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Table of contents


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One) 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
________________________________________________________
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
________________________________________________________
For the transition period from           to   

Commission File No. 001-36502

COMMERCE BANCSHARES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Missouri
43-0889454
(State of Incorporation)(IRS Employer Identification No.)

1000 Walnut
Kansas City,MO
64106
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (816) 234-2000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of class
Trading symbol(s)Name of exchange on which registered
$5 Par Value Common Stock
CBSHNASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer þ Accelerated Filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer ¨ Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $6,146,000,000.
As of February 18, 2021, there were 117,078,437 shares of Registrant’s $5 Par Value Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed within 120 days of December 31, 2020, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.





Commerce Bancshares, Inc.
Form 10-K
INDEXPage


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PART I
Item 1.    BUSINESS
General
Commerce Bancshares, Inc., a bank holding company as defined in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, was incorporated under the laws of Missouri on August 4, 1966. Through a second tier wholly-owned bank holding company, it owns all the outstanding capital stock of Commerce Bank (the “Bank”), which is headquartered in Missouri. The Bank engages in general banking business, providing a broad range of retail, mortgage banking, corporate, investment, trust, and asset management products and services to individuals and businesses. Commerce Bancshares, Inc. also owns, directly or through the Bank, various non-banking subsidiaries. Their activities include private equity investment, securities brokerage, insurance agency, specialty lending, and leasing activities. A list of Commerce Bancshares, Inc.'s subsidiaries is included as Exhibit 21.

Commerce Bancshares, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, the "Company") is one of the nation’s top 50 bank holding companies, based on asset size. At December 31, 2020, the Company had consolidated assets of $32.9 billion, loans of $16.4 billion, deposits of $26.9 billion, and equity of $3.4 billion. The Company’s operations are consolidated for purposes of preparing the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Company's principal markets, which are served by 157 branch facilities, are located throughout Missouri, Kansas, and central Illinois, as well as Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Denver, Colorado. Its two largest markets are St. Louis and Kansas City, which serve as central hubs for the Company. The Company also has offices supporting its commercial customers in Dallas, Houston, Cincinnati, Nashville, Des Moines, Indianapolis, and Grand Rapids, and operates a commercial payments business with sales representatives covering the continental United States of America (“U.S.”).

The Company’s goal is to be the preferred provider of financial services in its communities, based on strong customer relationships built through providing top quality service with a strong risk management culture, and employing a strong balance sheet with strong capital levels. The Company operates under a super-community banking format which incorporates large bank product offerings coupled with deep local market knowledge, augmented by experienced, centralized support in select, critical areas. The Company’s focus on local markets is supported by an experienced team of bankers assigned to each market coupled with industry specialists. The Company also uses regional advisory boards, comprised of local business persons, professionals and other community representatives, who assist the Company in responding to local banking needs. In addition to this local market, community-based focus, the Company offers sophisticated financial products usually only available at much larger financial institutions.

The markets the Bank serves are mainly located in the lower Midwest, which provides natural sites for production and distribution facilities and serve as transportation hubs. The economy has been well-diversified in these markets with many major industries represented, including telecommunications, automobile, technology, financial services, aircraft and general manufacturing, health care, numerous service industries, and food and agricultural production. The personal real estate lending operations of the Bank are predominantly centered in its lower Midwestern markets.

From time to time, the Company evaluates the potential acquisition of various financial institutions. In addition, the Company regularly considers the purchase and disposition of real estate assets and branch locations. The Company seeks merger or acquisition partners that are culturally similar, have experienced management and either possess significant market presence or have potential for improved profitability through financial management, economies of scale and expanded services. The Company has not completed any bank acquisitions since 2013.

Employees and Human Capital
The Company employed 4,404 persons on a full-time basis and 184 persons on a part-time basis at December 31, 2020. None of the Company's employees are represented by collective bargaining agreements.

Attracting and retaining talented team members is key to the Company’s ability to execute its strategy and compete effectively. The Company values the unique combination of talents and experiences each team member contributes toward the Company’s success and strives to offer rewards that meet team members’ individual, evolving needs. Well-being is much more than a paycheck and that’s why the Company takes a comprehensive approach to Total Rewards, supporting team members’ physical well-being, financial well-being, and emotional well-being and career development. The Company’s financial well-being program includes a company-matching 401(k) plan and health savings accounts, educational and adoption assistance programs. Emotional well-being programs include paid time off, an employee assistance program (EAP) and company-paid membership to Care.com. Physical well-being is supported by the Company’s health, dental, vision, life and various other insurances, and a wellness program that incentivizes team members to live a healthy and balanced lifestyle. Career development is also a key component of the Company’s Total Rewards, and the Company has a variety of programs to support team
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members as they continue to grow within their current role or develop for their next role. Job shadowing, leadership development programs, Aspiring Managers program, Managing at Commerce, competency assessments and education assistance are just a few of the ways the Company helps team members excel.

During 2020, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created new challenges for the Company and for its team members. The Company focused efforts on providing team members support and resources to navigate the unprecedented environment. Initiatives included daily communications providing relevant updates and information, resources for leaders to help keep their teams engaged and connected, new resources for working parents, and access to emotional support resources. The Company also provided premium pay to team members who were required to work onsite and 5 additional paid days off to team members experiencing COVID-19 related issues.

The Company believes diversity, equity, and inclusion builds stronger companies with better results. In 2020, the Company formalized and extended its commitment to focusing on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) by elevating initiatives in this area as strategic priorities, also known as “blue chips". The Company’s commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion focuses on four core pillars – people, customers, vendors, and community – while building on the foundation it has already established. The Company has launched a variety of Employee Resource Groups (ERGs) to support its diverse workforce. RISE (empowering women), EMERGE (connecting young professionals), VIBE (valuing multicultural perspectives), and PRIDE (engaging the LGBTQIA+ community) are important forums that provide team members opportunities to connect, learn, and encourage diverse perspectives. Other internal DEI efforts have included unconscious bias training, book clubs, listen, talk, and learn sessions, courageous conversation training, mentoring programs, and review of talent at all levels of the organization. The Company’s longstanding approach of “doing what’s right” continues to guide its focus on its team members and communities.

The Company’s robust listening strategy allows it to stay connected to the team member experience to understand the evolving needs of its team members and to focus on what matters most to them. This strategy includes a balance of surveys, focus groups, and one on one conversations to allow for two-way conversation and provides trends over time by key demographics. The Company’s goal is to create a sense of belonging which it believes is connected to high levels of engagement, enablement, retention, and results. The Company’s intentional strategy has allowed it to maintain levels of engagement that have been recognized by its annual survey partner, Korn Ferry, for being “best-in-class”.

Competition
The Company operates in the highly competitive environment of financial services. The Company regularly faces competition from banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, brokerage companies, mortgage companies, insurance companies, trust companies, credit card companies, private equity firms, leasing companies, securities brokers and dealers, financial technology companies, e-commerce companies, mutual fund companies, and other companies providing financial services. Some of these competitors are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions as domestic banks and bank holding companies. Some other competitors are significantly larger than the Company, and therefore have greater economies of scale, greater financial resources, higher lending limits, and may offer products and services that the Company does not provide. The Company competes by providing a broad offering of products and services to support the needs of customers, matched with a strong commitment to customer service. The Company also competes based on quality, innovation, convenience, reputation, industry knowledge, and price. In its two largest markets, the Company has approximately 12% of the deposit market share in Kansas City and approximately 8% of the deposit market share in St. Louis.

Operating Segments
The Company is managed in three operating segments: Commercial, Consumer, and Wealth. The Commercial segment provides a full array of corporate lending, merchant and commercial bank card products, payment solutions, leasing, and international services, as well as business and government deposit, investment, and cash management services. The Consumer segment includes the retail branch network, consumer installment lending, personal mortgage banking, and consumer debit and credit bank card activities. The Wealth segment provides traditional trust and estate planning services, brokerage services, and advisory and discretionary investment portfolio management services to both personal and institutional corporate customers. In 2020, the Commercial, Consumer and Wealth segments contributed 52%, 25% and 22% of total segment pre-tax income, respectively. See the section captioned "Operating Segments" in Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis, of this report and Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements for additional discussion on operating segments.

