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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________
Commission File Number 001-33805
SCULPTOR CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Delaware26-0354783
(State of Incorporation) (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

 9 West 57th Street, New York, New York 10019
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant’s telephone number: (212) 790-0000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading symbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Class A SharesSCUNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, or “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
    Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $268.3 million. As of February 17, 2021, there were 23,814,996 Class A Shares and 32,824,537 Class B Shares outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the 2021 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The registrant's definitive proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.




SCULPTOR CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
 

i


Defined Terms
2007 Offerings
Refers collectively to our IPO and the concurrent private offering of approximately 38.1 million Class A Shares to DIC Sahir Limited, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Dubai Holdings LLC
active executive managing directors
Executive managing directors who remain active in our business
Advisers ActInvestment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended
Class A Shares
Our Class A Shares, representing Class A common stock of Sculptor Capital Management, Inc., which are publicly traded and listed on the NYSE
Class B Shares
Class B Shares of Sculptor Capital Management, Inc., which are not publicly traded, are currently held solely by our executive managing directors and have no economic rights but entitle the holders thereof to one vote per share together with the holders of our Class A Shares
CLOs
Collateralized loan obligations
the Company, Sculptor Capital, the firm, we, us, our
Refers, unless the context requires otherwise, to the Registrant and its consolidated subsidiaries, including the Sculptor Operating Group
Exchange Act
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
executive managing directors
The current executive managing directors of the Company, and, except where the context requires otherwise, also includes certain executive managing directors who are no longer active in our business
funds
The multi-strategy funds, dedicated credit funds, including opportunistic credit funds and Institutional Credit Strategies products, real estate funds and other alternative investment vehicles for which we provide asset management services
GAAP
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles
Group A Units
Refers collectively to one Class A operating group unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships. Group A Units are limited partner interests held by our executive managing directors
Group A-1 Units
Refers collectively to one Class A-1 operating group unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships. Group A-1 Units are limited partner interests held by our executive managing directors
Group B Units
Refers collectively to one Class B operating group unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships. Group B Units are limited partner interests held by Sculptor Corp
Group D Units
Refers collectively to one Class D operating group unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships. Group D Units are limited partner interests held by our executive managing directors
Group E Units
Refers collectively to one Class E operating group unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships. Group E Units are limited partner interests held by our executive managing directors
1


Group P Units
Refers collectively to one Class P operating group unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships. Group P Units are limited partner interests held by our executive managing directors
Institutional Credit Strategies
Our asset management platform that invests in performing credits, including leveraged loans, high-yield bonds, private credit/bespoke financing and investment grade credit via CLOs, aircraft securitization vehicles, collateralized bond obligations, and other customized solutions
IPO
Our initial public offering of 3.6 million Class A Shares that occurred in November 2007
NYSE
New York Stock Exchange
Partner Equity Units
Refers collectively to the Group A Units, Group E Units and Group P Units
Preferred UnitsOne Class A cumulative preferred unit in each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships collectively represents one “Preferred Unit.” Certain of our executive managing directors collectively owned 100% of the Preferred Units. Preferred Units issued in 2016 and 2017 are, collectively, referred to as “2016 Preferred Units.” Preferred Units issued in 2019 are referred to as “2019 Preferred Units.” We redeemed in full the Preferred Units in the fourth quarter of 2020.
PSUs
Class A performance-based RSUs
Recapitalization
Refers to the recapitalization of our business that occurred in February 2019. As part of the Recapitalization, a portion of the interests held by our active and former executive managing directors were reallocated to existing members of senior management. In addition, we restructured the previously outstanding senior debt and Preferred Units
Registrant
Sculptor Capital Management, Inc., a Delaware corporation
RSUs
Class A restricted share units
Sculptor Corp
Sculptor Capital Holding Corporation, a Delaware corporation
Sculptor Operating Group
Refers collectively to the Sculptor Operating Partnerships and their consolidated subsidiaries
Sculptor Operating Group Units
Refers collectively to Sculptor Operating Group A, B, D, E, and P Units
Sculptor Operating Partnerships
Refers collectively to Sculptor Capital LP, Sculptor Capital Advisors LP and Sculptor Capital Advisors II LP
SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities Act
Securities Act of 1933, as amended
Special Investments
Investments that we, as investment manager, believe lack a readily ascertainable market value, are illiquid or should be held until the resolution of a special event or circumstance

2


Available Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Exchange Act with the SEC. We make available free of charge on our website (www.sculptor.com) our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and any amendments to those filings as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. We also use our website to distribute company information, including assets under management by investment strategy, and such information may be deemed material. Accordingly, investors should monitor our website, in addition to our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcast. The contents of our website are not, however, a part of this report.
Also posted on our website in the “Investor Relations—Corporate Governance” section are charters for our Audit Committee; Compensation Committee; Nominating, Corporate Governance and Conflicts Committee and Corporate Responsibility and Compliance Committee, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics governing our directors, officers and employees. Information on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this report or any other SEC filing. Copies of our SEC filings or corporate governance materials are available without charge upon written request to Sculptor Capital Management, Inc., 9 West 57th Street, New York, New York 10019, Attention: Office of the Secretary. Any materials we file with the SEC are also publicly available through the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov).
No statements herein, available on our website or in any of the materials we file with the SEC constitute, or should be viewed as constituting, an offer of any fund.
Forward-Looking Statements
Some of the statements under “Item 1. Business,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” which we refer to as “MD&A,” “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” and elsewhere in this annual report may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events, our operations and our financial performance. We generally identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “outlook,” “believe,” “expect,” “potential,” “continue,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seek,” “approximately,” “predict,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “opportunity,” “comfortable,” “assume,” “remain,” “maintain,” “sustain,” “achieve,” “see,” “think,” “position” or the negative version of those words or other comparable words.
Any forward-looking statements contained herein are based upon historical information and on our current plans, estimates and expectations. The inclusion of this or other forward-looking information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the future plans, estimates or expectations contemplated by us will be achieved.
We caution that forward-looking statements are subject to numerous assumptions, estimates, risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to the following: global economic, business, market and geopolitical conditions, including the impact of public health crises, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; United States (“U.S.”) and foreign regulatory developments relating to, among other things, financial institutions and markets, government oversight, fiscal and tax policy; the outcome of third-party litigation involving us; the consequences of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act settlements with the SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice (the “DOJ”) and any claims arising therefrom; whether the Company realizes all or any of the anticipated benefits from the Recapitalization and other related transactions; whether the Recapitalization and other related transactions result in any increased or unforeseen costs, indemnification obligations or have an impact on our ability to retain or compete for professional talent or investor capital; conditions impacting the alternative asset management industry; our ability to retain existing investor capital; our ability to successfully compete for fund investors, assets, professional talent and investment opportunities; our ability to retain our active executive managing directors, managing directors and other investment professionals; our successful formulation and execution of our business and growth strategies; our ability to appropriately manage conflicts of interest and tax and other regulatory factors relevant to our business; the anticipated benefits of changing the Registrant’s tax classification from a partnership to a corporation and subsequently converting from a limited liability company to a corporation; and assumptions relating to our operations, investment performance, financial results, financial condition, business prospects, growth strategy and liquidity.
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If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our assumptions or estimates prove to be incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from those indicated in these statements. These factors are not and should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements and risks that are included in our filings with the SEC, including but not limited to those described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
There may be additional risks, uncertainties and factors that we do not currently view as material or that are not known. The forward-looking statements contained in this report are made only as of the date of this report. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statement because of new information, future developments or otherwise.
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Risk Factors Summary
The following is a summary of the risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business and financial condition and should be read in conjunction with the complete discussion of risk factors set forth in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Risks Related to Our Business
Difficult global market, economic or geopolitical conditions may materially adversely affect our business and cause significant volatility in equity and debt prices, interest rates, exchange rates, commodity prices and credit spreads.
The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union may adversely affect our business.
The uncertainty surrounding the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the length and severity of its impact on global economic activity may adversely affect our business.
Poor investment performance of, or lack of capital flows into, the funds we manage could have a materially adverse impact on our revenues.
Investors in our funds have the right to redeem their investments in our funds on a regular basis and could redeem a significant amount of assets under management during any given quarterly period.
Our business may be materially adversely impacted by the highly variable nature of our revenues, results of operations and cash flows.
Competitive pressures in the asset management business could materially adversely affect our business.
Our indebtedness may restrict our current and future operations.
Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect our credit arrangements and our collateralized loan obligation transactions.
Our business and financial condition may be materially adversely impacted by the loss of any of our key executive managing directors, particularly certain members of our Partner Management Committee.
Our ability to retain and attract executive managing directors, managing directors and other investment professionals is critical to the success and growth of our business.
We have experienced and may again experience periods of rapid growth and significant declines in assets under management, which place significant demands on our legal, compliance, accounting, risk management, administrative and operational resources.
We are highly dependent on information systems and other technology, including those used or maintained by third parties with which we do business. Any failure or breach in any such systems or infrastructure (including from a cyberattack) could materially impair our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Private litigation could result in significant legal and other liabilities and reputational harm.
Extensive regulation of our business affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties.
The FCPA settlements could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise capital for our funds.
Increased regulatory focus in the U.S. could result in additional burdens on our business.
Risk retention regulations could adversely affect our business.
A downturn in the global credit markets could adversely affect our CLO investments.
Increasing ESG-related requirements and expectations could adversely affect our business.
Regulatory changes in jurisdictions outside the U.S. could adversely affect our business.
Third-party investors in our funds could exercise their right to remove us as investment manager or general partner of our funds.
Our failure to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest could damage our reputation.
Misconduct by our executive managing directors, employees or agents could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain investors and subjecting us to significant legal liability, regulatory scrutiny and reputational harm.
Risks Related to Our Funds
Difficult market conditions can adversely affect our funds.
The historical returns attributable to our funds should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds or any future funds we may raise.
We are subject to counterparty default risks.
Poor performance of our funds would cause a decline in our revenues, results of operations and cash flows and could materially adversely affect our ability to retain capital or attract additional capital.
Our funds may determine to use leverage in investments, which could materially adversely affect our ability to achieve positive rates of return on those investments.
The due diligence process that we undertake in connection with investments by our funds may not reveal all facts that may be relevant in connection with making an investment.
Our funds may invest in relatively high-risk, illiquid assets, including structured products, and may fail to realize any profits from these activities for a considerable period of time or lose some or all of the principal investments.
Valuation methodologies for certain assets in our funds are subject to significant subjectivity and the values established pursuant to such methodologies may never be realized, which could result in significant losses for our funds.
Our funds make investments in companies that we do not control, exposing us to the risk of decisions made by others with whom we may not agree.
Our funds make investments in companies that are based outside of the U.S.
Tariffs, sanctions and other restrictions imposed by the U.S. government and potential for further regulatory reform, may create regulatory uncertainty and adversely affect our investment strategies and profitability of our funds.
Risk management activities may materially adversely affect the return on our funds’ investments.
If our risk management processes and systems are ineffective, we may be exposed to material unanticipated losses.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
Our current and former executive managing directors’ total combined voting power could influence major corporate decisions that could conflict with the interests of our Class A Shareholders.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and By-Laws contain provisions limiting the liability of our officers and directors to us.
Because our executive managing directors hold their economic interest in our business directly in the Sculptor Operating Group, conflicts of interest may arise between them and holders of our Class A Shares.
Our ability to pay regular quarterly distributions to Class A Shareholders may be limited by our structure.
The declaration and payment of any future distributions will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors.
We will be required to pay amounts under our tax receivable agreement.
If we are deemed an investment company under the 1940 Act it would have a material adverse impact on our business.
Risks Related to Our Shares
The market price and trading volume of our Class A Shares has been and may continue to be highly volatile.
The price of our Class A Shares may decline due to the large number of shares eligible for future sale and for exchange into Class A Shares.
Our current and former executive managing directors’ beneficial ownership of Class B Shares, the tax receivable agreement and anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could delay or prevent a change in control.
Risks Related to Taxation
Our structure involves complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available.
U.S. federal income tax reform could have uncertain effects.
Our structure is subject to other potential legislative, judicial or administrative changes and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.
Tax gain or loss on disposition of our Class A Shares could be more or less than expected.
New rules regarding U.S. federal income tax liability arising from IRS audits of partnerships could adversely affect shareholders.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to limitations.
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PART I
Item 1. Business
Business Description
Sculptor Capital is a leading global institutional alternative asset manager, with approximately $36.4 billion in assets under management as of February 1, 2021. We provide asset management services through our funds, which pursue a broad range of global investment opportunities, and by developing new, carefully considered investment products. We also offer customized solutions within and across our product platforms to help our fund investors meet their investment objectives. Our funds invest across numerous asset classes and geographies, with a breadth we believe is offered by few alternative asset management firms.
Our approach to asset management is based on the same fundamental elements that we have employed since Sculptor Capital was founded in 1994. Our objectives are to create long-term value for our fund investors through a disciplined investment philosophy that focuses on delivering consistent, positive, risk-adjusted returns across market cycles. We currently manage multi-strategy funds, dedicated credit funds, including opportunistic credit funds and Institutional Credit Strategies products, real estate funds and other alternative investment vehicles.
Multi-Strategy - Our multi-strategy funds invest globally in high-conviction investment ideas across asset classes, regions, and investment strategies with a primary focus on idiosyncratic opportunities where return drivers are less sensitive to the direction of broader financial markets. Through detailed fundamental analysis and due diligence, we aim to identify investment opportunities where intermediate or long-term value is obscured by attributes such as complexity, corporate events, technical dislocations, or market misunderstandings. Our multi-strategy funds allocate capital across strategies and geographies opportunistically based on market conditions, with no predetermined capital allocations by strategy or asset class. Our investment strategies include Fundamental Equities, Merger Arbitrage, Corporate Credit, Structured Credit and Convertible & Derivative Arbitrage.
Credit - Our credit platform comprises both opportunistic credit and Institutional Credit Strategies. Opportunistic credit focuses on global corporate, structured and private credit markets, including investments in distressed businesses, restructurings and bankruptcies. In many cases, we actively enforce creditor rights or pursue other legal strategies in order to favorably affect outcomes. We may also buy undervalued securities following broader market dislocations. Institutional Credit Strategies invests in performing credit via leveraged loans, high yield bonds, private financing and investment-grade credit and serves clients through CLOs, collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), commingled products and customized solutions.
Real Estate - Our real estate funds generally make investments in commercial and residential real estate, including real property, multi-property portfolios, real estate-related joint ventures, real estate operating companies and other real estate-related assets. These funds typically seek to preserve capital and mitigate risk by limiting competitive bidding. The real estate funds focus on proprietary sourcing, discretion in deal selection, thorough due diligence, intensive asset management, multiple defined exit strategies and structured downside protection to seek and manage investments.
Our Assets Under Management
Our primary sources of revenues are management fees, which are based on the amount of our assets under management, and incentive income, which is based on the investment performance of our funds. Accordingly, for any given period, our revenues will be driven by the combination of assets under management and the investment performance of our funds. Our assets under management are a function of the capital that is allocated to us by the investors in our funds and the investment performance of our funds. For additional information regarding assets under management, please see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Assets Under Management and Fund Performance.”
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Overview of Our Funds
Multi-Strategy
As of December 31, 2020, assets under management in our multi-strategy funds totaled approximately $10.5 billion, or 29% of our total assets under management. These funds seek to consistently generate strong risk-adjusted returns across market cycles while protecting investor capital. We aim to achieve these objectives by investing in high-conviction investment ideas across asset classes, regions and strategies, with a primary focus on opportunities where return drivers are less sensitive to market direction. Sculptor’s investment process combines expert bottom-up fundamental analysis, a dynamic approach to portfolio construction, and a sophisticated and fully integrated risk management effort. The primary investment strategies we employ in our multi-strategy funds include the following:
Fundamental Equities seeks to generate returns through both long and short positions across global equity markets by employing a deep fundamental research process that draws on resources and knowledge from across the firm. Our primary focus is on event-driven situations involving corporate actions such as spin-offs, restructurings or recapitalizations, and on securities that may be temporarily undervalued due to a technical event or market misunderstanding.
Structured Credit invests in a wide breadth of structured products, with a primary focus in several credit categories, including residential, and commercial, corporate, and consumer credit, among others. This strategy aims to provide idiosyncratic and highly differentiated returns by pursuing investments that can be realized through active rights enforcement, litigation, liquidation or restructuring.
Corporate Credit takes an opportunistic approach to corporate credit investing and includes investments in undervalued or dislocated securities and pursuing process-driven investments including investments in complex distressed businesses, restructurings and bankruptcies. We take a fundamental investment approach to identify investments that may be undervalued due to complexity, market inefficiencies or other investors’ lack of scale, capability or mandate to pursue these investments. Our ability to participate in many of these types of investments is a direct function of our presence in the markets, scale, experience and reputation as a counterparty.
Convertible and Derivative Arbitrage seeks to exploit the price discrepancies between certain convertible bonds and derivative securities and the underlying equity or other security to generate strong, stable and uncorrelated returns. We explore opportunities in traditional convertible arbitrage, mandatory convertible investments, short convertible strategies and relative value opportunities.
Merger Arbitrage pursues a wide array of event-driven situations, with a broad focus on mergers and acquisitions as well as corporate actions, including exchange offers, unannounced deals, spin-offs, split-offs and hostile cross-border situations with regulatory and geopolitical complexity. Our flexible approach allows us to pursue strategies on a risk-adjusted basis and size them accordingly.
The Sculptor Master Fund, our global multi-strategy fund, opportunistically allocates capital to investments in North America, Europe and Asia, with flexibility to cast a wide net and source attractive investments. The key limitations we consider when selecting and sizing investments are related to our fundamental and quantitative view on the risk/reward, liquidity and availability of the specific investment under evaluation. Sculptor Master Fund generally employs every strategy and geography in which our funds invest and constituted approximately 26% of our assets under management as of December 31, 2020. The investment performance for our other funds may vary from those of the Sculptor Master Fund, and that variance may be material.
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The table below sets forth, as of December 31, 2020, the net annualized return, volatility and Sharpe Ratio of the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite (as defined below), the MSCI World Index and the HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index. This table is provided for illustrative purposes only. The performance reflected in the table below is not necessarily indicative of the future results of the Sculptor Master Fund. There can be no assurance that any fund will achieve comparable results. An investment in our Class A Shares is not an investment in any of our funds. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—An investment in our Class A Shares is not an alternative to an investment in any of our funds, and the returns of our funds should not be considered as indicative of any returns expected on our Class A Shares, although poor investment performance of, or lack of capital flows into, the funds we manage could have a materially adverse impact on our revenues and, therefore, the returns on our Class A Shares.”
Past performance is no indication or guarantee of future results.
Net Annualized Return through December 31, 20201 Year3 Years5 YearsSince Sculptor Master
Fund Inception
(January 1, 1998)
Since Sculptor
Multi-Strategy
Composite
Inception
(April 1, 1994)
Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite(1)
19.5%10.8%9.5%9.2%11.7%
MSCI World Index(2)
14.1%10.8%12.2%6.8%8.1%
HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index(2)
11.7%5.6%6.1%6.4%7.8%
Volatility - Standard Deviation (Annualized)(3)
     
Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite(1)
13.5%9.6%7.9%5.9%6.1%
MSCI World Index(2)
25.0%17.5%14.3%14.5%14.1%
HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index(2)
13.9%9.0%7.2%7.0%6.9%
Sharpe Ratio(4)
     
Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite(1)
1.410.961.041.191.49
MSCI World Index(2)
0.540.520.760.320.38
HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index(2)
0.810.440.670.600.74
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(1)The returns shown represent the composite performance of all feeder funds that comprise the Sculptor Master Fund since the inception of the Sculptor Master Fund on January 1, 1998, and are calculated using the total return of all feeder funds net of all fees and expenses and include the reinvestment of all dividends and other income. Since our inception on April 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997, we managed other accounts in a substantially similar manner to the Sculptor Master Fund, and in accordance with our same multi-strategy mandate that was not subject to portfolio investment restrictions or other factors that limited our investment discretion (the “Multi-Strategy Accounts”). The presentation of historical performance information in this table includes the performance of the Multi-Strategy Accounts for those periods prior to January 1, 1998. Performance is calculated using the total return of all such Multi-Strategy Accounts net of all investment fees and expenses of such accounts and include the reinvestment of all dividends and other income. For the period from April 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997, the returns are gross of certain overhead expenses that were reimbursed by the Multi-Strategy Accounts. Such reimbursement arrangements were terminated at the inception of the Sculptor Master Fund. The size of the accounts comprising the composite during the time period shown vary materially. Such differences impacted our investment decisions and the diversity of the investment strategies we followed. Furthermore, the composition of the investment strategies we follow is subject to our discretion and has varied materially since inception and is expected to vary materially in the future. We refer collectively to the combined returns of the Sculptor Master Fund and Multi-Strategy Accounts as the “Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite.” We believe that the inclusion of the historical performance of the Multi-Strategy Accounts provides a more complete representation of our historical multi-strategy performance. The returns exclude realized and unrealized gains and losses attributable to currency hedging specific to certain investors investing in Sculptor Master Fund in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. The returns for the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite exclude Special Investments. Special Investments in the Sculptor Master Fund are held by investors representing a small percentage of assets under management in the fund. Inclusive of these Special Investments, the net returns of the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite were 18.6%, 10.1%, and 8.9% for the trailing one, three, and five year periods, respectively; and 9.0% since the Sculptor Master Fund inception, and 11.6% since the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite inception.
(2)These comparisons show the returns of the MSCI World Index (GDDLWI) and the HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index (HFRIFWI) (collectively, the “Broader Market Indices”) against the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite. These comparisons are intended solely for illustrative purposes to show a historical comparison of the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite to the broader equity markets, as represented by the Broader Market Indices, and should not be considered as an indication of how the Sculptor Master Fund or the feeder funds will perform relative to the Broader Market Indices in the future. The Broader Market Indices are not performance benchmarks of the Sculptor Master Fund or the feeder funds. Neither the Sculptor Master Fund nor the feeder funds are managed to correlate in any way with the returns or composition of the Broader Market Indices, which are unmanaged. It is not possible to invest in an unmanaged index. You should not assume that there is any material overlap between the securities underlying the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite and those that comprise the Broader Market Indices. The MSCI World Index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization weighted index owned and maintained by MSCI Inc. that is designed to measure the equity market performance of developed markets. The HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index is a
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global equal-weighted index of over 2,000 single-manager funds that report to the HFR Database. Constituent funds report monthly, net of all fees, performance in U.S. dollar and have a minimum of $50.0 million under management or a twelve (12) month track record of active performance. The HFRI Fund Weighted Composite Index does not include Funds of Hedge Funds. Returns of the Broader Market Indices have not been reduced by fees and expenses associated with investing in securities and include the reinvestment of dividends.
(3)Standard Deviation is a statistical measure of volatility that measures the fluctuation of the monthly rates of return against the average return.
(4)Sharpe Ratio represents a measure of the risk-adjusted return of the composite returns, or benchmark returns, as applicable. The Sharpe Ratio is calculated by subtracting the risk-free rate from the composite returns, or benchmark returns, as applicable, and dividing that amount by the standard deviation of the applicable returns. The risk-free rate of return used in computing the Sharpe Ratio is the one-month U.S. dollar London Interbank Offered Rate compounded monthly throughout the periods presented.
Credit
As of December 31, 2020, we managed approximately $22.0 billion of assets under management in our dedicated credit funds, or 60% of our total assets under management. Our dedicated credit funds comprise our opportunistic credit funds and Institutional Credit Strategies products.
Opportunistic Credit Funds
As of December 31, 2020, we managed approximately $6.3 billion of assets under management in our opportunistic credit funds. These products seek to generate risk-adjusted returns by capturing value in mispriced investments across disrupted, dislocated and distressed corporate, structured and private credit markets globally. As of December 31, 2020, assets under management in the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund, our global opportunistic credit fund, totaled $2.5 billion. The remainder of the assets under management in our opportunistic credit products was made up of various open-end and closed-end funds, as well as customized solutions structured to meet our fund investors’ needs.
Institutional Credit Strategies
As of December 31, 2020, we managed approximately $15.7 billion of assets under management in our Institutional Credit Strategies products. Institutional Credit Strategies is our platform that invests in performing credit via leveraged loans, high yield bonds, private financing and investment-grade credit and serves clients through CLOs, CBOs, commingled products and customized solutions.
Real Estate
As of December 31, 2020, we managed approximately $4.3 billion of assets under management in our real estate funds, or 12% of our total assets under management. Our real estate funds employ a situation-specific, opportunistic investment strategy, combined with a disciplined risk assessment process. These funds seek to diversify investments across geography, asset types and transaction structures to actively balance the portfolios within each of the funds.
Investment and Risk Management Process
Our extensive experience and consistent approach to investing and risk management are an essential part of our strong performance history. Risk management is highly integrated with our investment process and the operations of our business. Our investment and risk management processes benefit from our dedicated and experienced teams operating out of our offices worldwide.
Our approach to investing and managing risk is defined by certain common elements:
Proactive risk management is built on the principles of constant vigilance, frequent dialog, and continuous improvement. We constantly monitor risk and have instituted a formal and consistent process to disseminate information, conduct informed debate, and take proactive or responsive action across our portfolios. Technology is at the core of Sculptor’s risk management efforts, and we leverage our broad capabilities to develop proprietary solutions that fit the exact specifications of our investment approach. In addition to our formalized process, we conduct custom studies and optimizations for various groups on an as-needed, ad hoc basis such as bespoke hedge solutions, pre-trade what-if analysis, and portfolio rebalance alternatives.
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Preservation of capital. Preservation of capital is our top priority and guiding factor in our effort to deliver attractive returns to fund investors. Our goal is to preserve capital during periods of market decline and generate competitive investment performance in rising markets. We use sophisticated risk tools and active portfolio management to govern exposures to market and other risk factors. We adhere strictly to each fund’s mandate and provisions with respect to leverage. We are knowledgeable about the risks of fund leverage, respectful of its limits, and judicious in our application.
Dynamic capital allocation. We allocate to individual investments based on a thorough analysis of the risk/reward for each opportunity under consideration and the investment objectives for each of our funds. This results in an overall capital allocation that is constantly fine-tuned based on our best ideas at each point in time.
Expertise across strategies and geographies. The considerable expertise, tenure and collaboration among our diverse interdisciplinary investment team forms the basis of our ability to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for our fund investors. We have fostered a culture that allows us to analyze and scrutinize investment opportunities on a firm-wide basis, focusing on the best ideas and opportunities available.
Our Fund Investors
We focus on developing and maintaining long-term relationships with a global base of institutional investors, which includes many of the largest, most sophisticated investors in the world. Excluding our securitization vehicles within Institutional Credit Strategies products, we currently have over 1,000 investors in our funds, including pension funds, private banks, corporates and other institutions, fund-of-funds, foundations and endowments, and family offices and individuals. Our investors value our funds’ consistent performance history, our global investing expertise, our diverse investment strategies and our ability to develop investment capabilities in areas where we see opportunities evolve. As a result, a number of our fund investors invest in more than one of our funds.
