to production capacity expansion will be amortized over the period of depreciation for the related assets as a reduction of depreciation expense. Deferred income related to reimbursement of operating expenses is recorded as a reduction of those expenses incurred to date.
Convertible Notes
In February 2014, we closed an underwritten public offering of $201.3 million aggregate principal amount of our 2014 Notes. In March 2018, we entered into separate privately negotiated transactions with certain holders of our 2014 Notes to exchange $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes for 2.75% Exchange Convertible Senior Notes due 2034 (2018 Notes). Following the exchange, approximately $51.3 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes remained outstanding, together with $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2018 Notes.
As the 2018 Notes were convertible, at our election, into cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, we accounted for the 2018 Notes under the cash conversion guidance in ASC 470, whereby the embedded conversion option in the 2018 Notes was separated and accounted for in equity. The embedded conversion option value was calculated as the difference between (i) the total fair value of the 2018 Notes and (ii) the fair value of a similar debt instrument excluding the embedded conversion option. We determined an embedded conversion option value of $29.3 million, which was recorded in additional paid-in-capital and reduced the carrying value of the 2018 Notes. The resulting discount on the 2018 Notes was amortized over the expected term of the 2018 Notes, using the effective interest method through the first note holder put date, of February 6, 2023. In the first quarter of 2019, the 2018 Notes were converted into approximately 19.5 million shares of common stock and the 2018 Notes were retired. We recorded a loss of $9.0 million on the retirement of the 2018 Notes. This amount represented the difference between the fair value of the bonds converted and the carrying value of the bonds at the time of conversion, including unamortized premiums, discounts and debt issuance costs. We determined the fair value of the 2018 Notes using valuation techniques that required us to make assumptions related to the implied discount rate. 
In November 2019, we closed a private placement to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of $55.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 2019 Notes. The majority of the issuance proceeds were used to retire approximately $50.2 million of aggregate principal amount of our 2014 Notes, leaving approximately $1.1 million of aggregate principal amount of our 2014 Notes outstanding. We recorded a loss of $3.0 million on the extinguishment of the 2014 Notes. This amount represented the difference between the fair value of the 2019 Notes used to extinguish the debt and the carrying value of the 2014 Notes, including unamortized debt issuance costs.
As the 2019 Notes do not provide for a cash conversion feature, the 2019 Notes are recorded as debt in their entirety in accordance with ASC 470. For the 2014, 2018 and 2019 Notes, offering-related costs, including underwriting costs, were capitalized as debt issuance costs, recorded as an offset to the carrying value of the related Notes, and are amortized over the expected term of the related Notes using the effective interest method.
Stock-Based Compensation
Our board of directors sets the terms, conditions, and restrictions related to our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP) and the grant of stock options, Restricted Share Units (RSUs) and performance-based awards (PSUs) under our various stock-based plans. Our board of directors determines the number of awards to grant and sets the vesting criteria. For PSUs, our board of directors sets the performance objectives and other vesting provisions in determining the number of shares or value of performance units and performance shares that will be paid out. Such payout will be a function of the extent to which performance objectives or other vesting provisions have been achieved.
We recognize compensation costs for all stock-based awards, including stock options, RSUs, PSUs and stock purchased under our ESPP, based on the grant date fair value of the award. We recognize stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods for non-performance-based awards. For RSUs, fair value is measured based on the closing fair market value of our common stock on the date of grant. For PSUs with a market condition, we used a Monte Carlo simulation pricing model to incorporate the market condition effects at our grant date. For PSUs with performance conditions,
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stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period when the achievement of each individual performance goal becomes probable.
The fair value of options and stock purchases under ESPP on the grant date is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which requires the use of certain subjective assumptions, including expected term, volatility, risk-free interest rate and the fair value of our common stock. These assumptions generally require significant judgment. We determine the expected volatility based on our historical stock price volatility generally commensurate with the estimated expected term of the stock awards. The expected term of an award is based on historical forfeiture experience, exercise activity, and the terms and conditions of the stock awards. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of grant for zero coupon U.S. Treasury notes with maturities approximately equal to each grant’s expected term. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
Income Taxes
We use the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities, and any valuation allowance recorded against our deferred tax assets. Our provision for income taxes primarily consists of foreign tax expense/benefit.
