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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission File No. 001-35873
TAYLOR MORRISON HOME CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware 83-2026677
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
4900 N. Scottsdale Road, Suite 2000, Scottsdale, Arizona 85251
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (480) 840-8100
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.00001 par valueTMHCNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý   No   ¨ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filerýAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ý
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $2,470,892,365, based on the closing sales price per share as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on such date.
The number of shares outstanding of the issuer’s common stock, as of February 24, 2021:
ClassOutstanding
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value128,829,090 
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 annual meeting of shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year.


Table of Contents
TAYLOR MORRISON HOME CORPORATION
FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020

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Available Information

Information about our company and communities is provided on our Internet websites at www.taylormorrison.com (the “Taylor Morrison website”). The information contained on or accessible through the Taylor Morrison website is not considered part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”). Our periodic and current reports, including any amendments, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are available, free of charge, on our Taylor Morrison website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  In addition to our SEC filings, our corporate governance documents, including our Code of Conduct and Ethics and Corporate Governance Guidelines are available on the “Investor Relations” page of our Taylor Morrison website under “Corporate Governance.” To the extent required by the SEC's rules and regulations, we intend to post amendments to or waivers from, if any, provisions of our Code of Conduct (to the extent applicable to our directors, principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer) at this location on the Taylor Morrison website. Our stockholders may also obtain these documents in paper format free of charge upon request made to our Investor Relations department.

TMHC's predecessor was incorporated in Delaware in November 2012. Our principal executive offices are located at 4900 N. Scottsdale Road, Suite 2000, Scottsdale, Arizona 85251 and the telephone number is (480) 840-8100.

Forward-Looking Statements

Certain information included in this Annual Report or in other materials we have filed or will file with the SEC (as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us) contains or may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. You can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate to matters of strictly historical or factual nature and generally discuss or relate to estimates or other expectations regarding future events. They contain words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “may,” “can,” “could,” “might,” “should” and other words or phrases of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of our strategy or future operating or financial performance. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. This discussion is provided as permitted by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and all of our forward-looking statements are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referenced in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those described below and under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A and below under the heading "Summary of Material Risks".

Summary of Material Risks

As you read this Annual Report and other reports or public statements, you should understand that statements made herein are not guarantees of performance or results. They are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Although we believe that our forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, you should be aware that many factors, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, and elsewhere in this Annual Report, could affect our actual financial results or results of operations and could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

the scale and scope of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic;
changes in general and local economic conditions;
slowdowns or severe downturns in the housing market;
homebuyers’ ability to obtain suitable financing;
increases in interest rates, taxes or government fees;
shortages in, disruptions of and cost of labor;
higher cancellation rates of existing home sales contracts;
competition in our industry;
any increase in unemployment or underemployment;
inflation or deflation;
the seasonality of our business;
the physical impact of climate change;
our ability to obtain additional performance, payment and completion surety bonds and letters of credit;
significant home warranty and construction defect claims;
our reliance on subcontractors;
failure to manage land acquisitions, inventory and development and construction processes;
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availability of land and lots at competitive prices;
decreases in the market value of our land inventory;
our ability to use deferred tax assets;
raw materials and building supply shortages and price fluctuations;
our concentration of significant operations in certain geographic areas;
risks associated with our unconsolidated joint venture arrangements;
information technology failures and data security breaches;
costs to engage in and the success of future growth or expansion of our operations or acquisitions or disposals of businesses;
risks related to the integration of William Lyon Homes and our ability to recognize the anticipated benefits from the business combination;
costs associated with our defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans;
damages associated with any major health and safety incident;
our ownership, leasing or occupation of land and the use of hazardous materials;
negative publicity or poor relations with the residents of our communities;
failure to recruit, retain and develop highly skilled, competent people;
new or changing government regulations and legal challenges;
our compliance with environmental laws and regulations regarding climate change;
existing or future litigation, arbitration or other claims;
utility and resource shortages or rate fluctuations;
our ability to sell mortgages we originate and claims on mortgages sold to third parties;
governmental regulation applicable to our financial services and title services business;
the loss of any of our important commercial lender relationships;
constriction of the capital markets;
risks related to our substantial debt and the agreements governing such debt, including restrictive covenants contained in such agreements; and
provisions in our charter, bylaws and Delaware Law that may delay or prevent an acquisition by a third party.



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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

General Overview

We are one of the largest public homebuilders in the United States and have been named America's Most Trusted Homebuilder for six consecutive years (as awarded by Lifestory Research). We are also a land developer, with a portfolio of lifestyle and master-planned communities. We provide an assortment of homes across a wide range of price points to appeal to an array of consumer groups. We design, build and sell single and multi-family detached and attached homes in traditionally high growth markets for entry level, move-up, and active adult buyers. We have historically operated under the Taylor Morrison and Darling Homes brand names. During 2020, we completed the acquisition of William Lyon Homes (“WLH”), and as a result we also operate under the William Lyon Signature brand name. As part of our acquisition, we also acquired Urban Form Development, LLC (“Urban Form”), which primarily develops and constructs multi-use properties consisting of commercial space, retail, and multi-family properties. In addition, we provide financial services to customers through our wholly owned mortgage subsidiary, Taylor Morrison Home Funding, INC (“TMHF”), title insurance and closing settlement services through our title company, Inspired Title Services, LLC (“Inspired Title”), and homeowner’s insurance policies through our insurance agency, Taylor Morrison Insurance Services, LLC (“TMIS”).

We have operations in eleven states, and our business is organized into multiple homebuilding operating components and a financial services component, which are managed as multiple reportable segments, as follows:

East(1)
Atlanta, Charlotte, Jacksonville, Naples, Orlando, Raleigh, Sarasota, and Tampa
CentralAustin, Dallas, Denver, and Houston
WestBay Area, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Portland, Sacramento, Seattle, and Southern California
Financial ServicesTaylor Morrison Home Funding, Inspired Title Services and Taylor Morrison Insurance Services
(1)As of January 31, 2020, we completed the sale of our operations in Chicago to a third party homebuilder.

Over the last several years, we have grown organically and through multiple builder acquisitions.
On February 6, 2020, we completed the acquisition of WLH, expanding our geographic footprint into three new states. WLH was one of the nation's largest homebuilders in the Western United States which designed, constructed, marketed and sold single-family detached and attached homes in California, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Texas.
On October 2, 2018, we completed the acquisition of AV Homes, Inc. (“AV Homes”), a homebuilder and land developer of residential communities in Florida, North and South Carolina, Arizona, and Texas.
On January 8, 2016, we completed the acquisition of Acadia Homes, which solidified our position as a top homebuilder in Atlanta.
On July 21, 2015, we completed the acquisition of three divisions of Orleans Homes in markets within Charlotte, Chicago and Raleigh, all of which were new areas of operations for us.
On April 30, 2015, we completed the acquisition of JEH Homes which marked our initial entrance into the Atlanta-based markets.

Collectively, these acquisitions reflect our strategic approach in expanding our geographic footprint in order to be an industry leader.

In recent years, we have leveraged our core homebuilding and land acquisition expertise in new ways. In July 2019, we announced an exclusive partnership with Christopher Todd Communities, a growing Phoenix-based developer of innovative, luxury rental communities, to operate a “Build-to-Rent” homebuilding business. We serve as a land acquirer, developer, and homebuilder while Christopher Todd Communities provides community design and property management consultation. We have broken ground on two communities in Phoenix and have expanded into new markets which include Austin, Dallas, Orlando, Tampa, and Charlotte. We plan to expand into two additional markets during 2021. We anticipate the first homes will be available for rent during the latter half of 2021, and once the communities reach stabilized rental levels, we will evaluate potential exit/hold for investment strategies which will determine our long-term objective for these investments.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has had a widespread effect on national and global economies, and the United States continues to be challenged with cases. We have implemented multiple safety measures to protect our employees, customers, and trade partners.

Despite the negative impacts of COVID-19, our leadership team created a strategic plan which allowed us to thrive under the restrictive environment. Specifically, we focused on transforming our customer experience online through innovative digital options, including (i) shifting to a remote selling environment; (ii) providing virtual options for online home tours, design center selections and new home demonstrations; and (iii) offering “curbside” or “drive thru” closings nationwide. In addition, we enhanced our website to further include a state-of-the-art customized chatbot to help provide information, engage the shopper and capture the customer, along with online appointments including home reservations that allow shoppers to reserve an inventory home online. While many of these new online products were already in process, the need for such customer convenience was expedited as a result of the pandemic.
  
Organizational Structure

As a result of the completion of our initial public offering (“IPO”) on April 12, 2013 and a series of transactions pursuant to a Reorganization Agreement dated as of April 9, 2013, TMHC was formed and became the owner and general partner of TMM Holdings II Limited Partnership (“New TMM”), a direct subsidiary. New TMM was formed by a consortium of investors (the “Former Principal Equityholders”. From January 2017 through January 2018, we completed seven public offerings for an aggregate of 80.2 million shares of our Common Stock, using all of the net proceeds therefrom to repurchase our Former Principal Equityholders' indirect interest in TMHC. As a result of the series of offerings and repurchases, the Former Principal Equityholders ownership decreased to zero, resulting in a fully floated public company as of January 31, 2018.

On October 26, 2018, Taylor Morrison Home II Corporation, a Delaware corporation formerly known as Taylor Morrison Home Corporation (“Original Taylor Morrison”), completed a holding company reorganization (the “Reorganization”), which resulted in a new parent company (“New Taylor Morrison”) owning all of the outstanding common stock of Original Taylor Morrison. New Taylor Morrison assumed the name Taylor Morrison Home Corporation. Consequently, Original Taylor Morrison became a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of New Taylor Morrison. In the Reorganization, Original Taylor Morrison’s stockholders became stockholders of New Taylor Morrison, on a one-for-one basis, with the same number of shares and same ownership percentage of the corresponding class of Original Taylor Morrison common stock that they held immediately prior to the holding company reorganization.

In connection with the Reorganization and the Contribution Agreement among the Company, Original Taylor Morrison and the holders of Original Taylor Morrison’s Class B common stock and paired TMM II Units party thereto (the “Paired Interest Holders”), following the consummation of the Reorganization, each Paired Interest Holder contributed its partnership units (“TMM II Units”) of TMM Holdings II Limited Partnership, the principal subsidiary of the Company and Original Taylor Morrison (“TMM II”), and paired shares of the Company’s Class B common stock to the Company in exchange, on a one-for-one basis, for shares of the Company’s Class A common stock (the “Exchange”). As a result of the Exchange, TMM II became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. All of the Class B shares were cancelled following the Exchange. Therefore, the Company has only one class of common stock outstanding. On May 29, 2019, the Company's stockholders approved the amendment and restatement of the Company's certificate of incorporation to (i) delete provisions no longer applicable following the cancellation of all outstanding shares of the former Class B Common Stock; and (ii) to rename the Company's Class A common stock as “Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share.” Following this amendment and restatement, under the Company's certificate of incorporation, its authorized capital stock consists of 400,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Common Stock”), and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.00001 per share. References to “Common Stock” refer to the Class A common stock for dates prior to June 10, 2019.

In addition, in connection with the Reorganization, all assets remaining in our Canadian subsidiary were contributed to a subsidiary in the United States (“Canada Unwind”). As a result, the previously unrecognized accumulated other comprehensive loss on foreign currency translation was recognized. In addition, we recognized non-resident Canadian withholding taxes. Excluding taxes, all costs associated with the corporate reorganization and Canada Unwind are presented as a component of transaction and corporate reorganization expenses on the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018.

References to “Taylor Morrison Home Corporation”, the “Company”, “TMHC”, “we”, “us” or “our” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (including in the consolidated financial statements and condensed notes thereto in this report) have the following meanings, unless the context otherwise requires:

For periods prior to October 26, 2018: Original Taylor Morrison (as defined above) and its subsidiaries.
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For periods from and after October 26, 2018: New Taylor Morrison (as defined above) and its subsidiaries.

New Taylor Morrison, as the successor issuer to Original Taylor Morrison, pursuant to Rule 12g-3(a) under the Exchange Act, began making filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act on October 26, 2018.

The business, executive officers and directors of New Taylor Morrison immediately following the Reorganization were identical to the business, executive officers and directors of Original Taylor Morrison immediately prior to the Reorganization.

2020 Highlights and Recent Developments

Our financial and operational highlights for the year ended December 31, 2020 are summarized below:

Financial
We generated $6.1 billion in total revenue and $5.9 billion in home closings revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020, increases of 28.7% and 26.8%, respectively, compared to the prior year's total revenue and home closings revenue.
Net income and diluted earnings per share for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $243.4 million and $1.88, respectively, compared to $254.7 million and $2.35, for the year ended December 31, 2019, respectively.
Adjusted net income(1) and adjusted diluted earnings per share(1) for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $418.4 million and $3.24, respectively, compared to $322.7 million and $2.98, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2019.
We completed the acquisition of WLH for a purchase price of $1.1 billion, our largest acquisition to date.
During the first quarter, we terminated our $600.0 million Revolving Credit Facility and entered into an $800.0 million Revolving Credit Facility. As of December 31, 2020, we had no outstanding borrowings on this facility.
During the third quarter of 2020, we issued $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.125% Senior Notes due 2030 (the “2030 Senior Notes”).
We used the net proceeds from the 2030 Senior Notes offering, together with cash on hand, to redeem $350 million aggregate principal amount of its 6.00% Senior Notes due 2023 (the “2023 Senior Notes”) and $436.9 million aggregate principal amount of its 5.875% Senior Notes due 2025 (the “2025 Senior Notes”).
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we had repaid a total of $1.5 billion of borrowings from Senior Notes and our Revolving Credit Facility.

Operational
During 2020, our operations were located in eleven states, and we operated 386 average active communities.
We closed 25.7% more homes during 2020 compared to 2019.
Average sales price of homes closed was $468,000 for the year ended December 31, 2020.
We ended 2020 with $4.2 billion in sales order backlog, an increase of 78.4% compared to the prior year.
Net sales orders for 2020 exceeded 15,000 orders.
At December 31, 2020, we owned and controlled approximately 70,000 lots, excluding commercial assets.
For the last six consecutive years, we were awarded America’s Most Trusted Home Builder® by Lifestory Research.
Builder Magazine awarded us Builder of the Year for 2020.
For several years in a row, we were recognized and awarded as one of the Best Places to Work by Glassdoor.
We were ranked #3 within the homebuilding industry in Fortune's World's most Admired Companies.
For the second year in a row, we were honored by Bloomberg's Gender-Equality Index award.
As of January 2020, we were included in the S&P MidCap 400.
(1)Adjustments to net income for the year ended December 31, 2020 primarily consist of transaction expenses and purchase accounting adjustments relating to the acquisition of WLH. Adjustments to net income for the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily consist of inventory and land impairment, an incremental warranty charge, and acquisition related costs. Refer to Item 7. Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Measures for additional information.

Business Strategy

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We have short and long-term priorities and strategies which are built on the following pillars:

Short-term priorities
streamlining our processes to build operational effectiveness, including our recent acquisitions;
expanding our land infrastructure to benefit operations in the future;
continuing to enhance the customer experience; and
expanding the Build-to-Rent operations.

Long-term strategies
opportunistic land acquisition of prime assets in core locations;
building distinctive communities driven by consumer preferences;
maintaining a cost-efficient culture; and
appropriately balancing price with pace in the sale of our homes.

Our short-term priorities were established to enhance and refine our current operations. As a result of all of our acquisitions over the years, we have focused on integrating multiple companies together, and now we believe we are well positioned to implement processes and procedures throughout our organization which will provide efficiency and ultimately, operational effectiveness.

Land infrastructure has always been a long-term strategy for our business, and we believe we have been successful in locating and purchasing land in desirable locations which offer strong returns. Our short-term priority ensures that we continue to maintain a strong focus. In addition, through the acquisition of WLH and through our own organic growth, we have and will continue to take advantage of joint venture opportunities as they arise in order to secure prime assets, share risk and maximize returns.

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted us to enhance our website and customer experience at a faster rate than we initially planned; however, such changes have proven to not only be needed, but welcomed by our customers. Our sales and marketing teams are committed to positioning Taylor Morrison to be the industry leader in customer experience.

