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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                    to                   
Brandywine Realty Trust
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland
(Brandywine Realty Trust)
001-9106
23-2413352
Delaware
(Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.)
000-24407
23-2862640
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation
or Organization)
(Commission file number)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
2929 Walnut Street
Suite 1700
Philadelphia, PA 19104

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(610) 325-5600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares of Beneficial InterestBDNNYSE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Brandywine Realty TrustYes
  No 
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.Yes
  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Brandywine Realty Trust
Yes
No
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
Yes 
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Brandywine Realty TrustYes
  No 
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.Yes
  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Brandywine Realty TrustYes
  No 
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.Yes
  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Brandywine Realty Trust:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark whether the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of Exchange Act.

Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.:
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Brandywine Realty TrustYes    No ☐
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.Yes    No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Brandywine Realty TrustYes   
 No
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.Yes   
 No
As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the Common Shares of Beneficial Interest held by non-affiliates of Brandywine Realty Trust was $1,811,989,986 based upon the last reported sale price of $10.89 per share on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020. An aggregate of 170,637,419 Common Shares of Beneficial Interest was outstanding as of February 18, 2021.
As of June 30, 2020 the aggregate market value of the 981,634 common units of limited partnership (“Units”) held by non-affiliates of Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. was $10,689,994 based upon the last reported sale price of $10.89 per share on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020 of the Common Shares of Beneficial Interest of Brandywine Realty Trust, the sole general partner of Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. (For this computation, the Registrant has excluded the market value of all Units beneficially owned by Brandywine Realty Trust.)
Documents Incorporated By Reference
Portions of the proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Brandywine Realty Trust are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



EXPLANATORY NOTE
This report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 of Brandywine Realty Trust (the “Parent Company”) and Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership”). The Parent Company is a Maryland real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns its assets and conducts its operations through the Operating Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership, and subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership. The Parent Company, the Operating Partnership and their consolidated subsidiaries are collectively referred to in this report as the “Company.” In addition, terms such as “we”, “us”, or “our” used in this report may refer to the Company, the Parent Company, or the Operating Partnership.
The Parent Company is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and as of December 31, 2020, owned a 99.4% interest in the Operating Partnership. The remaining 0.6% interest consists of common units of limited partnership interest issued by the Operating Partnership to third parties in exchange for contributions of properties to the Operating Partnership. As the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, the Parent Company has full and complete authority over the Operating Partnership’s day-to-day operations and management.
As general partner with control of the Operating Partnership, the Parent Company consolidates the Operating Partnership for financial reporting purposes, and the Parent Company does not have significant assets other than its investment in the Operating Partnership. Therefore, the assets and liabilities of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership are the same in their respective financial statements. The separate discussions of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership in this report should be read in conjunction with each other to understand the results of the Company’s operations on a consolidated basis and how management operates the Company.
Management operates the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership as one enterprise. The management of the Parent Company consists of the same members as the management of the Operating Partnership. These members are officers of both the Parent Company and of the Operating Partnership.
The Company believes that combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership into a single report will:
facilitate a better understanding by the investors of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership by enabling them to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;
remove duplicative disclosures and provide a more straightforward presentation in light of the fact that a substantial portion of the disclosure applies to both the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership; and
create time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined report instead of two separate reports.
There are few differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, which are reflected in the footnote disclosures in this report. The Company believes it is important to understand the differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership in the context of how these entities operate as an interrelated consolidated company. The Parent Company is a REIT, whose only material asset is its ownership of the partnership interests of the Operating Partnership. As a result, the Parent Company does not conduct business itself, other than acting as the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, issuing public equity from time to time (and contributing the net proceeds of such issuances to the Operating Partnership) and guaranteeing the debt obligations of the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership holds substantially all the assets of the Company, including the Company's ownership interests in the real estate ventures described below. The Operating Partnership conducts the operations of the Company’s business and is structured as a partnership with no publicly traded equity. Except for net proceeds from equity issuances by the Parent Company, which are contributed to the Operating Partnership in exchange for partnership units, the Operating Partnership generates the capital required by the Company’s business through the Operating Partnership’s operations, by the Operating Partnership’s direct or indirect incurrence of indebtedness or through the issuance of partnership units of the Operating Partnership or equity interests in subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership.
The equity and noncontrolling interests in the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership’s equity are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership. The common units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership are accounted for as partners’ equity in the Operating Partnership’s financial statements while the common units of limited partnership interests held by parties other than the Parent Company are presented as noncontrolling interests in the Parent Company’s financial statements. The differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership’s equity relate to the differences in the equity issued at the Parent Company and Operating Partnership levels.
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To help investors understand the significant differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, this report presents the following as separate notes or sections for each of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership:
Consolidated Financial Statements;
Parent Company’s and Operating Partnership’s Equity
This report also includes separate Item 9A. (Controls and Procedures) disclosures and separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each entity have made the requisite certifications and that the Parent Company and Operating Partnership are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and 18 U.S.C. § 1350.
In order to highlight the differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, the separate sections in this report for the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership specifically refer to the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership. In the sections that combine disclosures of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, this report refers to such disclosures as those of the Company. Although the Operating Partnership is generally the entity that directly or indirectly enters into contracts and real estate ventures and holds assets and debt, reference to the Company is appropriate because the business is one enterprise and the Parent Company operates the business through the Operating Partnership.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

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Filing Format
This combined Form 10-K is being filed separately by Brandywine Realty Trust (the “Parent Company”) and Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership”).
Forward-Looking Statements
The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements. This report and other materials filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) (as well as information included in oral or other written statements made by us) contain statements that are forward-looking, including statements relating to business and real estate development activities, acquisitions, dispositions, future capital expenditures, financing sources, governmental regulation (including environmental regulation) and competition. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe-harbor provisions of the 1995 Act. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “will,” “should” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, we can give no assurance that our expectations will be achieved. These forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain, and actual results may differ from expectations. Our actual future results and trends may differ materially from expectations depending on a variety of factors discussed in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). These factors include without limitation:
uncertainty regarding the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread which may have a negative effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition;
the continuing impact of modest global economic growth, which may have a negative effect on, among other things, the following:
the fundamentals of our business, including overall market occupancy, demand for office space and rental rates;
the financial condition of our tenants, many of which are financial, legal and other professional firms, our lenders, counterparties to our derivative financial instruments and institutions that hold our cash balances and short-term investments, which may expose us to increased risks of default by these parties;
the availability of financing on attractive terms or at all, which may adversely impact our future interest expense and our ability to pursue acquisition and development opportunities and refinance existing debt; and
real estate asset valuations, a decline in which may limit our ability to dispose of assets at attractive prices or obtain or maintain debt financing secured by our properties or on an unsecured basis.
changes in local real estate conditions (including changes in rental rates and the number of properties that compete with our properties);
our failure to lease unoccupied space in accordance with our projections;
our failure to re-lease occupied space upon expiration of leases;
tenant defaults and the bankruptcy of major tenants;
volatility in capital and credit markets, including changes that reduce availability, and increase costs, of capital;
increasing interest rates, which could increase our borrowing costs and adversely affect the market price of our securities;
failure of interest rate hedging contracts to perform as expected and the effectiveness of such arrangements;
failure of acquisitions, developments and other investments, including projects undertaken through joint ventures and equity investments in third parties, to perform as expected;
unanticipated costs associated with the purchase, integration and operation of our acquisitions;
unanticipated costs to complete, lease-up and operate our developments and redevelopments;
unanticipated costs associated with land development, including building and construction moratoriums and inability to obtain necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other required governmental approvals, construction cost increases or overruns and construction delays;
lack of liquidity of real estate investments, which could make it difficult for us to respond to changing economic or financial conditions or changes in the operating performance of our properties;
potential damage from natural disasters, including hurricanes and other weather-related events, which could result in substantial costs to us;
impairment charges;
uninsured losses due to insurance deductibles, self-insurance retention, uninsured claims or casualties, or losses in excess of applicable coverage;
increased costs for, or lack of availability of, adequate insurance, including for terrorist acts or environmental liabilities;
actual or threatened terrorist attacks;
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security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems, which support our operations and our properties;
the impact on workplace and tenant space demands driven by technology, employee culture and commuting patterns;
demand for tenant services beyond those traditionally provided by landlords;
liability and clean-up costs incurred under environmental or other laws;
risks associated with our investments in real estate ventures and unconsolidated entities, including our lack of sole decision-making authority and our reliance on our venture partners’ financial condition;
inability of real estate venture partners to fund venture obligations or perform under our real estate venture development agreements;
failure to manage our growth effectively into new product types within our portfolio and real estate venture arrangements;
failure of dispositions to close in a timely manner;
the impact of climate change and compliance costs relating to laws and regulations governing climate change;
risks associated with federal, state and local tax audits;
complex regulations relating to our status as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, and the adverse consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT;
changes in accounting principles, or their application or interpretation, and our ability to make estimates and the assumptions underlying the estimates, which could have an effect on our earnings; and
our internal control over financial reporting may not be considered effective which could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reports, and in turn could have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
Given these uncertainties, and the other risks identified in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update or supplement forward-looking statements that become untrue because of subsequent events.
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PART I
Item 1.    Business
Overview
We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust ("REIT") engaged in the acquisition, development, redevelopment, ownership, management, and operation of a portfolio of office and mixed-use properties. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we owned and managed properties within five markets: (1) Philadelphia Central Business District (“Philadelphia CBD”), (2) Pennsylvania Suburbs, (3) Austin, Texas (4) Metropolitan Washington, D.C., and (5) Other. The Philadelphia CBD segment includes properties located in the City of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Suburbs segment includes properties in Chester, Delaware and Montgomery counties in the Philadelphia suburbs. The Austin, Texas segment includes properties in the City of Austin, Texas. The Metropolitan Washington, D.C. segment includes properties in Northern Virginia, Washington, D.C., and Southern Maryland. The Other segment includes properties in Camden County in New Jersey and properties in New Castle County in Delaware. In addition to the five markets, our corporate group is responsible for cash and investment management, development of certain real estate properties during the construction period, and certain other general support functions. See Note 1, ''Organization of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership," to our Consolidated Financial Statements for our property portfolio, management services and land holdings. Unless otherwise indicated, all references in this Form 10-K to “square feet” represent the net rentable area.
The Parent Company was organized and commenced its operations in 1986 as a Maryland REIT. The Parent Company owns its assets and conducts its operations through the Operating Partnership and subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership was formed in 1996 as a Delaware limited partnership. The Parent Company controls the Operating Partnership as its sole general partner. See Note 1, ''Organization of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership," to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the Parent Company's ownership interest in the Operating Partnership. The ownership interests in the Operating Partnership not owned by the Company consist of common units of limited partnership issued to the holders in exchange for contributions of properties to the Operating Partnership. Our structure as an “UPREIT” is designed, in part, to permit persons contributing properties to us to defer some or all of the tax liability they might otherwise incur in a sale of properties. We have offices in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Radnor, Pennsylvania; McLean, Virginia; Mount Laurel, New Jersey; Richmond, Virginia; Wilmington, Delaware; and Austin, Texas.
Our principal executive offices are located at 2929 Walnut Street, Suite 1700, Philadelphia, PA 19104, our telephone number is (610) 325-5600 and our website is www.brandywinerealty.com. The content on any website referred to in this Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
We file annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other information filed or furnished by us with the SEC are available, without charge, on our website, http://www.brandywinerealty.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed or furnished with the SEC. Copies are also available, free of charge, upon written request to Investor Relations, Brandywine Realty Trust, 2929 Walnut Street, Suite 1700, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Business Segments
See Note 19, ''Segment Information,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for information on results of operations of our reportable segments for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 and balance sheet amounts as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Joint Ventures
From time to time we consider joint venture opportunities with institutional investors or other real estate companies. Joint venture partnerships provide us with additional sources of capital to share investment risk and fund capital requirements. In some instances, joint venture partnerships provide us with additional local market or product type expertise. For information regarding our joint ventures, see Note 4, ''Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Developments/Redevelopments
Our regular interaction with tenants and other market participants keep us current on innovations in workplace layout and smart living. We leverage this information to identify properties primed for development or redevelopment to meet tenant demands and realize value. The expertise and relationships that we have built from managing complex construction projects allow us to add new assets to our portfolio and renovate existing assets in our portfolio.
Business Objective and Strategies for Growth
Our business objective is to deploy capital effectively to maximize our return on investment and thereby maximize our total return to shareholders. To accomplish this objective we seek to:
concentrate on urban town centers and central business districts in selected regions, and be the best of class owner and developer in those markets with a full-service office in each of those markets providing property management, leasing, development, construction and legal expertise;
maximize cash flow through leasing strategies designed to capture rental growth as rental rates increase and as leases are renewed;
attain high tenant retention rates by providing a full array of property management, maintenance services and tenant service amenity programs responsive to the varying needs of our diverse tenant base;
continue to cultivate long-term leasing relationships with a diverse base of high-quality and financially stable tenants;
form joint ventures with high-quality partners having attractive real estate holdings or significant financial resources;
utilize our reputation as a full-service real estate development and management organization to identify acquisition and development opportunities that will expand our business and create long-term value;
increase the economic diversification of our tenant base while maximizing economies of scale; and
selectively dispose of properties that do not support our long-term business objectives and growth strategies.
We also consider the following to be important objectives:
to develop and opportunistically acquire high-quality office properties at attractive yields in markets that we expect will experience economic growth and where we can achieve operating efficiencies;
to monetize or deploy our land inventory for development of high-quality office properties, or rezone from office/industrial to life science/lab, residential, retail and hotel to align with market and demand shifts as appropriate;
to control development sites, including sites under purchase options, that could support new office, life science/lab, retail and residential development within our core markets;
to capitalize on our redevelopment expertise to selectively develop, redevelop and reposition properties in desirable locations that other organizations may not have the resources to pursue;
to own and develop high quality office and mixed-use real estate meeting the demands of today’s tenants who require sophisticated telecommunications and related infrastructure, support services, sustainable features and amenities, and to manage those facilities so as to continue to be the landlord of choice for both existing and prospective tenants;
to strategically grow our portfolio through the development and acquisition of new product types that support our strategy of transient-oriented and amenity based mixed-use properties located in the central business district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Suburbs; Austin, Texas; and Washington, D.C.; and
to secure third-party development contracts, which can be a significant source of revenue and enable us to utilize and grow our existing development and construction management resources.
We expect to concentrate our real estate activities in markets where we believe that:
current and projected market rents and absorption statistics justify construction activity;
we can maximize market penetration by accumulating a critical mass of properties and thereby enhance operating efficiencies;
barriers to entry (such as zoning restrictions, utility availability, infrastructure limitations, development moratoriums and limited developable land) will create supply constraints on available space; and
there is potential for economic growth, particularly job growth and industry diversification.
Operational Strategy
We currently expect to continue to operate in markets where we have a concentration advantage due to economies of scale. We believe that where possible, it is best to operate with a strong base of properties in order to benefit from the personnel allocation and the market strength associated with managing multiple properties in the same market. We also intend to
8