Government Policies
The Company's operations are affected by federal and state legislative changes, by the United States government, and by policies of various regulatory authorities, including those of the numerous states in which they operate. These include, for example, the statutory minimum legal lending rates, domestic monetary policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal
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Reserve System, United States fiscal policy, international currency regulations and monetary policies, the U.S. Patriot Act, and capital adequacy and liquidity constraints imposed by federal and state bank regulatory agencies.

Supervision and Regulation
The following information summarizes existing laws and regulations that materially affect the Company's operations. It does not discuss all provisions of these laws and regulations, and it does not include all laws and regulations that affect the Company presently or may affect the Company in the future.
General
The Company, as a bank holding company, is primarily regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (BHC Act). Under the BHC Act, the Federal Reserve Board’s prior approval is required in any case in which the Company proposes to acquire all or substantially all the assets of any bank, acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank, or merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company. With certain exceptions, the BHC Act also prohibits the Company from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of any class of voting shares of any non-banking company. Under the BHC Act, the Company may not engage in any business other than managing and controlling banks or furnishing certain specified services to subsidiaries, and may not acquire voting control of non-banking companies unless the Federal Reserve Board determines such businesses and services to be closely related to banking. When reviewing bank acquisition applications for approval, the Federal Reserve Board considers, among other things, the Bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of the communities it serves in accordance with the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, as amended (CRA). Under the terms of the CRA, banks have a continuing obligation, consistent with safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including providing credit to individuals residing in low- and moderate-income areas. The Bank has a current CRA rating of “outstanding.”

The Company is required to file various reports and additional information with the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve Board regularly performs examinations of the Company. The Bank is a state-chartered Federal Reserve member bank and is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City and the Missouri Division of Finance. The Bank is also subject to regulation by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). In addition, there are numerous other federal and state laws and regulations which control the activities of the Company, including requirements and limitations relating to capital and reserve requirements, permissible investments and lines of business, transactions with affiliates, loan limits, mergers and acquisitions, issuance of securities, dividend payments, and extensions of credit. The Bank is subject to federal and state consumer protection laws, including laws designed to protect customers and promote fair lending. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, and their respective state law counterparts. If the Company fails to comply with these or other applicable laws and regulations, it may be subject to civil monetary penalties, imposition of cease and desist orders or other written directives, removal of management and, in certain circumstances, criminal penalties. This regulatory framework is intended primarily for the protection of depositors and the preservation of the federal deposit insurance funds. Statutory and regulatory controls increase a bank holding company’s cost of doing business and limit the options of its management to employ assets and maximize income.

In addition to its regulatory powers, the Federal Reserve Bank affects the conditions under which the Company operates by its influence over the national supply of bank credit. The Federal Reserve Board employs open market operations in U.S. government securities and oversees changes in the discount rate on bank borrowings, changes in the federal funds rate on overnight inter-bank borrowings, and changes in reserve requirements on bank deposits in implementing its monetary policy objectives. These methods are used in varying combinations to influence the overall level of the interest rates charged on loans and paid for deposits, the price of the dollar in foreign exchange markets, and the level of inflation. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve have a significant effect on the operating results of financial institutions, most notably on the interest rate environment. In view of changing conditions in the national economy and in the money markets, as well as the effect of credit policies of monetary and fiscal authorities, the Company makes no prediction as to possible future changes in interest rates, deposit levels or loan demand, or their effect on the financial statements of the Company.

The financial industry operates under laws and regulations that are under regular review by various agencies and legislatures and are subject to change. The Company currently operates as a bank holding company, as defined by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act of 1999 (GLB Act), and the Bank qualifies as a financial subsidiary under the GLB Act, which allows it to engage in investment banking, insurance agency, brokerage, and underwriting activities that were not available to banks prior to the GLB Act. The GLB Act also included privacy provisions that limit banks’ abilities to disclose non-public information about customers to non-affiliated entities.

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The Company must also comply with the requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA). The BSA is designed to help fight drug trafficking, money laundering, and other crimes. Compliance is monitored by the Federal Reserve. The BSA was enacted to prevent banks and other financial service providers from being used as intermediaries for, or to hide the transfer or deposit of money derived from, criminal activity. Since its passage, the BSA has been amended several times. These amendments include the Money Laundering Control Act of 1986 which made money laundering a criminal act, as well as the Money Laundering Suppression Act of 1994 which required regulators to develop enhanced examination procedures and increased examiner training to improve the identification of money laundering schemes in financial institutions.

The USA PATRIOT Act, established in 2001, substantially broadened the scope of U.S. anti-money laundering laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. The regulations impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent, and report money laundering and terrorist financing. The regulations include significant penalties for non-compliance.

The Company is subject to regulation under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2011 (Dodd-Frank Act). Among its many provisions, the Dodd-Frank Act required stress-testing for certain financial services companies and established a new council of “systemic risk” regulators. The Dodd-Frank Act also established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) which is authorized to supervise certain financial services companies and has responsibility to implement, examine for compliance with, and enforce “Federal consumer financial law.” The Company is subject to examinations by the CFPB. The Dodd-Frank Act, through Title VI, commonly known as the Volcker Rule, placed trading restrictions on financial institutions and separated investment banking, private equity and proprietary trading (hedge fund) sections of financial institutions from their consumer lending arms. The Volcker Rule also restricts financial institutions from investing in and sponsoring certain types of investments.

In May 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act was signed into law which provides a number of limited amendments to the Dodd-Frank Act. Notable provisions of the legislation include: an increase in the asset threshold from $50 billion to $250 billion, above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply enhanced prudential standards; an exemption from the Volcker Rule for insured depository institutions with less than $10 billion in consolidated assets; modifications to the Liquidity Coverage and Supplementary Leverage ratios; and the elimination of Dodd-Frank company-run stress tests for banks and bank holding companies with less than $250 billion in assets. Most of these provisions affect institutions larger than the Company, and the Company is not required to prepare stress testing as specified by the Dodd-Frank Act.

Subsidiary Bank
Under Federal Reserve policy, the bank holding company, Commerce Bancshares, Inc. (the "Parent"), is expected to act as a source of financial strength to its bank subsidiary and to commit resources to support it in circumstances when it might not otherwise do so. In addition, loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.

Deposit Insurance
Substantially all of the deposits held by the Bank are insured up to applicable limits (generally $250,000 per depositor for each account ownership category) by the FDIC's Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) and are subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF. In 2011, the FDIC released a final rule to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that affected deposit insurance assessments. Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act raised the minimum designated reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35% of estimated insured deposits, removed the upper limit of the designated reserve ratio, required that the designated reserve ratio reach 1.35% by September 30, 2020, and required the FDIC to offset the effect of increasing the minimum designated reserve ratio on depository institutions with total assets of less than $10 billion. The Dodd-Frank Act provided the FDIC flexibility in the implementation of the increase in the designated reserve ratio and also required that the FDIC redefine the assessment base to average consolidated assets minus average tangible equity. 

On June 30, 2016, the DIF rose above 1.15%, resulting in a reduction of the initial assessment rate for all banks and implementing a 4.5 basis point surcharge on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more. Effective October 1, 2018, this surcharge was eliminated as the DIF reached its required level of 1.35% of estimated insured deposits. This had the effect of reducing the Company’s insurance costs by $1.5 million in the fourth quarter of 2018. The Company's deposit insurance expense was $7.8 million and $6.7 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively. The increase in the
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Company's 2020 deposit insurance expense was partly due to a higher assessment rate but was primarily driven by growth in the Company's assessment base.

Payment of Dividends
The Federal Reserve Board may prohibit the payment of cash dividends to shareholders by bank holding companies if their actions constitute unsafe or unsound practices. The principal source of the Parent's cash revenues is cash dividends paid by the Bank. The amount of dividends paid by the Bank in any calendar year is limited to the net profit of the current year combined with the retained net profits of the preceding two years, and permission must be obtained from the Federal Reserve Board for dividends exceeding these amounts. The payment of dividends by the Bank may also be affected by factors such as the maintenance of adequate capital.

Capital Adequacy
The Company is required to comply with the capital adequacy standards established by the Federal Reserve, which are based on the risk levels of assets and off-balance sheet financial instruments. Capital adequacy guidelines and prompt corrective action regulations involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance sheet items calculated under regulatory accounting practices. Capital amounts and classifications are also subject to judgments by regulators regarding qualitative components, risk weightings, and other factors.