Investments by our executive managing directors and employees collectively comprised approximately 4% of our total assets under management as of January 1, 2021. The single largest unaffiliated investor in our funds accounted for approximately 16% of our total assets under management as of January 1, 2021, and the top five unaffiliated fund investors accounted for approximately 42%. Approximately 33% of our assets under management were from investors from outside North America as of January 1, 2021. These percentages, as well as those presented in the chart below, exclude assets under management in our securitization vehicles, which are held by various types of investors.
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The following chart presents the composition of our fund investors by type across our funds as of January 1, 2021:
scu-20201231_g1.jpg
Competitive Environment
The asset management industry is intensely competitive, and we expect that it will remain so. We compete globally and regionally with other investment managers, including hedge funds, public and private investment firms, distressed debt funds, mezzanine funds and other CLO issuers, real estate development companies, business development companies, investment banks and other financial institutions worldwide. We compete for both investors in our funds and attractive investment opportunities based on a number of factors, including investment performance, brand recognition, business reputation, pricing, innovation, the quality of services we provide to the investors in our funds, the range of products we offer, and our ability to attract and retain qualified professionals in all aspects of our business while managing our operating costs. We face competitors that are larger than we are and have greater financial, technical and marketing resources. Certain of our competitors may continue to raise capital to pursue investment strategies that may be similar to ours, which may create additional competition for investment opportunities. In addition, some of these competitors may have higher risk tolerances or make different risk assessments than we do, or may have lower return thresholds, allowing them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish broader networks of business relationships. They may also be subject to different regulatory requirements, which may give them greater flexibility to pursue investment opportunities or attract new capital to their funds. For additional information regarding the competitive risks that we face, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Competitive pressures in the asset management business could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations”
Competitive Strengths
Sculptor Capital is built on certain distinct fundamental elements that we believe are differentiating competitive strengths. We view these elements as a crucial part of our efforts to generate attractive and consistent long-term investment performance and to retain and attract new assets under management.
Alignment of interests. Sculptor’s structure is designed to align the interests of our executive managing directors and employees with those of investors in our funds and our Class A Shareholders. Our 22 active executive managing directors and 56 managing directors (as of December 31, 2020) have a compensation structure that focuses on both individual and firm-wide performance. This structure includes granting a portion of bonus compensation in a combination of equity and deferred cash interests that vest over time.
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One-firm philosophy. Our “one-firm” philosophy promotes a collaborative environment that encourages internal cooperation and cross-functional sharing of information, expertise and transaction experience gained over our 25-year history. We believe this strong collaborative approach is a key differentiator that enhances the success of our firm as a whole.
Synergies among investment strategies. Our investment model is built off and benefits from full collaboration among our investment team, fostering trust, diverse viewpoints, cross-disciplinary development and critical self-examination. We believe this approach is a central factor in our ability to identify, evaluate and pursue opportunities across a broad range of geographies and capital structures.
Global presence. We are a global organization with an investment philosophy that opportunistically pursues “best ideas” investment opportunities wherever they arise. Our ability to invest worldwide allows us to evaluate the fullest range of investments by employing both on-the-ground expertise and the support of our global team and infrastructure. Our investment professionals in the U.S., Europe and Asia are seamlessly integrated with the global team and have a long history of investing on an international scale.
Experience. Sculptor’s one-firm philosophy and collaborative investment style is enabled by the long tenure and shared experience of our investment and executive teams. We have a history of hiring highly talented employees and developing them into senior roles as managing directors and executive managing directors across the firm.
Focus on infrastructure. Since inception, Sculptor has been highly committed to building and maintaining a robust infrastructure with an emphasis on strong financial, operational and compliance controls. As of December 31, 2020, of the firm’s 78 active executive managing directors and managing directors, 24 are dedicated to our global infrastructure, illustrating our commitment to this important part of our business. As a public company, we are required to identify and document key processes and controls, which are subject to independent review.
Transparency. We believe that our fund investors should be provided with qualitative and quantitative information about our investment process, operational procedures and portfolio exposures in order to fully understand and evaluate their partnership with Sculptor. We provide fund investors with comprehensive and transparent reporting on a regular basis, and our senior management and investment staff regularly meet with investors to provide updates and address questions.
Our Structure
Sculptor Capital Management, Inc.
Sculptor Capital Management, Inc. is a publicly traded holding company, and its primary assets are ownership interests in the Sculptor Operating Group entities, which are held indirectly through Sculptor Corp. We conduct our business through the Sculptor Operating Group. Sculptor Capital Management, Inc. currently has two classes of shares outstanding: Class A Shares and Class B Shares.
Class A Shares.    Class A Shares represent Class A common stock in Sculptor Capital Management, Inc. The holders of Class A Shares are entitled to one vote per share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders and, as of December 31, 2020, represent 41.1% of our total combined voting power. The holders of Class A Shares are entitled to any distribution declared by our Board of Directors, subject to any statutory or contractual restrictions on the payment of distributions and to any restrictions on the payment of distributions imposed by the terms of any outstanding preferred shares we may issue in the future. Additional Class A Shares are issuable upon exercise of warrants, as well as exchange of Partner Equity Units, subject to certain vesting and other conditions as discussed below, and upon vesting of equity awards granted under our Amended and Restated 2007 Equity Incentive Plan or 2013 Incentive Plan. The Company also has warrants outstanding to issue an additional 4,338,015 of Class A Shares, see Note 8 for additional details on warrants.
Class B Shares.    Class B Shares have no economic rights and are not publicly traded, but rather entitle the holders of record to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders and, as of December 31, 2020, the Class B Shares represent 58.9% of our total combined voting power. The Class B Shares are held solely by current and former executive
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managing directors and provide them with a voting interest in Sculptor Capital Management, Inc. commensurate with their economic interest in the Sculptor Operating Group in the form of Group A Units, Group A-1 Units (until a corresponding number of Group E Units have vested), Group E Units (once such Group E Units have vested) and Group P Units (assuming such Group P Units are participating). Each executive managing director holding Group A Units, Group A-1 Units (until a corresponding number of Group E Units have vested), vested Group E Units or Group P Units holds an equal number of Class B Shares. Upon an issuance of Group A Units or Group P Units to an executive managing director or the vesting of such executive managing director’s Group E Units, an equal number of Class B Shares is also issued to such executive managing director. Upon the exchange by an executive managing director of a Partner Equity Unit for a Class A Share as further discussed below, the corresponding Class B Share is canceled. Class B Shares that relate to our Group A-1 Units will be voted pro rata in accordance with the vote of the Class A Shares until a corresponding Group E Unit has vested.
Sculptor Operating Group Entities
We conduct our business through the Sculptor Operating Group. Historically, we have used more than one Sculptor Operating Group entity to segregate our operations for business, financial, tax and other reasons. We may increase or decrease the number of our Sculptor Operating Group entities and intermediate holding companies based on our views as to the appropriate balance between administrative convenience and business, financial, tax and other considerations.
The Sculptor Operating Group currently consists of Sculptor Capital LP, Sculptor Capital Advisors LP and Sculptor Capital Advisors II LP, and each of their consolidated subsidiaries (collectively, the “Sculptor Operating Partnerships” and collectively with their consolidated subsidiaries, the “Sculptor Operating Group”). Sculptor Capital Management, Inc. holds its interests in the Sculptor Operating Group indirectly through Sculptor Capital Holding Corporation (“Sculptor Corp”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Sculptor Capital Management, Inc. Sculptor Corp is the sole general partner of each of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships and, therefore, generally controls the business and affairs of such entities. The Sculptor Operating Group currently has the following units outstanding: Group A Units, Group A-1 Units, Group B Units, Group E Units and Group P Units.
The Group A Units and Group B Units have no preference or priority over other securities of the Sculptor Operating Group (other than the Group E Units and Group P Units to the extent described below) and, upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, will be entitled to any assets remaining after payment of all debts and liabilities of the Sculptor Operating Group.
Group A Units. Our current and former executive managing directors own 100% of the Group A Units, which as of December 31, 2020, represent a 30.9% equity interest in the Sculptor Operating Group. Currently, Group A Units are exchangeable for our Class A Shares at the discretion of the Exchange Committee (which consists of the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of Sculptor Capital Management, Inc.) (or the cash equivalent thereof), on a one-for-one basis, subject to vesting requirements by our executive managing directors, book-up requirements, transfer restrictions and certain exchange rate adjustments for splits, unit distributions and reclassifications. In connection with the Recapitalization, the Sculptor Operating Partnerships initiated a distribution holiday (the “Distribution Holiday”). Holders of Group A Units do not receive distributions on such units during the Distribution Holiday. Each of our executive managing directors may exchange his or her vested and booked-up Group A Units over a period of two years in three equal installments commencing upon the final day of the Distribution Holiday and on each of the first and second anniversary thereof (or, for units that become vested and booked-up Group A Units after the final day of the Distribution Holiday, from the later of the date on which they would have been exchangeable in accordance with the foregoing and the date on which they become vested and booked-up Group A Units) (and thereafter such units will remain exchangeable), in each case, subject to certain restrictions (including, among other things, in connection with the Company’s insider trading policy in respect of affiliate holders and in certain circumstances where the exchange would be likely to impact the Company’s ability to use net operating losses). On the date of the Recapitalization, each Group A Unit then outstanding was recapitalized into 0.65 Group A Units and 0.35 Group A-1 Units. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information.
Group A-1 Units. Group A-1 Units are interests into which 0.35 of each Group A Unit then outstanding was recapitalized in connection with the Recapitalization. The Group A-1 Units will be canceled at such time and to the extent that the Group E Units granted in connection with the Recapitalization and associated with such Group A-1 Units vest and achieve a book-up. Group A-1 Units are not eligible to receive distributions at any time. However, the holders of Group A-1 Units shall
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participate in any sale, change of control or other liquidity event. In the Recapitalization, the holders of the 2016 Preferred Units forfeited 749,813 Group A Units, which were also recapitalized into Group A-1 Units.
Group B Units. Sculptor Corp holds a general partner interest and Group B Units in each Sculptor Operating Partnership that it controls. Group B Units are issued in respect to Class A Shares and Sculptor Corp owns 100% of the Group B Units, which, as of December 31, 2020, represent a 44.1% equity interest in the Sculptor Operating Group. Except during the Distribution Holiday, the Group B Units are economically identical to the Group A Units and represent common equity interests in our business, but are not exchangeable for Class A Shares and are not subject to vesting, forfeiture or minimum retained ownership requirements.
Group E Units. Group E Units are limited partner profits interests issued to certain executive managing directors that are only entitled to future profits and gains. Each Group E Unit converts into a Group A Unit and becomes exchangeable for one Class A Share (or the cash equivalent thereof) to the extent there has been a sufficient amount of appreciation for a Group E Unit to achieve a book-up target and, subject to other conditions contained in the limited partnership agreements of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships, the Distribution Holiday has ended (or an earlier exchange date is established by the Exchange Committee). The Group E Units are entitled to share in residual assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up and become eligible to participate in any tag along right, in a change of control transaction or other liquidity event only to the extent of their relative positive capital accounts (if any). One Class B Share will be issued to each holder of Group E Units upon the vesting of each such holder’s Group E Unit, at which time a corresponding number of Class B Shares held by holders of Group A-1 Units will be canceled. The general partner of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships may conditionally issue additional Group E Units to active executive managing directors, in an aggregate number not to exceed the amount described in the Sculptor Operating Partnerships’ limited partnership agreements. The Group E Units convert into Group A Units to the extent they become economically equivalent to Group A Units. As part of the Recapitalization, holders of Group E Units will not receive distributions during the Distribution Holiday. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information.
Group P Units. On March 1, 2017, we issued Group P Units to certain executive managing directors. Group P Units entitle holders to receive distributions of future profits of the Sculptor Operating Group, and each Group P Unit becomes exchangeable for one Class A Share (or the cash equivalent thereof), in each case upon satisfaction of certain service and performance conditions at such time and, with respect to exchanges, to the extent there has been sufficient appreciation for a Group P Unit to achieve a book-up target and, subject to other conditions contained in the limited partnership agreements of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships, the Distribution Holiday has ended (or an earlier exchange date is established by the Exchange Committee). The Group P Units are entitled to share in residual assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up and become eligible to participate in any tag along right, in a change of control transaction or other liquidity event only to the extent that certain performance conditions are met and to the extent of their relative positive capital accounts (if any). The terms of the Group P Units may be varied for certain executive managing directors. See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information regarding the terms of the Group P Units.
Restricted Share Units
We grant RSUs as a form of compensation to our employees and executive managing directors. An RSU entitles the holder to receive a Class A Share, or cash equal to the fair value of a Class A Share at the election of the Board of Directors, upon completion of the requisite service period. All of the RSUs granted to date accrue dividend equivalents equal to the dividend amounts paid on our Class A Shares. To date, these dividend equivalents have been awarded in the form of additional RSUs that also accrue additional dividend equivalents. Delivery of dividend equivalents on outstanding RSUs is contingent upon the vesting of the underlying RSUs. As part of the Recapitalization, certain RSUs held by directors and certain executive managing directors are limited in the amount of dividend equivalents they may receive during the Distribution Holiday. See Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information.
In 2018, we began granting PSUs. A PSU entitles the holder to receive a Class A Share, or cash equal to the fair value of a Class A Share at the election of the Board of Directors, upon completion of the requisite service period, as well as satisfying certain performance conditions based on achievement of targeted total shareholder return on Class A Shares. PSUs do not begin to accrue dividend equivalents until the requisite service period has been completed and performance conditions have been achieved. See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information regarding RSUs and PSUs.
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The diagram below depicts our organizational structure as of December 31, 2020:
scu-20201231_g2.jpg
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This diagram does not give effect to 4,338,015 Class A Shares that would be issued if all of our outstanding warrants were exercised. In addition, this diagram does not give effect to 3,527,778 RSUs that were outstanding as of December 31, 2020, which were granted to our executive managing directors, managing directors, other employees and the independent members of our Board of Directors. Also not presented in the diagram above are 3,385,000 Group P Units and 1,000,000 PSUs issued and held by our executive managing directors. The Group P Units and PSUs are not participating in the economics of Sculptor Operating Group, as the applicable Performance Conditions (as defined in Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements) have not yet been met as of December 31, 2020. Further, not presented in the diagram above are Class C Non-Equity Interests, which are non-equity interests in the Sculptor Operating Group entities held by our executive managing directors. No holder of Class C Non-Equity Interests will have any right to receive distributions on such interests. Our executive managing directors hold all of the Class C Non-Equity Interests, which may be used for discretionary income allocations, including the cash element of any discretionary annual performance awards paid to our executive managing directors. References to bonuses throughout this annual report include any Class C Non-Equity Interests distributions.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2020, our worldwide headcount was 351, including 22 active executive managing directors and 56 managing directors, consisting of 105 investment professionals, 215 global infrastructure professionals and 31 investor relations professionals. We have built an experienced cross-functional team with a well-established presence in the United States, Europe and Asia.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
Sculptor is strongly committed to cultivating and growing a culture of diversity and inclusion. We believe that a breadth of backgrounds, experiences and knowledge is a competitive advantage and enhances the well-being and effectiveness of our employees. Sculptor’s diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives aim to recruit, retain, and promote diverse talent, as well as to engage and train employees with these goals in mind. We encourage employees to participate in and support one another through our affinity networks. Our current networks include affinity groups for Women, LGBTQ, Black & African American, Asian, and Hispanic & Latino employees. These groups assist in fostering diverse recruiting and retention efforts.
Recruiting and developing diverse talent is an ongoing focus for Sculptor. Sculptor targets a diverse candidate population through its recruiting efforts and partnerships with relevant organizations. Sculptor’s developmental efforts include day-to-day mentoring, training and firm-wide events. We also seek to promote diverse talent, including into senior leadership roles, wherever appropriate, which supports retention of diverse employees.
Sculptor’s annual employee performance review process is essential to establishing an equitable environment and to retaining our employees. The process ensures that employees receive detailed feedback on their performance on a formal basis at least once a year. Because compliance and ethics are a fundamental component of our firm’s culture, compliance with these key principles is part of our performance review process. Our review process also includes an evaluation of employees’ participation in promoting an inclusive firm culture. In connection with our goal to retain diverse talent and ensure an equitable environment, we regularly conduct pay equity reviews across all levels and groups within the firm.
Compensation and Benefits
We believe that equitable compensation and incentive programs are critical to hiring and retaining highly qualified people. We seek to provide a pay and benefits package that is competitive within the local marketplace for our industry to reward and retain our employees and attract new talent.
Our annual discretionary performance-based cash bonus program is a significant component of our compensation program and rewards employees based in part on firm performance which directly aligns our employees with our financial performance and strategic goals. To further align the interests of our employees and to cultivate a strong sense of ownership and commitment to our firm, certain employees are also eligible to receive awards of restricted stock units or participate in our other long-term incentive programs.

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Additionally, we provide our employees with a comprehensive benefits package which includes, among other benefits, support and coverage for physical and mental wellness. These offerings are consistent with our commitment to the health, safety and well-being of our employees.
Regulatory Matters
Our business is subject to extensive regulation, including periodic examinations and regulatory investigations, by governmental and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. Since 1999, we have been registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the Advisers Act. We are also a company subject to the registration and reporting provisions of the Exchange Act, and therefore subject to regulation and oversight by the SEC. As a company with a class of securities listed on the NYSE, we are subject to the rules and regulations of the NYSE. In addition, among other rules and regulations, we are subject to regulation by the Department of Labor under the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which we refer to as “ERISA.” As a registered commodity pool operator and a registered commodity trading advisor, we are subject to regulation and oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, which we refer to as the “CFTC.” We are also subject to regulation and oversight by the National Futures Association in the U.S., as well as other regulatory bodies.
Our European and Asian operations, and our investment activities around the globe, are subject to a variety of regulatory regimes that vary country by country, including the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, and the Securities and Futures Commission in Hong Kong. Currently, governmental authorities in the U.S. and in the other countries in which we operate have proposed additional disclosure requirements and regulation of hedge funds and other alternative asset managers.
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Extensive regulation of our business affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. Our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially affected by regulatory issues,” “—Increased regulatory focus in the U.S. could result in additional burdens on our business,” and “—Regulatory changes in jurisdictions outside the U.S. could adversely affect our business”.
Global Compliance Program
We have implemented a global compliance program to address the legal and regulatory requirements that apply to our company-wide operations. We have structured our global compliance program to address the requirements of each of our regulators, as described above, as well as the requirements necessary to support our global securities, futures, swaps, commodities and loan trading operations.
Our compliance program includes comprehensive policies and procedures that have been designed and implemented to monitor compliance with these requirements. All employees are required to complete certain annual trainings to ensure that they have the information and skills necessary to perform their duties in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations and Sculptor’s requirements for the workplace. Mandatory annual compliance trainings are designed to reinforce our policies and procedures related to matters such as the handling of material non-public information, conflicts of interest and employee securities trading. Annual training specifically targeted at ensuring the understanding of and compliance with the FCPA and, as applicable, other foreign anti-corruption laws and regulations is mandatory for employees and executives responsible for structuring, supervising, ensuring compliance of and executing accounting functions for private deals, as well as for employees who interact with or provide reporting to investors. Annual trainings also cover areas relating to information security, as well as harassment prevention. In addition to a robust internal compliance framework, we have strong relationships with a global network of local attorneys specializing in compliance matters to help us quickly identify regulatory changes and address compliance issues as they arise.
Information about our Executive Officers
Set forth below is certain information regarding our executive officers as of the date of this filing.
Robert Shafir, 62, is the Chief Executive Officer of Sculptor Capital and a member of the Company’s Partner Management Committee. He is also an Executive Managing Director and a member of the Company’s Board of Directors. Prior to joining Sculptor Capital in 2018, Mr. Shafir served in various capacities at Credit Suisse Group AG from 2007 to 2016. Most
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recently, he served as Chairman and CEO of Credit Suisse Americas and Co-Head of Private Banking & Wealth Management, which included oversight of Asset Management. He was a member of the Executive Board of Credit Suisse Group and Credit Suisse. Prior to joining Credit Suisse, in August 2007, Mr. Shafir worked at Lehman Brothers for 17 years, serving as Head of Global Equities, as well as a member of their Executive Board. He also held other senior roles, including Head of European Equities and Global Head of Equities Trading, and played a key role in building Lehman’s equities business into a global, institutionally-focused franchise. Prior to that, he worked at Morgan Stanley in the preferred stock business within the fixed income division. Mr. Shafir received a B.A. in Economics from Lafayette College and an M.B.A. from Columbia Business School.
Dava Ritchea, 36, is the Chief Financial Officer of Sculptor Capital. She is also an Executive Managing Director and a member of the Company’s Partner Management Committee. Prior to joining Sculptor Capital in 2021, Ms. Ritchea served as Chief Financial Officer at Assured Investment Management (formerly known as BlueMountain Capital Management) from January 2017, and vice president of business management and strategy from October 2013 to January 2017. Prior to joining Assured Investment Management in 2013, Ms. Ritchea worked at Barclays Capital, Credit Suisse and Lehman Brothers in several investment banking and strategy roles. Ms. Ritchea received a B.S. in Business Administration with a minor in Mathematics from Carnegie Mellon University.
James S. Levin, 37, is the Chief Investment Officer for Sculptor Capital. He is also a member of the Company’s Partner Management Committee, a member of the Company’s Board of Directors, an Executive Managing Director and a member of the Portfolio Committee. Prior to joining Sculptor Capital in 2006, Mr. Levin was an Associate at Dune Capital Management LP. Prior to that, Mr. Levin was an analyst at Sagamore Hill Capital Management, L.P. Mr. Levin holds a B.A. in Computer Science from Harvard University.
Wayne Cohen, 46, is the President and Chief Operating Officer for Sculptor Capital. He is also an Executive Managing Director and a member of the Company’s Partner Management Committee. In this role, Mr. Cohen has a broad scope of responsibilities managing day-to-day operations of Sculptor Capital, including overseeing non-investment functions and leading strategic initiatives. Mr. Cohen joined the Company in 2005 working as an Attorney and General Counsel. Prior to joining Sculptor Capital, he was an Attorney at Schulte Roth & Zabel LLP. Mr. Cohen holds a B.A. in International Relations from Tulane University and a J.D. from New York University School of Law.
David M. Levine, 53, is the Chief Legal Officer for Sculptor Capital. He is also an Executive Managing Director and a member of the Company’s Partner Management Committee. In this role, Mr. Levine oversees the Company’s legal team and the management of its legal affairs. Mr. Levine has over 20 years practicing securities law. Prior to joining Sculptor Capital in January 2017, Mr. Levine spent 15 years at Deutsche Bank AG, where he served as Global Head of Litigation and Regulatory Enforcement. From 1993 through 2001, Mr. Levine worked at the SEC in both New York and in the Washington D.C. headquarters. During this time he served in a variety of roles including as the agency’s Chief of Staff, as well as Senior Adviser to the Director of Enforcement. Mr. Levine holds a B.S. from SUNY Albany, and a J.D. Degree from Hofstra University School of Law where he was valedictorian and an editor of the law review.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks that are inherent to or otherwise impact the alternative asset management business. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. The market price of our Class A Shares could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occur. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.” In addition, the continuation or a resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic could heighten many other risks described below and elsewhere in this annual report.
Risks Related to Our Business
Difficult global market, economic or geopolitical conditions may materially adversely affect our business and cause significant volatility in equity and debt prices, interest rates, exchange rates, commodity prices and credit spreads. These factors can materially adversely affect our business in many ways, including by reducing the value or performance of the investments made by our funds and by reducing the ability of our funds to raise or deploy capital, each of which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
The success and growth of our business are highly dependent upon conditions in the global financial markets and economic and geopolitical conditions throughout the world that are outside of our control and difficult to predict. Factors such as equity prices, equity market volatility, asset or market correlations, interest rates, counterparty risks, availability of credit, inflation rates, economic uncertainty, changes in laws or regulation (including laws relating to the financial markets generally or the taxation or regulation of the hedge fund industry), trade barriers and tariffs, disease, commodity prices, currency exchange rates and controls, and national and international political circumstances (including governmental instability or dysfunction, wars, terrorist acts or security operations) can have a material impact on the value of our funds’ portfolio investments or our general ability to conduct business. Difficult market, economic and geopolitical conditions can negatively impact those valuations and our ability to conduct business, which in turn would reduce or even eliminate our revenues and profitability, thereby having a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. As a global alternative asset manager, we seek to generate consistent, positive, absolute returns across all market cycles for the investors in our funds. Our ability to do this has been, and in the future may be, materially impacted by conditions in the global credit or equity financial markets and economic and geopolitical conditions worldwide.
Unpredictable or unstable market, economic or geopolitical conditions have resulted and may in the future result in reduced opportunities to find suitable risk-adjusted investments to deploy capital and make it more difficult to exit and realize value from our existing investments, which could materially adversely affect our ability to raise new funds and increase our assets under management and, therefore, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, during such periods, financing and merger and acquisition activity may be greatly reduced, making it harder and more competitive for asset managers to find suitable investment opportunities and to obtain funding for such opportunities. If we fail to react appropriately to difficult market, economic and geopolitical conditions, our funds could incur material losses.
The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union and the implications thereof on United Kingdom, European and global macroeconomics conditions could adversely affect our business.
The United Kingdom (the “UK”) left the European Union (the “EU”) on January 31, 2020 (commonly referred to as “Brexit”). During an 11 month transition period, the UK and the EU agreed to a Trade and Cooperation Agreement which sets out the agreement for certain parts of the future relationship between the EU and the UK from January 1, 2021. The Trade and Cooperation Agreement does not provide the UK with the same level of rights or access to all goods and services in the EU as the UK previously maintained as a member of the EU and during the transition period. In particular the Trade and Cooperation Agreement does not include an agreement on financial services which is yet to be agreed. Accordingly, uncertainty remains in certain areas as to the future relationship between the UK and the EU.
From January 1, 2021, EU laws ceased to apply in the UK. However, many EU laws have been transposed into English law and these transposed laws will continue to apply until such time that they are repealed, replaced or amended. Depending on the terms of any future agreement between the EU and the UK on financial services, substantial amendments to English law may occur, and it is impossible to predict the consequences on our funds, their investments, and our business. Such changes could be materially detrimental to investors.
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Although one cannot predict the full effect of Brexit, it could have a significant adverse impact on the UK, European and global macroeconomic conditions and could lead to prolonged political, legal, regulatory, tax and economic uncertainty. This uncertainty is likely to continue to impact the global economic climate and may impact opportunities, pricing, availability and cost of bank financing, regulation, values or exit opportunities of companies or assets based, doing business, or having service or other significant relationships in, the UK or the EU, which may negatively impact our business, including companies or assets held or considered for prospective investment by our funds.
The future application of EU-based legislation to the private fund industry in the UK and the EU will ultimately depend on how the UK renegotiates the regulation of the provision of financial services within and to persons in the EU. There can be no assurance that any renegotiated terms or regulations will not have an adverse impact on our funds, their investments or our business, including the ability of our funds to achieve their investment objectives. Brexit may result in significant market dislocation, heightened counterparty risk, an adverse effect on the management of market risk and, in particular, asset and liability management due in part to redenomination of financial assets and liabilities, an adverse effect on our ability, and the ability of our affiliates to manage, operate and invest in our funds and increased legal, regulatory or compliance burden for us, our affiliates and/or our funds, each of which may have a negative impact on the operations, financial condition, returns or prospects of our funds, which may have a negative impact on our business.
