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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number: 000-20278
ENCORE WIRE CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware 75-2274963
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1329 Millwood Road
McKinney,Texas 75069
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (972562-9473
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareWIREThe NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ¨  Yes    ý  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    ¨  Yes    ý  No
Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.                ý  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).                                ý  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).      Yes    ý  No
The aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the price at which the Common Stock was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $840,792,735 (Note: The aggregate market value of Common Stock held by the Company’s directors, executive officers, immediate family members of such directors and executive officers, 10% or greater stockholders and other stockholders deemed to be affiliates was excluded from the computation of the foregoing amount. The characterization of such persons as “affiliates” should not be construed as an admission that any such person is an affiliate of the Registrant for any other purpose).
Number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of February 18, 2021: 20,631,145
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Listed below are documents, parts of which are incorporated herein by reference, and the part of this report into which the document is incorporated:
(1)Proxy statement for the 2021 annual meeting of stockholders – Part III



ENCORE WIRE CORPORATION
FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020

Table of Contents

PAGE
Item 6. Selected Financial Data

i


PART I
Item 1. Business.
General
Encore Wire Corporation is a Delaware corporation, incorporated in 1989, with its principal executive office and manufacturing plants located at 1329 Millwood Road, McKinney, Texas 75069. The Company’s telephone number is (972) 562-9473. As used in this annual report, unless otherwise required by the context, the terms “we,” “our,” “Company,” “Encore” and “Encore Wire” refer to Encore Wire Corporation.
Encore believes it is a low-cost manufacturer of electrical building wire and cable. The Company is a significant supplier of building wire for interior electrical wiring in commercial and industrial buildings, homes, apartments, manufactured housing, and data centers.
The principal customers for Encore’s wire are wholesale electrical distributors, who sell building wire and a variety of other products to electrical contractors. The Company sells its products primarily through independent manufacturers’ representatives located throughout the United States and, to a lesser extent, through its own direct in-house marketing efforts.
Strategy
Encore’s strategy is to further expand its share of the building wire market primarily by emphasizing a high level of customer service and the addition of new products that complement its current product line, while maintaining and enhancing its low-cost production capabilities. Encore’s low-cost production capability features an efficient plant design incorporating highly automated manufacturing equipment, an integrated production process and a highly-motivated work force. Encore's plants are all located on one large campus. This single-site campus enables and enhances low-cost manufacturing, distribution and administration, as well as helping to build and maintain a cohesive company culture.
Customer Service: Encore is highly focused on responding to customer needs, with an emphasis on building and maintaining strong customer relationships. Encore seeks to establish customer loyalty by achieving an industry-leading order fill rate and rapidly handling customer orders, shipments, inquiries and returns. The Company maintains product inventories sufficient to meet anticipated customer demand and believes that the speed and completeness with which it fills orders are key competitive advantages critical to marketing its products.
Product Innovation: Encore has been a leader in bringing new ideas to a commodity product. Encore pioneered the widespread use of color feeder sizes of commercial wire and colors in residential non-metallic cable. The colors have improved on-the-job safety, reduced installation times for contractors and enabled building inspectors to rapidly and accurately inspect construction projects. Encore Wire’s patented SmartColor ID® system for metal-clad and armor-clad cables allows for quick and accurate identification of gauge, number of conductors, wire and jacket type. Our spool-free PullPro® is a lightweight, durable case weighing less than thirty pounds that requires no additional tools for a tangle-free wire pull. We believe our Reel Payoff® is the industry's first self-spinning wooden reel, which allows pulling on or off the pallet with no additional tools. Additionally, Encore currently has multiple patents and patent-pending innovations that range from process improvements to packaging solutions.
Low-Cost Production: Encore’s low-cost production capability features an efficient plant design and an incentivized work force.
Efficient Plant Design: Encore’s highly automated wire manufacturing equipment is integrated in an efficient design that reduces material handling, labor and in-process inventory.
Incentivized Work Force: The Company has a stock option plan and a stock appreciation rights plan that enhance the motivation of its salaried manufacturing supervisors. The Company also has a comprehensive safety program creating a world-class culture by engaging employees, identifying and eliminating risk, and training employees to be successful. The Company provides a 401(k) retirement savings plan to all employees.
Products
Encore offers an electrical building wire product line that consists primarily of NM-B cable, UF-B cable, THHN/THWN-2, XHHW-2, USE-2, RHH/RHW-2 and other types of wire products, including SEU, SER, Photovoltaic, URD, tray cable, metal-clad and armored cable. All of these products are manufactured with copper or aluminum as the current-carrying component of the conductor. The principal bases for differentiation among stock-keeping units are product type, conductor type, diameter, insulation, length, color and packaging.
1