Since the announcement of our entry into the rental space in 2019 with Build-to-Rent, we have focused on identifying key locations and markets to successfully launch the operations. As we anticipate the first rentals to be available later in 2021, we are evaluating the initial results to allow for us to make any necessary changes or enhancements as we roll-out in other markets.

Our long-term strategies continue to serve us well. We maintain our commitment to building authentic homes and communities that inspire and enhance the lives of our customers. Delivering on this commitment requires thoughtful design and research to accommodate the needs of our various customers and the surrounding community. The Taylor Morrison difference begins by providing our customers with homes that are both conducive to their lifestyles and built to last, prioritizing our commitment for the long-term satisfaction of our homeowners. Our communities are generally “lifestyle” communities in core locations, which have various distinguishing attributes, including proximity to job centers, attractive school systems and a variety of local amenities in well-regarded submarkets.

Our dedication to service defines our customer experience and acknowledges homeowners’ suggestions to incorporate style, quality and sustainability into every community we develop. We offer a range of award-winning and innovative designs with a number of features such as single-story, multi-story, multi-family, higher density living, ranch style living, split bedroom plans and first floor master bedroom suites to appeal to diverse buyer needs. We engage architectural firms and internal architectural resources to develop and augment existing plans in order to ensure that our homes reflect current and local consumer tastes. We engineer our homes for energy-efficiency and cost savings to reduce the impact on the environment. We rolled out a LiveWell program during 2020 which provides homeowners with a robust suite of healthy home features and technologies focused on providing healthier air, cleaner water, and safer paint. We serve all segments and generational groups through our quality products which attract entry-level, move-up, and active adult buyers.

We acquire our land assets in core locations, focusing on the preferences of our buyers, building desirable communities, continually evaluating and analyzing overhead efficiency and optimizing profit by managing volume. In addition, we seek to maximize long-term shareholder value and operate our business to capitalize on market dynamics and mitigate risks from economic downturns as we recognize the cyclical nature of the housing industry. We regularly assess our capital allocation strategy to drive shareholder return. This strategy is built on four primary pillars - reinvest in core homebuilding operations,
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seek additional growth opportunities through mergers and acquisitions, optimize debt leverage, and reinvest in ancillary business opportunities within the industry.

We believe our land positioning and pipeline have positioned us for strategic growth and increased profitability in the housing market. We execute this strategy by:

Optimizing our existing land supply through enhanced product offerings;
Combining land acquisition and development expertise with homebuilding operations;
Focusing product offerings on specific customer groups;
Building aspirational homes for our customers and focusing on superior customer service;
Maintaining an efficient capital structure;
Selectively pursuing acquisitions; and
Employing and retaining a highly experienced management team with a strong operating track record.

Land and Development Strategies

Community development includes the acquisition and development of land, which may include obtaining significant planning and entitlement approvals and completing construction of off-site and on-site utilities and infrastructure. We generally operate as community developers, but in some communities we operate solely as merchant builders, in which case we acquire fully entitled and developed lots.

In order to maximize our risk-adjusted return, the allocation of capital for land investment is performed at the corporate level with a disciplined approach to overall portfolio management. Our portfolio investment committee of senior executives meets on a regular basis. Annually, our operating divisions prepare a strategic plan for their respective geographies. Macro and micro indices, including but not limited to employment, housing starts, new home sales, re-sales and foreclosures, along with market related shifts in competition, land availability and consumer preferences, are carefully analyzed to determine our land and homebuilding strategy. Supply and demand are analyzed on a consumer segment and submarket basis to ensure land investment is targeted appropriately. Our long-term plan is compared on an ongoing basis to current conditions in the marketplace as they evolve and is adjusted to the extent necessary. Strategic decisions regarding community positioning are included in the decision making and underwriting process and are made in consultation with senior executives of our management team.

Through our acquisition of WLH, we are party to various land banking arrangements which allow us to acquire land in staged takedowns, while limiting risk and retaining cash. These third-party entities use equity contributions from their owners and/or incur debt to finance the acquisition and development of the land. Such lots are included in our controlled lots for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Our land portfolio as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 is summarized below:
As of December 31, 2020
 Owned LotsControlled LotsOwned and Controlled Lots
 RawPartially
Developed
FinishedLong-
Term
Strategic
Assets
TotalTotalTotal
East5,900 10,223 6,822 158 23,103 3,937 27,040 
Central3,162 4,658 5,734 — 13,554 9,650 23,204 
West3,268 4,614 8,840 — 16,722 8,318 25,040 
Total12,330 19,495 21,396 158 53,379 21,905 75,284 
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As of December 31, 2019
 Owned LotsControlled LotsOwned and Controlled Lots
 RawPartially
Developed
FinishedLong-
Term
Strategic
Assets
TotalTotalTotal
East10,155 7,764 7,349 — 25,268 4,213 29,481 
Central2,621 1,511 4,497 — 8,629 2,945 11,574 
West1,028 4,023 3,658 — 8,709 4,115 12,824 
Total13,804 13,298 15,504 — 42,606 11,273 53,879 


Raw land represents property that has not been developed and remains in its natural state. Partially developed represents land where the grading and horizontal development process has begun. Finished lots represent those lots which we have purchased from third parties in addition to lots for which we have completed the horizontal development process and are ready for the vertical or homebuilding construction. Long-term strategic assets are those lots where we are currently not performing any development. Controlled lots represent lots in which we have a contractual right, generally through an option contract or land banking arrangement, to an underlying real estate asset.

In the land purchasing and/or consideration of joint ventures, specific projects of interest are typically identified and placed under contract by the local teams. Such teams carry out a robust due diligence and feasibility process evaluating key factors which include, but are not limited to, environmental concerns, estimated budgets for development and home construction, anticipated product segmentation, competitive environment, ownership structure, and financial returns. Findings are summarized and presented to our portfolio investment committee for review. Certain portfolio opportunities will often be sourced centrally and managed at the corporate level. We also determine whether continued spending on currently owned and controlled land is a well-timed and appropriate use of capital. Our portfolio investment strategy emphasizes expected profitability to reflect the risk and timing of returns, and the level of sales volume in new and existing markets.

The following is a summary of the book value of our land positions:
(Dollars in thousands)As of December 31, 2020As of December 31, 2019
Development StatusOwned LotsBook Value of Land
and Development
Owned LotsBook Value of Land
and Development
Raw 12,330 $356,681 13,804 $477,997 
Partially developed19,495 1,215,419 13,298 914,689 
Finished 21,396 2,388,177 15,504 1,559,291 
Long-term strategic assets158 13,462 — — 
Total53,379 $3,973,739 42,606 $2,951,977 

As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the allocation of lots held in our land portfolio, by year acquired, was as follows:

Allocation of Lots in Land Portfolio, by Year AcquiredAs of December 31, 2020As of December 31, 2019
Acquired in 202039 %— %
Acquired in 201917 %20 %
Acquired in 201834 %57 %
Acquired in 2017%%
Acquired in 2016 and earlier%15 %
Total100 %100 %

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Homes in Inventory

We manage our inventory of homes under construction by selectively commencing construction to capture new home demand, while monitoring the number and aging of unsold homes.

The following is a summary of units in inventory by homebuilding reporting segment as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019:
 
As of December 31, 2020As of December 31, 2019
Sold Homes in
Backlog(1)
ModelsInventory
to be Sold
Total
Sold Homes in
Backlog(1)
ModelsInventory
to be Sold
Total
East2,835 230 473 3,538 1,816 223 1,076 3,115 
Central2,398 160 134 2,692 1,655 142 391 2,188 
West3,170 378 406 3,954 1,240 139 307 1,686 
Total8,403 768 1,013 10,184 4,711 504 1,774 6,989 
(1)We expect that by the end of 2021 we will deliver substantially all sold homes in backlog at December 31, 2020.

Community Development

We create a complete development concept for each community, beginning with an overall community layout and then determine the size, style and price range of the homes, the layout of the streets and positioning of the individual home sites. After necessary governmental and other approvals have been obtained, we improve the land by clearing and grading, installing roads, underground utility lines, staking out individual home sites and, in certain communities, building distinctive entrance structures and recreational amenities.

Each community has employees who perform superintendent, sales and customer service functions, in conjunction with a local management team to manage the overall project.

The life cycle of a community generally ranges from two to five years, commencing with the acquisition of land, continuing through the land development phase, and concluding with the sale, construction, and delivery of homes. Actual life cycle will vary based on the size of the community, the sales absorption rate, and whether we purchased the property as raw land or as developed lots.

The construction time for our homes varies from project to project depending on geographic region, the time of year, the size and complexity of construction, the governmental approval processes, local labor availability, availability of materials and supplies, weather, and other factors. On average, we complete the construction of a typical home in approximately six months.

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials

Based on local market practices, we either directly, or indirectly through our subcontractors, purchase drywall, cement, steel, lumber, insulation and the other building materials necessary to construct a home. While these materials are generally widely available from a variety of sources, from time to time we experience material shortages on a localized basis which can substantially increase the price for such materials and our construction process can be slowed. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced a few supply chain disruptions with delays from certain national vendors on specific items and certain vendors in certain locations; however, such delays did not generally slow down or prevent our home closings schedule.

Trade Labor

Our construction, land and purchasing teams coordinate subcontracting services and supervise all aspects of construction work and quality control. We are a general contractor for all of our homebuilding projects. Subcontractors perform all home construction and land development, generally under fixed-price contracts. The availability of labor, specifically as it relates to qualified tradespeople, at reasonable prices can be challenging in some markets as the supply chain responds to uneven industry
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growth and other economic factors that affect the number of people in the workforce. We have also been challenged by limitations on the number of tradespeople permitted at construction sites as a result of social distancing measures.

Procurement and Construction

We have a comprehensive procurement program that leverages our size and national presence to achieve efficiencies and cost savings. Our procurement objective is to maximize cost and process efficiencies on local, regional and national levels and to ensure consistent utilization of established contractual arrangements.

The regional and national vendor programs currently involve over 60 vendors and include highly reputable and well-established companies that supply us with lumber, appliances, HVAC systems, insulation, roofing, paint and lighting, among other materials. Through these relationships, we are able to realize savings on the costs of essential materials. Contracts are typically structured to include a blend of attractive upfront pricing and rebates and, in some cases, advantageous retroactive pricing in instances of contract renewals. In addition to cost advantages, these arrangements also help minimize the risk of construction delays during supply shortages, as we are often able to leverage our size to obtain our full allocation of required materials.

Warranty Program

All of our divisions currently offer a one-year limited warranty to cover various defects in workmanship or materials, a two-year limited warranty on certain systems (such as electrical or cooling systems), and a ten-year limited warranty on structural defects. In addition, we honor any outstanding warranties related to our acquired companies. Any covered item will be repaired or replaced to conform to approximately the original quality standards of the home at the time of closing. We also currently provide third-party warranty coverage on homes where required by Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) or Veterans Administration (“VA”) regulations. From time to time, we evaluate our warranty offerings, including third-party warranty coverage, taking into account market changes and regulatory requirements.

Sales and Marketing

We are committed to continuously enhancing our customer experience, including how we target and attract our consumers. Our marketing program calls for a balanced approach of corporate support and local expertise to attract potential homebuyers in a focused, efficient and cost-effective manner. Our corporate sales and marketing team provides a centralized marketing framework across our regional operations as well as sales training to our local teams. Our divisional marketing teams utilize corporate supplied messaging that is localized for relevance to our consumer groups in each market. Our advertising and digital media strategy is managed centrally but allows for division variance by size of division, cost of media, inventory count, number of community openings, seasonality, and a variety of other factors.

Our goal is to identify the preferences of our customers and demographic groups and offer them innovative, well-designed homes that are efficient and profitable to build. We strive to maintain product and price level differentiation through continual market and customer research. We target a balance of regional market portfolios across a variety of demographics. We also use key indicators of market specific supply and demand characteristics to determine preferences of our customer base and to perform an optimal matching of consumer groups, product and community design, and specific location.

The central element of our marketing platform is our web presence at www.taylormorrison.com (none of the information on or accessible through this website is a part of this Annual Report). We introduced a full redesign of our website during the fourth quarter of 2019 based on a comprehensive analysis that was completed in 2018. The main purpose of our website is to attract and inform potential customers and to showcase our product offerings and unique brand position. The website offers the ability for customers to evaluate floor plans, elevations, square footage, community amenities and geographic location.

In 2020, we introduced a full suite of new online tools to further enhance our online customer experience. While many of these new online products were already contemplated in our digital roadmap, the global pandemic and spread of COVID-19 accelerated our implementation. These tools include 1) a state-of-the-art customized chatbot to help provide information, engage the shopper and capture the lead; 2) online appointments to help customers schedule an appointment with ease and speed; 3) self-guided tours to allow customers to tour our inventory homes privately, safely and outside of normal business hours; and 4) online home reservations that allow shoppers to reserve an inventory home online. These tools have proved to be instrumental to our online/virtual sales success in 2020 and beyond. Customers may also use the website to make inquiries and to receive a prompt response from one of our “Internet Home Consultants.” This platform was centralized in 2020, providing coverage for all divisions seven days a week—improving our customers' experience and developing consistency across the
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country. The website is fully integrated with our customer relationship management ("CRM") and lead scoring system. By analyzing the content of the CRM, we are able to focus our lead generation programs to deliver high-quality sales leads. With these leads we are better able to increase sale conversion rates and lower marketing costs. We believe the digital marketing strategy for our websites, which is continually reviewed and refined, provides high return on our investments.

On the heels of a successful brand positioning and awareness campaign in 2019, in 2020, we launched a national brand campaign aimed at consumers in the discovery phase. The objective of this campaign is to further raise brand awareness and to position Taylor Morrison as an industry leader.

We selectively utilize traditional advertising such as print, directional marketing, newspapers, billboards and radio at the local level. We also directly notify local real estate agents and firms of any new community openings in order to use the existing real estate agent/broker channels in each market. Pricing for our homes is evaluated weekly based on an analysis of market conditions, competitive environment and supply and demand characteristics.

We use furnished model homes as a marketing tool to demonstrate the advantages of the designs, features and functionality of our homes and to enhance visitor experience. We generally employ or contract with interior and landscape designers who create attractive model homes that highlight the features and options available for the homes within our communities. Depending upon the number of homes to be built in the project and the product lines to be offered, we generally build between one and three model homes for each active selling community.

Our homes are sold by our commissioned team members who work from sales offices generally located within our model homes. During the pandemic, we employed many virtual tools and safety precautions so that home shoppers could safely view our model homes and communities. Our goal is to ensure our sales force has extensive knowledge of our homes, including our energy efficient features, sales strategies, mortgage options and community dynamics. To achieve this goal, we have on-going training for our sales team and conduct regular meetings to keep them abreast of the latest promotions, options and sales techniques and discuss geographic competition. Our sales team members are licensed real estate agents where required by law and assist our customers in adding design features to their homes, which we believe appeal to local consumer preferences. Third-party brokers who sell our homes are generally paid a sales commission based on the price of the home. In some of our divisions, we contract with third-party design studios that specialize in assisting our homebuyers with options and upgrades to personalize their homes. Utilizing these third-party design studios allows us to manage our overhead and costs more efficiently. We may also offer various sales incentives, including price concessions, assistance with closing costs, and landscaping or interior upgrades. The use, types and amount of incentives depends largely on existing economic and local competitive market conditions.

Competition

The homebuilding business is highly competitive and fragmented. We compete with the sale of existing homes, whether by a homeowner or by a financial institution that has acquired a home through a foreclosure or for investment. Numerous homebuilders of varying sizes, ranging from local to national, some of which have greater sales and financial resources than us, also provide competition. We compete primarily on the basis of location, design, quality, service, value and reputation.

In order to maximize our sales volumes, profitability and product strategy, we strive to understand our competition and their pricing, product and sales volume strategies and results. Competition among residential homebuilders of all sizes is based on a number of interrelated factors, including location, reputation, amenities, floor plans, design, quality and price. We believe that we compare favorably to other homebuilders in the markets in which we operate.

Seasonality

Our business is seasonal. We have historically experienced, and expect to continue to experience, variability in our results on a quarterly basis. We may have a varying amount of homes under construction, home closings, revenues and operating income from quarter to quarter. Our results may fluctuate significantly on a quarterly basis, and we must maintain sufficient liquidity to meet short-term operating requirements. Factors expected to contribute to these fluctuations include, but are not limited to:

the timing of the introduction and start of construction of new projects;
the timing of sales;
the timing of closings of homes, lots and parcels;
the timing of receipt of regulatory approvals for development and construction;
the condition of the real estate market and general economic conditions in the areas in which we operate;
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mix of homes closed;
construction timetables;
the cost and availability of materials and labor; and
weather conditions in the markets in which we build.