Areas where the uncertainty created by the UK’s withdrawal from the EU is relevant include, but are not limited to, trade within Europe, foreign direct investment in Europe, the scope and functioning of European regulatory frameworks (including with respect to the regulation of alternative investment fund managers and the distribution and marketing of alternative investment funds), industrial policy pursued within European countries, immigration policy pursued within EU countries, the regulation of the provision of financial services within and to persons in Europe and trade policy within European countries and internationally. The volatility and uncertainty caused by the withdrawal may adversely affect the value of our funds’ investments and the ability to achieve the investment objective of our funds, as well as the investment objectives of our business.
An investment in our Class A Shares is not an alternative to an investment in any of our funds, and the returns of our funds should not be considered as indicative of any returns expected on our Class A Shares, although poor investment performance of, or lack of capital flows into, the funds we manage could have a materially adverse impact on our revenues and, therefore, the returns on our Class A Shares.
The returns on our Class A Shares are not directly linked to the historical or future performance of the funds we manage or the manager of those funds. Even if our funds experience positive performance and our assets under management increase, holders of our Class A Shares may not experience a corresponding positive return on their Class A Shares.
However, poor performance of the funds we manage will cause a decline in our revenues from such funds, and may therefore have a negative effect on our performance and the returns on our Class A Shares. If we fail to meet the expectations of our fund investors or otherwise experience poor investment performance, whether due to difficult economic and financial conditions or otherwise, our ability to retain existing assets under management and attract new investors and capital flows could be materially adversely affected. In turn, the management fees and incentive income that we would earn would be reduced and our business, financial condition or results of operations would suffer, thus negatively impacting the price of our Class A Shares. Furthermore, even if the investment performance of our funds is positive, our business, financial condition or results of operations and the price of our Class A Shares could be materially adversely affected if we are unable to attract and retain additional assets under management consistent with our past experience, industry trends or investor and market expectations.
Investors in our funds have the right to redeem their investments in our funds on a regular basis and could redeem a significant amount of assets under management during any given quarterly period, which would result in significantly decreased revenues.
Subject to any specific redemption provisions applicable to a fund, investors in our multi-strategy and opportunistic credit funds may generally redeem their investments in our funds on an annual or quarterly basis following the expiration of a specified period of time (typically between one and three years), although certain investors generally may redeem capital during such specified period upon giving proper notice. In a declining market, during periods when the alternative asset management industry generally experiences outflows, or in response to specific events that occur at the Company, we could experience increased redemptions and a consequent reduction in our assets under management. Furthermore, investors in our funds may also invest in funds managed by other alternative asset managers that have restricted or suspended redemptions or may in the future
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do so. Such investors may redeem capital from our funds, even if our performance is superior to such other alternative asset managers’ performance if they are restricted or prevented from redeeming capital from those other managers. We may experience elevated redemption levels if economic and market conditions remain uncertain or worsen. The decrease in revenues that would result from significant redemptions in our funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially adversely impacted by the highly variable nature of our revenues, results of operations and cash flows. In a typical year, a substantial portion of our incentive income and a large portion of our annual discretionary cash bonus expense is determined and recorded in the fourth quarter each year, which means that our interim results are not expected to be indicative of our results for a full year, which can cause increased volatility in the price of our Class A Shares.
Our revenues are influenced by the combination of the amount of assets under management and the investment performance of our funds. Asset flows, whether inflows or outflows, can be highly variable from month-to-month and quarter-to-quarter. Furthermore, our funds’ investment performance, which affects the amount of assets under management and the amount of incentive income we may earn in a given year, can be volatile due to, among other things, general market and economic conditions. Accordingly, our revenues, results of operations and cash flows are all highly variable. This variability is exacerbated during the fourth quarter of each year, primarily due to the fact that a substantial portion of our revenues historically has been and we expect will continue to be derived from incentive income from our funds. Such incentive income is contingent on the investment performance of the funds as of the relevant commitment period, which generally is as of the end of each calendar year; however, as of December 31, 2020, with respect to 67% of assets under management, the initial commitment period can be three years or longer depending on how the assets are invested. The expiration of these commitment periods may occur on dates other than December 31, which, in certain circumstances, may cause increased volatility in our results. Moreover, in a typical year, we determine a large portion of our annual discretionary cash bonus during the fourth quarter based on fund performance for the year. Because this bonus is variable and discretionary, it can exacerbate the volatility of our results. We may also experience fluctuations in our results from quarter to quarter due to a number of other factors, including changes in management fees resulting from changes in the management fee rates we charge our fund investors or due to changes in the values of our funds’ investments, as well as capital inflows or outflows. Changes in our operating expenses, unexpected business developments and initiatives and, as discussed above, general economic and market conditions may also cause fluctuations in our results from quarter to quarter. Such variability and unpredictability may lead to volatility or declines in the price of our Class A Shares and cause our results for a particular period not to be indicative of our performance in a future period or particularly meaningful as a basis of comparison against results for a prior period.
The amount of incentive income that may be generated by our funds is uncertain until it is actually crystallized. The commitment period for most of our multi-strategy assets under management is for a period of one year on a calendar-year basis, and therefore we generally crystallize incentive income annually on December 31. We may also recognize incentive income related to fund investor redemptions at other times during the year, as well as on assets under management subject to commitment periods that are longer than one year. We may also recognize incentive income from tax distributions relating to assets with longer-term commitment periods. As a result of these and other factors, our interim results may not be indicative of historical performance or any results that may be expected for a full year.
In addition, all of our hedge funds have “perpetual high-water marks.” This means that if a fund investor experiences losses in a given year, we will not be able to earn incentive income with respect to such investor’s investment unless and until our investment performance surpasses the perpetual high-water mark. For example, the incentive income we earn is dependent on the net asset value of each fund investor’s investment in the fund. However, failure to earn incentive income as a result of any high-water marks that do arise may adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our Class A Shareholders.
As a result of quarterly fluctuations in, and the related unpredictability of, our revenues and profits, the price of our Class A Shares can experience significant volatility.
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Competitive pressures in the asset management business could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The asset management business remains intensely competitive, with competition based on a variety of factors, including investment performance, the quality of service and level of desired information provided to fund investors, brand recognition and business reputation. We compete for fund investors, highly qualified talent, including investment professionals, and for investment opportunities with a number of hedge funds, private equity firms, specialized funds, traditional asset managers, commercial banks, investment banks and other financial institutions.
A number of factors create competitive risks for us:
We compete in an international arena and, to remain competitive, we may need to further expand our business into new geographic regions or new business areas where our competitors may have a more established presence or greater experience and expertise.
A number of our competitors have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and more personnel than we do.
Several of our competitors have raised and continue to raise significant amounts of capital, and many of them have or may pursue investment objectives that are similar to ours, which would create additional competition for investment opportunities and may reduce the size and duration of pricing inefficiencies that many alternative investment strategies seek to exploit.
Some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and to bid more aggressively than us for investments that we may want to make.
Some of our competitors may be subject to less extensive regulation and thus may be better positioned to pursue certain investment objectives and/or be subject to lower expenses related to compliance than us.
Other industry participants will from time to time seek to recruit our active executive managing directors, investment professionals and other professional talent away from us.
We may lose fund investors in the future if we do not match or provide more attractive management fees, incentive income arrangements, structures and terms than those offered by competitors. However, we may experience decreased revenues if we match or provide more attractive management fees, incentive income arrangements, structures and terms offered by competitors. In addition, changes in the global capital markets could diminish the attractiveness of our funds relative to investments in other investment products. This competitive pressure could materially adversely affect our ability to make successful investments and limit our ability to raise future successful funds, either of which would materially adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If our investment performance, including the level and consistency of returns or other performance criteria, does not meet the expectations of our fund investors, it will be difficult for our funds to retain or raise capital and for us to grow our business. Additionally, even if our fund performance is strong, it is possible that we will not be able to attract additional capital. Further, the allocation of increasing amounts of capital to alternative investment strategies over the long term by institutional and individual investors may lead to a reduction in profitable investment opportunities, including by driving prices for investments higher and increasing the difficulty of achieving consistent, positive, absolute returns.
Competition for fund investors is based on a variety of factors, including:
Investment performance.
Investor liquidity and willingness to invest.
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Investor perception of investment managers’ ability, drive, focus and alignment of interest with them.
Investor perception of robustness of business infrastructure and financial controls.
Transparency with regard to portfolio composition.
Investment and risk management processes.
Quality of service provided to and duration of relationship with investors.
Business reputation, including the reputation of a firm’s investment professionals.
Level of fees and incentive income charged for services.
If we are not able to compete successfully based on these and other factors, our assets under management, earnings and revenues may be significantly reduced and our business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially adversely affected. Furthermore, if we are forced to compete with other alternative asset managers on the basis of fees, we may not be able to maintain our current management fee and incentive income structures, which drive our revenues and earnings. We have historically competed for fund investors primarily on the investment performance of our funds and our reputation, and not on the level of our fees or incentive income relative to those of our competitors. However, as the alternative asset management sector continues to mature and addresses current market and competitive conditions, there is increasing downward pressure on management fees and a risk that incentive income rates will decline, without regard to the historical performance of a manager. Management fee or incentive income rate reductions on existing or future funds, particularly without corresponding increases in assets under management or decreases in our operating costs, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition to the competitive pressures described above, as we diversify by offering new or enhanced products and investment platforms, the average management fee rate we earn on our assets under management may fall as a result of a larger proportion of our assets under management being invested in products that earn lower management fee rates. Our average management fee will vary from period to period based on the mix of products that comprise our assets under management.
Even if we are able to compete successfully based on the factors noted above, it is possible we could lose assets under management to our competitors. It is possible that similar circumstances could cause us to experience unusually high redemptions or a decrease in inflows, even if our investment performance and other business attributes are otherwise competitive or superior.
Damage to our reputation could harm our business.
Our business is highly competitive and we benefit from being highly regarded in our industry. Maintaining our reputation is critical to attracting and retaining fund investors and for maintaining our relationships with our regulators. Negative publicity regarding our company could give rise to reputational risk which could significantly harm our existing business and business prospects.
The uncertainty surrounding the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including the length and severity of its impact on global economic activity, caused a substantial disruption to many benchmark market indices and significantly increased volatility in equity and debt prices, interest and exchange rates, commodity prices and the ratings and cash flows of collateral in the CLOs that we manage. These factors may adversely impact our business in the future, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Additionally, we face various potential operational challenges due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The global economic downturn related to the COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted our business in the first quarter of 2020, which impacted our management fees in the second quarter and would have impacted our incentive income for the year had our funds not recovered in the last three quarters of 2020. The degree to which COVID-19 may continue to impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain, difficult to predict and outside of our control, including the continued global spread of COVID-19, the severity and the duration of the pandemic, the deployment and success of the COVID-19 vaccine, further actions that may be taken by governmental
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authorities, businesses or individuals and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. Risks that could be brought by the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic include, but are not limited to, dislocations in market prices for investments in our funds, substantial market uncertainty which could lead to a decline in assets under management and other negative effects that could flow from an overall economic downturn. As a result, the further impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity cannot be reasonably estimated at this time, but the impact could be significant.
To ensure the safety of our employees and in response to mandated precautions, where applicable, nearly all of our employees are working remotely to mitigate the risks associated with COVID-19. While we have been successful in operating our business remotely, unexpected operational challenges may arise in the future. If we or any of our key service providers were to experience material disruptions in the ability for our or their employees to work remotely, our ability to operate our business could be materially adversely impacted. If our employees, including our executive managing directors and key investment professionals, were to become seriously ill, our ability to operate our business could be materially disrupted. Any such disruptions to our business operations could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operation, financial condition or liquidity.
In addition, the continuation or a resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic could heighten many other risks described in this annual report.
Our indebtedness may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to certain changes or to take future actions.
On September 25, 2020, Sculptor Capital LP, as borrower, (the “Borrower”), and certain other subsidiaries of the Company, as guarantors, entered into a credit and guaranty agreement (the “2020 Credit Agreement”), consisting of (i) a senior secured term loan facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of $320.0 million (the “2020 Term Loan”) and (ii) a senior secured revolving credit facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of $25.0 million (the “2020 Revolving Credit Facility”). The funding of the 2020 Term Loan occurred on November 13, 2020 (the “Closing Date”). The 2020 Term Loan and the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility mature on the seventh and sixth anniversary of the Closing Date, respectively.
The 2020 Credit Agreement contains a number of restrictive covenants that collectively impose significant operating and financial restrictions on the Sculptor Operating Group, including restrictions that may limit their ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests, including but not limited to:
Incur certain additional indebtedness or issue certain equity interests.
Create liens.
Pay dividends or make other restricted payments.
Make payments on, or redeem, repurchase or retire, subordinated debt.
Merge, consolidate, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or any part of their assets.
Engage in certain transactions with shareholders or affiliates.
Engage in substantially different lines of business.
Amend their organizational documents in a manner materially adverse to the lenders.
If we are unable to repay or refinance the debt at or prior to maturity, we may be forced to sell assets, undergo a recapitalization or seek bankruptcy protection, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and liquidity.
In addition, the 2020 Credit Agreement requires us to comply with a minimum fee-paying assets under management covenant. A failure to comply with the covenants and other obligations specified in the 2020 Credit Agreement could result in an event of default under 2020 Credit Agreement, which would give the lenders under the 2020 Credit Agreement the right to
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declare all amounts outstanding under the 2020 Credit Agreement, including accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable. If the indebtedness outstanding under 2020 Credit Agreement were to be accelerated, we may not have sufficient cash on hand or be able to sell sufficient assets to repay this indebtedness, which may have an immediate material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
For a description of the 2020 Credit Agreement, please see Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report
Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect our credit arrangements and our collateralized loan obligation transactions.
LIBOR and certain other “benchmarks” are the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past or have other consequences which cannot be predicted.
In July 2017, the UK Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) announced that it would phase out LIBOR as a benchmark by the end of 2021. It is unclear whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, has proposed replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities called the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”). The first publication of SOFR was released in April 2018. The Bank of England followed suit on April 23, 2018 by publishing its proposed alternative rate, the Sterling Overnight Index Average (“SONIA”). Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as the primary LIBOR replacement remains unclear.
On November 30, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration Limited (“IBA”) announced that it would consult on its intention to cease the publication of (i) all GBP, EUR, CHF and JPY LIBOR settings, and the 1 Week and 2 Month USD LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on December 31, 2021, and (ii) the Overnight and 1, 3, 6 and 12 Month USD LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on June 30, 2023, subject to any rights of the FCA to compel IBA to continue publication. Concurrent with the announcement made by the IBA, the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation released a statement that (i) encouraged banks to cease entering into new contracts that use U.S. dollar LIBOR as a reference rate as soon as practicable and in any event by December 31, 2021, (ii) indicated that new contracts entered into before December 31, 2021 should either utilize a reference rate other than U.S. dollar LIBOR or have robust fallback language that includes a clearly defined alternative reference rate after U.S. dollar LIBOR’s discontinuation and (iii) explained that extending the publication of certain U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors until June 30, 2023 would allow most legacy US dollar LIBOR contracts to mature before LIBOR experiences disruptions.
Potential changes, or uncertainty related to such potential changes, may adversely affect the market for LIBOR-based financial instruments, including interest rates on certain of our floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives, and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates, as well as the revenue and expenses associated with those financial instruments. In addition, changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of LIBOR may result in a sudden or prolonged increase or decrease in reported LIBOR, which could have an adverse impact on the market for LIBOR-based financial instruments, including the value of our floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives, and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates. If LIBOR ceases to exist or is deemed by regulators to be unrepresentative, we may need to renegotiate these instruments extending beyond 2021 to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established in its place or another pricing method.
The Company has commenced an enterprise-wide initiative to identify, assess, and monitor risks associated with the expected discontinuance of LIBOR. An internal LIBOR transition working group meets regularly, engages with industry working groups, and leverages regulatory best practice guidelines to help effectuate the transition. To address a potential cessation of LIBOR, the 2020 Credit Agreement provides for an agreed upon methodology to establish a new floating rate reference plus new applicable spreads. For our latest generation of CLOs, we have been incorporating provisions to address a potential transition from LIBOR, however certain older CLOs may not currently have been amended to contain clear LIBOR transition procedures. For these older CLOs, if LIBOR ceases to exist, we may need to amend certain governing documents extending beyond 2021 to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established.
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Given the current uncertainties over LIBOR’s discontinuation and the replacement alternatives, it is not possible at this time to predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative reference rates, or any other reforms to LIBOR, including any impact on our LIBOR-linked credit agreements and CLOs. There is no guarantee that a transition from LIBOR to an alternative will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark rates, or borrowing costs to borrowers, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, result of operations, financial condition, and price of our Class A Shares.
Our business and financial condition may be materially adversely impacted by the loss of any of our key executive managing directors, particularly certain members of our Partner Management Committee.
The success of our business depends on the efforts, judgment and personal reputations of our key executive managing directors, particularly certain members of our Partner Management Committee. Our key executive managing directors’ reputations, expertise in investing and risk management, relationships with investors in our funds and third parties on which our funds depend for investment opportunities and financing are each critical elements in operating and expanding our business. The loss of any of these individuals – including James Levin, who as of April 1, 2021 will assume the role of Chief Executive Officer in addition to Chief Investment Officer – could harm our business and jeopardize our relationships with our fund investors and members of the business community. We believe our performance is highly correlated to the performance of these individuals. Accordingly, the retention of our key executive managing directors is crucial to our success, but none of them is obligated to remain actively involved with us. In addition, if any of our key executive managing directors were to join or form a competitor, some of our fund investors could choose to invest with that competitor rather than in our funds. The loss of the services of any of our key executive managing directors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, including on the performance of our funds, our ability to retain and attract fund investors and highly qualified employees and our ability to raise new funds. We do not carry any “key man” insurance that would provide us with proceeds in the event of the death or disability of any of our key executive managing directors.
In addition, investors in most of our funds have certain key person provisions that are triggered upon the loss of services of one or more key investment professionals and could, upon the occurrence of such event, provide the investors in the funds with certain rights such as earlier redemption rights (including by conversion to interests providing for more frequent liquidity) or rights providing for the termination or suspension of the funds’ investment periods and/or wind-down of the funds. Accordingly, the loss of such key investment professionals could result in significant or earlier redemptions from our funds or disruption of the funds’ investment activities, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations, and could harm our ability to maintain or grow our assets under management in existing funds or raise additional funds in the future. Withdrawals exercised pursuant to key person provisions could lead to a liquidation of certain funds and a corresponding elimination of our management fees and potential to earn incentive income beyond the withdrawal dates with respect to such funds.
Our ability to retain and attract executive managing directors, managing directors and other investment professionals is critical to the success and growth of our business.
Our investment performance and ability to successfully manage and expand our business, including into new geographic areas, is largely dependent on the talents and efforts of highly skilled individuals, including our active executive managing directors, managing directors and other investment professionals. Accordingly, our future success and growth depend on our ability to retain and motivate our active executive managing directors and other key personnel and to strategically recruit, retain and motivate new talent. We may not be successful in our efforts to recruit, retain and motivate the required personnel as the global market for qualified investment professionals is extremely competitive, particularly in cases where we are competing for qualified personnel in geographic or business areas where our competitors have a significantly greater presence or more extensive experience. We compete intensely with businesses both within and outside the alternative asset management industry for highly talented and qualified personnel. Accordingly, in order to retain and attract talent, our total compensation and benefits expense could increase to a level that may materially adversely affect our profitability and reduce our cash available for distribution to our executive managing directors and Class A Shareholders.
It may be difficult for us to retain and motivate our active executive managing directors after their interests in our business are fully vested and they are permitted to exchange their interests for Class A Shares that they can sell. Many of the Group A and Group D Units granted to executive managing directors since then are now also fully vested. The Group E Units
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granted to our active executive managing directors in connection with the Recapitalization generally vest in the future subject to vesting conditions. Sculptor Operating Group common units otherwise granted to our executive managing directors, including awards granted under our Incentive Program established in 2017 (the “2017 Incentive Program”), continue to vest over time. The holder of any Group A Units generally has the right to exchange each of his or her Group A Units for one of our Class A Shares (or, at our option, the cash equivalent thereof), subject to vesting and book-up requirements and transfer restrictions under the Sculptor Operating Partnerships’ limited partnership agreements and the Class A Unit Exchange Agreement (as defined below). Beginning on the final day of the Distribution Holiday, each of our executive managing directors may exchange his or her vested and booked-up Group A Units over a period of two years in three equal installments commencing upon the final day of the Distribution Holiday and on each of the first and second anniversary thereof (or, for units that become vested and booked-up Group A Units after the final day of the Distribution Holiday, from the later of the date on which they would have been exchangeable in accordance with the foregoing and the date on which they become vested and booked-up Group A Units) (and thereafter such units will remain exchangeable), in each case, subject to certain restrictions. For more detail regarding exchange rights of our active executive managing directors, see “—The price of our Class A Shares may decline due to the large number of shares eligible for future sale and for exchange into Class A Shares.” See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information on the 2017 Incentive Program and Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information on the Recapitalization.
If we are unable to retain the services of any of our active executive managing directors, the loss of their services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, including by harming our ability to maintain or grow assets under management in existing funds or raise additional funds in the future.
In any year where our funds experience losses and we do not earn incentive income, bonuses for that year (and in subsequent years until such losses are recouped) may be significantly reduced. Reduced bonuses, particularly during subsequent years, could have a material adverse impact on our ability to motivate and retain our investment professionals and other employees.
Furthermore, our active executive managing directors and investment professionals possess substantial experience and expertise in investing, are responsible for locating and executing our funds’ investments, have significant relationships with the institutions that are the source of many of our funds’ investment opportunities, and in certain cases have strong relationships with our fund investors. Therefore, if our active executive managing directors or investment professionals join competitors or form competing businesses, we could experience a loss of investment opportunities and existing fund investor relationships, which if significant, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Sculptor Operating Partnerships’ limited partnership agreements and other agreements entered into with our executive managing directors provide that the ownership interests in our business that are held by our executive managing directors are subject to various transfer restrictions and vesting and forfeiture conditions. In addition, the RSUs that have been awarded to our managing directors, certain executive managing directors and certain other employees are also subject to certain vesting and forfeiture requirements. Further, all of our active executive managing directors and managing directors are subject to certain restrictions with respect to competing with us, soliciting our employees and fund investors and disclosing confidential information about our business. These restrictions, however, may not be enforceable in all cases and can be waived by us at any time. There is no guarantee that these requirements and agreements, or the forfeiture provisions of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships’ limited partnership agreements (which are relevant to our executive managing directors) or the agreements we have with our managing directors will prevent any of these professionals from leaving us, joining our competitors or otherwise competing with us. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We have experienced and may again experience periods of rapid growth and significant declines in assets under management, which place significant demands on our legal, compliance, accounting, risk management, administrative and operational resources.
Rapid changes in our assets under management may impose substantial demands on our legal, compliance, accounting, risk management, administrative and operational infrastructures. The complexity of these demands, and the time and expense required to address them, is a function not simply of the size of the increase or decrease, but also of significant differences in the investing strategies employed within our funds and the time periods during which these changes occur. For example, expanding
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our product offerings and entering into new lines of business places additional demands on our infrastructure. Furthermore, our future growth will depend on, among other things, our ability to maintain and develop highly reliable operating platforms, management systems and financial reporting and compliance infrastructures that are also sufficiently flexible to promptly and appropriately address our business needs, applicable legal and regulatory requirements and relevant market and other operating conditions, all of which can change rapidly.
Addressing the matters described above may require us to incur significant additional expenses and to commit additional senior management and operational resources, even if we are experiencing declines in assets under management.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our operations effectively without incurring substantial additional expense or that we will be able to grow our business and assets under management, and any failure to do so could materially adversely affect our ability to generate revenues and control our expenses.
We are highly dependent on information systems and other technology, including those used or maintained by third parties with which we do business. Any failure or breach in any such systems or infrastructure (including from a cyberattack) could materially impair our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business is highly dependent on information systems and technology. We rely heavily on our financial, accounting, trading, risk management and other data processing and information systems to, among other things, execute, confirm, settle and record a very large number of transactions, which can be highly complex and involve multiple parties across multiple financial markets and geographies, and to facilitate financial reporting and legal and regulatory compliance all in an extremely time-sensitive, efficient and accurate manner. We must continually update these systems to properly support our operations and growth, which creates risks associated with implementing new systems and integrating them into existing ones. We also use and rely upon third-party information systems and technology to perform certain business functions. Such third-party technology may be integrated with our own. Therefore, we face additional significant risks that would arise from the failure, disruption, termination or constraints (including, in all respects, via a security breach or other tampering) in the information systems and technology of such third parties, including financial intermediaries such as exchanges and other service providers whose information systems and technology we use. Any of these information systems or technology infrastructures could fail, become disrupted (including by unauthorized security breaches) or otherwise not operate properly or as intended.
In addition, our systems may be subject to cyberattacks. Breaches of our network security systems could involve attacks that are intended to obtain unauthorized access to our proprietary information, destroy data or disable, degrade or sabotage our systems, often through the introduction of computer malware, cyberattacks and other means and could originate from a wide variety of sources, including employees, foreign governments and other unknown third parties outside the firm. The increased use of mobile technology can heighten these and other operational risks. Although we take various measures to ensure the integrity of our systems, there can be no assurance that these measures will always provide sufficient protection. The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. In addition, cybersecurity has become a top priority for regulators around the world. Many jurisdictions in which we operate have laws and regulations relating to data privacy, cybersecurity and protection of personal information, including, in the EU, the General Data Protection Regulation ((EU) 2016/679) (the “GDPR”), which came into effect on May 25, 2018, as supplemented by various national laws, and further implemented through binding guidance from the European Data Protection Board, and the UK Data Protection Act of 2018 (the “UK Data Protection Act”). The California Consumer Privacy Act, which came into operation on January 1, 2020, provides enhanced consumer protections for California residents, including a private right of action for some data breaches, and imposes civil penalties for violations. The California Privacy Rights Enforcement Act was passed by ballot initiative in November 2020 and will further expand the privacy rights of California residents when most of its substantive provisions go into operation on January 1, 2023. Some jurisdictions, including all 50 U.S. states, have also enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving certain types of personal data. Breaches in security could potentially jeopardize our, our employees’ or our fund investors’ or counterparties’ confidential and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our, our employees’, our fund investors’, our counterparties’ or third parties’ operations, which could result in significant losses, increased costs, disruption of our business, liability to our fund investors and other counterparties, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. Furthermore, if we fail to comply with the relevant laws and regulations, it could result in regulatory investigations and penalties, which could lead to negative publicity and may cause our fund investors and clients to lose confidence in the
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effectiveness of our security measures. Any of these failures, particularly those that directly affect us, could materially impair our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Traditionally we have depended on our headquarters in New York and our London and Hong Kong offices, where most of our personnel are located. Although, we have taken important precautions to limit the impact of failures or disruptions in the information systems and technology infrastructures that we use, as well as the impact of physical disruptions to our New York headquarters, London and Hong Kong offices, these precautions, including our disaster recovery programs, may not be sufficient to adequately mitigate the harm that may result from such a disaster or disruption. However, to ensure the safety of our employees and in response to mandated precautions, where applicable, nearly all of our employees are working remotely at
this time to mitigate the risks associated with COVID-19. While we believe we have been successful in operating our business
remotely, unexpected operational challenges may arise in the future. If we or any of our key service providers were to experience
material disruptions in the ability for our or their employees to work remotely, our ability to operate our business could be
materially adversely impacted. In addition, insurance and other safeguards might only partially reimburse us for any losses, if at all.