selectively dispose of properties and redeploy capital if we determine a property cannot meet our long term earnings growth expectations. We believe that recycling capital is an important aspect of maintaining the overall quality of our portfolio.
Our broader strategy remains focused on continuing to grow earnings, enhance liquidity and strengthen our balance sheet through capital retention, debt reduction, targeted sales activity and management of our existing and prospective liabilities.
In the long term, we believe that we are well positioned in our current markets and have the expertise to take advantage of both development and acquisition opportunities, as warranted by market and economic conditions, in new markets that have healthy long-term fundamentals and strong growth projections. This capability, combined with what we believe is a conservative financial structure, should allow us to achieve disciplined growth. These abilities are integral to our strategy of having a diverse portfolio of assets, which will meet the needs of our tenants.
We use experienced on-site construction superintendents, operating under the supervision of project managers and senior management, to control the construction process and mitigate the various risks associated with real estate development.
In order to fund developments, redevelopments and acquisitions, as well as refurbish and improve existing properties, we primarily use proceeds from property dispositions, excess cash from operations after satisfying our dividend and other financing requirements, and external sources of debt and equity capital. The availability of funds for new investments and maintenance of existing properties largely depends on capital markets and liquidity factors over which we can exert little control.
Competition
The real estate business is highly competitive. Our properties compete for tenants with similar properties primarily on the basis of location, total occupancy costs (including base rent and operating expenses), services and amenities provided, and the design and condition of the improvements. We also face competition when attempting to acquire or develop real estate, including competition from domestic and foreign financial institutions, other REITs, life insurance companies, pension funds, partnerships and individual investors. Additionally, our ability to compete depends upon trends in the economies of our markets, investment alternatives, financial condition and operating results of current and prospective tenants, availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs, land availability, our ability to obtain necessary construction approvals, taxes, governmental regulations, legislation and population trends.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 341 employees. We are focused on creating a challenging, enriching, respectful, diverse, inclusive, collaborative and rewarding work environment for our employees whom we consider to be among our most valuable assets. We offer the following policies and programs which we believe are illustrative of our continued commitment to our employees:

A compensation program and benefits package which we consider to be competitive among our peers.
An extensive Employee Safety Manual, and thoughtful operational protocols and other measures, which prioritize the health, safety and well-being of our employees.
Our promotion of diversity and inclusion in our hiring practices.
In 2020, approximately 33% of all new hires were females and approximately 58% of all new hires were ethnic minorities.
Regular training and career development opportunities and a tuition reimbursement program.
The regular assessment of the engagement, satisfaction and retention of our employees.
Programs such as internally organized affinity groups which are intended to foster an atmosphere of collaboration and inclusion.
Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance
In connection with our goal of achieving the highest principles of environment, social, and governance (ESG) standards, in 2020, we released our inaugural comprehensive Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) aligned Corporate Social Responsibility Report, which set forth 20 Goals and Key Performance Indicators aligned with the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals and the early stages of our strategy to manage climate risk in alignment with the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial
9


Disclosures (TCFD). In addition, we reset our reduction targets for energy, greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption to 15% by 2025 over our 2018 baseline.
The following tables provide our consumption and progress as of year-end 2019 on energy, water, and greenhouse gas emission reductions over our 2018 baseline. This data represents energy and water consumption for Brandywine owned and managed buildings where data was available. Data for the year ended 2020 is not yet available and is expected to be included in our annual Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark (“GRESB”) submission in the second quarter of 2021.

Energy Consumption:
Year
Energy Consumption Data Coverage as a % of Floor Area (a)
Total Energy Consumed by Floor Area with Data Coverage (MWh)
% of Energy Generated from Renewable Sources (b)
Same Store change in Energy Consumption of Floor Area with Data Coverage (c)
% of Eligible Portfolio that has Obtained an Energy Rating and is Certified to ENERGY STAR (d)
201889 %447,814 49 %N/A58 %
201990 %405,446 49 %(10)%35 %
Water Consumption:
YearWater Withdrawal Data Coverage as a % of Total Floor Area (a)Total water Withdrawn by Portfolio (m3)Same Store Change in Water Withdrawn for Floor Area with data Coverage (e)
201886 %1,037,678 N/A
201988 %1,036,805— %
GHG Emissions:
Year
Scope 1 & 2 GHG Data Coverage as % of Total Floor Area (f)
Scope 1 & 2 GHG Emissions (Tonnes CO2)
Same Store Change in Scope 1 & 2 GHG Emissions Data (g)
201888 %145,652 N/A
201989 %133,563 (8)%

(a)Represents the percentage of square footage where consumption data was obtained for the portfolio for the calendar year.
(b)Percentage of energy generated from renewable sources represents purchasing of green power direct from utilities to offset energy usage in deregulated energy markets.
(c)Same Store change in energy consumption compares usage only for the buildings with data available in both 2018 and 2019.
(d)Reduction is substantially the result of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey updated modeling in 2019 and the resulting industry-wide drop in ENERGY STAR scores.
(e)Same Store change in water consumption compares usage only for the buildings with data available in both 2018 and 2019.
(f)Scope 1 emissions are calculated by measuring the on-site fuel consumption and combustion (e.g., natural gas consumption, company-owned vehicles), and Scope 2 emissions are calculated by measuring purchased electricity that is generated from off-site sources for the percentage of square footage where data was obtained for the portfolio for the calendar year.
(g)Same Store change in Scope 1 & 2 emissions is based on only comparing the emissions for buildings where comparable data was available for both 2018 and 2019.
In 2020, we earned the highest-level Governance score from ISS, continued to maintain an A rating from MSCI ESG Research, received our sixth annual GRESB Green Star ranking, and achieved Green Lease Leader’s Gold recognition from the Department of Energy and Institute for Market Transformation. We were also recognized as the most committed building owner in the Philadelphia 2030 District initiative to achieve substantial reduction in energy use by the year 2030. We have 21.9 million square feet of green building certifications across our portfolio, including the first UL Verified Healthy Building IAQ Verification Mark certified building in Philadelphia.
With all the challenges of 2020, we believe we responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with proactive plans for a safe and seamless “return to work” for our tenants and by giving back to the many needs of the local community. Our volunteer efforts and financial contributions included over $20,000 collected by employees and matched by us to support 16 third-party employees in our extended family of vendors who were impacted by furloughs and layoffs. Through a meals program in
10