A comprehensive capital framework was established by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which was effective for large and internationally active U.S. banks and bank holding companies on January 1, 2015. A key goal of the Basel III framework was to strengthen the capital resources of banking organizations during normal and challenging business environments. Basel III increased minimum requirements for both the quantity and quality of capital held by banking organizations. The rule includes a minimum ratio of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 4.5% and a common equity Tier 1 capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of risk-weighted assets. The capital conservation buffer is intended to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Failure to maintain the buffer will result in constraints on dividends, stock repurchases and executive compensation. The rule also adjusted the methodology for calculating risk-weighted assets to enhance risk sensitivity. At December 31, 2020, the Company's capital ratios are well in excess of those minimum ratios required by Basel III.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA) requires each federal banking agency to take prompt corrective action to resolve the problems of insured depository institutions, including but not limited to those that fall below one or more prescribed minimum capital ratios. Pursuant to FDICIA, the FDIC promulgated regulations defining the following five categories in which an insured depository institution will be placed, based on the level of its capital ratios: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized. Under the prompt corrective action provisions of FDICIA, an insured depository institution generally will be classified as well-capitalized (under the Basel III rules mentioned above) if it has a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8%, a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6.5%, a total capital ratio of at least 10%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5%. An institution that, based upon its capital levels, is classified as “well-capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” or “undercapitalized,” may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice warrants such treatment. At each successive lower capital category, an insured depository institution is subject to more restrictions and prohibitions, including restrictions on growth, restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, restrictions or prohibitions on payment of dividends, and restrictions on the acceptance of brokered deposits. Furthermore, if a bank is classified in one of the undercapitalized categories, it is required to submit a capital restoration plan to the federal bank regulator, and the holding company must guarantee the performance of that plan. The Bank has consistently maintained regulatory capital ratios above the “well-capitalized” standards.

Stress Testing
As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, the Company performed stress tests as specified by the Federal Reserve requirement and published results beginning in 2014 through 2017. On May 24, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act was enacted, which eliminated the required stress testing under the Dodd-Frank Act for banks with consolidated assets of less than $250 billion. The Company continues to perform periodic stress-testing based on its own internal criteria.

Executive and Incentive Compensation
Guidelines adopted by federal banking agencies prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice, and describe compensation as "excessive" when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder. The Federal Reserve Board has issued comprehensive
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guidance on incentive compensation intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies do not undermine safety and soundness by encouraging excessive risk taking. This guidance covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, based on key principles that (i) incentives do not encourage risk-taking beyond the organization's ability to identify and manage risk, (ii) compensation arrangements are compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) compensation arrangements are supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective board oversight. Deficiencies in compensation practices may affect supervisory ratings and enforcement actions may be taken if incentive compensation arrangements pose a risk to safety and soundness.

Transactions with Affiliates
The Federal Reserve Board regulates transactions between the Bank and its subsidiaries. Generally, the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation W, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, limit the Company’s banking subsidiary and its subsidiaries to lending and other “covered transactions” with affiliates. The aggregate amount of covered transactions a banking subsidiary or its subsidiaries may enter into with an affiliate may not exceed 10% of the capital stock and surplus of the banking subsidiary. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with all affiliates may not exceed 20% of the capital stock and surplus of the banking subsidiary.

Covered transactions with affiliates are also subject to collateralization requirements and must be conducted on arm’s length terms. Covered transactions include (a) a loan or extension of credit by the banking subsidiary, including derivative contracts, (b) a purchase of securities issued to a banking subsidiary, (c) a purchase of assets by the banking subsidiary unless otherwise exempted by the Federal Reserve, (d) acceptance of securities issued by an affiliate to the banking subsidiary as collateral for a loan, and (e) the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit by the banking subsidiary on behalf of an affiliate.

Certain transactions with the Company's directors, officers or controlling persons are also subject to conflicts of interest regulations. Among other things, these regulations require that loans to such persons and their related interests be made on terms substantially the same as for loans to unaffiliated individuals, and must not create an abnormal risk of repayment or other unfavorable features for the financial institution. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information on loans to related parties.

Available Information
The Company’s principal offices are located at 1000 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Missouri (telephone number 816-234-2000). The Company makes available free of charge, through its website at www.commercebank.com, reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as soon as reasonably practicable after the electronic filing. Additionally, a copy of our electronically filed materials can be found at www.sec.gov. These filings include the annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports.

Statistical Disclosure
The information required by Securities Act Guide 3 — “Statistical Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies” is located on the pages noted below.
Page
I.Distribution of Assets, Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity; Interest Rates and Interest Differential
24, 58-61
II.Investment Portfolio
42-44, 89-93
III.Loan Portfolio
Types of Loans
Maturities and Sensitivities of Loans to Changes in Interest Rates30-31
Risk Elements
37-42
IV.Summary of Credit Loss Experience
33-37
V.Deposits
58, 98
VI.Return on Equity and Assets19 
VII.Short-Term Borrowings99

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Item 1a.     RISK FACTORS
Making or continuing an investment in securities issued by the Company, including its common stock, involves certain risks that you should carefully consider. If any of the following risks actually occur, the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations could be negatively affected, the market price for your securities could decline, and you could lose all or a part of your investment. Further, to the extent that any of the information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors set forth below also are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause the Company’s actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by or on behalf of Commerce Bancshares, Inc.

Market Risks
Difficult market conditions may affect the Company’s industry.
The concentration of the Company’s banking business in the United States particularly exposes it to downturns in the U.S. economy. During 2020, the U.S. economy has suffered adverse economic conditions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Almost a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, the uncertainty in the economic outlook as of December 31, 2020 continued to affect the Company's financial results and operations.
In particular, the Company may face the following risks in connection with market conditions:     
In 2020, the U.S. economy entered a recession, which ended the longest expansion in its history. Brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic late in the first quarter of 2020, the U.S. economy saw significant declines in employment and production, which contributed to the start of the recession. Although the unemployment rate has decreased during 2020 to 6.7% in December 2020, from a high of nearly 15% in April 2020, it is still almost twice as high as the rate at the end of 2019.
The U.S. economy is affected by global events and conditions, including the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the Company does not directly hold foreign debt or have significant activities with foreign customers, the global economy, the strength of the U.S. dollar, international trade conditions, and oil prices may ultimately affect interest rates, business import/export activity, capital expenditures by businesses, and investor confidence. Unfavorable changes in these factors may result in declines in consumer credit usage, adverse changes in payment patterns, reduced loan demand, and higher loan delinquencies and default rates. These could impact the Company’s future credit losses and provision for credit losses, as a significant part of the Company’s business includes consumer and credit card lending.
In addition to the COVID-19 slowdown noted above, further slowdowns in economic activity may cause additional declines in financial services activity, including declines in bank card, corporate cash management and other fee businesses, as well as the fees earned by the Company on such transactions.
The process used to estimate losses expected in the Company’s loan portfolio requires difficult, subjective, and complex judgments, including consideration of economic conditions and how these economic predictions might impair the ability of its borrowers to repay their loans. If an instance occurs that renders these predictions no longer capable of accurate estimation, this may in turn impact the reliability of the process.
Competition in the industry could intensify as a result of the increasing consolidation of financial services companies in connection with current market conditions, thereby reducing market prices for various products and services which could in turn reduce the Company’s revenues.

The performance of the Company is dependent on the economic conditions of the markets in which the Company operates.
The Company’s success is heavily influenced by the general economic conditions of the specific markets in which it operates. Unlike larger national or other regional banks that are more geographically diversified, the Company provides financial services primarily throughout the states of Missouri, Kansas, central Illinois, Oklahoma, and Colorado. It also has a growing presence in additional states through its commercial banking offices in: Texas, Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee. As the Company does not have a significant banking presence in other parts of the country, a prolonged economic downturn in these markets could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

The Company operates in a highly competitive industry and market area.
The Company operates in the financial services industry and has numerous competitors including other banks and insurance companies, securities dealers, brokers, trust and investment companies, mortgage bankers, and financial technology companies. Consolidation among financial service providers and new changes in technology, product offerings and regulation continue to challenge the Company's marketplace position. As consolidation occurs, larger regional and national banks may enter the Company's markets and add to existing competition. Large, national financial institutions have substantial capital, technology and marketing resources. These new competitors may lower fees to grow market share, which could result in a loss of
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customers and lower fee revenue for the Company. They may have greater access to capital at a lower cost than the Company, and may have higher loan limits, both of which may adversely affect the Company’s ability to compete effectively. The Company must continue to make investments in its products and delivery systems to stay competitive with the industry, or its financial performance may suffer.

