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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to ______________
Commission File Number 001-35624
INVESTORS REAL ESTATE TRUST
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
  
North Dakota45-0311232
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)
3100 10th Street SWPost Office Box 1988
MinotND58702-1988
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
701-837-4738
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest, no par valueCSRNew York Stock Exchange
Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred SharesCSR-PRCNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.       Yes         No
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.        Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.       Yes      No
Indicate by checkmark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§229.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).            Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
     
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerEmerging growth company
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.      
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).        Yes      No
The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s outstanding common shares of beneficial interest held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2020 was 895,669,484 based on the last reported sale price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020. For purposes of this calculation, the Registrant has assumed that its trustees and executive officers are affiliates.
The number of common shares of beneficial interest outstanding as of February 15, 2021, was 13,053,065.
References in this Report to the “Company,” “Centerspace,” “we,” “us,” or “our” include consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
Documents Incorporated by Reference: Portions of Centerspace's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders will be incorporated by reference into Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) hereof.


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CENTERSPACE 
INDEX
 
  PAGE
PART I 
  
Item 1. 
Item 1A. 
Item 1B. 
Item 2. 
Item 3. 
Item 4. 
PART II 
  
Item 5. 
Item 6. 
Item 7. 
Item 7A. 
Item 8. 
Item 9. 
Item 9A. 
Item 9B. 
PART III 
  
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV 
  
Item 15. 
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Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements included in this Report and the documents incorporated into this document by reference are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Such forward-looking statements include statements about our plans and objectives, including our future financial condition, anticipated capital expenditures, anticipated distributions, and our belief that we have the liquidity and capital resources necessary to meet our known obligations and to make additional real estate acquisitions and capital improvements when appropriate to enhance long-term growth. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by the use of terms such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “will,” “assumes,” “may,” “projects,” “outlook,” “future,” and variations of those words and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors, including risks associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, that may cause the actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from the results of operations, financial conditions, or plans expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Although we believe the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, we can give no assurance that our expectations will be achieved. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact should be deemed forward-looking statements. As a result, reliance should not be placed on these forward-looking statements, as these statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors beyond our control and could differ materially from our actual results and performance.
The following factors, among others, could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:
the COVID-19 pandemic and its ongoing effects on our employees, residents, and commercial tenants, third party vendors and suppliers, and apartment communities, as well as our cash flow, business, financial condition, and results of operations;
deteriorating economic conditions and rising unemployment rates in the markets where we own apartment communities or in which we may invest in the future;
rental conditions in our markets, including occupancy levels and rental rates, our potential inability to renew residents or obtain new residents upon expiration of existing leases, changes in tax and housing laws, or other factors, including the impact of the COVID-19-related governmental rules and regulations relating to rental rates, evictions, and other rental conditions;
changes in operating costs, including real estate taxes, utilities, insurance costs, and expenses related to complying with COVID-19 restrictions or otherwise responding to the COVID-19 pandemic;
timely access to materials required to renovate apartment communities;
adverse changes in our markets, including future demand for apartment homes in our markets, barriers of entry into new markets, limitations on our ability to increase rental rates, our ability to identify and consummate attractive acquisitions and dispositions on favorable terms, our ability to reinvest sales proceeds successfully, and our inability to accommodate any significant decline in market value of real estate serving as collateral for our mortgage obligations;
reliance on a single asset class (multifamily) and certain geographic areas (Midwest and Mountain West regions) of the U.S.;
inability to expand our operations into new or existing markets successfully;
failure of new acquisitions to achieve anticipated results or be efficiently integrated;
inability to complete lease-up of our projects on schedule and on budget;
inability to sell our non-core properties on terms that are acceptable;
failure to reinvest proceeds from sales of properties into tax-deferred exchanges, which could necessitate special dividend and tax protection payments;
inability to fund capital expenditures out of cash flow;
inability to pay, or need to reduce, dividends on our common shares;
inability to raise additional equity capital;
financing risks, including our potential inability to meet existing covenants in our existing credit facilities or to obtain new debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all;
level and volatility of interest or capitalization rates or capital market conditions;
loss contingencies and the availability and cost of casualty insurance for losses;
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inability to continue to satisfy complex tax rules in order to maintain our status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, inability of the Operating Partnership to satisfy the rules to maintain its status as a partnership for tax purposes, and the risk of changes in laws affecting REITs;
inability to attract and retain qualified personnel;
cyber liability or potential liability for breaches of our privacy or information security systems;
inability to address catastrophic weather, natural events, and climate change;
inability to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our business and any related investigations or litigation; and
other risks identified in this Report, in our other SEC reports, or in other documents that we publicly disseminate.
Readers should carefully review our financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Report and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). 
In light of these uncertainties, the events anticipated by our forward-looking statements might not occur. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. The foregoing review of factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contemplated in any forward-looking statements included in this Report should not be construed as exhaustive.
PART I
Item 1. Business
OVERVIEW
Investors Real Estate Trust doing business as Centerspace (“we,” “us,” “our,” “Centerspace,” or the “Company”) is a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) organized under the laws of North Dakota, that is focused on the ownership, management, acquisition, development, and redevelopment of apartment communities. Over the past several years, we have extensively repositioned our portfolio from a diversified, multi-segment collection of properties into a single segment concentrated on apartment communities. Our current emphasis is on making operational enhancements that will improve our residents’ experience, redeveloping some of our existing apartment communities to meet current market demands, and acquiring new apartment communities in the Minneapolis/St. Paul and Denver metropolitan areas. On December 9, 2020, we announced a new name, Centerspace, and brand platform that reflects both transformation of the Company and our vision for the future.
We focus on investing in markets characterized by stable and growing economic conditions, strong employment, and an attractive quality of life that we believe, in combination, lead to higher demand for our apartment homes and retention of our residents. As of December 31, 2020, we owned interests in 67 apartment communities, containing 11,910 homes and having a total real estate investment amount, net of accumulated depreciation, of $1.4 billion. Our corporate headquarters is located in Minot, North Dakota. We also have a corporate office in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Effective January 1, 2019, we changed our fiscal year end from April 30 to December 31. As a result of this change, we filed a transition report on Form 10-KT for the eight-month transition period ended December 31, 2018, in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. The references in this Report to the terms listed below reflect the respective period noted (all other reporting periods defined separately):
TermFinancial Reporting Period
Year ended December 31, 2020January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020
Year ended December 31, 2019January 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019
Year ended December 31, 2018January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018
Transition period ended December 31, 2018May 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018
Fiscal year ended April 30, 2018May 1, 2017 through April 30, 2018
Website and Available Information
Our internet address is www.centerspacehomes.com. We make available, free of charge, through the “SEC filings” tab under the Investors section of our website, our Transition Report on Form 10-KT, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to such reports, and proxy statements for our Annual Meetings of Shareholders, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after
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such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. These reports are also available at www.sec.gov. We also make press releases, investor presentations, and certain supplemental information available on our website. Current copies of our Code of Conduct; Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers; and Charters for the Audit, Compensation, and Nominating and Governance Committees of our Board of Trustees are also available on our website under the “Corporate Governance” tab under the Investors section of our website. Copies of these documents are also available free of charge to shareholders upon request addressed to the Secretary at Centerspace, P.O. Box 1988, Minot, North Dakota 58702-1988. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Report.
STRUCTURE
We were organized under the laws of North Dakota on July 31, 1970, and have operated as a REIT under Sections 856-858 of the Internal Revenue Code since our formation. On February 1, 1997, we were restructured as an Umbrella Partnership Real Estate Investment Trust (“UPREIT”), and we conduct our daily business operations primarily through our operating partnership, Centerspace, LP (the “Operating Partnership”). The sole general partner of Centerspace, LP is Centerspace, Inc., a North Dakota corporation and our wholly owned subsidiary. All of our assets and liabilities have been contributed to Centerspace, LP, through Centerspace, Inc., in exchange for the sole general partnership interest in Centerspace, LP. Centerspace, LP holds substantially all of the assets of the Company. Centerspace, LP conducts the operations of the business and is structured as a partnership with no publicly traded equity. Contributions of properties to the Company can be structured as tax-deferred transactions through the issuance of OP Units, which is one of the reasons the Company is structured in this manner. As of December 31, 2020, Centerspace, Inc. owned a 93.0% interest in Centerspace, LP. The remaining interest in Centerspace, LP is held by individual limited partners.
BUSINESS STRATEGIES 
Our business is focused on our mission - to provide a great home - for our residents, our employees and our investors. We fulfill this mission by providing renters well-located options that range from workforce to lifestyle housing. While fulfilling our mission, we are seeking consistent earnings growth through exceptional operations, disciplined capital allocation, and market knowledge and efficiencies. Our operations and investment strategies are the foundation for fulfilling our mission.
Operations Strategy
We manage our apartment communities with a focus on providing an exceptional resident experience and maximizing our property financial results. Our initiatives to optimize our operations include:
Providing excellent customer service to enhance resident satisfaction and retention;
Employing new technologies that make our communities more efficient and more accessible to residents;
Optimizing revenues;
Controlling operating costs; and
Unlocking value within the portfolio through redevelopment and enhancement of existing assets.
Investment Strategy
Our business objective under our current strategic plan is to employ an investment strategy that includes the following elements:
Investing in income-producing apartment communities that grow distributable cash flow and are located in key geographic markets with populations ranking in the top 50 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas, including expansion in the Minneapolis and Denver markets and our planned entrance into the Nashville market;
Selecting markets with favorable market characteristics, including strong growth prospects and employment forecasts, high occupancy rates, strong rent growth potential, and institutional liquidity;
Leveraging our portfolio to take advantage of our heightened market knowledge and regional experience;
Building a strong market presence in new markets; and
Reducing our exposure to tertiary markets.
 