Private litigation could result in significant legal and other liabilities and reputational harm, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We face significant risks in our business that may subject us to private litigation and legal liability. In general, we will be exposed to litigation risk in connection with any allegations of misconduct, negligence, dishonesty or bad faith arising from our management of any fund. We may also be subject to litigation arising from investor dissatisfaction with the performance of our funds, including certain losses due to the failure of a particular investment strategy or improper trading activity, if we violate restrictions in our funds’ organizational documents or from allegations that we improperly exercised control or influence over companies in which our funds have large investments. In addition, we are exposed to risks of litigation relating to claims that we have not properly addressed conflicts of interest. Any litigation arising in such circumstances is likely to be protracted, expensive and surrounded by circumstances that could be materially damaging to our reputation and our business. Moreover, in such cases, we would be obligated to bear legal, settlement and other costs, which may be in excess of any available insurance coverage. In addition, although we are indemnified by our funds, our rights to indemnification may be challenged. If we are required to incur all or a portion of the costs arising out of any litigation or investigation as a result of inadequate insurance proceeds, if any, or fail to obtain indemnification from our funds, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In the event any fund-related litigation scenarios described above materialize, it is possible we are made a party to any such litigation. As with the funds, while we maintain insurance, there can be no assurance that our insurance will prove to be adequate. If we are required to incur all or a portion of the costs arising out of litigation, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Furthermore, any such litigation could be protracted, expensive and highly damaging to our reputation, which could result in a significant decline in our assets under management and revenues, even if the underlying claims are without merit. In addition, we may participate in transactions that involve litigation (including the enforcement of property rights) from time to time, and such transactions may expose us to reputational risk and increased risk from countersuits.
Extensive regulation of our business affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. Our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially affected by regulatory issues.
Our business is subject to extensive and complex regulation, including periodic examinations and regulatory investigations, by governmental and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate and trade around the world. As an investment adviser registered under the Advisers Act and a company subject to the registration and reporting provisions of the Exchange Act, we are subject to regulation and oversight by the SEC. As a company with a class of securities listed on the NYSE, we are subject to the rules and regulations of the NYSE. As a registered commodity pool operator and a registered commodity trading advisor, we are subject to regulation and oversight by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and the National Futures Association. In addition, we are subject to regulation by the Department of Labor under ERISA. In the UK, our UK sub-adviser is subject to regulation by the FCA. Our Asian operations, and our investment activities around the globe, are subject to a variety of other regulatory regimes that vary country by country, including the Securities and Futures Commission in Hong Kong, and the Securities and Exchange Board of India.
The regulatory bodies with jurisdiction over us have the authority to grant, and in specific circumstances to cancel, permissions to carry on our business and the authority to conduct investigations and administrative proceedings. Such
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investigations and administrative proceedings can result in fines, suspensions of personnel or other sanctions, including censure, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or the suspension or expulsion of an investment adviser from registration or memberships. For example, a failure to comply with the obligations imposed by the Exchange Act or Advisers Act, including recordkeeping, advertising and operating requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions on fraudulent activities, or a failure to maintain our funds’ exemption from compliance with the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”) could result in investigations, sanctions and reputational damage, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our funds are involved regularly in trading activities that implicate a broad number of U.S. and foreign securities law regimes, including laws governing trading on inside information, market manipulation, anti-corruption, including the FCPA, and a broad number of technical trading requirements that implicate fundamental market regulation policies. Even if an investigation or proceeding does not result in a sanction or the sanction imposed against us or our personnel by a regulator were small in monetary amount, the adverse publicity relating to the investigation, proceeding or imposition of these sanctions could harm our reputation and cause us to lose existing investors or to fail to gain new investors. Furthermore, the legal, technology and other costs associated with regulatory investigations could increase to such a level that they could have a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
These global financial services regulators affect us not only with their regulations, but also with their examination, inspection and enforcement functions as well. We are routinely subject to examination and inspection and, although we make reasonable efforts to maintain effective compliance programs, there can be no assurances that any such inquiry would not result in a finding or sanction that would adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Likewise, enforcement investigations and administrative inquiries can be sweeping in nature. Cooperating with these investigations, as is our practice, can be expensive and time-consuming and could distract us from our business operations. In particular, U.S. regulators routinely investigate potentially serious matters such as possible insider trading, market manipulation, misleading disclosure, conflicts of interest, fraud, foreign corruption, including under the FCPA; lesser potential violations, such as books and records inaccuracies, weaknesses in internal controls; and compliance with general reporting and advertising regulations. For the past several years, we have cooperated with a number of ongoing regulatory investigations and examinations, both domestically and internationally, and we expect to be the subject of investigations and examinations in the future. There can be no assurances that ongoing or future investigations will not adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Enforcement actions and administrative proceedings can result in fines, or other sanctions, including censure, the issuance of a cease-and-desist order, suspension or expulsion of persons or firms from the industry. Such sanctions can harm our reputation and cause us to lose existing investors or fail to gain new investors, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and related fines and settlements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations as described below in “—The FCPA settlements could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise capital for our funds.”
In addition, we regularly rely on exemptions or exclusions from various requirements of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the 1940 Act, the Commodity Exchange Act and ERISA in conducting our asset management activities. These exemptions or exclusions are sometimes highly complex and may, in certain circumstances, depend on compliance by third parties whom we do not control. If for any reason these exemptions or exclusions were to become unavailable to us, we could become subject to regulatory action or third-party claims and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Certain of the requirements imposed under the 1940 Act, the Advisers Act, ERISA and by non-U.S. regulatory authorities are designed primarily to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and to protect investors in our funds and are not designed to protect holders of our Class A Shares. At any time, the regulations applicable to us may be amended or expanded by the relevant regulatory authorities. If we are unable to correctly interpret and timely comply with any amended or expanded regulatory requirements, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted in a material way.
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We may also be adversely affected if additional legislation or regulations are enacted, or by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing rules and regulations imposed by the SEC, other U.S. or foreign governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets and their participants. See “—Increased regulatory focus in the U.S. could result in additional burdens on our business” and “—Regulatory changes in jurisdictions outside the U.S. could adversely affect our business” for additional information. It is impossible to determine the extent of the impact of any new laws, regulations or initiatives that may be proposed, or whether any of the proposals will become law. Compliance with additional new laws or regulations could be difficult and expensive and affect the manner in which we conduct business, and we may be unable to correctly interpret and timely comply with any amended or expanded regulatory requirements, which could have adverse impacts on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The FCPA settlements could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise capital for our funds.
In September 2016, we reached settlements with the DOJ and the SEC, resolving their investigations into our former private investment business in Africa and a 2007 investment by the Libyan Investment Authority in certain of our funds. As part of the settlements, we entered into a Deferred Prosecution Agreement (“DPA”) with the DOJ, and our subsidiary, OZ Africa, agreed to plead guilty to one count of conspiracy to violate the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA. In November 2020, Oz Africa paid approximately $138.0 million to former shareholders of Africo Resources Ltd. to settle the matter of U.S. v. Oz Africa Management GP, LLC, Cr. No. 16-515 (NGG) (EDNY) and the DPA was terminated shortly thereafter.
Prior to the 2016 settlements, many of our funds raised capital relying on the exemption from registration provided by Rule 506 of Regulation D under the Securities Act (“Rule 506”) in connection with a securities offering structured as a private placement. As a consequence of the 2016 settlements, many of our funds were disqualified from relying on Rule 506 to offer securities. However, on June 13, 2019, the SEC granted a waiver from the disqualification provisions of Rules 506 to certain of our existing funds that were relying on Rule 506 on September 29, 2016. Prospective offerings in funds that were not granted a waiver of disqualification currently remain prohibited from relying on Rule 506 to offer securities. Notwithstanding the ability of certain of our existing funds to rely on Rule 506 to offer securities, this could negatively affect our ability to raise capital for these funds, and our ability to offer and sell fund interests to certain investors in certain U.S. states may be impaired. The inability of our funds that were not granted a waiver of disqualification to raise capital in Rule 506 offerings may also result in additional expenses. The potential negative impact of the FCPA settlements on our ability to raise or retain capital for our funds could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Increased regulatory focus in the U.S. could result in additional burdens on our business.
The financial industry has become more highly regulated. Legislation has been introduced in recent years in the U.S. relating to financial markets and institutions, including alternative asset management firms, which would result in increased oversight and taxation. There has been, and may continue to be, a related increase in regulatory investigations of the trading and other investment activities of alternative investment funds, including our funds. Such investigations may impose additional expenses on us, may require the attention of senior management and may result in fines if any of our funds are deemed to have violated any regulations.
We are subject to numerous regulations under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”). Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act (the “Derivatives Title”) imposes a comprehensive regulatory regime on over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives and the operations of the markets for, and the activities of the dealers in and users of, OTC derivatives. The Derivatives Title, among other things: (i) could require certain OTC derivatives, including “swaps” (such as rate, credit, equity and commodity swaps) and “security-based swaps” (swaps and security-based swaps, collectively, “Swaps”), to be traded on a regulated exchange and cleared through a regulated clearing entity, potentially increasing significantly the collateral costs associated with such activities; (ii) imposes initial and variation margin requirements on certain entities whose derivatives are not cleared through a regulated clearing entity; (iii) creates several new classes of CFTC and SEC registrants, including “swap dealers,” “security-based swap dealers,” “major swap participants” and “major security-based swap participants,” that are subject to comprehensive regulation, including minimum net capital, margin, disclosure, reporting and recordkeeping requirements, conflicts of interest policies and procedures, new business conduct standards and other regulatory requirements; and (iv) expands the CFTC’s authority to impose speculative position limits with respect to derivative instruments, including Swaps on certain physical commodities (such as Swaps based on oil, gas, precious metals and agricultural commodities) and aggregate position
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limits for those instruments (including futures and options contracts and other listed instruments that are economically equivalent to such contracts) based on the same underlying physical commodity.
We are and may be directly and indirectly affected by the Derivatives Title and its rules, including but not limited to potential results such as increased clearing and margin costs and decreased liquidity. Although many of the regulations under the Derivative Title have been adopted, certain issues under the Derivatives Title that were to be addressed by the regulators have not yet been addressed in final form. At this time we still cannot fully predict what impact the Derivatives Title will have on us, the funds we manage, our counterparties, the financial services industry or the markets, although we have already seen meaningful impacts on the financial services industry and the markets, both positive and negative.
The Financial Stability Oversight Council (the “Council”) has the authority under the Dodd-Frank Act to review nonbank financial companies predominantly engaged in financial activities for potential designation as systematically important financial institutions (“SIFI”). To date, the Council has not designated any asset managers as a SIFI. If we or any of our funds were to be designated as a SIFI, or otherwise designated by the Council as presenting systemic risk, we would be subject to limitations on our ability to conduct certain activities, along with increased costs of doing business in the form of fees and assessments associated with such designation as well as by virtue of increased regulatory compliance costs, all of which would be likely to adversely affect our competitive position.
On December 10, 2013, U.S. financial regulators adopted final regulations to implement the statutory mandate of the “Volcker Rule” contained in Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act. The Volcker Rule limits the ability of certain banking entities to acquire as principal, directly or indirectly, ownership interests in certain private investment funds (referred to in the Volcker Rule as “covered funds”). As a result, the Volcker Rule may cause banking entities and their affiliates that would otherwise invest in our funds to not invest in our funds or CLOs, to invest less capital in our funds or CLOs, reduce or eliminate such investments, or require modifications to the documents governing our funds or CLOs that may adversely affect their performance or attractiveness to other investors or that otherwise may be adverse to our business and the value of our Class A Shares. The Volcker Rule also includes a general prohibition on certain banking entities engaging in activities defined as “proprietary trading.” Applicable regulators have proposed amendments and invited comments to the Volcker Rule, including twice in 2018, and the requirements of the Volcker Rule may change over time. The Volcker Rule (including any changes thereto) and its effects could negatively impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Dodd-Frank Act also requires increased disclosure of executive compensation and provides shareholders with the right to a non-binding vote on executive compensation. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act empowers federal regulators to prescribe regulations or guidelines to prohibit any incentive-based payment arrangements that the regulators determine encourage covered financial institutions to take inappropriate risks by providing officers, employees, directors or principal shareholders with excessive compensation or that could lead to a material financial loss by such financial institutions. Proposed regulations were published in April and May 2016 but it remains unclear when, if at all, federal regulators will adopt final regulations. Until all of the relevant regulations and guidelines have been established, we cannot predict what effect, if any, these developments may have on our business or the markets in which we operate.
Furthermore, the Dodd-Frank Act required the SEC and the CFTC to implement more expansive regulations concerning whistleblowers. The SEC and the CFTC have each adopted rules under this requirement, establishing reward programs for persons who bring information to the SEC or the CFTC. To receive a reward under these programs, the information must lead to the successful enforcement or resolution of a judicial or administrative action brought by the SEC or CFTC that results in a monetary sanction of more than $1.0 million for a violation of the securities laws or the Commodity Exchange Act, respectively. These rules may result in increased regulatory inquiries or investigations by the SEC or the CFTC. Such inquiries or investigations could impose significant additional expense on us, require the attention of senior management and result in negative publicity and harm to our reputation.
Effective September 23, 2013, and pursuant to a mandate under the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC adopted amendments to Rule 506 that disqualify issuers, such as our funds, from relying on the exemption from registration provided by Rule 506 in connection with a securities offering structured as a private placement if any “covered persons” are deemed to be “bad actors.” Specifically, an issuer generally will be precluded from conducting offerings that rely on the registration exemption provided by Rule 506 if a “covered person” has been subject to a relevant criminal conviction, regulatory or court order or other disqualifying event that occurred on or after September 23, 2013. For these purposes, the “covered persons” of an issuer include directors,
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certain officers, various entities related to the issuer, solicitors and promoters of the issuer and 20% beneficial owners of the issuer’s voting securities. For more detail about risks relating to the FCPA settlement and the related disqualification event which prevents certain of our funds that did not receive a waiver of disqualification from raising capital using Rule 506, see “—The FCPA settlements could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise capital for our funds.”
These and other outstanding rulemakings mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act will be completed by various regulatory bodies and other groups over the next several years, and the Dodd-Frank Act mandates multiple agency reports and studies (which could result in additional legislative or regulatory action). As a result of the regulatory and other action yet to be taken, we do not know what the remaining final regulations under the Dodd-Frank Act will require and it is difficult to predict how significantly the Dodd-Frank Act will affect us. The Dodd-Frank Act will likely increase our administrative costs and could impose additional restrictions on our business.
Risk retention regulations could adversely affect our business.
Jurisdictions including the U.S., the EU and UK have adopted risk retention regulations applicable to securitizations and similar transactions, including CLOs and other transactions that we manage or may manage in the future. As a result of these regulations, we may be required to retain, and historically have retained, a portion of the securities or other interests issued in some of these CLOs and other transactions, whether in order to satisfy compliance obligations directly applicable to us or in response to investor demands based on regulatory requirements imposed on such investors. Accordingly, this has required us to utilize capital that could otherwise be deployed in another manner, and we expect that we will need to continue to do so in the future for certain CLOs and other transactions that we may manage in the future. In addition, retaining interests in these transactions increases our exposure to the performance of these transactions and changes in the value of those interests. We have also incurred, and expect to continue to incur, costs and expenses in connection with our efforts to comply with these regulations or related investor demands. We have historically financed the majority of the interests we retain as a result of these regulations, and expect to continue to do so. Such financing arrangements may impose limitations or restrictions on our business that could adversely affect our business and the price of our Class A Shares.
These risk retention regulations have changed and may continue to change over time, and may be introduced in other jurisdictions, and their interpretation and applicability at any given point in time may be uncertain. For example, as of January 1, 2019, new EU and UK risk retention regulations replaced previously existing EU and UK risk retention regulations for applicable transactions that issue securities on or after January 1, 2019. In addition, in the U.S., a court has held that certain regulators exceeded their statutory authority by requiring managers of “open-market” CLOs to hold risk retention interests in those CLOs under U.S. risk retention regulations. Regulatory uncertainty of this nature may cause us to continue to incur costs and expenses in our efforts to comply with risk retention regulations or in response to the efforts of others to comply with risk retention regulations, and there can be no assurance that those costs and expenses, or the amount of capital we invest in connection with these risk retention regulations, will not increase in the future. Nor can there be any assurance that applicable governmental or regulatory authorities agree with our compliance approaches to these risk retention regulations, which may expose us to liability, including to third parties to whom we have made representations, warranties or covenants regarding such compliance. In the event that we adopt compliance approaches that are subsequently determined to not be required (such as with U.S. “open-market” CLOs), or are less capital-efficient than other approaches subsequently determined to be possible under applicable law, there can be no assurance that we will be able to recover or redeploy capital that we’ve previously committed (and we may be contractually prohibited from disposing of the related risk retention interests), and we will generally not be able to recover any costs or expenses that we have already incurred.
In addition to any direct effects on us, risk retention regulations may adversely affect markets relevant to our business, such as leveraged loan markets or credit markets generally, which may in turn adversely affect the transactions we manage and our business generally. There can be no assurance that risk retention regulations will not materially and adversely affect our business and operations, and the price of our Class A Shares.
A downturn in the global credit markets could adversely affect our CLO investments.
CLOs are subject to credit, liquidity, interest rate and other risks. From time to time, liquidity in the credit markets is reduced, sometimes significantly, resulting in an increase in credit spreads and a decline in ratings, performance and market values for leveraged loans. We have exposure to these markets through our investments in our CLOs. In some cases, we may be required
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to maintain such exposure as a result of applicable risk retention regulations. CLOs invest on a leveraged basis in loans or securities that are themselves highly leveraged investments in the underlying collateral, which increases both the opportunity for higher returns as well as the magnitude of losses when compared to unlevered investments. As a result of CLOs’ leveraged position, CLOs and their investors are at greater risk of suffering losses. Any failure by our CLOs to meet certain overcollateralization and interest coverage tests will result in reduced cash flows that may have been otherwise available for distribution to us. This could reduce the value of our investment. There can be no assurance that market conditions giving rise to these types of consequences will not occur, subsist or become more acute in the future.
In addition, in the first quarter of 2020, we experienced significant unrealized losses on our risk retention investments held in certain of the CLOs that we manage as a result of the market and economic impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As of December 31, 2020, those unrealized losses had been recovered due to improved market conditions. Although this has not had a material impact on the interest income generated from our CLO investments to date, it may have a material impact on the amount of interest income we may earn from these investments in the future. Furthermore, because of ratings downgrades and defaults on certain of the collateral held by our CLOs, some of those CLOs failed to satisfy one or more overcollateralization tests, and as a result, we have stopped recognizing certain management fees for these CLOs until the collateral tests are remedied and such fees are paid. While we have recovered a portion of those management fees since the first quarter of 2020, in the event market conditions do not sufficiently recover or worsen over the life cycle of these impacted CLOs, management fees from our CLOs could deteriorate.
Increasing ESG-related requirements and expectations could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Regulation relating to the consideration of environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) factors by investment managers and related disclosure requirements is rapidly evolving in many countries in which we do business. Compliance with these requirements will increase our compliance costs and could require changes to our investment policies and processes, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
For example, on March 10, 2021, portions of the European Union’s Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation (“SFDR”) will take effect. SFDR will apply broadly to many financial market participants and advisers, including fund managers and investment advisers. It is also likely SFDR will apply (in some or all respects) to non-European Union managers marketing their products in the European Union, such as Sculptor. From time to time, SFDR may apply (in some or all respects) to affiliates of the Company that manage alternative investment funds. To the extent applicable, the SFDR will require both manager level and pre-contractual product-specific disclosures, including among other things on how managers integrate sustainability risks into their investment decision-making process and remuneration decisions and the results of the assessment of the likely impacts of sustainability risks. Additional requirements apply for products which promote environmental or social characteristics or have a sustainable objective, ongoing reporting obligations and in some situations requirements to disclose a statement on due diligence polices with respect to principal adverse impacts of investment decisions on sustainability factors. The SFDR is still evolving and its extent, scope and detailed requirements are still unclear. However, it is likely it will have an impact on our business and our funds. Additional EU-wide legislation also has been proposed that would, among other things, require subject managers to take sustainability risks into account and ensure the manager has necessary resources and expertise to effectively integrate sustainability risks.
In the U.S. the Biden administration has included rules recently adopted by the Department of Labor in its list of agency actions required to be reviewed by agency heads for a potential conflict with the administration’s environmental policies. These DOL rules require investments by ERISA funds to be made based solely on appropriately weighted pecuniary factors, which are certain material financial factors. Some of our investors are ERISA funds, and their investment processes may differ from our other funds as a result of these rules. If these rules are repealed or modified, it may change how some of our investors allocate capital. New regulations also may be adopted that require specified ESG-related disclosures by investment managers or public companies, which could increase our compliance costs.
In addition, asset owner expectations and requirements concerning managers’ integration of ESG factors into investment decisions and ongoing engagement are increasing, including due to requirements in some jurisdictions that asset owners integrate consideration of ESG factors into their investment decisions. Asset owner expectations, at both the manager and fund level, concerning voluntary ESG disclosures and membership and participation in and adherence to voluntary standards, codes, principles and initiatives also are increasing. Compliance with these expectations and requirements may increase our costs
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and in some cases limit our investment options. Asset owner expectations concerning how managers manage ESG factors at the firm level also are increasing. Failure to meet any of the foregoing ESG-related expectations or requirements of investors and prospective investors, either at the fund or firm level, may adversely impact our ability to raise new funds and result in redemptions by existing investors.
Regulatory changes in jurisdictions outside the U.S. could adversely affect our business.
Similar to the U.S., jurisdictions outside the U.S. in which we operate, in particular the EU and the UK, have become subject to further regulation. Regulators and other governmental authorities in the EU and the UK have proposed or implemented a number of initiatives and additional rules and regulations that could adversely affect our business.
The EU’s Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (2011/61/EU) (including all national, implementing or supplementary measures, laws and regulations the “AIFMD”) and the UK Alternative Investment Fund Managers Regulations 2013 as amended from time to time, including by the Alternative Investment Fund Managers (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, (the “AIFM Law”) may have an adverse effect on the continued operation of our funds where interests are offered to or placed with investors in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) and the UK. The AIFMD and the AIFM Law are complex and key aspects of it remain subject to further consultation and interpretation.
The AIFMD and the AIFM Law impose significant regulatory requirements on alternative investment fund managers (“AIFMs”), operating within the EEA and the UK, as well as prescribing certain conditions with regard to regulatory standards, cooperation and transparency that need to be satisfied for non-EU and non-UK AIFMs to market alternative investment funds (“AIFs”) into EEA Member States and the UK. Should any member of our group be treated as an AIFM operating within the EEA or the UK, AIFMD and the AIFM Law would impose significant additional costs on the operation of our business in the EEA and the UK and limit our operating flexibility. In any event, in order to market one of our AIFs to investors in the EEA or the UK, the non-EEA and non-UK investment adviser of that AIF will be required to comply with the marketing conditions in the AIFMD or the AIFM Law and any additional national restrictions (such as a requirement to appoint a depositary), assuming that national private placement is available. The AIFMD and the AIFM Law conditions are that the AIFM complies with specific notification or registration requirements and certain additional transparency requirements requiring disclosures to investors in the AIF and to EEA or UK regulators, such as annual reporting and regulatory filing requirements; the AIFM also complies with requirements relating to the acquisition of substantial stakes in EEA or UK companies; and the jurisdictions in which the non-EEA or non-UK AIFM and the relevant AIF are organized satisfy certain conditions with regard to regulatory standards, cooperation and transparency. Compliance with these requirements may result in additional costs to our funds reducing the returns for investors. The need to comply with the registration requirements may also delay the capital raising process for our funds, in turn reducing the speed with which an investment manager could deploy the capital raised.
Furthermore, the extent to which an investment adviser of an AIF or any person acting on their behalf can market a fund in an EEA Member State or the UK may be more restricted than was the case before the AIFMD or the AIFM Law came into force. This could limit a fund’s ability to attract investors based in those EEA Member States or the UK, resulting in a reduction in the overall amount of capital raised by a fund which limits, in turn, the range of investment strategies and investments that a fund is able to pursue and make.
There is still some uncertainty as to the manner in and extent to which the AIFMD or the AIFM Law is being implemented in various EEA Member States and the UK. This uncertainty increases the risk of a breach by an investment adviser in an EEA Member State or the UK of the requirements imposed by the AIFMD or the AIFM Law. Such a breach may result in a regulatory authority or court in that or another EEA Member State or the UK requiring an investment adviser to return any capital or other funds to investors or otherwise seeking to take other enforcement or remedial action against an investment adviser or our funds. This may result in a reduction in the overall amount of capital available to our funds, which limits, in turn, the range of investment strategies and investments that our funds are able to pursue and make or otherwise result in a loss to our funds. Furthermore, there is a risk that the AIFMD or the AIFM Law will be interpreted differently by each EEA Member State or the UK. This may have an adverse effect on the marketing and/or operation of our funds and may result in additional costs, reducing the returns for investors.
A non-EEA or non-UK investment adviser, such as Sculptor Capital LP, is not required to comply with all of the requirements set out in the AIFMD or the AIFM Law. Accordingly, and subject to the below, investors in our funds may not
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receive the full protections or benefits available under AIFMD or the AIFM Law, which would otherwise be available to investors in an AIF managed by an EEA AIFM or UK AIFM.
Notwithstanding the above, in certain or all EEA Member States and the UK, we may choose not to market our funds at our own initiative or otherwise take any action that would result in the AIFMD or the AIFM Law applying to our investment advisers or our funds. In this respect, an investment adviser will only accept investors where an investment adviser concludes that such investors approached the investment adviser, our funds or someone acting on their behalf at their own initiative or that AIFMD or the AIFM Law would not otherwise apply to the investment adviser, our funds or any persons acting on their behalf. There is a risk that an EEA Member State or UK regulatory or governmental authority may reach a different conclusion than the investment adviser and find that the relevant measures taken in order to give effect to or supplement the AIFMD or the AIFM Law in one or more EEA Member States or the UK do apply to the investment adviser or our funds. Such a finding may result in a regulatory or governmental authority or court in one or more EEA Member States or the UK requiring an investment adviser or our funds to return any capital or other funds to investors or otherwise seeking to take other enforcement or remedial action against an investment adviser or our funds. This may result in a reduction in the overall amount of capital available to our funds, which limits, in turn, the range of investment strategies and investments that our funds are able to pursue and make or otherwise result in a loss to our funds. If an investor approaches an investment adviser or someone acting on their behalf at the investor’s own initiative, a non-EEA or non-UK investment adviser will not be required to comply with any of the requirements of the AIFMD or the AIFM Law with which a non-EEA or a non-UK manager registered under the AIFMD or the AIFM Law is otherwise required to comply, and investors will not receive the protections or benefits available under the AIFMD or the AIFM Law, including initial disclosure requirements and periodic reporting on illiquid assets and leverage.
