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C

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 25, 2020

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                     to                    

Commission file number 000-50646

 

Ultra Clean Holdings, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

61-1430858

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

26462 Corporate Avenue

Hayward, California

 

94545

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

(510576-4400

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

 

The NASDAQ Global Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes       No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes       No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes       No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes       No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes       No  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing sale price of the Registrant’s common stock on June 26, 2020 as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market, was approximately $865.9 million. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director have been excluded from this computation. The determination of affiliate status for this purpose is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

Number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 19, 2021: 40,612,933

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the 2020 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K where indicated. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 25, 2020.

 

 

 


 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Page

 

  

PART I

 

Item 1

  

Business

3

Item 1A

  

Risk Factors

13

Item 1B

  

Unresolved Staff Comments

27

Item 2

  

Properties

27

Item 3

  

Legal Proceedings

27

Item 4

  

Mine Safety Disclosures

27

 

 

 

  

PART II

 

Item 5

  

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

28

Item 6

  

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

30

Item 7

  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

31

Item 7A

  

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

41

Item 8

  

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

43

Item 9

  

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

74

Item 9A

  

Controls and Procedures

74

Item 9B

  

Other Information

75

 

 

 

  

PART III

 

Item 10

  

Directors and Executive Officers of the Registrant

76

Item 11

  

Executive Compensation

76

Item 12

  

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

76

Item 13

  

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

77

Item 14

  

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

77

 

 

 

  

PART IV

 

Item 15

  

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

78

Item 16

 

Form 10-K Summary

81

 

2


 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “targets,” “goals,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “continues,” “may,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely results,” variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not necessarily mean that a statement is not forward-looking. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following: projections of our financial performance, our anticipated growth and trends in our business, levels of capital expenditures, the adequacy of our capital resources to fund operations and growth, our ability to compete effectively with our competitors, our strategies and ability to protect our intellectual property, future acquisitions, customer demand, our manufacturing and procurement process, employee matters, supplier relations, foreign operations, the legal and regulatory backdrop (including environmental regulation), our exposure to market risks and other characterizations of future events or circumstances described in this Annual Report. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those identified below, under “Risk Factors,” and elsewhere herein. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason, except as required by law.

Item 1.

Business

Overview

Ultra Clean Holdings, Inc., (“UCT”, the “Company” or “We”) is a leading developer and supplier of critical subsystems, ultra-high purity cleaning and analytical services primarily for the semiconductor industry. We operate and report results for two operating segments: Products and Services. Our Products business primarily designs, engineers and manufactures production tools, modules and subsystems for the semiconductor and display capital equipment markets. Products include chemical delivery modules, frame assemblies, gas delivery systems, fluid delivery systems, precision robotics, process modules as well as other high-level assemblies. Our Services business provides ultra-high purity parts cleaning, process tool part recoating, surface encapsulation and high sensitivity micro contamination analysis primarily for the semiconductor device makers and wafer fabrication equipment (WFE) markets.

We sell a majority of our products and provide most of our services to U.S. registered customers with locations both in and outside the U.S. In addition to U.S. manufacturing and service operations, we manufacture products and provide parts cleaning and other related services in our Asian and European facilities to support local and U.S. based customers. We conduct our operating activities primarily through our subsidiaries.

Over the long-term, we believe the semiconductor market we serve will continue to grow due to multi-year industry demand from a broad range of drivers including mobile demand driven by 5G, new CPU architectures which are enabling higher performance servers, and cloud, AI and Machine Learning. We also believe that semiconductor original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) are increasingly relying on partners like UCT to fulfill their expanding capacity requirements. Additionally, our Services business is benefiting as device manufacturers rely on precision cleaning and coating to achieve ever more complex devices.

Our international revenues represented 58.4%, 52.1% and 56.7% of total revenues for fiscal years ended 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. See Note 12 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information about our geographic areas.

Our Suite of Offerings

We are a leading developer and supplier of critical subsystems, and ultra-high purity cleaning and analytical services primarily for the semiconductor industry. We offer our customers an integrated outsourced solution for major subassemblies, improved design-to-delivery cycle times, design for manufacturability, prototyping and component manufacturing, and tool chamber parts cleaning and coating, as well as micro contamination analytical services. We offer our customers:

A vertically integrated solution for complex and highly configurable systems. We provide our OEM customers a broad outsourced solution for the development, design, component sourcing and cleaning, prototyping,

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engineering, and manufacturing and testing of advanced systems. We utilize our weldment and frame fabrication capabilities with highly specialized engineering, global supply chain management, and assembly capabilities to produce high performance products that are customized to meet the needs of our customers and their customers. We enable our customers to minimize their overall number of suppliers, simplify their supply chain and reduce their inventories.

Subsystem manufacturing. Our experience with the demanding requirements in semiconductor equipment manufacturing has enabled us to become a leading developer and supplier of critical modules and subsystems. These assemblies include gas and fluid delivery solutions, wafer transport systems, mechatronic assemblies, and process modules.

Improved design-to-delivery cycle times. Our strong customer relationships and familiarity with their product requirements and the ever-changing needs of their customer base help us reduce their design-to-delivery cycle times. We seek to optimize our supply chain management, design and manufacturing coordination and controls to respond rapidly to order requests, enabling us to decrease product design and customization cycle times for our customers. Because our engineers work closely with our customers’ engineers and understand the fabrication, assembly and testing of their products, we often can improve their design for manufacturability, thereby improving their cost, quality and consistency.

Component testing capabilities. We utilize our technical expertise to test and characterize key components and subsystems. We have made significant investments in advanced analytical and automated test equipment, enabling us to test and qualify key components. We can perform diagnostic tests, design verifications and failure analyses for our customers and suppliers.

Increased integration with OEMs through local presence. Our local presence in close proximity to the facilities of most of our OEM customers enables us to remain closely integrated with their design, development and implementation teams. This level of integration enables us to respond quickly and efficiently to customer changes and requests.

Precision fabrication. We design and manufacture weldments and frames with exacting standards to meet or exceed our customers’ needs. UCT’s 25 years of experience in the fabrication of complex components enable us to provide a cost competitiveness in our vertical integration model. Many of our customers require frames that are powder coated and we added this capability in 2016.  In 2019, we expanded our weldment capabilities via the acquisition of Dynamic Manufacturing Solutions, LLC (“DMS”).

Custom thermal control. We design and manufacture heaters, sensors, and controllers for precise temperature control. These products are complementary to our gas delivery systems products.

Parts cleaning and coating and analytical verification: Through our Services business division, we offer integrated device manufacturers (“IDM”) customers validated, ultra-high purity process tool chamber parts cleaning and coating services. Included in these services are tool part process optimization solutions that could lower the total cost of ownership for our customers. We also offer analytical verification of process tool chamber part cleaning effectiveness and micro contamination analysis of tool parts, wafers and depositions, chemicals, cleanroom materials, deionized water and airborne molecular contamination.

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Our Strategy

Our strategy is to grow our position and enhance our value to our customers as a leading solutions and service provider in the semiconductor markets we serve, while supporting other technologically similar markets in the display, consumer, medical, energy, industrial and research industries. Our strategy is comprised of the following key elements:

Expand our solutions and service market share with semiconductor OEMs and IDMs. We believe that equipment outsourcing among OEMs creates a significant market opportunity for us to grow our business with existing and new customers. We believe our customers will continue to outsource critical subsystems and that we are well positioned to capture a significant portion of these outsourcing opportunities. We believe that our continued focus on efficient manufacturing, reduced design-to-delivery cycle times, and high quality and reliability will also allow us to gain market share. Similarly, we believe there is room to gain market share with our Services offerings, both with IDMs and OEMs, as customers typically outsource these solutions. By providing customers process improvement through consistently cleaner parts and analytical verification of process tool chamber part cleaning effectiveness, we have expanded our total available market significantly.

Develop or acquire solutions that allow our customers to succeed at the leading edge of the semiconductor processing nodes. We continue to expand the number and type of subsystems and services that we offer in the rapidly advancing semiconductor market.

Leverage our geographic presence in lower cost manufacturing regions. The diverse footprint of our manufacturing facilities allows us to provide cost competitive solutions. These facilities house subsystem assembly, weldment and thermal control heater operations and put us in close proximity to the manufacturing facilities of existing and potential customers and their end users. In Singapore, we have a procurement office and substantial manufacturing capabilities. Our manufacturing facilities all use similar processes and procedures, enabling us to respond rapidly to demand changes from our customer. UCT is expanding its global footprint into Penang, Malaysia as part of our strategic growth plan. Leasehold improvements should begin in the first quarter of 2021 with initial production scheduled for mid-2021. Several of UCT’s cleaning and analytic facilities are also in low-cost regions, strategically close to our customers, adding to our competitive advantage.

Provide production flexibility to respond rapidly to demand changes. Our manufacturing facilities all use similar processes and procedures enabling us to easily shift production between sites to support expanded demand and ensure business continuity.

Drive profitable growth with our flexible cost structure. We implement cost containment and capacity enhancement initiatives throughout the semiconductor demand cycle and benefit from the global presence and efficiencies of our supply chain. In addition, we believe our overseas facilities position us to respond effectively to future business demands. We employ a core engineering strategy with flexible partnering to augment our staff during the steep rise and fall often associated with cycles in the semiconductor industry.

Continue to selectively pursue strategic acquisitions. We will continue to consider strategic acquisitions that will enable us to improve our financial model, expand our geographic presence, secure new customers and diversify into complementary products and services markets as well as broaden our technological and cleaning and analytical capabilities in the markets we serve. In December, 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Ham-Let (Israel-Canada) Ltd., an Israeli company that supplies components to the semiconductor and other industries, for approximately $287.0 million based on the exchange rate in effect at the close of business on December 10, 2020.

Strengthen vertical integration. We continue to invest in our operations to meet customer quality and delivery targets. We have expanded welding operations at several of our manufacturing sites, developed/built in-house powder coating capability, and purchased new manufacturing tools. In addition to organic growth, we continue to manage/foster key strategic partnerships to efficiently meet production needs.

Products

We design, develop, prototype, manufacture and test subsystems, primarily for the semiconductor equipment market. Our products include precision robotic solutions, gas delivery systems, a variety of industrial and automation production equipment products, and subsystems that include wafer cleaning modules, chemical delivery modules, top-plate assemblies, frame assemblies, and process modules.

Chemical delivery modules: Chemical delivery modules deliver gases and reactive chemicals in a liquid or gaseous form from a centralized subsystem to the reaction chamber. The module may be a gas delivery system

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in combination with liquid and vapor precursor delivery systems or may be a liquid delivery system in combination with a liquid storage system.

Gas delivery systems: A typical OEM gas delivery system consists of one or more gas lines, comprised of weldments, filters, mass flow controllers, regulators, pressure transducers and valves, component heaters, and an integrated electronic and/or pneumatic control system. These systems are typically pallet mounted and are enclosed in a sheet metal encasing. Our gas delivery system designs are developed in collaboration with our customers and are customized to meet the needs of specific processing requirements for OEMs. While several customers specify the full system bill of materials, many leverage our design expertise to help them select the appropriate components for their particular system.