partnership with several of our food and beverage tenants, we funded over 36,000 meals to Philadelphians in need. We also donated $350,000 to the Enterprise Center to launch the Grow Philadelphia Small Business COVID-19 Resilience Fund, and provided $200,000 to the African American Chamber of Commerce to make low-interest loans available to Chamber members impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and social unrest.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, before you decide whether to make an investment in our securities. The risks set out below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, cash flows, liquidity, funds from operations, results of operations, share price, ability to service our indebtedness, and/or ability to make cash distributions to our security holders (including those necessary to maintain our REIT qualification).  In such case, the value of our common shares and the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose all or a significant part of your investment. Some statements in the following risk factors constitute forward looking statements. Please refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements under “Forward-Looking Statements” of this Form 10-K.
Economic Risk Factors
Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.
Our business is affected by global, national and local economic conditions. Our portfolio consists primarily of office buildings (as compared to real estate companies with portfolios of multiple asset classes). Our financial performance and the value of our real estate assets, and consequently the value of our securities, are subject to the risk that if our properties do not generate revenues sufficient to meet our operating expenses, including debt service and capital expenditures, our cash flow, results of operations, financial condition and ability to make distributions to our security holders will be adversely affected. The following factors, among others, may materially and adversely affect the income generated by our properties and our performance generally:
adverse changes in international, national or local economic and demographic conditions;
increased vacancies or our inability to rent space on favorable terms, including market pressures to offer tenants rent abatements, increased tenant improvement packages, early termination rights, below market rental rates or below-market renewal options;
significant job losses in the financial and professional services industries may occur, which may decrease demand for office space, causing market rental rates and property values to be negatively impacted;
changes in space utilization by our tenants due to technology, economic conditions, impact of pandemics, and business culture may decrease demand for office space, causing market rental rates and property values to be negatively impacted;
deterioration in the financial condition of our tenants may result in tenant defaults under leases, including due to bankruptcy, and adversely impact our ability to collect rents from our tenants;
competition from other office and mixed-use properties, and increased supply of such properties;
increases in non-discretionary operating costs, including insurance expense, utilities, real estate taxes, state and local taxes, labor shortages and heightened security costs may not be offset by increased market rental rates;
reduced values of our properties would limit our ability to dispose of assets at attractive prices, limit our access to debt financing secured by our properties and reduce the availability of unsecured loans;
increases in interest rates, reduced availability of financing and reduced liquidity in the capital markets may adversely affect our ability or the ability of potential buyers of properties and tenants of properties to obtain financing on favorable terms, or at all;
one or more lenders under our unsecured revolving credit facility could refuse or be unable to fund their financing commitment to us and we may not be able to replace the financing commitment of any such lenders on favorable terms, or at all; and
civil disturbances, earthquakes and other natural disasters, or terrorist acts or acts of war may result in uninsured or underinsured losses.
Our performance is dependent upon the economic conditions of the markets in which our properties are located.
Our results of operations will be significantly influenced by the economies and other conditions of the real estate markets in which we operate, particularly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Austin, Texas,
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Washington, D.C., Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in any of these economies or real estate markets could negatively affect cash available for distribution and debt service. Our financial performance and ability to make distributions to our shareholders and pay debt service is particularly sensitive to the economic conditions in these markets. The local economic climate, which may be adversely impacted by business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, changing demographics and other factors, and local real estate conditions, such as demand for office space, operating expenses and real estate taxes, may affect revenues and the value of properties, including properties to be acquired or developed.
We may suffer adverse consequences due to the financial difficulties, bankruptcy or insolvency of our tenants.
Periodically, our tenants experience financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, insolvency or a general downturn in their business, and these difficulties may have an adverse effect on our cash flow, results of operations, financial condition and ability to make distributions to our shareholders. We cannot assure you that any tenant that files for bankruptcy protection will continue to pay us rent. A bankruptcy filing by or relating to one of our tenants or a lease guarantor would bar efforts by us to collect pre-bankruptcy debts from that tenant or lease guarantor, or its property, unless we receive an order permitting us to do so from the bankruptcy court. In addition, we cannot evict a tenant solely because of bankruptcy. The bankruptcy of a tenant or lease guarantor could delay our efforts to collect past due balances under the relevant leases, and could ultimately preclude collection of these sums. If a lease is assumed by the tenant in bankruptcy, all pre-bankruptcy balances due under the lease must be paid to us in full. If, however, a lease is rejected by a tenant in bankruptcy, we would have only a general, unsecured claim for damages. Any such unsecured claim would only be paid to the extent that funds are available and only in the same percentage as is paid to all other holders of general, unsecured claims. Restrictions under the bankruptcy laws further limit the amount of any other claims that we can make if a lease is rejected. As a result, it is likely that we would recover substantially less than the full value of the remaining rent during the term. See Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Factors that May Influence Future Results of Operations - Tenant Credit Risk.”
Real Estate Industry Risk Factors
We may experience increased operating costs, which might reduce our profitability.
Our properties are subject to increases in operating expenses such as for insurance, real estate taxes, cleaning, electricity, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, administrative costs and other costs associated with security, landscaping and repairs and maintenance of our properties. In general, our tenant leases allow us to pass through all or a portion of these costs to them. We cannot assure you, however, that tenants will actually bear the full burden of these increased costs, or that such increased costs will not lead them, or other prospective tenants, to seek office space elsewhere. If operating expenses increase, the availability of other comparable office space in our core geographic markets might limit our ability to increase rents; if operating expenses increase without a corresponding increase in revenues, our profitability could diminish and limit our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Our investment in property development or redevelopment may be more costly or difficult to complete than we anticipate.
We intend to continue to develop properties where market conditions warrant such investment. Once made, these investments may not produce results in accordance with our expectations. Risks associated with our development and construction activities include:
unavailability of favorable financing alternatives in the private and public debt markets;
insufficient capital to pay development costs;
limited experience in developing or redeveloping properties in certain of our geographic markets may lead us to incorrectly project development costs and returns on our investments;
dependence on the financial, technology and professional services sector as part of our tenant base;
construction costs exceeding original estimates due to rising interest rates, diminished availability of materials and labor, and increases in the costs of materials and labor;
construction and lease-up delays resulting in increased debt service, fixed expenses and construction or renovation costs;
expenditure of funds and devotion of management’s time to projects that we do not complete;
occupancy rates and rents at newly completed properties may fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including market and economic conditions, resulting in lower than projected rental rates and a corresponding lower return on our investment;
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complications (including building moratoriums and anti-growth legislation) in obtaining necessary zoning, occupancy and other governmental permits; and
increased use restrictions by local zoning or planning authorities limiting our ability to develop and impacting the size of developments.
See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Factors that May Influence Future Results of Operations - Development Risk.”
Our development projects and third party property management business may subject us to certain liabilities.
We may hire and supervise third party contractors to provide construction, engineering and various other services for wholly owned development projects, development projects undertaken by real estate ventures in which we hold an equity interest and manage or properties we are managing on behalf of unaffiliated third parties.  Certain of these contracts may be structured such that we are the principal rather than the agent.  As a result, we may assume liabilities in the course of the project and be subjected to, or become liable for, claims for construction defects, negligent performance of work or other similar actions by third parties we have engaged. Adverse outcomes of disputes or litigation could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, particularly if we have not limited the extent of the damages to which we may be liable, or if our liabilities exceed the amounts of the insurance that we carry. Moreover, our tenants and third party customers may seek to hold us accountable for the actions of contractors because of our role even if we have technically disclaimed liability as a legal matter, in which case we may determine it necessary to participate in a financial settlement for purposes of preserving the tenant or customer relationship.
Acting as a principal may also mean that we pay a contractor before we have been reimbursed, which exposes us to additional risks of collection in the event of a bankruptcy or insolvency. Similarly, a contractor may file for bankruptcy or commit fraud before completing a project that we have funded in part or in full. As part of our project management business, we are responsible for managing various contractors required for a project, including general contractors, in order to ensure that the cost of a project does not exceed the contract amount and that the project is completed on time. In the event that one or more of the contractors involved does not, or cannot, perform as a result of bankruptcy or for another reason, we may be responsible for cost overruns, as well as the consequences of late delivery. In the event that we have not accurately estimated our own costs of providing services under guaranteed cost contracts, we may be exposed to losses on such contracts.
Our development projects may be dependent on strategic alliances with unaffiliated third parties.
We face challenges in managing our strategic alliances. As our development projects become more complex, the need for trust, collaboration, and equitable risk-sharing is essential to the success of these projects. The alliances we engage in are driven by the complementary skills and capabilities of our partners. Despite the diligence performed establishing these alliances, our objectives may not fully align with those of our partners throughout the development project or projects. Disagreements with one or more third parties with whom we partner in the development of one or more of the development components may restrict our ability to act exclusively in our own interests. In addition, failure of one or more third parties with whom we partner to fulfill obligations to us could result in delays and increased costs to us associated with finding a suitable replacement partner. Increased costs could require us to revise or abandon our activities entirely with respect to one or more components of the project and, in such event, we would not recover, and would be required to write-off, costs we had capitalized in development.
We face risks associated with the development of mixed-use commercial properties.
We operate, are currently developing, and may in the future develop, properties either alone or through real estate ventures that are known as “mixed-use” developments. In addition to the development of office space, mixed-use projects may also include space for life science/lab, residential, retail, hotel or other commercial purposes. If a development project consists of a non-office or non-retail use, we may seek to develop that component ourselves, assign the rights to that component to a third-party developer with experience in that use, or we may seek to partner with such a developer. If we do not assign the rights or partner with such a developer, or if we choose to develop the other component ourselves, we would be exposed not only to those risks typically associated with the development of properties for office and retail use generally, but also to specific risks associated with the development and ownership of non-office and non-retail real estate. In addition, even if we assign the rights to develop certain components or elect to participate in the development through a real estate venture, we may be exposed to the risks associated with the failure of the other party to complete the development as expected. These include the risk that the other party would default on its obligations, necessitating that we complete the other component ourselves (including providing any necessary financing). In the case of residential properties, these risks also include competition for prospective residents from other operators whose properties may be perceived to offer a better location or
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better amenities or whose rent may be perceived as a better value given the quality, location and amenities that the resident seeks. Because we have limited experience with residential properties, we expect to retain third parties to manage our residential properties. In the case of hotel properties, the risks also include increases in inflation and utilities that may not be offset by increases in room rates. We are also dependent on business and commercial travelers and tourism.  If we decide not to sell or participate in a real estate venture and instead hire a third party manager, we would be dependent on their key personnel to provide services on our behalf and we may not find a suitable replacement if the management agreement is terminated, or if key personnel leave or otherwise become unavailable to us.
We face risks associated with property acquisitions.
We have acquired in the past and intend to continue to pursue the acquisition of properties, including large portfolios that would increase our size and potentially alter our capital structure. The success of such transactions is subject to a number of factors, including the risks that:
we may not be able to obtain financing for such acquisitions on favorable terms;
acquired properties may fail to perform as expected;
even if we enter into an acquisition agreement for a property, we may be unable to complete that acquisition after making a non-refundable deposit and incurring certain other acquisition-related costs;
the actual costs of repositioning, redeveloping or maintaining acquired properties may be higher than our estimates;
the acquired properties may be located in new markets where we may have limited knowledge and understanding of the local economy, an absence of business relationships in the area or unfamiliarity with local governmental and permitting procedures; and
we may not be able to efficiently integrate acquired properties, particularly portfolios of properties, into our organization and manage new properties in a way that allows us to realize anticipated cost savings and synergies.
Acquired properties may subject us to known and unknown liabilities.
Properties that we acquire may be subject to known and unknown liabilities for which we would have no recourse, or only limited recourse, to the former owners of such properties or otherwise. As a result, if a liability were asserted against us based upon ownership of acquired property, we might be required to pay significant sums to settle it, which could adversely affect our financial results and cash flow. Unknown liabilities relating to acquired properties could include:
liabilities for clean-up of pre-existing disclosed or undisclosed environmental contamination;
claims by tenants, vendors, municipalities or other persons arising on account of actions or omissions of the former owners or occupants of the properties; and
liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business.
We have agreed not to sell certain of our properties and to maintain indebtedness subject to guarantees.
We acquired in the past and in the future may acquire properties or portfolios of properties through tax deferred contribution transactions in exchange for partnership interests in our Operating Partnership. This acquisition structure has the effect, among other factors, of reducing the amount of tax depreciation we can deduct over the tax life of the acquired properties, and typically requires that we agree to protect the contributors’ ability to defer recognition of taxable gain through restrictions on our ability to dispose of the acquired properties and/or the allocation of partnership debt to the contributors to maintain their tax bases. We have agreed not to sell some of our properties for varying periods of time, in transactions that would trigger taxable income to the former owners, and we may enter into similar arrangements as a part of future property acquisitions. These agreements generally provide that we may dispose of the subject properties only in transactions that qualify as tax-free exchanges under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code or in other tax deferred transactions. Such transactions can be difficult to complete and can result in the property acquired in exchange for the disposed of property inheriting the tax attributes (including tax protection covenants) of the sold property. Violation of such tax protection agreements may impose significant costs on us. As a result, we are restricted with respect to decisions related to financing, encumbering, expanding or selling these properties. These restrictions on dispositions could limit our ability to sell an asset or pay down partnership debt during a specified time, or on terms, that would be favorable absent such restrictions.
We have also entered into agreements that provide prior owners of properties with the right to guarantee specific amounts of indebtedness and, in the event that the specific indebtedness that they guarantee is repaid or reduced, we would be required to provide substitute indebtedness for them to guarantee. These agreements may hinder actions that we may otherwise desire to take to repay or refinance guaranteed indebtedness because we would be required to make payments to the beneficiaries of such agreements if we violate these agreements.
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We may be unable to renew leases or re-lease space as leases expire; certain leases may expire early.
If tenants do not renew their leases upon expiration, we may be unable to re-lease the space. Even if the tenants do renew their leases or if we can re-lease the space, the terms of renewal or re-leasing (including the cost of required renovations) may be less favorable than the current lease terms. Certain leases grant the tenants an early termination right upon payment of a termination penalty or if we fail to comply with certain material lease terms. Our inability to renew or release spaces and the early termination of certain leases could adversely affect our ability to make distributions to shareholders. See Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Factors that May Influence Future Results of Operations - Tenant Rollover Risk.”
We face significant competition from other real estate developers.
We compete with real estate developers, operators and institutions for tenants and acquisition and development opportunities. Some of these competitors may have significantly greater financial resources than we have. Such competition may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us, may interfere with our ability to attract and retain tenants and may increase vacancies, which could result in increased supply and lower market rental rates, reducing our bargaining leverage and adversely affect our ability to improve our operating leverage. In addition, some of our competitors may be willing (e.g., because their properties may have vacancy rates higher than those for our properties) to make space available at lower rental rates or with higher tenant concession percentages than available space in our properties. We cannot assure you that this competition will not adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Property ownership through unconsolidated real estate ventures may limit our ability to act exclusively in our interest.
We develop, acquire, and contribute properties in unconsolidated real estate ventures with other persons or entities when we believe circumstances warrant the use of such structures. For information regarding our unconsolidated real estate ventures, see Note 4, ''Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements. We could become engaged in a dispute with one or more of our venture partners that might affect our ability to operate a jointly-owned property. Moreover, our venture partners may, at any time, have business, economic or other objectives that are inconsistent with our objectives, including objectives that relate to the appropriate timing and terms of any sale or refinancing of a property. In some instances, our venture partners may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflicts of interest. If the objectives of our venture partners or the lenders to our unconsolidated real estate ventures are inconsistent with our own objectives, we may not be able to act exclusively in our interests and the value of our investment in the unconsolidated real estate ventures may be affected.
Preferred equity, mezzanine loans, and other investments that are subordinated or otherwise junior in an issuer’s capital structure and that involve privately negotiated structures will expose us to greater risk of loss.
We may have made preferred equity investments and may in the future make or acquire additional preferred equity investments, mezzanine loans and other investments that are subordinated or otherwise junior in an issuer’s capital structure and that involve privately negotiated structures. To the extent we invest in subordinated debt or mezzanine tranches of an entity’s capital structure, or in preferred equity instruments, such investments and our remedies with respect thereto, including the ability to foreclose on collateral (if any) securing such investments, will be subject to the rights of holders of more senior tranches in the issuer’s capital structure and, to the extent applicable, contractual intercreditor, co-lender and/or participation agreement provisions. Significant losses related to such investments or loans could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Because real estate is illiquid, we may be unable to sell properties when in our best interest.