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FINANCING AND DISTRIBUTIONS
To fund our investment and capital activities, we rely on a combination of issuance of common shares, preferred shares, OP Units in exchange for property, and borrowed funds. We regularly issue dividends to our shareholders. Each of these is described below.
At-the-Market Offering
In November 2019, we entered into an equity distribution agreement in connection with an at-the-market offering (“2019 ATM Program”) through which we may offer and sell common shares having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $150.0 million, in amounts and at times that we determine. The proceeds from the sale of common shares under the 2019 ATM Program are intended to be used for general corporate purposes, which may include the funding of future acquisitions and the repayment of indebtedness. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we issued 829,078 common shares under the 2019 ATM Program at an average price of $71.39 per share, net of commissions. Total consideration, net of commissions and issuance costs, was approximately $59.2 million. As of December 31, 2020, we had common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $68.5 million remaining available under the 2019 ATM Program.
Issuance of Senior Securities
On October 2, 2017, we issued 4,118,460 shares of 6.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Shares of Beneficial Interest (the “Series C preferred shares”). As of December 31, 2020, 3,881,453 shares remained outstanding. Depending on future interest rates and market conditions, we may issue additional preferred shares or other senior securities which would have dividend and liquidation preference over our common shares.
Bank Financing and Other Debt
As of December 31, 2020, we owned 47 apartment communities that were not encumbered by mortgages, with 34 of these properties providing credit support for our unsecured borrowings. Our primary unsecured credit facility (“unsecured credit facility”) is a revolving, multi-bank line of credit, with the Bank of Montreal serving as administrative agent. Our line of credit has total commitments and borrowing capacity of $250.0 million, based on the value of properties contained in the unencumbered asset pool (“UAP”). As of December 31, 2020, the additional borrowing availability was $97.1 million beyond the $152.9 million drawn, including the balance on our operating line of credit (discussed below), priced at an interest rate of 2.85%, including the impact of our interest rate swap. This credit facility matures on August 31, 2022, with one 12-month option to extend the maturity date at our election.
Under our primary unsecured credit facility, we also have a $70.0 million unsecured term loan, which matures on January 15, 2024, and a $75.0 million unsecured term loan, which matures on August 31, 2025.
We have a private shelf agreement for the issuance of up to $150.0 million of unsecured senior promissory notes (“unsecured senior notes”). Under this agreement, we issued $75.0 million of Series A notes due September 13, 2029 bearing interest at a rate of 3.84% annually, and $50.0 million of Series B notes due September 30, 2028 bearing interest at a rate of 3.69% annually. As of December 31, 2020, we had $25.0 million remaining available under the private shelf agreement.
As of December 31, 2020, we owned 20 apartment communities that served as collateral for mortgage loans. All of these mortgages payable were non-recourse to us other than for standard carve-out obligations.
We also have a $6.0 million operating line of credit, which is designed to enhance treasury management activities and more effectively manage cash balances. As of December 31, 2020, our ratio of total indebtedness to total gross real estate investments was 39.3%.
Issuance of Securities in Exchange for Property
Our organizational structure allows us to issue shares and limited partnership units (or “OP Units”) of Centerspace, LP in exchange for real estate. The OP Units generally are redeemable, at our option for cash or common shares on a one-for-one basis. Generally, OP Units receive the same per unit cash distributions as the per share dividends paid on common shares.
 
Our Declaration of Trust, as amended (our “Declaration of Trust”), does not contain any restrictions on our ability to offer limited partnership units of Centerspace, LP in exchange for property. As a result, any decision to do so is vested solely in our Board of Trustees. On February 26, 2019, we issued 165,600 newly created Series D preferred units as partial consideration for the acquisition of SouthFork Townhomes. The Series D preferred unit holders receive a preferred distribution at the rate of 3.862% per year. The Series D preferred units have a put option which allows the holder to redeem any or all of the Series D
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preferred units for cash equal to the issue price. Each Series D preferred unit is convertible, at the holder’s option, into 1.37931 Units, representing a conversion exchange rate of $72.50 per unit. The holders of the Series D preferred units do not have any voting rights. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the transition period ended December 31, 2018 and the fiscal year ended April 30, 2018, we did not issue any regular OP Units of Centerspace, LP in exchange for properties.

Distributions to Shareholders
The Internal Revenue Code requires a REIT to distribute 90% of its net taxable income, excluding net capital gains, to its shareholders, and a separate requirement to distribute 100% net capital gains or pay a corporate level tax in lieu thereof. We have distributed, and intend to continue to distribute, enough of our taxable income to satisfy these requirements. Our general practice has been to target cash distributions to our common shareholders and the holders of limited partnership units of approximately 65% to 90% of our funds from operations and to use the remaining funds for capital improvements or the reduction of debt. Distributions to our common shareholders and unitholders in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 totaled approximately 81% and 69%, respectively, on a per share and unit basis of our funds from operations.
For additional information on our sources of liquidity and funds from operations, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations -- Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
HUMAN CAPITAL
We strive to be a great place to work and offer competitive benefits and training programs to our team members. Our objective is to attract and reward individuals with the talent and skills to help support our business objectives and make our communities home for our residents. Our total rewards program includes competitive compensation, paid leave, paid holidays, volunteer time, health and dental benefits, discounted rental rates on our apartments, employee assistance program, life insurance, 401(k) plan, and more.
As of December 31, 2020, we had 365 employees (340 full-time and 25 part-time) across six states. Training is important, and we facilitate that through a learning management system which allows us to provide custom training as well as utilize a library of multifamily focused courses specializing in customer service, sales, leadership, diversity, and fair housing.
We take great pride in our pay for performance strategy where team members are aligned with overall company performance as well as specific performance metrics based on roles. Our annual performance management process invites team members to complete a self-review along with their manager's assessment. The results of these assessments are a component of the merit increase and pay for performance strategy.
As part of our Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) initiatives, we publish an annual ESG report detailing our efforts related to furthering our mission - through providing corporate sponsorship in the communities which we serve, offering paid time off for team members to volunteer, training and compensation programs, and our commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion. As of December 31, 2020:
The average tenure of our team members is 3.6 years;
53% of our total team members, 46% of our senior management, and 37% of our Board of Trustees are female;
We have over 200 custom courses on our learning management system;
Over 10,000 training courses were completed by team members;
Our online reputation management scores increased from 504 to 605;
76.5% of our team members participated in our engagement management survey; and
648 volunteer hours were completed by team members.
 INSURANCE
We purchase general liability and property insurance coverage for each of our properties. We also purchase limited terrorism, environmental, and flood insurance as well as other types of insurance coverage related to a variety of risks and exposures. There are certain types of losses that may not be covered or could exceed coverage limits. Due to changing market conditions, our insurance policies are also subject to increasing deductibles and coverage limits. Based on market conditions, we may change or potentially eliminate insurance coverages or face higher deductibles or other costs. Although we believe that we have adequate insurance coverage on our properties, we may incur losses, which could be material, due to uninsured risks, deductibles and/or losses in excess of coverage limits, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
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COMPETITION
There are numerous housing alternatives that compete with our apartment communities in attracting residents. Our apartment communities compete directly with other apartment communities, condominiums, and single-family homes in the areas in which our properties are located. If the demand for our apartment communities is reduced or competitors develop or acquire competing housing, rental and occupancy rates may decrease, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Additionally, we compete with other real estate investors, including REITs, to acquire properties. This competition affects our ability to acquire properties we want to add to our portfolio and the cost of those acquisitions.  
GOVERNMENT REGULATION
See the discussion under the caption “Risks Related to Our Properties and Operations -- We may be responsible for potential liabilities under environmental laws” in Item 1A, Risk Factors, for information concerning the potential effects of environmental matters on our business, “Complying with laws benefiting disabled persons or other safety regulations and requirements may affect our costs and investment strategies” in Item 1A, Risk Factors, for information concerning the potential effects of compliance with disabled persons and other safety regulations on our business, “Changes in federal or state laws and regulations relating to climate change could result in increased costs to our business, including capital expenditures to improve the energy efficiency of our existing communities or new development communities without a corresponding increase in revenue” in Item 1A, Risk Factors, for information concerning the potential effects of climate change regulation on our business, “Complying with zoning and permitting law may affect our acquisition, redevelopment, and development costs” in Item 1A. Risk Factors, for information concerning the potential costs associated with zoning and permitting regulations, and “The current pandemic of COVID-19 and the potential future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases may materially and adversely impact and disrupt our business, income, cash flow, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects and ability to service our debt obligations, and our ability to pay dividends and other distributions to our equityholders” in Item 1A Risk Factors, for information concerning the potential effects of regulations related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which discussions thereunder are incorporated by reference into this Item 1.

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Item 1A.  Risk Factors
We face certain risks related to our ownership of apartment communities and operation of our business. Set forth below are the risks that we believe are material to our shareholders and unitholders. You should carefully consider the following risks in evaluating our properties, business, and operations. Our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, value of our real estate assets and/or the value of an investment in our stock or units are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those set forth below, any of which could cause our actual operating results to vary materially from our recent results or from our anticipated future results.
Risks Related to Our Properties and Operations
The current pandemic of COVID-19 and the potential future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases may materially and adversely impact and disrupt our business, income, cash flow, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects and ability to service our debt obligations, and our ability to pay dividends and other distributions to our equityholders. One of the most significant risk factors is the continuing adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated potential economic impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows as well as the adverse effects on our residents and commercial tenants, the real estate market, and the global economy and financial markets generally. The extent to which COVID-19 continues to impact us and our residents and commercial tenants will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the scope, severity, and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and containment measures. Moreover, you should interpret many of the other risks identified in this Report, as well as the risks set forth below, as being heightened as a result of the ongoing and numerous adverse impacts of COVID-19.