Fluid delivery system: A typical OEM liquid delivery system consists of one or more chemical delivery units, comprised of small diameter high purity PFA tubing, filters, flow controllers, regulators, component heaters, and an integrated electronic and/or pneumatic control system. These units are typically contained in a plastic enclosure and further integrated into a frame. Our liquid delivery system designs are developed in collaboration with our customers and are customized to meet the needs of specific processing requirements for OEMs. Although several customers specify the full system bill of materials, many rely on our design expertise and component characterization capabilities to help them select the appropriate components for their particular system.

Precision robotics: Precision robotic systems are used when accurate controlled motion is required. Some of the systems that employ robotic systems are: semiconductor wafer and chip handling, wire bonding and industrial equipment.

Process modules: Process modules refer to the larger subsystems of semiconductor manufacturing tools that process integrated circuits onto wafers. Process modules include several smaller subsystems such as the frame assembly, top-plate assembly and gas and chemical delivery modules, as well as the chamber and electronic, pneumatic and mechanical subsystems.

Other high-level assemblies: Other high-level assemblies refer to large subsystems used in semiconductor manufacturing, display, medical, energy, industrial and research industries.

Services

Our services business includes ultra-high purity process tool chamber parts cleaning and coating services, tool part life extension and process tool part optimization solutions, and micro-contamination analytical testing, primarily for the semiconductor device manufacturers and wafer fabrication equipment markets.

Parts cleaning and coating: UCT offers customers validated, ultra-high purity outsourced process tool chamber parts cleaning and coating services. Included in these services are tool part process optimization solutions that can lower the total cost of ownership for our customers.

Micro-contamination analysis: UCT also offers micro-contamination analysis of tool parts, wafers and depositions, chemicals, cleanroom materials, deionized water and airborne molecular contamination and provides analytical verification of process tool chamber part cleaning effectiveness.

Customers

We sell our products and services primarily to customers in the semiconductor capital equipment and semiconductor integrated device manufacturing industries, and we also sell to the display, consumer, medical, energy, industrial, and research equipment industries.

The majority of our total revenues comes from the semiconductor capital equipment industry (OEM customers), which is highly concentrated, so we are therefore highly dependent upon a small number of customers. Our two largest revenue customers in fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018 were Applied Materials, Inc. and Lam Research Corporation, each of which accounted for more than 10.0% of our total revenues in fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018. As a group, our respective year’s top two customers accounted for 67.1%, 66.9% and 76.6% of the Company’s revenues for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

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Approximately 95.7% of our total revenues for the fiscal year 2020 came from multiple segments of the semiconductor industry, which include IDM, Foundry, OEM, and sub-tier suppliers.

We have successfully been qualified as a supplier of equipment, cleaning, coating and analytical services with each of our customers who require such qualifications. This lengthy qualification process typically involves the inspection and audit of our facilities and evaluation by our customers of our engineering, documentation, manufacturing and quality control processes and procedures. Our customers generally place orders with suppliers who have met and continue to meet their qualification criteria.

Customer Business Management

We sell and support our products and services through our Customer Business Management organization. Our customer relationship directors are responsible for establishing sales strategy and setting the objectives for specific customer accounts. Each customer relationship manager is dedicated to a specific customer account and is responsible for maintaining strong working relationships with that customer, and in many cases provide on-site support. OEM Customer relationship managers often attend customers’ internal meetings related to production and engineering design and quality to ensure that customer expectations are interpreted and communicated properly to our operations group. Customer relationship managers also work with our customers to identify and meet their cost and design-to-delivery cycle time objectives. Our IDM Customer relationship managers work with process tool owners and Fab maintenance managers relating to the development and validation of cleaning recipes, addressing new tools cleaning and analytical requirements, and optimizing cleaning processes and analytical testing requirements to support node transitions.

We have dedicated new business development managers for both our product and service businesses. Our new business development managers initiate and develop long-term, multilevel customer relationships and work closely with them on new business opportunities. Our customer relationship organization includes technical sales support for order placement, spare parts quotes, production status updates as well as service and maintenance contracts and analysis business. We have a technical relationship representative located at most of our facilities.

We integrate new business wins into our facilities via a rigorous product transition process, working in concert with our customers to ensure all production, cleaning and/or test requirements are identified, documented, and validated. We employ the same process at all our sites, enabling products and service offerings to smoothly transition into and between our sites as needed to support customer demand.

In addition, we have developed an overall service and support infrastructure to provide our customers with service and support 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Our dedicated global field service engineers provide customer support through the performance of on-site installation, servicing and repair.

Technology Development

We engage in ongoing technology development efforts to remain a leader for gas delivery systems and to further develop our expertise in other critical subsystems. We work closely with our customers to identify and anticipate changes and trends in next-generation equipment. We participate in customer technology partnership programs that focus on process application requirements for gas and liquid delivery systems and other critical subsystems. These development efforts are designed to meet specific customer requirements in the areas of subsystem design, materials, component selection and functionality. Our technology development group also works directly with our suppliers to help them identify new component technologies and make necessary changes in, and enhancements to, the components that we integrate into our products. Our analytical and testing capabilities enable us to evaluate multiple supplier component technologies and provide our customers with a wide range of appropriate component and design choices for their gas delivery systems and other critical subsystems.

Our analytical and testing capabilities also help us anticipate technological changes and requirements in component features for our core next-generation gas delivery systems and other critical subsystems. We are developing additional features to improve the performance and functionality of our gas delivery systems and other critical subsystems. Our technology development activities for next-generation gas delivery and other critical subsystems are performed principally in Hayward, California.

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We also engage in ongoing technology development to maintain technological leadership in the cleaning, coating and analytical markets. Our Services business works closely with customers to identify and anticipate changes that will be required in next-generation equipment. UCT’s technical capability is becoming extremely critical and differentiated to ensure high wafer yields and throughput as geometries shrink and density increases. Our Services business development activities are performed primarily in Phoenix, AZ.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends in part on our ability to maintain and protect our proprietary technology and to conduct our business without infringing the proprietary rights of others. Both our products and services businesses largely depend upon our design, engineering, manufacturing, testing, cleaning, coating and analytical know-how. We also rely on a combination of trade secrets and confidentiality provisions, and to a much lesser extent, patents, copyrights and trademarks, to protect our proprietary rights. We have 128 patents with various expiration dates and Intellectual Property that we develop on behalf of our customers is generally owned exclusively by those customers.

We require our employees, suppliers and potential business partners to enter into confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements before we disclose to them any sensitive or proprietary information regarding our products, technology or business plans. We require employees to assign to us proprietary information, inventions and other intellectual property they create, modify or improve.

Competition

Our industry is highly fragmented. When we compete for new business, we face competition from other suppliers of gas delivery systems, critical subsystems, cleaning and analytical services, as well as the internal manufacturing and services groups of our customers. Customers that have elected to outsource their gas delivery systems and other critical subsystems including cleaning and analytics, could elect in the future to develop and manufacture these subsystems internally, leading to further competition.

Our principal competitor for gas delivery systems is Ichor Systems, Inc., and our principal competitors for other critical subsystems are Flex Ltd., Foxsemicon Integrated Technology Inc., Jabil, Inc., Sanmina Corporation, Fujikin Incorporated, VDL ETG and Celestica Inc. Some of these competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, manufacturing and marketing resources than we do. We expect our competitors to continue to improve the performance of their current products and to introduce new products or new technologies that could adversely affect sales of our current and future products. For our services, cleaning and coating offerings, our main competitors in the US are Pentagon Technologies and Cleanpart, and in South Korea, KoMiCo. For analytical services our primary competitors are Balazs (an Air Liquide company) and Cerium Labs.

The limited number of potential customers in our industry further intensifies competition. The primary competitive factors in our industry are quality, meeting customer timeline demands, price, technology, design-to-delivery cycle time, customer qualification approvals, the development of product recipes for cleaning and analytics and historical customer relationships. We anticipate that increased competitive pressures will cause intensified price-based competition and we may have to reduce the prices of our products. In addition, we expect to face new competitors as we enter new markets.

Governmental Regulation and Environmental Matters

Our operations are subject to federal, state and local regulatory requirements and foreign laws relating to environmental, waste management and health and safety matters, including measures relating to the release, use, storage, treatment, transportation, discharge, disposal and remediation of contaminants, hazardous substances and waste, as well as practices and procedures applicable to the construction and operation of our UCT facilities.

In 2020, UCT committed to a program titled “SuCCESS2030” designed to enhance the Company’s sustainability vision through its supply chain. UCT will endeavor to identify and coordinate efforts and develop capabilities to ensure its suppliers operate in an ethical, responsible, and sustainable manner. The goal is to build a responsible and sustainable end-to-end supply chain for the future of semiconductors.

UCT participates in the Responsible Business Alliance’s Responsible Minerals Assurance Process for Tantalum. Our cleaning processes for tantalum-deposited parts recovers the tantalum, enabling it to re-enter the commodity market and reduce the demand for mined material, the majority of which originates from the Conflict Region in Africa.

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Although cleaning is a chemical-intensive business, UCT, where possible, utilizes chemical-free processing to remove significant volumes of deposited material. Reduction in the volume of film being chemically removed reduces the amount of chemicals used to meet the target cleanliness specifications.

The semiconductor industry has stringent packaging requirements which include the need to maintain the cleanliness of a part/system while providing structural support of heavy modules. These requirements may necessitate product-specific crates be designed and fabricated or plastic cleanroom boxes be used. To minimize packaging waste UCT has implemented re-use programs for these type of materials with our customers and suppliers.

Our past or future operations may result in injury or claims of injury by employees or the public which may result in material costs and liabilities to us. Although some risk of costs and liabilities related to these matters is inherent in our business, we believe that our business is in compliance with applicable regulations. However, new, modified or more stringent requirements or enforcement policies could be adopted, which could adversely affect us.

Employees and Human Capital

As of December 25, 2020, we had 4,996 employees, of which 641 were temporary. Of our total employees, there were 108 in engineering, 12 in technology development, 295 in sales and support, 3,354 in direct manufacturing, 815 in indirect manufacturing and 412 in administrative and executive functions. These figures include 2,185 employees in Asia and 685 employees in Europe. None of our employees are represented by a labor union and we have not experienced any work stoppages.

UCT believes that its employees are its most important assets. The Company has a long history of embracing diversity and multiculturalism and is reinforcing a culture of inclusion by committing to even greater transparency, clearer targets and comprehensive training to improve diversity and inclusion within the company to ensure every employee is treated with dignity and respect. The ultimate goal is to foster an atmosphere of acceptance, inclusion, trust and of mutual respect for all. To reach that goal, UCT provides mandatory practical and continuous education to all employees on behavioral expectations.

We believe that UCT’s success depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain key personnel. We believe that the skills, experience and industry knowledge of our key employees significantly benefit our operations and performance. The Company strives to provide fair and equal opportunity for career development and advancement to all its employees. UCT offers competitive rewards, compensation and benefits, including an Employee Stock Purchase Plan, healthcare and retirement benefits, parental and family leave, adoption credits, holiday and paid time off, and tuition assistance. Ensuring employee health and safety in the workplace is one of our core values. The COVID-19 pandemic has further reinforced the importance of keeping our employees safe and healthy. In response to the pandemic, we have taken actions aligned with the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in an effort to protect our workforce so they can more safely and effectively perform their work.

 

UCT uses its annual operating plan and industry growth projections to determine the appropriate level of staffing requirements. Staffing levels are aligned and adjusted on occasion throughout the year to ensure UCT meets its customer obligations, in line with any changes in demand, to ensure business continuity. UCT is fully staffed to meet current demand.