Real estate investments generally, and in particular large office and mixed use properties like those that we own, often cannot be sold quickly. The capitalization rates at which properties may be sold could be higher than historical rates, thereby reducing our potential proceeds from sale. Consequently, we may not be able to alter our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. In addition, the Internal Revenue Code limits our ability, as a REIT, to sell properties that we have held for fewer than two years without potential adverse consequences to us. Furthermore, properties that we have developed and have owned for a significant period of time or that we acquired in exchange for partnership interests in the Operating Partnership often have a low tax basis. If we were to dispose of any of these properties in a taxable transaction, we may be required under provisions of the Internal Revenue Code applicable to REITs to distribute a significant amount of the taxable gain to our shareholders and this could, in turn, impact our cash flow. In some cases, tax protection
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agreements with third parties will prevent us from selling certain properties in a taxable transaction without incurring substantial costs. In addition, purchase options and rights of first refusal held by tenants or partners in unconsolidated real estate ventures may also limit our ability to sell certain properties. All of these factors reduce our ability to respond to changes in the performance of our investments and could adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders as well as the ability of someone to purchase us, even if a purchase were in our shareholders’ best interests.
Regulatory Risk Factors
Changes in tax rates and regulatory requirements may adversely affect our cash flow and results of operations.
Because increases in income and service taxes are generally not passed through to tenants under leases, such increases may adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make expected distributions to shareholders. Our properties are also subject to various regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment, fire and safety. Our failure to comply with these requirements could result in the imposition of fines and damage awards and could result in a default under some of our tenant leases. Moreover, the costs to comply with any new or different regulations could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders. We cannot assure you that these requirements will not change or that newly imposed conditions will not require significant expenditures in order to be compliant.
Potential liability for environmental contamination could result in substantial costs.
Under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, we may be liable for the costs to investigate and remove or remediate hazardous or toxic substances on or in our properties, often regardless of whether we know of or are responsible for the presence of these substances. These costs may be substantial. While we do maintain environmental insurance, we cannot be assured that our insurance coverage will be sufficient to protect us from all of the aforesaid remediation costs. Also, if hazardous or toxic substances are present on a property, or if we fail to adequately remediate such substances, our ability to sell or rent the property or to borrow using that property as collateral may be adversely affected.
Other laws and regulations govern indoor and outdoor air quality including those that can require the abatement or removal of asbestos-containing materials in the event of damage, demolition, renovation or remodeling and also govern emissions of and exposure to asbestos fibers in the air. The maintenance and removal of lead paint and certain electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and underground storage tanks are also regulated by federal and state laws. We are also subject to risks associated with human exposure to chemical or biological contaminants such as molds, pollens, viruses and bacteria which, above certain levels, can be alleged to be connected to allergic or other health effects and symptoms in susceptible individuals. We could incur fines for environmental compliance and be held liable for the costs of remedial action with respect to the foregoing regulated substances or tanks or related claims arising out of environmental contamination or human exposure to contamination at or from our properties.
Additionally, we develop, manage, lease and/or operate various properties for third parties. Consequently, we may be considered to have been or to be an operator of these properties and, therefore, potentially liable for removal or remediation costs or other potential costs that could relate to hazardous or toxic substances.
Americans with Disabilities Act compliance could be costly.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or the ADA, requires that all public accommodations and commercial facilities, including office buildings, meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Compliance with ADA requirements could involve the removal of structural barriers from certain disabled persons’ entrances which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Other federal, state and local laws may require modifications to or restrict further renovations of our properties with respect to such accesses. Noncompliance by us with the ADA or similar or related laws or regulations could result in the imposition on us of governmental fines or in awards of damages against us in favor of private litigants. In addition, changes to existing requirements or enactments of new requirements could require significant expenditures. Such costs may adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders.
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Disaster Risk Factors
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread present material uncertainty and risk and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic across many countries around the globe, including the U.S., has significantly slowed global economic activity, caused significant volatility in financial markets, and resulted in unprecedented job losses causing many to fear an imminent global recession. The global impact of the outbreak has been rapidly evolving and the responses of many countries, including the U.S., have included quarantines, restrictions on business activities, including construction activities, restrictions on group gatherings, and restrictions on travel. These actions are creating disruption in the global economy and supply chains and adversely impacting many industries, including owners and developers of office and mixed-use buildings. Moreover, there is significant uncertainty around the breadth and duration of business disruptions related to COVID-19, as well as its impact on the U.S. economy and consumer confidence. Demand for space at our properties is dependent on a variety of macroeconomic factors, such as employment levels, interest rates, changes in stock market valuations, rent levels and availability of competing space. These factors can be significantly adversely affected by a variety of factors beyond our control. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our results will depend on future developments, many of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain it or treat its impact. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact our business in a number of ways, including: (i) deterioration in the financial condition of our tenants and in their ability to pay rents; (ii) reduction in demand for space in our portfolio; (iii) costs associated with construction delays and cost overruns at our development and redevelopment projects; (iv) reduction in availability of, and increased costs of, capital; and (v) failure of our contract counterparties, including partners in Real Estate Ventures, to meet their obligations. The ongoing situation presents material uncertainty and risk and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
We face possible risks associated with the physical effects of climate change. 
The physical effects of climate change could have a material adverse effect on our properties, operations and business. For example, many of our properties are located along the East Coast, particularly those in the central business districts of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Washington, D.C. To the extent climate change causes variations in weather patterns, our markets could experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea-levels. Over time, these conditions could result in declining demand for office space in our buildings or our inability to operate the buildings at all. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) property insurance on terms we find acceptable, increasing the cost of energy and increasing the cost of snow removal at our properties. While we maintain insurance coverage for flooding, we may not have adequate insurance to cover the associated costs of repair or reconstruction of sites for a major future event, lost revenue, including from new tenants that could have been added to our properties but for the event, or other costs to remediate the impact of a significant event. There can be no assurance that climate change will not have a material adverse effect on our properties, operations or business.
REIT Risk Factors
Failure to qualify as a REIT would subject us to U.S. federal income tax which would reduce the cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
We operate our business to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. We have not requested and do not plan to request a ruling from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this Report are not binding on the IRS or any court. As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the income that we distribute currently to our shareholders. Many of the REIT requirements, however, are highly technical and complex. The determination that we are a REIT requires an analysis of various factual matters and circumstances that may not be entirely within our control. For example, to qualify as a REIT, at least 95% of our gross income must come from specific passive sources, such as rent, that are itemized in the REIT tax laws. In addition, to qualify as a REIT, we cannot own specified amounts of debt and equity securities of some issuers. We also are required to distribute to our shareholders with respect to each year at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (excluding net capital gains). The fact that we hold substantially all of our assets through the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries and unconsolidated real estate ventures further complicates the application of the REIT requirements for us. Even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize our REIT status and, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs and the ongoing importance of factual determinations, we cannot provide any assurance that we will continue to qualify as a REIT. Changes to rules governing corporate taxation, including REITs, were made by
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legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) and the Protecting Americans From Tax Hikes Act of 2015, signed into law on December 22, 2017 and December 18, 2015, respectively. Congress and the IRS might make further changes to the tax laws and regulations, and the courts might issue new rulings or interpretations of tax law, that make it more difficult, or impossible, for us to remain qualified as a REIT. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes and are able to avail ourselves of one or more of the statutory savings provisions in order to maintain our REIT status, we would nevertheless be required to pay penalty taxes of $50,000 or more for each such failure.
If we fail to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, and are unable to avail ourselves of certain savings provisions set forth in the Internal Revenue Code, we would be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate rates on all of our income. As a taxable corporation, we would not be allowed to take a deduction for distributions to shareholders in computing our taxable income or pass through long term capital gains to individual shareholders at favorable rates. For tax years beginning before January 1, 2018, we also could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax and possibly increased state and local taxes. We would not be able to elect to be taxed as a REIT for four years following the year we first failed to qualify unless the IRS were to grant us relief under certain statutory provisions. If we failed to qualify as a REIT, we would have to pay significant income taxes, which would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to our shareholders. This likely would have a significant adverse effect on our earnings and likely would adversely affect the value of our securities. In addition, we would no longer be required to pay any distributions to shareholders.
Failure of the Operating Partnership (or a subsidiary partnership or unconsolidated real estate venture) to be treated as a partnership would have serious adverse consequences to our shareholders.
If the IRS were to successfully challenge the tax status of the Operating Partnership or any of its subsidiary partnerships or unconsolidated real estate ventures for federal income tax purposes, the Operating Partnership or the affected subsidiary partnership or unconsolidated real estate venture would be taxable as a corporation. In such event, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and the imposition of a corporate tax on the Operating Partnership, subsidiary partnership or unconsolidated real estate venture would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution from the Operating Partnership to us and ultimately to our shareholders.
To maintain our REIT status, we may be forced to borrow funds on a short term basis during unfavorable market conditions.
As a REIT, we are subject to certain distribution requirements, including the requirement to distribute 90% of our REIT taxable income. These requirements may result in our having to make distributions at a disadvantageous time or to borrow funds at unfavorable rates. Compliance with this requirement may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits.
We will pay some taxes even if we qualify as a REIT, which will reduce the cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we will be required to pay certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and properties. For example, we will be subject to income tax to the extent we distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, including capital gains. Additionally, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which dividends paid by us in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. Moreover, if we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” that income will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. The determination as to whether a particular sale or series of sales is/are a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances related to that sale. We cannot guarantee that sales of our properties would not be prohibited transactions unless we comply with certain statutory safe-harbor provisions.
In addition, any net taxable income earned directly by our taxable REIT subsidiaries, or through entities that are disregarded for federal income tax purposes as entities separate from our taxable REIT subsidiaries, will be subject to federal and possibly state corporate income tax. In this regard, several provisions of the laws applicable to REITs and their subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary is limited in its ability to deduct certain interest payments made to an affiliated REIT. In addition, the REIT has to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that it receives or on some deductions taken by a taxable REIT subsidiary if the economic arrangements between the REIT, the REIT’s customers, and the taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to
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similar arrangements between unrelated parties. Finally, some state and local jurisdictions may tax some of our income even though as a REIT we are not subject to federal income tax on that income because not all states and localities follow the federal income tax treatment of REITs. To the extent that we and our affiliates are required to pay federal, state and local taxes, we will have less cash available for distributions to our shareholders.
Legislation that modifies the rules applicable to partnership tax audits may affect us.
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, requires our operating partnership and any subsidiary partnership to pay the hypothetical increase in partner-level taxes (including interest and penalties) resulting from an adjustment of partnership tax items on audit or in other tax proceedings, unless the partnership elects an alternative method under which the taxes resulting from the adjustment (and interest and penalties) are assessed at the partner level. Many uncertainties remain as to the application of these rules, including the application of the alternative method to partners that are REITs, and the impact they will have on us. However, it is possible, that partnerships in which we invest may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, interest and penalties in the event of a U.S. federal income tax audit as a result of these law changes.
Legislative or regulatory tax changes related to REIT’s could materially and adversely affect our business.
At any time, the federal income tax laws or regulations governing REITs or the other administrative interpretations of those laws or regulations may be changed, possibly with retroactive effect. We cannot predict if or when any new federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective or whether any such law, regulation or interpretation may take effect retroactively. We and our shareholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation.
If a transaction intended to qualify as a Section 1031 Exchange is later determined to be taxable, or if we are unable to identify and complete the acquisition of suitable replacement property to effect a Section 1031 Exchange, we may face adverse consequences.
From time to time we seek to dispose of properties in transactions that are intended to qualify as tax-deferred “like kind exchanges” under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (a “Section 1031 Exchange”).  It is possible that the qualification of a transaction as a Section 1031 Exchange could be successfully challenged and determined to be currently taxable.  It is also possible that we are unable to identify and complete the acquisition of suitable replacement property to effect a Section 1031 Exchange.  In any such case, our taxable income and earnings and profits would increase.  This could increase the dividend income to our shareholders by reducing any return of capital they received.  In some circumstances, we may be required to pay additional dividends or, in lieu of that, corporate income tax, possibly including interest and penalties.  As a result, we may be required to borrow funds in order to pay additional dividends or taxes, and the payment of such taxes could cause us to have less cash available to distribute to our shareholders.  In addition, if a Section 1031 Exchange were later to be determined to be taxable, we may be required to amend our tax returns for the applicable year in question, including any information reports we sent our shareholders.  Moreover, it is possible that legislation could be enacted that could modify or repeal the laws with respect to Section 1031 Exchanges, which could make it more difficult or not possible for us to dispose of properties on a tax deferred basis.
Failure to obtain the tax benefits and remain compliant within Qualified Opportunity Zones and Keystone Opportunity Zones may have adverse consequences.
Certain of our Properties have the benefit of governmental tax incentives for development in areas and neighborhoods which have not historically seen robust commercial development. These incentives typically have specific sunset provisions and may be subject to governmental discretion in the eligibility or award of the applicable incentives. We invest and plan to continue to heavily invest in Qualified Opportunity Zones as part of the federal program and Keystone Opportunity Zones in Pennsylvania due to the related tax benefits. The expiration of these incentive programs or the inability of potential tenants or users to be eligible for or to obtain governmental approval of the incentives may have an adverse effect on the value of our Properties and on our cash flow and net income, and may result in impairment charges. In addition, the failure to remain compliant with such programs may result in significant tax burdens.
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Certain limitations will exist with respect to a third party’s ability to acquire us or effectuate a change in control.
Limitations imposed to protect our REIT status. In order to protect us against the loss of our REIT status, our Declaration of Trust limits any shareholder from owning more than 9.8% in value of our outstanding shares, although we have granted in the past, and may continue to grant in the future certain waivers of this limitation to certain shareholders under certain conditions. The ownership limit may have the effect of precluding acquisition of control of us. If anyone acquires shares in excess of the ownership limit, we may:
consider the transfer to be null and void;
not reflect the transaction on our books;
institute legal action to stop the transaction;
not pay dividends or other distributions with respect to those shares;
not recognize any voting rights for those shares; and
consider the shares held in trust for the benefit of a person to whom such shares may be transferred.
Limitation due to our ability to issue preferred shares. Our Declaration of Trust authorizes our Board of Trustees to cause us to issue preferred shares, without limitation as to amount and without shareholder consent. Our Board of Trustees is able to establish the preferences and rights of any preferred shares issued and these shares could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of us, even if a change in control were in our shareholders’ best interests.
Advance Notice Provisions for Shareholder Nominations and Proposals. Our bylaws require advance notice for shareholders to nominate persons for election as trustees at, or to bring other business before, any meeting of our shareholders. This bylaw provision limits the ability of shareholders to make nominations of persons for election as trustees or to introduce other proposals unless we are notified in a timely manner prior to the meeting.
General Risk Factors
We are dependent upon our key personnel.
We are dependent upon our key personnel, particularly Gerard H. Sweeney - President and Chief Executive Officer, Thomas Wirth - Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Jeffrey DeVuono - Executive Vice President and Senior Managing Director, William Redd – Executive Vice President and Senior Managing Director and George Johnstone - Executive Vice President, Operations. Among the reasons that Messrs. Sweeney, Wirth, DeVuono, Redd and Johnstone are important to our success is that each has a favorable reputation, which attracts business and investment opportunities and assists us in negotiations with lenders, unconsolidated real estate venture partners and other investors.  If we lost their services, our relationships with lenders, potential tenants and industry personnel could be affected. We are dependent on our other executive officers for strategic business direction and real estate experience. Loss of their services could adversely affect our operations.
Our ability to make distributions is subject to various risks.
Historically, we have paid quarterly distributions to our shareholders. Our ability to make distributions in the future will depend upon:
the operational and financial performance of our properties;
capital expenditures with respect to existing, developed and newly acquired properties;
the amount of, and the interest rates on, our debt;