Moreover, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and continuing restrictions intended to prevent and mitigate its spread could have
additional adverse effects on our business, including with regards to:

the COVID-19 pandemic and its ongoing effects on our employees, residents, and commercial tenants, third party vendors and suppliers, and apartment communities, as well as our cash flow, business, financial condition, and results of operations;
deteriorating economic conditions and rising unemployment rates in the markets where we own apartment communities or in which we may invest in the future;
government actions or regulations arising out of the COVID-19 pandemic that limit economic and consumer activity or affect the operation of our properties;
rental conditions in our markets, including occupancy levels and rental rates, our potential inability to renew residents or obtain new residents upon expiration of existing leases, changes in tax and housing laws, or other factors, including the impact of the COVID-19-related governmental rules and regulations relating to rental rates, evictions, and other rental conditions; and
changes in operating costs, including real estate taxes, utilities, insurance costs, healthcare costs, and expenses related to complying with COVID-19 restrictions or otherwise responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Our financial performance is subject to risks associated with the real estate industry and ownership of apartment communities. Our financial performance risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
downturns in national, regional, and local economic conditions (particularly increases in unemployment); 
competition from other apartment communities; 
local real estate market conditions, including an oversupply of apartments or other housing, or a reduction in demand for apartment communities; 
the attractiveness of our apartment communities to residents as well as residents’ perceptions of the safety, convenience, and attractiveness of our apartment communities and the areas in which they are located;
changes in interest rates and availability of attractive financing that might make other housing options, like home ownership, more attractive; 
our ability to collect rents from our residents;
vacancies, changes in rental rates, and the periodic need to repair, renovate, and redevelop our apartment communities; 
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increases in operating costs, including real estate taxes, state and local taxes, insurance expenses, utilities, and security costs, many of which are not reduced significantly when circumstances cause a reduction in revenues from a property;
increases in compensation costs due to the tight labor market in many of the markets in which we operate; 
our ability to provide adequate maintenance for our apartment communities;
our ability to provide adequate insurance on our apartment communities; and
changes in tax laws and other government regulations that could affect the value of REITs generally or our business in particular.
Our property acquisition activities may not produce the cash flows expected and could subject us to various risks that could adversely affect our operating results. We have acquired and intend to continue to pursue the acquisition of apartment communities, but the success of our acquisition activities is subject to numerous risks, including the following:
acquisition agreements are subject to customary closing conditions, including completion of due diligence investigations, and we may be unable to complete an acquisition after making a non-refundable deposit and incurring other acquisition-related costs; 
expected occupancy, rental rates, and operating expenses of acquired apartment communities may differ from the actual results, or from those of our existing apartment communities;
we may be unable to obtain financing for acquisitions on favorable terms, or at all; 
competition for these properties could cause us to pay higher prices or prevent us from purchasing a desired property at all;
we may be subject to unknown liabilities from acquired properties, with either no recourse or limited recourse against prior owners or other third parties with respect to these unknown liabilities; and 
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions into our existing operations.
We may be unable to acquire or develop properties and expand our operations into new or existing markets successfully. We intend to explore acquisitions or developments of properties in new and existing geographic markets. Acquiring or developing new properties and expanding into new markets introduces several risks, including but not limited to the following:
we may not be successful in identifying suitable properties or other assets that meet our acquisition or development criteria or in consummating acquisitions or developments on satisfactory terms, or at all;
we may be unable to maintain consistent standards, controls, policies, and procedures, or realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions within the anticipated time frame, or at all;
acquisitions and divestitures could divert our attention from our existing properties and could cause us to lose key employees or be unable to attract highly qualified new employees;
unfamiliarity with the dynamics and prevailing market conditions or local government or permitting procedures of any new geographic markets could adversely affect our ability to successfully expand into or operate within those markets or cause us to become more dependent on third parties in new markets due to our inability to directly and efficiently manage and otherwise monitor new properties in new markets;
we may make assumptions regarding the expected future performance of acquired properties, including expected occupancy, rental rates, and cash flows, that prove to be inaccurate; and
we may improperly estimate the costs of repositioning or redeveloping an acquired property.
We also may abandon opportunities to enter new markets that we have begun to explore for any reason and may, as a result, fail to recover expenses already incurred.
Our current or future insurance may not protect us against possible losses. We carry comprehensive liability, fire, extended coverage, and other insurance with respect to our properties at levels that we believe to be adequate and comparable to coverage customarily obtained by owners of similar properties. However, the coverage limits of our current or future policies may be insufficient to cover the full cost of repair or replacement of all potential losses, or our level of coverage may not continue to be available in the future or, if available, may be available only at unacceptable cost or with unacceptable terms. We also do not maintain coverage for certain catastrophic events like hurricanes and earthquakes because the cost of such insurance is deemed by management to be higher than the risk of loss due to the location of our properties. In most cases, we have to renew our insurance policies on an annual basis and negotiate acceptable terms for coverage, exposing us to the volatility of the insurance
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markets, including the possibility of rate increases. In addition, a reduction of the number of insurance providers or the unwillingness of existing insurance providers to write insurance for multifamily properties may reduce the potential availability and/or cost for obtaining insurance on our properties. Any material increases in insurance rates or decrease in available coverage in the future could adversely affect our results of operations.
Catastrophic weather, natural events, and climate change could adversely affect our business. Some of our apartment communities are located in areas that may experience catastrophic weather and other natural events from time to time, including snow or ice storms, flooding, tornadoes, or other severe or inclement weather. During the year ended December 31, 2020, many of our markets were impacted by a series of adverse weather-related events. These events included extreme cold, record-setting snowfall, extensive hail storms in certain markets, and tornadoes, which caused excess ice and snow accumulation, water and hail damage, and other weather-related damage to some of our apartment communities. Although most of these losses were covered by insurance, these or other adverse and natural events could cause damage or losses that may be greater than insured levels. In the event of a loss in excess of insured limits, we could lose all or a portion of our investment in an affected property as well as additional revenue from that apartment community. We may continue to be obligated to repay mortgage indebtedness or other obligations related to an affected apartment community.
To the extent that we experience any significant changes in the climate in areas where our apartment communities are located, we may experience extreme weather conditions and prolonged changes in precipitation and temperature, all of which could result in physical damage to, and/or a decrease in demand for, our apartment communities located in these areas. If the impact of any such climate change were to be material, or occur for a lengthy period of time, our business may be adversely affected.
Changes in federal or state laws and regulations relating to climate change could result in increased costs to our business, including capital expenditures to improve the energy efficiency of our existing communities or new development communities without a corresponding increase in revenue. Among other things, “green” building codes may seek to reduce emissions through the imposition of standards for design, construction materials, water and energy usage and efficiency and waste management. The imposition of such requirements in the future, including the imposition of new energy efficiency standards or requirements relating to resistance to inclement weather, could increase the costs of maintaining or improving our properties without a corresponding increase in revenue, thereby having an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operation. The impact of climate change also may increase the cost of, or make unavailable, property insurance or other hazard insurance on terms we find acceptable or necessary to adequately protect our properties.
We are dependent on a concentration of our investments in a single asset class, making our results of operations more vulnerable to a downturn or slowdown in the sector or other economic factors. Since April 30, 2018, substantially all of our investments have been concentrated in the multifamily sector. As a result, we will be subject to risks inherent in investments in a single type of property. A downturn or slowdown in the demand for multifamily housing may have more pronounced effects on our business and results of operations or on the value of our assets than if we had continued to be more diversified in our investments into more than one asset class.
Our operations are concentrated in certain regions of the United States, and we are subject to general economic conditions in the regions in which we operate. Our overall operations are concentrated in the Midwest region and portions of the West region of the United States. Our performance could be adversely affected by economic conditions in, and other factors relating to, these geographic areas, including supply and demand for apartments in these areas, zoning and other regulatory conditions, and competition from other communities and alternative forms of housing. In particular, our performance is influenced by job growth and unemployment rates in the areas in which we operate. To the extent the economic conditions, job growth and unemployment in any of these markets deteriorate or any of these areas experience natural disasters or more pronounced effects of climate change, the value of our portfolio, our results of operations, and our ability to make payments on our debt and to make distributions could be adversely affected.
Our business depends on our ability to continue to provide high quality housing and consistent operation of our apartment communities, the failure of which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Our business depends on providing our residents with quality housing and reliable services (including utilities), along with the consistent operation of our communities and their associated amenities, including covered parking, swimming pools, clubhouses with fitness facilities, playground areas, and other similar features. We may be required to undertake significant capital expenditures to renovate or reconfigure our communities in order to attract new residents and retain existing residents. The delayed delivery, material reduction, or prolonged interruption in any of these services may cause our residents to terminate their leases, may result in the reduction of rents and/or may result in an increase in our costs. In addition, we may fail to provide quality housing and continuous access to amenities as a result of other factors, including mechanical failure, power failure, inclement weather, physical or electronic security breaches, vandalism or acts of terrorism, or other similar events. Any of these issues could cause our residents to terminate or fail to renew their leases, could expose us to additional costs or liability claims, and could damage
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our reputation, any of which could impact our ability to provide quality housing and consistent operation of our apartment communities, which in turn could materially affect our business and results of operations.
Competition may negatively impact our earnings. We compete with many kinds of institutions, including other REITs, private partnerships, individuals, pension funds, and banks in attracting residents and finding investment opportunities. Many of these institutions are active in the markets in which we invest and have greater financial and other resources than we do, including access to capital on more favorable terms. Our apartment communities compete directly with other multifamily apartment communities, single-family homes, condominiums, and other short-term rentals.
Short-term leases could expose us to the effects of declining market rents. Our apartment leases are generally for a term of 12 months or less. Because these leases generally allow residents to leave at the expiration of the lease term without penalty, our rental revenues are impacted by declines in market rents more quickly than if our leases were for longer terms.
Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid and various other factors limit our ability to dispose of assets, we may not be able to sell properties when appropriate. We may have limited ability to change our portfolio of properties quickly in response to our strategic plan and changes in economic or other conditions, and the prohibitions under the federal income tax laws on REITs holding property for sale and related regulations may affect our ability to sell properties. Under certain circumstances, the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) imposes penalties on a REIT that sells property held for less than two years and limits the number of properties it can sell in a given year. Our ability to dispose of assets also may be limited by constraints on our ability to use disposition proceeds to make acquisitions on financially attractive terms. Some of our properties were acquired using limited partnership units of Centerspace, LP, our operating partnership, and are subject to certain tax-protection agreements that restrict our ability to sell these properties in transactions that would create current taxable income to the former owners. As a result, we are motivated to structure the sale of these assets as tax-free exchanges, the requirements of which are technical and may be difficult to achieve.
Inability to manage growth effectively may adversely affect our operating results. We have experienced significant growth at various times in the past and may do so in the future, principally through the acquisition of additional real estate properties. Effective management of rapid growth presents challenges, including:
the need to expand our management team and staff;
the need to enhance internal operating systems and controls; and
the ability to consistently achieve targeted returns on individual properties.
We may not be able to maintain similar rates of growth in the future or manage our growth effectively.
Adverse changes in taxes and other laws may affect our liabilities relating to our properties and operations. Increases in real estate taxes, including recent property tax increases in several of the markets in which we operate, and service and transfer taxes may adversely affect our cash available for distributions and our ability to pay amounts due on our debt. Similarly, changes in laws that increase the potential liability for environmental conditions or that affect development, construction, and safety requirements may result in significant unanticipated costs. Future enactment of rent control or rent stabilization laws or other laws regulating apartment communities may reduce rental revenues or increase operating costs.
We may be unable to retain or attract qualified management. We are dependent upon our senior officers for essentially all aspects of our business operations. Our senior officers have experience in the real estate industry, and the loss of them would likely have a material adverse effect on our operations and could adversely impact our relationships with lenders and industry personnel. We do not have employment contracts with any of our senior officers. As a result, any senior officer may terminate his or her relationship with us at any time, without providing advance notice. If we fail to effectively manage a transition to new personnel, or if we fail to attract and retain qualified and experienced personnel on acceptable terms, it could adversely affect our business.
We may not be able to attract and retain qualified employees. Strong economic growth in recent years has created a tight labor market in many of the markets in which we operate, and we are dependent on employees at our apartment communities to provide attractive homes for our residents. The loss of key personnel at these apartment communities, or the inability or cost of replacing such personnel at such communities, could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber-attacks, cyber intrusions, or otherwise, which could pose a risk to our systems, networks, and servicesWe face risks associated with security breaches or disruptions, whether through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to emails, or persons inside our organization. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusion, including by