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we continuously monitor the circumstances impacting the expected realization of our deferred tax assets for each jurisdiction. We consider all available evidence, including historical operating results in each jurisdiction, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income, and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. A valuation allowance is established to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. These deferred tax assets primarily consist of net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credits. We intend to maintain such valuation allowance until sufficient evidence exists to support its reduction. Our deferred tax liabilities primarily consist of book and tax basis differences in fixed assets and acquired identifiable intangible assets. We make estimates and judgments about our future taxable income that are based on assumptions that are consistent with our plans and estimates. Should the actual amounts differ from our estimates, the amount of our valuation allowance could be materially impacted. Changes in these estimates may result in significant increases or decreases to our tax provision in a period in which such estimates are changed, which in turn would affect net income or loss.
We recognize the financial statement effects of a tax position when it is more likely than not, based on the technical merits, that the position will be sustained upon examination. Any interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are reflected in the income tax provision.
At December 31, 2017, we changed our permanent reinvestment assertion and will not permanently reinvest our foreign earnings outside the United States. The cash generated from some of our foreign subsidiaries may be used domestically to fund operations. Any domestic foreign withholding tax and state taxes that may be due upon future repatriation of earnings is not expected to be significant.
Recent Accounting Changes and Accounting Pronouncements
Adoption of New Accounting Guidance
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update (ASU) 2018-15-Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40) which establishes new guidance on the accounting for costs incurred to implement a cloud computing arrangement that is considered a service arrangement. The new guidance requires the capitalization of such costs, aligning it with the accounting for costs associated with developing or obtaining internal-use software. The new guidance was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The adoption of the new guidance did not have a significant impact on our financial results.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The ASU eliminates the requirement for an entity to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, an entity performs its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment testing by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recording an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. The ASU was effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment testing
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performed for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption of the new guidance did not have a significant impact on our financial results.
The FASB issued two ASUs related to financial instruments – credit losses. The ASUs issued were: (i) in June 2016, ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, and (ii) in November 2018, ASU 2018-19-Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses. ASU 2016-13 is intended to improve financial reporting by requiring more timely recording of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments held by financial institutions and other organizations. ASU 2018-19 clarifies that receivables arising from operating leases are not within the scope of the credit losses standard, but rather, should be accounted for in accordance with the leasing standard. These ASUs were effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those years. The modified retrospective method was required upon adoption. The new guidance was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The adoption of the new guidance resulted in an adjustment of approximately $0.1 million to reduce the accumulated deficit component of stockholders’ equity and decrease current assets by the same amount in our consolidated balance sheet.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06 Debt-Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. The amendment to this ASU reduces the number of accounting models for convertible instruments and allows more contracts to qualify for equity classification, which is expected to result in more convertible instruments being accounted for as a single unit, rather than being bifurcated between debt and equity. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of the new guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12 Income Taxes (Topic 740)-Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The amendments in this update improve consistent application of and simplify GAAP for Topic 740 by clarifying and amending existing guidance for, among other items, intra-period allocation, reporting tax law changes and losses in interim periods, state and local taxes not fully based on income and recognition of deferred tax liability related to certain transactions. There is also new guidance related to consolidated group reporting and tax impacts resulting from business combinations. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The adoption of the new guidance is not expected to have a significant impact on our financial results.
Results of Operations
The following table presents our historical consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, and as a percentage of total revenue for the respective years (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Revenue:
Total revenue$138,144 100 %$117,243 100 %$112,964 100 %
Costs and expenses:
Cost of product revenue47,527 34 45,461 39 44,861 39 
Cost of service revenue7,291 7,503 6,454 
Research and development36,461 26 31,640 27 30,030 27 
Selling, general and administrative97,901 71 84,478 72 79,783 71 
Total costs and expenses189,180 136 169,082 144 161,128 143 
Loss from operations(51,036)(36)(51,839)(44)(48,164)(43)
Interest expense(3,572)(3)(4,279)(4)(13,893)(12)
Loss from extinguishment of debt— — (12,020)(10)— — 
Other income, net507 — 1,433 637 
Loss before income taxes(54,101)(39)(66,705)(57)(61,420)(54)
Income tax benefit1,081 1,915 2,407 
Net loss$(53,020)(38)%$(64,790)(55)%$(59,013)(52)%
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Revenue
We generate revenue primarily from sales of our products and services, development agreements, license and royalty agreements, and grants. Our product revenue consists of sales of instruments and consumables. Consumables revenue are largely driven by the size of our installed base of instruments and the annual level of pull-through per instrument. Service revenue is linked to the sales and active installed base of our instruments as our service revenue primarily consists of post-warranty service contracts, preventive maintenance plans, instrument parts, installation and training. We sell our products to leading academic and government laboratories, as well as pharmaceutical, biotechnology, clinical, plant and animal research organizations and clinical laboratories worldwide.