capital needs of our unconsolidated real estate ventures;
general and administrative costs associated with our operation as a publicly-held REIT; and
the absence of significant expenditures relating to environmental and other regulatory matters.
Certain of these matters are beyond our control and any adverse changes could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
We face possible federal, state and local tax audits.
Because we are organized and qualify as a REIT, we are generally not subject to federal income taxes, but are subject to certain state and local taxes. Certain entities through which we own real estate have undergone tax audits. There can be no assurance that future audits will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
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Many factors can have an adverse effect on the market value of our securities.
A number of factors might adversely affect the price of our securities, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
increases in market interest rates, relative to the dividend yield on our securities. If market interest rates go up, prospective purchasers of our securities may require a higher yield. Higher market interest rates would not, however, result in more funds for us to distribute and, to the contrary, would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our common shares to go down;
anticipated benefit of an investment in our securities as compared to investment in securities of companies in other industries (including benefits associated with the tax treatment of dividends and distributions);
perception by market professionals of REITs generally and REITs comparable to us in particular;
level of institutional investor interest in our securities;
relatively low trading volumes in securities of REITs;
our results of operations and financial condition; and
investor confidence in the stock market generally.
The market value of our common shares is based primarily upon the market’s perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and cash distributions. Consequently, our common shares may trade at prices that are higher or lower than our net asset value per common share. If our future earnings or cash distributions are less than expected, it is likely that the market price of our common shares will diminish.
Additional issuances of equity securities may be dilutive to shareholders.
The interests of our shareholders could be diluted if we issue additional equity securities to finance future developments or acquisitions or to repay indebtedness. Our Board of Trustees may authorize the issuance of additional equity securities without shareholder approval. In addition, in the past we have maintained a continuous offering program, which, when such program was effective, allowed us to issue shares in at-the-market offerings. We may in the future enter into a similar continuous offering program. Our ability to execute our business strategy depends upon our access to an appropriate blend of debt financing, including unsecured lines of credit and other forms of secured and unsecured debt, and equity financing, including the issuance of common and preferred equity.
The issuance of preferred securities may adversely affect the rights of holders of our common shares.
Because our Board of Trustees has the power to establish the preferences and rights of each class or series of preferred shares, we may afford the holders in any series or class of preferred shares preferences, distributions, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of holders of common shares. Our Board of Trustees also has the power to establish the preferences and rights of each class or series of units in the Operating Partnership, and may afford the holders in any series or class of preferred units preferences, distributions, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of holders of common units.
We may incur impairment charges.
We evaluate on a quarterly basis our real estate portfolios for indicators of impairment. Impairment charges reflect management's judgment of the probability and severity of the decline in the value of real estate assets and investments we own. These charges and provisions may be required in the future as a result of factors beyond our control, including, among other things, changes in our expected holding periods, changes in the economic environment and market conditions affecting the value of real property assets or natural or man-made disasters. If we are required to take impairment charges, our results of operations could be adversely impacted.
An increase in interest rates would increase our interest costs on variable rate debt and could adversely impact our ability to refinance existing debt or sell assets on favorable terms or at all.
Rising interest rates could limit our ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or significantly increase our future interest expense. From time to time, we enter into interest rate swap agreements and other interest rate hedging contracts. While these agreements are intended to lessen the impact of rising interest rates on us, they also expose us to the risk that the other parties to the agreements will not perform, we could incur significant costs associated with the settlement or termination
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of the agreements, the agreements will be unenforceable and the underlying transactions will fail to qualify as highly-effective cash flow hedges under the applicable accounting guidance. In addition, an increase in interest rates could decrease the amounts third parties are willing or able to pay for our assets, thereby limiting our ability to recycle capital and change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions.
Our degree of leverage could limit our ability to obtain additional financing or affect the market price of our equity shares or debt securities.
Our organizational documents do not contain any limitation on the amount of indebtedness we may incur. We are subject to risks associated with debt financing, such as the insufficiency of cash flow to meet required debt service payment obligations and the inability to refinance existing indebtedness. If our debt cannot be paid, refinanced or extended at maturity, we may not be able to make distributions to shareholders at expected levels or at all. Furthermore, an increase in our interest expense could adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders. If we do not meet our debt service obligations, any properties securing such indebtedness could be foreclosed on, which would have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and ability to make distributions and, depending on the number of properties foreclosed on, could threaten our continued viability. Our degree of leverage could also make us more vulnerable to a downturn in business or the economy in general.
The terms and covenants relating to our indebtedness could adversely impact our economic performance.
Our credit facilities, term loans and the indenture governing our unsecured public debt securities contain (and any new or amended facility and term loans may contain) restrictions, requirements and other limitations on our ability to incur indebtedness, including total debt to asset ratios, secured debt to total asset ratios, debt service coverage ratios and minimum ratios of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt which we must maintain. Our ability to borrow under our credit facilities is subject to compliance with such financial and other covenants. In the event that we fail to satisfy these covenants, we would be in default under the credit facilities, the term loans and the indenture and may be required to repay such debt with capital from other sources. Under such circumstances, other sources of capital may not be available to us, or may be available only at unattractive terms. In addition, the mortgages on our properties, including mortgages encumbering our unconsolidated real estate ventures, contain customary covenants such as those that limit our ability, without the prior consent of the lender, to further mortgage the applicable property or to discontinue insurance coverage. If we breach covenants in our secured debt agreements, the lenders can declare a default and take possession of the property securing the defaulted loan.
A downgrading of our debt could subject us to higher borrowing costs.
In the event that our unsecured debt is downgraded by Moody’s Investor Services or Standard & Poor’s from the current ratings, we would likely incur higher borrowing costs and the market prices of our common shares and debt securities might decline.
Discontinuation of the London interbank offered rate and transition to an alternative benchmark could adversely affect our operating results
On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates the London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”), announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of the LIBOR benchmark after 2021. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot be guaranteed after 2021, and there is a substantial risk that LIBOR will be discontinued or modified by the end of 2021. Our variable rate debt and derivative financial instruments are indexed to LIBOR and failure by market participants and regulators to successfully replace LIBOR could result in disruption in the financial markets which could have a negative impact on our results of operations and our variable rate debt.
Data security breaches may cause damage to our business and reputation.
In the ordinary course of our business, we maintain sensitive data, including our proprietary business information and the information of our tenants and business partners, in our data centers and on our networks. The risk of a security breach or disruption, mainly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased in number, intensity and sophistication. Notwithstanding the security measures undertaken, our information technology may be vulnerable to attacks or breaches resulting in proprietary information being publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. There can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and may not be recognized or
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detected until launched against a target. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures.
Data and security breaches could:
disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of our client tenants;
result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, missed reporting deadlines, and/or missed permitting deadlines;
result in our inability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT;
result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation, or release of proprietary, confidential, sensitive, or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive, or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;
result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our client tenants for the efficient use of their leased space;
require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result;
subject us to claims and lawsuits for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties, or termination of leases or other agreements; and/or
damage our reputation among our client tenants and investors generally.
While we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions including deductibles, cover specific aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses.
Third parties to whom we outsource certain of our functions are also subject to the risks outlined above. We review and assess the cybersecurity controls of our third party service providers and vendors, as appropriate, and make changes to our business processes to manage these risks. Data breaches and/or the insolvency of such third parties and vendors may result in us incurring costs and may have other negative consequences.
Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war may adversely impact our performance and may affect the markets on which our securities are traded.
Terrorist attacks against our properties, or against the United States or our interests, may negatively impact our operations and the value of our securities. Attacks or armed conflicts could result in increased operating costs; for example, it might cost more in the future for building security, property and casualty insurance, and property maintenance. As a result of terrorist activities and other market conditions, the cost of insurance coverage for our properties could also increase. In addition, our insurance policies may not recover all of our property replacement costs and lost revenue resulting from an attack. We might not be able to pass through the increased costs associated with such increased security measures and insurance to our tenants, which could reduce our profitability and cash flow. Furthermore, any terrorist attacks or armed conflicts could result in increased volatility in or damage to the United States and worldwide financial markets and economy. Such adverse economic conditions could affect the ability of our tenants to pay rent and our cost of capital, which could have a negative impact on our results.
Some potential losses are not covered by insurance.
We currently carry property insurance against all-risks of physical loss or damage (unless otherwise excluded in the policy) including time element and commercial general liability coverage on all of our properties. There are, however, types of losses, such as lease and other contract claims, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards and acts of war that generally are not insured. We cannot assure you that we will be able to renew insurance coverage in an adequate amount or at reasonable prices. In addition, insurance companies may no longer offer coverage against certain types of losses, such as losses due to earthquakes, terrorist acts and mold, flood, or, if offered, these types of insurance may be prohibitively expensive. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. In such an event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property. We cannot assure you that material losses in excess of insurance proceeds will not occur in the future. If any of our properties were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could seriously disrupt our operations, delay revenue and result in large expenses to repair or rebuild the property. Such events could adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders. If one or more of our insurance providers were to fail to pay a claim as a result of insolvency, bankruptcy or otherwise, the nonpayment of such
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claims could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if one or more of our insurance providers were to become subject to insolvency, bankruptcy or other proceedings and our insurance policies with the provider were terminated or cancelled as a result of those proceedings, we cannot guarantee that we would be able to find alternative coverage in adequate amounts or at reasonable prices. In such case, we could experience a lapse in any or adequate insurance coverage with respect to one or more properties and be exposed to potential losses relating to any claims that may arise during such period of lapsed or inadequate coverage.
In addition to property and casualty insurance, we use a combination of insurance products, some of which include deductibles and self-insured retention amounts, to provide risk mitigation for the potential liabilities associated with various liabilities, including workers’ compensation, general contractors, directors and officers and employee health-care benefits. Liabilities associated with the risks that are retained by us are estimated, in part, by considering historical claims experience and actuarial assumptions. While we carry general liability and umbrella policies to mitigate such losses on our general liability risks, our results could be materially impacted by claims and other expenses related to such insurance plans if future occurrences and claims differ from these assumptions and historical trends or if employee health-care claims which we self-insure up to a set limit per employee (and which are insured above such self-insured retention amount) exceed our expectations or historical trends.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
Overview
As of December 31, 2020, we owned 82 properties that contain an aggregate of approximately 13.9 million net rentable square feet and consist of 73 office properties and five mixed-use properties (collectively, the "Core Properties"), one development property and three redevelopment properties (collectively, the "Properties"). The properties are located in or near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Austin, Texas; Metropolitan Washington, D.C.; Southern New Jersey; and Wilmington, Delaware. As of December 31, 2020, the properties, excluding properties under development and redevelopment, were approximately 91.9% occupied. As of December 31, 2020, we also owned economic interests in nine unconsolidated real estate ventures (collectively, the “Real Estate Ventures”). See Note 4, ''Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
Property Statistics
The following table shows lease expirations for the Core Properties as of December 31, 2020, during each of the next 10 years and thereafter. This table assumes no exercise of renewal options or termination rights:
Year of Lease Expiration December 31,Rentable Square Feet (in thousands)Final Annualized Base Rent Under Expiring Leases (a) (in thousands)Percentage of Total Final Annualized Base Rent Under Expiring Leases
2021
1,166 $34,682 7.1 %
20221,490 55,598 11.4 %
2023645 23,354 4.8 %
20241,133 43,308 8.9 %
20251,115 45,417 9.3 %
20261,029 39,045 8.0 %
20271,299 51,951 10.6 %
2028632 23,696 4.9 %
20291,104 48,373 9.9 %
2030682 32,421 6.6 %
2031 and thereafter2,027 90,040 18.5 %
12,322 $487,885 100.0 %
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(a)Represents the annualized cash rental rate of base rents, including tenant reimbursements, in the final month prior to expiration. Tenant reimbursements generally include payment of a portion of real estate taxes, operating expenses, and common area maintenance and utility charges.
The following table shows the geographic locations for the Core Properties as of December 31, 2020. For more information about our geographic locations, see Note 19, ''Segment Information" to our Consolidated Financial Statements:
LocationNumber of PropertiesNet Rentable Square Feet (in thousands)
Percentage Leased as of December 31, 2020
Leased Square Feet (in thousands)Total Base Rent (a) (in thousands)Percentage of Base Rent
Philadelphia11 4,756 98.0 %4,660 $135,086 39.9 %
Pennsylvania Suburbs34 4,035 94.6 %3,819 111,163 32.8 %
Austin21 2,967 93.2 %2,764 63,740 18.8 %
Metropolitan Washington, D.C.1,034 73.4 %759 20,812 6.1 %
Other620 74.8 %464 8,045 2.4 %
78 13,412 92.9 %12,466 $338,846 100.0 %
(a)Represents base rents earned during the year, including tenant reimbursements, and excludes parking income, tenant inducements, and deferred market rent adjustments.
The following table shows the major tenants of the Core Properties as of December 31, 2020 and assumes that none of the tenants exercise renewal options or termination rights, if any, at or prior to scheduled expirations:
Tenant NameAnnualized Base Rents (a) (in thousands)Percentage of Aggregate Annualized Base Rents
IBM, Inc.$24,112 5.6 %
Comcast Corporation13,952 3.2 %
Spark Therapeutics, Inc.12,851 3.0 %
FMC Corporation10,965 2.5 %
CSL Behring, LLC10,081 2.3 %
Lincoln National Management Co.9,308 2.2 %
Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP9,301 2.2 %
Dechert LLP8,090 1.9 %
Independence Blue Cross, LLC7,422 1.7 %
The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania6,996 1.6 %
Other317,592 73.8 %
$430,670 100.0 %
(a)Represents the annualized base rent, including tenant reimbursements, for each lease in effect at December 31, 2020. Tenant reimbursements generally include payment of a portion of real estate taxes, operating expenses, and common area maintenance and utility charges.
Developments/Redevelopments
As of December 31, 2020, we were developing/redeveloping 0.4 million rentable square feet of office/life science properties.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are involved from time to time in legal proceedings, including tenant disputes, vendor disputes, employee disputes and disputes arising out of agreements to purchase or sell properties or unconsolidated real estate ventures and disputes relating to state and local taxes. We generally consider these disputes to be routine to the conduct of our business and management believes that the final outcome of such proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The common shares of Brandywine Realty Trust are traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “BDN.” There is no established trading market for units of partnership interests in the Operating Partnership. On February 18, 2021, there were 563 holders of record of our common shares and 22 holders of record (in addition to Brandywine Realty Trust) of Class A units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership. On February 18, 2021, the last reported sales price of the common shares on the NYSE was $11.65.
For each quarter in 2020 and 2019, the Operating Partnership paid a cash distribution per Class A unit in an amount equal to the dividend paid on a common share for each such quarter.
In order to maintain the status of Brandywine Realty Trust as a REIT, we must make annual distributions to shareholders of at least 90% of our taxable income (not including net capital gains). Future distributions will be declared at the discretion of our Board of Trustees and will depend on our actual cash flow, financial condition and capital requirements, the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and such other factors as our Board of Trustees deem relevant. Our credit facilities contain certain restrictions on the payment of dividends.  Those restrictions permit us to pay dividends to the greater of (i) an aggregate amount required by us to retain our qualification as a REIT for Federal income tax purposes and (ii) 95% of our funds from operations (FFO). See Item 6., “Selected Financial Data – Liquidity,” and Note 9, ''Debt Obligations,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
Our Board of Trustees has adopted a dividend policy designed such that our quarterly distributions are consistent with our normalized annualized taxable income. We expect to make future quarterly distributions to shareholders; however, the timing and amount of future distributions will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend on our actual funds from operations, financial condition and capital requirements and the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code.
See Note 15, ''Share Based Compensation, 401(k) Plan and Deferred Compensation," to our Consolidated Financial Statements for information related to compensation plans under which our common shares are authorized for issuance. See Note 13, ''Beneficiaries' Equity of the Parent Company,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information related to our share repurchase program during the year ended December 31, 2020.
In 2019, we redeemed 1,245 Class A units of limited partnership interest held by unaffiliated third parties for shares of common stock.
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SHARE PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The SEC requires us to present a chart comparing the cumulative total shareholder return on the common shares with the cumulative total shareholder return of (i) a broad equity index and (ii) a published industry or peer group index. The following chart compares the cumulative total shareholder return for the common shares with the cumulative shareholder return of companies on (i) the S&P 500, (ii) the NAREIT All Equity REIT Index, (iii) the Russell 2000 and (iv) the NAREIT Equity Office Index for the period beginning December 31, 2015 and ending December 31, 2020 and assumes an investment of $100, with reinvestment of all dividends, has been made in the common shares and in each index on December 31, 2015.
bdn-20201231_g1.jpg
Period Ending
Index12/31/201512/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
S&P 500 Index100.00 111.96 136.40 130.42 171.49 203.04 
Russell 2000 Index100.00 121.31 139.08 123.76 155.35 186.36 
Nareit All Equity REIT Index100.00 108.63 118.05 113.28 145.75 138.28 
Brandywine Realty Trust100.00 126.01 144.21 106.63 137.47 111.21 
Nareit Equity Office Index100.00 113.17 119.11 101.84 133.83 109.16 

Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
None.
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements appearing elsewhere herein and is based primarily on our Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. This report including the following discussion, contains forward-looking statements, which we intend to be covered by the safe-harbor provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities
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Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “will,” “should” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, we can give no assurance that our expectations will be achieved. These forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain, and actual results may differ from expectations.  “See “Forward-Looking Statements” immediately before Part I of this report.
OVERVIEW
During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, we owned and managed properties within five segments: (1) Philadelphia Central Business District (“Philadelphia CBD”), (2) Pennsylvania Suburbs, (3) Austin, Texas, (4) Metropolitan Washington, D.C., and (5) Other. The Philadelphia CBD segment includes properties located in the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Suburbs segment includes properties in Chester, Delaware and Montgomery counties in the Philadelphia suburbs. The Austin, Texas segment includes properties in the City of Austin, Texas. The Metropolitan Washington, D.C. segment includes properties in Northern Virginia, Washington, D.C. and Southern Maryland. The Other segment includes properties in Camden County, New Jersey and properties in New Castle County, Delaware. In addition to the five segments, our corporate group is responsible for cash and investment management, development of certain real estate properties during the construction period, and certain other general support functions.
We generate cash and revenue from leases of space at our properties and, to a lesser extent, from the management of properties owned by third parties and from investments in the Real Estate Ventures. Factors that we evaluate when leasing space include rental rates, costs of tenant improvements, tenant creditworthiness, current and expected operating costs, the length of the lease term, vacancy levels, and demand for space. We also generate cash through sales of assets, including assets that we do not view as core to our business plan, either because of location or expected growth potential, and assets that are commanding premium prices from third party investors.
Our financial and operating performance is dependent upon the demand for office, residential, parking, and retail space in our markets, our leasing results, our acquisition, disposition and development activity, our financing activity, our cash requirements and economic and market conditions, including prevailing interest rates.
We are closely monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of our business, including how it is impacting our tenants, employees, and business partners. Adverse changes in economic conditions, including the ongoing effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic, could result in a reduction of the availability of financing and potentially in higher borrowing costs. Vacancy rates may increase, and rental rates and rent collection rates may decline, beyond 2020 as the current economic climate may negatively impact tenants.
Overall economic conditions, including but not limited to higher unemployment and deteriorating financial and credit markets, could have a dampening effect on the fundamentals of our business, including increases in past due accounts, tenant defaults, lower occupancy and reduced effective rents. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly slowed global economic activity, caused significant volatility in financial markets, and resulted in unprecedented job losses. In addition, the government responses to control the pandemic are creating disruption in the global economy and supply chains and adversely impacting many industries, including owners and developers of office and mixed-use building. These adverse conditions have impacted our net income and cash flows and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. We believe that the quality of our assets and the strength of our balance sheet will enable us to raise debt capital, if necessary, in various forms and from different sources, including through secured or unsecured loans from banks, pension funds and life insurance companies. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to borrow funds on terms that are economically attractive or at all.
We continue to seek revenue growth throughout our portfolio by increasing occupancy and rental rates. Occupancy at our Core Properties at December 31, 2020 was 91.9% compared to 93.0% at December 31, 2019.
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The table below summarizes selected operating and leasing statistics of our wholly owned operating properties for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Leasing Activity
Core Properties (1):
Total net rentable square feet owned13,412,591 16,110,042 
Occupancy percentage (end of period)91.9 %93.0 %
Average occupancy percentage89.8 %92.7 %
Total Portfolio, less properties in development (2):
Tenant retention rate (3)52.2 %65.8 %
New leases and expansions commenced (square feet)861,978 1,113,029 
Leases renewed (square feet)642,112 852,760 
Net absorption (square feet)(91,207)45,618 
Percentage change in rental rates per square feet (4):
New and expansion rental rates21.5 %13.3 %
Renewal rental rates13.7 %11.6 %
Combined rental rates17.5 %12.1 %
Capital Costs Committed (5):
Leasing commissions (per square feet)$9.18 $7.94 
Tenant Improvements (per square feet)$22.06 $25.25 
Weighted average lease term (years)7.6 7.4 
Total capital per square foot per lease year$4.01 $4.76 
(1)Does not include properties under development, redevelopment, held for sale, or sold.
(2)Includes leasing related to completed developments and redevelopments, as well as sold properties.
(3)Calculated as percentage of total square feet.
(4)Includes base rent plus reimbursement for operating expenses and real estate taxes.
(5)Calculated on a weighted average basis.
In seeking to increase revenue through our operating, financing, and investment activities, we also seek to minimize operating risks, including (i) tenant rollover risk, (ii) tenant credit risk and (iii) development risk.
Tenant Rollover Risk:
We are subject to the risk that tenant leases, upon expiration, will not be renewed, that space may not be relet, or that the terms of renewal or reletting (including the cost of renovations) may be less favorable to us than the current lease terms. Leases that accounted for approximately 7.1% of our aggregate final annualized base rents as of December 31, 2020 (representing approximately 9.5% of the net rentable square feet of the properties) are scheduled to expire without penalty in 2021. We maintain an active dialogue with our tenants in an effort to maximize lease renewals. If we are unable to renew leases or relet space under expiring leases, at anticipated rental rates, or if tenants terminate their leases early, our results of operations and cash flow would be adversely impacted.
Tenant Credit Risk:
In the event of a tenant default, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as a landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment. Our management regularly evaluates our accounts receivable reserve policy in light of our tenant base and general and local economic conditions. Our accounts receivable allowance was $5.1 million or 2.9% of total receivables (including accrued rent receivable) as of December 31, 2020 compared to $8.0 million or 4.0% of total receivables (including accrued rent receivable) as of December 31, 2019. The decrease in the accounts receivable allowance as a percentage of the total receivables is primarily due to the write-off of the accrued rent receivable for certain retail tenants where revenue is now being recognized on a cash basis due to collectability concerns arising from the economic conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.
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If economic conditions deteriorate, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience increases in past due accounts, defaults, lower occupancy and reduced effective rents. This condition would negatively affect our future net income and cash flows and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Development Risk:
Development projects are subject to a variety of risks, including construction delays, construction cost overruns, building moratoriums, inability to obtain financing on favorable terms, inability to lease space at projected rates, inability to enter into construction, development and other agreements on favorable terms, and unexpected environmental and other hazards.  During the second quarter of 2020, certain development projects were impacted by building moratoriums imposed by local governments as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These moratoriums have since been lifted in all geographies in which we have active development projects, but could be reinstated in the event of a significant increase in COVID-19 cases. The construction delays did not materially impact the development projects.
As of December 31, 2020 the following active development and redevelopment projects remain under construction in progress and we were proceeding on the following activity (dollars, in thousands):
Property/Portfolio NameLocationExpected CompletionActivity TypeApproximate Square Footage/ UnitsEstimated CostsAmount Funded
405 Colorado Street (a)Austin, TXQ1 2021Development205,803 $122,000 $67,000 
3000 Market Street (b)Philadelphia, PAQ3 2021Redevelopment64,070 $35,000 $16,900 
(a)Estimated costs includes $2.1 million of existing property basis through a ground lease. Project includes 520 parking spaces.
(b)Estimated costs include $12.8 million of existing property basis.