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computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions around the world have increased. In the normal course of business, we and our service providers (including service providers engaged in providing web hosting, property management, leasing, accounting and/or payroll software/services) collect and retain certain personal information provided by our residents, employees, and vendors. We also rely extensively on computer systems to process transactions and manage our business. While we and our service providers employ a variety of data security measures to protect confidential information on our systems and periodically review and improve our data security measures, we cannot provide assurance that we or our service providers will be able to prevent unauthorized access to this personal information, that our efforts to maintain the security and integrity of the information that we and our service providers collect will be effective, or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well-protected information, networks, systems, and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target. In some cases, these breaches are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, thereby making it impossible to entirely mitigate this risk. The risk of a breach or security failure, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusion, has generally increased due to the rise in new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of the perpetrators of attempted attacks and intrusions. A security breach or other significant disruption involving computer networks and related systems could cause substantial costs and other negative effects, including litigation, remediation costs, costs to deploy additional protection strategies, compromising of confidential information, and reputational damage adversely affecting investor confidence.
We may be responsible for potential liabilities under environmental laws. Under various federal, state, and local laws, ordinances and regulations, we, as a current or previous owner or operator of real estate, may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances in, on, around, or under that property. These laws may impose liability without regard to whether we knew of, or were responsible for, the presence of the hazardous or toxic substances. The presence of these substances, or the failure to properly remediate any property containing these substances, may adversely affect our ability to sell or rent the affected property or to borrow funds using the property as collateral. In arranging for the disposal or treatment of hazardous or toxic substances, we also may be liable for the costs of removal of, or remediation of, these substances at that disposal or treatment facility, whether or not we own or operate the facility. In connection with our current or former ownership (direct or indirect), operation, management, development, and/or control of real properties, we may be potentially liable for removal or remediation costs with respect to hazardous or toxic substances at those properties, as well as certain other costs, including governmental fines and claims for injuries to persons and property. Although we are not aware of any such claims associated with our existing properties that would have a material adverse effect on our business, potential future costs and damage claims may be substantial and could exceed any insurance coverage we may have for such events or such coverage may not exist. The presence of such substances, or the failure to properly remediate any such impacts, may adversely affect our ability to borrow against, develop, sell, or rent the affected property. Some environmental laws create or allow a government agency to impose a lien on the impacted property in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs as a result of responding to hazardous or toxic substances.
Environmental laws also govern the presence, maintenance, and removal of asbestos, and require that owners or operators of buildings containing asbestos properly manage and maintain the asbestos; notify and train those who may come into contact with asbestos; and undertake special precautions if asbestos would be disturbed during renovation or demolition of a building. Indoor air quality issues may also necessitate special investigation and remediation. These air quality issues can result from inadequate ventilation, chemical contaminants from indoor or outdoor sources, or biological contaminants such as molds, pollen, viruses and bacteria. Asbestos or air quality remediation programs could be costly, necessitate the temporary relocation of some or all of the property’s residents, or require rehabilitation of an affected property.
It is generally our policy to obtain a Phase I environmental study on each property that we seek to acquire. A Phase I environmental study generally includes a visual inspection of the property and the surrounding areas, an examination of current and historical uses of the property and the surrounding areas, and a review of relevant state and federal documents but does not involve invasive techniques such as soil and ground water sampling. If the Phase I indicates any possible environmental problems, our policy is to order a Phase II study, which involves testing the soil and ground water for actual hazardous substances. However, Phase I and Phase II environmental studies, or any other environmental studies undertaken with respect to any of our current or future properties, may not reveal the full extent of potential environmental liabilities. We currently do not carry insurance for environmental liabilities.
Expanding social media usage could present new risks. The use of social media could cause us to suffer broad reputational damage. Negative posts or comments about us through social media, whether by residents or prospective residents, could damage our reputation or that of our apartment communities, whether or not such claims or posts are valid, which in turn could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Similarly, disclosure of any non-public sensitive information relating to
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our business or our residents or prospective residents could damage our reputation, our business, or our results of operations. The continuing evolution of social media will present us with new and ongoing challenges and risks.
Litigation risks could affect our business. As a publicly traded owner, manager, and developer of apartment communities, we may incur liability based on various conditions at our properties and the buildings thereon. In the past, we have been, and in the future may become, involved in legal proceedings, including consumer, employment, tort, or commercial litigation, any of which if decided adversely to us or settled by us and not adequately covered by insurance, could result in liability that could be material to our results of operations.
Risks related to properties under development, redevelopment, or newly developed properties may adversely affect our financial performance. We may be unable to obtain, or may suffer delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy, and other required governmental permits and authorizations, which could lead to increased costs or abandonment of projects. We may not be able to obtain financing on favorable terms, or at all, and we may not be able to complete lease-up of a property on schedule. The resulting time required for development, redevelopment, and lease-up means that we may have to wait years for significant cash returns.
Complying with zoning and permitting law may affect our acquisition, redevelopment, and development costs. We face risks associated with zoning and permitting of our communities, the majority of which are governed by municipal, county, and state regulations. We may be liable for costs associated with bringing communities into compliance and additionally may face costs or delays when seeking approvals for redevelopment or development projects within our portfolio.Some regulations related to zoning or permitting allow governmental entities to discontinue operations if violations are left uncured, which would significantly impact our business. We are not aware of any non-compliance at our communities that would have a material adverse effect on our business.
Future cash flows may not be sufficient to ensure recoverability of the carrying value of our real estate assets. We periodically evaluate the recoverability of the carrying value of our real estate assets under United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). Factors considered in evaluating impairment of our real estate assets held for investment include recurring net operating losses and other significant adverse changes in general market conditions that are considered permanent in nature. Generally, a real estate asset held for investment is not considered impaired if the estimated undiscounted future cash flows of the asset over its estimated holding period are in excess of the asset’s net book value at the balance sheet date. Assumptions used to estimate annual and residual cash flow and the estimated holding period of these assets require the judgment of management.
Complying with laws benefiting disabled persons or other safety regulations and requirements may affect our costs and investment strategies. Federal, state, and local laws and regulations designed to improve disabled persons’ access to and use of buildings, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, may require modifications to, or restrict renovations of, existing buildings that may require unexpected expenditures. These laws and regulations may require that structural features be added to buildings under construction. Legislation or regulations that may be adopted in the future may impose further burdens or restrictions on us with respect to improved access to, and use of these buildings by, disabled persons. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines by government authorities or the award of damages to private litigants. The costs of complying with these laws and regulations may be substantial, and limits or restrictions on construction, or the completion of required renovations, may limit the implementation of our investment strategy or reduce overall returns on our investments.
Risks related to joint ventures may adversely affect our financial performance and results of operations. We have entered into, and may continue in the future to enter into, partnerships or joint ventures with other persons or entities. Joint venture investments involve risks that may not be present with other methods of ownership, based on the financial condition and business interests of our partners, which are beyond our control and which may conflict with our interests.
In some instances, we and/or our partner may have the right to trigger a buy-sell arrangement, which could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partner’s interest, at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction. Our ability to acquire our partner’s interest may be limited if we do not have sufficient cash, available borrowing capacity, or other capital resources. In such event, we may be forced to sell our interest in the joint venture when we would otherwise prefer to retain it. Joint ventures may require us to share decision-making authority with our partners, which could limit our ability to control the properties in the joint ventures. Even when we have a controlling interest, certain major decisions may require partner approval, such as the sale, acquisition, or financing of a property.
A terrorism attack, other geopolitical crisis, or widespread outbreak of an illness or other health issue, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could negatively affect various aspects of our business, including our workforce and supply chains, and could make it more difficult and expensive to meet our obligations to our residents. Our operations are susceptible to
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national or international events, including acts or threats of war or terrorism, political instability, natural disasters, and health epidemics or pandemics. These risks include a widespread outbreak of an illness or other health issue, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in a worldwide pandemic that has affected hundreds of countries around the world, including the U.S. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in travel bans, quarantines, and work restrictions that prohibit many employees from going to work. As a result of pandemics, including COVID-19, businesses can be shut down, supply chains can be interrupted, slowed, or rendered inoperable, and individuals can become ill, quarantined, or otherwise unable to work and/or travel due to health reasons or governmental restrictions. Governmental mandates may require dramatic changes at our apartment communities or could impact the availability of goods or services from many of our suppliers for extended or indefinite periods of time.
Potential changes to the financial condition of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and in government support for apartment communities may adversely affect our business. Historically, we have depended on the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) to provide financing for certain apartment communities. Although Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have a mandate to support multifamily housing through their financing activities, government proposals relating to the future of agency mortgage finance in the U.S. could involve the phase-out of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Although we believe that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will continue to provide liquidity to the multifamily sector, any phase-out of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, change in their mandate, or reduction in government support for apartment communities generally could result in adverse changes to interest rates, capital availability, development of additional apartment communities, and the value of these communities.
Employee theft or fraud could result in loss. Certain employees have access to, or signature authority with respect to, our bank accounts or assets, which exposes us to the risk of fraud or theft. Certain employees also have access to key information technology (“IT”) infrastructure and to resident and other information that may be commercially valuable. If any employee were to compromise our IT systems, or misappropriate resident or other information, we could incur losses, including potentially significant financial or reputational harm. We may not have insurance that covers any losses in full or covers losses from particular criminal acts.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financings
Our inability to renew, repay, or refinance our debt may result in losses. We incur a significant amount of debt in the ordinary course of our business and in connection with acquisitions of real properties. Because we have a limited ability to retain earnings as a result of the REIT distribution requirements, we will generally be required to refinance debt that matures with additional debt or equity. We are subject to the normal risks associated with debt financing, including the risks that:
our cash flow will be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest, particularly if net operating income is reduced significantly due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic;
we will not be able to renew, refinance, or repay our indebtedness when due; and
the terms of any renewal or refinancing are at terms less favorable than the terms of our current indebtedness.
These risks increase when credit markets are tight, as they may be during the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, when the credit markets are tight, we may encounter resistance from lenders when we seek financing or refinancing for properties or proposed acquisitions, and the terms of such financing or refinancing are likely to be less favorable to us than the terms of our current indebtedness.
We anticipate that we will need to refinance a significant portion of our outstanding debt as it matures. We cannot guarantee that any refinancing of debt with other debt will be possible on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us. If we cannot refinance, extend, or pay principal payments due at maturity with the proceeds of other capital transactions, our cash flows may not be sufficient in all years to repay debt as it matures. If we are unable to refinance our indebtedness on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be forced to dispose of one or more properties on disadvantageous terms, which may result in losses. These losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, our ability to make distributions to our shareholders, and our ability to pay amounts due on our debt. If a property is mortgaged to secure payment of indebtedness and we are unable to meet mortgage payments or refinance the debt at maturity, the mortgagor could foreclose upon the property, appoint a receiver, and receive an assignment of rents and leases or pursue other remedies, including taking ownership of the property, all with a consequent loss of revenues and asset value. Foreclosures also could affect our ability to obtain new debt and could create taxable income without accompanying cash proceeds, thereby hindering our ability to meet the REIT distribution requirements of the Code and impeding our ability to obtain financing for our other properties.
Restrictive covenants in our debt agreements may limit our operating and financial flexibility, and our inability to comply with these covenants could have significant implications. Our indebtedness, which at December 31, 2020 totaled outstanding borrowings of approximately $721.3 million, contains a number of significant restrictions and covenants. These restrictions and covenants include financial covenants relating to fixed charge coverage ratios, maximum secured debt, maintenance of
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unencumbered asset value, and total debt to total asset value, among others and certain non-financial covenants. These may limit our ability to make future investments and dispositions, add incremental secured and recourse debt, and add overall leverage. Our ability to comply with these covenants will depend on our future performance, which may be affected by events beyond our control. Our failure to comply with these covenants would be an event of default. An event of default under the terms of our indebtedness would permit the lenders to accelerate indebtedness under effected agreements, which would include agreements that contain cross-acceleration provisions with respect to other indebtedness.
Rising interest rates may affect our cost of capital and financing activities. The potential for rising interest rates could limit our ability to refinance portions of our fixed-rate indebtedness when it matures and would increase our interest costs. We also have an unsecured credit facility that bears interest at variable rates based on amounts drawn. As a result, any increase in interest rates could increase our interest expense on our variable rate debt, increase our interest rates when refinancing fixed-rate debt, increase the cost of issuing new debt, and reduce the cash available for distribution to shareholders.