Manufacturing
The efficiency of Encore’s highly automated manufacturing facility is a key element of its low-cost production capability. Encore’s wire manufacturing lines have been integrated so that the handling of product is substantially reduced throughout the production process. The manufacturing process for the Company’s various products involves multiple steps, including: casting, drawing, stranding, compounding, insulating, cabling, jacketing and armoring.
Encore manufactures and tests all of its products in accordance with the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards, a nationally recognized testing and standards agency. Additionally, UL representatives routinely visit and test products from each area of manufacturing.
Customers
Encore sells its wire to wholesale electrical distributors throughout the United States. Most distributors supply products to electrical contractors. Encore’s customers are numerous and diversified. Encore has three customers, each of whom slightly exceeds 10% of the Company's total sales. Encore has no customer, the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on the Company.
Encore believes that the speed and completeness with which it fills customers’ orders is crucial to its ability to expand the market share for its products. The Company also believes that, for a variety of reasons, many customers strive to maintain lean inventories. Because of this trend, the Company seeks to maintain sufficient inventories to satisfy customers’ prompt delivery requirements.
Marketing and Distribution
Encore markets its products throughout the United States primarily through independent manufacturers’ representatives and, to a lesser extent, through its own direct marketing efforts.
Encore maintains the majority of its finished product inventory at its plant in McKinney, Texas. In order to provide flexibility in handling customer requests for immediate delivery, additional product inventories are maintained at warehouses owned and operated by some of the Company's independent manufacturers’ representatives located strategically across the country.
Finished goods are typically delivered to customers by trucks operated by common carriers. The decision regarding the carrier to be used is based primarily on availability and cost.
The Company invoices its customers directly for products purchased and, if an order has been obtained through a manufacturer’s representative, pays the representative a commission based on pre-established rates. The Company determines customer credit limits. The Company recorded a $0.7 million estimate for credit losses in 2020, but recorded no estimates for credit losses in 2019 and 2018. The manufacturers’ representatives have no discretion to determine prices charged for the Company’s products, and all sales are subject to Company approval.
Human Capital
General
The Company fosters a culture for our employees based on the old-fashioned values of service, professionalism and stewardship. We encourage our employees to do the right thing under any circumstances and to live by the Golden Rule: treat others the way you want to be treated. These values are a key aspect of our human capital retention and they inform our employment and compensation philosophies.
Employees
Encore believes that its hourly employees are highly motivated and that their motivation contributes significantly to Encore’s efficient operation. The Company believes that competitive hourly compensation coupled with sound management practices focuses its employees on maintaining high production standards and product quality.
As of December 31, 2020, Encore had 1,289 employees, 1,057 of whom were paid hourly wages and were primarily engaged in the operation and maintenance of the Company’s manufacturing and warehouse facilities. The Company’s remaining employees were executive, supervisory, administrative, sales and clerical personnel. The Company considers its relations with its employees to be good. The Company has no collective bargaining agreements with any of its employees.
Compensation and Benefits
2