The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect the Company.
The Company’s ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institution counterparties. Financial services institutions are interrelated because of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. The Company has exposure to many different industries and counterparties and routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual funds, and other institutional clients. Transactions with these institutions include overnight and term borrowings, interest rate swap agreements, securities purchased and sold, short-term investments, and other such transactions. Because of this exposure, defaults by, or rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions or the financial services industry in general, could lead to market-wide liquidity problems and defaults by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose the Company to credit risk in the event of default of its counterparty or client, while other transactions expose the Company to liquidity risks should funding sources quickly disappear. In addition, the Company’s credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the exposure due to the Company. Any such losses could materially and adversely affect results of operations.

Regulatory and Compliance Risks
The Company is subject to extensive government regulation and supervision.
As part of the financial services industry, the Company is subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds, and the banking system, not shareholders. These regulations affect the Company’s lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations, and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations, or policies, could affect the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject the Company to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products it may offer, and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations, or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties, and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur.

Significant changes in federal monetary policy could materially affect the Company’s business.
The Federal Reserve System regulates the supply of money and credit in the United States. Its policies determine in large part the cost of funds for lending and interest rates earned on loans and paid on borrowings and interest-bearing deposits. Credit conditions are influenced by its open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in the member bank discount rate, and bank reserve requirements. Changes in Federal Reserve Board policies are beyond the Company’s control and difficult to predict, and such changes may result in lower interest margins and a lack of demand for credit products.

Liquidity and Capital Risks
The Company is subject to both interest rate and liquidity risk.
With oversight from its Asset-Liability Management Committee, the Company devotes substantial resources to monitoring its liquidity and interest rate risk on a monthly basis. The Company's net interest income is the largest source of overall revenue to the Company, representing 62% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020. The interest rate environment in which the Company operates fluctuates in response to general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve Board, which regulates the supply of money and credit in the U.S. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, will influence loan originations, deposit generation, demand for investments and revenues and costs for earning assets and liabilities, and could significantly impact the Company’s net interest income.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve Board lowered the benchmark interest rate to between zero and 0.25%. Future economic conditions or other factors could shift monetary policy resulting in increases or additional decreases in the benchmark rate. Furthermore, changes in interest rates could result in unanticipated changes to customer deposit balances and funding costs and affect the Company’s source of funds for future loan growth.
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Commerce Bancshares, Inc. relies on dividends from its subsidiary bank for most of its revenue.
Commerce Bancshares, Inc. is a separate and distinct legal entity from its banking and other subsidiaries. It receives substantially all of its revenue from dividends from its subsidiary bank. These dividends, which are limited by various federal and state regulations, are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on its common stock and to meet its other cash needs. In the event the subsidiary bank is unable to pay dividends, the Company may not be able to pay dividends or other obligations, which would have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.

Operational Risks
The impact of the phase-out of LIBOR is uncertain.
In 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that LIBOR would likely be discontinued at the end of 2021 as panel banks would no longer be required to submit estimates that are used to construct LIBOR. U.S. regulatory authorities have voiced similar support for phasing out LIBOR. The Company has a significant number of loans, derivative contracts, and other financial instruments with attributes that are either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $2.4 billion of commercial loans, $1.4 billion of notional value of derivative contracts, and $783.6 million of investment securities that mature after December 31, 2021. These amounts will vary in future periods as current contracts payoff or terminate early and either new or replacement contracts use LIBOR or an alternative reference rate. The impact of alternatives to LIBOR on the valuations, pricing and operation of the Company's financial instruments is not yet known. The Company is coordinating with industry groups to identify an appropriate replacement rate for contracts expiring after 2021, as well as preparing for this transition as it relates to new and existing contracts and customers. The Company has established a LIBOR Transition Program, which is led by the LIBOR Transition Steering Committee (Committee) whose purpose is to guide the overall transition process for the Company. The Committee is an internal, cross-functional team with representatives from all relevant business lines, support functions and legal counsel. An initial LIBOR impact and risk assessment has been performed, and the Company has developed and prioritized action items. Changes to the Company's systems have been identified and the process of installing and testing code has started. All financial contracts that reference LIBOR have been identified and are being monitored on an ongoing basis. Remediation of these contracts is expected to be consistent with industry timing. LIBOR fallback language has been included in key loan provisions of new and renewed loans in preparation for transition from LIBOR to the new benchmark rate when such transition occurs.

The Company may be adversely affected if the interest rates currently tied to LIBOR on the Company's loans, derivatives, and other financial instruments are not able to be transitioned to an alternative rate. Furthermore, the Company may be faced with disputes or litigation with counterparties regarding interpretation and enforcement of fallback language in new and renewed loans as the transition to a new benchmark rate continues to evolve.

The Company’s asset valuation may include methodologies, models, estimations and assumptions which are subject to differing interpretations and could result in changes to asset valuations that may materially adversely affect its results of operations or financial condition.
The Company uses estimates, assumptions, and judgments when certain financial assets and liabilities are measured and reported at fair value. Assets and liabilities carried at fair value inherently result in greater financial statement volatility. Fair values and the information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are based on quoted market prices and/or other observable inputs provided by independent third-party sources, when available. When such third-party information is not available, fair value is estimated primarily by using cash flow and other financial modeling techniques utilizing assumptions such as credit quality, liquidity, interest rates and other relevant inputs. Changes in underlying factors, assumptions, or estimates in any of these areas could materially impact the Company’s future financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if models used to calculate fair value of financial instruments are inadequate or inaccurate due to flaws in their design or execution, upon sale, the Company may not realize the cash flows of a financial instrument as modeled and could incur material, unexpected losses.

During periods of market disruption, including periods of significantly rising or high interest rates, rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be difficult to value certain assets if trading becomes less frequent and/or market data becomes less observable. There may be certain asset classes in active markets with significant observable data that become illiquid due to the current financial environment. In such cases, certain asset valuations may require more subjectivity and management judgment. As such, valuations may include inputs and assumptions that are less observable or require greater estimation. Further, rapidly changing and unprecedented credit and equity market conditions could materially impact the valuation of assets as reported within the Company’s consolidated financial statements, and the period-to-period changes in value could vary significantly. Decreases in value may have a material adverse effect on results of operations or financial condition.

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The Company’s operations rely on certain external vendors.
The Company relies on third-party vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain day-to-day operations. For example, the Company outsources a portion of its information systems, communication, data management, and transaction processing to third parties. Accordingly, the Company is exposed to the risk that these vendors might not perform in accordance with the contracted arrangements or service level agreements because of changes in the vendor’s organizational structure, financial condition, support for existing products and services, or strategic focus. Such failure to perform could be disruptive to the Company’s operations, which could have a materially adverse impact on its business, financial condition and results of operations. These third parties are also sources of risk associated with operational errors, system interruptions or breaches and unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. If the vendors encounter any of these issues, the Company could be exposed to disruption of service, damage to reputation and litigation. Because the Company is an issuer of both debit and credit cards, it is periodically exposed to losses related to security breaches which occur at retailers that are unaffiliated with the Company (e.g., customer card data being compromised at retail stores). These losses include, but are not limited to, costs and expenses for card reissuance as well as losses resulting from fraudulent card transactions.

The Company plans to convert its core customer and deposit systems during 2021 and may encounter significant adverse developments.
The Company plans to replace its core customer and deposit systems and other ancillary systems (collectively referred to as core system). The core system is used to track customer relationships and deposit accounts. The core system is integrated with channel applications that are used to service customer requests by bank personnel or directly by customers (such as online banking and mobile applications). The new core system will provide a new platform based on current technology, will enable the Company to integrate other systems more efficiently, and is a significant improvement compared to our current core system. However, changing the core system will subject the Company to operational risks during and after the conversion, including disruptions to its technology systems, which may adversely impact our customers. The Company has plans, policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the risks of a failure during or after the conversion of our core system. However, there can be no assurance that any such adverse development will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be timely and adequately remediated. The ultimate impact of any adverse development could damage the Company's reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject the Company to regulatory scrutiny, or expose it to civil litigation and possibly financial liability, any of which could have a material effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Credit Risks
The allowance for credit losses may be insufficient or future credit losses could increase.
The allowance for credit losses on loans and the liability for unfunded lending commitments at December 31, 2020 reflect management's estimate of credit losses expected in the loan portfolio, including unfunded lending commitments, as of the balance sheet date. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements and the section captioned “Allowance for Credit Losses on Loans and Liability for Unfunded Lending Commitments” in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of this report for further discussion related to the Company’s process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses on loans and the liability for unfunded lending commitments at December 31, 2020.