In addition to the properties listed above, we have classified one office building in Radnor, Pennsylvania (acquired during the fourth quarter of 2020) and one parking facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as redevelopment.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations discusses our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the reporting periods. Certain accounting policies are considered to be critical accounting policies, as they require management to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made and changes in the accounting estimate are reasonably likely to occur from period to period. We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Impairment

We assess each of our real estate investments for indicators of impairment quarterly or when circumstances indicate that a real estate investment may be impaired. When indicators of potential impairment are present that suggest that the carrying amounts of real estate investments and related intangible assets may not be recoverable, we assess the recoverability by determining whether the respective carrying values will be recovered through the estimated undiscounted future operating cash flows expected from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition over, in most cases, a ten-year holding period. If we believe there is a significant possibility that we might dispose of the assets earlier, we assess the recoverability using a probability weighted analysis of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated from the operations and eventual disposition of the assets over the various possible holding periods. If the recoverability assessment indicates that the carrying value of a tested real estate investment is not recoverable from estimated undiscounted future cash flows, it is written down to its estimated fair value and an impairment is recognized. If and when our plans change, we revise our recoverability analyses to use the cash flows expected from the operations and eventual disposition of each asset using holding periods that are consistent with our revised plans.

Real estate investment fair values are estimated based on contract prices, discounted cash flows, or comparable sales. Estimated future cash flows used in such analyses are based on our views of market and economic conditions. The estimation of future cash flows is subjective and is based on various assumptions, including but not limited to market rental rates, capitalization rates, and recent sales data for comparable real estate investments. Estimated future cash flows are discounted
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when determining fair value of an asset. Most of these assumptions are influenced by our direct experience with the real estate investments and their markets as well as market data obtained from real estate leasing and brokerage firms. Determining the appropriate capitalization or discount rate also requires significant judgment and is typically based on many factors, including the prevailing rate for the market or submarket, as well as the quality and location of the real estate investment. Changes in the estimated future cash flows due to changes in our plans for a real estate investment, views of market and economic conditions and/or our ability to obtain development rights could result in recognition of an impairment which could be material.