The Company rewards employees with competitive compensation and benefits packages, including attractive medical plans, retirement plans, opportunities for annual bonuses and, for eligible employees, long-term incentives and an employee stock appreciation rights plan. The Company believes that long term equity-based compensation is a critical part of its compensation program and allows the Company to attract and retain talented employees.
Health and Safety
Employee health and safety is a top priority for the Company. The Company is committed to providing a safe and healthy work environment and to conducting its various businesses in a safe and environmentally protective manner. All employees and officers are expected to perform their duties consistent with site specific safety and environmental rules and regulations and site application of Company best practices. The Company understands how the health of its employees impacts not only their work, but their family life, too. The Company offers a Medcor On-Site Clinic with a nurse practitioner for employees and their immediate families. For many, the Medcor On-Site Clinic provides basic health screenings and treatment equal to those at a general practice facility which otherwise might not be possible. The Company also offers a wide range of health and wellness services to assist its employees and their families with making good lifestyle choices.
Additionally, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company’s primary focus has been on the wellbeing and safety of its employees and their families. We have taken numerous steps throughout our organization to ensure that our employees have a safe work environment.
The Company’s workforce worked remotely and successfully throughout most of 2020. For these remote employees, the Company provided supplies needed to work from home, supported information technology needs, and provided guidance for managers to ensure that employees remain connected and maintain physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. For the Company’s essential employees who remain onsite in its facilities, the Company leveraged the advice and recommendations of medical experts, health organizations such as the CDC, and our onside medical partner, Medcor, to implement new protocols to ensure the safety of its onsite employees. These recommendations include face coverings, temperature checks, health certifications, cleaning and disinfection best practices, COVID-19 updates and education, social distancing and capacity limits. Further, the Company supported its employees through programs and benefits provided throughout the year, pivoting all of our people programs and practices to enable business continuity in the current environment.
Diversity and Inclusion
The Company is committed to and values hiring employees with varied personal and professional backgrounds, perspectives and experiences, promoting a culture of diversity and inclusion. The diversity of the Company’s employees is a tremendous asset, and the Company is firmly committed to providing equal opportunity in all aspects of employment and will not tolerate any illegal discrimination or harassment of any kind. The Company is committed to employing and advancing in employment all persons without regard to their race, color, sex, religion, national origin, citizenship, age, gender identity, sexual orientation, marital status, genetic information, veteran status, disability, or other protected categories.
Raw Materials
The principal raw materials used by Encore in manufacturing its products are copper cathode, copper scrap, PVC thermoplastic compounds, XLPE compounds, aluminum, steel, paper and nylon, all of which are readily available from a number of suppliers. Copper is the principal raw material used by the Company in manufacturing its products, constituting 78.9% of the dollar value of all raw materials used by the Company during 2020. Copper requirements are purchased primarily from miners and commodity brokers at prices determined each month primarily based on the average daily COMEX closing prices for copper for that month, plus a negotiated premium. The Company also purchases raw materials necessary to manufacture various PVC thermoplastic compounds. These raw materials include PVC resin, clay and plasticizer.
The Company produces copper rod from purchased copper cathode and copper scrap in its own rod fabrication facility. The Company reprocesses copper scrap generated by its operations as well as copper scrap purchased from others. In 2020, the Company’s copper rod fabrication facility manufactured virtually all of the Company’s copper rod requirements. The Company purchases aluminum rod from various suppliers for aluminum wire production.
The Company also compounds its own wire jacket and insulation compounds. The process involves the mixture of PVC raw material components to produce the PVC used to insulate the Company’s wire and cable products. The raw materials include PVC resin, clay and plasticizer. During the last year, the Company’s plastic compounding facility produced the vast majority of the Company’s PVC requirements.
Competition
3


The electrical wire and cable industry is highly competitive. The Company competes with several companies who manufacture and sell wire and cable products beyond the building wire segment in which the Company competes. The Company’s primary competitors include Southwire Company, Cerro Wire LLC, General Cable (a company of the Prysmian Group) and AFC Cable Systems, Inc.
For all our products, the Company believes that it is competitive with respect to all relevant factors, including order fill rate, quality, pricing, and, in some instances, breadth of product line.
In 2019 we successfully enforced our rights under the U.S. trade remedy laws. As a result of the International Trade Commission’s final affirmative decision, U.S. importers of aluminum wire and cable from China will be required to pay antidumping duties at rates ranging from 47.83% to 52.79%, plus countervailing duties at rates ranging from 33.44% to 165.63%, depending upon the Chinese exporter/supplier.
Compliance with Governmental and Environmental Regulations
The Company is subject to federal, state and local laws covering a wide variety of subject matters, including environmental protection laws and regulations governing the Company’s operations and the use, handling, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances currently or formerly used by the Company. Management believes the Company is in compliance with all such rules including certain environmental permitting and reporting requirements. Historically, compliance with laws and regulations, including environmental regulations, has not had a material impact on the capital expenditures, earnings and competitive position of the Company.
Intellectual Property Matters
From time to time, the Company files patent applications with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The Company currently owns several patents and pending patent applications. The Company also owns several registered trademarks and pending trademark applications with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The current registrations for the marks will expire on various dates from 2021 to 2028, but each registration can be renewed indefinitely as long as the respective mark continues to be used in commerce and the requisite proof of continued use or renewal application, as applicable, is filed. These trademarks provide source identification for the goods manufactured and sold by the Company and allow the Company to achieve brand recognition within the industry.
Internet Address/SEC Filings
The Company’s Internet address is https://www.encorewire.com. Under the “Investors” section of our website, the Company provides a link to our electronic Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings, including our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K, director and officer beneficial ownership reports filed pursuant to Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and any amendments to these reports. All such reports are available free of charge and are available as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC.
The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at https://www.sec.gov.
Information about our Executive Officers
Information regarding Encore’s executive officers including their respective ages as of February 22, 2021, is set forth below:
NameAgePosition with Company
Daniel L. Jones57Chairman of the Board of Directors, President and Chief Executive Officer
Bret J. Eckert54Vice President – Finance, Treasurer, Secretary, and Chief Financial Officer
Mr. Jones has held the office of President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since February 2006. He performed the duties of the Chief Executive Officer in an interim capacity from May 2005 to February 2006. From May 1998 until February 2005, Mr. Jones was President and Chief Operating Officer of the Company. He previously held the positions of Chief Operating Officer from October 1997 until May 1998, Executive Vice President from May 1997 to October 1997, Vice President-Sales and Marketing from 1992 to May 1997, after serving as Director of Sales since joining the Company in November 1989. He has also served as a member of the Board of Directors since May 1992, and was named Chairman of the Board in 2014.
4