As a result of seasonal activity, our quarterly results of operations and financial position are not necessarily representative of a full fiscal year. To illustrate the seasonality in net homes sold, homes closed and home closings revenue, a summary of the quarterly financial data follows:
 
Three Months Ended,Three Months Ended,
 20202019
 March 31June 30September 30December 31March 31June 30September 30December 31
Net homes sold23 %23 %29 %25 %25 %27 %24 %24 %
Home closings revenue22 %25 %28 %25 %19 %27 %23 %31 %
Income before income taxes(1)
(9)%26 %46 %37 %21 %34 %28 %17 %
Net income(1)
(12)%27 %46 %39 %20 %32 %26 %22 %
(1)2020 includes the impacts of one-time costs relating to the acquisition of WLH. The three months ended March 31, 2020 was materially impacted by such costs as the acquisition was completed during that quarter. Refer to Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information.

Financial Services

TMHF provides a number of finance-related services to our customers through our mortgage lending operations. The strategic purpose of TMHF is:

to utilize mortgage finance as a sales tool in the home sale process to ensure a consistent customer experience and assist in maintaining home production efficiency; and
to control and analyze our sales order backlog quality and to manage projected home closing and delivery dates for our customers.

TMHF operates as an independent mortgage banker and conducts its business as a FHA Full Eagle lender. TMHF funds mortgage loans utilizing warehouse credit facilities. Revenue is earned through origination and processing fees combined with service release premiums earned in the secondary market once the loans are sold to investors. Typically, loans are sold and servicing is released within 15-20 business days.

TMHF competes with other mortgage lenders, including national, regional and local mortgage bankers and other financial institutions. TMHF utilizes a multi-investor correspondent platform which gives us increased flexibility when placing loans to meet our customers’ needs. TMHF has continued to expand and strengthen our correspondent relationships. This has created stability and consistency in our origination process and delivery.

Inspired Title operates as a title insurance agent providing title and escrow services. Inspired Title searches and examines land title records, prepares title commitments and polices for homebuyers in our Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas markets, contracting with agents in other markets that Inspired Title does not provide escrow service (currently title insurance underwriters and attorneys) to perform the escrow closing functions. Inspired Title competes against other title underwriters and title/escrow agents that provide similar services.

TMIS operates as an insurance agency utilizing third-party carriers that specialize in homeowner’s insurance for new homes for homebuyers in all of our markets. TMIS competes against other insurance agencies that provide similar services.

Regulation, Environmental, Health and Safety Matters

Regulatory

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We are subject to various local, state and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning zoning, building design, construction and similar matters, including local regulations that impose restrictive zoning and density requirements in order to limit the number of homes that can eventually be built within the boundaries of a particular property or locality. In a number of our markets, there has been an increase in state and local legislation requiring the dedication of land as natural space. In addition, we are subject to various licensing, registration and filing requirements in connection with the construction, advertisement and sale of homes in our communities. The impact of these laws has increased our overall costs, and may delay the opening of communities or cause us to conclude that development of particular communities would not be economically feasible, even if any or all necessary governmental approvals are obtained. We also may be subject to periodic delays or may be precluded entirely from developing communities due to building moratoriums in one or more of the areas in which we operate. Generally, such moratoriums relate to insufficient water, power, drainage or sewage facilities or inadequate road capacity.

In order to secure certain approvals in some areas, we may be required to provide affordable housing at below market sales prices. In addition, local and state governments have broad discretion regarding the imposition of development fees for projects under their jurisdictions, as well as requiring concessions or that the builder construct certain improvements to public places such as parks and streets or fund schools. The impact of these requirements on us depends on how the various state and local governments in the areas in which we engage, or intend to engage, in development implement their programs. To date, these restrictions have not had a material impact on us.

TMHF is subject to various state and federal statutes, rules and regulations, including those that relate to licensing, lending operations and other areas of mortgage origination and financing. The impact of those statutes, rules and regulations can increase our homebuyers’ cost of financing, increase our cost of doing business, as well as restrict our homebuyers’ access to some types of loans. The title and settlement services provided by Inspired Title are subject to various regulations, including regulation by state banking and insurance regulators.

In order for our homebuyers to finance their home purchases with FHA-insured, VA-guaranteed or U.S. Department of Agriculture-guaranteed mortgages, we are required to build such homes in accordance with the regulatory requirements of those agencies.

Some states have statutory disclosure requirements or other pre-approval requirements or limitations governing the marketing and sale of new homes. These requirements vary widely from state to state. Some states require us to be registered as a licensed contractor, a licensed real estate broker and in some markets our sales agents are additionally required to be registered as licensed real estate agents.

Environmental

We also are subject to a variety of local, state and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning protection of public health and the environment (collectively, “environmental laws”). For example, environmental laws may affect: how we manage stormwater runoff, wastewater discharges, and dust; how we develop or operate on properties on or affecting resources such as wetlands, endangered species, cultural resources, or areas subject to preservation laws; and how we address contamination. The particular environmental laws that apply to any given community vary greatly according to the location and environmental characteristics of the site and its present and former uses. Complying with these environmental laws may result in delays, may cause us to incur substantial compliance and other costs, and/or may prohibit or severely restrict development in certain environmentally sensitive regions or areas. Noncompliance with environmental laws could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocation, and other sanctions; and contamination or other environmental conditions at or in the vicinity of our developments could result in claims against us for personal injury, property damage, or other losses.

We manage compliance with environmental laws at the division level with assistance from the corporate and regional legal departments. As part of the land acquisition due diligence process, we utilize environmental assessments to identify environmental conditions that may exist on potential acquisition properties. To date, environmental site assessments conducted at our properties have not revealed any environmental liability or compliance concerns that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity or results of operations, nor are we aware of any material environmental liability or concerns.

Health and Safety

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We are committed to maintaining high standards in health and safety at all of our sites. We have a health and safety audit system that includes comprehensive twice-yearly independent third-party inspections of selected sites covering all aspects of health and safety. Key areas of focus are on site conditions meeting exacting health and safety standards, and on subcontractor performance throughout our operating areas meeting or exceeding expectations. All of our team members must complete an assigned curriculum of online safety courses each year. These courses vary according to job responsibility. In addition, groups such as construction and field personnel are required to attend additional health and safety related training programs. As a result of the COVID-19 virus, we have taken additional health and safety precautions which are described below in Human Capital Resources.

Information Technology

We have a centralized information technology organization with its core team located at our corporate headquarters in Scottsdale, Arizona, augmented with field support technicians in key locations across the U.S. Our approach to information technology is to continuously simplify our information technology platform and consolidate and standardize applications. We believe a common application platform enables the sharing of ideas and rapid implementation of process improvements and best practices across the entire company. Our back-office operations use a fully integrated, industry recognized enterprise resource planning package. Marketing and field sales utilize a leading CRM solution that tracks leads and prospects from all sources and manages the customer communication process from lead creation through the buying process and beyond the post-warranty period. Field operations teams collaborate with our supply chain management to schedule and manage development and construction projects with a set of standard and widely used homebuilding industry solutions.

Intellectual Property

We own certain logos and trademarks that are important to our overall branding and sales strategy. Our consumer logos are designed to draw on our recognized homebuilding heritage while emphasizing a customer-centric focus.

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 2,700 full-time equivalent persons. Of these, approximately 2,300 were engaged in corporate and homebuilding operations, and the remaining approximately 400 were engaged in financial services. As of December 31, 2020, we were not subject to collective bargaining agreements. We act solely as a general contractor, and all construction operations are supervised by our project managers and field superintendents who manage third party subcontractors. We use independent consultants and contractors for some architectural, engineering, advertising and legal services, and we strive to maintain good relationships with our subcontractors and independent consultants and contractors.

The people who work for our company are our most valuable resources and are critical to our continued success and execution of our strategies. Our People Services team focuses on attracting, promoting and retaining qualified employees with the expertise needed to manage and support our operations. Our top division and regional leaders average nearly seven years of tenure with us. In addition, our executive leadership who are responsible for setting our overall strategy average approximately 12 years with us, and many of them have worked their entire careers in the homebuilding industry.

To attract and retain top talent in our industry, we offer our employees a broad range of company-paid benefits and highly competitive compensation packages. Our employees are eligible for medical, dental and vision insurance, a savings/retirement plan, life and disability insurance, various wellness programs and tuition reimbursement, along with other optional benefits designed to meet individual needs. We engage third party compensation and benefits consulting firms to evaluate our programs and benchmark them against our peers.

We believe in recognizing and promoting future leaders from within our organization and making diversity, equity, and inclusion (“DEI”) an ongoing important priority. We provide courses which focus on adherence to company policies on DEI, and our leadership team hosts town hall meetings within the organization to ensure employees have a voice, awareness, and commitment to DEI. Our leadership team is committed to creating a collaborative and inclusive work environment and continues to develop initiatives, policies and procedures to foster greater DEI. At December 31, 2020, our workforce consisted of approximately 46% females and of these 19% were in managerial roles. The Company has and will continue to demonstrate that there is an open door and a path to leadership for all team members at any level of our company. Accordingly, we are proud to have been included for the third consecutive year as one of only 380 companies, and the only U.S. homebuilder, on the 2021 Bloomberg Gender-Equality Index (GEI), fostering greater transparency and an inclusive work environment in a traditionally male-dominated industry.
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The safety of our employees, customers, and third party vendors is one of management’s top priorities. Upon the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, our leadership team created a COVID Task Force which continues to meet regularly to discuss, among other things, recent infection and related trends and the latest Center for Disease Control recommendations. The Task Force determines the appropriate protocols and procedures to maintain health and safety within the organization and with our customers and trade partners. A few of the safety guidelines we implemented throughout our organization include the following:

Appointment-only, escorted-tours of model homes. We have also performed numerous virtual tours for those customers who prefer to stay in their own home.
Cleaning all high-touch surfaces multiple times a day.
All public drink and snack stations in our model homes, division, and corporate offices were suspended and replaced with single-serving, sealed products.
All warranty and customer service inquiries include a questionnaire to assess the urgency of the issue and the health of the customer and dispatched trade partners.
Customers are contacted prior to a design center appointment and asked general health screening questions. In addition, they are offered a virtual appointment instead of in-person.

All of our locations were operating as of December 31, 2020 within applicable local, state, and national guidelines and mandates.


ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic

The novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) global pandemic could adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial conditions to an extent that is difficult to predict.

In March 2020, the WHO characterized COVID-19 as a global pandemic. In the same month, the United States declared a national emergency. Several U.S. states have declared public health emergencies on account of the outbreak and have taken preventative measures to try and contain the spread of COVID-19, including, among other things, “stay-at-home” orders. These measures have restricted daily activities of many individuals and caused many businesses to curtail or cease normal operations.

We curtailed our investments in land acquisitions and phased development during 2020. These actions may reduce growth and may cause a decline of our lot count and the volume of homes delivered in future periods. Although there are effective vaccines for COVID-19 that have been approved for use, distribution of the vaccines did not begin until late 2020, and a majority of the public will likely not have access to a vaccination until sometime in 2021 or later. Additionally, new strains of COVID-19 are surfacing, and the effectiveness of the approved vaccines on these new strains is unknown. Accordingly, there remains significant uncertainty about the duration and extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including, among other things, on the U.S. economy and consumer confidence. Such impact could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows, and financial condition.

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected economies and financial markets across the globe. Although our operations were strong in the second half of 2020, the scale and scope of the ongoing pandemic could heighten the potential adverse effects of the risk factors discussed in this section, including the following factors:

A decrease in consumer confidence generally and the confidence of potential homebuyers in particular,
Unfavorable general and local economic conditions for our customers, the markets in which we operate and the homebuilding industry generally, including a slowdown or severe downturn in the housing market,
Potential delays in home closings or higher rates of cancellations,
A significant disruption in service within our operations, including as a result of having to increasingly shift towards a remote selling environment, virtual appointments for house tours and new home demonstrations and “curbside” or “drive thru” closings,
A disruption to our financial services businesses, including our ability to sell and service the mortgages that we originate, as a result of evolving government regulation, liquidity concerns or otherwise,
Increased costs associated with compliance with substantial government regulation, including new laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations, such as the classification of residential construction as “essential” business in the markets in which we operate and any changes to such classification, which laws or regulations may vary significantly by jurisdiction,
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Economic and market conditions affecting the value of our land inventory or our option contracts or our investments in unconsolidated entities,
An increase in unemployment levels leading to a potential decrease in demand for our homes and/or an increase in the number of loan delinquencies and property repossessions,
Disruptions in our business strategy due to our curtailment of non-essential cash expenditures including, but not limited to, temporarily reducing or deferring new land acquisitions, phasing development and implementing a revised cadence on all new inventory homes starts,
Increase in the cost or availability of building materials or the availability of subcontractors, vendors or other third parties,
Demand from foreign buyers for our homes, particularly due to the widespread impact of the COVID-19 pandemic,
Fluctuations in equity market prices, interest rates and credit spreads limiting our ability to raise or deploy capital and affecting our overall liquidity,
Significant stock market declines affecting the price of our common stock, and
Cyberattacks or other privacy or data security incidents due to the increased use of remote work environments and virtual platforms.

Additionally, we may experience decreased employee productivity, including as a result of division and corporate office team members shifting to a work-from-home protocol. Our operations could be disrupted if key members of our senior management, our directors or a significant percentage of our employees are unable to continue to work because of illness, government directives or otherwise. Additionally, we have incurred, and may continue to incur, increased costs associated with implementing additional personal and workplace safety protocols and employee-related measures, including providing additional paid time off for all field team members and any team members testing positive for COVID-19 and covering out-of-pocket costs for any team members testing positive for COVID-19. We may also encounter delays in responsiveness by governments, municipalities, and other third parties in other matters arising in the ordinary course of business due to their prioritization of matters relating to COVID-19, including but not limited to the timely issuance of building permits, inspections, and entitlement approvals.

Risks related to our industry, business and economic conditions

Our business is cyclical and is significantly affected by changes in general and local economic conditions.

Our business can be substantially affected by adverse changes in general economic or business conditions that are outside of our control, including changes in:

short- and long-term interest rates;
the availability and cost of financing for homebuyers;
federal and state income and real estate tax laws, including limitations on, or the elimination of, the deduction of mortgage interest or property tax payments;
employment levels, job and personal income growth and household debt-to-income levels;
consumer confidence generally and the confidence of potential homebuyers in particular;
the ability of homeowners to sell their existing homes at acceptable prices;
the U.S. and global financial systems and credit markets, including stock market and credit market volatility;
inclement weather and natural disasters;
civil unrest, acts of terrorism, other acts of violence, threats to national security or a public health issue such as COVID-19 or other major epidemic or pandemic;
mortgage financing programs and regulation of lending practices;
housing demand from population growth, household formations and demographic changes (including immigration levels and trends or other costs of home ownership in urban and suburban migration);
demand from foreign buyers for our homes;
the supply of available new or existing homes and other housing alternatives;
increase in the cost or availability of building materials or the availability of subcontractors, vendors or other third parties,
energy prices; and
the supply of developable land in our markets and in the United States generally.

Adverse changes in these conditions may affect our business nationally or may be more prevalent or concentrated in particular regions or localities in which we operate, which effects may be magnified where we have significant operations. Additionally, governmental action and legislation related to economic stimulus, taxation, tariffs, spending levels and borrowing limits, immigration, as well as political debate, conflicts and compromises related to such actions, may negatively impact the financial markets and consumer confidence and spending, which could adversely impact the U.S. economy and the housing market. Any deterioration or significant uncertainty in economic or political conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business.
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These adverse changes in economic and other conditions can cause demand and prices for our homes to diminish or cause us to take longer to build our homes and make it more costly for us to do so. We may not be able to recover these increased costs by raising prices because of weak market conditions and because the price of each home we sell is usually set several months before the home is delivered, as many customers sign their home purchase contracts before construction begins. The potential difficulties described above could impact our customers’ ability to obtain suitable financing and cause some homebuyers to cancel or refuse to honor their home purchase contracts altogether.