Development Revenue. Effective March 31, 2020, we signed an OEM Supply and Development Agreement (Development Agreement) with a customer. Under the Development Agreement, Fluidigm will develop products based on our microfluidics technology. The Development Agreement provides up-front and periodic milestone payments of up to $11.7 million during the development stage. The development stage is expected to last approximately one year from the date of the Development Agreement. We recognized $8.8 million of development revenue from this agreement for the year ended December 31, 2020.
We recognize revenue under the Development Agreement using an input method based on our costs incurred relative to the total expected cost which determines the extent of our progress toward satisfaction of our obligations under the agreement. Costs associated with the Development Agreement are recorded in research and development expense.
Grant Revenue. We receive grants to perform research and development activities over contractually defined periods. Grant revenue in the current year is attributable to a grant agreement entered into in the second half of 2019, which is expected to end in the first half of 2021. Costs associated with grant agreements are recorded in research and development expense.
License and Royalty Revenue. In March 2020, we entered into an agreement to settle intellectual property infringement claims and received a $3.5 million payment in exchange for a perpetual license under certain of our intellectual property. The settlement is considered a multiple-element arrangement with each element accounted for individually. Accordingly, $3.1 million of the proceeds was recognized as license revenue and $0.4 million was offset against legal costs.
No single customer represented more than 10% of our total revenue for 2020, 2019, or 2018. Revenue from our five largest customers was 23% of total revenue for 2020 and 17% for both the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
The following table presents our revenue by source for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, and as a percentage of total revenue for the respective years (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,Change
20202019201820202019
Revenue:
Instruments$45,536 33 %$50,004 43 %$45,491 40 %(9)%10 %
Consumables54,408 39 45,412 39 48,159 43 20 %(6)%
Product revenue99,944 72 95,416 82 93,650 83 %%
Service revenue22,579 16 21,277 18 19,314 17 %10 %
Product and service revenue122,523 88 116,693 100 112,964 100 %%
Development revenue8,865 — — — — NANA
Grant revenue3,593 550 — — — 553 %NA
License revenue3,163 — — — — NANA
Total revenue$138,144 100 %$117,243 100 %$112,964 100 %18 %%
The following table presents our total revenue by geographic area of our customers and as a percentage of total revenue for each year presented (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,Change
 20202019201820202019
Americas$74,586 54 %$47,016 40 %$51,172 46 %59 %(8)%
EMEA37,776 27 40,024 34 36,617 32 (6)%%
Asia-Pacific25,782 19 30,203 26 25,175 22 (15)%20 %
Total revenue$138,144 100 %$117,243 100 %$112,964 100 %18 %%
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The Americas revenue includes revenue generated in the United States of $72.0 million, $43.4 million, and $48.1 million for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Asia-Pacific revenue includes sales to customers in China of $11.1 million, $15.4 million and $14.0 million for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. There was no foreign country or jurisdiction with sales in excess of 10% of total revenue in 2020. Except for China, no other foreign country or jurisdiction had sales in excess of 10% of our total revenue during the years 2019 and 2018.
The following section includes management discussion and analysis for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. Refer to Part I Item 7 of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020, for a discussion of the comparative results for 2019 and 2018, which discussion of comparative results is incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
Total Revenue. Total revenue increased by $20.9 million or 18%, to $138.1 million for 2020 compared to $117.2 million for 2019. Americas revenue increased by 59%, driven by sales of our Advanta Dx SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and related sales of microfluidics instruments; development revenue; and grant revenue; partially offset by lower mass cytometry product sales. COVID-19 microfluidics revenues only partially offset lower mass cytometry instrument revenues for EMEA, resulting in a 6% decline in EMEA revenues. Stronger European currencies in 2020 compared to 2019 added approximately 2% to EMEA's reported revenues. The 15% decrease in Asia-Pacific revenues is due to decreases in revenue in all product categories due to the pandemic and shelter-in-place orders. On a company-wide basis, stronger foreign exchange rates positively impacted revenues by less than 1% for 2020 compared to 2019.