Mr. Eckert has served as Vice President-Finance, Treasurer, Secretary and Chief Financial Officer of Encore since January 2020. He joined the Company in August 2019 as Vice President-Finance. Prior to joining the Company, Bret served as Executive Managing Director for the Houston office of Riveron Consulting LLC, a business advisory firm, from June 2018 to August 2019. Previously he was Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Atmos Energy Corporation in Dallas for approximately five years. He spent the first twenty-two years of his career with Ernst & Young LLP where he was a partner for ten years.
All executive officers are elected annually by the Board of Directors to serve until the next annual meeting of the Board or until their respective successors are chosen and qualified.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
The following are risk factors that could affect the Company’s business, financial results and results of operations. These risk factors should be considered in connection with evaluating the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because these factors could cause the actual results and conditions to differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements. Before purchasing the Company’s stock, an investor should know that making such an investment involves some risks, including the risks described below. If any of the risks mentioned below or other unknown risks actually occur, the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations could be negatively affected. In that case, the trading price of its stock could fluctuate significantly.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Supply and Availability of Raw Materials
The success of our business depends on our ability to meet customer demand of a commodity product in a highly competitive market, and sourcing an adequate supply of raw materials, including copper, is vital to our business and operations. While the Company generally believes our supply of raw materials is adequate, the Company could experience instances of limited supply of certain raw materials, resulting in extended lead times and higher prices. Any shortages or interruptions (including due to labor or political disputes) in the supply of our raw materials could disrupt our operations, and our business and financial condition could be materially adversely affected by such disruptions. Limitations inherent within our supply chain of certain raw materials, including competitive, governmental, and legal limitations, natural disasters, and other events, could impact costs, and future increases in the costs of these items, including, for example, the adoption of new tariffs by the United States and other countries, and the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our profitability and availability of raw materials. There can be no assurance that future price increases will be successfully passed through to customers or that we will be able to find alternative suppliers.
Product Pricing and Volatility of Copper Market
Price competition for copper electrical wire and cable is significant, and the Company sells its products in accordance with prevailing market prices. Wire prices can, and frequently do, change on a daily basis. This competitive pricing market for wire does not always mirror changes in copper prices, making margins highly volatile. Copper, a commodity product, is the principal raw material used in the Company’s manufacturing operations. The price of copper fluctuates depending on general economic conditions and in relation to supply and demand and other factors, including changes in regulatory, geopolitical, political, social, economic, tax or monetary policies and other factors resulting from the transition to the new administration, and it causes monthly variations in the cost of copper purchased by the Company. The SEC allows shares of physically backed copper exchange traded funds (“ETFs”) to be listed and publicly traded. Such funds and other copper ETFs like them hold copper cathode as collateral against their shares. The acquisition of copper cathode by copper ETFs may materially decrease or interrupt the availability of copper for immediate delivery in the United States, which could materially increase the Company’s cost of copper. In addition to rising copper prices and potential supply shortages, we believe that ETFs and similar copper-backed derivative products could lead to increased copper price volatility. The Company cannot predict future copper prices or the effect of fluctuations in the costs of copper on the Company’s future operating results. Consequently, fluctuations in copper prices caused by market forces can significantly affect the Company’s financial results.
Industry Conditions and Cyclicality
The residential, commercial and industrial construction industry, which is the end user of the Company’s products, is cyclical and is affected by a number of factors, including the general condition of the economy, market demand and changes in interest rates. Industry sales of electrical wire and cable products tend to parallel general construction activity, which includes remodeling. Data on remodeling is not readily available. However, remodeling activity historically trends up when new construction slows down. Construction activity is affected by the ability of our end users to finance projects, which may be severely reduced due to a widespread outbreak of contagious disease, including an epidemic or pandemic such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Residential, commercial and industrial construction could decline if companies and consumers are
5