If the AIFMD’s marketing passport is made available to non-EEA AIFMs, it is possible that national private placement regimes will be phased out, in which case such non-EEA AIFMs would, thereafter, need to comply with substantially all of the obligations under the AIFMD in order to be able to continue to market their AIFs within the EEA. Again, such rules could, if they start to apply in full to our business, potentially impose significant additional costs on the operation of our business in the EEA and could limit our operating flexibility and our ability to raise funds within the EEA. There is also no requirement for EEA Member States or the UK to make the private placement regimes available to non-EEA or non-UK AIFMs and consequently, individual EEA Member States and the UK could, theoretically, seek to apply the rules set out in the AIFMD or the AIFM Law in full to non-EEA and non-UK AIFMs at any time, even before the marketing passport is made available to such non-EEA or non-UK AIFMs.
Separately to the AIFMD, the EU has also introduced significant changes to its regulation of EU securities and derivatives markets through new legislation known as “MiFID II” which came into force on January 3, 2018. MiFID II replaces the original MiFID I regime which had been in force since November 2007. MiFID II, which is comprised of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (2014/65/EU), the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation ((EU)600/2014) and a number of regulatory and implementing technical standards that take the form of EU Delegated Acts, is the foundational legislation for investment firms operating in the EU. MiFID II forms part of UK law by virtue of national implementing legislation, sections 2 and 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, the Markets in Financial Instruments (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2018 and a number of regulators’ EU Exit Instruments (“UK MiFID II”) and will apply to investment firms operating in the UK, including our UK affiliates Sculptor Capital Management Europe Limited (“SCME”) and Sculptor Europe Loan Management Limited (“SELM”), both of which are authorized and regulated in the UK as MiFID investment firms.
MiFID II and UK MiFID II have imposed significant new organizational, conduct, governance, operational and reporting requirements on SCME and SELM, including new requirements around the receipt of inducements and the use of soft dollars / dealing commissions, enhanced transaction reporting and pre- and post-trade transparency requirements, formal telephone taping requirements, and best execution rules. Further, new MiFID II and UK MiFID II rules may restrict the ability of other Sculptor entities domiciled outside of the EEA or the UK (known as “third-country firms”) to provide investment services to clients domiciled in the EEA or the UK, respectively. Other changes resulting from MiFID II and UK MiFID II may have an impact (indirectly) on any Sculptor entity or client that trades on EEA or UK markets or trading venues, or does business with EEA of UK-regulated banks or brokers. These impacts may include venue trading requirements for certain categories of shares and derivatives, restrictions on so-called “dark pool” trading, product banning powers, algorithmic trading restrictions, and enhanced requirements around the provision of direct market access / direct electronic access services.
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In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the “CJEU”) issued a ruling regarding the validity of the primary mechanism that investors, suppliers and other third parties use to safeguard transfers of personal data to us, namely, the European Commission-approved standard contractual clauses. Following the CJEU’s ruling, those parties may be unable in certain cases to transfer personal data outside the EEA and UK without a defined lawful mechanism under the GDPR or UK Data Protection Act, or may require Sculptor Capital LP to demonstrate that it has appropriate technical and organizational measures in place to ensure the legality of such transfers. It currently is unclear how data protection regulators, courts and counterparties of Sculptor Capital LP will view or enforce such potential non-compliance or any failure on our part to demonstrate such measures.
In addition to the AIFMD and MiFID II, the EU has implemented, or is in the process of implementing, a number of measures in response to the financial crisis or as part of an ongoing program of legislative change, which may or may not form part of the UK law. These include, but are not limited to:
The European Markets Infrastructure Regulation ((EU) No 648/2012) (known as EMIR), which, together with EU Delegated Acts (including the Regulation and EU Delegated Acts as they form part of UK law by virtue of section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, the Over the Counter Derivatives, Central Counterparties and Trade Repositories (Amendment, etc., and Transitional Provision) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 and a number of regulators’ EU Exit Instruments), imposes clearing, risk mitigation, margining and trade reporting requirements on derivatives counterparties.
The Solvency II directive (including the directive as it forms part of UK law by virtue of national implementing legislation, section 2 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 and the Solvency 2 and Insurance (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019), which applies capital charges on insurers in respect of their fund investments.
The Market Abuse Regulation ((EU) No. 596/2014) (known as MAR) (including the regulation as it forms part of UK law by virtue of section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 and the Market Abuse (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019) and a directive (including the directive as it forms part of UK law by virtue of national implementing legislation and section 2 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018) designed to harmonize criminal sanctions for market abuse (called CSMAD). MAR came into force in July 2016 and extended the EU’s market abuse regime to behavior in respect of financial instruments traded on a wider variety of trading venues and EU emission allowances, refined the definition of inside information, introduced a new offense of “attempted market manipulation” and strengthened regulatory authorities’ investigative and sanctioning powers.
The Securitisation Regulation ((EU) 2017/2402) (known as the Securitisation Regulation) (including the regulation as it forms part of UK law by virtue of section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 and the Securitisation (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019) establishes due diligence, risk retention and transparency requirements for parties involved in securitisations. Among other requirements, the Securitisation Regulation imposes a duty on “institutional investors”, which includes AIFMs investing in securitisations on behalf of their funds, to ensure that any investment in a “securitization” position is only undertaken following due diligence sufficient to verify, amongst other matters, that (i) the credit assets being securitised were originated on the basis of sound and well-defined criteria and (ii) the originator, sponsor or original lender retains on an ongoing basis a material net economic interest of at least 5% in the securitisation. The definition of “securitisation” is broad within the meaning of the Securitisation Regulation and includes structures which may not be “commercially” considered a securitisation but have the relevant characteristics.
The Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation ((EU 2019/2088) (known as SFDR) establishes requirements on a broad range of investment firms, including certain of our affiliates, and firms providing investment advice to publish certain disclosures related to sustainability matters on their website and in pre-contractual disclosure documents provided to investors. Additional requirements may apply to firms that promote funds or financial products with sustainable objectives or that promote environmental or social characteristics.
The GDPR (including the regulation as it forms part of UK law by virtue of section 3 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 and the Data Protection Privacy and Electronic Communications (Amendments etc) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 and 2020) and the UK Data Protection Act expanded the scope of the EU and UK data
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protection laws to foreign companies processing personal data of EEA or UK individuals (e.g., investor and employee data), imposed a more stringent data protection compliance regime, and included new data subject rights (e.g., the right to erasure, commonly known as “the right to be forgotten”). The GDPR and the UK Data Protection Act may have a significant impact on those who act as data controllers and processors and those who intend to transfer personal data outside the EEA or the UK, including the introduction of severe administrative fines of up to the greater of 4% of total worldwide annual turnover or €20.0 million (as well as the right to compensation for financial or non-financial damages claimed by any individuals under Article 82 GDPR). Additionally, non-compliance may lead to reputational damages and a loss of confidence in our security and privacy or data protection measures as well as the right to compensation for financial or non-financial damages claimed by individuals under Article 82 GDPR.
The EU has proposed to replace the European e-Privacy Directive (Directive 2002/58/EC as amended by Directive 2009/136/EC), which obliges the EU member states to introduce certain national laws regulating privacy in the electronic communications sector, with a new e-Privacy Regulation. The text of the proposal for the e-Privacy Regulation is not yet final and the formal EU legislative process in relation to the e-Privacy Regulation has not yet begun. As the text of the e-Privacy Regulation is still under development and in draft form, and as further guidance is issued and interpretations of both the e-Privacy Regulation and the GDPR develop, it is difficult to assess the impact of the proposed e-Privacy Regulation on our business or operations, but it may require us to modify our data practices and policies (e.g. in relation to the management of cookies and marketing messages sent through different media) and we could incur substantial costs as a result. Each or all of these measures could have direct and indirect effects on our business.
In the UK, the Senior Managers and Certification Regime (the “SMCR”) was extended on December 9, 2019 to “solo-regulated” firms (i.e. those firms that are only regulated by the FCA and not jointly by the FCA and the Prudential Regulation Authority) such as SCME and SELM. The SMCR replaces the existing FCA approved person regime and imposes new, more burdensome requirements on certain SCME and SELM staff as well as increasing the documentation and record-keeping needed to demonstrate compliance with the new regime.
The U.S. Congress, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”) and other government agencies in jurisdictions in which we and our affiliates invest or do business have maintained a focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational companies, such as Sculptor. The OECD has made changes to numerous long-standing tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (“BEPS”) project, which looks at various different ways in which domestic tax rules around the world, and the bilateral double tax treaties that govern the interplay between them, could be amended to address perceived profit shifting among affiliated entities. Several of the proposed measures under the BEPS project, including measures covering treaty abuse (including an anti-abuse "principal purpose" test that would deny treaty benefits to the extent that obtaining such benefit was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement or transaction that resulted directly or indirectly in such benefit), the deductibility of interest expense, local nexus requirements, transfer pricing and hybrid mismatch arrangements are potentially relevant to some of our structures and could have an adverse tax impact on our funds, investors and/or our portfolio companies. Some member countries have been moving forward on the BEPS agenda but, because timing of implementation and the specific measures adopted will vary among participating states, significant uncertainty remains regarding the impact of the BEPS proposals project. In addition to national implementation of the BEPS project, the European Council has adopted Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives that address many of the same issues. The measures included in the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives should be implemented into the national law of each EU Member State, with the effective date of the new laws being either January 1, 2019, January 1, 2020 or January 1, 2022 depending on the EU Member State and provision in question. If implemented, these and other proposals could result in increased taxes on our funds and/or management entities. Such implementation may also give rise to additional reporting and disclosure obligations for our funds and/or management entities.
If third-party investors in our funds exercise their right to remove us as investment manager or general partner of the funds, we would lose the assets under management in such funds, which would eliminate our management fees and incentive income derived from such funds.
The governing agreements of most of our funds provide that, subject to certain conditions, third-party investors in those funds have the right, without cause, to vote to remove us as investment manager or general partner of the fund by a simple majority vote, resulting in the elimination of the assets under management by those funds and the management fees and incentive
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income derived from those funds. In addition to having a significant negative impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations, the occurrence of such an event would likely result in significant reputational damage to us.
In addition, because our funds generally have an adviser that is registered under the Advisers Act, the management agreements of all of our funds would be terminated upon an “assignment” of these agreements without investor consent, which assignment may be deemed to occur in the event these advisers were to experience a change of control. We cannot be certain that consents required to assignments of our investment management agreements will be obtained if a change of control occurs. “Assignment” of these agreements without investor consent could cause us to lose the fees we earn from such funds.
Our failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the related rules require our management to conduct annual assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and require a report by our independent registered public accounting firm, as well as an independent audit of our internal control over financial reporting. If our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to opine on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for any reason or we are unable to report our financial information on a timely basis due to matters impacting our internal controls, as has occurred in the past, we may become subject to adverse regulatory or other consequences, including sanctions or investigations by the SEC, and some of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our failure to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest could damage our reputation and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
As we expand the scope of our business, we increasingly confront potential conflicts of interest relating to our funds’ investment activities. Certain of our funds have overlapping investment objectives and potential conflicts may arise with respect to our decisions regarding how to allocate investment opportunities among or even within those funds. For example, a decision to acquire material non-public information about a company while pursuing an investment opportunity for a particular fund gives rise to a potential conflict of interest when it results in our having to restrict the ability of other funds to buy or sell securities in the public markets. In addition, fund investors and holders of our Class A Shares may perceive conflicts of interest regarding investment decisions for funds in which our executive managing directors and employees, who have and may continue to make significant personal investments, are personally invested.
It is possible that actual, potential or perceived conflicts could give rise to investor dissatisfaction or litigation or regulatory enforcement actions. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult and our reputation could be damaged if we fail, or appear to fail, to deal appropriately with one or more potential or actual conflicts of interest. Regulatory scrutiny of, or litigation in connection with, conflicts of interest would have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which would materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations in a number of ways, including an inability to raise additional funds and a reluctance of counterparties to do business with us.
Misconduct by our executive managing directors, employees or agents could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain investors and subjecting us to significant legal liability, regulatory scrutiny and reputational harm.
There is a risk that our executive managing directors, employees, joint venture partners, consultants or agents could engage in misconduct that materially adversely affects our business. We are subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from our asset management business and our authority over the assets we manage, as well as our status as a public company with securities listed on the NYSE. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of our executive managing directors, employees, joint venture partners, consultants or agents could materially adversely affect our investors, both in our funds and in our Class A Shares, and us. In addition to these numerous and complex obligations, our business requires that we properly deal with confidential matters of great significance to companies in which we may invest or with which we otherwise do business. If our executive managing directors, employees, joint venture partners, consultants or agents were improperly to use or disclose confidential information, we could be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations or sanctions and suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships. Furthermore, there have been a number of recent highly publicized cases involving fraud or other misconduct by employees (including in the workplace via inappropriate or unlawful behavior or actions directed to other employees) in the financial services industry generally and there can be no
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assurance that we will not suffer from similar employee misconduct. It is not always possible to detect or deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity have not been and may not be effective in all cases. If one of our executive managing directors, employees, joint venture partners, consultants or agents were to engage in misconduct or were to be accused of such misconduct, even if such allegations were unsubstantiated, our reputation and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
In recent years, the DOJ and the SEC have devoted significant resources to enforcement of the FCPA. In addition, the UK has recently significantly expanded the reach of its anti-bribery laws. While we have developed and implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure strict compliance by us and our personnel with the FCPA, such policies and procedures previously have not been, and in the future may not be effective in all instances to prevent violations. Any determination that we have violated the FCPA or other applicable anti-bribery laws could subject us to, among other things, civil and criminal penalties, material fines, profit disgorgement, injunctions on future conduct, securities litigation and a general loss of investor confidence, any one of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, see “—The FCPA settlements could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise capital for our funds.”
We may enter into new businesses, make future strategic investments or acquisitions or enter into joint ventures, each of which may result in additional risks and uncertainties in our business.
We intend, to the extent that market conditions warrant, to grow our business by increasing assets under management and creating new investment platforms and businesses. Accordingly, we may pursue growth through strategic investments, acquisitions or joint ventures, which may include entering into new lines of business in which we may not have extensive experience, including sponsoring business development companies. It is also possible that, from time to time, we may need to make payments in order to resolve commercial disputes. In addition, we expect opportunities will arise to acquire, or enter into joint ventures with, other alternative or traditional asset managers. To the extent we make strategic investments or acquisitions, enter into joint ventures, or enter into a new line of business, we will face numerous risks and uncertainties, including risks associated with the required investment of capital and other resources, the possibility that we have insufficient expertise to engage in such activities profitably or without incurring inappropriate amounts of risk, combining or integrating operational and management systems and controls, or loss of investors in our funds due to the perception that we are no longer focusing on our core fund management duties. Entry into certain lines of business may subject us to more complex or extensive new laws and regulations with which we may not be familiar, or from which we are currently exempt, and may lead to increased litigation and regulatory risk. If a new business that we enter into generates insufficient revenues or if we are unable to efficiently manage any expansion of our operations, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In the case of joint ventures, we are subject to additional risks and uncertainties in that we may be dependent upon, and subject to liability, losses or reputational damage relating to, systems, controls and personnel that are not under our control.
Risks Related to Our Funds
Our results of operations are dependent on the performance of our funds. Poor performance of our funds will result in reduced revenues and earnings and make it difficult for us to retain or attract investors to our funds, retain and increase assets under management and grow our business. The performance of each fund we manage is subject to some or all of the following risks.
Difficult market conditions can adversely affect our funds in many ways, including by negatively impacting their performance and reducing their ability to raise or deploy capital, which could materially reduce our revenues and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Significant disruptions and volatility in the global financial markets and economies could impair the investment performance of our funds. Additionally, we may not be able to raise capital for existing or new funds during, or even following, periods of market instability. Although we seek to generate consistent, positive, absolute returns across all market cycles, our funds have been and may be materially affected by conditions in the global financial markets and economic conditions. The global market and economic climate may become increasingly uncertain due to numerous factors beyond our control, including but not limited to, concerns related to unpredictable global market and economic factors, uncertainty in U.S. federal fiscal, tax, trade or regulatory policy and the fiscal, tax, trade or regulatory policy of foreign governments, rising interest rates, inflation or deflation, the availability of credit, performance of financial markets, terrorism or political uncertainty.
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A general market downturn, a specific market dislocation or deteriorating economic conditions may cause a material reduction in our revenues and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations by causing:
A decline in assets under management, resulting in lower management fees and incentive income.
An increase in the cost of financial instruments, executing transactions or otherwise doing business.
Lower or negative investment returns, which may reduce assets under management and potential incentive income.
Reduced demand for assets held by our funds, which would negatively affect our funds’ ability to realize value from such assets.
Increased investor redemptions or greater demands for enhanced liquidity or other terms, resulting in a reduction in assets under management, lower revenues and potential increased difficulty in raising new capital.
Furthermore, while difficult market and economic conditions and other factors can potentially increase investment opportunities over the long term, including with respect to the competitive landscape for the hedge fund industry, such conditions and factors also increase the risk of increased investment losses and additional regulation, which may impair our business model and operations. Our funds may also be materially adversely affected by difficult market conditions if our investment professionals fail to assess the adverse effect of such conditions on our investments, resulting in a significant reduction in the value of those investments. Moreover, challenging market conditions may prompt alternative asset managers to reduce the management fee and incentive income rates they charge in order to retain assets. In response to competitive pressures or for any other reason, we may reduce or change the fee structures of our funds, which could reduce the amount of fees and income that we may earn relative to assets under management.
Most of our funds utilize investment strategies that depend on our ability to appropriately react to, or accurately assess, the occurrence of certain events, including market and corporate events. If we fail to do so, our funds’ investment performance could be adversely affected in a material way.
The historical returns attributable to our funds should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds or any future funds we may raise.
We have presented throughout this report the net composite returns relating to the historical performance of our most significant funds, and we have also referred to other metrics associated with historical returns, such as risk and correlation measures. The returns are relevant to us primarily insofar as they are indicative of incentive income we have earned in prior periods and are not indicative of any future fund returns.
Moreover, with respect to the historical returns of our funds:
The historical returns of our funds should not be considered indicative of the future results that should be expected from such funds or from any future funds we may raise.
Our funds’ returns, particularly during periods of more extreme market and economic conditions, have benefited from or been impaired by the existence or lack of investment opportunities and such general market and economic conditions, which may not repeat themselves, and there can be no assurance that our current or future funds will be able to avail themselves of profitable investment opportunities.
The historical rates of return of our funds reflect such funds’ historical expenses, which may vary in the future due to factors beyond our control, including changes in laws or regulations.
We are subject to counterparty default risks.
Our funds enter into numerous types of financial arrangements with a wide array of counterparties around the world, including loans, swaps, repurchase agreements, securities lending agreements and other derivative and non-derivative contracts.
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The terms of these contracts are often customized and complex and these arrangements may occur in markets or relate to products that are not currently subject to experienced regulatory oversight although the Dodd-Frank Act provides certain regulation in the derivatives market. In particular, certain of our funds utilize prime brokerage arrangements with a relatively limited number of counterparties, which has the effect of concentrating the transaction volume (and related counterparty default risk) of these funds with these counterparties.
Our funds are subject to the risk that the counterparty to one or more of these contracts defaults, either voluntarily or involuntarily, under the contract. Any such default may occur rapidly and without prior notice to us. Moreover, if a counterparty defaults, we may be unable to take action to recover our assets or any amounts due to us, either because we lack the contractual ability or because market conditions make it difficult to take effective action. This inability could occur at any time, but particularly in times of market stress, which are precisely the times when defaults may be most likely to occur.
In addition, our risk-management assessments may not accurately anticipate the impact of market stress or counterparty financial condition and, as a result, we may not take sufficient action to reduce our risks effectively. Although each of our funds regularly monitors its credit exposures, default risk may arise from events or circumstances that are difficult to detect, foresee or evaluate. In addition, concerns about, or a default by, one large participant could lead to significant liquidity problems for other participants, which may in turn expose us to significant losses.
In the event of a counterparty default, particularly a default by a major investment or commercial bank or other financial institution, one or more of our funds could incur material losses, and the resulting market impact of a major counterparty default could harm our business, results of operation and financial condition. In the event that one of our counterparties becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, our ability to eventually recover any losses suffered as a result of that counterparty’s default may be limited by the liquidity of the counterparty or the applicable legal regime governing the bankruptcy proceeding.
The counterparty risks that we face have increased in complexity and magnitude as a result of major disruptions in the financial markets in recent years. Further, the consolidation or elimination of counterparties has increased our concentration of counterparty risk. In addition, counterparties have generally reacted to the ongoing market volatility by tightening their underwriting standards and increasing their margin requirements for all categories of financing, which has the result of decreasing the overall amount of leverage available to our funds and increasing the costs of borrowing.
Poor performance of our funds would cause a decline in our revenues, results of operations and cash flows and could materially adversely affect our ability to retain capital or attract additional capital.
If our funds perform poorly, our revenues, results of operations and cash flows decline because the value of our assets under management decreases, which in turn results in a reduction in management fees. To the extent that our funds perform poorly and such performance is continuing at the end of a relevant commitment period, we would experience a reduction in incentive income and total revenues, and if such reduction was substantial, could result in the elimination of incentive income for a given year and future years until that decrease has been surpassed by positive performance. Poor performance of our funds would make it more difficult for us to raise new capital and may cause investors in our funds to redeem their investments. Investors and potential investors in our funds continually assess our funds’ performance, as well as our ability to raise capital for existing and future funds. Our ability to avoid excessive redemption levels will depend in part on our funds’ continued satisfactory performance. Moreover, poor performance, particularly in our most significant funds, would harm our reputation and competitive standing, which would further impair our ability to retain or attract fund capital. These factors may cause us to reduce or change the fee structure of our funds in order to retain or continue to attract assets under management, which could further reduce the amounts of management fees and incentive income that we may earn relative to assets under management.
Our funds may determine to use leverage in investments, which could materially adversely affect our ability to achieve positive rates of return on those investments.
Our funds use or may choose to use leverage, either directly or through the use of derivative instruments, to increase the yield on certain of their investments. The use of leverage poses a significant degree of risk, most notably by significantly increasing the risk of loss associated with leveraged investments that decline in value, and enhances the possibility of a significant loss in the value of the investments in our funds. Our funds may borrow money from time to time to purchase or carry securities. The interest expense and other costs incurred in connection with such borrowing may not be recovered by appreciation in the
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securities purchased or carried, and will be lost—and the timing and magnitude of such losses may be accelerated or exacerbated—in the event of a decline in the market value of such securities. Volatility in the credit markets increases the degree of risk associated with such borrowing. Gains realized with borrowed funds may cause a fund’s net asset value to increase at a faster rate than would be the case without borrowings. If investment results fail to cover the cost of borrowings, the fund’s net asset value could also decrease faster than if there had been no borrowings. Increases in interest rates could also decrease the value of fixed-rate debt investments made by our funds. To the extent our funds determine to significantly increase their use of leverage, any of the foregoing circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The due diligence process that we undertake in connection with investments by our funds may not reveal all facts that may be relevant in connection with making an investment.
Before investments are made by our funds, particularly investments in securities that are not publicly traded, we conduct due diligence that we deem reasonable and appropriate based on the facts and circumstances applicable to each investment. When conducting due diligence, we may be required to evaluate important and complex business, financial, tax, accounting, environmental and legal issues. Outside consultants, legal advisors, accountants and investment bankers may be involved in the due diligence process in varying degrees depending on the type of investment. Nevertheless, when conducting due diligence and making an assessment regarding an investment, we rely on the resources available to us, including information provided by the target of the investment and, in some circumstances, third-party investigations. The due diligence that we carry out with respect to any investment opportunity may not reveal or highlight all relevant facts that may be necessary or helpful in evaluating such investment opportunity, and such an evaluation will not necessarily result in the investment being successful. Moreover, the level of due diligence conducted with respect to a particular investment will vary and we may not properly assess the appropriate amount of diligence for each investment, which may result in losses.
Our funds may invest in relatively high-risk, illiquid assets, including structured products, and may fail to realize any profits from these activities for a considerable period of time or lose some or all of the principal investments.
Our funds invest in securities that are not publicly traded or that are otherwise illiquid, including complex structured products. There may be no readily available liquidity in these securities, particularly at times of market stress or where many participants may be seeking liquidity at the same time. In many cases, our funds may be prohibited, whether by contract, by applicable securities laws or by the lack of a liquid market, from selling such securities for a period of time. Moreover, even if the securities are publicly traded, large holdings of securities can often be disposed of only over a substantial length of time, exposing the investment returns to risks of downward movement in market prices during the required holding period. Accordingly, under certain conditions, our funds may be forced to either sell securities at lower prices than they had expected to realize or defer, potentially for a considerable period of time, sales that they had planned to make. Investment in illiquid assets involves considerable risk and our funds may lose some or all of the principal amount of such investments.
Valuation methodologies for certain assets in our funds are subject to significant subjectivity and the values established pursuant to such methodologies may never be realized, which could result in significant losses for our funds.
There are no readily ascertainable market prices for the large number of the illiquid investments held by our funds. The fair value of the investments of our funds is determined periodically by us using a number of methodologies permitted by our funds’ valuation policies. These methodologies involve a significant degree of judgment and are based on a number of factors, which may include, without limitations, the nature of the investment, the expected cash flows from the investment, bid or ask prices provided by third parties for the investment, the length of time the investment has been held, the trading price of securities (in the case of publicly traded securities), restrictions on transfer and other recognized valuation methodologies. In addition, because certain of the illiquid investments held by our funds may be in industries or sectors that are under distress or undergoing some uncertainty, such investments may be subject to rapid changes in value caused by sudden company-specific or industry-specific developments.
Because valuations, and in particular valuations of investments for which market quotations are not readily available, are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates, determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have resulted if a ready market had existed. Even if market quotations are available for our investments, such quotations may not reflect the value that may actually be realized because of various factors, including the possible illiquidity associated with a large ownership position, subsequent illiquidity in the market for a company’s securities,
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future market price volatility or the potential for a future loss in market value based on poor industry conditions or the market’s view of overall company and management performance.
Because there is significant uncertainty in the valuation of and in the stability of the value of illiquid investments, the fair values of such investments as reflected in a fund’s net asset value do not necessarily reflect the prices that might actually be obtained when such investments are sold. Realizations at values significantly lower than the values at which investments have been reflected in fund net asset values would result in losses for the applicable fund, a decline in management fees and the loss of potential incentive income. Also, a situation where asset values turn out to be materially different from values reflected in fund net asset values may cause investors to lose confidence in us, which could, in turn, result in redemptions from our funds, difficulties in our ability to raise additional capital or an increased risk of litigation by investors or governmental or self-regulatory organizations. These issues could result in regulatory scrutiny of our valuation methodologies, polices and related disclosures.
Our funds make investments in companies that we do not control, exposing us to the risk of decisions made by others with whom we may not agree.
Investments by our funds will include investments in debt or equity of companies that we do not control. Such investments may be acquired by our funds through trading activities or through purchases of securities from the issuer. Those investments will be subject to the risk that the company in which the investment is made may make business, financial or management decisions contrary to our expectations, with which we do not agree or that the majority stakeholders or the management of the company may take risks or otherwise act in a manner that does not serve our interests. In addition, we may make investments in which we share control over the investment with co-investors, which may make it more difficult for us to implement our investment approach or exit the investment when we otherwise would. If any of the foregoing were to occur with respect to one or more significant investments, the values of such investments by our funds could decrease and our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer as a result.
Our funds make investments in companies that are based outside of the U.S., exposing us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in companies that are based in the U.S.