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Product and Service Revenue. The following tables present the split of product and service revenue between mass cytometry and microfluidic product categories and as a percentage of the respective category’s total product and service revenue for each year presented (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,Change
20202019201820202019
Mass cytometry:
Instruments$28,484 46 %$41,575 57 %$34,308 58 %(31)%21 %
Consumables18,023 29 17,850 24 14,962 25 19 
Total product revenue46,507 75 59,425 81 49,270 83 (22)21 
Service revenue15,625 25 13,895 19 10,230 17 12 36 
Total product and service revenue$62,132 100 %$73,320 100 %$59,500 100 %(15)%23 %
          
Year Ended December 31,Change
20202019201820202019
Microfluidics:
Instruments$17,053 28 %$8,429 19 %$11,183 21 %102 %(25)%
Consumables36,384 60 27,562 64 33,197 62 32 (17)
Total product revenue53,437 88 35,991 83 44,380 83 48 (19)
Service revenue6,954 12 7,382 17 9,084 17 (6)(19)
Total product and service revenue$60,391 100 %$43,373 100 %$53,464 100 %39 %(19)%
The decline in mass cytometry instrument revenue was primarily attributable to lower volumes of instrument sales due to ordering delays created by lab closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and, to a lesser extent, the impact of lower average unit selling prices on mass cytometry instruments. Customers are also shifting their resources to COVID-19 related projects. Mass cytometry consumables revenues benefited from COVID-19 immune profiling studies.
Microfluidics revenues increased due to sales of our newly developed SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test and related sales of instrument systems. Diagnostic revenue, comprised of both consumables and instruments was $22.4 million in 2020, and more than offset the decline in other microfluidics revenue caused by a pandemic-related slowdown in key account activity.

The COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, and although we expect it to dissipate in 2021 as vaccinations proliferate worldwide, the timing and pace of the recovery remain uncertain. Reallocations of research budgets to COVID-related projects that started in 2020 are still in place as we enter 2021, and these continuing budget reallocations and any other pandemic-related impacts may result in variability in sequential quarterly revenue growth.
Product and Service Cost, Product and Service Gross Profit, and Product and Service Margin.
Cost of product revenue includes manufacturing costs incurred in the production process, including component materials, labor and overhead, installation, packaging, and delivery costs. In addition, cost of product revenue includes amortization of developed technology and intangibles, royalty costs for licensed technologies included in our products, warranty, provisions for slow-moving and obsolete inventory, and stock-based compensation expense. Our cost of product revenue and related product margin may fluctuate depending on the capacity utilization of our manufacturing facilities in response to market conditions and the demand for our products.
Cost of service revenue includes direct labor hours, overhead, and instrument parts. Our cost of service revenue and related service margin may fluctuate depending on the variability in material and labor costs of servicing instruments.
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The following table presents our product and service cost, product and service gross profit, and product and service margin for each year presented (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,ChangeChange
 20202019201820202019
Cost of product revenue$47,527$45,461$44,861%%
Cost of service revenue7,2917,5036,454(3)%16 %
Cost of product and service revenue$54,818$52,964$51,315%%
Product and service gross profit$67,705$63,729$61,649%%
Product and service margin55.3 %54.6 %54.6 %0.7 ppts— ppts.

Product and service margin increased by 0.7 percentage points during 2020 compared to 2019. The impact of spreading fixed depreciation and amortization over a higher revenue base contributed 0.6 percentage points of the improvement in margin. The impact of lower average unit selling prices on mass cytometry instruments was offset by lower service costs and lower production costs associated with mass cytometry consumables.
Product and service margin was unchanged in 2019 compared to the prior year. Higher capacity utilization, as well as the impact of spreading fixed depreciation and amortization over a higher revenue base, was offset by higher inventory reserves, unfavorable product mix and lower average selling prices on mass cytometry products.
Operating Expenses
The following table presents our operating expenses for each year presented (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,Change
 20202019201820202019
Research and development$36,461 $31,640 $30,030 15 %%
Selling, general and administrative97,901 84,478 79,783 16 %%
Total operating expenses $134,362 $116,118 $109,813 16 %%
Research and Development
Research and development expense consists primarily of compensation-related costs, product development and material expenses, and other allocated facilities and information technology expenses. Our research and development efforts have focused primarily on enhancing our technologies and supporting development and commercialization of new and existing products and services. Research and development expense also includes costs incurred in conjunction with research grants and development arrangements.