unable to finance construction projects or if the economy precipitously declines or stalls, which could result in delays or cancellations of capital projects.
Deterioration in the financial condition of the Company’s customers due to industry and economic conditions may result in reduced sales, an inability to collect receivables and payment delays or losses due to a customer’s bankruptcy or insolvency. Although the Company’s bad debt experience has been low in recent years, the Company’s inability to collect receivables may increase the amounts the Company must expense against its bad debt reserve, decreasing the Company’s profitability. A downturn in the residential, commercial or industrial construction industries and general economic conditions may have a material adverse effect on the Company.
Competition
The electrical wire and cable industry is highly competitive. The Company competes with several manufacturers of wire and cable products that have substantially greater resources than the Company. Some of these competitors are owned and operated by large, diversified companies. The principal elements of competition in the wire and cable industry are, in the opinion of the Company, pricing, product availability and quality and, in some instances, breadth of product line. The Company believes that it is competitive with respect to all of these factors. While the number of firms producing wire and cable has declined in the past, there can be no assurance that new competitors will not emerge or that existing producers will not employ or improve upon the Company’s manufacturing and marketing strategy.
Risks Related to Our Operations
Operating Results May Fluctuate
Encore’s results of operations may fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including fluctuation in the demand for and shipments of the Company’s products. Therefore, comparisons of results of operations have been and will be impacted by the volume of such orders and shipments. In addition, the Company's operating results could be adversely affected by the following factors, among others, such as variations in the mix of product sales, price changes in response to competitive factors, increases in raw material costs, freight costs, and other significant costs, the loss of key manufacturer’s representatives who sell the Company’s product line, increases in utility costs (particularly electricity and natural gas) and various types of insurance coverage and interruptions in plant operations resulting from the interruption of raw material supplies and other factors. Additionally, our results of operations could be impacted by macro-economic and geopolitical conditions as well as other outside factors, including changes in regulatory, geopolitical, political, social, economic, tax or monetary policies and other factors resulting from the transition to the new administration.
Reliance on Senior Management
Encore’s future operating results depend, in part, upon the continued service of its senior management, including, Mr. Daniel L. Jones, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, and Mr. Bret J. Eckert, the Company’s Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (neither of whom is bound by an employment agreement). The Company’s future success will depend upon its continuing ability to attract and retain highly qualified managerial and technical personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense, and there can be no assurance that the Company will retain its key managerial and technical employees or that it will be successful in attracting, assimilating or retaining other highly qualified personnel in the future.
Patent and Intellectual Property Disputes
Disagreements about patents and intellectual property rights occur in the wire and cable industry. The unfavorable resolution of a patent or intellectual property dispute could preclude the Company from manufacturing and selling certain products or could require the Company to pay a royalty on the sale of certain products. Patent and intellectual property disputes could also result in substantial legal fees and other costs.
Cybersecurity Breaches and other Disruptions to our Information Technology Systems
The efficient operation of our business is dependent on our information technology systems to process, transmit and store sensitive electronic data, including employee, distributor and customer records, and to manage and support our business operations and manufacturing processes. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our operations. Despite our security measures, our information technology system may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breaches due to errors or malfeasance by employees and others who have access to our system, or other disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing computer software or hardware, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures or natural disasters. Any such event could compromise our information technology system, expose our customers, distributors and employees to risks of misuse of confidential information, impair our ability to effectively and timely operate our business and manufacturing processes, and cause other disruptions, which could result in legal claims or proceedings, disrupt our operations
6