Interest rate hedging arrangements may result in losses. From time to time, we use interest rate swaps and other hedging instruments to manage our interest rate risks. Although these arrangements may partially protect us against rising interest rates, they also may reduce the benefits to us if interest rates decline. If a hedging arrangement is not indexed to the same rate as the indebtedness that is hedged, we may be exposed to losses to the extent that the rate governing the indebtedness and the rate governing the hedging arrangement change independently of each other, and nonperformance by the other party to the hedging arrangement also may subject us to increased credit risks. In order to minimize any counterparty credit risk, we enter into hedging arrangements only with investment grade financial institutions.
Potential changes to LIBOR could affect our financing covenants. LIBOR has been used as a primary benchmark for short-term interest rates, including under our credit facility. The U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, has announced it has commitments from panel banks to continue to contribute to LIBOR through the end of 2021, but it will not use its powers to compel contributions beyond such date. The ICE Benchmark Administration, in its capacity as administrator of USD LIBOR, has announced it plans to extend publication of USD LIBOR (excluding one-week and two-month tenor) by 18 months to June 2023. However, a joint statement by key regulatory authorities calls on banks to cease entering into new contracts that use USD LIBOR as a reference rate by no later than December 31, 2021. The Alternative References Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, has proposed replacing USD LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements - Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR). At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, and it is impossible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR, whether LIBOR rates will cease to be published or supported before or after 2021 or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Although the full impact of such reforms and actions, together with any transition away from LIBOR, including the potential or actual discontinuance of LIBOR publication, remains unclear, these changes may have a material adverse impact on the availability of financing. In addition, as it relates to future and derivatives contracts, ISDA master agreements between counterparties may need to be amended or replaced, including derivative contracts in which we are invested. There can be no assurance that a new global standard will be agreed upon or that any new rate will be reflective of the original interest rate and credit risk included within LIBOR, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs as well as our business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Shares
Our stock price may fluctuate significantly. The market price and trading volume of our common shares are subject to fluctuation due to general market conditions, the risks discussed in this report, and several other factors, including the following:
regional, national, and global economic and business conditions;
actual or anticipated changes in our quarterly operating results or dividends;
changes in our estimates of funds from operations or earnings;
investor interest in our property portfolio;
the market perception and performance of REITs in general and apartment REITs in particular;
the market perception or trading volume of REITs relative to other investment opportunities;
the market perception of our financial condition, performance, distributions, and growth potential;
general stock and bond market conditions, including potential increases in interest rates that could lead investors to seek higher annual yields from dividends;
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shifts in our investor base to a higher concentration of passive investors, including exchange-traded funds and index funds, that could have an adverse effect on our ability to communicate with our shareholders;
our ability to access capital markets, which could impact our cost of capital;
a change in our credit rating or analyst ratings;
changes in minimum dividend requirements;
terrorism or other factors that adversely impact the markets in which our stock trades; and
changes in tax laws or government regulations that could affect the attractiveness of our stock.
Rising interest rates could have an adverse effect on our share price. If interest rates increase, this could cause holders of our common shares and other investors to seek higher dividends on our shares or higher yields through other investments, which could adversely affect the market price of our shares.
Low trading volume on the NYSE may prevent the timely sale or resale of our shares. Although our common shares are listed on the NYSE, the daily trading volume of our shares may be lower than the trading volume for other companies. As a result of lower trading volume, an owner of our common shares may encounter difficulty in selling our shares in a timely manner and may incur a substantial loss.
Failure to generate sufficient revenue or other liquidity needs could limit cash flow available for distributions to our shareholders. A decrease in rental revenue, an increase in funding to support our acquisition and development needs, or other unmet liquidity needs could have an adverse effect on our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders or the Operating Partnership’s unitholders.
Payment of distributions on our common shares is not guaranteed. Our Board of Trustees must approve any stock distributions and may elect at any time, or from time to time, and for an indefinite duration, to reduce or not pay the distributions payable on our common shares. Our Board may reduce distributions for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to the following:
operating and financial results cannot support the current distribution payment;
unanticipated costs, capital requirements, or cash requirements;
annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code;
a conclusion that the payment of distributions would cause us to breach the terms of certain agreements or contracts, such as financial ratio covenants in our debt financing documents; or
other factors the Board of Trustees may consider relevant.
Our future growth depends, in part, on our ability to raise additional equity capital, which will have the effect of diluting the interests of our common shareholders. Our future growth depends upon, among other things, our ability to raise equity capital and issue limited partnership units of Centerspace, LP. Sales of substantial amounts of our common or preferred shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales or issuances might occur, may dilute the interests of the current common shareholders and could adversely affect the market price of our common shares. In addition, as a REIT, we are required to make distributions to holders of our equity securities of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined before a deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain. This limits our ability to retain cash or earnings to fund future growth and makes us more dependent on raising funds through other means, which may include raising additional equity capital.
We may issue additional classes or series of our shares of beneficial interest with rights and preferences that are superior to the rights and preferences of our common shares. Our Declaration of Trust provides for an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. Without the approval of our common shareholders, our Board of Trustees may establish additional classes or series of our shares of beneficial interest, and such classes or series may have dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, redemption prices, liquidation preferences, or other rights and preferences that are superior to the rights of the holders of our common shares. In that regard, in September 2017, we filed a shelf registration statement with the SEC that enables us to sell an undetermined number of equity and debt securities as defined in the prospectus, including under the 2019 ATM Program. Future sales of common shares, preferred shares, or convertible debt securities may dilute current shareholders and could have an adverse impact on the market price of our common shares.
Any material weaknesses identified in our internal control over financial reporting could adversely affect our stock price. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to evaluate and report on our internal control over financial reporting. If we were to identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose
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investor confidence in our financial reporting and results of operations, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our stock price.
Certain provisions of our Declaration of Trust may limit a change in control and deter a takeover. In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, among other things, our Declaration of Trust provides that any transaction that would result in our disqualification as a REIT under Section 856 of the Code will be void, including any transaction that would result in the following:
less than 100 Persons owning our shares;
our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code; or
50% or more of the fair market value of our shares being held by Persons other than “United States persons,” for federal income tax purposes.
If the transaction is not void, then the shares in violation of the foregoing conditions will automatically be exchanged for an equal number of excess shares, and these excess shares will be transferred to an excess share trustee for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiaries named by our Board of Trustees. The Trust’s Declaration of Trust also provides a limit on a Person owning in excess of the ownership limit of 9.8%, in number or value, of the Trust’s outstanding shares, although the Board of Trustees retains the ability to make exceptions to this ownership threshold. These limitations may have the effect of preventing a change in control or takeover of us by a third party, even if the change in control or takeover would be in the best interests of our shareholders.
Risks Related to Tax Matters
We may incur tax liabilities as a consequence of failing to qualify as a REIT, which could force us to borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code. Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions, including income, asset, and distribution tests, for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations. Even a technical or inadvertent mistake could endanger our REIT status. The determination that we qualify as a REIT requires an ongoing analysis of various factual matters and circumstances, some of which may not be within our control. For example, in order to qualify as a REIT, at least 95% of our gross income in any year must come from certain passive sources that are itemized in the REIT tax laws, and we are prohibited from owning specified amounts of debt or equity securities of some issuers. Thus, to the extent revenues from non-qualifying sources, such as income from third-party management services, represent more than 5% of our gross income in any taxable year, we will not satisfy the 95% income test and may fail to qualify as a REIT, unless certain relief provisions contained in the Code apply. Even if relief provisions apply, however, a tax would be imposed with respect to excess net income. We are also required to make distributions to the holders of our securities of at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined before a deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain. To the extent that we satisfy the 90% test but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to corporate income tax on such undistributed income and could be subject to an additional 4% excise tax. Because we need to meet these tests to maintain our qualification as a REIT, it could cause us to have to forgo certain business opportunities and potentially require us to liquidate otherwise attractive investments. The fact that we hold substantially all of our assets (except for qualified REIT subsidiaries) through Centerspace, LP, our operating partnership, and its subsidiaries, and our ongoing reliance on factual determinations, such as determinations related to the valuation of our assets, further complicates the application of the REIT requirements for us. If Centerspace, LP or one or more of our subsidiaries is determined to be taxable as a corporation, we may fail to qualify as a REIT. Either our failure to qualify as a REIT, for any reason, or the imposition of taxes on excess net income from non-qualifying sources, could adversely affect our business and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders and pay amounts due on our debt. New legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could change the tax laws with respect to our qualification as a REIT or the federal income tax consequences of our qualification.
If we were to fail to qualify as a REIT, we would be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, could be subject to increased state and local taxes and, unless entitled to relief under applicable statutory provisions, would be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we lost our qualification, which would likely have a material adverse effect on us, our ability to make distributions to our shareholders, and our ability to pay amounts due on our debt. This treatment would reduce funds available for investment or distributions to the holders of our securities due to the additional tax liability to us for the year or years involved, and we would no longer be able to deduct, and would not be required to make, distributions to our shareholders. To the extent that distributions to the holders of our securities had been made in anticipation of qualifying as a REIT, we may need short-term debt or long-term debt or proceeds from asset sales or sales of common shares to fund required distributions as a result of differences in timing between the actual receipt of income and the recognition of income for federal income tax purposes, or the effect of non-deductible
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capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt or amortization payments. The inability of our cash flows to cover our distribution requirements could have an adverse impact on our ability to raise short and long-term debt or sell equity securities in order to fund distributions required to maintain our REIT status.
Failure of our operating partnership to qualify as a partnership would result in corporate taxation and significantly reduce the amount of cash available for distribution. We believe that Centerspace, LP, our operating partnership, qualifies as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. However, we can provide no assurance that the IRS will not challenge its status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS were to be successful in treating Centerspace, LP as an entity taxable as a corporation (such as a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation), we would cease to qualify as a REIT because the value of our ownership interest in Centerspace, LP would exceed 5% of our assets and because we would be considered to hold more than 10% of the voting securities and value of the outstanding securities of another corporation. The imposition of a corporate tax on Centerspace, LP would significantly reduce the amount of cash available for distribution.
Legislative or regulatory actions affecting REITs could have an adverse effect on us or our shareholders. Changes to tax laws or regulations may adversely impact our shareholders and our business and financial results. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department, which may result in revisions to regulations and interpretations as well as statutory changes. 
We cannot predict whether, when, or to what extent the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and any new U.S. federal tax laws, regulations, interpretations, or rulings will impact the real estate investment industry or REITs. Prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisers regarding the effect of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and potential future changes to the federal tax laws of an investment in our shares or Units.
Dividends payable by REITs may be taxed at higher rates than dividends of non-REIT corporations, which could reduce the net cash received by our shareholders and may be detrimental to our ability to raise additional funds through any future sale of our stock. Dividends paid by REITs to U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts, or estates are generally not eligible for the reduced tax rate applicable to qualified dividends received from non-REIT corporations but, under the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts, and estates generally may deduct 20% of ordinary dividends from a REIT (for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026). Although this deduction reduces the effective tax rate applicable to certain dividends paid by REITs, such tax rate is still higher than the tax rate applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends. This may cause investors to view REIT investments as less attractive than investments in non-REIT corporations, which in turn may adversely affect the value of stock in REITs, including our stock. Investors should consult with their tax advisers regarding the U.S. tax consequences of an investment in our stock or Units.
We may face risks in connection with Section 1031 exchanges. From time to time, we dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as “like-kind exchanges” under Section 1031 of the Code. If a transaction intended to qualify as a Section 1031 exchange is later determined to be taxable, we may face adverse consequences, and if the laws applicable to such transactions are amended or repealed, we may not be able to dispose of properties on a tax-deferred basis. If we are unable to meet the technical requirements of a desired Section 1031 exchange, we may be required to make a special dividend payment to our shareholders if we are unable to mitigate the taxable gains realized. The failure to reinvest proceeds from sales of properties into tax-deferred exchanges could necessitate payments to unitholders with tax protection agreements.
We have tax protection agreements in place on twenty properties. If these properties are sold in a taxable transaction, we must make the unitholders associated with these particular properties whole through the payment of their related tax. We dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as “like-kind exchanges” under Section 1031 of the Code whenever possible. If we are not able to satisfy all of the technical requirements of Section 1031, or if Section 1031 is repealed, selling a property with a tax protection agreement could trigger a material obligation to make the associated unitholders whole.