We have made substantial investments in research and development since our inception and expect to continue to do so. We believe that our continued investment in research and development is essential to our long-term competitive position and that these expenses may increase in future periods.
Research and development expense increased by $4.8 million, or 15%, to $36.5 million for 2020 compared to $31.6 million for 2019. Increases are primarily due to higher compensation costs, including higher employee incentive compensation and stock-based compensation costs, and outside service costs related to development and grant projects. Proceeds of the NIH Contract offset $1.4 million of research and development costs.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel costs for our sales and marketing, business development, finance, legal, human resources, information technology, and general management, as well as professional services, such as legal and accounting services.
Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $13.4 million, or 16%, to $97.9 million for 2020 compared to $84.5 million for 2019. The increase in expense is primarily attributable to higher compensation costs, including higher employee incentive compensation and stock-based compensation, and higher legal costs. In addition, we incurred $4.9 million of increased facilities costs reflecting costs associated with our new lease, effective March 2020, for our corporate headquarters and related moving expenses. Lease rates had increased since entering into our previous, now expired, lease. Travel costs fell
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$3.6 million compared to the prior period, while costs related to trade shows and other events fell $1.9 million due to the cancellation of in-person events in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Interest Expense, Loss from Extinguishment of Debt and Other Income, Net
The following table presents these items for each year presented (in thousands): 
 Year Ended December 31,Change
 20202019201820202019
Interest expense$(3,572)$(4,279)$(13,893)17 %69 %
Loss from extinguishment of debt— (12,020)— (100)%NA
Other income, net507 1,433 637 65 %(125)%
Total$(3,065)$(14,866)$(13,256)79 %(12)%
In November 2019, we issued $55.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 2019 Notes. Net proceeds of the 2019 Notes issuance were used primarily to retire $50.2 million aggregate principal amount of our 2014 Notes. The 2019 Notes have an effective interest rate of 6.2% compared to the 2014 Notes, which have an effective interest rate 3.0%.
In February 2014, we closed an underwritten public offering of $201.3 million aggregate principal amount of our 2014 Notes. In March 2018, we entered into separate privately negotiated transactions with certain holders of our 2014 Notes to exchange $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes for our 2018 Notes. The 2018 Notes had an effective interest rate of 12.3%. In the first quarter of 2019, the 2018 Notes were converted into 19.5 million shares of our common stock and the 2018 Notes were retired. We recognized a loss of $9.0 million on the conversion of 2018 Notes, which was included in loss on extinguishment of debt. This amount represents the difference between the fair value of the bonds converted and the carrying value of the bonds at the time of conversion.
Interest expense of $3.6 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 consists primarily of interest on $55.0 million of 2019 Notes, while interest expense of $4.3 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 included both the interest on $51.3 million of 2014 Notes and a partial quarter of interest expense on $150.0 million of 2018 Notes, which accrued at an effective rate of 12.3%. The lower interest expense of $3.6 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 compared to $4.3 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 reflects the impact of higher debt balances and higher interest rates for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 compared to the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.
Other income, net primarily consists of interest income and gains or losses on foreign exchange. Other income, net, of $0.5 million for 2020 is primarily attributable to $0.2 million of interest income, and $0.2 million of foreign exchange gains.
Income Tax Benefit
Our tax provision is generally driven by three components: (i) tax provision from our foreign operations, (ii) tax benefits from the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, and (iii) discrete items, such as changes in valuation allowances or adjustments upon finalization of tax returns. Depending on the relative value of these components, we can have either a tax benefit or expense for any given period.
We recorded a tax benefit of $1.1 million, or an effective tax rate benefit of 2.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2020. The tax benefit was principally due to the amortization of our acquisition-related deferred tax liabilities, partially offset by a provision from our foreign operations.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
As of December 31, 2020, our principal sources of liquidity consisted of $68.5 million of cash and cash equivalents, as well as $1.0 million of restricted cash and $15.0 million of availability under our Revolving Credit Facility.