 

Social Responsibility

 

UCT believes that Social responsibility is defined as ‘sustaining the equilibrium between the business of the Company and the communities where it works and lives. UCT applies its Core Values to employee engagement inside and outside the company. Positively involving employees and giving back to communities is central to UCT’s culture. Supported by the Company, UCT employees contribute directly to the community with their time and resources. In 2020, UCT organized and conducted 15 events designed to give back and support its communities. For 2021, the Company and its employees have committed to 26 events in support of its social responsibility program.

Available Information

We file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of

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1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. You may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also request copies of all or any portion of such material from the SEC at prescribed rates. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference room. In addition, materials filed electronically with the SEC are available at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

In addition, we make available free of charge, on or through our website at http://www.uct.com, our annual, quarterly and current reports and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such reports with, or furnishing them to, the SEC. This website address is intended to be an inactive textual reference only; none of the information contained on our website is part of this report or is incorporated by reference herein.

Executive Officers

Set forth below is information concerning our executive officers as of February 19, 2021.

 

Name

 

Age

 

Position

James P. Scholhamer

 

54

 

Chief Executive Officer & Director

Sheri Savage

 

50

 

Chief Financial Officer

Vijay S. Chinnasami

 

55

 

Chief Operating Officer

W. Joseph Williams

 

48

 

President, Products Business

William C. Bentinck

 

59

 

President, Services Business

Chris P. Siu

 

50

 

Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer

Joan Sterling

 

63

 

Senior Vice President, Human Resources

Paul Y. Cho

 

43

 

General Counsel, Corporate Secretary

 

James P. Scholhamer joined the Company as Chief Executive Officer and a member of our Board of Directors in January 2015. Prior to joining Ultra Clean, Mr. Scholhamer served as Corporate Vice President and General Manager of Applied Materials, Inc., leading the Equipment Products Group and Display Services Group of its Global Service Division from February 2011 to January 2015. Mr. Scholhamer joined Applied Materials, Inc. in 2006, where, prior to his most recent position, he served as Vice President of Operations-Energy, for the Environmental and Display Products Division from July 2006 to December 2008 and Corporate Vice President and General Manager of the Display Business Group from December 2008 to February 2011. Prior to that, Mr. Scholhamer worked for Applied Films Corporation as Vice President of Operations, Engineering and Research Development in the company’s German office from September 2002 to July 2006 and as Vice President of Thin Film Coating Division and Thin Film Equipment Division in the company’s Colorado office from July 2000 to September 2002. Mr. Scholhamer holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Materials and Metallurgical Engineering from the University of Michigan.

Sheri Savage has served as our Chief Financial Officer since July 2016. Ms. Savage joined the Company as the Senior Director of Finance in April 2009. She was Senior Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer from February 2016 to July 2016. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Savage served at Credence Systems Corporation, a manufacturer of test equipment for the global semiconductor industry, as its Corporate Controller and Vice President of Finance from February 2008 to February 2009 and as Director of Internal Audit from May 2006 to February 2008. Prior to Credence Systems, Ms. Savage served in various accounting and finance roles at Protiviti, a global business consulting and internal audit firm, and KLA-Tencor Corporation, a supplier of process control and yield management solutions for the semiconductor and related nanoelectronics industries. Ms. Savage also served as Manager, Business Process Risk Accounting, at Arthur Anderson LLP, the former accounting firm, from May 1996 to October 1999. Ms. Savage holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Managerial Economics from the University of California, Davis.

Vijayan S. Chinnasami has served as our Chief Operating Officer since April 2019. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Chinnasami served as the Senior Vice President of EMS Operations at Jabil Inc. from March 2017 to March 2019, as Chief Executive Officer of CaliBurger (Malaysia) from January 2015 to January 2017 and as Chief Executive Officer of Advanced Optronic Devices (Malaysia) from January 2014 to January 2017. Prior to that, Mr. Chinnasami served in various capacities with SunEdison International, Inc. (formerly MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc.), including most recently as Senior Vice President, Solar Materials, from May 2010 to August 2014, where his

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responsibilities included the executive management of the polysilicon, wafer, cell and module businesses. Mr. Chinnasami’s previous roles have also included Senior Vice President, Industrial Business Unit at Johnson Electric Health Hong Kong and Vice President and General Manager, Consumer Segment of Flextronics International, Ltd. Mr. Chinnasami holds a Bachelor’s degree in Production Engineering from Swinburne University of Technology.

W. Joseph Williams has served as our President, Products business since October of 2018.  Prior to that Mr. Williams served as our Senior Vice President of Customer Business Management from October 2016 to October 2018.  Mr. Williams joined the Company in February 2015 with the acquisition of Marchi Thermal Systems, Inc. where he served as President until 2016.  Prior to joining the Company in 2015, Mr. Williams was President of Thermal from April 2013 to 2015.  He worked previously at the Company as Vice President of New Business Development.  Mr. Williams was Senior Vice President of Business Development & Engineering at Advanced Integration Technology from 2007 to 2013.  Prior to that, Mr. Williams co-founded Integrated Flow Systems and served as Vice President of Engineering and Operations and Director of Engineering and Operations from 1997 to 2007.  He worked at Watkins-Johnson Company as a R&D Mechanical Design Engineer from 1994 to 1997. Mr. Williams holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from North Carolina State University.

William C. Bentinck has served as our President, Semiconductor Services Business since May 2019. Mr. Bentinck joined the Company as Senior Vice President, Semiconductor Services Business, in March 2019. Mr. Bentinck previously served as Executive Vice President and General Manager of Eugenus, Inc., a semiconductor equipment manufacturing company, from November 2017 to June 2018. Prior to that, Mr. Bentinck served as Vice President and General Manager of the Logic & Memories Technology Group for AIXTRON Inc., a manufacturer of systems and equipment to the semiconductor industry, from April 2014 to November 2017. From August 2006 to March 2014, Mr. Bentinck served as General Manager, Customer Support Business Group (Spares & Services) for Lam Research Corporation, a global supplier of wafer fabrication equipment and services to the semiconductor industry. Prior to Lam Research Corporation, Mr. Bentinck served in various roles of increasing responsibility at Novellus Systems, Inc., a provider of advanced process equipment for the global semiconductor industry, from 1991 through August 2006. Mr. Bentinck holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering, and a Master of Science degree in Engineering – Material Science, from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.

Chris P. Siu has served as our Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer since May 2019. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Siu served as Vice President of Finance at PDF Solutions, Inc., a provider of differentiated data and analytics solutions to the semiconductor industry, since October 2018. Prior to PDF Solutions, Mr. Siu served at GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Inc., a foundry for the semiconductor industry, as its Corporate Controller from June 2014 to October 2018, and in other executive roles from November 2010 to June 2014. Prior to that, Mr. Siu served at Trident Microsystems, Inc. a provider of high-performance multimedia semiconductor solutions, as its Chief Accounting Officer and Director of Finance from February 2007 to November 2010. Prior to Trident Microsystems, Mr. Siu served at Varian Medial Systems, Inc., a manufacturer of medical devices for the treatment of cancer, in different finance management roles from June 2004 to February 2007. Prior to that, he worked for Deloitte & Touche from 2001 to 2004 and for Ernst & Young from 1996 to 2001. Mr. Siu holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting from Brigham Young University in Hawaii and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of California at Berkeley. Mr. Siu is a Certified Public Accountant (inactive) in California.

Joan Sterling has served as our Senior Vice President of Global Human Resources since 2016. Ms. Sterling joined the Company in March 2013 as Director of Global Human Resources. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Sterling was the Human Resources Director for Engineering and Broadcast Operations at SiriusXM Satellite Radio from 2009 to 2013. She worked at Hitachi Data Systems from 2007 to 2009 as an executive change management consultant for a global IT redesign. Ms. Sterling served as Human Resource Senior Vice President for the consumer credit group at Wells Fargo from 2005 to 2007. From 2000 to 2005, Ms. Sterling served in several senior director roles at Hewlett Packard managing human resources sites and functions of staffing, compensation, benefits, training and development. She was the Corporate Director of Human Resource Strategic Planning for First Energy Corporation from 1999 to 2000. She worked at Hewlett Packard Enterprise from 1994 to 1999 as the Midwest Region Headquarters Human Resource Manager. Ms. Sterling holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business from DePaul University and a Master of Arts degree in Organizational Development from Loyola University.

Paul Y. Cho has served as our General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since October 2019. Mr. Cho brings over a decade of experience in various legal disciplines, including IP and commercial litigations, joint venture projects, and commercial transaction work. Most recently, from April 2016 to October 2019, Mr. Cho held the position of General Counsel and Corporate Secretary for the North American operations of the world’s second largest memory chip

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supplier, SK Hynix, Inc., and held the position of Senior Counsel at its corporate headquarters from September 2014 to March 2016.  Prior to SK Hynix Inc., Mr. Cho served as Senior Legal Counsel for Samsung SDI, a storage battery manufacturing company, from June 2013 to September 2014 and as Legal Counsel for LG Electronics, an electronics company, from April 2012 to May 2013. Mr. Cho holds a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Michigan and a Juris Doctor Degree from the University of Minnesota Law School.

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Item 1A.

Risk Factors

The following risk factors could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations and cause reputational harm, and should be carefully considered in evaluating the Company and its business, in addition to other information presented elsewhere in this report.

COVID-19 outbreak continues to adversely affect semiconductor industry

The COVID-19 outbreak, and our value chain and global governmental responses to contain its spread, have impacted all levels of the semiconductor industry and supply chain. These governmental measures, including stay-at-home orders, travel bans and business closures, as well as our own efforts to minimize the impact of COVID-19 on our employees, suppliers and customers, have detrimentally affected, and are continuing to affect, our business operations by: causing production delays and capacity reduction; requiring the deployment of business continuity plans, including the implementation of social distancing guidelines, travel restrictions, work-from-home arrangements, and testing and quarantine guidelines; disrupting the operations of our supply chain; and delaying nonessential expansion projects.

The scale and duration of this ongoing pandemic and the effectiveness of response measures in curbing its impact, including distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and government stimulus programs, are fraught with uncertainty, which makes it difficult to estimate their ongoing impact on our business and global economy.

Because the ongoing impact of the pandemic on our business is largely dependent upon current and future response measures outside of our control, we cannot with any degree of confidence provide assurance that we will be able to maintain the current level of production, as we may see a decrease in customer spending, demand for our products, delays and capacity limitations at our (and our customers’ and suppliers’) manufacturing facilities, and other adverse impacts on global economy, any one of which can have material adverse impact on our business.

The cyclical and highly volatile nature of the industries we serve could harm our operating results.

Our business depends in large part upon capital expenditures by manufacturers in the semiconductor and display industries, which in turn depend upon the current and anticipated market demand for such products. These industries (especially the semiconductor industry) have historically been highly cyclical, with recurring periods of over-supply of products that have materially reduced the demand for both the capital equipment and the services required to manufacture such products. We likely will continue to experience significant fluctuations in customer orders through such cycles. Although some of our business, including the cleaning, coating and analytical services that support the semiconductor chip market, are less susceptible to such fluctuations, recurring slowdowns in the industries we serve have had material adverse effects on our overall operating results. Demand shifts in these industries are rapid and difficult to predict, and we may not be able to anticipate or respond quickly enough to changes in demand.