Many of our funds may invest a significant portion of their assets in the equity, debt, loans or other securities of issuers located outside the U.S. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain factors not typically associated with investing in U.S. securities, including risks relating to the following:
Currency exchange matters, including fluctuations in currency exchange rates and costs associated with conversion of investment principal and income from one currency into another.
Less developed or efficient financial markets than in the U.S., which may not enable or permit appropriate hedging techniques or other developed trading activities, leading to potential price volatility and relative illiquidity.
The absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements and less government supervision and regulation.
Differences in the legal and regulatory environment, including less-developed or less-comprehensive bankruptcy laws.
Fewer investor protections and less stringent requirements relating to fiduciary duties.
Difficulties in enforcing contracts and filing claims under foreign legal systems.
Less publicly available information in respect of companies in non-U.S. markets.
Higher rates of inflation.
Heightened exposure to corruption risk in non-U.S. markets.
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Certain economic and political risks, including potential exchange control regulations and restrictions on our non-U.S. investments and repatriation of profits on investments or of capital invested, the risks of political, economic or social instability, the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, unexpected, additional and/ or costly changes in trade policies, tariffs or other barriers and adverse economic and political developments.
The possible imposition of non-U.S. taxes or withholding on income and gains recognized with respect to such securities.
There can be no assurance that adverse developments with respect to such risks will not materially adversely affect our funds’ investments that are held in certain countries or the returns from these investments.
Tariffs, sanctions and other restrictions imposed by the U.S. government, and potential for further regulatory reform, may create regulatory uncertainty and adversely affect our investment strategies and the profitability of our funds.
The U.S. has imposed new or increased tariffs on certain goods and materials, such as steel products imported into the U.S. from certain jurisdictions, including China. Similarly, the U.S. government has expanded economic sanctions to target an increasingly broad range of non-U.S. parties. These tariffs, sanctions and other changes in U.S. trade policy, have resulted in, and may continue to trigger, retaliatory actions by affected countries. Certain foreign governments have instituted or are considering imposing tariffs on certain U.S. goods, or restrictions that will deny U.S. companies access to critical raw materials. A “trade war” of this nature or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements or policies has the potential to further increase uncertainty and costs, decrease margins, reduce the competitiveness of products and services offered by companies where our funds have current or future investments and adversely affect the revenues and profitability of companies whose businesses rely on goods imported from outside of the U.S and could reduce the value of our current or future investments in such companies. In addition, tariff increases may have a similar impact to suppliers and certain other customers of companies where our funds have current or future investments, which could increase the negative impact on our operating results or future cash flows. Similarly, the proliferation of U.S. economic sanctions and similar trade-related restrictions, and countersanctions imposed by foreign governments, may increase the regulatory burden on our funds, and the compliance considerations for the companies where our funds have current or future investments.
Risk management activities may materially adversely affect the return on our funds’ investments.
When managing our funds’ exposure to market risks, we may from time to time use hedging strategies and various forms of derivative instruments to limit the funds’ exposure to changes in the relative values of investments that may result from market developments, including changes in prevailing interest rates, currency exchange rates and commodity prices. The success of any hedging transactions generally will depend on our ability to correctly assess the degree of correlation between price movements of the hedging instrument, the position being hedged, the creditworthiness of the counterparty and other factors. As a result, while we may enter into a transaction in order to reduce our exposure to market risks, the transaction may result in poorer overall investment performance than if it had not been executed, such as by limiting the opportunity for gain if the value of a hedged position increases, and in some cases, the hedging or derivative transaction may not perform as anticipated. In addition, the degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in connection with hedging activities and price movements in a position being hedged may vary. For a variety of reasons, we may not seek or be successful in establishing a perfect correlation between the instruments used in a hedging or other derivative transaction and the position being hedged. An imperfect correlation could prevent us from achieving the intended result and could give rise to a loss. In addition, it may not be possible to fully or perfectly limit our exposure against all changes in the value of our investment because the value of investments is likely to fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, some of which will be beyond our control or ability to hedge.
If our risk management processes and systems are ineffective, we may be exposed to material unanticipated losses.
We continue to refine and implement our risk management techniques, strategies and assessment methods, such as the use of statistical and other quantitative and qualitative tools to identify, observe, measure and analyze the risks to which our funds are exposed. These methods, even if properly implemented, may not allow us to fully mitigate the risk exposure of our funds in all economic or market environments, or against all types of risk, including risks that we might fail to identify or anticipate. Some of our strategies for anticipating and managing risk in our funds are based upon our use of historical market behavior statistics, which may not be an accurate predictor of current or future market risks. Any failure in our risk management systems, whether in
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design or implementation, to accurately identify and quantify such risk exposure could limit our ability to manage risks in the funds, identify appropriate investment opportunities or realize positive, risk-adjusted returns. Because neither our quantitative nor qualitative risk management processes can anticipate for every investment the economic and financial outcome or timing and other specifics of the outcome, we will, in the course of our activities, incur losses.
Our funds’ investments are subject to numerous additional risks.
Our funds’ investments are subject to numerous additional risks, including the following:
The funds may engage in short selling, which is subject to the theoretically unlimited risk of loss because there is no limit on how much the price of a security may appreciate before the short position is closed out. A fund may be subject to losses if a security lender demands return of the lent securities and an alternative lending source cannot be found or if the fund is otherwise unable to borrow securities that are necessary to hedge its positions.
Our funds may be limited in their ability to engage in short selling or other activities as a result of regulatory mandates. Such regulatory actions may limit our ability to engage in hedging activities and therefore impair our investment strategies. In addition, our funds may invest in securities and other assets for which appropriate market hedges do not exist or cannot be acquired on attractive terms.
Our funds may invest in companies with weak financial conditions, poor operating results, substantial financial needs, negative net worth and/or special competitive problems or that are involved in bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings. In such “distressed” situations, it may be difficult to obtain full information as to the exact financial and operating condition of the issuer. Depending on the specific fund’s investment profile, a fund’s exposure to distressed investments may be substantial in relation to the market for those investments and the investments may be illiquid and difficult to transfer. As a result, it may take a number of years for the fair value of our funds’ distressed investments to reflect their intrinsic value as perceived by us.
Distressed investments may be involved in work-outs, liquidations, spin-offs, reorganizations, bankruptcies and similar transactions and may purchase high-risk receivables. Additionally, the fair values of such investments may be subject to abrupt and erratic market movements and significant price volatility if they are widely traded securities and significant uncertainty in general if they are not widely traded securities, have no recognized market or if transactions or events in related markets, such as related derivatives markets, have the effect of increasing the economic significance or importance of a price or value determined as of a particular time of timeframe. Moreover, a major economic recession could have a materially adverse impact on the value of such securities. An investment in such business enterprises entails the risk that the transaction in which such business enterprise is involved either will be unsuccessful, will take considerable time or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security, the value of which will be less than the purchase price to the fund of the security or other financial instrument in respect of which such distribution is received. In addition, if an anticipated transaction does not in fact occur, the fund may be required to sell its investment at a loss. Because there is substantial uncertainty concerning the outcome of transactions involving financially troubled companies, there is a potential risk of loss by a fund of its entire investment in each such company.
Investments in troubled companies may also be adversely affected by U.S. federal and state laws relating to, among other things, fraudulent conveyances, voidable preferences, lender liability and a bankruptcy court’s discretionary power to disallow, subordinate or disenfranchise particular claims. Investments in securities and private claims of troubled companies made in connection with an attempt to influence a restructuring proposal or plan of reorganization in a bankruptcy case may also involve substantial litigation. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may also decrease the value and liquidity of securities rated below investment grade or otherwise adversely affect our reputation.
Credit risk may be exacerbated by a default by any one of several large institutions that are dependent on one another to meet their liquidity or operational needs, so that a default by one institution causes a series of defaults by the other institutions. This “systemic risk” could have a further material adverse effect on the financial intermediaries (such as prime brokers, clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges) with
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which the funds transact on a daily basis. Although the U.S. government, including the U.S. Treasury Department and the Federal Reserve, has taken significant actions to prevent a systemic collapse, no assurance can be given that such actions will be sufficient or successful in all cases.
The effectiveness of investment and trading strategies depends largely on the ability to establish and maintain an overall market position in a combination of financial instruments. A fund’s trading orders may not be executed in a timely and efficient manner due to various circumstances, including systems failures or human error. In such event, the funds may only be able to acquire some but not all of the components of the position, or if the overall position were to need adjustment, the funds might not be able to make such adjustment. As a result, the funds would not be able to achieve the market position selected by the investment manager or general partner of such funds, and might incur a loss in liquidating their position.
Fund investments are subject to risks relating to investments in commodities, futures, options and other derivatives, the prices of which are highly volatile and may be subject to the theoretically unlimited risk of loss in certain circumstances, including if the fund writes a call option. Price movements of commodities, futures and options contracts and payments pursuant to swap agreements are influenced by, among other things, interest rates; changing supply and demand relationships; trade, fiscal, monetary and exchange control programs; and policies of governments and national and international political and economic events and policies. The value of futures, options and swap agreements also depends upon the price of the securities underlying them. In addition, the funds’ assets are subject to the risk of the failure of any of the exchanges on which their positions trade or of their clearinghouses or counterparties.
Our funds may make real estate investments, including, without limitation, the acquisition of real estate assets, the purchase of loans secured directly or indirectly by real estate and the purchase of public and private market securities backed by real estate assets or mortgage loans secured by real estate, which will be subject to the risks incident to the lending, ownership and operation of commercial and residential real estate, including (i) risks associated with both the domestic and international general economic climate; (ii) local real estate conditions; (iii) risks due to dependence on cash flow; (iv) risks relating to the decline in value of the real estate properties in question; (v) risks and operating problems arising out of the absence of certain construction materials; (vi) changes in supply of, or demand for, competing properties in an area (as a result, for instance, of over-building); (vii) the financial condition of tenants, buyers and sellers of properties; (viii) risks relating to the absence of debt financing or changes in its availability; (ix) energy and supply shortages; (x) laws assigning liability to the owners of real estate properties for environmental hazards existing on such properties; (xi) laws relating to real estate lending, management and/or ownership that are complex or unclear or otherwise difficult to comply with; (xii) changes in the tax, real estate, environmental and zoning laws and regulations; (xiii) various uninsured or uninsurable risks; (xiv) natural disasters and disease, including COVID-19; and (xv) the ability of the fund or third-party borrowers to develop and manage the real properties. With respect to investments in equity or debt securities, the fund will in large part be dependent on the ability of third parties to successfully manage the underlying real estate assets. In addition, the fund may invest in mortgage loans that are structured so that all or a substantial portion of the principal will not be paid until maturity, which increases the risk of default at that time. The fund’s investment strategy, which may involve the acquisition of distressed or underperforming assets in a leveraged capital structure, will involve a high degree of legal and financial risk, and there can be no assurance that the fund’s rate of return objectives will be realized or that there will be any return of capital. There is no assurance that there will be a ready market for resale of investments because investments in real estate generally are not liquid.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
Our current and former executive managing directors’ total combined voting power could influence major corporate decisions that could conflict with the interests of our Class A Shareholders and materially adversely affect the market price of the Class A Shares.
As of December 31, 2020, our current and former executive managing directors control approximately 51.6% of the total combined voting power of our Class A Shares and Class B Shares, excluding the voting power of the Class B Shares that relate to our Group A-1 Units, which represent 11.5% of our total combined voting power, and are voted pro rata in accordance
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with the vote of our Class A Shares until such time as the relevant Group E Units become vested or are forfeited. Our executive managing directors will receive additional Class B Shares resulting in additional control in connection with the vesting of Group E Units.
As of December 31, 2020, Mr. Och controls approximately 14.0% of the total combined voting power of our Class A Shares and Class B Shares after excluding the Class B Shares owned by Mr. Och that relate to Group A-1 Units that will be voted pro rata in accordance with the vote of the Class A Shares. As of May 29, 2019, (the “Transition Date”), Mr. Och no longer has an irrevocable proxy to vote all of our executive managing director’s Class B Shares. In addition, pursuant to the governance agreement, dated as of February 7, 2019, (the “Governance Agreement”), Mr. Och has the right to designate a director to serve in his place as a director on the Board of Directors for as long as Mr. Och continues to own a number of common equity units (on an as-converted basis) of the Company not less than 33% of the number of common equity units (on an as-converted basis) of the Company owned by Mr. Och immediately after the Recapitalization.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and By-Laws contain provisions limiting the liability of our officers and directors to us, which also reduces remedies available to our Class A Shareholders for certain acts by such persons.
Under our Certificate of Incorporation and By-Laws, in most circumstances the Company will indemnify the following persons (the “Indemnified Persons”), to the fullest extent authorized or permitted by applicable law, if such indemnified persons acted in a manner not constituting fraud, gross negligence or willful misconduct: (a) any person who is or was a director, officer or tax matters partner of the Company or its predecessor, (b) any person who is or was serving at the request of the Company or its predecessor as an officer, director, member, manager, partner, tax matters partner, fiduciary or trustee of another person (including any subsidiary); provided, that a person shall not be an Indemnified Person by reason of providing, on a fee-for-services basis, trustee, fiduciary or custodial services, and (c) any person the Board of Directors designates as an “Indemnified Person” for purposes of the Certificate of Incorporation or the By-Laws. In addition to rights to indemnification, the Certificate of Incorporation also contains a provision eliminating personal liability of directors of the Company for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duties, except for personal liability for fraud, gross negligence or willful misconduct and except that personal liability may not be eliminated for:
any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Company or its stockholders;
any act or omission not in good faith or which involved intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which we refer to as the “DGCL”; and
any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
The Company has agreed to provide this indemnification unless there has been a final and non-appealable judgment by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that these persons are not entitled to indemnification. The Company has also agreed to provide this indemnification for criminal proceedings. The Company may purchase insurance against these liabilities asserted against and expenses incurred by persons in connection with its activities, regardless of whether the Company would have the power to indemnify the person against liabilities under the Certificate of Incorporation and By-Laws.
In connection with the Recapitalization, we agreed to indemnify losses, and advance expenses, of each active and former executive managing director and trust that executed a consent agreement (and their applicable related parties and representatives) arising out of, relating to, based upon or resulting from the Recapitalization or any act or omission with respect to the planning for, or otherwise arising out of or relating to, the Recapitalization (including, without limitation, losses relating to taxes) solely in respect of the period beginning on May 17, 2018 and subject to and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the consent agreements (and excluding any intended effects of the Recapitalization).
Additionally, we have entered into an indemnification agreement with each of our directors and executive officers. The indemnification agreements provide for, among other things, indemnification to the fullest extent permitted by law against: (i) any and all expenses and liabilities, including judgments, fines, penalties, interest and amounts paid in settlement of any claim with our approval, and counsel fees and disbursements; (ii) any liability pursuant to a loan guarantee, or otherwise, for any of our
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indebtedness; and (iii) any liabilities incurred as a result of acting on our behalf (as a fiduciary or otherwise) in connection with an employee benefit plan. The indemnification agreements provide for the advancement or payment of all expenses to the director or executive officer and for reimbursement to us if it is found that such director or executive officer is not entitled to such indemnification under applicable law. The Sculptor Operating Partnerships’ limited partnership agreements also require the Sculptor Operating Group entities to indemnify and exculpate our executive managing directors, including those who are our executive officers.
Because our executive managing directors hold their economic interest in our business directly in the Sculptor Operating Group, conflicts of interest may arise between them and holders of our Class A Shares, particularly with respect to tax considerations.
As of December 31, 2020, our executive managing directors held 55.9% of the outstanding interests in the Sculptor Operating Group in the form of Group A Units and Group E Units. In addition, as of December 31, 2020, our executive managing directors held 3,385,000 Group P Units. Because they hold their economic interests in our business directly through the Sculptor Operating Group, our executive managing directors may have conflicting interests with holders of Class A Shares or with us. For example, our executive managing directors will have different tax positions from holders of our Class A Shares which could influence decisions of the Partner Management Committee and also our Board of Directors regarding whether and when to dispose of assets, and whether and when to incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, especially in light of the existence of the tax receivable agreement. Decisions with respect to these and other operational matters could affect the timing and amounts of payments due to our executive managing directors and Ziff Investors Partnership, L.P. II and certain of its affiliates and control persons (the “Ziffs”) under the tax receivable agreement. In addition, the structuring of future transactions and investments may take into consideration our executive managing directors’ tax considerations even where no similar benefit would accrue to us or the holders of Class A Shares.
We intend to pay regular quarterly distributions to Class A Shareholders but our ability to do so may be limited by our holding company structure, as we are dependent on distributions from the Sculptor Operating Group to make distributions and to pay taxes and other expenses, and may be limited by contractual restrictions and obligations.
As a holding company, our ability to make distributions or to pay taxes and other expenses is subject to the ability of our subsidiaries to provide cash to us. We intend to make quarterly distributions to our Class A Shareholders. Accordingly, we expect to cause the Sculptor Operating Group to make distributions to Sculptor Corp in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay distributions to our Class A Shareholders and make required tax payments and payments under the tax receivable agreement; however, no assurance can be given that such distributions will or can be made. The members of the Sculptor Operating Group are subject to certain restrictions under the 2020 Credit Agreement that limit their ability to make distributions. Consequently, no assurance can be given that the Sculptor Operating Group will or can make such distributions to Sculptor Corp. Our Board of Directors can change our distribution policy or reduce or eliminate our distributions at any time, in its discretion. The Sculptor Operating Group may make minimum tax distributions to its direct unit holders, to which our Class A Shareholders may not be entitled, as distributions on Group B Units to Sculptor Corp that may be used to settle tax liabilities, if any, and make payments under the tax receivable agreement or settle other obligations. In addition, the Sculptor Operating Group may make distributions to our executive managing directors in respect of their Class C Non-Equity Interests with respect to cash awards granted to them from time to time. As a result, Class A Shareholders may not receive any distributions at a time when our executive managing directors are receiving distributions on their Class C Non-Equity Interests or their other ownership interests. If the Sculptor Operating Group has insufficient funds to make such distributions, we may have to borrow additional funds or sell assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Furthermore, by paying cash distributions rather than investing that cash in our business, we might risk slowing the pace of our growth, or not having a sufficient amount of cash to fund our operations, new investments or unanticipated capital expenditures, should the need arise.
There may be circumstances under which we are restricted from making distributions under applicable law or regulation (for example, our Board of Directors may only declare and pay dividends either out of our surplus (as defined in DGCL) or in case there is no such surplus, out of our net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year) or under our 2020 Credit Agreement.
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The declaration and payment of any future distributions will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors, which may change our distribution policy or reduce or eliminate our distributions at any time, in its discretion, and may be subject to contractual obligations and restrictions under Delaware law.
Because we have historically earned and recognized most of our incentive income in the fourth quarter of each year, we anticipate that quarterly distributions in respect of the first three calendar quarters will be disproportionate to distributions in respect of the last calendar quarter, which will typically be paid in the first calendar quarter of the following year. Our Board of Directors will take into account such factors as it may deem relevant, including general economic and business conditions; our strategic plans and prospects; our business and investment opportunities; our financial condition and operating results; working capital requirements and anticipated cash needs; contractual restrictions and obligations, including payment obligations pursuant to the tax receivable agreement and restrictions pursuant to our 2020 Credit Agreement; legal, tax and regulatory restrictions; and other restrictions and implications on the payment of distributions by us to our Class A Shareholders or by our subsidiaries to us and such other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant. Any compensatory payments made to our employees, as well as payments that Sculptor Corp makes under the tax receivable agreement and distributions to holders of ownership interests in respect of their tax liabilities arising from their direct ownership of ownership interests, will reduce amounts that would otherwise be available for distribution on our Class A Shares. In addition, discretionary income allocations on Class C Non-Equity Interests as determined by the Chairman of the Partner Management Committee (or, in the event there is no Chairman, the full Partner Management Committee acting by majority vote) in conjunction with our Compensation Committee with respect to our executive officers, relating to cash awards granted to our executive managing directors will also reduce amounts available for distribution to our Class A Shareholders. We have granted RSUs that may settle in Class A Shares to certain of our executive managing directors, managing directors and other employees, and to certain independent members of our Board of Directors. All of these RSUs accrue distributions (except with respect to certain RSUs, during the Distribution Holiday) to be paid if and when the underlying RSUs vest. Distributions may be paid in cash or in additional RSUs that accrue additional distributions and will be settled at the same time the underlying RSUs vest.
The declaration and payment of any distribution may be subject to legal, contractual or other restrictions. For example, as a Delaware corporation, our Board of Directors may only declare and pay dividends either out of our surplus (as defined in DGCL) or in case there is no such surplus, out of our net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. In addition, we may not be permitted to make certain distributions if we are in default under our 2020 Credit Agreement. Our cash needs and payment obligations may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, and we may have material unexpected expenses in any period. This may cause amounts available for distribution to significantly fluctuate from quarter to quarter or may reduce or eliminate such amounts.
We will be required to pay amounts under the tax receivable agreement we are party to for most of the actual tax benefits we realize as a result of the tax basis step-up we receive in connection with an exchange common units in the Sculptor Operating Group for Class A Shares. In certain circumstances, payments under the tax receivable agreement may be accelerated and/or could exceed the actual tax benefits we realize.
We generally receive a tax benefit when common units in the Sculptor Operating Group are acquired or exchanged because our tax basis in our distributive share of the Sculptor Operating Group assets generally increases as a result of these acquisitions or exchanges. We are a party to a tax receivable agreement with active and former executive managing directors and the Ziffs, that originally required us to pay 85% of the amount of cash savings in U.S. federal, state and local income tax that we actually realize as a result of such an increase in tax basis. The tax receivable agreement was amended to provide that no payments were due under the tax receivable agreement in respect of the 2017 tax year and only partial payments (based on comparing taxable income and economic income) were due in respect of the 2018 tax year, and the percentage of cash savings required to be paid with respect to the 2019 tax year and thereafter, as well as with respect to cash savings from subsequent exchanges, will be reduced to 75%.
The actual increase in tax basis of the Sculptor Operating Group assets resulting from an exchange or from payments under the tax receivable agreement, as well as the amortization thereof and the timing and amount of payments under the tax receivable agreement, will vary based upon a number of factors including the law in effect at the time of an exchange or a payment under the tax receivable agreement, the timing of future exchanges, the timing and amount of prior payments under the tax receivable agreement, the price of our Class A Shares at the time of any exchange, the composition of the Sculptor Operating Group’s assets at the time of any exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and the amount and timing of the
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income of Sculptor Corp and our other intermediate corporate taxpayers that hold Group B Units in connection with an exchange, if any. Depending upon the outcome of these factors, payments that we may be obligated to make to our executive managing directors and the Ziffs under the tax receivable agreement in respect of exchanges are likely to be substantial. In light of the numerous factors affecting our obligation to make payments under the tax receivable agreement, however, the timing and amounts of any such actual payments are not reasonably ascertainable. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Tax Receivable Agreement.”
Were the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) to successfully challenge all or a part of increased deductions and a tax basis increase, our executive managing directors and the Ziffs who have received payments under the tax receivable agreement will not reimburse the corporate taxpayers for any such payments that have been previously made. As a result, in certain circumstances, payments could be made to our executive managing directors and the Ziffs under the tax receivable agreement in excess of the corporate taxpayers’ cash tax savings. The corporate taxpayers’ ability to achieve benefits from any tax basis increase, and the payments to be made under this agreement, will depend upon a number of factors, including the timing and amount of our future income.
Decisions made by our executive managing directors in the course of running our business, in particular decisions made with respect to the sale or disposition of assets or change of control, may influence the timing and amount of payments that are payable to an exchanging or selling executive managing director or the Ziffs under the tax receivable agreement. In general, earlier disposition of assets following an exchange or acquisition transaction will tend to accelerate such payments and increase the present value of the tax receivable agreement, and disposition of assets before an exchange or acquisition transaction will tend to increase the tax liability of our executive managing directors or the Ziffs without giving rise to any rights to receive payments under the tax receivable agreement.
In addition, the tax receivable agreement provides that, upon a merger, asset sale or other form of business combination or certain other changes of control, the corporate taxpayers’ (or their successors’) obligations with respect to exchanged or acquired units (whether exchanged or acquired before or after such change of control) would be based on certain prescribed assumptions, including that the corporate taxpayers would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the deductions arising from the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits related to entering into the tax receivable agreement. Accordingly, obligations under the tax receivable agreement may make it more expensive for third parties to acquire control of us and make it more difficult for the holders of Class A Shares to recognize a premium in connection with any such transaction. Finally, we may need to incur debt to finance payments under the tax receivable agreement to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the tax receivable agreement, which may or may not be available on favorable terms, if at all.
If we are deemed an investment company under the 1940 Act, the applicable restrictions could make it impracticable for us to continue our business as contemplated and would have a material adverse impact on the market price of our Class A Shares.
We do not believe that we are an “investment company” under the 1940 Act because the nature of our assets and the sources of our income exclude us from the definition of an investment company under the 1940 Act. In addition, we believe our Company is not an investment company under Section 3(b)(1) of the 1940 Act because we are primarily engaged in a non-investment company business. We intend to continue to conduct our operations so that we will not be deemed an investment company. If we were to be deemed an investment company, restrictions imposed by the 1940 Act, including limitations on our capital structure and our ability to transact with affiliates, could make it impractical for us to continue our business as contemplated.
Risks Related to Our Shares
The market price and trading volume of our Class A Shares have been and may continue to be highly volatile, which could result in rapid and substantial losses for our shareholders.
The market price of our Class A Shares has been and may continue to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations. In addition, the trading volume in our Class A Shares can be highly variable, which has caused and may continue to cause significant price variations to occur. The market price of our Class A Shares may fluctuate or decline significantly in the future.
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Some of the primary factors that could negatively affect the price of our Class A Shares or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our Class A Shares include:
The impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Reductions or lack of growth in our assets under management, whether due to poor investment performance by our funds or redemptions by investors in our funds.
Difficult global market and economic conditions.
Loss of investor confidence in the global financial markets and investing in general and in alternative asset managers in particular.
Competitively adverse actions taken by other hedge fund managers with respect to pricing, fund structure, redemptions, employee recruiting and compensation.
Inability to attract, retain or motivate our active executive managing directors, investment professionals, managing directors or other key personnel.
Public or other offerings of additional Class A Shares.
Inability to develop or successfully execute on business strategies or plans.
Unanticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or dividends.
Failure to meet analysts’ earnings estimates.
Publication of negative or inaccurate research reports about us or the asset management industry or the failure of securities analysts to provide adequate coverage of our Class A Shares in the future.
Adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur, Sculptor Operating Group common units or cash awards we may grant under our 2013 Incentive Plan or otherwise, or any other securities we may issue in the future.
Changes in market valuations of similar companies.
Speculation in the press or investment community about our business.
Additional or unexpected changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations or differing interpretations thereof affecting our business or enforcement of these laws and regulations, or announcements relating to these matters.
Increases in compliance or enforcement inquiries and investigations by regulatory authorities, including as a result of regulations mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act and other initiatives of various regulators that have jurisdiction over us related to the alternative asset management industry.
Adverse publicity about the asset management industry generally or scandals involving hedge funds specifically.
The price of our Class A Shares may decline due to the large number of shares eligible for future sale and for exchange into Class A Shares.