The following table presents our cash flow summary for each year presented (in thousands):
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 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Cash flow summary:
Net cash used in operating activities$(15,417)$(35,210)$(25,201)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities39,975 (39,301)4,719 
Net cash provided by financing activities20,857 2,790 57,660 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash45,800 (71,665)37,345 

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities. We derive cash flows from operations primarily from cash collected from the sale of our products and services, and license agreements and grants. Our cash flows from operating activities are also significantly influenced by our use of cash for operating expenses and working capital to support the business. We have historically experienced negative cash flows from operating activities as we have expanded our business and built our infrastructure domestically and internationally.
Net cash used in operating activities in 2020 was $15.4 million and consisted of net loss of $53.0 million less non-cash adjustments of $35.2 million, and a net increase in assets and liabilities of $2.4 million. Non-cash items include stock-based compensation expense of $14.5 million, amortization of developed technology of $11.9 million, depreciation and amortization of $4.0 million, and lease amortization of $2.0 million. Increases in inventories and accounts receivable balances represent working capital increases due to higher revenues. Higher incentive compensation and other accruals largely offset these increases.
Net cash used in operating activities in 2019 was $35.2 million and consisted of net loss of $64.8 million less non-cash adjustments of $43.2 million, and a net increase in assets and liabilities of $13.6 million. Non-cash items primarily included a loss from extinguishment of debt of $12.0 million, amortization of developed technology of $11.2 million, stock-based compensation expense of $11.4 million, and depreciation and amortization of $4.6 million. The net increase in assets and liabilities was primarily due to lower accrued liabilities for retention bonuses and other variable compensation.
Net cash used in operating activities in 2018 was $25.2 million and consisted of net loss of $59.0 million less non-cash adjustments of $37.4 million, and a net reduction in assets and liabilities of $3.6 million. Non-cash items primarily included amortization of developed technology of $11.2 million, stock-based compensation of $11.0 million and depreciation and amortization of $5.4 million. The net increase in assets and liabilities was primarily due to lower accrued liabilities for retention bonuses.
Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities. Our primary investing activities consist of purchases, sales, and maturities of our short-term investments and capital expenditures for manufacturing, laboratory, computer equipment and software to support our infrastructure and workforce. We expect to continue to incur costs for capital expenditures to improve manufacturing efficiencies and strengthen information technology and network security. However, we may choose to decrease or defer certain capital expenditures and development activities, while further optimizing our organization.
Net cash provided by investing activities in 2020 was $40.0 million and includes $36.8 million of proceeds from the sales and maturities of investments as well as $21.0 million of proceeds from the NIH Contract, reflecting the portion
of the proceeds from the NIH Contract attributable to the capacity expansion. These inflows were partially offset by capital expenditures of $12.7 million, including $10.2 million of capital expenditures funded by the NIH Contract to expand our Singapore manufacturing facility, and $5.2 million of net cash paid for the InstruNor acquisition.

Total proceeds from the NIH Contract are expected to be $34.0 million, of which we received $25.4 million in 2020. We expect to incur the balance of the capital expenditures for the manufacturing capacity expansion and receive the remaining proceeds from the NIH, subject to satisfactory completion of all remaining milestones, in 2021.
Net cash used in investing activities in 2019 was $39.3 million, which included purchases of investments of $62.4 million and capital expenditures of $2.5 million to support our commercial and manufacturing operations, partially offset by proceeds from maturities of investments of $25.6 million.
Net cash provided by investing activities in 2018 was $4.7 million, which included proceeds from maturities of investments of $6.5 million, partially offset by purchases of investments of $1.5 million, and capital expenditures of $0.4 million to support our commercial and manufacturing operations.
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Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities. We generated cash from financing activities of $20.9 million during 2020. Proceeds from our ATM equity offering were $20.2 million, net of commissions and offering costs. Proceeds from our ESPP program and stock options exercises were largely offset by payments of debt issuance costs and income tax withholding related to net share settlement of equity awards.
We generated cash from financing activities of $2.8 million during 2019. $51.8 million of proceeds from a new $55.0 million debt issuance were used to retire 2014 Notes, as discussed below in more detail. Payments of debt and equity issuance costs of $1.9 million were partially offset by cash inflows from equity programs.
We generated cash from financing activities of $57.7 million during 2018, and approximately $59.5 million was generated from a public offering of our common stock. The remainder reflects the proceeds from stock option exercises and ESPP purchases, offset by debt and equity issuance costs and payments of taxes for the net settlement of equity awards.
Capital Resources.