Our revenues in periods of increasing demand depends, in part, upon our ability to: timely mobilize our supply chain to maintain component and raw material supply; optimize our design, mobilize our engineering and manufacturing capacity in a timely manner; expand, as necessary, our manufacturing, cleaning, coating and analytical services capacity; and maintain our product and service quality as we increase production. If we fail to timely respond to rapid increases in demand for our products and services, or to effectively manage the corresponding expansion of our manufacturing and service capacity, our customers may divert their purchases of products and services from us to our competitors.

Our ability to remain profitable and mitigate the impact on our business in periods of decreasing demand depends, in part, upon our ability to maintain the prices, quality and delivery cycles of our products and services while managing costs by optimizing our inventory levels, reducing or canceling orders from our suppliers, all without compromising our relationships with such suppliers; and to continue to motivate our employees while we reduce our fixed and variable costs through a number of initiatives, which may include reducing our workforce.

The limited visibility we have on the future needs of our customers, combined with the cyclical and volatile nature of the industries we serve, makes future revenues, results of operations and net cash flows difficult to estimate.

We rely on a small number of OEMs and IDMs for a large portion of our revenues, who could stop outsourcing critical subsystems or part cleaning, coating or analytical services, or give market share to our competitors.

A small number of OEM customers have historically accounted for a significant portion of our revenues, and we expect this trend to continue. Our top two customers accounted for 67.1%, 66.9% and 76.6% of our revenues for

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fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Because most of these customers are not contractually obligated to place any orders with us, the success of our products business largely depends on these OEMs’ own discretion, which discretion is buttressed by the fact that the OEMs generally own, and are therefore free to license as they see fit, the designs and other intellectual property to the products we manufacture for them. And since most of these OEMs are already our customers, any lost revenue resulting from the loss, reduction, cancellation or delay in purchase orders by, any one of these customers would be difficult to replace. In the past, we have seen our business levels reduced from customers who have taken the manufacturing of our products in-house, given market share to our competitors, or declared bankruptcy.

Our Services business provides part cleaning, coating and analytical expertise to both IDM and OEM customers. Our IDM business is similarly concentrated in a small number of customers, and we compete with in-house capabilities, the OEMs who perform cleaning as part of service contracts, and businesses that provide similar cleaning, coating and analytical services. The OEM customer profile of our Services business has significant overlap with our Products business, and we compete against other providers of cleaning, coating and analytical services. Because our cleaning and analytical processes are proprietary to us, our customers may need to go through a new qualification process if they decide to transition to a new service provider.

Consolidation among our customers, or a decision by any one or more of our customers to outsource all or most manufacturing, assembly, cleaning, coating and analytical services work to a single equipment manufacturer, may further concentrate our business in a limited number of customers and expose us to increased risks relating to dependence on an even smaller number of customers.

Our customers also exert a significant amount of negotiating leverage over us, which may force us to accept lower operating margins, increased liability risks or changes in our operations in order to retain their business.

Due to their size and level of contribution to our revenue, our largest customers are able to exert significant pressure to seek various concessions in our commercial agreements and individual purchase orders. Our customers often require reduced prices or other quality, manufacturing or delivery commitments as a condition to placing purchase orders. This could, among other things, result in reduced operating margins or require capital or other expenditures in order to maintain or expand our market share. Further, these customers may require us to agree on certain terms and conditions that shift certain risks onto us. For example, our customers generally require indemnity against certain liabilities, which may include claims of losses by their own customers arising out of property damages, bodily injuries or deaths, or infringement of intellectual property rights by our products. Our potential liability for infringing upon a third party’s intellectual property is generally uncapped, and in some cases, we have self-insured against these liability risks, such that we do not have a third-party insurer to reimburse us against these losses. Our customers may also pressure us to make other concessions in order to preserve or expand our market share with them. For example, customers may prevent us from moving our manufacturing sites from higher-cost regions to lower-cost regions, while simultaneously seeking price reductions. If we are unable to retain and expand our business on favorable commercial terms, our business will be adversely affected and we may be susceptible to increased liability risk.

Our dependence on our suppliers may prevent us from delivering an acceptable product on a timely basis.

We rely on both single-source and sole-source suppliers, many of whom have been specifically designated by our customers, for many of the components and raw materials we use in our products and services. If a supplier, who may not be under any long-term supply obligations, fails to provide the necessary volume of supplies, components or raw materials on a timely basis and at acceptable prices and quality, we would be forced to identify and qualify replacements from alternative sources. The process of qualifying new suppliers for complex components and raw materials is lengthy and could delay our production or delivery of services.

We may also experience difficulty in obtaining sufficient supplies of components and raw materials in times of growth in our business. In the past, we have experienced shortages in supplies of various components, such as mass flow controllers, valves and regulators, and certain prefabricated parts, such as sheet metal enclosures, used in the manufacture of our products. Some of the suppliers designated by our customers are also our competitors, which presents a special challenge for us to procure sufficient quantities of the components to meet the customer demands. If we, or our suppliers, are unable to procure sufficient quantities of supplies, components or raw materials, our customers could delay or cancel orders or service contracts.

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The manufacturing of our products and the services we provide are highly complex, and if we are not able to manage our manufacturing and procurement process effectively, our business and operating results will suffer.

The manufacturing of our products is a highly complex process. The services we provide are also highly complex, and dependent upon procuring specialty materials necessary to correctly perform the complex/precise services. Both the manufacturing of our products and the services we provide involve the integration of multiple components and require effective management of our supply chain to meet our customers’ design-to-delivery cycle time requirements. Through the course of the manufacturing process, our customers may modify design and system configurations in response to changes in their own customers’ requirements. In order to respond to these modifications and deliver our products in a timely manner, we must effectively manage our manufacturing and procurement processes, the failure of which can lead to a loss of business and reputational damage. We may also be liable for certain damages under our agreements with our customers, if we or our suppliers fail to effectively or timely re-configure manufacturing processes or components in response to these modifications.

Our inability to successfully manage the implementation of a company-wide enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system could adversely affect our operating results.

We are continuing the implementation of a new company-wide ERP system. This process has been and continues to be complex and time-consuming and we expect to incur additional capital outlays and expenses. This ERP system will replace many of our existing operating and financial systems, which is a major undertaking from a financial management and personnel perspective. Should the new ERP system not be implemented successfully throughout all our business units on time and within budget, or if the system does not perform in a satisfactory manner, it could be disruptive and adversely affect our operations, including our ability to: report accurate, timely and consistent financial results; purchase supplies, components and raw materials from our suppliers; and deliver products and services to customers on a timely basis and to collect our receivables from them. We have teams leading the implementation of the ERP system at most of our locations. To the extent these teams or key individuals are not retained through the implementation process, the success of our implementation could be compromised and the expected benefits of the ERP system may not be realized.

We are subject to order and shipment uncertainties and any significant reductions, cancellations or delays in customer orders could cause our revenue to decline and our operating results to suffer.

Our revenue is difficult to forecast because we generally do not have a material backlog of unfilled orders and because of the short time frame within which we are often required to design, produce or deliver products to our customers. Most of our revenue depends on customer orders for our products that we receive and fulfill in the same quarter. We generally do not have long-term purchase orders or contracts that contain minimum purchase commitments from our customers. Instead, we receive non-binding forecasts of the future volume of orders from our customers. Occasionally, we order and build component inventory in advance of the receipt of actual customer orders. Customers may cancel order forecasts, change production quantities from forecasted volumes, or delay production for reasons beyond our control, and for which we usually are not entitled to compensation. Reductions, cancellations or delays in forecasted orders could cause us to hold inventory longer than anticipated, which could reduce our gross profit, restrict our ability to fund our operations and cause us to incur unanticipated reductions or delays in revenue. Moreover, many of the products we manufacture are custom built for our customers and are therefore not fungible with products we sell to other customers. If we do not obtain orders as we anticipate, we could have excess component inventory for a customized product that we would not be able to sell to another customer, likely resulting in inventory write-offs. In addition, because many of our costs are fixed in the short term, we could experience deterioration in our gross profit and operating margins when our sales volumes decline.

We hold our customers’ parts on our premises and any significant damage or loss to these parts could cause our operating results to suffer.

In connection with our Services business, we face a number of risks associated with customer parts being held on our property, including the risk of loss or mishandling of, or other damage to, customer parts, any of which could be materially harmful for our business.

Our results of operations, financial position and cash flows may suffer if we do not effectively manage our inventory.

Inventory is one of the largest assets on our balance sheet, representing 16.4% of our total assets as of December 25, 2020.  We must manage our inventory of raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods effectively to meet changing customer requirements, while keeping inventory costs down and maintaining or improving gross margins.

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Historically, the industries we serve (in particular the semiconductor capital equipment industry) have been highly cyclical, which makes accurately forecasting customers’ product needs difficult.  Although we seek to maintain sufficient inventory levels of materials to guard against interruptions in supply and meet our customers’ needs, we may experience shortages of certain key materials, particularly in times of high industry demand.  We also face long lead times from our suppliers, which may be longer than the lead times provided to us by our customers.  If we underestimate customer demand or if insufficient manufacturing capacity or raw materials are available, we may have to forego sales opportunities, lose market share and damage our customer relationships.

An overestimation of customer demand may result in allocation of resources to manufacture products that we may not be able to sell, and we may be forced to hold excess or obsolete inventory. Some of our products can become obsolete while in storage due to changing customer specifications, or become excess inventory due to a decrease in demand. Furthermore, if market prices drop below the prices at which we value inventory, we would need to take a charge for a reduction in inventory values in accordance with the applicable accounting rules. Any unexpected changes in demand or increases in costs of production that cause us to take additional charges for un-saleable, obsolete or excess inventory, or to reduce inventory values, would adversely affect our results of operations.

We hold inventory at our various manufacturing sites globally and many of these sites have more than one warehouse. We rely upon our IT systems and internal controls to accurately and timely manage, store and replenish inventory, complete and track customer orders, coordinate sales activities across all of our products and maintain and report vital data and information. A disruption in our IT systems or a failure of our internal controls could result in delays in receiving inventory and supplies, delays in filling customer orders, incorrect inventory counts, over or under stocking, and loss of inventory.  

Our customers require our products to undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process. Any delay or failure in this process could result in a material financial harm.

We have had to qualify as a supplier, and maintain that status, for each of our customers. This is often a lengthy process that normally involves customer inspection and approval of our engineering, documentation, manufacturing and quality control procedures before the customer will place volume orders. Such qualification requirements limit our ability to quickly add new customers to offset any loss of, or reduction in sales to, an existing customer. Moreover, if we fail to maintain our status as a qualified supplier to any of our customers, such customer could cancel its orders or otherwise terminate its relationship with us.

Defects in our products or services could damage our reputation, decrease market acceptance of our products, release hazardous materials, and result in litigation, indemnification liability or unexpected warranty claims.