A slowdown or severe downturn in the housing market could have additional adverse effects on our operating results and financial condition.

During periods of industry downturn, housing markets across the United States may experience an oversupply of both new and resale home inventory, an increase in foreclosures, reduced levels of consumer demand for new homes, increased cancellation rates, aggressive price competition among homebuilders and increased incentives for home sales. The most recent significant industry downturn that began in 2008 materially and adversely impacted those in the homebuilding industry, including us. In the event of a significant downturn, we may experience a material reduction in revenues, margins, and cash flow. We cannot predict the trajectory of the U.S. housing market. Some housing markets and submarkets have been stronger than others, and there continue to be macroeconomic fluctuations and variability in operating trends, which may be significant and unfavorable.

If homebuyers are not able to obtain suitable financing, our results of operations may decline.

A substantial majority of our homebuyers finance their home purchases through lenders that provide mortgage financing. The availability of mortgage credit may fluctuate due to various factors, including regulatory changes and lower risk appetite by lenders with many lenders requiring increased levels of financial qualification, including those adhering to the currently applicable “Qualified Mortgage” requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act. Investors and first-time homebuyers are generally more affected by the availability of financing than other potential homebuyers. A limited availability of home mortgage financing may adversely affect the volume of our home sales and the sales prices we achieve. It could also prevent or limit our ability to attract new customers, our existing customers’ ability to resell their home and/or our ability to fully realize our backlog because our sales contracts may include a financing contingency, which permits the customer to cancel its obligation in the event mortgage financing arranged or provided by us is unobtainable within the period specified in the contract.

The liquidity provided by government sponsored entities, such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae, the FHA and Veterans Administration, to the mortgage industry has been very important to the housing market. If Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were dissolved, or if the federal government tightened their borrowing standards or determined to stop providing liquidity support to the mortgage market (including due to any failure of lawmakers to agree on a budget or appropriation legislation to fund relevant programs or operations), there would be a reduction in the availability of the financing provided by these institutions. Any such reduction would likely have an adverse effect on interest rates, mortgage availability and our sales of new homes.

FHA-insured mortgage loans generally have lower down-payment requirements and qualification standards compared to conventional guidelines and, as a result, the FHA continues to be a particularly important source for financing the sale of our homes. Lenders have taken and may continue to take a more conservative view of FHA guidelines causing significant tightening of borrower eligibility for approval. Under President Trump, FHA-insured loans did not receive a previously scheduled 0.25% rate cut on mortgage insurance premiums. However, President Biden included affordable housing and creating paths to homeownership for lower-income and minority families in his campaign platform, so the President Obama-era 0.25% rate cut may be back on the table. If this, and other FHA-insured loan support, do not come to fruition, however, the availability or affordability of FHA financing could be negatively impacted, which could adversely affect our ability to sell homes.

In each of our markets, decreases in the availability of credit and increases in the cost of credit adversely affect the ability of homebuyers to obtain or service mortgage debt. Even if potential homebuyers do not themselves need mortgage financing (e.g., potential homebuyers financing their home purchase via a sale of their existing home), increases in mortgage costs, lack of availability of mortgages and/or regulatory changes could prevent the buyers of our potential homebuyers’ existing homes from obtaining a mortgage, which would result in our potential homebuyers’ inability to buy a new home from us. Similar risks apply to those buyers who are awaiting delivery of their homes and are currently in backlog. If our customers (or potential buyers of our customers’ existing homes) cannot obtain suitable financing, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Increases in interest rates, taxes (or changes in deductibility) or government fees could prevent potential customers from buying our homes and adversely affect our business or financial results.

Increases in interest rates as a result of changes to monetary policy could significantly increase the costs of owning a home or result in existing homeowners with low interest rates choosing to remain in their current homes rather than purchase a new
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home in a higher interest rate environment. This, in turn, could adversely impact demand for, and sales prices of, homes and the ability of potential customers to obtain financing and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. Interest rates have been at historic lows for the last several years, which has made the homes we sell more affordable. During 2020, the Federal Reserve took several steps to protect the economy from the impact of COVID-19, including reducing interest rates to new historic lows. However, we cannot predict whether interest rates will continue to fall or remain low or rise.

Significant expenses of owning a home, including mortgage interest and real estate taxes, have historically been deductible expenses for an individual’s U.S. federal and, in some cases, state income taxes, subject to various limitations. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), which was enacted in December 2017, imposed significant limitations with respect to these historical income tax deductions. The impact of the Tax Act or further loss or reduction of these homeowner tax deductions without any offsetting legislation may result in an increase in the total after-tax cost of home ownership and make the purchase of a home less attractive to buyers. This could adversely impact demand for and sales prices of new homes, including ours, particularly in states with higher state income taxes or home prices, such as California.

Additionally, increases in property tax rates by local governmental authorities can adversely affect the ability of potential customers to obtain financing or their desire to purchase new homes. Fees imposed on developers to fund schools, open spaces, road improvements and/or provide low and moderate income housing, could increase our costs and have an adverse effect on our operations. In addition, increases in sales taxes could adversely affect our potential customers who may consider those costs in determining whether or not to make a new home purchase, potentially reducing our customer base and reducing sales revenue.

If we experience shortages in labor supply, increased labor costs or labor disruptions, there could be delays or increased costs in developing our communities or building homes, which could adversely affect our operating results.

We require a qualified labor force to develop our communities and build our homes. Access to qualified labor may be affected by circumstances beyond our control, including work stoppages, changes in laws relating to union organizing activity and increases in subcontractor and professional services costs.

Labor shortages can be further exacerbated as demand for housing increases. Any of these circumstances could give rise to delays and increased costs developing one or more of our communities and building homes. In addition, the vast majority of our work carried out on site is performed by subcontractors. In the past, reduced levels of homebuilding in the United States has led to some skilled tradesmen leaving the industry to take jobs in other sectors. If subcontractors are not able to recruit sufficient numbers of skilled employees, our development and construction activities may suffer from delays and quality issues, which would also lead to reduced levels of customer satisfaction. Further, the cost of labor may also be adversely affected by changes in immigration laws and trends in labor migration. We may not be able to recover increased costs by raising our home prices because the price for each home is typically set months prior to its delivery pursuant to sales contracts with our homebuyers. In such circumstances, our operating results could be adversely affected. Additionally, market and competitive forces may also limit our ability to raise the sales prices of our homes.

Higher cancellation rates of existing agreements of sale may have an adverse effect on our business.

Our backlog represents sales contracts with our homebuyers for homes that have not yet been delivered. We have received a deposit from a homebuyer for each home reflected in our backlog and, generally, we have the right, subject to certain exceptions, to retain the deposit if the homebuyer fails to comply with his or her obligations under the sales contract, including as a result of state and local law, the homebuyer’s inability to sell his or her current home or the homebuyer’s inability to make additional deposits required prior to the closing date. In some situations, however, a homebuyer may cancel the agreement of sale and receive a complete or partial refund of the deposit.

If, for example, prices for new homes decline, competitors increase their use of sales incentives, interest rates increase, the availability of mortgage financing diminishes, current homeowners find it difficult to sell their current homes or there is a downturn in local or regional economies or in the national economy, U.S. homebuyers may choose to terminate their existing home purchase contracts with us in order to negotiate for a lower price or because they cannot, or will not, complete the purchase and our remedies generally do not extend beyond the retention of deposits as our liquidated damages.

In cases of cancellation, we remarket the home and retain any deposits we are permitted to retain. Nevertheless, the deposits may not cover the additional costs involved in remarketing the home, replacing or modifying installed options, reducing the sales price or increasing incentives on the completed home for greater marketability and carrying higher inventory. Further, depending on the stage of cancellation, a contract that is cancelled at the end of a phase may cause additional costs for the out of sequence construction or modification of the particular home. Significant numbers of cancellations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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The homebuilding and mortgage and title services industries are highly competitive and if our competitors are more successful or offer better value to our customers, our business could decline.

We operate in a very competitive environment with competition from a number of other homebuilders in each of our markets. We compete with large national and regional homebuilding companies and with smaller local homebuilders for land, financing and related services, raw materials, skilled management, volume discounts, local realtor and labor resources. We also compete with the resale, or “previously owned,” home market, as well as other housing alternatives such as the rental housing market. Additionally, some of our competitors have longstanding relationships with subcontractors and suppliers in markets in which we operate and others may have significantly greater financial resources or lower costs than us. Competitive conditions in the homebuilding industry could make it difficult for us to acquire suitable land at acceptable prices, cause us to increase selling incentives, reduce prices and/or result in an oversupply of homes for sale. These factors have adversely affected demand for our homes and our results of our operations in the past and could do so again in the future.

Additionally, our mortgage and title services businesses compete with other mortgage lenders and title companies, including national, regional and local mortgage banks and other financial institutions, some of which may be subject to fewer government regulations or, in the case of mortgage lenders, may have a greater range of products, greater access to or a lower cost of capital or different lending criteria and may be able to offer more attractive financing to potential customers.

If we are unable to compete effectively in our homebuilding and mortgage and title services markets, our business could decline disproportionately to our competitors, and our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Any increase in unemployment or underemployment may lead to an increase in the number of loan delinquencies and property repossessions and have an adverse impact on us.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (“BLS”), the U.S. unemployment rate was 6.3% as of January 2021, and the labor force participation rate has declined from 66.2% in January 2008 to 61.4% in January 2021. These statistics potentially reflect the impact of COVID-19 as workers leave the labor force entirely. In addition, a substantial portion of new jobs created have been relatively low-wage jobs or part-time jobs. People who are not employed, are underemployed, who have left the labor force or are concerned about low wages or the loss of their jobs are less likely to purchase new homes, may be forced to try to sell the homes they own and may face difficulties in making required mortgage payments. Therefore, any increase in unemployment or underemployment may lead to an increase in the number of loan delinquencies and property repossessions and have an adverse impact on us both by reducing demand for the homes we build and by increasing the supply of homes for sale.

Inflation or deflation could adversely affect our business and financial results.

Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of land, materials and labor. In addition, inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates, which historically has had a negative impact on housing demand, as well as increasing the interest rates we may need to pay for our own capital financing. In such an environment, we may not be able to raise home prices sufficiently to keep up with the rate of inflation, and our margins could decrease. An oversupply of homes relative to demand and home prices being set several months before homes are delivered may make any price increase difficult or impossible. Efforts by the government to stimulate the economy may increase the risk of significant inflation and its adverse impact on our business or financial results.

Deflation could also affect us adversely. A significant period of deflation could cause a decrease in overall spending and borrowing levels. This could lead to a further deterioration in economic conditions, including an increase in the rate of unemployment. Deflation could also cause the value of our inventories to decline or reduce the value of existing homes below the related mortgage loan balance, which could potentially increase the supply of existing homes and have a negative impact on demand and our results of operations.

Furthermore, a material decline in oil and gas prices may increase the risk of significant deflation and its adverse impact on our business or financial results, as the economies of some of the markets in which we operate are impacted by the health of the energy industry.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate because of the seasonal nature of our business and other factors.

Our quarterly operating results generally fluctuate by season as a result of a variety of factors such as the timing of home deliveries and land sales, the changing composition and mix of our asset portfolio, and weather-related issues.

Weather-related problems, typically in the fall, late winter and early spring, may delay starts or closings and increase costs and thus reduce profitability. In some cases, we may not be able to recapture increased costs by raising prices. In addition, deliveries
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may be staggered over different periods of the year and may be concentrated in particular quarters. Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate because of these factors. See Item 1 - Business - Seasonality.

Physical impacts of climate change could increase our costs and/or otherwise adversely impact our operations.

Some of our business is in areas that are particularly vulnerable to the physical impacts of climate change, such as from the increased frequency and severity of storms, flooding, sustained rainfall, wildfires, and drought. For example, winter storms and unseasonably cold weather in Texas, recently left millions in the state without electricity and have significantly impacted utility prices in the area. Such severe weather events can delay home construction, increase costs by damaging inventories, reduce the availability of building materials, and negatively impact the demand for new homes in affected areas, as well as slow down or otherwise impair the ability of utilities and local governmental authorities to provide approvals and service to new housing communities. Furthermore, if our insurance does not fully cover our costs and other losses from these events, including those arising out of related business interruptions, our earnings, liquidity, or capital resources could be adversely affected.

An inability to obtain additional performance, payment and completion surety bonds and letters of credit could limit our future growth.

We are often required to provide performance, payment and completion and warranty/maintenance surety bonds or letters of credit to secure the completion of our construction contracts, development agreements and other arrangements. We believe we have obtained credit facilities to provide the required volume of such surety bonds and letters of credit for our expected growth in the medium term. However, unexpected growth may require additional facilities. We may also be required to renew or amend our existing facilities. Our ability to obtain additional performance, payment and completion and warranty/maintenance surety bonds and letters of credit primarily depends on our credit rating, capitalization, working capital, past performance, management expertise and certain external factors, including the fluidity of the markets for such bonds. Performance, payment and completion and warranty/maintenance surety bond and letter of credit providers consider these factors in addition to our performance and claims record and provider-specific underwriting standards, which may change from time to time.

If our performance record or our providers’ requirements or policies change, if we cannot obtain the necessary renewals or amendments from our lenders, or if the market’s capacity to provide performance, payment and completion or warranty/maintenance bonds or letters of credit is not sufficient for any unexpected growth, we could be unable to obtain such bonds or letters of credit from other sources when required, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Homebuilding is subject to home warranty and construction defect claims in the ordinary course of business that can lead to significant costs for us.

As a homebuilder, we are subject to home warranty and construction defect claims arising in the ordinary course of business. Construction defects may occur on projects and developments and may arise a significant period of time after completion. Unexpected expenditures attributable to defects or previously unknown sub-surface conditions arising on a development project may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

As a consequence, we maintain products and completed operations excess liability insurance, obtain indemnities and certificates of insurance from subcontractors generally covering claims related to damages resulting from faulty workmanship and materials and maintain warranty and other reserves for the homes we sell based on historical experience in our markets and our judgment of the risks associated with the types of homes built. Although we actively monitor our insurance reserves and coverage, because of the uncertainties inherent to these matters, we cannot provide assurance that our insurance coverage, our subcontractor's indemnity and warranty arrangements and our reserves together will be adequate to address all of our warranty and construction defect claims in the future. For example, we record changes in estimates to pre-existing reserves as needed. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded a $43.1 million charge for construction defect remediation isolated to one specific community in the Central region. For the year ended December 31, 2020, no changes in estimates were necessary for this construction defect remediation. This reserve at December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $12.7 million and $36.3 million, respectively. The reserve estimate is based on assumptions, including but not limited to, the number of homes affected, the costs associated with each repair, and the effectiveness of the repairs. Due to the degree of judgment required in making these estimates and the inherent uncertainty in potential outcomes, it is reasonably possible that actual costs could differ from those recorded and such differences could be material, resulting in a change in future estimated reserves. In addition, contractual indemnities with our subcontractors can be difficult to enforce. We may also be responsible for applicable self-insured retentions and some types of claims may not be covered by insurance or may exceed applicable coverage limits. Additionally, the coverage offered by and the availability of products and completed operations excess liability insurance for construction defects is currently limited and costly. This coverage may be further restricted or become more costly in the future.

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In California we operate under an Owner Controlled Insurance Plan (“OCIP”) for general liability exposures of most subcontractors (excluding consultants), as a result of the inability of subcontractors to procure acceptable insurance coverage to meet our requirements. Under the OCIP, subcontractors are effectively insured by us. We have assigned risk retentions and bid deductions to our subcontractors based on their risk category. These deductions are used to fund future liabilities. The cost of the future liabilities as they are realized could exceed the value of the deductions, which could increase our costs leading to a material adverse effect on our operating results.

Our reliance on subcontractors can expose us to various liability risks.

We rely on subcontractors in order to perform the construction of our homes and, in many cases, to select and obtain raw materials. We are exposed to various risks as a result of our reliance on these subcontractors and their suppliers. The subcontractors we rely on to perform the actual construction of our homes are also subject to a significant and evolving number of local, state and federal laws and regulations, including laws involving matters that are not within our control. If these subcontractors who construct our homes fail to comply with all applicable laws, we can suffer reputational damage and may be exposed to liability.