In 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued a new accounting standard "Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" (ASU 2016-13), which became effective January 1, 2020 and was adopted by the Company at that time. This new standard significantly altered the way the allowance for credit losses is determined. The new standard utilizes a life of loan loss concept and required significant operational changes, especially in data collection and analysis. The level of the allowance is based on management’s methodology that utilizes historical net charge-off rates, and adjusts for the impacts in the reasonable and supportable forecast and other qualitative factors. Key assumptions include the application of historical loss rates, prepayment speeds, forecast results of a reasonable and supportable period, the period to revert to historical loss rates, and qualitative factors. As a result of COVID-19, the allowance for credit losses on loans and the liability for unfunded lending commitments increased substantially during the year, which negatively affected the Company's results of operations, as the U.S. economy suddenly and dramatically deteriorated. The Company’s allowance level is subject to review by regulatory agencies, and that review could also result in adjustments to the allowance for credit losses. Additionally, the Company's provision for credit losses may be more volatile in the future under the new standard, due to macroeconomic variables that influence the Company's loss estimates, and the volatility in credit losses may be material to the Company's earnings.

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The Company’s investment portfolio values may be adversely impacted by deterioration in the credit quality of underlying collateral within the various categories of investment securities it owns.
The Company generally invests in liquid, investment grade securities, however, these securities are subject to changes in market value due to changing interest rates and implied credit spreads. While the Company maintains prudent risk management practices over bonds issued by municipalities and other issuers, credit deterioration in these bonds could occur and result in losses. Certain mortgage and asset-backed securities (which are collateralized by residential mortgages, credit cards, automobiles, mobile homes or other assets) may decline in value due to actual or expected deterioration in the underlying collateral. Under accounting rules, when an available for sale debt security is in an unrealized loss position, the entire loss in fair value is required to be recognized in current earnings if the Company intends to sell the security or believes it is probable that the Company will be required to sell the security before the value recovers. Additionally, the current expected credit loss model (CECL) implemented by the Company on January 1, 2020, requires that lifetime expected credit losses on securities be recorded in current earnings. This could result in significant losses.

Strategic Risk
New lines of business or new products and services may subject the Company to additional risk.
From time to time, the Company may implement new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and new products or services, the Company may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business, or new product or service, could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the Company’s system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business and new products or services could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

General Risks
A successful cyber attack or other computer system breach could significantly harm the Company, its reputation and its customers.
The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business, and as part of its business, the Company maintains significant amounts of data about its customers and the products they use. Information security risks continue to increase due to new technologies, the increasing use of the Internet and telecommunication technologies (including mobile devices) to conduct financial and other business transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, and others. The Company makes significant investments in various technology to identify and prevent intrusions into its information system. The Company also has policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of failure, interruption or security breach of its information systems, offers ongoing training to employees, hosts tabletop exercises to test response readiness, and performs regular audits using both internal and outside resources. However, there can be no assurance that any such failures, interruptions or security breaches will not occur, or if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. In addition to unauthorized access, denial-of-service attacks or other operational disruptions could overwhelm Company websites and prevent the Company from adequately serving customers. Should any of the Company's systems become compromised or customer information be obtained by unauthorized parties, the reputation of the Company could be damaged, relationships with existing customers may be impaired, and the Company could be subject to lawsuits, all of which could result in lost business and have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company continually encounters technological change.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, including the entrance of financial technology companies offering new financial service products. The Company regularly upgrades or replaces technological systems to increase efficiency, enhance product and service capabilities, eliminate risks of end-of-lifecycle products, reduce costs, and better serve our customers. The Company’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in the Company’s operations. Many of the Company’s competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. The Company may encounter significant problems and may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services and may not be successful in marketing the new products and services to its customers. These problems might include significant time delays, cost overruns, loss of key people, and technological system failures. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry or failure to successfully complete
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the replacement of technological systems could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company must attract and retain skilled employees.
The Company’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for the best people can be intense, and the Company spends considerable time and resources attracting, hiring, and retaining qualified people for its various business lines and support units. The unexpected loss of the services of one or more of the Company’s key personnel could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business because of their skills, knowledge of the Company’s market, and years of industry experience, as well as the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.

Public health threats or outbreaks of communicable diseases have adversely affected, and are expected to continue to adversely effect, the Company's operations and financial results.
The Company may face risks related to public health threats or outbreaks of communicable diseases. A widespread healthcare crisis, such as an outbreak of a communicable disease could adversely affect the global economy and the Company’s financial performance. For example, the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic has destabilized the financial markets in which the Company operates and likely will continue to cause significant disruption in the global economies and financial markets, including the Company's local markets. The Company is dependent upon the willingness and ability of its customers to conduct banking and other financial transactions. In reaction to and as preventative measure to attempt to slow the spread of the pandemic, government authorities have in many states and municipalities implemented mandatory closures, shelter-in-place orders, and social distancing protocols, including orders within many of the geographic areas that the Company operates. Although the Company is considered an essential business, access to its branches and office locations have been restricted, for the safety of its employees and customers. Limiting customers' access to the Company's physical business has prevented some customers from transacting with the Company and lowered demand for lending and other services offered by the Company, adversely affecting its cash flows, financial condition, results of operations, profitability and asset quality and could continue to do so for an indefinite period of time. This could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In particular, the continued spread of COVID-19 and efforts to contain the virus could:
continue to impact customer demand of the Company’s lending and related services, leading to lower revenue;
cause the Company to experience an increase in costs as a result of the Company implementing operational changes to accommodate its remote workforce;
cause delayed payments from customers and uncollectible accounts, defaults, foreclosures, and declining collateral values, resulting in losses to the Company;
result in losses on the Company's investment portfolio, due to volatility in the markets and lower trading volume driven by economic uncertainty;
cause market interest rates to continue to decline, which could adversely affect the Company's net interest income and profitability;
cause the Company's credit losses to grow substantially;
impact availability of qualified personnel; and
cause other unpredictable events.
The situation surrounding COVID-19 remains uncertain and the potential for a material impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity increases the longer the virus impacts activity levels in the United States and globally. The ultimate extent of the impact on the Company's business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and cash flows will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. The Company continues to adapt to the changing dynamics of the COVID-19 impacts to the economy, needs of its employees and customers, and authoritative measures mandated by federal, state, and local governments. However, there is no assurance that the Company's business continuity and disaster recovery program can adequately mitigate the risks of such business disruptions and interruptions. New information regarding the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing reactions to the pandemic by customers and government authorities will continue to impact access to the Company's business, as well as the economies and markets in which the Company operates. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause prolonged global or national recessionary economic conditions or longer lasting effects on economic conditions than currently exist, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations and financial condition. Beyond the current COVID-19 pandemic, the potential impacts of epidemics, pandemics, or other outbreaks of an illness, disease, or virus could therefore materially and adversely affect the Company's business, revenue, operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows.

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Item 1b.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None

Item 2.    PROPERTIES
The main offices of the Company are located in Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri. The Company owns its main offices and leases unoccupied premises to the public. The larger office buildings include:

Building
Net rentable square footage
% occupied in total
% occupied by Bank
1000 Walnut
Kansas City, MO
391,000 98 %52 %
922 Walnut
Kansas City, MO
256,000 95 91 
811 Main
Kansas City, MO
237,000 100 100 
8000 Forsyth
Clayton, MO
178,000 100 100 

The Company has an additional 153 branch locations in Missouri, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma and Colorado which are owned or leased.


Item 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information required by this item is set forth in Item 8 under Note 21, Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees on page 133.