and the services we provide to customers, damage our reputation, and cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations and competitive position.
Climate Change
Future deterioration of the environment due to climate change or increased severe weather related events associated with climate change could affect both our operations and the operations of our suppliers and customers. The Company could experience increased operating costs due to new regulatory requirements and increased physical risks to our facilities due to volatile weather. The Company could experience disruptions or limitations to access of water. Our suppliers may face similar challenges, which could impact our supply chain. Demand for our products may be impacted regionally as local climates adapt to global environmental changes.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Stock
Common Stock Price May Fluctuate
Future announcements concerning Encore or its competitors or customers, quarterly variations in operating results, announcements of technological innovations, the introduction of new products or changes in product pricing policies by the Company or its competitors, developments regarding proprietary rights, changes in earnings estimates by analysts or reports regarding the Company or its industry in the financial press or investment advisory publications, among other factors, could cause the market price of the common stock to fluctuate substantially. These fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, world events, military conflicts or market or market-sector declines, may materially and adversely affect the market price of the common stock.
Beneficial Ownership of the Company’s Common Stock by a Small Number of Stockholders
A small number of significant stockholders beneficially own greater than 40% of the Company’s outstanding common stock. Depending on stockholder turnout for a stockholder vote, these stockholders, acting together, could be able to control the election of directors and certain matters requiring majority approval by the Company’s stockholders. The interests of this group of stockholders may not always coincide with the Company’s interests or the interests of other stockholders.
In the future, these stockholders could sell large amounts of common stock over relatively short periods of time. The Company cannot predict if, when or in what amounts stockholders may sell any of their shares. Sales of substantial amounts of the Company’s common stock in the public market by existing stockholders or the perception that these sales could occur, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock by creating a public perception of difficulties or problems with the Company’s business.
Future Sales of Common Stock Could Affect the Price of Common Stock
No prediction can be made as to the effect, if any, that future sales of shares or the availability of shares for sale will have on the market price of the common stock prevailing from time to time. Sales of substantial amounts of common stock, or the perception that such sales might occur, could adversely affect prevailing market prices of the common stock.
Risks Related to Laws and Regulations
Environmental Liabilities
The Company is subject to federal, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations governing the Company’s operations and the use, handling, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances currently or formerly used by the Company. A risk of environmental liability is inherent in the Company’s current manufacturing activities in the event of a release or discharge of a hazardous substance generated by the Company. Under certain environmental laws, the Company could be held jointly and severally responsible for the remediation of any hazardous substance contamination at the Company’s facilities and at third party waste disposal sites and could also be held liable for any consequences arising out of human exposure to such substances or other environmental damage. There can be no assurance that the costs of complying with environmental, health and safety laws and requirements in the Company’s current operations or the liabilities arising from past releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances, will not result in future expenditures by the Company that could materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial results, cash flow or financial condition.
Regulations Related to Conflict-free Minerals May Force Us to Incur Additional Expenses
In August 2012, the SEC adopted disclosure requirements related to certain minerals sourced from the Democratic Republic of Congo or adjoining countries, as required by Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
7