The market price of our Class A Shares could decline as a result of sales of a large number of our Class A Shares or the perception that such sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate. As of December 31, 2020, 22,903,571 Class A Shares were outstanding and 3,693,712 interests were outstanding pursuant to our Amended and Restated 2007 Equity Incentive Plan. The Amended and Restated 2007 Equity Incentive Plan expired on November 11, 2017, and no new awards may
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be granted thereunder on or after that date. As of December 31, 2020, 20,844,397 interests were outstanding pursuant to our 2013 Incentive Plan, and approximately 9,241,058 Class A Shares and other plan interests remain available for future grant under that plan. The Class A Shares reserved under our 2013 Incentive Plan are increased on the first day of each fiscal year during the plan’s term by 15% of any increase in the number of outstanding Class A Shares (assuming the exchange of all outstanding Sculptor Operating Group common units (other than Group B Units) for Class A Shares) from the number outstanding on the first day of the immediately preceding fiscal year.
As of December 31, 2020, our executive managing directors owned an aggregate of 28,995,326 Group A and E Units. The holder of any Group A Units generally has the right to exchange each of his or her Group A Units for one of our Class A Shares (or, at our option, the cash equivalent thereof), subject to vesting and transfer restrictions under the Sculptor Operating Partnerships’ limited partnership agreements and the Class A Unit Exchange Agreement. The Group E Units convert into Group A Units to the extent they have become economically equivalent to Group A Units. Prior to the expiration of the Distribution Holiday, the Exchange Committee (comprised of our Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer), in consultation with the Board of Directors, shall have the authority to permit exchanges of vested and booked-up Group A Units, which exchanges shall be made available to all holders of such vested and booked-up Group A Units on a pro rata basis. Beginning on the final day of the Distribution Holiday, each of our executive managing directors may exchange his or her vested Group A Units over a period of two years in three equal installments commencing upon the final day of the Distribution Holiday and on each of the first and second anniversary thereof (or, for units that become vested and booked-up Group A Units after the final day of the Distribution Holiday, from the later of the date on which they would have been exchangeable in accordance with the foregoing and the date on which they become vested and booked-up Group A Units) (and thereafter such units will remain exchangeable), in each case, subject to certain restrictions (including, among other things, in connection with our insider trading policy in respect of affiliate holders and in certain circumstances where the exchange would be likely to impact our ability to use net operating losses).
As of December 31, 2020, our executive managing directors owned an aggregate of 3,385,000 Group P Units. The holder of any Group P Unit generally has the right to exchange each of his or her Group P Units for one of our Class A Shares (or, at our option, the cash equivalent thereof), subject to service and performance criteria, and only to the extent there has been a sufficient amount of appreciation for the Group P Unit to achieve a book-up target and, subject to other conditions contained in the limited partnership agreements of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships, the Distribution Holiday has ended (or an earlier exchange date is established by the Exchange Committee). See Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information regarding the terms of the Group P Units.
We are party to a registration rights agreement, as amended, with our executive managing directors pursuant to which we granted them certain “piggyback” registration rights with respect to the resale of all Class A Shares delivered in exchange for Group A Units or otherwise held from time to time by our executive managing directors, including after an exchange of Group P Units. We will agree to file with the SEC a shelf registration statement or a prospectus supplement or other supplemental materials to an existing shelf registration statement, no later than the first “established exchange date” under the Class A Unit Exchange Agreement, providing for registration and resale of the Class A Shares that may be delivered in exchange for Operating Group Units (as provided for in the registration rights agreement) or otherwise held from time to time by the executive managing directors.
RSUs may be settled at the election of a majority of our Board of Directors in Class A Shares or cash, with the amount of cash available for settlement of RSUs being subject to certain limitations as part of the Recapitalization. Subject to continued employment over the vesting period, the underlying Class A Shares will be issued, or cash in lieu thereof will be paid, as such RSUs vest. We filed registration statements on Form S-8 to register an aggregate of 6,718,827 Class A Shares reserved for issuance under our Amended and Restated 2007 Equity Incentive Plan (which expired on November 11, 2017) and registration statements on Form S-8 to register an aggregate of 32,904,525 Class A Shares reserved for issuance under our 2013 Incentive Plan (not including automatic annual increases thereto). As a result, any Class A Shares issued in respect of the RSUs will be freely transferable by non-affiliates upon issuance and by affiliates under Rule 144, without regard to holding period limitations.
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Our current and former executive managing directors’ beneficial ownership of Class B Shares, the tax receivable agreement and anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could delay or prevent a change in control.
Our current and former executive managing directors own all of our Class B Shares, which as of December 31, 2020, represent approximately 47.4% of the total combined voting power of our Company, excluding the voting power of the Class B Shares that relate to our Group A-1 Units, which represent 11.5% of our total combined voting power, and are voted pro rata in accordance with the vote of our Class A Shares until such time as the relevant Group E Units become vested, or are forfeited.
In addition, the tax receivable agreement provides that, upon a merger, asset sale or other form of business combination or certain other changes of control, the corporate taxpayers’ (or any successors’) obligations with respect to exchanged or acquired units (whether exchanged or acquired before or after such change of control) would be based on certain prescribed assumptions, including that the corporate taxpayers would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the deductions arising from the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits related to entering into the tax receivable agreement. The provisions may make it more difficult and expensive for a third party to acquire control of us even if a change of control would be beneficial to the interests of our shareholders.
Further, provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws may make it more difficult and expensive for a third party to acquire control of us even if a change of control would be beneficial to the interests of our shareholders. For example, our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws provide for a staggered Board of Directors, require advance notice for proposals by shareholders and nominations, place limitations on convening shareholder meetings, and authorize the issuance of preferred shares that could be issued by our Board of Directors to thwart a takeover attempt. The market price of our Class A Shares could be materially adversely affected to the extent that our current and former executive managing directors’ influence over us, as well as provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws, discourage potential takeover attempts that our shareholders may favor.
Finally, some provisions of Delaware law may delay or prevent a transaction that would cause a change in our control. In this regard, Section 203 of the DGCL restricts certain business combinations with interested stockholders in certain situations. In general, this statute prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date of the transaction by which that person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. For purposes of Section 203, a business combination includes a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and an interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of voting stock.
Risks Related to Taxation
Our structure involves complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. Our structure also is subject to potential legislative, judicial or administrative change and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.
The U.S. federal income tax treatment of holders of the Class A Shares depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. You should be aware that the U.S. federal income tax rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS, and the U.S. Treasury Department, frequently resulting in revised interpretations of established concepts, statutory changes, revisions to regulations and other modifications and interpretations. The IRS pays close attention to the proper application of tax laws to partnerships. The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in the Class A Shares may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial interpretation at any time, possibly on a retroactive basis, and any such action may affect investments and commitments previously made. For example, changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could affect or cause us to change our investments and commitments, change the character or treatment of portions of our income, affect the tax considerations of an investment in us and adversely affect an investment in our Class A Shares.
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As a result of the Recapitalization and the Corporate Classification Change, we expect to pay more corporate income taxes and may be required to make accelerated payments under the tax receivable agreement compared to under our prior structure. In addition, we may fail to realize some or all of the benefits of the Corporate Classification Change, or those benefits could take longer to materialize than expected, which could have a material and adverse effect on the trading price of the Class A Shares.
We converted from a partnership to a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, effective April 1, 2019 (the “Corporate Classification Change”). Following the Corporate Classification Change, all of our net income has become subject to U.S. federal (and state and local) corporate income taxes, which reduces the amount of cash available for distributions or for reinvestment in our business. The maximum U.S. federal corporate income tax rate is currently 21%, but this rate may increase in the future, which would cause us to pay more corporate income taxes than currently anticipated.
We generally receive a tax benefit when common units in the Sculptor Operating Group are acquired or exchanged because our tax basis in our distributive share of the Sculptor Operating Group assets generally increases as a result of these acquisitions or exchanges. We are a party to a tax receivable agreement with active and former executive managing directors and the Ziffs, that originally required us to pay 85% of the amount of cash savings in U.S. federal, state and local income tax that we actually realize as a result of such an increase in tax basis. The tax receivable agreement was amended to provide that the percentage of cash savings required to be paid with respect to the 2019 tax year and thereafter, as well as with respect to cash savings from subsequent exchanges, will be reduced to 75%. We expect corporate-entity-level taxes and payments under the tax receivable agreement will accelerate as a result of the Recapitalization and the Corporate Classification Change.
During the Distribution Holiday, net income and distributions of the Sculptor Operating Group that previously would have been allocated and distributed pro rata among the Sculptor Operating Group Units will be allocated and distributed solely to the Group B Units. This will result in increased corporate income taxes and acceleration of the utilization of our deferred tax assets, and may result in accelerated payments under the tax receivable agreement.
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, any distributions we pay following the Corporate Classification Change generally will be treated as qualified dividend income (generally subject to tax in the hands of U.S. individual shareholders at capital gain rates under current law) paid by a domestic corporation to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Since the Corporate Classification Change, no income, gains, losses, deductions or credits of the Sculptor Operating Partnerships flow through to the shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Although we believe that the Corporate Classification Change will, among other things, simplify our tax reporting for shareholders, expand our shareholder base, and increase the liquidity of our Class A Shares, we may fail to realize all or some of the anticipated benefits of the Corporate Classification Change, or those benefits may take longer to realize than we expected, which could contribute to a decline in the trading price of our shares. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the anticipated benefits of the Corporate Classification Change will over time offset the cost of these transactions.
U.S. federal income tax reform could have uncertain effects.
The TCJA made significant changes to the taxation of U.S. business entities, including reducing the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax, restricting deductions allowed for net operating losses beginning in 2018 to 80% of current year taxable income, permitting those net operating losses to be carried forward indefinitely, limiting the deductibility of business interest to 30% of “adjusted taxable income” (which is similar to EBITDA before 2022 and EBIT beginning in 2022), and making certain modifications to section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), among other changes. Under the regulations issued by the U.S. Treasury (the “ Treasury Regulations”), partnership guaranteed payments for the use of capital may under certain circumstances be characterized as interest for purposes of the aforementioned limitation on the deductibility of business interest. In addition, recently finalized Treasury Regulations under section 162(m) of the Code would limit deductions for compensation paid by a partnership for services performed for it by covered employees of a corporation that is a partner in the partnership. The aforementioned limitation on the deductibility of business interest and the final Treasury Regulations under section 162(m) could reduce deductions available to us.
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Our structure is subject to other potential legislative, judicial or administrative changes and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.
As described above, the TCJA made significant changes to the taxation of U.S. business entities. If any change in the tax laws, rules, regulations or interpretations were to impose additional taxes or limitations, Class A Shareholders could be negatively affected because we could incur a material increase in our tax liability as a public company from the date any such changes applied to us, which could result in a reduction in the value of our Class A Shares.
Tax gain or loss on disposition of our Class A Shares could be more or less than expected.
If you sell your Class A Shares, you will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the adjusted tax basis in those Class A Shares. Prior distributions to you for periods prior to the Corporate Classification Change in excess of the total net taxable income allocated to you for such periods, which decreased the tax basis in your Class A Shares, will in effect become taxable income to you if the Class A Shares are sold in a taxable disposition at a price greater than your tax basis in those Class A Shares, even if the price is less than the original cost.
New rules regarding U.S. federal income tax liability arising from IRS audits of partnerships could adversely affect shareholders.
For taxable years of entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning on or after January 1, 2018, U.S. federal income tax liability arising from an IRS audit will be borne by the entity, unless certain alternative methods are available and the entity elects to utilize them. Under the new rules, it is possible that holders or the entity itself may bear responsibility for taxes attributable to adjustments to the taxable income of the entity with respect to tax years that closed before the holder owned an interest in the entity. Accordingly, this new legislation may adversely affect certain of our shareholders for periods prior to the Corporate Classification Change in certain cases and could affect the Sculptor Operating Partnerships, which will continue to be classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These new rules differ from the prior rules, which generally provided that tax adjustments only affected the persons who were partners in the partnership in the tax year in which the item was reported on the partnership’s tax return. The changes created by these new rules are uncertain and in many respects depend on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the IRS or the U.S. Treasury.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to limitations.
Our ability to use our federal net operating losses and built-in losses (“NOLs”) to offset potential future taxable income and related income taxes may be limited. Section 382 of the Code, imposes an annual limitation on the amount of taxable income that may be offset by loss carryforwards of a “loss corporation” if the corporation experiences an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 (generally, a cumulative change in ownership that exceeds 50% of the value of a corporation’s stock over a rolling three-year period). We may experience an ownership change as a result of issuances or other changes in ownership of our shares, including as a result of issuances of Class A Shares upon future exchanges of Group A Units or Group P Units by active and former executive managing directors. In addition, Section 382 of the Code contains certain anti-avoidance rules that could result in the application of similar limitations on our ability to use our NOLs. To the extent we experience an ownership change at a time when we are a loss corporation, or Section 382 of the Code otherwise applies under such rules, our ability to utilize our NOLs could be significantly limited, and similar limitations may apply at the state level.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our principal executive offices are located in leased office space in New York. We also lease space for our operations in London, Hong Kong and Shanghai. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements and we anticipate that suitable additional or substitute space will be available, as necessary, upon favorable terms. See Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information regarding our leases.
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are from time to time involved in litigation, investigations, inquiries, disputes, and other potential claims incidental to the conduct of our business. Like other businesses in our industry, we are subject to extensive scrutiny by regulatory agencies globally that have, or may in the future have, regulatory authority over us and our business activities. This has resulted in, or may in the future result in, regulatory agency investigations, litigation and subpoenas, and related sanctions and costs. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Extensive regulation of our business affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. Our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially affected by regulatory issues,” “—Increased regulatory focus in the U.S. could result in additional burdens on our business,” and “—Regulatory changes in jurisdictions outside the U.S. could adversely affect our business.” See Note 18 to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for additional information.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
None.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity
Our Class A Shares are listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “SCU.” Our Class B Shares are not listed on the NYSE and there is no, and we do not expect there would be any, other established trading market for these shares. All of our Class B Shares are owned by our current and former executive managing directors and have no economic rights, but entitle holders to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of our Class A Shareholders.
As of February 17, 2021, there were 9 holders of record of our Class A Shares. A substantially greater number of holders of our Class A Shares are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
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SCU Stock Performance
The line graph and table below compares the cumulative total return on our Class A Shares with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Index and the S&P 500 Financials Index for the period of December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020. The graph and table assume that $100 was invested simultaneously on December 31, 2015 in our Class A Shares, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Financials Index, respectively, that these investments were held until December 31, 2020, and that all dividends were reinvested. The past performance of our Class A Shares is not an indication of future performance.
scu-20201231_g3.jpg
Period Ended December 31,
201520162017201820192020
Sculptor Capital Management, Inc.$100.00 $53.13 $41.12 $16.14 $40.74 $28.61 
S&P 500 Index$100.00 $111.95 $136.38 $130.39 $171.44 $202.96 
S&P 500 Financials Index$100.00 $122.75 $149.92 $130.37 $172.21 $169.19 

Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Not Applicable.
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described in “Part IItem 1A. Risk Factors” of this report. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. An investment in our Class A Shares is not an investment in any of our funds.
Overview
2020 was a challenging yet pivotal year for us. The Sculptor Master Fund generated its strongest returns in over a decade. Through the 2020 Credit Agreement described below, we continued strengthening our balance sheet, leaving us with the most stable and flexible capital structure since 2007. We settled U.S. v. Oz Africa Management GP, LLC, Cr. No. 16-515 (NGG) (EDNY) in 2020, which put all legal issues stemming from legacy dealings in Africa behind us. We also had one of the best fundraising efforts in five years in our multi-strategy and opportunistic credit funds, raising over a billion dollars of new capital into our multi-strategy and opportunistic credit funds, and held the final closing of our largest ever opportunistic real estate fund, Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV, with almost $2.6 billion in commitments.
COVID-19 Pandemic
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic spread across the world, resulting in a wide-spread economic downturn. We successfully executed our business continuity plan and continued operations with no material interruptions by implementing a work from home model necessary to protect the health and well-being of our employees and in response to mandated precautions, where applicable. We also reached out to our critical vendors to ensure that they are well positioned to operate during the pandemic. We rely significantly on the effectiveness of our information technology infrastructure to continue our operations and to continue to maintain appropriate controls over operations, treasury function, accounting and financial reporting.
The COVID-19 pandemic impacted our results negatively in the first quarter of 2020, and those impacts mostly reversed in the subsequent quarters. However, due to the uncertainty over the timing and extent of any possible global economic recovery, we cannot readily estimate or determine the effects that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic will ultimately have on our future business and financial results. Please see the COVID-19 commentary included throughout this MD&A, including “—Liquidity and Capital Resources,” “Part I—Item 1A. Risk Factors” and Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report for additional information.
2020 Credit Agreement
On September 25, 2020, we entered into a new financing facility, the 2020 Credit Agreement, consisting of (i) a senior secured term loan facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of $320.0 million (the “2020 Term Loan”) and (ii) a senior secured revolving credit facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of $25.0 million (the “2020 Revolving Credit Facility”). Upon the closing of the 2020 Credit Agreement in the fourth quarter of 2020, we used the proceeds from the 2020 Term Loan to repay in full our existing 2018 Term Loan and Debt Securities, as well as to redeem the 2019 Preferred Units in full, which allowed us to capture $62.3 million of negotiated discounts available under the Debt Securities and the 2019 Preferred Units. In connection with the 2020 Credit Agreement, we issued warrants to purchase approximately 4.3 million Class A Shares and provided the counterparty a seat on our Board of Directors. Through January 2021, we voluntarily prepaid an aggregate of $175.0 million of the 2020 Term Loan, leaving a balance of $145.0 million, which is due at maturity. As a result of the prepayments, we are no longer subject to the cash sweep or financial maintenance covenants other than the $20.0 billion minimum fee-paying assets under management covenant. The 2020 Revolving Credit Facility remains undrawn and available for working capital and general corporate purposes. Please see “—Liquidity and Capital Resources” for additional information.
Litigation Settlement
On November 4, 2020, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York (the “Court”) ordered restitution consistent with the terms of the settlement agreement between Oz Africa Management GP, LLC (“Oz Africa”) and certain former shareholders of Africo Resources Ltd. Oz Africa paid approximately $138.0 million to former shareholders of Africo
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Resources Ltd. and our Deferred Prosecution Agreement was terminated shortly thereafter. With the completion of the foregoing events, we have put all legal issues stemming from legacy dealings in Africa behind us.
Overview of Our Financial Results
We reported a GAAP net income of $170.7 million in 2020, compared to net income of $51.4 million in 2019. The increase in net income attributable to Class A Shareholders for 2020 was primarily due to higher incentive income and management fees, partially offset by higher operating expenses. Also impacting our results to Class A Shareholders was an adjustment to the redemption value of Preferred Units recognized in connection with the Recapitalization in the first quarter of 2019 that increased net income attributable to Class A Shareholders in 2019 by $44.4 million. In 2020, an adjustment of $7.0 million to the redemption value of the Preferred Units, related to the accrual of distributions on the units, decreased amounts attributable to Class A Shareholders. Please see “—Results of Operations” for detailed discussion of the drivers of our results.
Economic Income was $306.1 million in 2020, compared to $135.9 million in 2019. This increase was primarily due to higher incentive income and management fees, lower professional services expenses, and lower salaries and benefits, partially offset by higher legal settlements and provisions, higher bonus expense driven by performance, higher interest expense, and lower interest income.
Economic Income is a non-GAAP measure. For additional information regarding non-GAAP measures, as well as for a discussion of the drivers of the year-over-year change in Economic Income, please see “—Economic Income Analysis.”
Overview of Assets Under Management and Fund Performance
Assets under management totaled $36.8 billion as of December 31, 2020. Longer-dated assets under management, which are those subject to initial commitment periods of three years or longer, were $24.7 billion, comprising 67% of our total assets under management as of December 31, 2020. Assets under management in our dedicated credit, real estate and other strategy-specific funds were $26.3 billion, comprising 71% of assets under management as of December 31, 2020.
Assets under management in our multi-strategy funds totaled $10.5 billion as of December 31, 2020, increasing $1.2 billion, or 13%, year-over-year. This change was driven by performance-related appreciation of $1.7 billion, partially offset by net capital outflows of $463.8 million, primarily in the Sculptor Master Fund, our largest multi-strategy fund.
Sculptor Master Fund generated a gross return of 26.4% and a net return of 19.5% year-to-date through December 31, 2020. Broad strength in risk assets rewarded our dynamic capital allocation and risk management framework. All of Sculptor Master Fund’s risk-taking strategies generated positive performance in 2020. Please see “—Assets Under Management and Fund Performance—Multi-Strategy Funds” for additional information regarding the returns of the Sculptor Master Fund.
Assets under management in our dedicated credit products totaled $22.0 billion as of December 31, 2020, remaining relatively flat year-over-year. Assets under management in our opportunistic credit funds totaled $6.3 billion as of December 31, 2020, increasing $262.5 million, or 4%, year-over-year. This was driven by $246.9 million of performance-related appreciation and $197.4 million of net inflows, partially offset by $181.8 million of distributions in our closed-end opportunistic credit funds.
Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund, our global opportunistic credit fund, generated a gross return of 1.1% and a net return of -1.5% year-to-date through December 31, 2020. The gross return was primarily driven by broad-based positive performance in both spread-based investments where we added exposure during the crisis, in addition to a resurgence amongst our largest process-driven holdings. We deployed approximately $800.0 million of capital into credit in the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund at the height of the crisis, which helped drive a 23.1% net return for the fund from April 1, 2020 through year-end. Assets under management for the fund were $2.5 billion as of December 31, 2020.
Assets under management in Institutional Credit Strategies totaled $15.7 billion as of December 31, 2020, remaining relatively flat year-over-year. This was driven primarily by the launch of a European CLO and an aircraft securitization vehicle in 2020, partially offset by a reduction in assets under management related to a decrease in the number of aircraft serving as collateral in certain of our aircraft securitization vehicles, as well as changes in underlying collateral values.
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Assets under management in our real estate funds totaled $4.3 billion as of December 31, 2020, increasing $914.8 million, or 27%, year-over-year primarily due to additional closings of Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV, which had its final closing in the second quarter of 2020, and related co-investment vehicles, partially offset by $619.6 million of distributions and other reductions, primarily related to the expiration of the investment periods of Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I. Since inception through December 31, 2020, the gross internal rate of return (“IRR”) was 27.9% and 18.3% net for Sculptor Real Estate Fund III (for which the investment period ended in September 2019). Despite the volatility across the real estate and capital markets in 2020, we continued to be very active in both new investments as well as providing liquidity to our investors. Across our real estate platform, we deployed approximately $700.0 million of capital into new investments and distributed nearly half a billion dollars back to our investors.
Assets Under Management and Fund Performance
Our financial results are primarily driven by the combination of our assets under management and the investment performance of our funds. Both of these factors directly affect the revenues we earn from management fees and incentive income. Growth in assets under management due to capital placed with us by investors in our funds and positive investment performance of our funds drive growth in our revenues and earnings. Conversely, poor investment performance slows our growth by decreasing our assets under management and increasing the potential for redemptions from our funds, which would have a negative effect on our revenues and earnings.
We typically accept capital from new and existing investors in our multi-strategy and certain open-end opportunistic credit funds on a monthly basis on the first day of each month. Investors in these funds (other than with respect to capital invested in Special Investments) typically have the right to redeem their interests in a fund following an initial lock-up period of one to four years. Following the expiration of these lock-up periods, subject to certain limitations, investors may redeem capital generally on a quarterly or annual basis upon giving 30 to 90 days’ prior written notice. The lock-up requirements for our funds may generally be waived or modified at the sole discretion of each fund’s general partner or board of directors, as applicable.
With respect to investors with quarterly redemption rights, requests for redemptions submitted during a quarter generally reduce assets under management on the first day of the following quarter. Accordingly, quarterly redemptions generally will have no impact on management fees during the quarter in which they are submitted. Instead, these redemptions will reduce management fees in the following quarter. With respect to investors with annual redemption rights, redemptions paid prior to the end of a quarter impact assets under management in the quarter in which they are paid, and therefore impact management fees for that quarter.
Investors in our closed-end credit funds, securitization vehicles, real estate and certain other funds are not able to redeem their investments. In those funds, investors generally make a commitment that is funded over an investment period (or at launch for our securitization vehicles). Upon the expiration of the investment period, the investments are then sold or realized over time, and distributions are made to the investors in the fund.
In a declining market, during periods when the hedge fund industry generally experiences outflows, or in response to specific company events, we could experience increased redemptions and a consequent reduction in our assets under management. Over the past few years, our assets under management have declined and this trend may continue to some extent for some period of time in light of the 2016 settlements and the global economic downturn as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the latter part of 2017 and 2018, net outflows from our multi-strategy funds began to normalize and were partially offset by growth in our Institutional Credit Strategies business, as well as positive fund performance. Our largest fund, the Sculptor Master Fund, generated performance-related appreciation through December 31, 2020, despite experiencing significant performance-related depreciation in the first quarter of 2020 driven by the market and economic impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which had a negative impact on our incentive income during that quarter. Although we generated strong returns that offset the first quarter losses, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every segment of the global economy and may have a negative impact on our assets under management, management fees and incentive income in future periods.
Information with respect to our assets under management throughout this report, including the tables set forth below, includes investments by us, our executive managing directors, employees and certain other related parties. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 3% of our assets under management represented investments by us, our executive managing directors,
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employees and certain other related parties in our funds. As of that date, approximately 46% of these affiliated assets under management are not charged management fees and are not subject to an incentive income calculation. Additionally, to the extent that a fund is an investor in another fund, we waive or rebate a corresponding portion of the management fees charged to the fund.
As further discussed below in “—Understanding Our Results—Revenues—Management Fees,” we generally calculate management fees based on assets under management as of the beginning of each quarter. The assets under management in the tables below are presented net of management fees and incentive income as of the end of the period. Accordingly, the assets under management presented in the tables below are not the amounts used to calculate management fees for the respective periods.
Appreciation (depreciation) in the tables below reflects the aggregate net capital appreciation (depreciation) for the entire period and is presented on a total return basis, net of all fees and expenses (except incentive income on Special Investments), and includes the reinvestment of all dividends and other income. Management fees and incentive income vary by product. Appreciation (depreciation) within Institutional Credit Strategies includes the effects of changes in the par value of the underlying collateral of the CLOs and CBO, foreign currency translation changes in the measurement of assets under management of our European CLOs and changes in the portfolio appraisal values for aircraft securitization vehicles.
Summary of Changes in Assets Under Management
The tables below present the changes to our assets under management for the respective periods based on the type of funds or investment vehicles we manage.