Real estate investments held for sale are carried at the lower of their carrying values (i.e., cost less accumulated depreciation and any impairment recognized, where applicable) or estimated fair values less costs to sell. Accordingly, decisions to sell certain operating real estate investments, real estate investments in development or land held for development will result in impairments if carrying values of the specific real estate investments exceed their estimated fair values less costs to sell. The estimates of fair value consider matters such as recent sales data for comparable real estate investments and, where applicable, contracts or the results of negotiations with prospective purchasers. These estimates are subject to revision as market conditions, and our assessment of such conditions, change.

In addition to our real estate investments, we review each of our investments in unconsolidated real estate ventures to determine whether there are any indicators, including property operating performance, changes in anticipated hold periods, and general market conditions, that the Company's investment in the unconsolidated joint venture may be impaired. If any indicators of impairment are present, we calculate the fair value of the investment in the unconsolidated real estate venture. If the fair value of the investment is less than the carrying value, we determine whether the impairment is other than temporary. If the impairment is determined to be other than temporary, we record an impairment.
We use considerable judgment in the determination of whether indicators of impairment are present and, in the assumptions, estimations, and inputs used in calculating the fair value of the investment, which is generally determined through income valuation approaches, including discounted cash flows and direct capitalization models. These judgments are similar to those outlined above in the impairment of real estate investments. We also use judgment in making the determination as to whether or not the impairment is temporary by considering, among other things, the length of time that the market value has been less than cost, the financial condition of the unconsolidated real estate venture and our ability and intent to retain the investment long enough for a recovery in value. Our judgments related to the determination of fair value and whether an impairment is other than temporary could result in the recognition of an impairment which could be material.
Revenue Recognition

The majority of our revenues are derived from leases and are reflected as rents on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Rental revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

Most of our leases involve some form of improvements to leased space. When we are required to provide improvements under the terms of a lease, we need to determine whether the improvements constitute landlord assets or tenant assets. If the improvements are landlord assets, we capitalize the cost of the improvements and recognize depreciation expense associated with such improvements over the shorter of the estimated useful life or the term of the lease. If the improvements are tenant assets, we defer the cost of improvements funded by us as a lease incentive asset and amortize it as a reduction of rental revenue over the term of the lease. Our determination of whether improvements are landlord assets or tenant assets also may affect when we commence revenue recognition in connection with a lease.

In determining whether improvements constitute landlord or tenant assets, we consider a number of factors that may require subjective or complex judgments, including: whether the improvements are unique to the tenant or reusable by other tenants; whether the tenant is permitted to alter or remove the improvements without our consent or without compensating us for any lost fair value; whether the ownership of the improvements remains with us or remains with the tenant at the end of the lease term; and whether the economic substance of the lease terms is properly reflected.

For certain leases, we make significant assumptions and judgments in determining the lease term, including assumptions when the lease provides the tenant with an early termination option. The lease term impacts the period over which we determine and record rental revenue and impacts the period over which we amortize lease-related costs. Changes in these assessments could result in the write-off of any recorded assets associated with straight-line rental revenue and acceleration of depreciation and amortization expense associated with costs we incurred related to these leases.
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Purchase Price Allocation
When we acquire real estate investments, we allocate the purchase price to tangible assets, consisting of land, building, site improvements, and identified intangible assets and liabilities, including in-place leases and acquired above- and below-market leases, and if applicable, assumed debt, based on our estimate of their fair values.

We assess fair value based on estimated cash flow projections that utilize discount and capitalization rates as well as available market information. The fair value of the tangible assets of an acquired real estate investment considers the value of the real estate investment as if it were vacant. The estimated relative fair value of acquired in-place leases are the estimated costs to lease the real estate investment to the occupancy level at the date of acquisition. We evaluate the period over which we expect stabilized occupancy level to be achieved during the lease-up period. Above- and below-market leases are recorded as an asset or liability based upon the present value of the difference between the contractual amounts to be paid or received pursuant to the in-place leases, and our estimate of fair market rental rates for the corresponding in-place leases, over the remaining noncancellable term. Assumed debt, if any, is recorded at fair value based upon the present value of the expected future payments.

A change in any of the key assumptions can materially change not only the presentation of acquired real estate investments in our consolidated financial statements but also our reported results of operations.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion is based on our Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Refer to Item 7. "Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for a discussion of the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 which is presented therein in the form of a year-to-year comparison to the year ended December 31, 2019. We believe that presentation of our consolidated financial information, without a breakdown by segment, will effectively present important information useful to our investors.
Net operating income (“NOI”), as presented in the comparative analysis, below is defined as total revenue less property operating expenses, real estate taxes, and third party management expenses. Property operating expenses that are included in determining NOI consist of costs that are necessary and allocable to our operating properties such as utilities, property-level salaries, repairs and maintenance, property insurance, management fees, and bad debt expense. General and administrative expenses that are not reflected in NOI primarily consist of corporate-level salaries, amortization of share awards, and professional fees that are incurred as part of corporate office management. NOI is a non-GAAP financial measure that we use internally to evaluate the operating performance of our real estate assets by segment, as presented in Note 19, ''Segment Information,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements, and of our business as a whole. We believe NOI provides useful information to investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations because it reflects only those income and expense items that are incurred at the property level. While NOI is a relevant and widely used measure of operating performance of real estate investment trusts, it does not represent cash flow from operations or net income as defined by GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to those measures in evaluating our liquidity or operating performance. NOI does not reflect interest expenses, real estate impairments, depreciation and amortization costs, capital expenditures, and leasing costs. We believe that net income, as defined by GAAP, is the most appropriate earnings measure. See Note 19, ''Segment Information,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for a reconciliation of NOI to our consolidated net income (loss) as defined by GAAP.
Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2020 to the Year Ended December 31, 2019
The following comparison for the year ended December 31, 2020 to the year ended December 31, 2019, makes reference to the effect of the following:
(a)“Same Store Property Portfolio,” which represents 74 properties containing an aggregate of approximately 12.8 million net rentable square feet, and represents properties that we owned for the twelve-month periods ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. The Same Store Property Portfolio includes properties acquired or placed in service on or prior to January 1, 2019 and owned through December 31, 2020, excluding properties classified as held for sale,
(b)“Total Portfolio,” which represents all properties owned by us during 2020 and 2019,
(c)"Recently Completed/Acquired Properties," which represents four properties placed into service or acquired on or subsequent to January 1, 2019,
(d)"Development/Redevelopment Properties," which represents four properties currently in development/redevelopment. A property is excluded from our Same Store Property Portfolio and moved into Development/Redevelopment in the period that we determine to proceed with development/redevelopment for a future development strategy, and
(e)"2019 and 2020 Dispositions," which represents 16 properties disposed of or contributed to unconsolidated joint ventures during 2019 and 2020.
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Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2020 to the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Same Store Property PortfolioRecently Completed/Acquired PropertiesDevelopment/Redevelopment PropertiesOther (Eliminations) (a)Total Portfolio
(dollars and square feet in millions except per share amounts)20202019$ Change% Change20202019202020192020201920202019$ Change% Change
Revenue:
Rents$425.4 $428.4 $(3.0)(0.7)%$17.0 $13.4 $0.3 $1.7 $70.8 $111.2 $513.5 $554.7 $(41.2)(7.4)%
Third party management fees, labor reimbursement and leasing— — — — %— — — — 18.6 19.6 18.6 19.6 (1.0)(5.1)%
Other0.9 1.6 (0.7)(43.8)%— — — 0.1 1.9 4.4 2.8 6.1 (3.3)(54.1)%
Total revenue426.3 430.0 (3.7)(0.9)%17.0 13.4 0.3 1.8 91.3 135.2 534.9 580.4 (45.5)(7.8)%
Property operating expenses107.6 113.3 (5.7)(5.0)%4.1 3.5 (0.6)0.4 21.1 37.2 132.2 154.4 (22.2)(14.4)%
Real estate taxes51.0 48.1 2.9 6.0 %2.1 1.5 0.9 0.5 9.0 12.1 63.0 62.2 0.8 1.3 %
Third party management expenses— — — — %— — — — 10.3 9.2 10.3 9.2 1.1 12.0 %
Net operating income267.7 268.6 (0.9)(0.3)%10.8 8.4 — 0.9 50.9 76.7 329.4 354.6 (25.2)(7.1)%
Depreciation and amortization148.5 156.2 (7.7)(4.9)%6.8 5.4 1.6 3.1 31.4 45.3 188.3 210.0 (21.7)(10.3)%
General & administrative expenses— — — — %— — — — 30.3 32.2 30.3 32.2 (1.9)(5.9)%
Net gain on disposition of real estate(289.5)(0.4)(289.1)72,275.0 %
Net gain on sale of undepreciated real estate(0.2)(2.0)1.8 (90.0)%
Operating income (loss)$119.2 $112.4 $6.8 6.0 %$4.0 $3.0 $(1.6)$(2.2)$(10.8)$(0.8)$400.5 $114.8 $285.7 248.9 %
Number of properties74 74 82 
Square feet12.8 12.8 0.6 0.4 13.9 
Core Occupancy % (b)91.7 %92.4 %95.4 %
Other Income (Expense):
Interest income1.9 2.3 (0.4)(17.4)%
Interest expense(73.9)(81.5)7.6 (9.3)%
Interest expense — Deferred financing costs(2.9)(2.8)(0.1)3.6 %
Equity in loss of Real Estate Ventures(18.6)(9.9)(8.7)87.9 %
Net gain on real estate venture transactions0.1 11.6 (11.5)(99.1)%