Item 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable    

Information about the Company's Executive Officers
The following are the executive officers of the Company as of February 24, 2021, each of whom is designated annually. There are no arrangements or understandings between any of the persons so named and any other person pursuant to which such person was designated an executive officer.
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Name and AgePositions with Registrant
Kevin G. Barth, 60Executive Vice President of the Company since April 2005, and Community President and Chief Executive Officer of Commerce Bank since October 1998. Senior Vice President of the Company and Officer of Commerce Bank prior thereto.
Derrick R. Brooks, 44Senior Vice President of the Company and Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since January 2021. Senior Vice President of Commerce Bank prior thereto.
Jeffrey M. Burik, 62Senior Vice President of the Company since February 2013. Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since November 2007.
Sara E. Foster, 60
Executive Vice President of the Company since February 2012 and Senior Vice President of the Company prior thereto. Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since January 2016 and Senior Vice President of Commerce Bank prior thereto.
John K. Handy, 57Executive Vice President of the Company since January 2018 and Senior Vice President of the Company prior thereto. Community President and Chief Executive Officer of Commerce Bank since January 2018 and Senior Vice President of Commerce Bank prior thereto.
Robert S. Holmes, 57
Executive Vice President of the Company since April 2015, and Community President and Chief Executive Officer of Commerce Bank since January 2016. Prior to his employment with Commerce Bank in March 2015, he was employed at a Midwest regional bank where he served as managing director and head of Regional Banking.
Patricia R. Kellerhals, 63
Senior Vice President of the Company since February 2016 and Vice President of the Company prior thereto. Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since 2005.
David W. Kemper, 70
Executive Chairman of the Company and of the Board of Directors of the Company since August 2018. Prior thereto, he was Chief Executive Officer of the Company and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company. He was President of the Company from April 1982 until February 2013. He is the brother of Jonathan M. Kemper (a former Vice Chairman of the Company), and father of John W. Kemper, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company.
John W. Kemper, 43Chief Executive Officer of the Company and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Commerce Bank since August 2018. Prior thereto, he was Chief Operating Officer of the Company. President of the Company since February 2013 and President of Commerce Bank since March 2013. Member of Board of Directors since September 2015. He is the son of David W. Kemper (Executive Chairman of the Company) and nephew of Jonathan M. Kemper (a former Vice Chairman of the Company).
Charles G. Kim, 60
Chief Financial Officer of the Company since July 2009. Executive Vice President of the Company since April 1995 and Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since January 2004. Prior thereto, he was Senior Vice President of Commerce Bank.
Douglas D. Neff, 52
Senior Vice President of the Company since January 2019 and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Commerce Bank Southwest Region since 2013.
David L. Orf, 54Executive Vice President of the Company since October 2020 and Chief Credit Officer of the Company since January 2021. Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since January 2014 and Senior Vice President of Commerce Bank prior thereto.
Paula S. Petersen, 54
Senior Vice President of the Company since July 2016 and Executive Vice President of Commerce Bank since March 2012.
David L. Roller, 50
Senior Vice President of the Company since July 2016 and Senior Vice President of Commerce Bank since September 2010.
Paul A. Steiner, 49Controller of the Company since April 2019. He is also Controller of the Company's subsidiary bank, Commerce Bank. Assistant Controller and Director of Tax of the Company prior thereto.

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PART II

Item 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Commerce Bancshares, Inc.
Common Stock Data
Commerce Bancshares, Inc. common shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (NASDAQ) under the symbol CBSH. The Company had 3,561 common shareholders of record as of December 31, 2020. Certain of the Company's shares are held in "nominee" or "street" name and the number of beneficial owners of such shares is approximately 110,500.

Performance Graph
The following graph presents a comparison of Company (CBSH) performance to the indices named below. It assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2015 with dividends invested on a cumulative total shareholder return basis.
cbsh-20201231_g1.jpg
201520162017201820192020
Commerce (CBSH)100.00 145.31 149.71 161.03 207.25 214.48 
NASDAQ OMX Global-Bank100.00 126.54 149.82 125.25 171.82 149.83 
S&P 500100.00 111.92 136.34 130.35 171.39 202.81 

The Company has a long history of paying dividends. 2020 marked the 52nd consecutive year of growth in our regular common dividend, and the Company has also issued an annual 5% common stock dividend for the past 27 years. However, payment of future dividends is within the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend, among other factors, on earnings, capital requirements, and the operating and financial condition of the Company. The Board of Directors makes the dividend determination quarterly.
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The following table sets forth information about the Company’s purchases of its $5 par value common stock, its only class of common stock registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act, during the fourth quarter of 2020.
Period
Total Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program Maximum Number that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
October 1 - 31, 2020773 $59.81 773 3,549,766 
November 1 - 30, 20204,650 $69.15 4,650 3,545,116 
December 1 - 31, 2020537 $65.30 537 3,544,579 
Total
5,960 $67.59 5,960 3,544,579 

The Company’s stock purchases shown above were made under authorizations by the Board of Directors. Under the most recent authorization in November 2019 of 5,000,000 shares, 3,544,579 shares remained available for purchase at December 31, 2020.

Item 6.     SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The required information is set forth below in Item 7.


Item 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Forward-Looking Statements
This report may contain “forward-looking statements” that are subject to risks and uncertainties and include information about possible or assumed future results of operations. Many possible events or factors could affect the future financial results and performance of Commerce Bancshares, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the "Company"). This could cause results or performance to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. Words such as “expects”, “anticipates”, “believes”, “estimates”, variations of such words and other similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in, or implied by, such forward-looking statements. Readers should not rely solely on the forward-looking statements and should consider all uncertainties and risks discussed throughout this report. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. The Company does not undertake to update forward-looking statements to reflect circumstances or events that occur after the date the forward-looking statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. Such possible events or factors include the risk factors identified in Item 1a Risk Factors and the following: changes in economic conditions in the Company’s market area; changes in policies by regulatory agencies, governmental legislation and regulation; fluctuations in interest rates; changes in liquidity requirements; demand for loans in the Company’s market area; changes in accounting and tax principles; estimates made on income taxes; failure of litigation settlement agreements to become final in accordance with their terms; and competition with other entities that offer financial services.
Overview
The Company operates as a super-community bank and offers a broad range of financial products to consumer and commercial customers, delivered with a focus on high-quality, personalized service. The Company is headquartered in Missouri, with its principal offices in Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri. Customers are served from 306 locations in Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, Oklahoma and Colorado and commercial offices throughout the nation's midsection. A variety of delivery platforms are utilized, including an extensive network of branches and ATM machines, full-featured online banking, a mobile application, and a centralized contact center.

The core of the Company’s competitive advantage is its focus on the local markets in which it operates, its offering of competitive, sophisticated financial products, and its concentration on relationship banking and high-touch service. In order to enhance shareholder value, the Company targets core revenue growth. To achieve this growth, the Company focuses on strategies that will expand new and existing customer relationships, offer opportunities for controlled expansion in additional markets, utilize improved technology, and enhance customer satisfaction.

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Various indicators are used by management in evaluating the Company’s financial condition and operating performance. Among these indicators are the following:
•    Net income and earnings per share — Net income attributable to Commerce Bancshares, Inc. was $354.1 million, a decrease of 15.9% compared to the previous year. The return on average assets was 1.20% in 2020, and the return on average common equity was 10.64%. Diluted earnings per share decreased 14.7% in 2020 compared to 2019.
•    Total revenue — Total revenue is comprised of net interest income and non-interest income. Total revenue in 2020 decreased $10.3 million, or .8%, from 2019, as net interest income grew $8.6 million, while non-interest income fell $18.8 million. Growth in net interest income resulted principally from a decrease in interest expense, while the decline in non-interest income in 2020 was mainly due to a one-time gain of $11.5 million on the sale of our corporate trust business in 2019.
•    Non-interest expense — Total non-interest expense increased .1% this year compared to 2019, mainly due to higher salaries and employee benefits expense, partially offset by higher deferred loan origination costs and lower supplies and communication and travel and entertainment expense.
•    Asset quality — Net loan charge-offs totaled $34.9 million in 2020, a decrease of $14.8 million from those recorded in 2019, and averaged .22% of loans compared to .35% in the previous year. Total non-performing assets, which include non-accrual loans and foreclosed real estate, amounted to $26.6 million at December 31, 2020, compared to $10.6 million at December 31, 2019, and represented .16% of loans outstanding at December 31, 2020.
•    Shareholder return — During 2020, the Company paid cash dividends of $1.03 per share on its common stock, representing an increase of 9.1% over the previous year. In 2020, the Company issued its 27th consecutive annual 5% common stock dividend, and in February 2021, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an increase of 2.1% in the common cash dividend. The Company purchased 886,379 shares of treasury stock, mostly in the first quarter of 2020. Total shareholder return, including the change in stock price and dividend reinvestment, was 16.5%, 13.0%, and 9.1% over the past 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. 
    