Year Ended December 31, 2020
December 31, 2019Inflows / (Outflows)Distributions / Other ReductionsAppreciation / (Depreciation)December 31, 2020
(dollars in thousands)
Multi-strategy funds$9,332,118 $(463,780)$(23,225)$1,658,911 $10,504,024 
Credit
   Opportunistic credit funds6,025,306 197,387 (181,773)246,857 6,287,777 
   Institutional Credit Strategies15,710,319 769,821 (861,629)79,316 15,697,827 
Real estate funds3,393,876 1,529,554 (619,580)4,798 4,308,648 
Other8,311 20 (8,331)— — 
Total$34,469,930 $2,033,002 $(1,694,538)$1,989,882 $36,798,276 

Year Ended December 31, 2019
December 31, 2018Inflows / (Outflows)Distributions / Other ReductionsAppreciation / (Depreciation)December 31, 2019
(dollars in thousands)
Multi-strategy funds$10,420,858 $(2,391,604)$(65,358)$1,368,222 $9,332,118 
Credit
   Opportunistic credit funds5,751,411 183,390 (47,312)137,817 6,025,306 
   Institutional Credit Strategies13,491,734 2,523,928 (134,112)(171,231)15,710,319 
Real estate funds2,577,040 2,005,902 (1,195,235)6,169 3,393,876 
Other286,635 (62,728)(215,975)379 8,311 
Total$32,527,678 $2,258,888 $(1,657,992)$1,341,356 $34,469,930 
In the year ended December 31, 2020, our funds experienced performance-related appreciation of $2.0 billion and net inflows of $2.0 billion. The net inflows were comprised of (i) $3.4 billion of gross inflows, driven by over $1.0 billion of new
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assets into our multi-strategy and opportunistic credit hedge funds, the final closes of Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV and the launch of a European CLO and an aircraft securitization vehicle, and (ii) $1.4 billion of gross outflows due to redemptions, primarily in our multi-strategy and opportunistic credit funds. Distributions and other reductions of $1.7 billion were driven primarily by Institutional Credit Strategies, as a result of a decrease in the number of aircraft serving as collateral in certain of our aircraft securitization vehicles for which we act as collateral manager, and by our real estate funds, which was primarily due to the expiration of the investment period for Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I. In 2020, excluding securitization vehicles within Institutional Credit Strategies, our largest sources of gross inflows were from corporate and other institutions, pensions, and private banks, while pensions and private banks were the largest source of gross outflows.
As of February 1, 2021, estimated assets under management decreased to $36.4 billion, driven by $139.5 million of net outflows, $174.9 million of performance-related depreciation, and approximately $54.6 million of distributions and other reductions to investors in certain funds, including paydowns in certain of our CLOs.
In the year ended December 31, 2019, our funds experienced performance-related appreciation of $1.3 billion and net inflows of $2.3 billion. The net inflows were comprised of (i) $5.3 billion of gross inflows, primarily due to launches of new CLOs and aircraft securitization vehicles, and our first CBO, and closes of Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV and a related co-investment vehicle; and (ii) $3.1 billion of gross outflows due to redemptions, primarily in our multi-strategy funds. We also had $1.7 billion of distributions and other reductions, primarily related to the expiration of the investment period of Sculptor Real Estate Fund III and related co-investment vehicles. In 2019, excluding securitization vehicles within Institutional Credit Strategies, our largest sources of gross inflows were from pensions, corporations, institutional and other investors, and fund-of-funds, while related parties were the largest source of gross outflows. Gross outflows include approximately $1.1 billion of redemptions to former executive managing directors, the majority of which was redeemed in connection with the Recapitalization.
Weighted-Average Assets Under Management and Average Management Fee Rates
The table below presents our weighted-average assets under management and average management fee rates. Weighted-average assets under management exclude the impact of fourth quarter investment performance for the periods presented, as these amounts generally do not impact management fees calculated for those periods. The average management fee rates presented below take into account the effect of non-fee paying assets under management. Please see the respective sections below for average management fee rates by fund type. Our average management fee may vary from period to period based on the mix of products that comprise our assets under management.
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
(dollars in thousands)
Weighted-average assets under management$34,849,876 $32,528,795 
Average management fee rates0.72 %0.73 %
Fund Performance Information
The tables below present performance information for the funds we manage. The performance information presented in this report is not indicative of the performance of our Class A Shares and is not necessarily indicative of the future results of any particular fund, including the accrued unrecognized amounts of incentive income. An investment in our Class A Shares is not an investment in any of our funds. There can be no assurance that any of our existing or future funds will achieve similar results. The timing and amount of incentive income generated from our funds are inherently uncertain. Incentive income is a function of investment performance and realizations of investments, which vary period-to-period based on market conditions and other factors. We cannot predict when, or if, any realization of investments will occur. Incentive income recognized for any particular period is not a reliable indicator of incentive income that may be earned in subsequent periods.
The return information presented in this report represents, where applicable, the composite performance of all feeder funds that comprise each of the master funds presented. Gross return information is generally calculated using the total return of all feeder funds, net of all fees and expenses except management fees and incentive income of such feeder funds and master funds and the returns of each feeder fund include the reinvestment of all dividends and other income. Net return information is generally calculated as the gross returns less management fees and incentive income. Return information that includes Special
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Investments excludes incentive income on unrealized gains attributable to such investments, which could reduce returns at the time of realization. Special Investments and initial public offering investments are not allocated to all investors in the funds, and investors that were not allocated Special Investments and initial public offering investments may experience materially different returns.
Multi-Strategy Funds
The table below presents assets under management and investment performance for our multi-strategy funds. Assets under management are generally based on the net asset value of these products. Management fees generally range from 1.00% to 2.25% annually of assets under management. For the fourth quarter of 2020, our multi-strategy funds had an average management fee rate of 1.29%.
We generally crystallize incentive income from the majority of our multi-strategy funds on an annual basis. Incentive income is generally equal to 20% of the realized and unrealized profits attributable to each investor. A portion of the assets under management in each of the Sculptor Master Fund and our other multi-strategy funds is subject to initial commitment periods of three years, and for certain of these assets, we only earn incentive income once profits attributable to an investor exceed a preferential return, or “hurdle rate,” which is generally equal to the 3-month T-bill rate for our multi-strategy funds. Once the investment performance has exceeded the hurdle rate for these assets, we may receive a “catch-up” allocation, resulting in a potential recognition by us of a full 20% of the net profits attributable to investors in these assets.
Returns for the Year Ended December 31,Annualized Returns Since Inception Through December 31, 2020
Assets Under Management as of December 31,20202019
20202019GrossNetGrossNetGrossNet
Fund(dollars in thousands)
Sculptor Master Fund(1)
$9,657,101 $8,587,306 26.4 %19.5 %21.5 %16.6 %16.8 %
(2)
11.7 %
(2)
Sculptor Enhanced Master Fund831,065 667,539 23.6 %17.4 %29.1 %22.6 %15.5 %10.7 %
Other funds15,858 77,273 n/mn/mn/mn/mn/mn/m
$10,504,024 $9,332,118 
_______________
n/m not meaningful
(1)The returns for the Sculptor Master Fund exclude Special Investments. Special Investments in the Sculptor Master Fund are held by investors representing a small percentage of assets under management in the fund. Inclusive of these Special Investments, the returns of the Sculptor Master Fund for year ended December 31, 2020 were 25.3% gross and 18.6% net, for year ended December 31, 2019 were 19.6% gross and 14.8% net, and annualized since inception through December 31, 2020 were 16.5% gross and 11.6% net.
(2)The annualized returns since inception are those of the Sculptor Multi-Strategy Composite, which represents the composite performance of all accounts that were managed in accordance with our broad multi-strategy mandate that were not subject to portfolio investment restrictions or other factors that limited our investment discretion since inception on April 1, 1994. Performance is calculated using the total return of all such accounts net of all investment fees and expenses of such accounts, and the returns include the reinvestment of all dividends and other income. The performance calculation for the Sculptor Master Fund excludes realized and unrealized gains and losses attributable to currency hedging specific to certain investors investing in Sculptor Master Fund in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. For the period from April 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997, the returns are gross of certain overhead expenses that were reimbursed by the accounts. Such reimbursement arrangements were terminated at the inception of the Sculptor Master Fund on January 1, 1998. The size of the accounts comprising the composite during the time period shown vary materially. Such differences impacted our investment decisions and the diversity of the investment strategies followed. Furthermore, the composition of the investment strategies we follow is subject to our discretion, has varied materially since inception and is expected to vary materially in the future. As of December 31, 2020, the annualized returns since the Sculptor Master Fund’s inception on January 1, 1998 were 13.6% gross and 9.2% net excluding Special Investments and 13.2% gross and 9.0% net inclusive of Special Investments.
The $1.2 billion, or 13%, year-over-year increase in assets under management in our multi-strategy funds was primarily due to performance-related appreciation of $1.7 billion, partially offset by capital net outflows of $463.8 million, primarily from the Sculptor Master Fund, our largest multi-strategy fund. In 2020, the largest sources of gross inflows into our multi-strategy funds were from private banks, while the largest sources of gross outflows were attributable to private banks and pensions.
In 2020, the Sculptor Master Fund generated a gross return of 26.4% and a net return of 19.5%. Broad strength in risk assets rewarded our dynamic capital allocation and risk management framework. All of Sculptor Master Fund’s risk-taking strategies generated positive performance in 2020.
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In 2019, the Sculptor Master Fund generated a gross return of 21.5% and a net return of 16.6%. Sculptor Master Fund delivered positive returns across all major strategies. Fundamental equities led multi-strategy performance in 2019, as we generated gains across all geographies. Merger arbitrage and convertible and derivative arbitrage were also strong contributors with gains across all geographies, primarily in the U.S. Corporate credit and structured credit also generated gains in both Europe and the U.S. These gains were partially offset by losses in private investments in the U.S. and Asia.
Due to the performance-related depreciation in Sculptor Master Fund for the year ended December 31, 2018, we only earned incentive income in 2019 after the losses from 2018 were recovered for fund investors, which impacted our incentive by approximately $57.3 million in 2019. As of December 31, 2019, Sculptor Master Fund’s performance surpassed substantially all of these high-water marks due to performance-related appreciation generated in 2019.
Credit
Assets Under Management as of December 31,
20202019
(dollars in thousands)
Opportunistic credit funds$6,287,777 $6,025,306 
Institutional Credit Strategies15,697,827 15,710,319 
$21,985,604 $21,735,625 
Opportunistic Credit Funds
Our opportunistic credit funds seek to generate risk-adjusted returns by capturing value in mispriced investments across disrupted, dislocated and distressed corporate, structured and private credit markets globally.
Certain of our opportunistic credit funds are open-end and allow for contributions and redemptions (subject to initial lock-up and notice periods) on a periodic basis similar to our multi-strategy funds. Our remaining opportunistic credit funds are closed-end, whereby investors make a commitment that is funded over an investment period. Upon the expiration of an investment period, the investments are then sold or realized over a period of time, and distributions are made to the investors in the fund.
Assets under management for our opportunistic credit funds are generally based on the net asset value of those funds plus any unfunded commitments. Management fees for our opportunistic credit funds generally range from 0.75% to 2.00% annually of the net asset value of these funds. For the fourth quarter of 2020, our opportunistic credit funds had an average management fee rate of 0.88%.
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The table below presents assets under management and investment performance information for certain of our opportunistic credit funds. Incentive income related to these funds (excluding the closed-end opportunistic fund, which is explained further below) is generally equal to 20% of realized and unrealized profits attributable to each investor, and a portion of these assets under management is subject to hurdle rates, which are generally 6% to 8% for our open-end opportunistic credit funds. Once the cumulative investment performance has exceeded the hurdle rate, we may receive a “catch-up” allocation, resulting in a potential recognition by us of a full 20% of the net profits attributable to investors in these funds. The measurement periods for these assets under management generally range from one to five years.
Returns for the Year Ended December 31,Annualized Returns Since Inception Through December 31, 2020
Assets Under Management as of December 31,20202019
20202019GrossNetGrossNetGrossNet
Fund(dollars in thousands)
Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund(1)
$2,474,705 $1,604,275 1.1 %-1.5 %2.7 %1.2 %13.4 %9.4 %
Customized Credit Focused Platform3,466,024 3,251,159 See below for return information on our Customized Credit Focused Platform.
Closed-end opportunistic credit funds347,048 537,213 See below for return information on our closed-end opportunistic credit funds.
Other funds— 632,659 n/mn/mn/mn/mn/mn/m
$6,287,777 $6,025,306 
_______________
n/m not meaningful
(1)The returns for the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund exclude Special Investments. Special Investments in the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund are held by investors representing a small percentage of assets under management in the fund. Inclusive of these Special Investments, the returns of the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund for year ended December 31, 2020 were 0.7% gross and -1.8% net, for year ended December 31, 2019 were 2.9% gross and 1.4% net, and annualized since inception through December 31, 2020 were 12.9% gross and 9.1% net.
Assets under management in our opportunistic credit funds increased by $262.5 million, or 4%, year-over-year. This was driven by $246.9 million of performance-related appreciation, and $197.4 million of net inflows, partially offset and $181.8 million of distributions in our closed-end opportunistic credit funds.
In 2020, the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund, our global opportunistic credit fund, generated a gross return of 1.1% and a net return of -1.5%. The gross return was primarily driven by broad-based positive performance in both spread-based investments where we added exposure during the crisis, in addition to a resurgence amongst our largest process-driven holdings. We deployed approximately $800.0 million of capital into credit in the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund at the height of the crisis, which helped drive a 23.1% net return for the fund from April 1, 2020 through year-end.
In 2019, the Sculptor Credit Opportunities Master Fund, our global opportunistic credit fund, generated a gross return of 2.7% and a net return of 1.2%. Performance was broad-based with gains across both the structured and corporate credit strategies.
Weighted Average Return for the Year Ended December 31,(2)
Inception to Date as of December 31, 2020
20202019IRR
Net Invested Capital Multiple(5)
Customized Credit Focused PlatformGrossNetGross Net
Gross(3)
Net(4)
Opportunistic Credit Performance(1)
11.7 %8.7 %7.2 %5.5 %15.4 %11.8 %2.0x
_______________
(1)Performance presented is for the opportunistic credit strategies in the Customized Credit Focused Platform. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 95% of the invested capital in the Customized Credit Focused Platform is invested in the Platform’s opportunistic credit strategies.
(2)Weighted Average Returns reflect the total profit & loss divided by the weighted average capital base for the period.
(3)Gross IRR represents estimated, unaudited, annualized pre-tax returns based on the timing of cash inflows and outflows for each investment. It is calculated in the same manner as Net IRR, however, it does not reflect adjustments to cash flows related to incentive income, management fees and the applicable fund
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expenses. Gross IRR represents the estimated, unaudited, annualized pre-tax return based on the actual and/or projected timing of cash inflows from, and outflows to, investors for each investment (irrespective of any funding from a credit facility or other third-party financing source used by the Customized Credit Focused Platform). In certain cases, funding from a credit facility or other third party financing source was initially used by the Customized Credit Focused Platform to acquire an investment or pay certain expenses, which may have the effect of increasing the Gross IRR above that which would have been presented, had drawdowns from limited partners been initially used to acquire the investment or pay such expenses. Gross IRR is adjusted for actual investment expenses, but is not adjusted for management fees, incentive income or other fees or expenses to be paid by the Customized Credit Focused Platform, which would reduce the return. Gross IRR includes the effect of investment hedges as determined by the Company. There can be no assurance that an appropriate hedge will be identified for each investment or that an appropriate hedge will be available for all investments.
(4)Net IRR is the Gross IRR adjusted to reflect actual management fees, incentive income and expenses incurred by the Customized Credit Focused Platform.
(5)Net Invested Capital Multiple: Given the Customized Credit Focused Platform has an active liquid investment program, a key element of which includes ramping up and ramping down depending on market conditions - much of which has recently been deployed - this is a multiple measuring the current net asset value over the net invested capital, where net invested capital represents cumulative contributions less cumulative distributions.
The table below presents assets under management, investment performance and other information for our closed-end opportunistic credit funds. Our closed-end opportunistic credit funds follow a European-style waterfall, whereby incentive income may be paid to us only after a fund investor receives distributions in excess of their total contributed capital and a preferential return, which is generally 6% to 8%. Incentive income related to these funds is generally equal to 20% of the cumulative realized profits in excess of the preferential return attributable to each investor over the life of the fund. Once the investment performance has exceeded the preferential return, we may receive a “catch-up” allocation, resulting in a potential recognition by us of a full 20% of the net profits attributable to investors in these funds. These funds have concluded their investment periods, and therefore we expect assets under management for these funds to decrease as investments are sold and the related proceeds are distributed to the investors in these funds.
Assets Under Management as of December 31,Inception to Date as of December 31, 2020
20202019Total Commitments
Total Invested Capital(1)
Gross IRR(2)
Net IRR(3)
Gross MOIC(4)
Fund (Investment Period)(dollars in thousands)
Sculptor European Credit Opportunities Fund (2012-2015)
$— $— $459,600 $305,487 15.7 %11.8 %1.5x
Sculptor Structured Products Domestic Fund II (2011-2014)
15,602 54,935 326,850 326,850 19.4 %15.3 %2.1x
Sculptor Structured Products Offshore Fund II (2011-2014)
14,119 59,288 304,531 304,531 16.8 %13.1 %1.9x
Sculptor Structured Products Offshore Fund I (2010-2013)
4,417 4,661 155,098 155,098 23.8 %19.1 %2.1x
Sculptor Structured Products Domestic Fund I (2010-2013)
4,088 4,363 99,986 99,986 22.6 %18.0 %2.0x
Other funds
308,822 413,966 309,000 91,347 n/mn/mn/m
$347,048 $537,213 $1,655,065 $1,283,299 
_______________
n/m not meaningful
(1)Represents funded capital commitments net of recallable distributions to investors.
(2)Gross IRR for our closed-end opportunistic credit funds represents the estimated, unaudited, annualized return based on the timing of cash inflows and outflows for the fund as of December 31, 2020, including the fair value of unrealized investments as of such date, together with any appreciation or depreciation from related hedging activity. Gross IRR does not include the effects of management fees or incentive income, which would reduce the return, and includes the reinvestment of all fund income.
(3)Net IRR is calculated as described in footnote (2), but is reduced by all management fees, as well as paid incentive and accrued incentive income that will be payable upon the distribution of each fund’s capital in accordance with the terms of the relevant fund. Accrued incentive income may be higher or lower at such time. The net IRR represents a composite rate of return for a fund and does not reflect the net IRR specific to any individual investor.
(4)Gross MOIC for our closed-end opportunistic credit funds is calculated by dividing the sum of the net asset value of the fund, accrued incentive income, life-to-date incentive income and management fees paid and any non-recallable distributions made from the fund by the invested capital.
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Institutional Credit Strategies
Institutional Credit Strategies is our asset management platform that invests in performing credits, including leveraged loans, high-yield bonds, private credit/bespoke financing and investment grade credit via CLOs, aircraft securitization vehicles, CBOs, and other customized solutions for clients.
Assets under management for Institutional Credit Strategies are generally based on the par value of the collateral and cash held for CLOs and CBO, and adjusted portfolio values for our aircraft securitization vehicles. However, assets under management are reduced for any investments in these securitization vehicles held by our other funds to avoid double counting these assets. Management fees for Institutional Credit Strategies generally range from 0.30% to 0.50% annually of assets under management. For the fourth quarter of 2020, Institutional Credit Strategies had an average management fee rate of 0.48% gross of rebates on cross-investments from other funds we manage (0.37% net of such rebates). These average rates exclude the net impact of deferred subordinated management fees.
Incentive income from our CLOs and CBO is generally equal to 20% of the excess cash flows due to the holders of the subordinated notes issued by the CLOs and CBO and is generally subject to a 12% hurdle rate. Because of the hurdle rate and structure of our CLOs and CBO, we do not expect to earn a meaningful amount of incentive income from these entities, and therefore no return information is presented for these vehicles. We do not earn incentive income from our aircraft securitization vehicles.
Most Recent Closing or Refinancing YearAssets Under Management as of December 31,
Deal Size20202019
(dollars in thousands)
Collateralized loan obligations2017$3,697,590 $3,013,016 $2,989,333 
20186,920,173 6,624,151 6,572,369 
20192,985,214 2,952,441 2,860,807 
20201,868,287 1,764,099 1,418,866 
15,471,264 14,353,707 13,841,375 
Aircraft securitization vehicles2018696,000 475,415 497,611 
20191,128,000 382,764 1,052,972 
2020472,732 181,105 — 
2,296,732 1,039,284 1,550,583 
Collateralized bond obligation2019349,550 274,418 274,183 
Other fundsn/an/a30,418 44,178 
$18,117,546 $15,697,827 $15,710,319 
Assets under management in Institutional Credit Strategies totaled $15.7 billion as of December 31, 2020, remaining relatively flat year-over-year. This was driven primarily by $861.6 million of distributions and other reductions due to a decrease in the number of aircraft serving as collateral in certain of our aircraft securitization vehicles for which we act as collateral manager, partially offset by $769.8 million of net inflows, driven by the launch of an additional European CLO and an aircraft securitization vehicle. In addition, in 2020 we refinanced three CLOs that were launched in 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively.
Real Estate Funds
Our real estate funds generally make investments in commercial and residential real estate, including real property, multi-property portfolios, real estate-related joint ventures, real estate operating companies and other real estate-related assets.
Assets under management for our real estate funds are generally based on the amount of capital committed by our fund investors during the investment period and the amount of actual capital invested for periods following the investment period. However, assets under management are reduced for unfunded commitments by our executive managing directors that will be funded through transfers from other funds in order to avoid double counting these assets. Management fees for our real estate
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funds generally range from 0.50% to 1.50% annually of assets under management; however, management fees for Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I are based on invested capital both during and after the investment period. For the fourth quarter of 2020, our real estate funds had an average management fee rate of 0.75%.
The tables below present assets under management, investment performance and other information for our real estate funds. Our real estate funds generally follow an American-style waterfall, whereby incentive income may be paid to us after a fund investment is realized if a fund investor receives distributions in excess of the capital contributed for such investment, as well as a preferential return on such investment, which is generally 6% to 10%. Upon each subsequent realization, incentive income, which is generally 20% of realized profits, is recalculated based on the cumulative realized profits in excess of the preferential return attributable to each investor over the life of the fund. Once the investment performance has exceeded the hurdle rate, we may receive a “catch-up” allocation, resulting in a potential recognition by us of a full 20% of the realized net profits attributable to investors in these funds.
Due to the recalculation of cumulative realized profits upon each realization, the fund may clawback incentive income previously paid to us. As a result, we record incentive income paid to us by the real estate funds as unearned revenue in our consolidated balance sheets until the criteria for revenue recognition has been met.
For funds that have concluded their investment periods, we expect assets under management to decrease as investments are sold and the related proceeds are distributed to the investors in these funds.
Assets Under Management as of December 31,
20202019
Fund (Investment Period)(dollars in thousands)
Sculptor Real Estate Fund I (2005-2010)$— $— 
Sculptor Real Estate Fund II (2011-2014)42,040 63,011 
Sculptor Real Estate Fund III (2014-2019)
459,650 535,579 
Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV (2019-2023)2,593,339 1,408,049 
Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I (2015-2020)370,276 730,349 
Other funds843,343 656,888 
$4,308,648 $3,393,876 

Inception to Date as of December 31, 2020
Total Investments
Realized/Partially Realized Investments(1)
Total Commitments
Invested Capital(2)
Total
Value(3)
Gross IRR(4)
Net IRR(5)
Gross MOIC(6)
Invested CapitalTotal
Value
Gross IRR(4)
Gross MOIC(6)
Fund(dollars in thousands)
Sculptor Real Estate Fund I$408,081 $386,298 $847,612 25.5 %16.1 %2.2x$386,298 $847,612 25.5 %2.2x
Sculptor Real Estate Fund II839,508 762,588 1,563,454 32.8 %21.5 %2.1x762,588 1,563,454 32.8 %2.1x
Sculptor Real Estate Fund III1,500,000 1,055,713 1,763,295 27.9 %18.3 %1.7x889,483 1,549,959 31.7 %1.7x
Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV(7)
2,596,024 336,041 401,482 n/mn/mn/m— — n/mn/m
Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I736,225 496,715 577,134 16.2 %11.0 %1.2x171,903 232,145 20.3 %1.4x
Other funds1,158,004 467,368 635,623 n/mn/mn/m67,245 129,723 n/mn/m
$7,237,842 $3,504,723 $5,788,600 $2,277,517 $4,322,893 

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Unrealized Investments as of December 31, 2020
Invested CapitalTotal
Value
Gross
MOIC(6)
Fund(dollars in thousands)
Sculptor Real Estate Fund I$— $— — 
Sculptor Real Estate Fund II— — — 
Sculptor Real Estate Fund III166,230 213,336 1.3x
Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV(7)
336,041 401,482 n/m
Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I324,812 344,989 1.1x
Other funds400,123 505,900 n/m
$1,227,206 $1,465,707 
_______________
n/m not meaningful
(1)An investment is considered partially realized when the total amount of proceeds received, including dividends, interest or other distributions of income and return of capital, represents at least 50% of invested capital.
(2)Invested capital represents total aggregate contributions made for investments by the fund.
(3)Total value represents the sum of realized distributions and the fair value of unrealized and partially realized investments as of December 31, 2020. Total value will be impacted (either positively or negatively) by future economic and other factors. Accordingly, the total value ultimately realized will likely be higher or lower than the amounts presented as of December 31, 2020.
(4)Gross IRR for our real estate funds represents the estimated, unaudited, annualized return based on the timing of cash inflows and outflows for the aggregated investments as of December 31, 2020, including the fair value of unrealized and partially realized investments as of such date, together with any unrealized appreciation or depreciation from related hedging activity. Gross IRR is not adjusted for estimated management fees, incentive income or other fees or expenses to be paid by the fund, which would reduce the return.
(5)Net IRR is calculated as described in footnote (4), but is reduced by management fees and other fund-level fees and expenses not adjusted for in the calculation of gross IRR. Net IRR is further reduced by paid incentive and accrued incentive income that will be payable upon the distribution of each fund’s capital in accordance with the terms of the relevant fund. Accrued incentive income may be higher or lower at such time. The net IRR represents a composite rate of return for a fund and does not reflect the net IRR specific to any individual investor.
(6)Gross MOIC for our real estate funds is calculated by dividing the value of a fund’s investments by the invested capital, prior to adjustments for incentive income, management fees or other expenses to be paid by the fund.
(7)This fund has invested less than half of its committed capital; therefore, IRR and MOIC information is not presented, as it is not meaningful.
Assets under management in our real estate funds increased $914.8 million, or 27%, year-over-year due to net inflows of $1.5 billion, primarily due to additional closings of Sculptor Real Estate Fund IV, which had its final closing in the second quarter of 2020, and related co-investment vehicles, partially offset by $619.6 million of distributions and other reductions, primarily related to the expiration of the investment periods of Sculptor Real Estate Credit Fund I. Our real estate funds continue to deploy capital and generate strong returns with an 18.3% annualized net return in Sculptor Real Estate Fund III. Despite the volatility across the real estate and capital markets in 2020, we continued to be very active in both new investments as well as providing liquidity to our investors. Across our real estate platform, we deployed approximately $700.0 million of capital into new investments and distributed nearly half a billion dollars back to our investors.
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Longer-Term Assets Under Management
As of December 31, 2020, approximately 67% of our assets under management were subject to initial commitment periods of three years or longer. Incentive income on these assets, if any, is based on the cumulative investment performance generated over this commitment period. The table below presents the amount of these assets under management, as well as the amount of incentive income accrued at the fund level but that has not yet been recognized in our revenues. Further, these amounts may ultimately not be recognized as revenue by us in the event of future losses in the respective funds. See “—Understanding Our Results—Revenues—Incentive Income” for additional information.
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Longer-Term Assets Under ManagementAccrued Unrecognized Incentive IncomeLonger-Term Assets Under ManagementAccrued Unrecognized Incentive Income
(dollars in thousands)
Multi-strategy funds