These subcontractors are independent from us under normal homebuilding industry practices. We do not have the ability to control what these independent subcontractors pay or the work rules they impose on their employees. However, various federal and state governmental agencies have sought, and may in the future seek, to hold contracting parties like us responsible for our subcontractors’ violations of wage and hour laws, or workers’ compensation, collective bargaining and/or other employment-related obligations related to subcontractors’ workforces. Governmental agency determinations or attempts by others to make us responsible for our subcontractors’ labor practices or obligations could create substantial adverse exposure for us in situations that are not within our control and could be material to our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to manage land acquisitions, inventory and development and construction processes could result in significant cost overruns or errors in valuing sites.

We own and purchase a large number of sites each year and are therefore dependent on our ability to process a very large number of transactions which include, among other things, evaluating the site purchase, designing the layout of the development, sourcing materials and subcontractors and managing contractual commitments efficiently and accurately.

In addition, we incur many costs even before we begin to build homes in a community. Depending on the stage of development of a land parcel when we acquire it, these may include: costs of preparing land, finishing and entitling lots, installing roads, sewers, water systems and other utilities, taxes and other costs related to ownership of the land on which we plan to build homes; constructing model homes; and promotional and marketing expenses to prepare for the opening of a new home community for sales. Moreover, local municipalities may impose development-related requirements resulting in additional costs. If the rate at which we sell and deliver homes slows or falls, or if our opening of new home communities for sale is delayed, we may incur additional costs, which would adversely affect our gross profit margins and will lead to a longer period of time for us to recover our costs, including those we incurred in acquiring and developing land.

In certain circumstances, a grant of entitlements or development agreement with respect to a particular parcel of land may include restrictions on the transfer of such entitlements to a buyer of such land, which may increase our exposure to decreases in the price of such entitled land by restricting our ability to sell it for its full entitled value. In addition, inventory carrying costs can be significant and can result in reduced margins or losses in a poorly performing community or market. Further, if we were required to record a significant inventory impairment, it could negatively affect our reported earnings per share and negatively impact the market perception of our business.

If land and lots are not available at competitive prices, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our long-term profitability depends in large part on the price at which we are able to obtain suitable land and lots for the development of our communities. Increases in the price (or decreases in the availability) of suitable land and lots could adversely affect our profitability. Moreover, changes in the general availability of desirable land, geographical or topographical constraints, competition for available land and lots, limited availability of financing to acquire land and lots, zoning regulations that limit housing density, environmental requirements and other market conditions may hurt our ability to obtain land and lots for new communities at prices that will allow us to be profitable. If the supply of land and lots that are appropriate for development of our communities becomes more limited because of these or any other reason, the cost of land and lots could increase and the number of homes that we are able to build and sell could be reduced, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

If the market value of our land inventory decreases, our results of operations could be adversely affected by impairments and write-downs.
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The market value of our land and housing inventories depends on market conditions. We acquire land for expansion into new markets and for replacement of land inventory and expansion within our current markets, and there is often a significant lag time between when we acquire land for development and when we sell homes in our communities. This risk is exacerbated particularly with undeveloped and/or unentitled land.

There is an inherent risk that the value of the land owned by us may decline after purchase. The valuation of property is inherently subjective and based on the individual characteristics of each property. We may have acquired options on or bought and developed land at a cost we will not be able to recover fully or on which we cannot build and sell homes profitably. In addition, our deposits for lots controlled under option or similar contracts may be put at risk, and depressed land values may cause us to abandon and forfeit deposits on land option contracts and other similar contracts if we cannot satisfactorily renegotiate the purchase price of the subject land. Moreover, all valuations are made on the basis of assumptions that may not prove to reflect economic or demographic reality. If housing demand decreases below what we anticipated when we acquired our inventory, our profitability may be adversely affected and we may not be able to recover our costs when we build and sell houses. In addition, we may incur charges against our earnings for inventory impairments if the value of our owned inventory, including land we decide to sell, is reduced or for land option contract abandonments if we choose not to exercise land option contracts or other similar contracts, and these charges may be substantial.

We may not be able to use certain deferred tax assets, which may result in our having to pay substantial taxes.

We have significant deferred tax assets, including net operating losses that could be used to offset earnings and reduce the amount of taxes we are required to pay. Our ability to use our net operating losses is dependent on a number of factors, including applicable rules relating to the permitted carry back period for offsetting certain net operating losses against prior period earnings and the timing and amount of future taxable income. If we are unable to use our net operating losses, we may have to record charges to reduce our deferred tax assets, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Raw materials and building supply shortages and price fluctuations could delay or increase the cost of home construction and adversely affect our operating results.

The homebuilding industry has, from time to time, experienced raw material shortages and been adversely affected by volatility in global commodity prices. In particular, shortages and fluctuations in the price of concrete, drywall, lumber or other important raw materials could result in delays in the start or completion of, or increase the cost of, developing one or more of our residential communities. Our lumber needs are particularly sensitive to shortages. In addition, the cost of petroleum products, which are used both to deliver our materials and to transport workers to our job sites, fluctuates and may be subject to increased volatility as a result of geopolitical events, catastrophic storms, other severe weather or significant environmental accidents. Environmental laws and regulations may also have a negative impact on the availability and price of certain raw materials such as lumber and concrete. Additionally, pricing for raw materials may be affected by various other national, regional and local economic and political factors. For example, in recent years the federal government has imposed new or increased tariffs or duties on an array of imported materials and goods that are used in connection with the construction and delivery of our homes, including steel, aluminum and lumber, raising our costs for these items (or products made with them). Such government imposed tariffs and trade regulations on imported building supplies may in the future have significant impacts on the cost to construct our homes, including by causing disruptions or shortages in our supply chain and/or negatively impacting the U.S. regional or local economies. Additionally, we may be unable to pass increases in construction costs on to our customers who may have already entered into purchase contracts.

We have significant operations in certain geographic areas, which subjects us to an increased risk of lost revenue or decreases in the market value of our land and homes in these regions from factors which may affect any of these regions.

We currently operate in several states with a concentration in the west coast and a significant presence in California. Negative factors affecting one or a number of the geographic regions at the same time could result in a relatively greater impact on our results of operations than they might have on other companies that have a more diversified portfolio of operations. To the extent that regions in which our business is concentrated are impacted by an adverse event, we could be disproportionately affected compared to companies whose operations are less geographically concentrated.

We participate in certain unconsolidated joint ventures, including those in which we do not have a controlling interest, where we may be adversely impacted by the failure of the unconsolidated joint venture or the other partners in the unconsolidated joint venture to fulfill their obligations.

We have investments in and commitments to certain unconsolidated joint ventures with related and unrelated strategic partners to acquire and develop land and, in some cases, build and deliver homes. To finance these activities, our unconsolidated joint ventures often obtain loans from third-party lenders that are secured by the unconsolidated joint venture’s assets. To the extent
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any of our joint ventures default on obligations secured by the assets of such joint venture, the assets could be forfeited to third-party lenders.

We have provided non-recourse carve-out guarantees to certain third-party lenders to our unconsolidated joint ventures (i.e., guarantees of losses suffered by the lender in the event that the borrowing entity or its equity owners engage in certain conduct, such as fraud, misappropriation of funds, unauthorized transfers of the financed property or equity interests in the borrowing entity, or the borrowing entity commences a voluntary bankruptcy case, or the borrowing entity violates environmental law, or hazardous materials are located on the property, or under other circumstances provided for in such guarantee or indemnity). In the future, we may provide other guarantees and indemnities to such lenders, including secured guarantees, in which case we may have increased liability in the event that a joint venture defaults on its obligations to a third party.

If the other partners in our unconsolidated joint ventures do not provide such cooperation or fulfill these obligations due to their financial condition, strategic business interests (which may be contrary to ours), or otherwise, we may be required to spend additional resources (including payments under the guarantees we have provided to the unconsolidated joint ventures’ lenders) or suffer losses, each of which could be significant. Moreover, our ability to recoup such expenditures and losses by exercising remedies against such partners may be limited due to the contractual terms of the joint venture agreement, potential legal defenses they may have, their respective financial condition and other circumstances. Furthermore, because we lack a controlling interest in our unconsolidated joint ventures we cannot exercise sole decision-making authority, which could create the potential risk of impasses on decisions and prevent the joint venture from taking, or not taking, actions that we believe may be in our best interests. In addition, as our relationships with our partners are contractual in nature and may be terminated or dissolved under the terms of the applicable joint venture agreements, including buy-sell provisions, we may not continue to own or operate the interests or assets underlying such relationship or may need to purchase additional interests or assets in the venture to continue ownership. In the event a joint venture is terminated or dissolved, we could also be exposed to lawsuits and legal costs.

Information technology failures and data security breaches could harm our business.

We use information technology and other computer resources to carry out important operational and marketing activities as well as maintain our business records, including information provided by our customers. Many of these resources are provided to us and/or maintained on our behalf by third-party service providers pursuant to agreements that specify certain security and service level standards. Our ability to conduct our business may be impaired if these resources are compromised, degraded, damaged or fail, whether due to a virus or other harmful circumstance, intentional penetration or disruption of our information technology resources by a third party, natural disaster, hardware or software corruption, failure or error (including a failure of security controls incorporated into or applied to such hardware or software), telecommunications system failure, service provider error or failure, intentional or unintentional personnel actions (including the failure to follow our security protocols), or lost connectivity to our networked resources. A significant and extended disruption in the functioning of these resources could impair our operations, damage our reputation and cause us to lose customers, sales and revenue.

Privacy, security, and compliance concerns have continued to increase as technology has evolved. As part of our normal business activities, we collect and store certain confidential information, including personal information of homebuyers/borrowers and information about employees, vendors and suppliers. While we have implemented systems and processes intended to secure our information technology systems and prevent unauthorized access to or loss of sensitive, confidential and personal data, including through the use of encryption and authentication technologies, and have increased our monitoring capabilities to enhance early detection and rapid response to potential security anomalies, these security measures may not be sufficient for all possible occurrences and may be vulnerable to hacking, employee error, malfeasance, system error, faulty password management or other irregularities. Further, development and maintenance of these measures are costly and require ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become increasingly sophisticated. Our failure to maintain the security of the data we are required to protect could result in business disruption, damage to our reputation, financial obligations to third parties, fines, penalties, regulatory proceedings and private litigation with potentially large costs, and also in deterioration in customers’ confidence in us and other competitive disadvantages, and thus could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We may incur a variety of costs to engage in future growth or expansion of our operations or acquisitions of businesses, and the anticipated benefits may never be realized.

As a part of our business strategy, we may make acquisitions, or significant investments in, businesses. Any future acquisitions, investments and/or disposals would be accompanied by risks such as:

difficulties in assimilating the operations and personnel of acquired companies or businesses;
diversion of our management’s attention from ongoing business concerns;
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our potential inability to maximize our financial and strategic position through the successful incorporation or disposition of operations;
significant liabilities may not be identified in due diligence or may come to light after the expiry of warranty or indemnity periods;
implementation of uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies; and
impairment of existing relationships with employees, contractors, suppliers and customers as a result of the integration of new management personnel and cost-saving initiatives.

Acquisitions can result in dilution to existing stockholders if we issue our Common Stock as consideration, or reduce our liquidity if we fund them with cash. In addition, acquisitions can expose us to valuation risks, including the risk of writing off goodwill or impairing inventory and other assets related to such acquisitions. The risk of goodwill and asset impairments will increase during a cyclical housing downturn when our profitability may decline.

Dispositions have their own risks associated with the separation of operations and personnel, the potential provision of transition services and the allocation of management resources. Dispositions may also result in lost synergies that could negatively impact our balance sheet, income statement and cash flows. Additionally, while we would seek to limit our ongoing exposure, for example, through liability caps and time limits on warranties and indemnities, some warranties and indemnities may give rise to unexpected and significant liabilities. Any claims arising in the future may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. We may not able to manage the risks associated with these transactions and the effects of such transactions, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We may have difficulty managing the integrated businesses of Taylor Morrison and William Lyon Homes, and the anticipated benefits of the combined company may not be realized.

On February 6, 2020, we completed our acquisition of William Lyon Homes. The ultimate success of Taylor Morrison’s acquisition of William Lyon Homes will depend in large part on the success of the management of the combined company following the integration of operations, strategies, technologies and personnel of the two companies. As of December 31, 2020, the integration of operations and personnel were substantially complete. The integration of technologies and strategies will continue throughout 2021. We may fail to realize some or all of the anticipated benefits of the merger if the remaining integration process takes longer than expected or is more costly than expected. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in managing the integrated business of our combined company or to otherwise realize any of the anticipated benefits of the merger, including additional cost savings and synergies, could impair our operations.

Potential difficulties we may encounter in the management of the combined company:

the increased costs and complexity associated with monitoring our operations, including due to the significantly increased size of our combined company;
the failure to realize the expected operating efficiencies, cost savings, revenue enhancements, and other benefits initially anticipated with the merger;
the integration of strategies and technologies;
the retention of and possible decrease in business from the existing customers of our combined company;
the retention of key employees; and
potential unknown liabilities associated with the merger.

A major health and safety incident relating to our business could be costly in terms of potential liabilities and reputational damage.

Building sites are inherently dangerous and pose certain inherent health and safety risks to construction workers and other persons on the site. Due to health and safety regulatory requirements and the number of projects we work on, health and safety performance is critical to the success of all areas of our business. Any failure in health and safety performance may result in penalties for non-compliance with relevant regulatory requirements, and a failure that results in a major or significant health and safety incident is likely to be costly in terms of potential liabilities incurred as a result. Such a failure could generate significant negative publicity and have a corresponding impact on our reputation, our relationships with relevant regulatory agencies or governmental authorities, and our ability to attract customers and employees, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Ownership or occupation of land and the use of hazardous materials carries potential environmental risks and liabilities.

We are subject to a variety of local, state and federal statutes, rules and regulations concerning land use and the protection of health and the environment, including those governing discharge of pollutants to water and air, stormwater run-off, the presence of and exposure to asbestos, the handling of hazardous materials and the cleanup of contaminated structures and properties. Further, some environmental laws (including many addressing releases of hazardous substances) impose strict liability, which
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means that we may be held liable for environmental conditions on property we own, or previously owned, which we did not create or know about, or which resulted from conduct that was lawful. Contamination or other environmental conditions at or in the vicinity of our developments could also result in claims against us for personal injury, property damage or other losses. Such liabilities, and the costs of defending against such claims, may be substantial, and insurance coverage may be limited or non-existent. The presence of such substances at or in the vicinity of our properties, or the failure to remediate such substances properly, may also adversely affect our ability to sell the affected land or to borrow using it as security. Environmental impacts from historical activities have been identified at some of the projects we have developed in the past and additional projects may be located on land that may have been contaminated by previous use.

Negative publicity or poor relations with the residents of our communities could negatively impact sales, which could cause our revenues or results of operations to decline.

Unfavorable media or investor and analyst reports related to our industry, company, brands, marketing, personnel, operations, business performance, or prospects may affect our stock price and the performance of our business, regardless of its accuracy or inaccuracy. Our success in maintaining, extending and expanding our brand image depends on our ability to adapt to a rapidly changing media environment. Adverse publicity or negative commentary on social media outlets, such as blogs, websites or newsletters, could hurt operating results, as consumers might avoid or protest brands that receive bad press or negative reviews. Customers and other interested parties could act on such information without further investigation and without regard to its accuracy. Accordingly, we could suffer immediate harm without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction.

In addition, we can be affected by poor relations with the residents of communities we develop because these residents sometimes look to us to resolve issues or disputes that may arise in connection with the operation or development of their communities. Efforts made by us to resolve these issues or disputes could be deemed unsatisfactory by the affected residents and subsequent actions by these residents could adversely affect sales or our reputation. In addition, we could decide or be required to make material expenditures related to the settlement of such issues or disputes or to modify our community development plans, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Legal and regulatory risks.

Government regulations and legal challenges may delay the start or completion of our communities, increase our expenses or limit our homebuilding or other activities, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations.

The approval of numerous governmental authorities must be obtained in connection with our development and construction activities, and these governmental authorities often have broad discretion in exercising their approval authority. We incur substantial costs related to compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. Any increase in legal and regulatory requirements may cause us to incur substantial additional costs, or in some cases cause us to determine that a property is not feasible for development. Various local, state and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning building, health and safety, site and building design, environment, zoning, sales and similar matters apply to and/or affect the housing industry. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained depends on factors beyond our control, such as changes in federal, state and local policies, rules and regulations and their interpretations and application. Furthermore, we are also subject to various fees and charges of government authorities designed to defray the cost of providing certain governmental services and improvements. For example, local and state governments have broad discretion regarding the imposition of development fees for projects under their jurisdictions, as well as requiring concessions or that the builder construct certain improvements to public places such as parks and streets or fund schools.