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes. The historical trends reflected in the financial information presented below are not necessarily reflective of anticipated future results.

Key Ratios
20202019201820172016
(Based on average balances)
Return on total assets
1.20 %1.67 %1.76 %1.28 %1.12 %
Return on common equity
10.64 14.06 16.16 12.46 11.33 
Equity to total assets
11.18 12.20 11.24 10.53 10.16 
Loans to deposits (1)
67.73 71.54 69.27 66.18 63.71 
Non-interest bearing deposits to total deposits
37.83 32.03 33.43 34.85 34.67 
Net yield on interest earning assets (tax equivalent basis)
2.99 3.48 3.53 3.20 3.04 
(Based on end of period data)
Non-interest income to revenue (2)
37.87 38.98 37.83 39.88 41.09 
Efficiency ratio (3)
57.19 56.87 55.58 62.18 61.04 
Tier I common risk-based capital ratio
13.71 13.93 14.22 12.65 11.62 
Tier I risk-based capital ratio
13.71 14.66 14.98 13.41 12.38 
Total risk-based capital ratio
14.82 15.48 15.82 14.35 13.32 
Tier I leverage ratio
9.45 11.38 11.52 10.39 9.55 
Tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio (4)
9.92 10.99 10.45 9.84 8.66 
Common cash dividend payout ratio
35.32 27.52 23.61 29.52 32.69 
(1)    Includes loans held for sale.
(2)    Revenue includes net interest income and non-interest income.
(3)    The efficiency ratio is calculated as non-interest expense (excluding intangibles amortization) as a percent of revenue.
(4)The tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio is a measurement which management believes is a useful indicator of capital adequacy and utilization. It provides a meaningful basis for period to period and company to company comparisons, and also assist regulators, investors and analysts in analyzing the financial position of the Company. Tangible common equity and tangible assets are non-GAAP measures and should not be viewed as substitutes for, or superior to, data prepared in accordance with GAAP.
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The following table is a reconciliation of the GAAP financial measures of total equity and total assets to the non-GAAP measures of total tangible common equity and total tangible assets.
(Dollars in thousands)
20202019201820172016
Total equity$3,399,972 $3,138,472 $2,937,149 $2,718,184 $2,501,132 
Less non-controlling interest2,925 3,788 5,851 1,624 5,349 
Less preferred stock 144,784 144,784 144,784 144,784 
Less goodwill 138,921 138,921 138,921 138,921 138,921 
Less intangible assets*4,958 1,785 2,316 2,965 3,841 
Total tangible common equity (a)$3,253,168 $2,849,194 $2,645,277 $2,429,890 $2,208,237 
Total assets$32,922,974 $26,065,789 $25,463,842 $24,833,415 $25,641,424 
Less goodwill138,921 138,921 138,921 138,921 138,921 
Less intangible assets*4,958 1,785 2,316 2,965 3,841 
Total tangible assets (b)$32,779,095 $25,925,083 $25,322,605 $24,691,529 $25,498,662 
Tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio (a)/(b)9.92 %10.99 %10.45 %9.84 %8.66 %
* Intangible assets other than mortgage servicing rights.

Selected Financial Data
(In thousands, except per share data)20202019201820172016
Net interest income$829,847 $821,293 $823,825 $733,679 $680,049 
Provision for credit losses137,190 50,438 42,694 45,244 36,318 
Non-interest income505,867 524,703 501,341 461,263 446,556 
Investment securities gains (losses), net11,032 3,626 (488)25,051 (53)
Non-interest expense768,378 767,398 737,821 744,343 689,229 
Net income attributable to Commerce Bancshares, Inc.
354,057 421,231 433,542 319,383 275,391 
Net income available to common shareholders
342,091 412,231 424,542 310,383 266,391 
Net income per common share-basic*2.913.423.442.512.16
Net income per common share-diluted*2.913.413.432.502.15
Cash dividends on common stock120,818 113,466 100,238 91,619 87,070 
Cash dividends per common share*1.029 .943 .812 .740 .705 
Market price per common share*65.7064.7051.1348.2447.56
Book value per common share*29.0325.4322.7920.8519.11
Common shares outstanding*117,138 117,738 122,519 123,420 123,326 
Total assets32,922,974 26,065,789 25,463,842 24,833,415 25,641,424 
Loans, including held for sale16,374,730 14,751,626 14,160,992 14,005,072 13,427,192 
Investment securities12,645,693 8,741,888 8,698,666 8,893,307 9,770,986 
Deposits26,946,745 20,520,415 20,323,659 20,425,446 21,101,095 
Long-term debt — 951 1,758 102,049 
Equity3,399,972 3,138,472 2,937,149 2,718,184 2,501,132 
Non-performing assets26,633 10,585 13,949 12,664 14,649 
*    Restated for the 5% stock dividend distributed in December 2020.

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Results of Operations
$ Change% Change
(Dollars in thousands)202020192018 '20-'19 '19-'18 '20-'19 '19-'18
Net interest income$829,847 $821,293 $823,825 $8,554 $(2,532)1.0 %(.3 %)
Provision for credit losses(137,190)(50,438)(42,694)86,752 7,744 172.0 18.1 
Non-interest income505,867 524,703 501,341 (18,836)23,362 (3.6)4.7 
Investment securities gains (losses), net11,032 3,626 (488)7,406 4,114 N.M.N.M.
Non-interest expense(768,378)(767,398)(737,821)980 29,577 .1 4.0 
Income taxes(87,293)(109,074)(105,949)(21,781)3,125 (20.0)2.9 
Non-controlling interest income (expense)172 (1,481)(4,672)(1,653)(3,191)N.M.(68.3)
Net income attributable to Commerce
Bancshares, Inc.
354,057 421,231 433,542 (67,174)(12,311)(15.9)(2.8)
Preferred stock dividends(11,966)(9,000)(9,000)2,966 — 33.0 N.M.
Net income available to common
shareholders
$342,091 $412,231 $424,542 $(70,140)$(12,311)(17.0)%(2.9)%
N.M. - Not meaningful.

Net income attributable to Commerce Bancshares, Inc. (net income) for 2020 was $354.1 million, a decrease of $67.2 million, or 15.9%, compared to $421.2 million in 2019. Diluted income per common share was $2.91 in 2020, compared to $3.41 in 2019. The decline in net income resulted from an increase of $86.8 million in the provision for credit losses, as well as a decrease of $18.8 million in non-interest income. These decreases in net income were partly offset by increases of $8.6 million in net interest income and $7.4 million in investment securities gains, coupled with decreases of $21.8 million in income taxes and $1.7 million in non-controlling interest expense. The return on average assets was 1.20% in 2020 compared to 1.67% in 2019, and the return on average common equity was 10.64% in 2020 compared to 14.06% in 2019. At December 31, 2020, the ratio of tangible common equity to assets decreased to 9.92%, compared to 10.99% at year end 2019.

During 2020, net interest income grew mainly due to an increase of $24.7 million in interest income on long-term securities purchased under agreements to resell, mainly due to higher rates earned, coupled with a decrease of $60.6 million in interest expense on deposits and borrowings, due to lower rates paid. These increases in net interest income were partly offset by declines in interest earned on loans and investment securities, resulting mainly from lower yields.  Total rates earned on average earning assets fell 76 basis points this year, while funding costs for deposits and borrowings decreased 41 basis points.  The provision for credit losses totaled $137.2 million, reflecting an increase in the provision for credit losses on the Company's loan portfolio and liability for unfunded loan commitments, resulting from deteriorating economic conditions driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. Net loan charge-offs decreased $14.8 million in 2020 compared to 2019, mainly due to lower credit card net charge-offs.

Non-interest income fell 3.6% in 2020, mainly due to a one-time gain of $11.5 million resulting from the sale of the Company's corporate trust business in the fourth quarter of 2019, coupled with a decline in bank card fees. Net investment securities gains of $11.0 million were recorded in 2020 and were comprised mainly of net gains realized on sales of mortgage-backed securities. Non-interest expense grew $980 thousand in 2020 compared to 2019, largely due to higher salaries and benefits expense, mostly offset by higher deferred loan origination costs and lower supplies and communication and travel and entertainment expense. 