A number of factors, including design flaws, material and component failures, workmanship issues, contamination in the manufacturing, cleaning, coating or analytical environment, impurities in the materials or chemicals used, equipment failures, and unknown sensitivities to process conditions, such as temperature and humidity, may cause our products to contain undetected errors or defects. Problems with our products may:

cause delays in product introductions and shipments for us or our customers;

result in increased costs and diversion of development resources (for design modifications and others);

cause us to incur increased charges due to unusable inventory;

result in liability for the unintended release of hazardous materials through the defective products, which can cause serious injury or death;

create indemnification and warranty claims for rework, replacement or other damages, which can be significant if our products have already been installed in a fabrication facility;

decrease market acceptance of, or customer satisfaction with, our products; and

result in lower yields for semiconductor manufacturers.

Acquisitions could result in operating and integration difficulties, dilution, margin deterioration, diversion of management’s attention, and other consequences that may materially impact our business.

We have made, and may in the future make, acquisitions of, or significant investments in, businesses that offer complementary products, services, technologies or market access. We expect that management will evaluate potential strategic transactions regularly with its advisors and our board of directors in the ordinary course of business. We may not be successful in negotiating the terms of potential acquisitions or financing potential acquisitions, and our due diligence may fail to identify all of the problems, liabilities or other challenges associated

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with an acquired business, product or technology, including issues related to intellectual property, product quality or product architecture, regulatory compliance practices, revenue recognition or other accounting practices or employee or customer retention issues. In addition, we may not be successful in effectively integrating the acquired business, product or technology into our existing business and operations. The areas where we face risks include:

management of a larger, more complex and capital intensive combined business, including integrating supply and distribution channels, computer and accounting systems, and other aspects of operations;

exposure to new operational risks, rules, regulations, worker expectations, customs and practices;

inability to complete proposed transactions due to the failure to obtain regulatory or other approvals, litigation or other disputes, and any ensuing obligation to pay a termination fee;

reduction of gross margins and pricing leverage due to the acquired company having the same customer base;

failure to realize expected returns from acquired businesses;

reduction in cash balances or increase in debt obligations to finance the acquisition, which may reduce the availability of cash flow for general corporate or other purposes;

integration of the capabilities of the acquired businesses without reducing the quality of existing products;

incorporation of different financial and reporting controls, processes, systems and technologies into our existing business environment;

unforeseen liabilities, expenses, or other losses associated with the acquisitions for which we do not have recourse under their respective agreements;

the risk of litigation or claims associated with a proposed or completed transaction;

inadequacy or ineffectiveness of an acquired company’s internal financial controls, disclosure controls and procedures, or environmental, health and safety, anti-corruption, human resource or other policies or practices;

performance shortfalls as a result of the diversion of management’s attention from the Company’s operations;

cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired business into our organization, and incentivization and retention of employees from the businesses we acquire; and

difficulties associated with the retention and transition of new customers and partners into our existing business.

If we fail to address these risks, we may not be able to realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions or investments and incur unanticipated liabilities and substantial costs, materially harming our business in the process.

Our acquisitions could also result in one or more of the following: dilutive issuances of our equity securities, additional debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses, impairment charges and restructuring charges, any of which could harm our financial condition. Also, due to prevailing conditions in the credit market and our existing leverage, the financing of any such acquisition may be difficult to obtain, and the terms of any such financing may not be favorable.

We are continuing our efforts to fully integrate both QGT and DMS businesses. The challenges involved in these integrations include: continuing to maintain customers and other important relationships; continuing to compete effectively in the Services markets; completing the consolidation of IT, finance, general and administrative infrastructures; continuing to improve the coordination of our sales and marketing efforts to effectively position our capabilities; and fully integrating employees and related HR systems and benefits. The integration process continues to require significant management attention and may divert the attention of management from our other business and operational issues.

On December 16, 2020, we entered into an agreement and plan of merger to acquire Ham-Let (Israel – Canada) Ltd., for a total purchase price of approximately NIS 934 million (or approximately $287.0 million based on the exchange rate in effect at the close of business on December 10, 2020). Assuming the merger closes as expected sometime in the second quarter of 2021, this will likely pose additional challenges to the existing integration efforts.

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Our business may be adversely affected by IT disruptions, including by impairing our ability to effectively deliver our products or services, which could cause us to lose customers.

The manufacture and delivery of our products, the provision of our services and our financial reporting depend on the continuing operation of our technology infrastructure and systems, particularly our data center located in California. Any damage to or failure of our systems could result in interruptions in our ability to manufacture or deliver products or services, or adversely impact our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results. Interruptions could reduce our sales and profits, and our systems could be perceived as unreliable. Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, terrorist attacks, floods, fires, power loss, hardware or software failures, telecommunications failures, cybersecurity attacks, and similar events. Some of the critical components of our system are not redundant and we currently do not have a backup data center.  

Cybersecurity attacks, in particular, are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data (our own or that of third parties). Although we have adopted certain measures to mitigate potential risks to our systems from IT-related disruptions, given the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromising of confidential or otherwise protected information, misappropriation, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our systems or networks, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability, and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. For example, in August 2020, a third party gained unauthorized access to some of our data by launching a cyberattack on some of our servers. While the attack has had no material impact on our operations, we had to expend significant amount of time and resources to complete our remedial actions, including notifying all affected individuals and relevant state regulatory agencies.

If we experience frequent or persistent system failures, the attractiveness of our products or services to customers could be permanently harmed. Any steps we take to increase the reliability and redundancy of our systems may be expensive, reduce our operating margin and may not be successful in reducing the frequency or duration of unscheduled interruptions.

We are exposed to risks associated with volatility in the global economy.

We rely heavily on OEM customers for the success of our business. The success of OEMs’ business is, in turn, directly related to the success of the IDMs and other chipmakers, whose customers are engaged in consumer-facing businesses. Much of our success, therefore, depends on consumer spending and capital expenditures by retail businesses. Uncertainty regarding the global economy may exacerbate negative trends in business and consumer spending, which may cause our customers to scale back operations, reduce capital expenditures, exit businesses, merge with other manufacturers, or file for bankruptcy protection and potentially cease operations. Our customers may then be forced to push out, cancel or refrain from placing orders for our products or services. These conditions may also similarly affect key suppliers, impairing their ability to timely deliver components or raw materials. We may then be forced to procure components or raw materials from higher-cost suppliers or reconfigure the design and manufacture of our products or services, which may eventually lead to our failure to fill customer orders. Inflationary trends, which are especially unpredictable in the COVID-19 world, could also have a negative impact on many aspects of our cost structure.

Escalating trade tensions and the adoption tariffs and trade restrictions could negatively impact us.

International trade tensions or trade wars, as well as other changes in social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or laws and policies, could have a material adverse impact on our business. We and our customers have significant operations in China, with whom the United States has recently reached a “Phase One” trade deal to ease the trade tension between the two countries. The impact of such trade deal on current tariffs and its continual applicability under the new U.S. administration are difficult to predict. Any newly imposed or threatened U.S. tariffs and retaliatory tariffs could have the negative effect of increasing the cost of materials for our products, which could result in our products becoming less competitive or generating lower margins. Also, the United Kingdom’s (UK) withdrawal from the European Union (EU) (“Brexit”) has created significant uncertainty concerning the future relationship between the UK and the EU and the impact on global markets. UK and EU recently agreed on a trade deal, but it remains unclear what financial, trade, regulatory and legal implications the trade deal will have and how such it will affect us. The economic uncertainty created by Brexit may cause our

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customers to closely monitor their costs and reduce their spending budgets, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Other changes in U.S. or international social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or laws and policies governing tax laws, foreign trade, manufacturing, and development and investment in the countries where we or our customers operate could also adversely affect our operating results and our business. International trade disputes could result in increases in tariffs and other trade restrictions and protectionist measures that could adversely impact our operations and reduce the competitiveness of our products relative to local and global competitors.

We have significant existing indebtedness; the restrictive covenants under our credit agreement or other limitations on financing may limit our ability to expand or pursue our business strategy; if we are forced to pay our indebtedness prior to its maturity, our financial position could be materially and adversely affected.

As of December 25, 2020, we have total debt of $269.0 million. Such debt is composed of a $275.0 million term loan outstanding under our credit agreement with Barclays Bank and $1.9 under credit facilities in Cinos China less unamortized debt costs of $7.9 million.

Our indebtedness could have adverse consequences, including: allotment of a portion of our cash to interest and principal payments and will therefore not be available for operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions or general corporate or other purposes; and inability to obtain additional financing in the future, if needed. If we are unable to meet our debt obligations as they come due, we could be forced to restructure or refinance such obligations, seek additional equity financing, incur additional debt or sell assets, which we may not be able to do on satisfactory terms, if at all.

Our credit agreement contains certain covenants that restrict our ability to take certain actions, including incurring additional debt, providing guarantees, creating liens, making certain investments, engaging in transactions with affiliates and engaging in certain mergers and acquisitions. We are also required to comply with certain financial covenants, including the maintenance of a maximum consolidated total gross leverage ratio and a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio. Failure to comply with these covenants could result in the acceleration of all of our indebtedness, which could materially and adversely affect our financial health. As long as our indebtedness remains outstanding, the restrictive covenants and mandatory prepayment provisions could impair our ability to expand or pursue our business strategies or obtain additional funding.

We may not be able to fund our future capital requirements or strategic acquisitions from our operations, and financing from other sources may not be available on favorable terms or at all.

We made capital expenditures of approximately $37.2 million and $25.7 million for fiscal years 2020 and 2019, respectively, which are primarily related to our ERP system implementation and to investments in our manufacturing facilities in the United States, China, Singapore and South Korea. The amount of our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including: the cost associated with the expansion of our manufacturing capacity into Malaysia as part of our strategic growth plan; the cost to maintain appropriate IT systems; the cost to maintain adequate manufacturing capacity; the timing and extent of spending to support product development efforts; the timing of new product introductions and enhancements to existing products; the timing, size and availability of strategic transactions; the cost to integrate our acquisitions into our business environment; changing manufacturing capabilities to meet new or increased customer requirements; market acceptance of our products; and our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from our operating activities.

In order to finance our capital expenditures or any future strategic acquisitions, we may need to raise additional funds through public or private equity or debt financing, but such financing may not be available on terms satisfactory to us, or at all. Access to capital markets has, in the past, been unavailable to companies such as ours. In addition, equity financings could be dilutive to holders of our common stock, and debt financings would likely involve additional covenants that restrict our business operations. Any potential strategic acquisition or significant capital expenditure may also require the consent of our existing lenders. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms when needed, we may not be able to develop or enhance our products, take advantage of future opportunities, grow our business or respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated requirements.

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Our quarterly revenue and operating results could fluctuate significantly from period to period, and this may cause volatility in our common stock price.

Our quarterly revenue and operating results, including our gross margin, have fluctuated significantly in the past, and we expect them to continue to fluctuate in the future for a variety of reasons, which may include:

the cyclical nature of the industries we serve that frequently oscillates between downturns and growths;

changes in the timing and size, or cancellation or postponement, of orders by our customers;

strategic decisions by our customers to terminate their outsourcing relationship with us or give market share to our competitors, which may result from decreased demand for our customers’ products by end customers;

strategic consolidation by our customers;

pricing pressure from either our competitors or our customers;

disruptions or delays in the manufacturing of our products or in the supply of components or raw materials;

introduction of new products or services;

delays in production ramp-up, low yields or other problems experienced at our manufacturing facilities;

changes in design-to-delivery cycle times;

inability to reduce our costs quickly, commensurate with reductions in our prices or in response to decreased demand;

changes in our product and/or service mix;

write-offs of excess or obsolete inventory;

one-time expenses or charges associated with failed acquisition negotiations or completed acquisitions;

inability to control our operating costs consistent with target levels;

announcements by our competitors of new products, services or technological innovations; and

geographic mix of customer orders or worldwide earnings.