Further, government agencies routinely initiate audits, reviews or investigations of our business practices to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, which can cause us to incur costs or create other disruptions in our business that can be significant. Further, we may experience delays and increased expenses as a result of legal challenges to our proposed communities, whether brought by governmental authorities or private parties.

Regulations regarding environmental matters and climate change may affect us by substantially increasing our costs and exposing us to potential liability.

We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations, which may affect aspects of our operations such as how we manage stormwater runoff, wastewater discharges and dust; how we develop or operate on properties on or affecting resources such as wetlands, endangered species, cultural resources, or areas subject to preservation laws; and how we address contamination.

Developers and homebuilders may become subject to more stringent requirements under such laws. For example, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (“Army Corps”) have been engaged for years in
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rulemakings to clarify the scope of federally regulated wetlands, which included a June 2015 rule that many affected interests contend impermissibly expanded the scope of such wetlands. That rule was challenged in court and remains in litigation; and a series of rulemakings under the Trump administration designed to roll back the June 2015 rule and replace it with a less expansive rule culminated in the Navigable Waters Protection Rule, which went into effect in June 2020 (except in Colorado, where a federal district court issued a preliminary injunction against application of the rule in that state). The new rule has been challenged in several court proceedings by a number of states and environmental advocacy organizations opposing the narrower scope of the rule, and in several other court proceedings by cattlemen and other rancher groups contending that the new rule is still impermissibly expansive. More recently, one of the executive orders signed by President Biden on day one requires a review of certain environmental and health regulations, including the Navigable Waters Protection Rule. The administration may request the courts to stay pending litigation regarding the waters of the U.S., and courts may do so or may set aside the requests and allow the lawsuits to continue. It is unclear how these and related developments, including at the state or local level, ultimately may affect the scope of regulated wetlands where we operate. Although we cannot reliably predict the extent of any effect these developments regarding wetlands, or any other environmental requirements that may take effect may have on us, they could result in time-consuming and expensive compliance programs and in substantial expenditures, which could cause delays and increase our cost of operations. Our noncompliance with environmental laws could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocations and other sanctions.

In addition, there is a growing concern from advocacy groups and the general public that the emission of greenhouse gases and other human activities have caused, or will cause, significant changes in weather patterns and temperatures and the frequency and severity of natural disasters. There is a variety of legislation and other regulation being implemented or considered, at the federal, state and local level relating to energy and climate change. It involves matters including carbon dioxide emissions control and building codes that impose energy efficiency standards, as well as standards to improve the resiliency of buildings to climate-related impacts such as flooding, storm surges, severe winds, wildfires and other extreme weather-related stress on buildings. Such requirements could significantly increase our cost to construct homes. Energy-related initiatives affect a wide variety of companies throughout the United States and the world and, because our operations are heavily dependent on significant amounts of raw materials, such as lumber, steel and concrete, they could also have an indirect adverse impact on our operations and profitability to the extent the manufacturers and suppliers of our materials are burdened with expensive cap and trade and similar energy related taxes and regulations.

We may face substantial damages or be enjoined from pursuing important activities as a result of existing or future litigation, arbitration or other claims.

We are involved in various litigation and legal claims in the normal course of our business operations, including actions brought on behalf of various classes of claimants. We establish liabilities for legal claims and regulatory matters when such matters are both probable of occurring and any potential loss is reasonably estimable. We accrue for such matters based on the facts and circumstances specific to each matter and revise these estimates as the matters evolve. In such cases, there may exist an exposure to loss in excess of any amounts currently accrued. In view of the inherent difficulty of predicting the outcome of these legal and regulatory matters, we generally cannot predict the ultimate resolution, the related timing or any eventual loss. To the extent the liability arising from the ultimate resolution of any matter exceeds the estimates reflected in the recorded reserves relating to such matter, we could incur additional charges that could be significant. Unfavorable litigation, arbitration or claims could also generate negative publicity in various media outlets that could be detrimental to our reputation.

Utility and resource shortages or rate fluctuations could have an adverse effect on our operations.

Several of the markets in which we operate have historically been subject to utility and resource shortages, including significant changes to the availability of electricity and water. Shortages of utility resources and natural resources in our markets, particularly of water, may make it more difficult for us to obtain regulatory approval of new developments and have other adverse implications.

For example, certain areas in which we operate, particularly the Western United States, have experienced and continue to experience severe drought conditions. In response to these conditions, government officials often take a number of steps to preserve potable water supplies. To address the state’s mandate and their own available potable water supplies, local water agencies/suppliers could potentially: restrict, delay the issuance of, or proscribe new water connection permits for homes; increase the costs for securing such permits, either directly or by requiring participation in impact mitigation programs; adopt higher efficiency requirements for water-using appliances or fixtures; limit or ban the use of water for construction activities; impose requirements as to the types of allowed plant material or irrigation for outdoor landscaping that are more strict than state standards and less desired by consumers; and/or impose fines and penalties for noncompliance with any such measures. These local water agencies/suppliers could also increase rates and charges to residential users for the water they use, potentially increasing the cost of homeownership.

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Any of the foregoing, individually or collectively, could adversely affect the regional economies in which we operate, which may limit, impair or delay our ability to acquire and develop land and/or build and deliver homes, increase our production costs or reduce demand for our homes, thereby negatively affecting our business and results of operations.

Risks related to our financial services business.

Our financial services businesses are subject to risks, including risks associated with our ability to sell mortgages we originate and to claims on loans sold to third parties.

While we intend for the loans originated by TMHF, our financial services business, to be sold on the secondary market, if TMHF is unable to sell loans into the secondary mortgage market or directly to large secondary market loan purchasers such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, TMHF would bear the risk of being a long-term investor in these originated loans. Being required to hold loans on a long-term basis would subject us to credit risks associated with the borrowers to whom the loans are extended, would negatively affect our liquidity and could require us to use additional capital resources to finance the loans that TMHF is extending. In addition, although mortgage lenders under the mortgage warehouse facilities TMHF currently uses to finance our lending operations normally purchase our mortgages within approximately 20-30 days of origination, if such mortgage lenders default under these warehouse facilities TMHF would be required to fund the mortgages then in the pipeline. In such case, amounts available under our Revolving Credit Facility and cash from operations may not be sufficient to allow TMHF to provide financing required by our business during these times, and our ability to originate and sell mortgage loans at competitive prices could be limited, which could negatively affect our business. Further, an obligation to commit our own funds to long-term investments in mortgage loans could, among other things, delay the time when we recognize revenues from home sales on our statements of operations.

Our financial services businesses may also be responsible for losses associated with mortgage loans originated and sold to investors (including loans originated by companies we have acquired) in the event of errors or omissions relating to certain representations and warranties made to secondary market purchasers that the loans sold meet certain requirements, including representations as to underwriting standards, the type of collateral, the existence of primary mortgage insurance and the validity of certain borrower representations in connection with the loan. Accordingly, mortgage investors could seek to have us buy back loans or compensate them for losses incurred on mortgages sold based on claims that we breached our limited representations or warranties. If, due to higher costs, reduced liquidity, residential consumer loan putback demands or internal or external reviews of its residential consumer mortgage loan foreclosure processes, or other factors or business decisions, TMHF is unable to make loan products available to our homebuyers, our home sales and financial services results of operations may be adversely affected.

We enter into interest rate lock commitments (“IRLCs”) to originate residential mortgage loans held for sale, at specified interest rates and within a specified period of time (generally between 30 and 60 days), with customers who have applied for a loan and meet certain credit and underwriting criteria. These commitments expose us to market risk if interest rates change and the underlying loan is not economically hedged or committed to an investor. We also have exposure to credit loss in the event of contractual non-performance by our trading counterparties in derivative instruments that we use in our rate risk management activities. We aim to manage this credit risk by selecting only counterparties that we believe to be financially strong, spreading the risk among multiple counterparties, by placing contractual limits on the amount of unsecured credit extended to any single counterparty, and by entering into netting agreements with counterparties, as appropriate.

Our financial services and title services businesses may be adversely affected by changes in governmental regulation.

Changes in governmental regulation with respect to mortgage lenders and title service providers could adversely affect the financial results of this portion of our business. Our financial services businesses are subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations, which, among other things: prohibit discrimination and establish underwriting guidelines; provide for audits and inspections; require appraisals and/or credit reports on prospective borrowers and disclosure of certain information concerning credit and settlement costs; establish maximum loan amounts; prohibit predatory lending practices; and regulate the referral of business to affiliated entities. In addition, our title insurance operations are also subject to applicable insurance and banking laws and regulations as well as government audits, examinations and investigations, all of which may limit our ability to provide title services to potential purchasers.

The regulatory environment for mortgage lending is complex and ever changing and has led to an increase in the number of audits, examinations and investigations in the industry. The 2008 housing downturn resulted in numerous changes in the regulatory framework of the financial services industry. More recently, in response to COVID-19, federal agencies, state governments and private lenders are proactively providing relief to borrowers in the housing market by, subject to requirements, suspending home foreclosures and granting payment forbearance, among other things. These relief measures are temporary, but these changes and others could become incorporated into the current regulatory framework. Any changes or new enactments could result in more stringent compliance standards, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results
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of operations and the market perception of our business. Additionally, if we are unable to originate mortgages for any reason going forward, our customers may experience significant mortgage loan funding issues, which could have a material impact on our homebuilding business and our consolidated financial statements.

The prices of our mortgages could be adversely affected if we lose any of our important commercial relationships.

We have longstanding relationships with members of the lender community from which our borrowers benefit. TMHF plans to continue with these relationships and use the correspondent lender platform as a part of its operational plan. If our relationship with any one or more of those banks deteriorates or if one or more of those banks decide to renegotiate or terminate existing agreements or otherwise exit the market, TMHF may be required to increase the price of our products, or modify the range of products TMHF offers, which could cause us to lose customers who may choose other providers based solely on price or fees, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Risks related to our indebtedness

Constriction of the capital markets could limit our ability to access capital and increase our costs of capital.

We fund our operations with cash from operations, capital markets financings and borrowings under our Revolving Credit Facility and other loan facilities. The expansion and development of our business may require significant capital, which we may be unable to obtain. Further, our capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned if, for example, our revenues do not reach, or our costs exceed, expected levels or we have to incur unforeseen capital expenditures to maintain our competitive position. If this is the case, we may require additional financing sooner than anticipated or we may have to delay or abandon some or all of our development and expansion plans or otherwise forego market opportunities. Volatile economic conditions and the constriction of the capital markets could reduce the sources of liquidity available to us and increase our costs of capital. If the size or availability of our banking facilities is reduced in the future, or if we are unable to obtain new, or renew existing, facilities in the future on favorable terms or otherwise access the loan or capital markets, it would have an adverse effect on our liquidity and operations.

Our substantial debt could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and prevent us from fulfilling our debt-related obligations.

We have a substantial amount of debt. As of December 31, 2020, the total principal amount of our debt (including $127.3 million of indebtedness of TMHF) was $2.9 billion. Our substantial debt could have important consequences for the holders of our Common Stock, including:

making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt or to our trade or other creditors;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic or industry conditions;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures and land acquisitions, particularly when the availability of financing in the capital markets is limited;
requiring us to pay higher interest rates upon refinancing or on our variable rate indebtedness if interest rates rise;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations and the proceeds of any capital markets offerings or loan borrowings for the payment of interest on our debt thus reducing our ability to use our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, land acquisitions and general corporate requirements;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage to less leveraged competitors.

We cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us through capital markets financings or under our Revolving Credit Facility or otherwise in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness, or to fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, on or before its maturity. We cannot ensure that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in order to finance our operations, to fund acquisitions, or to repay existing indebtedness. If we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional debt or equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances. We cannot ensure that any such actions, if necessary, could be effected on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Restrictive covenants in the agreements governing our Revolving Credit Facility and other indebtedness may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.

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The agreement governing our Revolving Credit Facility limits our ability, and the terms of any future indebtedness may prohibit or limit our ability, among other things, to:

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;
make certain investments;
repurchase equity or subordinated indebtedness;
pay dividends or make distributions on our capital stock;
sell assets, including capital stock of restricted subsidiaries;
agree to restrictions on distributions, transfers or dividends affecting our restricted subsidiaries;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
enter into transactions with our affiliates;
incur liens; and
designate any of our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries.

In addition, the indentures governing our Senior Notes contain covenants that, among other things, restrict our ability to incur certain liens securing indebtedness without equally and ratably securing the Senior Notes and enter into certain sale and leaseback transactions, subject to certain exceptions and qualifications.

The agreement governing our new Revolving Credit Facility contains certain “springing” financial covenants requiring Taylor Morrison Home III Corporation, a Delaware corporation and our indirect wholly owned subsidiary, and its subsidiaries to comply with a maximum capitalization ratio and a minimum consolidated tangible net worth test.

The restrictions contained in the indentures governing all of our Senior Notes and the agreement governing our Revolving Credit Facility could also limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions, meet capital needs or make acquisitions or otherwise restrict our activities or business plans.

A breach of any of the restrictive covenants under the agreements governing our Revolving Credit Facility or any of our Senior Notes could allow for the acceleration of both the Revolving Credit Facility and the Senior Notes. If the indebtedness under our Revolving Credit Facility or the Senior Notes were to be accelerated, we cannot assure you that our assets would be sufficient to repay in full that indebtedness and our other indebtedness.

Risks related to our organization and structure

Provisions in our charter and by-laws and provisions of Delaware law may delay or prevent our acquisition by a third party, which might diminish the value of our Common Stock. Provisions in our debt agreements may also require an acquirer to refinance our outstanding indebtedness if a change of control occurs.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated by-laws contain certain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a change in our management or control over us that stockholders may consider favorable, including the following:

the sole ability of the board of directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors;
advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations;
limitations on the ability of stockholders to call special meetings and to take action by written consent;
in certain cases, the approval of holders of at least three-fourths of the shares entitled to vote generally on the making, alteration, amendment or repeal of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws will be required to adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws, or amend or repeal certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation;
the required approval of holders of at least three-fourths of the shares entitled to vote at an election of the directors to remove directors, which removal may only be for cause; and
the ability of our board of directors to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used, among other things, to institute a rights plan that would have the effect of significantly diluting the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, likely preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board of directors.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law may affect the ability of an “interested stockholder” to engage in certain business combinations for a period of three years following the time that the stockholder becomes an “interested stockholder.” We have elected in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation not to be subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Nevertheless, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that have the same effect as Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.

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The existence of the foregoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our Common Stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your Common Stock in an acquisition.

Under our Revolving Credit Facility, a change of control would be an event of default, which would therefore require a third-party acquirer to obtain a facility to refinance any outstanding indebtedness under the Revolving Credit Facility. Under the indentures governing our Senior Notes, if a change of control were to occur, we would be required to make offers to repurchase the Senior Notes at prices equal to 101% of their respective principal amounts. These change of control provisions in our existing debt agreements may also delay or diminish the value of an acquisition by a third party.

Any of the above risks could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our Common Stock.


ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We lease office facilities for our homebuilding and financial services operations. We lease our corporate headquarters, which is located in Scottsdale, Arizona. At December 31, 2020, the lease on this facility covered a space of approximately 25,000 square feet and expires in December 2027. We have approximately 49 other leases for our other division offices and design centers. For information on land owned and controlled by us for use in our homebuilding activities, please refer to Item 1 — Business — Business Strategy — Land and Development Strategies.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The information required with respect to this item can be found under Note 17 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial statements included in this annual report.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

The Company lists its Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol “TMHC”. On February 24, 2021, the Company had 743 holders of record of our Common Stock. This does not include the number of stockholders who hold shares in TMHC through banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.
Stock Performance Graph

The following shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

This chart compares the cumulative total return on our Common Stock with that of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Index (the “S&P 500”) and the Standard & Poor’s Homebuilding Index (the “S&P Homebuilding Index”). The chart assumes $100.00 was invested at the close of market on December 31, 2015, in the Common Stock of Taylor Morrison Home Corporation, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P Homebuilding Index, and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.