Complying with REIT requirements may force us to forgo otherwise attractive opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments. To qualify and maintain our status as a REIT, we must satisfy certain requirements with respect to the character of our assets. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any quarter, we must correct such failure within 30 days after the end of the quarter (by, possibly, selling assets notwithstanding their prospects as an investment) to avoid losing our REIT status. This could include potentially selling otherwise attractive assets or liquidating or foregoing otherwise attractive investments. These actions could reduce our income and amounts available for distribution to our shareholders.
Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flows. Even if we qualify as a REIT under the U.S. tax code, we may be subject to certain federal, state, and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, tax on income from some activities conducted as a result of a foreclosure, and state or local income,
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property, and transfer taxes, such as mortgage recording taxes. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
The tax imposed on REITs engaging in prohibited transactions and our agreements entered into with certain contributors of our properties may limit our ability to engage in transactions that would be treated as sales for federal income tax purposes. The federal income tax provisions applicable to REITs provide that any gain realized by a REIT on the sale of property held as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business is treated as income from a “prohibited transaction” that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Under current law, unless a sale of real property qualifies for a safe harbor, the question of whether the sale of a property constitutes the sale of property held primarily for sale to customers is generally a question of the facts and circumstances regarding a particular transaction. We may make sales that do not satisfy the requirements of the safe harbors, or the IRS may successfully assert that one or more of our sales are prohibited transactions and, as a result, we may be required to pay a penalty tax. To avert this penalty tax, we may hold some of our assets through a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”). While the TRS structure would allow the economic benefits of ownership to flow to us, a TRS is subject to tax on its income at the federal and state level. We have entered into agreements with certain contributors of our properties that contain limitations on our ability to dispose of certain properties in taxable transactions. The restrictions on taxable dispositions are effective for varying periods. Such agreements may require that we make a payment to the contributor in the event that we dispose of a covered property in a taxable sale during the restriction period.
Our ownership of TRSs is limited, and our transactions with TRSs will cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm’s-length terms. A REIT may own up to 100% of the stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS may hold assets and earn income that would not be qualifying assets or income if held or earned directly by a REIT. Our TRS is subject to applicable federal, state, and local income tax on any taxable income. TRS rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We scrutinize transactions with our TRS to ensure that they are entered into on arm's-length terms to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above.
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments 
None.
Item 2. Properties
Communities
We are organized as a REIT under Sections 856-858 of the Code and are structured as an UPREIT, which allows us to accept the contribution of real estate to our Operating Partnership in exchange for OP Units. Our business is focused on the ownership, management, acquisition, redevelopment, and development of apartment communities, which we own and operate through our Operating Partnership. We are a fully integrated owner-operator of apartment communities.