Net income for 2019 was $421.2 million, a decrease of $12.3 million, or 2.8%, compared to $433.5 million in 2018. Diluted income per common share was $3.41 in 2019, compared to $3.43 in 2018. The decline in net income resulted from a decrease of $2.5 million in net interest income, as well as increases of $29.6 million in non-interest expense, $7.7 million in the provision for loan losses and $3.1 million in income taxes. These decreases in net income were partly offset by increases of $23.4 million in non-interest income and $4.1 million in investment securities gains, coupled with a decrease of $3.2 million in non-controlling interest expense. The return on average assets was 1.67% in 2019 compared to 1.76% in 2018, and the return on average common equity was 14.06% in 2019 compared to 16.16% in 2018. At December 31, 2019, the ratio of tangible common equity to assets increased to 10.99%, compared to 10.45% at year end 2018.
As compared to 2018, the decrease in net interest income in 2019 resulted mainly from increased rates on the Company’s interest-bearing deposits and borrowings, coupled with lower average balances on investment securities. These declines in net interest income were partially offset by growth in interest earned on loans as a result of higher loan yields and average balances. Total rates earned on average earning assets grew 10 basis points in 2019, while funding costs for deposits and borrowings increased 23 basis points.  The provision for loan losses totaled $50.4 million, an increase of $7.7 million over the previous year and exceeded net loan charge-offs by $750 thousand. Net loan charge-offs increased $7.4 million in 2019 compared to 2018,
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mainly due to higher credit card and business loan net charge-offs. The increase in business loan net charge-offs was primarily the result of a loan charge-off related to a single leasing customer.

Non-interest income grew 4.7% in 2019, mainly due to growth in trust fees, loan fees and sales, and gains on sales of assets. Net investment securities gains of $3.6 million were recorded in 2019 and were mainly comprised of net gains realized on sales of equity investments. Non-interest expense grew $29.6 million in 2019 compared to 2018, largely due to higher salaries and benefits and data processing and software expense, which increased $24.7 million and $6.9 million, respectively.

The Company distributed a 5% stock dividend for the 27th consecutive year on December 18, 2020. All per share and average share data in this report has been restated for the 2020 stock dividend.

Critical Accounting Policies
The Company's consolidated financial statements are prepared based on the application of certain accounting policies, the most significant of which are described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements. Certain of these policies require numerous estimates and strategic or economic assumptions that may prove inaccurate or be subject to variations which may significantly affect the Company's reported results and financial position for the current period or future periods. The use of estimates, assumptions, and judgments are necessary when financial assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at, or adjusted to reflect, fair value. Current economic conditions may require the use of additional estimates, and some estimates may be subject to a greater degree of uncertainty due to the current instability of the economy. The Company has identified several policies as being critical because they require management to make particularly difficult, subjective and/or complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because of the likelihood that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. These policies relate to the allowance for credit losses and fair value measurement.

Allowance for Credit Losses
The Company's Allowance for Credit Losses policy covers the collectability of its loan portfolio, the exposure of its unfunded lending commitments, and the potential for credit losses in its available for sale investment portfolio. The Company performs periodic and systematic detailed reviews of its loan portfolio and unfunded lending commitments to assess overall collectability. The level of the allowance for credit losses on loans and unfunded lending commitments reflects the Company's estimate of the losses expected in the loan portfolio and unfunded lending commitments at any point in time. While these estimates are based on substantive methods for determining allowance requirements, actual outcomes may differ significantly from estimated results, especially when determining allowances for business, construction and business real estate loans, as well as for their related unfunded lending commitments. These loans and commitments are normally larger and more complex, and their collection rates are harder to predict. Personal banking loans, including personal real estate, credit card and consumer loans, are individually smaller and perform in a more homogenous manner, making loss estimates more predictable. Additionally, the allowance for credit losses requires the calculation of expected lifetime credit losses utilizing a forward-looking forecast of macroeconomic conditions, which may differ significantly from actual results. Further discussion of the methodology used in establishing the allowance is provided in the Allowance for Credit Losses on Loans and Liability for Unfunded Lending Commitments section of Item 7 and in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.

The level of the allowance for credit losses on available for sale securities reflects the Company’s estimate of the losses expected in the available for sale debt security portfolio. In order to estimate the allowance for credit losses on available for sale debt securities, the Company performs quarterly reviews of its investment portfolio to identify securities in an unrealized loss position. If the unrealized loss is not expected to be recovered, the Company performs further analyses to determine whether any portion of the unrealized loss indicates that a credit loss exists. Further discussion of the methodology used in establishing the allowance for credit losses on available for sale securities is provided in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.

Fair Value Measurement
Investment securities, including available-for-sale, trading, equity and other securities, residential mortgage loans held for sale, derivatives and deferred compensation plan assets and associated liabilities are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. Additionally, from time to time, other assets and liabilities may be recorded at fair value on a nonrecurring basis, such as loan values that have been reduced based on the fair value of the underlying collateral, other real estate (primarily foreclosed property), non-marketable equity securities and certain other assets and liabilities. These nonrecurring fair value adjustments typically involve write-downs of individual assets or application of lower of cost or fair value accounting.

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Fair value is an estimate of the exchange price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction (i.e., not a forced transaction, such as a liquidation or distressed sale) between market participants at the measurement date and is based on the assumptions market participants would use when pricing an asset or liability. Fair value measurement and disclosure guidance establishes a three-level hierarchy for disclosure of assets and liabilities recorded at fair value. The fair value hierarchy, the extent to which fair value is used to measure assets and liabilities and the valuation methodologies and key inputs used are discussed in Note 17 on Fair Value Measurements.

At December 31, 2020, assets and liabilities measured using observable inputs that are classified as either Level 1 or Level 2 represented 99.2% and 98.2% of total assets and liabilities recorded at fair value, respectively. Valuations generated from model-based techniques that use at least one significant assumption not observable in the market are considered Level 3, and the Company's Level 3 assets totaled $105.8 million, or 0.8% of total assets recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. Unobservable assumptions reflect estimates of assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Fair value measurements for assets and liabilities where limited or no observable market data exists often involves significant judgments about assumptions, such as determining an appropriate discount rate that factors in both liquidity and risk premiums, and in many cases may not reflect amounts exchanged in a current sale of the financial instrument. In addition, changes in market conditions may reduce the availability of quoted prices or observable data. For example, reduced liquidity in the capital markets or changes in secondary market activities could result in observable market inputs becoming unavailable. Therefore, when market data is not available, the Company would use valuation techniques requiring more management judgment to estimate the appropriate fair value.

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Net Interest Income
Net interest income, the largest source of revenue, results from the Company’s lending, investing, borrowing, and deposit gathering activities. It is affected by both changes in the level of interest rates and changes in the amounts and mix of interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities. The following table summarizes the changes in net interest income on a fully taxable equivalent basis, by major category of interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities, identifying changes related to volumes and rates. Changes not solely due to volume or rate changes are allocated to rate.
20202019
Change due toChange due to
(In thousands)
Average VolumeAverage Rate TotalAverage VolumeAverage RateTotal
Interest income, fully taxable equivalent basis
Loans:
Business
$48,234 $(54,293)$(6,059)$9,730 $7,741 $17,471 
Real estate- construction and land
2,605 (13,688)(11,083)(2,961)3,223 262 
Real estate - business
4,463 (22,018)(17,555)5,199 4,920 10,119 
Real estate - personal
17,311 (8,080)9,231 3,261 1,978 5,239 
Consumer
1,736 (8,054)(6,318)(3,541)6,881 3,340 
Revolving home equity
(1,199)(4,600)(5,799)(979)1,670 691 
Consumer credit card
(11,772)(3,278)(15,050)(475)1,960 1,485 
Total interest on loans
61,378 (114,011)(52,633)10,234 28,373 38,607 
Loans held for sale
(144)(205)(349)(33)(56)(89)
Investment securities:
U.S. government and federal agency obligations(1,727)(1,872)(3,599)(1,667)915 (752)
Government-sponsored enterprise obligations(2,055)844 (1,211)(2,319)778 (1,541)
State and municipal obligations10,728 (6,830)3,898 (5,766)