Comparison of Cumulative Total Return Among TMHC, the S&P 500 and the S&P Homebuilding Index from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2020

tmhc-20201231_g1.jpg

12/31/201512/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
TMHC$100.00 $120.38 $152.94 $99.38 $136.63 $160.31 
S&P 500100.00 109.54 130.81 122.65 158.07 183.77 
S&P Homebuilding Index100.00 99.03 129.49 95.14 133.15 168.64 

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Dividends

We currently anticipate that we will retain all available funds for use in operations and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. See Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. TMHC has not previously declared or paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Company's stock repurchase program, established on November 5, 2014, allows for repurchases of the Company's Common Stock in open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or other transactions. The stock repurchase program is subject to prevailing market conditions and other considerations, including our liquidity, the terms of our debt instruments, statutory requirements, planned land investment and development spending, acquisition and other investment opportunities and ongoing capital requirements. Our Board of Directors can increase the amount available for repurchase under the program or extend the program. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were an aggregate of 5,941,324 and 8,389,348 shares of Common Stock repurchased, respectively.

Subsequent to December 31, 2020, we repurchased and settled approximately 896,000 shares of our Common Stock for approximately $22.7 million under our share repurchase program. As of February 24, 2021, we have $74.0 million of availability to repurchase shares under the program.
Total number of shares purchasedAverage price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of a publicly announced plan or programApproximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plan or program
(in thousands)
October 1 to October 31, 2020— — — $9,837 
November 1 to November 30, 2020— — — $9,837 
December 1 to December 31, 2020(1)
504,845 26.09 504,845 $96,668 
Total504,845 
(1)On December 8, 2020, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized a $100.0 million renewal of our stock repurchase program until December 31, 2021.
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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following tables set forth selected consolidated financial and operating data at and for each of the five fiscal years ending December 31, 2020. The tables should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto, included in Item 8 of this Annual Report and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Item 7 of this Annual Report.
 
 Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)20202019201820172016
Statements of Operations Data:
Total revenue$6,129,320 $4,762,059 $4,227,393 $3,885,290 $3,550,029 
Gross margin1,044,219 824,090 738,193 738,929 680,279 
Income tax provision (1)
74,590 67,358 63,036 179,006 107,643 
Net income before allocation to non-controlling interests249,527 254,914 210,480 176,650 206,563 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests – joint ventures(6,088)(262)(533)(430)(1,294)
Net income before non-controlling interests – Former Principal Equityholders243,439 254,652 209,947 176,220 205,269 
Net income from continuing operations attributable to non-controlling interests – Former Principal Equityholders— — (3,583)(85,000)(152,653)
Net income available to Taylor Morrison Home Corporation$243,439 $254,652 $206,364 $91,220 $52,616 
Earnings per common share:
Basic$1.90 $2.38 $1.85 $1.47 $1.69 
Diluted$1.88 $2.35 $1.83 $1.47 $1.69 
Weighted average number of shares of common stock:
Basic127,812 106,997 111,743 62,061 31,084 
Diluted129,170 108,289 115,119 120,915 120,832 
(1) 2017 income tax provision and earnings per common share data include impacts of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act which is an aggregate of $61.0 million expense.
 As of December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)20202019201820172016
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalents$532,843 $326,437 $329,645 $573,925 $300,179 
Real estate inventory5,332,426 3,986,544 3,980,565 2,959,236 3,017,219 
Total assets 7,737,995 5,245,686 5,264,441 4,325,893 4,220,926 
Total debt 2,928,395 1,940,772 2,209,596 1,498,062 1,586,533 
Total stockholders’ equity3,593,750 2,545,712 2,418,735 2,346,545 2,160,202 
 Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)20202019201820172016
Operating Data:
Average active selling communities386 351 307 297 309 
Net sales orders (units)15,068 10,517 8,400 8,397 7,504 
Home closings (units)12,524 9,964 8,760 8,032 7,369 
Average sales price of homes closed$468 $464 $470 $473 $465 
Backlog value at end of period $4,227,446 $2,274,948 $2,079,569 $1,702,071 $1,531,910 
Backlog units at end of period 8,403 4,711 4,158 3,496 3,131 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

General Overview

Our principal business is residential homebuilding and the development of lifestyle communities with operations geographically focused in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Nevada, North and South Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. We serve a wide array of consumer groups from coast to coast, including entry-level, move-up, and active adult buyers, building single and multi-family attached and detached homes. Our homebuilding company operates under our Taylor Morrison and Darling Homes, and our recently acquired William Lyon Signature, brand names. We also have an exclusive partnership with Christopher Todd Communities in our “Build-to-Rent” business. (Refer to Item 1. Business for additional discussion regarding Build-to-Rent.) In addition, as part of our acquisition of WLH, we acquired Urban Form Development, LLC (“Urban Form”), which primarily develops and constructs multi-use properties consisting of commercial space, retail, and multi-family properties. We also have operations which provide financial services to customers through our wholly owned mortgage subsidiary, Taylor Morrison Home Funding, INC (“TMHF”), title services through our wholly owned title services subsidiary, Inspired Title Services, LLC (“Inspired Title”), and homeowner’s insurance policies through our insurance agency, Taylor Morrison Insurance Services, LLC (“TMIS”). Our business as of December 31, 2020, is organized into multiple homebuilding operating components, and a financial services component, all of which are managed as four reportable segments: East, Central, West and Financial Services, as follows:

EastAtlanta, Charlotte, Jacksonville, Naples, Orlando, Raleigh, Sarasota, and Tampa
CentralAustin, Dallas, Denver, and Houston
WestBay Area, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Portland, Sacramento, Seattle, and Southern California
Financial Services
Taylor Morrison Home Funding, Inspired Title Services and Taylor Morrison Insurance Services

Annual Overview and Business Strategy

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact the national economy, our industry, and various areas within our operations; however, the demand for housing has remained strong. We believe strong demand is, in part, attributable to an increase in families working and learning from home. There has been an increase in the need for indoor space and outdoor living. Furthermore, the instability in several major cities throughout the United States has driven people to search for homes in more suburban areas on the outskirts of cities, which are areas in which we typically build. We experienced price appreciation in our markets and utilized price increases to slow our net sales orders pace. Interest rates have remained low and our buyer profile has remained strong, driving demand even further.
While we are encouraged by certain positive and improved trends during recent months, several challenges still exist, such as lingering underemployment concerns, stagnation in real wages and real or perceived personal wealth, national and global economic uncertainty and uncertainty around the interest rate environment. As it relates to COVID-19, we are also challenged by shortages in the labor supply, partially driven by social distancing measures, uncertainty of future local, state and national mandates, and the overall impact the virus can have on the general population. While certain regions of the United States are in various stages of reopening, the United States continues to struggle with rolling outbreaks of the virus, and the effects of COVID-19 could continue to impact our financial condition and results of operations. Due to uncertainty surrounding this ongoing public health crisis and its continued impact on the U.S. economy, we cannot fully predict either the near-term or long-term effects that the pandemic will have on our business. Although customer traffic and sales initially slowed following the imposition of social distancing and government-mandated economic shutdowns in March 2020, resulting in higher rates of cancellation than usual as a result of buyers' economic uncertainty, we saw a recovery in all of our metrics, including net sales orders, average sales pace per community, home closings, and cancellation rate throughout the remainder of the year. However, the duration and magnitude of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic remains unknown, and could adversely affect our business in future periods.

Because residential construction was designated as an essential business in nearly all of our operating markets, our construction operations continued wherever appropriate during the year, despite the shelter-in-place orders and other restrictions on commercial activity. All Company operations have been conducted in compliance with federal, state, and local COVID-19 guidelines, orders, and ordinances applicable to construction and homebuilding activities. Since the height of the pandemic, the majority of the states in which we operate have begun to gradually resume normal business operations, and we have continued our construction operations in each of those states. From the beginning of the pandemic, we have taken and continue to take a number of strategic actions in response to the COVID-19 crisis to continue to provide uninterrupted service
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to our customers while protecting their health and safety, as well as that of our employees and vendors. Specifically, we have focused on transforming our customer experience online through innovative digital options, including (i) shifting to a remote selling environment; (ii) providing virtual options for online home tours, design center selections and new home demonstrations; and (iii) offering “curbside” or “drive thru” closings nationwide.

To mitigate the inherent business impacts and the uncertainty of the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented initiatives across the company to reduce all non-essential expenses and capital expenditures, including but not limited to temporarily reducing or deferring new land acquisitions, phasing development, and implementing a revised cadence on all new inventory home starts. These actions may reduce growth and cause a decline of our lot count and the volume of homes delivered in future periods.

Although we intentionally reduced our forecasted land spend for the year ended December 31, 2020, we continue to allocate capital and manage our land portfolio to acquire assets that have attractive characteristics, including good access to schools, shopping, recreation and transportation facilities. In connection with our overall land inventory management and investment process, our management team reviews these considerations, as well as other financial metrics, in order to decide the highest and best use of our capital.

We intend to maintain a consistent approach to land positioning within our regions, markets and communities in the foreseeable future in an effort to concentrate a greater amount of our land inventory in attractive areas. We also intend to continue to combine our land development expertise with our homebuilding operations to increase the flexibility of our business and to optimize our margin performance. From time to time, we may sell land in our communities if we believe it is best for our overall strategy and operations. We do not expect such sales to have a significant effect on our overall results, but they may impact our overall gross margins.

Factors Affecting Comparability of Results

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $127.2 million of costs relating to our acquisition of WLH. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized aggregate costs of $10.7 million relating to our acquisitions of WLH and AV Homes. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized $30.8 million of costs relating to the AV Homes Acquisition. Such costs are recognized in Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $74.1 million of expense relating to purchase accounting for WLH. Of that expense, $69.7 million is included in cost of home closings and $4.4 million is included in cost of land closings. No such expenses were recognized for the years ended December 31, 2019 or December 31, 2018.

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we recognized $10.2 million and $5.8 million of expense relating to losses on our extinguishment of debt, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we did not incur a loss on extinguishment of debt.

As of December 31, 2019, our assets in Chicago were held for sale and as a result we adjusted the fair value of the assets within this division to the lower of fair value (less costs to sell) or net book value. In addition, we wrote off other components of the operations in accordance with the guidance set forth in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment. For the year ended December 31, 2019, total impacts to the Consolidated Statement of Operations include the following: Cost of home closings impact of $0.7 million, Cost of land closings impact of $9.9 million, Sales, commissions and other marketing costs impact of $0.4 million, General and administrative expenses impact of $1.1 million and Other expense, net impact of $1.2 million. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2018, we did not have significant fair value adjustments relating to assets reclassified as held for sale.

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we recognized an incremental $43.1 million and $39.3 million of warranty charges in our Central region, respectively, due to a construction defect issue which was isolated to one specific community. Although we believe we have identified substantially all homes impacted by the issue, it is reasonably possible that the estimated liability will change as a result of our evaluation of potential changes in the estimated repair costs and the number of homes impacted. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we did not incur or recognize incremental warranty charges relating to this defect issue.

On October 26, 2018, in connection with our corporate reorganization, all assets remaining in our Canadian subsidiary were contributed to a subsidiary in the United States. As a result, $20.1 million of unrecognized Accumulated other comprehensive loss on foreign currency translation was recognized as a component of Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses on
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the Consolidated Statement of Operations. In addition, we recognized $15.3 million in non-resident Canadian withholding taxes from the Canada Unwind in Income tax provision for the year ended December 31, 2018. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we did not incur or recognize corporate reorganization expenses or taxes associated with such reorganization.

Critical Accounting Policies

General

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of our financial statements. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions, impacting our reported results of operations and financial condition.

Certain accounting policies involve significant judgments and assumptions by management, which have a material impact on the carrying value of assets and liabilities and the recognition of income and expenses. The estimates and assumptions used by management are based on historical experience and other factors, which are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. The significant accounting policies that management believes are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results are critical accounting policies and are described below.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The standard's core principle requires an entity to recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

Home and land closings revenue
Under ASC 606, the following steps are applied to determine the proper home closings revenue and land closings revenue recognition: (1) we identify the contract(s) with our customer; (2) we identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) we determine the transaction price; (4) we allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) we recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy the performance obligation. For our home sales transactions, we have one contract, with one performance obligation, with each customer to build and deliver a home (or develop and deliver land). Based on the application of the five steps, the following summarizes the timing and manner of home and land sales revenue:

Revenue from closings of residential real estate is recognized when closings have occurred, the buyer has made the required minimum down payment, obtained necessary financing, the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer, and we have no continuing involvement with the property, which is generally upon the close of escrow. Revenue is reported net of any discounts and incentives.
Revenue from land sales is recognized when a significant down payment is received, title passes and collectability of the receivable is reasonably assured, and we have no continuing involvement with the property, which is generally upon the close of escrow.

Amenity and other revenue
We own and operate certain amenities such as golf courses, club houses, and fitness centers, which require us to provide club members with access to the facilities in exchange for the payment of club dues. We collect club dues and other fees from the club members, which are invoiced on a monthly basis. Revenue from our golf club operations is also included in amenity and other revenue. Amenity and other revenue also includes revenue from the sale of assets which include multi-use properties as part of our Urban Form operations.

Financial services revenue
Mortgage operations and hedging activity related to financial services are not within the scope of Topic 606 and are recognized at the time the related real estate transactions are completed, usually upon the close of escrow. All of the loans TMHF originates are sold to third party investors within a short period of time, on a non-recourse basis. Gains and losses from the sale of mortgages are recognized in accordance with ASC Topic 860-20, Sales of Financial Assets. TMHF generally does not have continuing involvement with the transferred assets; therefore, we derecognize the mortgage loans at time of sale, based on the difference between the selling price and carrying value of the related loans upon sale, recording a gain/loss on
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sale in the period of sale. Also included in financial services revenue/expenses is the realized and unrealized gains and losses from hedging instruments.

Real Estate Inventory Valuation and Costing

Inventory consists of raw land, land under development, homes under construction, completed homes, and model homes, all of which are stated at cost. In addition to direct carrying costs, we also capitalize interest, real estate taxes, and related development costs that benefit the entire community, such as field construction supervision and related direct overhead. Home vertical construction costs are accumulated and charged to cost of sales at the time of home closing using the specific identification method. Land acquisition, development, interest, and real estate taxes are allocated to homes and units generally using the relative sales value method. Generally, all overhead costs relating to purchasing, the vertical construction of a home, and construction utilities are considered overhead costs and are allocated on a per unit basis. These costs are capitalized to inventory from the point development begins to the point construction is completed. Changes in estimated costs to be incurred in a community are generally allocated to the remaining lots on a prospective basis. For those communities that have been temporarily closed or development has been discontinued, we do not allocate interest or other costs to the community’s inventory until activity resumes. Such costs are expensed as incurred.

The life cycle of the community generally ranges from two to five years, commencing with the acquisition of unentitled or entitled land, continuing through the land development phase and concluding with the sale, construction and delivery of homes. Actual community lives will vary based on the size of the community, the sales absorption rate and whether we purchased the property as raw land or as finished lots.

We capitalize qualifying interest costs to inventory during the development and construction periods. Capitalized interest is charged to cost of sales when the related inventory is charged to cost of sales.

We assess the recoverability of our inventory in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment. We review our real estate inventory for indicators of impairment on a community-level basis during each reporting period. If indicators of impairment are present for a community, generally, an undiscounted cash flow analysis is prepared in order to determine if the carrying value of the assets in that community exceeds the undiscounted cash flows. Generally, if the carrying value of the assets exceeds their estimated undiscounted cash flows, the assets are potentially impaired, requiring a fair value analysis. Our determination of fair value is primarily based on a discounted cash flow model which includes projections and estimates relating to sales prices, construction costs, sales pace, and other factors. However, fair value can be determined through other methods, such as appraisals, contractual purchase offers, and other third party opinions of value. Changes in these expectations may lead to a change in the outcome of our impairment analysis, and actual results may also differ from our assumptions.

In certain cases, we may elect to cease development and/or marketing of an existing community if we believe the economic performance of the community would be maximized by deferring development for a period of time to allow for market conditions to improve. We refer to such communities as long-term strategic assets. The decision may be based on financial and/or operational metrics as determined by us. If we decide to cease development, we will evaluate the project for impairment and then cease future development and marketing activity until such a time when we believe that market conditions have improved and economic performance can be maximized. Our assessment of the carrying value of our long-term strategic assets typically includes subjective estimates of future performance, including the timing of when development will recommence, the type of product to be offered, and the margin to be realized. In the future, some of these inactive communities may be re-opened while others may be sold.