As a result of the foregoing, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our revenue and operating results may not be meaningful and that these comparisons may not be an accurate indicator of our future performance. Changes in the timing or terms of a small number of transactions could disproportionately affect our operating results in any particular quarter. Moreover, our operating results in one or more future quarters may fail to meet our guidance or the expectations of securities analysts or investors. If this occurs, we would expect to experience an immediate and significant decline in the trading price of our common stock.

We have established and, as circumstances may require, intend to expand our operations globally, which exposes us to risks associated with operating in foreign countries.

We generated approximately 58.4% and 52.1% of our revenues in international markets for fiscal years 2020 and 2019, respectively. Depending on market conditions, we intend to further expand our operations in Asia and Europe. The carrying amount of our fixed assets in Asia and Europe were $90.4 million and $9.4 million, respectively as of December 25, 2020.

We are exposed to political, economic, legal and other risks associated with operating in Asia and Europe, including:

foreign currency exchange fluctuations;

political, civil, public health and economic instability;

restrictive governmental actions, such as restrictions on the transfer or repatriation of funds and foreign investments, import/export restrictions and quotas, and customs duties and tariffs;

uncertainty regarding social, political and trade policies in the United States and abroad;

timing and availability of export licenses;

20


 

 

disruptions due to China’s developing domestic infrastructure, including transportation and energy;

difficulties in developing relationships with local suppliers, attracting new international customers, conducting due diligence with respect to business partners in certain international markets, collecting accounts receivables, and staffing and managing distant international subsidiaries and branch operations;

the burden of complying with foreign and international laws and treaties;

legal systems potentially subject to undue influence or corruption; and

potentially adverse tax consequences, including restrictions on the repatriation of earnings to the United States.

Negative or uncertain global conditions could prevent us from accurately forecasting demand for our products and services. In addition, a shift in the mix of orders from our customers away from low-cost markets to higher cost markets could adversely affect our operating margins.

Our operations in Asia and Europe are subject to U.S. regulations governing equipment export. These laws are complex and require us to obtain export licenses, a failure of which could expose us to fines, penalties and export ban. The U.S. Department of Commerce continually updates and often expands the list of entities, particularly in China, to whom U.S. companies cannot sell certain products without a license from the Department of Commerce. These rules and regulatory changes could have material adverse impact on the result of our operations.

Over the past several years, some foreign government authorities, including those in China and Korea, have pursued economic reform policies by promoting local businesses and local economic activity. Without notice, these government authorities may continue or alter these policies to our detriment, including imposition of confiscatory taxation policies, new restrictions on currency conversion, and limitations on sources of supply.

We are subject to various laws and regulations of the countries where we conduct business, including laws and regulations relative to anti-corruption and anti-bribery, antitrust and competition, data privacy, and export regulations. These foreign laws and regulations are constantly evolving and may, in some cases, conflict with each other. Although our compliance policies against unethical business practices apply to all our employees and agents, any violation of these policies by a rogue employee or agent may expose us to enforcement actions against these laws and regulations.

Business practices in Asia may entail greater risk and dependence upon the personal relationships, and therefore some of our agreements with customers or suppliers in Asia could be difficult or impossible to enforce.

Our business activities in Asia are continuing to expand, where personal relationships generally play a larger part in the business culture than is common in the U.S. In some cases, oral agreements based on personal relationships play just as important a role as written contracts, resulting in certain material terms not being reduced to writing. Similarly, there is a tendency in some Asian businesses to treat written agreements as a starting point of an ongoing business relationship, which is expected to continually change over time. The difficulty associated with enforcing oral agreements may expose us to adverse business consequences.

21


 

We could be adversely affected by risks associated with joint ventures, including those in the Asian markets.

From time to time, we may seek to expand our business through investments in joint ventures with complementary businesses, technologies, services or products, in both new and existing market categories and geographic regions. Our investments in joint ventures are subject to a number of risks, including many of the same risks described above for our acquisition activities. In particular, at the closing of the QGT acquisition, we indirectly became a party to QGT’s joint venture with Cinos Co., Ltd. (“Cinos Korea”) in South Korea and Cinos Xi’an in China, which is our first experience with a joint venture. The success of these joint ventures will continue to demand significant management and capital resources, and effective management of those risks inherent in overseas joint venture operations, including: protection of our intellectual property; economic, political and labor instability; language and cultural differences; contractual enforcement issues; and managing product development, operations and sales activities that are physically far removed from our headquarters and have historically been centralized with local management. In addition, from time to time in the future, our joint venture partners may have economic or business interests that are different from ours. Furthermore, our joint venture with Cinos Korea will require us to make purchases of equity from time to time up to specified amounts. If each joint venture business does not progress according to our plans and anticipated timing, our investment in the joint ventures may not be successful.

The industries in which we participate are highly competitive and rapidly evolving.

We face intense competition from subsystem and component manufacturers in the industries we serve. Increased competition has in the past resulted, and could in the future result, in price reductions, reduced gross margins or loss of market share. Competitors may introduce new products in the markets currently being served by our products. These new products may have better performance, lower prices and achieve broader market acceptance than our products. Further, since our customers generally own the designs and other intellectual property to the products we manufacture on their behalf, we cannot prevent them from licensing such designs and other intellectual property to our competitors for the manufacture of such products. Similarly, while the cleaning and analytical processes we utilize are proprietary to us, OEMs are looking to increase their maintenance services and could create proprietary cleaning processes with competitors, limiting our ability to compete for future business.

Our competitors may have greater financial, technical, manufacturing and marketing resources than we do. As a result, they may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements, devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products and services, and reduce prices to increase market share. Moreover, there may be merger and acquisition activities among our competitors and potential competitors that may provide our competitors and potential competitors an advantage over us by enabling them to expand their product offerings and service capabilities to meet a broader range of customer needs. Further, if one of our customers develops or acquires the internal capability to develop and produce critical subsystems that we produce, or cleaning, coating and analytical services we provide, the loss of that customer could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

If our new products are not accepted by OEMs or other customers or if we are unable to obtain historical margins on our new products, our operating results would be adversely impacted.

We design, develop and market critical subsystems and proprietary cleaning, coating and analytical services to OEMs, IDMs and other customers. The introduction of new products and processes is inherently risky because it is difficult to foresee the adoption of new standards, coordinate our technical personnel and strategic relationships and win acceptance of new products by our customers, and ultimately not be able to recoup design and development expenditures. Newly introduced products typically carry lower gross margins than existing products for several quarters following their introduction. If any of our new systems or subsystems are not successful in the market, or if we are unable to obtain gross margins on new products that are similar to the gross margins we have historically achieved, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

If we were required to impair all or part of our goodwill and/or our acquired intangible assets, our net income and net worth could be materially adversely affected.

We had $171.1 million of goodwill recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 25, 2020. Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net tangible and finite lived, identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations. If our market capitalization drops significantly below the amount of net equity recorded on our balance sheet, it could indicate a decline in our value and would require us to further evaluate whether our goodwill has been impaired. During the fourth quarter of each year, we perform an annual review of our

22


 

goodwill and acquired intangible assets to determine if they have become impaired. We also conduct the same evaluation whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If we were required to impair all or a significant part of our goodwill and/or our acquired intangible assets, our financial results and net worth could be materially adversely affected.

Our business is largely dependent on the know-how of our employees, and we generally do not have an intellectual property position that is protected by patents.

Our business is largely dependent upon our design, engineering, manufacturing, chemical processing, analytical and testing know-how. We rely on a combination of trade secrets and contractual confidentiality provisions and, to a much lesser extent, patents, copyrights and trademarks to protect our proprietary rights. Confidentiality agreements with our employees and others may not adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information. Accordingly, our intellectual property position is more vulnerable than it would be if it were protected primarily by patents. If we fail to protect our proprietary rights successfully, our competitive position could suffer. We may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our proprietary rights, and, in the event infringement or breach of our proprietary rights occurs, our competitive position in the market may be harmed. In addition, competitors may design around our technology or develop competing technologies and know-how.

Third parties may claim we are infringing their intellectual property, which could subject us to litigation or licensing expenses, and we may be prevented from selling our products if any such claims prove successful.

We have in the past and may in the future receive claims that our products, processes or technologies infringe the patents or other proprietary rights of third parties. Any litigation regarding third party patents or other intellectual property rights could be costly and time-consuming and divert our key resources from our business operations. The complexity of the technology involved in our products and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation increase these risks. Claims of intellectual property infringement may also require us to enter into costly license agreements, possibly on terms unacceptable to us. We also may be subject to significant damages or injunctions against the development, manufacture and sale of certain of our products if any such claims prove successful. We also rely on design specifications and other proprietary information provided by our customers to manufacture products for such customers. While many of our customers are contractually obligated to indemnify us for the costs to defend third party claims arising out of our use of the information provided by the customers, the indemnified amount may not be enough to make us whole, or if our customers refuse to honor its obligations, we could end up in costly litigations both to defend against such third-party claims and to enforce our contractual indemnification rights.

We may become involved in litigations and regulatory proceedings, which could require significant attention from our management and result in significant expense to us and disruptions to our business.

In addition to any litigation related to our intellectual property rights, we may in the future be named as a defendant in other lawsuits and regulatory actions relating to our business, such as commercial contract claims, environmental compliance claims, employment claims, and tax examinations, any one of which may expose us to significant damages and reputational harm. The outcome of such litigations and regulatory proceedings is difficult to predict. An unfavorable outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business, including limiting our ability to engage in certain business activities. In addition, such proceedings are often expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to normal business operations and require significant attention from our management.

If we do not keep pace with developments in the industries we serve and with technological innovation generally, our products may not be competitive.

Rapid technological innovation in the markets we serve requires us to anticipate and respond quickly to evolving customer requirements and could render our current product or service offerings and technology obsolete. Technological innovations are inherently complex. We believe that our future success will depend upon our ability to timely design, engineer and manufacture products and services that meet the changing needs of our customers. If we are unable to integrate new technical specifications into competitive product and service designs, develop the technical capabilities necessary to manufacture new products or provide new services or make necessary modifications or enhancements to existing products or services, our business prospects could be harmed.

The timely development of new or enhanced products and services requires us to:

design innovative and performance-enhancing features to differentiate our products and services;

23


 

 

identify emerging technological trends, including new standards for our products and services;

accurately identify and design new products and services to meet market needs;

timely and efficiently collaborate with OEMs and IDMs to design and develop products and services;

timely ramp-up production of new products, especially new subsystems, at acceptable yields and costs;

successfully manage development production cycles; and

respond effectively to technological changes or product or service announcements by others.

We must achieve design wins to retain our existing customers and to obtain new customers.

New capital equipment typically has a lifespan of several years, and OEMs frequently specify which systems, subsystems, components and instruments are to be incorporated in their equipment. Once incorporated, the OEM will likely maintain that same composition of products for at least several months. IDMs typically establish cleaning, coating, and analytical services as they develop and qualify new chip designs for production. Once a cleaned or coated part has been qualified, the refurbishment processes used to clean or coat the qualified part will likely continue to be used. Accordingly, it is important that our products and services are designed into the new capital equipment and new chip designs (known as a “design win”), to retain our existing customers and to obtain new customers.