Certain Lending Requirements 
In certain instances, in connection with the financing of investment properties, the lender may require, as a condition of the loan, that the properties be owned by a “single asset entity.” Accordingly, we have organized a number of wholly owned subsidiary entities for the purpose of holding title in an entity that complies with such lending conditions. All financial statements of these subsidiaries are consolidated into our financial statements.
 
Management and Leasing of Our Real Estate Assets 
We conduct our corporate operations from offices in Minot, North Dakota and Minneapolis, Minnesota. The day-to-day management of our properties is generally carried out by our own employees. When properties acquired have effective pre-existing property management in place or when particular properties are, in our judgment, not attractive candidates for self-management, we may utilize third-party professional management companies for day-to-day management. However, all decisions relating to purchase, sale, insurance coverage, major capital improvements, annual operating budgets, and major renovations are made exclusively by our employees and implemented by the third-party management companies. Generally, our third-party management contracts are for terms of one year or less and provide for compensation ranging from 2.5% to 5.0% of gross rent collections and, typically, we may terminate these contracts upon 60 days or less notice for cause or upon the property manager’s failure to meet certain specified financial performance goals.
 
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Summary of Communities Owned as of December 31, 2020
The following table presents information regarding our 67 apartment communities and two other properties held for investment, as of December 31, 2020. We provide certain information on a same-store and non-same-store basis. Same-store communities are owned or in service for substantially all of the periods being compared, and, in the case of development properties, have achieved a target level of physical occupancy of 90%. On the first day of each calendar year, we determine the composition of our same-store pool for that year as well as adjust the previous year, which allows us to evaluate the performance of existing apartment communities. “Other” includes non-multifamily properties and non-multifamily components of mixed use properties. We own the following interests in real estate either through our wholly-owned subsidiaries or by ownership of a controlling interest in an entity owning the real estate. We account for these interests on a consolidated basis. Additional information is included in Schedule III to our financial statements included in this Report. 
(in thousands)
InvestmentPhysical
Number of(initial cost plusOccupancy 
Apartmentimprovements lessas of 
Community Name and LocationHomesimpairment)December 31, 2020
SAME-STORE
71 France - Edina, MN (1)
241 $66,929 93.8 %
Alps Park - Rapid City, SD71 6,263 100.0 %
Arcata - Golden Valley, MN (2)
165 33,480 95.2 %
Ashland - Grand Forks, ND (1)
84 8,656 92.9 %
Avalon Cove - Rochester, MN187 36,336 95.7 %
Boulder Court - Eagan, MN (2)
115 9,870 96.5 %
Canyon Lake - Rapid City, SD (1)
109 6,529 99.1 %
Cardinal Point - Grand Forks, ND (2)
251 35,288 96.0 %
Cascade Shores - Rochester, MN (1)
90 18,444 100.0 %
Castlerock - Billings, MT (2)
166 8,138 100.0 %
Chateau - Minot, ND (2)
104 21,453 95.2 %
Cimarron Hills - Omaha, NE (1)
234 15,508 95.7 %
Colonial Villa - Burnsville, MN (2)
239 29,511 93.3 %
Colony - Lincoln, NE (1)
232 20,376 97.8 %
Commons and Landing at Southgate - Minot, ND (2)
341 55,516 93.0 %
Cottonwood - Bismarck, ND (2)
268 24,481 95.5 %
Country Meadows - Billings, MT (2)
133 10,145 94.7 %
Crystal Bay - Rochester, MN76 12,218 97.4 %
Cypress Court - St. Cloud, MN (1) (3)
196 20,936 95.9 %
Deer Ridge - Jamestown, ND (2)
163 25,162 95.7 %
Dylan - Denver, CO (2) (4) (5)
274 90,400 96.4 %
Evergreen - Isanti, MN (2)
72 7,222 98.6 %
French Creek - Rochester, MN40 5,192 100.0 %
Gardens - Grand Forks, ND (2)
74 9,352 94.6 %
Grand Gateway - St. Cloud, MN (2)
116 9,964 95.7 %
GrandeVille at Cascade Lake - Rochester, MN (1)
276 57,455 96.0 %
Greenfield - Omaha, NE (2)
96 7,352 86.5 %
Heritage Manor - Rochester, MN182 11,112 95.1 %
Homestead Garden - Rapid City, SD152 15,334 98.0 %
Lakeside Village - Lincoln, NE (1)
208 18,902 96.6 %
Legacy - Grand Forks, ND (1)
360 34,133 96.9 %
Legacy Heights - Bismarck, ND (2)
119 15,206 96.6 %
Meadows - Jamestown, ND (2)
81 7,196 98.8 %
Monticello Crossings - Monticello, MN (2)
202 32,246 96.0 %
Monticello Village - Monticello, MN (2)
60 5,480 95.0 %
Northridge - Bismarck, ND (2)
68 8,677 97.1 %
Olympic Village - Billings, MT (2)
274 15,780 97.8 %
Olympik Village - Rochester, MN 140 10,602 85.7 %
Oxbo - St Paul, MN (2) (4) (5)
191 57,609 97.4 %
Park Meadows - Waite Park, MN360 20,519 92.8 %
Park Place - Plymouth, MN (2) (5)
500 101,823 92.2 %
Plaza - Minot, ND (2)
71 16,779 91.5 %
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(in thousands)
InvestmentPhysical
Number of(initial cost plusOccupancy 
Apartmentimprovements lessas of 
Community Name and LocationHomesimpairment)December 31, 2020
Pointe West - Rapid City, SD (2)
90 5,963 98.9 %
Ponds at Heritage Place - Sartell, MN (2)
58 5,469 93.1 %
Quarry Ridge - Rochester, MN (1)
313 34,634 94.9 %
Red 20 - Minneapolis, MN (1)
130 26,413 96.9 %
Regency Park Estates - St. Cloud, MN (1)
147 14,237 94.6 %
Rimrock West - Billings, MT (2)
78 5,976 96.2 %
River Ridge - Bismarck, ND (2)
146 26,338 95.2 %
Rocky Meadows - Billings, MT (2)
98 8,127 99.0 %
Rum River - Isanti, MN (1)
72 6,210 97.2 %
Silver Springs - Rapid City, SD (1)
52 4,112 100.0 %
South Pointe - Minot, ND (2)
196 16,088 93.9 %
Southpoint - Grand Forks, ND (2)
96 10,705 96.9 %
Sunset Trail - Rochester, MN146 16,710 95.2 %
Thomasbrook - Lincoln, NE (1)
264 16,592 96.2 %
Village Green - Rochester, MN36 3,613 100.0 %
West Stonehill - Waite Park, MN (1)
313 19,277 96.8 %
Westend - Denver, CO (2) (4) (5)
390 128,310 95.9 %
Whispering Ridge - Omaha, NE (1)
336 30,555 93.2 %
Winchester - Rochester, MN115 9,410 93.0 %
Woodridge - Rochester, MN (1)
110 11,896 94.5 %
TOTAL SAME-STORE10,567 $1,424,209 95.0 %
NON-SAME-STORE
FreightYard Townhomes & Flats - Minneapolis, MN (4)
96 $26,382 86.5 %
Ironwood - Minneapolis, MN182 39,123 97.3 %
Lugano at Cherry Creek - Denver, CO (4)
328 96,080 95.7 %
Parkhouse - Thornton, CO (2)
465 142,807 93.5 %
SouthFork Townhomes - Lakeville, MN (1) (4)
272 50,777 91.5 %
TOTAL NON-SAME-STORE1,343 $355,169 92.3 %
TOTAL MULTIFAMILY11,910 $1,779,378 
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  (in thousands) 
 InvestmentPhysical
 Net Rentable(initial cost plusOccupancy 
 Squareimprovements lessas of 
Property Name and LocationFootageimpairment)December 31, 2020
OTHER - MIXED USE COMMERCIAL   
71 France - Edina, MN (1)
20,955 $6,746 88.1 %
Lugano at Cherry Creek - Denver, CO13,295 1,806 47.8 %
Oxbo - St Paul, MN (2)
11,477 3,526 100.0 %
Plaza - Minot, ND (2)
50,610 9,678 100.0 %
Red 20 - Minneapolis, MN (1)
10,508 2,944 89.6 %
TOTAL OTHER - MIXED USE COMMERCIAL106,845 $24,700 
OTHER - COMMERCIAL
3100 10th St SW - Minot, ND(6)
9,690 $2,111 — 
Minot IPS - Minot, ND27,698 6,368 — 
TOTAL OTHER - COMMERCIAL37,388 $8,479 
TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE - OTHER144,233   
TOTAL GROSS REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS, EXCLUDING MORTGAGE NOTES RECEIVABLE $1,812,557  
(1)Encumbered by mortgage debt.
(2)Pledged as credit support on unencumbered asset pool for our line of credit.
(3)Owned by a joint venture entity and consolidated in our financial statements. We have an approximately 86.1% ownership in Cypress Court.
(4)Non-same-store for the comparison of the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2018.
(5)Non-same-store for the comparison of the eight months ended December 31, 2018 to the eight months ended December 31, 2017.
(6)This is our Minot corporate office building. 
Properties by State
The following table presents, as of December 31, 2020, the total amount of property owned, net of accumulated depreciation, by state:
 (in thousands)    
StateMultifamilyOtherTotal% of Total
Minnesota$623,324 $10,946 $634,270 44.9 %
Colorado433,389 1,733 435,122 30.8 %
North Dakota216,040 9,240 225,280 15.9 %
Nebraska71,946 — 71,946 5.1 %
South Dakota25,155 — 25,155 1.8 %
Montana21,535 — 21,535 1.5 %
Total$1,391,389 $21,919 $1,413,308 100.0 %

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
In the ordinary course of our operations, we become involved in litigation. At this time, we know of no material pending or threatened legal proceedings, or other proceedings contemplated by governmental authorities, that would have a material impact upon us.
 
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 
Not Applicable.
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PART II 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 
Market Information
Our Common Shares of Beneficial Interest, no par value, are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CSR”.
Shareholders 
As of February 15, 2021, there were approximately 2,573 common shareholders of record.
Unregistered Sales of Shares
Under the terms of Centerspace, LP’s Agreement of Limited Partnership, limited partners have the right to require Centerspace, LP to redeem their limited partnership units any time following the first anniversary of the date they acquired such Units (“Exchange Right”). When a limited partner exercises the Exchange Right, we have the right, in our sole discretion, to redeem such Units by either making a cash payment or exchanging the Units for our common shares, on a one-for-one basis. The Exchange Right is subject to certain conditions and limitations, including that the limited partner may not exercise the Exchange Right more than two times during a calendar year and the limited partner may not exercise for less than 100 Units, or, if such limited partner holds less than 100 Units, for less than all of the Units held by such limited partner. Centerspace, LP and some limited partners have contractually agreed to a holding period of greater than one year, a greater number of redemptions during a calendar year, or other modifications to their Exchange Right.
During three months ended December 31, 2020, we issued an aggregate of 24,698 unregistered common shares to limited partners of Centerspace, LP upon exercise of their Exchange Rights for an equal number of Units. All such issuances of our common shares were exempt from registration as private placements under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, including Regulation D promulgated thereunder. We have registered the resale of such common shares under the Securities Act.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
    Maximum Dollar
   Total Number of SharesAmount of Shares That
 Total Number of Average PricePurchased as Part ofMay Yet Be Purchased 
 Shares and UnitsPaid perPublicly AnnouncedUnder the Plans or
Period
Purchased(1)
Share and Unit(2)
Plans or Programs
Programs(3)
October 1 - 31, 202030 $70.01 — $44,371,557 
November 1 - 30, 2020— — — 44,371,557 
December 1 - 31, 2020— — — — 
Total30 $70.01 —  
(1)Includes a total of 30 Units redeemed for cash pursuant to the exercise of exchange rights.
(2)Amount includes commissions paid.
(3)On December 5, 2019, the board authorized a new $50,000,000 repurchase program which expired on December 5, 2020.
Comparative Stock Performance
The information contained in this Comparative Stock Performance section shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or “filed” or “incorporated by reference” into our future filings with the SEC, or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
Set forth below is a graph that compares, for the five years commencing December 31, 2015 and ending December 31, 2020, the cumulative total returns for our common shares with the comparable cumulative total return of three indices, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (“S&P 500”), the FTSE Nareit Equity REITs Index, and the SNL U.S. REIT Multifamily Index, the latter of which is an index prepared by the FTSE Group for the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, which includes all tax-qualified equity REITs listed on the NYSE and the NASDAQ Market. The performance graph assumes that, at the close
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of trading on December 31, 2015, $100 was invested in our common shares and in each of the indices. The comparison assumes the reinvestment of all distributions.
iret-20201231_g1.jpg
Period Ending
Index12/31/201512/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
Centerspace100.00 101.67 84.91 77.36 119.31 121.46 
S&P 500 Index100.00 113.51 138.29 132.23 173.86 205.85 
FTSE Nareit Equity REITs100.00 110.83 115.15 110.70 137.65 124.44 
SNL U.S. REIT Multifamily100.00 120.45 127.12 130.70 165.73 138.54 
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data 
Set forth below is selected financial data on a historical basis for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the eight months ended December 31, 2018, and the three most recent fiscal years ended April 30, 2018. This information should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes appearing elsewhere in this Report.
 (in thousands, except per share and apartment community data)
Year Ended December 31,Eight Months EndedFiscal Year Ended April 30,
 20202019December 31, 2018201820172016
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data                
Revenue$177,994 $185,755 $121,871 $169,745 $160,104 $145,500 
Impairment of real estate investments in continuing and discontinued operations— — 1,221 18,065 57,028 5,983 
Gain (loss) on sale of discontinued operations and real estate and other investments25,503 97,624 10,277 183,687 74,847 33,422 
Income (loss) from continuing operations4,743 84,822 (5,890)(37,194)(46,228)9,182 
Income (loss) from discontinued operations— — 570 164,823 76,753 67,420 
Net income (loss)4,743 84,822 (5,320)127,629 30,525 76,602 
Net income (loss) attributable to controlling interests4,441 78,669 (4,398)116,788 43,347 72,006 
Net income (loss) available to common shareholders(1,790)71,848 (8,945)104,562 31,366 60,492 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data   
Total real estate investments1,437,969 1,311,472 1,289,476 1,380,245 1,121,385 1,204,654 
Total assets1,464,183 1,392,418 1,335,997 1,426,658 1,474,514 1,755,022 
Revolving lines of credit152,871 50,079 57,500 124,000 57,050 17,500 
Notes payable269,246 269,058 143,991 69,514 
Mortgages payable297,074 329,664 444,197 509,919 565,978 648,173 
Total shareholders’ equity618,207 619,053 568,786 605,663 553,721 618,758 
Consolidated Per Common Share Data (basic and diluted)
     