In the ordinary course of business, we enter into various specific performance agreements to acquire lots. Real estate not owned under these agreements is reflected in Consolidated real estate not owned with a corresponding liability in Liabilities attributable to consolidated real estate not owned in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As a method of acquiring land in staged takedowns, while limiting risk and minimizing the use of funds from our available cash or other financing sources, we may transfer our right under certain specific performance agreements acquired in the acquisition of WLH to entities owned by third parties (“land banking arrangements”). These entities use equity contributions from their owners and/or incur debt to finance the acquisition and development of the land. The entities grant us an option to acquire lots in staged takedowns. In consideration for this option, we make a non-refundable deposit of 15% to 25% of the total purchase price. We are not legally obligated to purchase the balance of the lots, but would forfeit any existing deposits and could be subject to financial and other penalties if the lots were not purchased. We do not have an ownership interest in these entities or title to their assets and do not guarantee their liabilities. These land banking arrangements help us manage the financial and market risk associated with land holdings.
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Insurance Costs, Self-Insurance Reserves and Warranty Reserves

We have certain deductible limits for each of our policies under our workers’ compensation, automobile, and general liability insurance policies, and we record warranty expense and liabilities for the estimated costs of potential claims for construction defects. The excess liability limits are $50 million per occurrence, aggregated annually and applied in excess of automobile liability, employer’s liability under workers compensation and general liability policies. We also generally require our subcontractors and design professionals to indemnify us and provide evidence of insurance for liabilities arising from their work, subject to certain limitations. We are the parent of Beneva Indemnity Company (“Beneva”), which provides insurance coverage for construction defects discovered up to ten years following the close of a home, coverage for premise operations risk, and from time to time, property damage. We accrue for the expected costs associated with the deductibles and self-insured amounts under our various insurance policies based on historical claims, estimates for claims incurred but not reported, and potential for recovery of costs from insurance and other sources. The estimates are subject to significant variability due to factors, such as claim settlement patterns, litigation trends, and the extended period of time in which a construction defect claim might be made after the closing of a home.

We offer a one-year limited warranty to cover various defects in workmanship or materials, a two-year limited warranty on certain systems (such as electrical or cooling systems), and a ten-year limited warranty on structural defects. In addition, any outstanding warranties which were offered by our acquired companies are also honored. Warranty reserves are established as homes close in an amount estimated to be adequate to cover expected costs of materials and outside labor during warranty periods. Our warranty is not considered a separate deliverable in the sales arrangement since it is not priced apart from the home; therefore, it is accounted for in accordance with ASC Topic 450, Contingencies, which states that warranties that are not separately priced are generally accounted for by accruing the estimated costs to fulfill the warranty obligation. The amount of revenue related to the product is recognized in full upon the delivery of the home if all other criteria for revenue recognition have been met. As a result, we accrue the estimated costs to fulfill the warranty obligation at the time a home closes, as a component of Cost of home closings on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

Our loss reserves are based on factors that include an actuarial study for structural, historical and anticipated claims, trends related to similar product types, number of home closings, and geographical areas. We also provide third-party warranty coverage on homes where required by Federal Housing Administration or Veterans Administration lenders. We regularly review the reasonableness and adequacy of our reserves and make adjustments to the balance of the preexisting reserves to reflect changes in trends and historical data as information becomes available. Self-insurance and warranty reserves are included in Accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Investments in Unconsolidated Entities and Variable Interest Entities (VIEs)

We are involved in joint ventures with related and unrelated third parties for homebuilding and development activities. We use the equity method of accounting for entities over which we exercise significant influence but do not have a controlling interest over the operating and financial policies of the investee. For unconsolidated entities in which we function as the managing member, we have evaluated the rights held by our joint venture partners and determined that they have substantive participating rights that preclude the presumption of control. For joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, our share of net earnings or losses is included in equity in income of unconsolidated entities when earned and distributions are credited against its investment in the joint venture when received. These joint ventures are recorded in investments in unconsolidated entities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

We evaluate our investments in unconsolidated joint ventures for indicators of impairment. A series of operating losses of an investee or other factors may indicate that a decrease in value of our investment in the unconsolidated entity has occurred which is other-than-temporary. The amount of impairment recognized is the excess of the investment’s carrying amount over its estimated fair value. Additionally, we consider various qualitative factors to determine if a decrease in the value of the investment is other-than-temporary. These factors include age of the venture, stage in its life cycle, our intent and ability to recover our investment in the unconsolidated entity, financial condition and long-term prospects of the unconsolidated entity, short-term liquidity needs of the unconsolidated entity, trends in the general economic environment of the land, entitlement status of the land held by the unconsolidated entity, overall projected returns on investment, defaults under contracts with third parties (including bank debt), recoverability of the investment through future cash flows and relationships with the other partners. If we believe that the decline in the fair value of the investment is temporary, then no impairment is recorded.

In the ordinary course of business, we enter into land and lot option purchase contracts in order to procure land or lots for the construction of homes. Lot option contracts enable us to control significant lot positions with a minimal initial capital investment and substantially reduce the risks associated with land ownership and development. In accordance with ASC Topic
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810, Consolidation, we have concluded that when we enter into an option or purchase agreement to acquire land or lots and pay a non-refundable deposit, a VIE may be created because we are deemed to have provided subordinated financial support that will absorb some or all of an entity’s expected losses if they occur. If we are the primary beneficiary of the VIE, we will consolidate the VIE in our Consolidated Financial Statements and reflect such assets and liabilities as real estate not owned under option agreements within our inventory balance in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Valuation of Deferred Tax Assets

We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized based on future tax consequences of both temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in earnings in the period when the changes are enacted.

In accordance with ASC Topic 740-10, Income Taxes, we evaluate our deferred tax assets by tax jurisdiction, including the benefit from net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards by tax jurisdiction, to determine if a valuation allowance is required. Companies must assess, using significant judgments, whether a valuation allowance should be established based on the consideration of all available evidence using a “more likely than not” standard with significant weight being given to evidence that can be objectively verified. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of current and cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability, the length of statutory carryforward periods, experience with operating losses and experience of utilizing tax credit carryforwards and tax planning alternatives.


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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the periods presented:
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share information)202020192018
Statements of Operations Data:
Home closings revenue, net$5,863,652 $4,623,484 $4,115,216 
Land closings revenue65,269 27,081 39,901 
Financial services revenue155,827 92,815 67,758 
Amenity and other revenue44,572 18,679 4,518 
Total revenue$6,129,320 $4,762,059 $4,227,393 
Cost of home closings4,887,757 3,836,857 3,410,853 
Cost of land closings64,432 32,871 33,458 
Financial services expenses88,910 51,086 41,469 
Amenity and other expenses 44,002 17,155 3,420 
Total cost of revenues$5,085,101 $3,937,969 $3,489,200 
Gross margin1,044,219 824,090 738,193 
Sales, commissions and other marketing costs377,496 320,420 278,455 
General and administrative expenses194,879 169,851 138,488 
Equity in income of unconsolidated entities(11,176)(9,509)(13,332)
Interest income, net(1,606)(2,673)(1,639)
Other expense, net23,092 7,226 11,816 
Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses127,170 10,697 50,889 
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net10,247 5,806 — 
Income before income taxes$324,117 $322,272 $273,516 
Income tax provision74,590 67,358 63,036 
Net income before allocation to non-controlling interests$249,527 $254,914 $210,480 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests – joint ventures(6,088)(262)(533)
Net income before non-controlling interests – Former Principal Equityholders$243,439 $254,652 $209,947 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests – Former Principal Equityholders— — (3,583)
Net income available to Taylor Morrison Home Corporation$243,439 $254,652 $206,364 
Home closings gross margin 16.6 %17.0 %17.1 %
Average sales price per home closed$468 $464 $470 
Sales, commissions and other marketing costs as a percentage of home closings revenue, net6.4 %6.9 %6.8 %
General and administrative expenses as a percentage of home closings revenue, net 3.3 %3.7 %3.4 %
Effective income tax rate 23.0 %20.9 %23.0 %
Earnings per common share -
Basic$1.90 $2.38 $1.85 
Diluted$1.88 $2.35 $1.83 












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Non-GAAP Measures

In addition to the results reported in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), we have provided information in this annual report relating to: (i) adjusted income before income taxes and related margin, (ii) EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA, (iii) adjusted net income and adjusted earnings per share, (iv) net homebuilding debt to capitalization ratio, and (v) adjusted home closings gross margin.

Adjusted income before income taxes (and related margin) is a non-GAAP financial measure that reflects our income before income taxes excluding the impact of purchase accounting adjustments related to the acquisition of WLH, transaction expenses, loss on extinguishment of debt, inventory impairment and warranty charges and legal costs relating thereto and the write-off of our Chicago operations, as applicable. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures that measure performance by adjusting net income before allocation to non-controlling interests to exclude interest income/(expense), net, amortization of capitalized interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA), non-cash compensation expense, if any, purchase accounting adjustments relating to the acquisition of WLH, transaction expenses, loss on extinguishment of debt, inventory impairment and warranty charges and legal costs relating thereto and the write-off of our Chicago operations, as applicable.Adjusted net income and adjusted earnings per share are non-GAAP financial measures that reflect the net income available to the Company excluding the impact of purchase accounting adjustments relating to the acquisition of WLH, transaction expenses, loss on extinguishment of debt, inventory impairment and warranty charges and legal costs relating thereto, the write-off of our Chicago operations and the tax impact due to such adjustments, as applicable. Net homebuilding debt to capitalization ratio is a non-GAAP financial measure we calculate by dividing (i) total debt, less unamortized debt issuance costs/premiums and mortgage warehouse borrowings, net of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents, by (ii) total capitalization (the sum of net homebuilding debt and total stockholders’ equity). Adjusted home closings gross margin is a non-GAAP financial measure based on GAAP home closings gross margin (which is inclusive of capitalized interest), excluding purchase accounting adjustments relating to the acquisition of WLH and inventory impairment and warranty charges, as applicable.

Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate our performance on a consolidated basis, as well as the performance of our regions, and to set targets for performance-based compensation. We also use the ratio of net homebuilding debt to total capitalization as an indicator of overall leverage and to evaluate our performance against other companies in the homebuilding industry. In the future, we may include additional adjustments in the above-described non-GAAP financial measures to the extent we deem them appropriate and useful to management and investors.

We believe that adjusted income before income taxes and related margin, adjusted net income and adjusted earnings per share, as well as EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA, are useful for investors in order to allow them to evaluate our operations without the effects of various items we do not believe are characteristic of our ongoing operations or performance and also because such metrics assist both investors and management in analyzing and benchmarking the performance and value of our business. Adjusted EBITDA also provides an indicator of general economic performance that is not affected by fluctuations in interest rates or effective tax rates, levels of depreciation or amortization, or unusual items.Because we use the ratio of net homebuilding debt to total capitalization to evaluate our performance against other companies in the homebuilding industry, we believe this measure is also relevant and useful to investors for that reason. We believe that adjusted home closings gross margin is useful to investors because it allows investors to evaluate the performance of our homebuilding operations without the varying effects of items or transactions we do not believe are characteristic of our ongoing operations or performance.

These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, the comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures of our operating performance or liquidity. Although other companies in the homebuilding industry may report similar information, their definitions may differ. We urge investors to understand the methods used by other companies to calculate similarly-titled non-GAAP financial measures before comparing their measures to ours.
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Adjusted Basic and Diluted Net Income and Earnings per Common Share
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)202020192018
Net income available to TMHC$243,439 $254,652 $206,364 
WLH related purchase accounting adjustments74,068 — — 
Warranty charge— 43,133 39,300 
Inventory impairment charges9,611 8,928 9,600 
Write-off Chicago operations— 13,285 — 
Legal cost relating to warranty charge— 6,800 1,200 
Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses127,170 10,697 50,889 
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net10,247 5,806 — 
Tax impact due to significant and unusual items and corporate reorganization expenses(46,120)(20,578)(1,874)
Adjustments to non-controlling interest - Former Principal Equityholders— — (1,692)
Adjusted net income - Basic$418,415 $322,723 $303,787 
Basic weighted average shares127,812 106,997 111,743 
Adjusted earnings per common share - Basic$3.27 $3.02 $2.72 
Net income available to TMHC$243,439 $254,652 $206,364 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests - Former Principal Equityholders— — 3,583 
Loss fully attributable to public holding company— — 540 
Net income - Diluted243,439 254,652 210,487 
WLH related purchase accounting adjustments74,068 — — 
Warranty charge$— $43,133 $39,300 
Inventory impairment charges9,611 8,928 9,600 
Write-off Chicago operations— 13,285 — 
Legal cost relating to warranty charge— 6,800 1,200 
Transaction and corporate reorganization expense127,170 10,697 50,889 
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net10,247 5,806 — 
Tax impact due to significant and unusual items, transaction and corporate reorganization expenses, and loss on extinguishment of debt(46,120)(20,578)(1,874)
Adjusted net income - Diluted$418,415 $322,723 $309,602 
Diluted weighted average shares129,170 108,289 115,119 
Adjusted earnings per common share - Diluted$3.24 $2.98 $2.69 


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Adjusted Income Before Income Taxes and Related Margin
 Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)202020192018
Income before income taxes$324,117$322,272$273,516
WLH related purchase accounting adjustments(1)
74,068
Warranty charge— 43,133 39,300 
Inventory impairment charges9,611 8,928 9,600 
Write-off Chicago operations— 13,285 — 
Legal cost relating to warranty charge— 6,800 1,200 
Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses(2)
127,17010,69750,889
Loss on extinguishment of debt, net10,2475,806
Adjusted income before income taxes$545,213$410,921$374,505
Total revenues$6,129,320$4,762,059$4,227,393
Income before income taxes margin5.3%6.8%6.5%
Adjusted income before income taxes margin8.9%8.6%8.9%
(1) WLH related purchase accounting adjustments for the year ended December 31, 2020 includes $69.7 million and $4.4 million homebuilding and land purchase accounting adjustments, respectively.
(2) Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 consist of all costs relating to our acquisitions of WLH and AV Homes, respectively, which include investment banking fees, severance, compensation, legal fees, expenses relating to credit facility paydowns and terminations, and other various integration costs. Transaction and corporate reorganization expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 consists of all costs, excluding taxes, associated with the corporate reorganization and Canada Unwind in addition to acquisition related costs for the acquisition of AV Homes, which include investment banking fees, severance, compensation, legal fees and other various integration costs.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation
 Three Months Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)202020192018
Net income before allocation to non-controlling interests$96,662$54,709$9,215
Interest income, net(362)(423)(350)
Amortization of capitalized interest28,61230,61426,459
Income tax provision/(benefit)22,428(949)24,913
Depreciation and amortization2,0421,4362,089
EBITDA$149,382$85,387$62,326
Non-cash compensation expense4,8693,8274,746
William Lyon Homes related purchase accounting adjustments300
Inventory impairment charges9,6118,9289,600
Transaction expenses17,2934,20150,128
Warranty charge43,13336,800
Write off of Chicago operations13,285
Legal cost relating to warranty charge6,800500
Adjusted EBITDA $181,455$165,561$164,100
Total revenues$1,557,502$1,466,436$1,457,853
EBITDA as a percentage of total revenues9.6%5.8%4.3%
Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of total revenues11.7%11.3%11.3%
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Net Homebuilding Debt to Capitalization Ratio
(Dollars in thousands)As of
December 31, 2020
Total debt$2,928,395 
Less unamortized debt issuance premium, net2,365 
Less mortgage warehouse borrowings127,289 
Total homebuilding debt$2,798,741 
Less cash and cash equivalents$532,843 
Net homebuilding debt$2,265,898 
Total equity3,593,750 
Total capitalization$5,859,648 
Net homebuilding debt to capitalization ratio38.7 %

See also “ - Segment Home Closings Gross Margins and Adjusted Gross Margins” for the reconciliation of adjusted home closings gross margin.
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The following tables and related discussion set forth key operating and financial data for our operations as of and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. For similar operating and financial data and discussion of our fiscal 2019 results compared to our fiscal 2018 results, refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under Part II of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 201