We incur technology development and sales expenses with no assurance that our products will ultimately be designed into an OEM’s capital equipment or into an IDM’s manufacturing process. Further, developing new customer relationships, as well as maintaining and increasing our market share with existing customers, requires a substantial investment of our sales, engineering and management resources without any assurance from prospective customers that they will place orders. We believe that OEMs and IDMs often consider long-term relationships in selecting and placing orders, which could mean we may have difficulty achieving design wins from OEMs and IDMs that are not our current customers.

Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The majority of our international revenues are denominated in U.S. dollars. Many of the costs and expenses associated with our international operations are paid in foreign currencies, including Chinese Renminbi, Singapore dollars, Japanese Yen, South Korean Won, Israeli New Shekel and Euro, and we expect our exposure to these foreign currencies to increase as we increase production in those regions. Changes in exchange rates among these foreign currencies may affect our revenue, cost of revenues, operating margins and tax.

We use derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not fully offset the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign currency exchange rates over the time the hedges are in place.

The market for our stock is subject to significant fluctuation.

The size of our public market capitalization is relatively small, and the average volume of our shares that are traded is relatively low. The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:

quarterly variations in our operating results;

our ability to successfully introduce new products and services and manage new product transitions;

changes in revenue or earnings estimates or publication of research reports by analysts;

speculation in the press or investment community;

strategic actions by us, our customers or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

announcements relating to any of our key customers, significant suppliers or the semiconductor manufacturing and capital equipment industry generally;

the effects of war and terrorist attacks; and

24


 

 

domestic and international economic or political factors unrelated to our performance.

The stock markets in general, and the markets for technology stocks in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

The technology labor market is very competitive, and we must hire, promote and retain key personnel.

Our future success depends in part on the continued service of our key executive officers, as well as our research, engineering, sales, manufacturing and administrative personnel, most of whom are not subject to employment or non-competition agreements. In addition, the competition for qualified personnel in the technology industry is intense, and we operate in geographic locations in which labor markets are particularly competitive.

Our business is particularly dependent on expertise which only a limited number of engineers possess. The loss of any of our key employees and officers, including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, any of our Executive or Senior Vice Presidents or any of our other senior managers, or the failure to attract, promote and retain qualified employees, could adversely affect our business. Also, uncertainty and disruption to our organization as a result of executive management transition could divert the executive management’s attention away from key areas of our business and have a material adverse effect on our business.

Any environmental contamination at any of our production facilities could result in substantial liabilities.

Our facilities use substances regulated under various foreign, federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations. We may not always be aware of, or in compliance with, all environmental laws or regulations, and our failure or inability to comply with existing or future environmental requirements could result in significant remediation and other liabilities, imposition of fines, and suspension of our services and products.

Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, power outages, floods, and other catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made disruptions, such as terrorism.

Our facilities may experience catastrophic losses caused by natural disasters or other causalities, such as earthquakes, storms, floods, fires, public health epidemic, labor disruptions, power outages, terrorist attacks or political unrest, the occurrence of any one of which could disrupt our operations, delay production and shipments, and result in large repair expenses. We have facilities in areas with above average seismic activity, such as our facilities in South San Francisco and Hayward, California, and our Taiwan facilities in Hsinchu and Tainan. We also have experienced fires and extended power outages at our facilities, such as the fire that occurred at a Korean plant operated by our joint venture, Cinos Korea, on September 19, 2018. This risk is further exacerbated by the fact that our insurance policies do not cover the losses caused by earthquakes or other natural disasters or power loss.

In addition, our suppliers experiencing natural disasters may not be able to provide sufficient components or raw materials in a timely manner, which can cause disruptions in our operations. For example, in 2011, some of our Japanese suppliers had to temporarily shut down their operations as a result of a severe earthquake followed by a tsunami in northern Japan. Similar events can occur again, to our material detriment.

Changes in tax rates or tax assets and liabilities could affect results of operations.

As a global company, we are subject to taxation in the United States and various other countries. Significant judgment is required to determine and estimate worldwide tax liabilities. Our annual and quarterly tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in the applicable tax laws, amount and composition of pre-tax income in countries with different tax rates, and valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities.

25


 

We are subject to examinations of our income tax returns by domestic and foreign tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes and have reserved for potential adjustments that may result from these examinations. There can be no assurance that any final determination will not be materially different from the treatment reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Certain regulations related to conflict minerals could adversely impact our business.

We use conflict minerals in manufacturing our products. As a result, we are required to perform ongoing due diligence on our supply chain and publicly disclose the nature and results of such efforts. Our most recent disclosure was filed on Form SD on June 1, 2020, noting that we could not yet determine whether the conflict minerals we source were, directly or indirectly, used to finance or benefit armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo and its adjoining countries. There have been and there will be costs associated with complying with these disclosure requirements to determine the sources of conflict minerals used in our products, and potential changes to products, processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. Complying with these rules could adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in our products and result in substantial additional costs. As there may be only a limited number of suppliers offering “conflict free” conflict minerals, we are not certain that we will be able to obtain the conflict minerals from such suppliers in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. We may also face reputational challenges if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict free or if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origins for all conflict minerals used in our products. If we are unable to comply with these disclosure rules (which themselves may be subject to potential re-formulation by the new administration), we could be subject to enforcement actions by the SEC and liability under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which could result in material adverse consequences to our business, as well as significant fines and penalties.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they issue an adverse opinion regarding our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry analysts publish about us or our business. If any of the analysts issue an adverse opinion regarding our stock, our stock price would likely decline. Similarly, if these analysts cease publishing regular reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, our shareholders’ ability to achieve a return on their investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

Given our current business plan to invest our earnings to fund our growth, we do not intend on declaring any dividends on UCT’s common stock (which ability to do so is also restricted by the terms of our credit agreement). For the foreseeable future, therefore, any return on our shareholders’ investment will depend exclusively on the capital appreciation of our common stock.

26


 

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.

Properties

UCT’s headquarters is located in Hayward, California. This facility provides administrative, sales and support, engineering and technology development and manufacturing operations. This lease expires in 2027.

The Company has manufacturing and engineering facilities in California, Texas, Arizona, China, Singapore, Philippines and Czech Republic. The Company has parts cleaning, analytics and engineering facilities in Colorado, Arizona, California, Oregon, Maine, Texas, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and China. These facilities have leases that expire on various dates through 2031 and are subject to periodic changes. We also own buildings and land that are located in South Korea, China and the United Kingdom. We believe that our existing facilities are well-maintained and in good operating condition.

The table below lists our properties as of February 19, 2021:

 

Location

 

Principal Use

 

Square Footage

 

 

Ownership

 

Hayward, California

 

Headquarters, manufacturing, sales, engineering, technology development

 

 

104,741

 

 

Leased

 

Austin, Texas

 

Manufacturing, engineering

 

 

101,440

 

 

Leased

 

Chandler, Arizona

 

Manufacturing

 

 

114,934

 

 

Leased

 

Cebu, Philippines

 

Manufacturing

 

 

15,726

 

 

Leased

 

Singapore, Singapore

 

Manufacturing, customer support, parts cleaning

 

 

175,527

 

 

Leased

 

Shanghai, China

 

Manufacturing

 

 

154,069

 

 

Leased

 

Liberec, Czech Republic

 

Manufacturing, customer support

 

 

116,289

 

 

Leased

 

Penang, Malaysia

 

Manufacturing, customer support

 

 

300,000

 

 

Leased

 

Colorado Springs, Colorado

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

14,000

 

 

Leased

 

Scarborough, Maine

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

20,000

 

 

Leased

 

San Jose, California

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

20,130

 

 

Leased

 

Fremont, California

 

Parts Cleaning, R&D, Laboratory & Recycling

 

 

76,791

 

 

Leased

 

Hillsboro, Oregon

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

83,895

 

 

Leased

 

Portland, Oregon

 

Testing & Parts Cleaning

 

 

7,461

 

 

Leased

 

Phoenix, Arizona

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

77,771

 

 

Leased

 

Carrollton, Texas

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

121,968

 

 

Leased

 

Quiryat Gat, Israel

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

51,376

 

 

Leased

 

Hukou Township, Taiwan

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

30,354

 

 

Leased

 

Tainan, Taiwan

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

89,607

 

 

Leased

 

Xi'an, China

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

66,185

 

 

Lease

 

HyunGok-Ri, South Korea

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

40,014

 

 

Lease

 

Scotland, United Kingdom

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

22,000

 

 

Own

 

Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

197,453

 

 

Own

 

Hwaseong-si, South Korea

 

Parts Cleaning

 

 

95,814

 

 

Own

 

Item 3.

From time to time, we are subject to various legal proceedings and claims, either asserted or unasserted, that arise in the ordinary course of business. Although the outcome of the various legal proceedings and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we have not had a history of outcomes to date that have been material to our statement of operations and do not believe that any of these proceedings or other claims will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

27


 

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Stock Exchange Listing

Our common stock has been traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “UCTT” since March 25, 2004. As of February 19, 2021, there were three holders of record of UCTT common stock.

 

Dividends on Common Stock

To date, we have not declared or paid cash dividends to our UCT stockholders and we do not intend to do so for the foreseeable future in order to retain earnings for use in our business. Our credit facility also limits our ability to pay dividends.

 

Stock Performance Graph

The following stock performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act, each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

 

The following stock performance graph compares the cumulative total stockholder returns during the period from December 25, 2015 to December 25, 2020 of our common stock to the NASDAQ Composite Index and the RDG Semiconductor Composite Index. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on December 25, 2015 in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices. The stock performance shown on the following graph represents historical stock performance and is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

28


 

 

 

 

 

The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as reported by the NASDAQ Global Market:

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

Fiscal year 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

13.12

 

 

$

7.93

 

Second quarter

 

$

14.82

 

 

$

10.50

 

Third quarter

 

$

16.67

 

 

$

11.20

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

24.24

 

 

$

13.94

 

Fiscal year 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

30.00

 

 

$

11.79

 

Second quarter

 

$

24.86

 

 

$

12.37

 

Third quarter

 

$

31.10

 

 

$

19.08

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

37.02

 

 

$

21.06

 

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None.

Purchase of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

None.

29


 

Item 6.