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations – basic$(0.15)$6.06 $(0.79)$(3.54)$(3.01)— 
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations – basic— — $0.04 $12.25 $5.59 $4.91 
Net income (loss) per common share - basic$(0.15)$6.06 $(0.75)$8.71 $2.58 $4.91 
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations – diluted$(0.15)$6.00 $(0.79)$(3.54)$(3.01)— 
Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations – diluted— — $0.04 $12.25 $5.59 $4.91 
Net income (loss) per common share - diluted$(0.15)$6.00 $(0.75)$8.71 $2.58 $4.91 
Distributions$2.80 $2.80 $2.10 $2.80 $4.60 $5.20 
Other Data   
Total apartment communities67 69 87 90 87 99 
Total homes11,910 11,953 13,702 14,176 13,212 12,974 
Funds from operations applicable to common shares and units$47,356 $52,866 $30,559 $38,941 $55,207 $103,874 
 
CALENDAR YEAR 202020192018201720162015
Tax status of distributions     
Capital gain13.62 %38.53 %100.00 %48.87 %87.57 %11.99 %
Ordinary income7.91 %23.43 %— 14.59 %12.43 %36.28 %
Return of capital78.47 %38.04 %— 36.54 %— 51.73 %
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes appearing elsewhere in this report. Historical results and trends which might appear in the consolidated financial statements should not be interpreted as being indicative of future operations.
We are presenting our result of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. For additional comparison of results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, please refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 19, 2020. For additional comparison of results of operations for the eight months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the fiscal years ended April 30, 2018 and 2017, please refer to our Transition Report on from 10-KT filed with the SEC on February 27, 2019.
This and other sections of this Report contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, with respect to our expectations for future periods. Forward-looking statements do not discuss historical fact, but instead include statements related to expectations, projections, intentions or other items related to the future.
Executive Summary 
We own, manage, acquire, redevelop, and develop apartment communities. We primarily focus on investing in markets characterized by stable and growing economic conditions, strong employment, and an attractive quality of life that we believe, in combination, lead to higher demand for our apartment homes and retention of our residents. As of December 31, 2020, we owned interests in 67 apartment communities consisting of 11,910 homes as detailed in Item 2 - Properties. Property owned, as presented in the consolidated balance sheet, was $1.8 billion at December 31, 2020, compared to $1.6 billion at December 31, 2019.
Renting apartment homes is our primary source of revenue, and our business objective is to provide great homes. We strive to maximize resident satisfaction and retention by investing in high-quality assets in desirable locations and developing and training team members to create vibrant apartment communities through resident-centered operations. We believe that delivering superior resident experiences will drive consistent profitability for our shareholders. We have paid quarterly distributions every quarter since our first distribution in 1971.
COVID-19 Developments
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on our business since March 2020, when it spread to many of the markets in which we own properties. Our first priority continues to be the health and well-being of our residents, team members, and the communities we serve. We enhanced cleaning protocols at our communities and offices, implemented physical distancing in community common spaces, and instituted remote work guidelines for our team members, all in accordance with state and local guidelines. We are utilizing technology to allow our property teams to interact remotely with prospective residents through virtual leasing. We have provided rent deferrals to residents and rent abatement to commercial tenants who were financially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To support our team members working on-site, we have provided additional COVID-19 paid time off and enhanced flextime arrangements.
Certain states and cities, including some of those in which our apartment communities are located, have reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic by instituting quarantines, restrictions on travel, shelter-in-place or stay-at-home directives, restrictions on types of businesses that may continue to operate, and restrictions on the types of construction projects that may continue. We cannot predict when restrictions currently in place will expire or whether additional restrictions will be imposed in the future. We implemented a plan to safely re-open common spaces in several of our communities while adhering to state and local guidelines, but we recognize that an increase in COVID-19 cases in these markets could cause us to close common spaces or take other preventive measures.
Financial Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Many companies, especially in urban areas, have extended directives for employees to work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. These extended directives have resulted in decreased traffic to businesses and, in some cases, closures of businesses in urban areas, which has resulted in lower demand and lower rent increases for our five urban based apartment communities. The COVID-19 pandemic and these directives have affected our operations and the conduct of business at our apartment communities and offices, but did not have a material impact on our financial condition, operating results, or cash flows for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020.
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Absent the ability to contain or treat the COVID-19 virus, with a corresponding re-opening of the economy, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have adverse financial and economic impacts that include, but are not limited to, the following:
cause our residents or commercial tenants to defer or stop rental payments, and abandon or fail to renew leases, which would reduce our primary source of net operating income and cash flows;
cause the capital markets generally to become restricted or unavailable, thereby limiting our access to any needed debt or equity capital financing;
impact the business of, or cause the loss of, certain critical third-party suppliers or other service providers;
restrict our ability to continue to pay dividends on a quarterly basis at the current rate;
impair the value of our tangible or intangible assets;
require us to record loss contingencies and incur additional expenses related to our COVID-19 response; or
cause the U.S. economy to suffer an extended economic slowdown, which could lead to a prolonged recession or even economic depression, which in turn would affect the demand for our apartment communities and could have an adverse impact on our business and operating results.
We have taken the following actions in order to protect our residents and employees, manage expenses and preserve cash flow during the COVID-19 pandemic:

we eliminated the majority of travel for our team members during 2020 and reduced planned travel through 2021;
left vacant positions unfilled;
used onsite team members to perform work normally contracted to third parties; and
we have moved the meetings of our Board of Trustees to virtual meetings, thereby limiting the expense associated with in-person meetings.
Despite our efforts to manage our response to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our rental revenue in future years cannot be determined at present. The situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic remains fluid, and we are actively managing our response in collaboration with residents, commercial tenants, government officials, and business partners and assessing potential impacts to our financial position and operating results, as well as potential adverse impacts on our business. Our management remains committed to ensuring the safety of our team members, residents, and communities, and to maintaining the financial stability of our business enterprise for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Significant Transactions and Events for the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Highlights. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our highlights included the following:
Net Loss was $0.15 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to Net Income of $6.00 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2019;
Same-store year-over-year revenue growth of 2.1%, driven by 1.7% growth in rental revenue and 0.4% growth in occupancy;
Same-store net operating income growth of 1.8%;
Funded $18.5 million of multifamily construction loans;
Announced Nashville as one of our target markets; and
Rebranded the Company as Centerspace to reflect both the transformation of the company and its vision for the future.
Acquisitions and Dispositions. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we completed the following transactions in furtherance of our strategic plan:
Continued our focus on key growth markets, expanding in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Denver, Colorado, acquiring a total of two apartment communities in these markets, consisting of 647 homes, for an aggregate purchase price of $191.0 million;
Acquired the remaining noncontrolling interest in 71 France for $12.2 million;
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Disposed of four apartment communities in Grand Forks, North Dakota, a commercial property, and a parcel of unimproved land for an aggregate sale price of $44.3 million.
Financing Transactions. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we completed the following financing transactions:    
We issued 829,078 common shares under the 2019 ATM Program for total consideration, net of commissions and issuance costs, of approximately $59.2 million.
Outlook
We intend to continue our focus on maximizing the financial performance of the communities in our existing portfolio. To accomplish this, we have introduced initiatives to expand our operating margin by enhancing the resident experience, making value-add investments, and implementing technology solutions and expense controls. We will actively manage our existing portfolio and strategically pursue acquisitions of multifamily communities in our target markets of Minneapolis, Minnesota and Denver, Colorado as opportunities arise and market conditions allow. We will explore potential new markets and acquisition opportunities, including in Nashville, Tennessee, as market conditions allow. Our continued management of a strong balance sheet should provide us with flexibility to pursue both internal and external growth.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 
Reconciliation of Operating Income (Loss) to Net Operating Income
The following table provides a reconciliation of operating income to net operating income (“NOI”), which is defined below.
 (in thousands, except percentages)
 Year Ended December 31,
20202019$ Change% Change
Operating income (loss)$8,340 $11,417 $(3,077)(27.0)%
Adjustments:
Property management expenses5,801 6,186 (385)(6.2)%
Casualty loss1,662 1,116 546 48.9 %
Depreciation and amortization75,593 74,271 1,322 1.8 %
General and administrative expenses13,440 14,450 (1,010)(7.0)%
Net operating income$104,836 $107,440 $(2,604)(2.4)%
Consolidated Results of Operations
The following consolidated results of operations cover the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
 (in thousands)
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019$ Change% Change
Revenue
Same-store$152,790 $149,615 $3,175 2.1 %
Non-same-store
18,441 6,020 12,421 206.3 %
Other properties and dispositions6,763 30,120 (23,357)(77.5)%
Total177,994 185,755 (7,761)(4.2)%
Property operating expenses, including real estate taxes
Same-store63,227 61,622 1,605 2.6 %
Non-same-store
6,817 2,287