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

You should read the following tables in conjunction with other information contained under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes and other financial information contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

Year ended

 

(In millions, except per share amounts)

12/25/2020

 

 

12/27/2019 (1)

 

 

12/28/2018 (2)

 

 

12/29/2017

 

 

12/30/2016

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

Revenues

$

 

1,398.6

 

 

$

 

1,066.2

 

 

$

 

1,096.5

 

 

$

 

924.4

 

 

$

 

562.8

 

Cost of revenues

 

 

1,106.8

 

 

 

 

869.4

 

 

 

 

920.7

 

 

 

 

756.7

 

 

 

 

476.0

 

Gross margin

 

 

291.8

 

 

 

 

196.8

 

 

 

 

175.8

 

 

 

 

167.7

 

 

 

 

86.8

 

Operating expenses

 

 

170.4

 

 

 

 

166.9

 

 

 

 

115.1

 

 

 

 

78.2

 

 

 

 

64.4

 

Income from operations

 

 

121.4

 

 

 

 

29.9

 

 

 

 

60.7

 

 

 

 

89.5

 

 

 

 

22.4

 

Interest and other income (expense), net

 

 

(21.7

)

 

 

 

(27.6

)

 

 

 

(8.4

)

 

 

 

(2.5

)

 

 

 

(3.4

)

Income before provision for income taxes

 

 

99.7

 

 

 

 

2.3

 

 

 

 

52.3

 

 

 

 

87.0

 

 

 

 

19.0

 

Provision for income taxes

 

 

19.3

 

 

 

 

10.0

 

 

 

 

15.3

 

 

 

 

11.9

 

 

 

 

8.9

 

Net income (loss)

 

 

80.4

 

 

 

 

(7.7

)

 

 

 

37.0

 

 

 

 

75.1

 

 

 

 

10.1

 

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

 

2.8

 

 

 

 

1.7

 

 

 

 

0.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to UCT

$

 

77.6

 

 

$

 

(9.4

)

 

$

 

36.6

 

 

$

 

75.1

 

 

$

 

10.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) per share attributable to UCT

   common stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

$

 

1.93

 

 

$

 

(0.24

)

 

$

 

0.95

 

 

$

 

2.25

 

 

$

 

0.31

 

Diluted

$

 

1.89

 

 

$

 

(0.24

)

 

$

 

0.94

 

 

$

 

2.19

 

 

$

 

0.30

 

Shares used in computing net income (loss)

   per share:

 

Basic

 

 

40.2

 

 

 

 

39.5

 

 

 

 

38.4

 

 

 

 

33.4

 

 

 

 

32.6

 

Diluted

 

 

41.1

 

 

 

 

39.5

 

 

 

 

38.9

 

 

 

 

34.3

 

 

 

 

33.2

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

(In millions)

 

12/25/2020

 

 

12/27/2019 (1)

 

 

12/28/2018 (2)

 

 

12/29/2017

 

 

12/30/2016

 

Cash & cash equivalents

 

$

 

200.3

 

 

$

 

162.5

 

 

$

 

144.1

 

 

$

 

68.3

 

 

$

 

52.5

 

Working capital

 

$

 

343.9

 

 

$

 

256.4

 

 

$

 

323.6

 

 

$

 

200.1

 

 

$

 

136.4

 

Total assets

 

$

 

1,102.5

 

 

$

 

1,019.3

 

 

$

 

965.5

 

 

$

 

563.4

 

 

$

 

380.7

 

Bank borrowings and long-term debt

 

$

 

269.0

 

 

$

 

292.2

 

 

$

 

341.2

 

 

$

 

52.3

 

 

$

 

67.8

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

$

 

57.4

 

 

$

 

44.0

 

 

$

 

43.6

 

 

$

 

6.6

 

 

$

 

3.3

 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

$

 

551.2

 

 

$

 

452.5

 

 

$

 

451.0

 

 

$

 

300.3

 

 

$

 

216.1

 

 

(1)

Includes the results of operations of DMS for the period from April 15, 2019 to December 27, 2019.

(2)

Includes the results of operations of QGT for the period from August 27, 2018 to December 28, 2018.

See Note 2 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

 

30


 

 

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This section and other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “targets,” “goals,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “continues,” “may,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely results, and similar terms. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Item 1A — Risk Factors” above. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statement and notes thereto included in Item 8 of this report. We assume no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason, except as required by law.

Overview

We are a global leader in the design, engineering and manufacture of production tools, modules and subsystems for the semiconductor and display capital equipment markets.  Our products include chemical delivery modules, frame assemblies, gas delivery systems, fluid delivery systems, precision robotics, process modules as well as other high-level assemblies. Our services provide part cleaning, surface encapsulation, and high sensitivity micro contamination analysis primarily for the semiconductor device makers and wafer fabrication (WFE) equipment markets.

Historically, the Company has operated under one operating segment. However, as a result of recent acquisitions, we elected to reorganize our organizational and reporting structure to capture efficiencies and operating leverage. We now report results for two segments: Products and Services.

We ship a majority of our products and provide most of our services to U.S. registered customers with locations both in and outside the U.S. In addition to U.S. manufacturing and service operations, we manufacture products and provide parts cleaning and other related services in our Asian and European facilities to support local and U.S. based customers.

Over the long-term, we believe the semiconductor market we serve will continue to grow due to multi-year industry inflections creating demand from a broad range of drivers including mobile demand driven by 5G, new CPU architectures which are enabling higher performance servers, and cloud, AI and machine learnings. We also believe that semiconductor equipment OEMs are increasingly relying on partners like UCT to fulfill their expanding capacity requirements.

Critical Accounting Estimates

Our Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, which require us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosure at the date of our Consolidated Financial Statements. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to inventories, income taxes, business combinations and goodwill, intangible assets and long-lived assets. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis of our judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates. We consider certain accounting policies related to revenue recognition, inventory valuation, accounting for income taxes, business combinations, valuation of goodwill, intangible assets and long-lived assets to be critical policies due to the estimates and judgments involved in each.

31


 

Revenue Recognition

Our revenues for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018 were highly concentrated in a small number of OEM customers in the semiconductor capital equipment industry. We recognize revenue when promised goods or services (performance obligations) are transferred to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. We perform the following five steps to determine when to recognize revenue:

1.

Identification of the contract(s) with customers – Our standard arrangement for our customers includes a signed purchase order or contract, no right of return of delivered products and no customer acceptance provisions. We assess collectability based on the creditworthiness of the customer and past transaction history. We perform on-going credit evaluations of, and do not require collateral from, our customers.

2.

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract – Our performance obligations include delivery of promised goods or services.

3.

Determination of the transaction price – The transaction price of our contracts with customers may include both fixed and variable consideration. We include variable consideration in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of revenue will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. We generally invoice our customers upon shipment of goods and completion of services with payment due within 30 to 90 days after issuance.

4.

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract – For contracts that contain multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the contract’s transaction price to each performance obligation using the relative standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract.

5.

Recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied – We recognize revenue from products sold at a point in time when we have satisfied our performance obligation by transferring control of the goods to the customer, which typically occurs at shipment or delivery. Revenue from service agreements is recognized upon completion of the services.

Inventory Valuation

We write down the carrying value of our inventory to net realizable value for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventory in an amount equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and its estimated realizable value based upon inventory age and assumptions about future demand and market conditions. We assess the valuation of all inventories, including raw materials, work-in-process, finished goods and spare parts on a periodic basis.

Obsolete inventory or inventory in excess of our estimated usage is written down to its estimated market value less costs to sell, if less than its cost. The inventory write-downs are recorded as an inventory valuation allowance established on the basis of obsolete inventory or specifically identified inventory in excess of established usage. Inherent in our estimates of demand and market value in determining inventory valuation are estimates related to economic trends, future demand for our products and technological obsolescence of our products. If actual demand and market conditions are less favorable than our projections, additional inventory write-downs may be required. If the inventory value is written down to its net realizable value, and subsequently there is an increased demand for the inventory at a higher value, the increased value of the inventory is not realized until the inventory is sold either as a component of a subsystem or as separate inventory. For fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018, we wrote down inventory of $3.4 million, $2.5 million, and $3.3 million, respectively.

Accounting for Income Taxes

The determination of our tax provision is highly dependent upon the geographic composition of worldwide earnings and tax regulations governing each region and is subject to judgments and estimates. Management carefully monitors the changes in many factors and adjusts the effective tax rate as required.

We must assess the likelihood that we will be able to recover our deferred tax assets.  If recovery is not likely, we must increase our provision for taxes by recording a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be recoverable.  In determining whether the realization of these deferred tax assets may be impaired, we make judgments with respect to whether we are likely to generate sufficient future

32


 

taxable income to realize these assets. In order to reverse a valuation allowance, accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America suggest that we review our recent cumulative income/loss as well as determine our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income to realize our net deferred tax assets. As of December 25, 2020, we maintained full valuation allowances on our U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets in the amount of $25.6 million as we believe it is more likely than not that these deferred tax assets will not be realized.

In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on a two-step process.  The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any.  The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with our expectations could have a material impact on the results of our operations and financial position. We believe we have adequately reserved for our uncertain tax positions; however, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different than what we expect. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will impact the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. The provision for income taxes includes the impact of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate, as well as the related net interest.

Business Combinations

In accordance with accounting for business combinations, we allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the identified tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. We may engage third-party valuation firms to assist management in reviewing management’s identification and determination of the fair values of acquired intangible assets such as customer relationships and tradenames. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions. Management makes estimates of fair value based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable. These estimates are based on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain.

Goodwill, Intangibles Assets, and Long-lived Assets

Goodwill is measured as the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the sum of the amounts assigned to identifiable assets acquired less liabilities assumed.

We evaluate our goodwill and indefinite life tradename for impairment on an annual basis, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be fully recoverable. In addition, we evaluate our identifiable intangible assets and other long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Factors we consider important which could trigger an impairment review include the following:

Significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or the strategy of our overall business;

Significant negative changes in revenue of specific products or services;

Significant negative industry or economic trends; and

Significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period.

We continually apply judgment when performing these evaluations and continuously monitor for events and circumstances that could negatively impact the key assumptions in determining fair value, including long-term revenue growth projections, undiscounted cash flows, discount rates, recent market valuations from transactions by comparable companies, volatility in our market capitalization and general industry, market and macroeconomic conditions. It is possible that changes in such circumstances, or in the variables associated with the judgments, assumptions and estimates used in assessing fair value, would require us to record a non-cash impairment charge.

33


 

Results of Operations

 

Fiscal Year

Our fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period ending on the Friday nearest December 31. Fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018 each contained 52 weeks.

A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 can be found under Item 7 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 27, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 11, 2020, which is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and our Investor Relations website at ww.uct.com/investors.

Discussion of Results of Operations

Revenues

 

 

Years Ended

 

Revenues by Segment

 

December 25,

 

 

Percent

 

December 27,

 

 

Percent

 

December 28,

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2020

 

 

Change

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

2018

 

Products

 

$

 

1,131.2

 

 

 

34.5

 

%

 

$

 

840.8

 

 

 

-17.2

 

%

 

$

 

1,015.5

 

Services

 

 

 

267.4

 

 

 

18.6

 

%

 

 

 

225.4

 

 

 

178.3

 

%

 

 

 

81.0

 

Total Revenues

 

$

 

1,398.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

1,066.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

1,096.5

 

Products as a percentage of total revenues

 

 

 

80.9

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78.9

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.6

%

Services as a percentage of total revenues

 

 

 

19.1

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.1

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.4

%

 

Total Products revenues increased in fiscal year 2020 over fiscal year 2019, primarily due to an increase in customer demand in the semiconductor industry, in particular, the wafer fabrication equipment industry.

 

Total Services revenues increased in fiscal year 2020 over fiscal year 2019, primarily due to increases in demand across its customer base.

 

 

 

Years Ended

 

Revenues by Geography

 

December 25,

 

 

Percent

 

December 27,

 

 

Percent

 

 

December 28,

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2020

 

 

Change

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

 

2018

 

United States

 

$

581.6

 

 

 

13.8

 

%

 

$

510.9

 

 

 

7.5

 

%

 

 

$

475.3

 

International

 

 

817.0

 

 

 

47.1

 

%

 

555.3