(the “Dodd-Frank Act”). The SEC rules implementing Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Act require us to perform due diligence, and report whether “conflict minerals,” which are defined as tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold, necessary to the functionality of a product we purchase originated from the Democratic Republic of Congo or an adjoining country. Since 2014, we have been required to file with the SEC on an annual basis a specialized disclosure report on Form SD regarding such matters. As our supply chain is complex, we may incur significant costs to determine the source and custody of conflict minerals that are used in the manufacture of our products in order to comply with these regulatory requirements in the future. We may also face reputation challenges if we are unable to verify the origins for all conflict minerals used in our products, or if we are unable to conclude that our products are “conflict free.” Over time, conflict minerals reporting requirements may affect the sourcing, price and availability of our products, and may affect the availability and price of conflict minerals that are certified as conflict free. Accordingly, we may incur significant costs as a consequence of regulations related to conflict-free minerals, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Company’s Effective Tax Rate Could be Volatile and Materially Change
A change in tax laws is one of many factors that impact the Company’s effective tax rate, and any such change could adversely impact our effective tax rate, financial condition and results of operations.
On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law H.R. 1, originally known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, hereafter referred to as “U.S. Tax Reform”. Since the passing of U.S. Tax Reform, additional guidance in the form of notices and proposed regulations which interpret various aspects of U.S. Tax Reform have been issued. Changes could be made to the proposed regulations as they become finalized, future legislation could be enacted, more regulations and notices could be issued, all of which may impact our financial results. We will continue to monitor all of these changes and will reflect the impact as appropriate in future financial statements. Many state and local tax jurisdictions are still determining how they will interpret elements of U.S. Tax Reform. Final state and local governments’ conformity, legislation and guidance relating to U.S. Tax Reform may impact our financial results.
The 2020 election of President Biden and the change in administration could lead to changes in tax laws that could negatively impact the Company’s effective tax rate. Prior to the 2020 U.S. presidential election, President Biden proposed an increase in the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 21% to 28%, among other proposals. If any of these (or similar) proposals are ultimately enacted into law, in whole or in part, they could have a negative impact to the Company’s effective tax rate.
General Risk Factors
Outbreak of Contagious Disease
Our business and the businesses of our suppliers, distributors and customers could be adversely affected by the effects of a widespread outbreak of contagious diseases, including the recent ongoing outbreak of COVID-19. Any outbreak of contagious diseases, and other adverse public health developments, could cause a disruption in our supply chain, distribution and demand for our products. The duration of any such disruption and the related financial impact from COVID-19 and other epidemics and pandemics cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. The occurrence or continuation of any of these events could lead to decreased revenues and limit our ability to execute on our business plan, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2. Properties.
Encore maintains its corporate office and manufacturing plants in McKinney, Texas, approximately 32 miles north of downtown Dallas. The Company’s facilities are located on a combined site of approximately 445 acres and consist of buildings containing approximately 2.1 million square feet of floor space. The corporate office, plants and equipment are owned by the Company and are not mortgaged to secure any of the Company’s existing indebtedness. Encore believes that its plants and equipment are suited to its present needs, comply with applicable federal, state and local laws and regulations, and are properly maintained and adequately insured.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
For information on the Company’s legal proceedings see Note 9 to the Company’s financial statements included in Item 8 to this report and incorporated herein by reference.
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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
9


PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
The Company’s common stock is traded and quoted on the NASDAQ Stock Market’s Global Select Market under the symbol “WIRE.” As of February 18, 2021, there were 31 holders of record of the Company’s common stock.
Aside from periodic cash dividends, which the Company currently expects to continue to make consistent with its historical practice, management and the Board currently intend to retain the majority of future earnings for the operation and expansion of the Company’s business.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On November 10, 2006, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to an authorized number of shares of its common stock on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions at prices determined by the President of the Company during the term of the program. The Company’s Board of Directors has authorized several increases and annual extensions of this stock repurchase program, and, as of December 31, 2020, 1,000,000 shares remained authorized for repurchase through March 31, 2021. Subsequently, the authorization for repurchase was extended through March 31, 2022. The Company repurchased 441,250 shares of its stock in 2020, and did not repurchase any shares of its stock in 2019 or 2018. The Company also has a broker agreement to repurchase stock in the open market at certain trigger points pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 plan announced on November 28, 2007.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table provides information about the Company’s equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2020.
Number of securities to be
issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights
Weighted-average exercise
price of outstanding
options, warrants and rights
Number of securities
remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans
(excluding securities
reflected in column (a))
PLAN CATEGORY(a)(b)(c)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders (1)314,500 $41.82 994,500 (2)
(1) Pursuant to SEC rules and the reporting requirements for this table, we have not included in (a) above 75,000 shares of restricted stock that are issued and outstanding.
(2) Represents securities remaining available for issuance under our 2020 Long Term Incentive Plan as of December 31, 2020 that may be granted in the form of unrestricted common stock, restricted common stock, options to purchase shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock units, dividend equivalents, performance awards or other stock-based awards.
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Performance Graph
The following graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC, and is not to be incorporated by reference into any of the Company’s filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, respectively.
The graph below sets forth the cumulative total stockholder return, which assumes reinvestment of dividends, of a $100 investment in the Company’s common stock, the Russell 2000 Index, and the Company’s self-determined peer group (the “Peer Group”)for the five years ended December 31, 2020.
wire-20201231_g1.jpg
As of December 31,
SymbolTotal Return For:201520162017201820192020
ÛEncore Wire Corporation100.00117.13131.69136.04155.85164.79
£Russell 2000 Index100.00121.31139.08123.76155.35186.36
rPeer Group100.00127.15128.6882.14121.57126.12
Notes
(1)Data presented in the performance graph is complete through December 31, 2020.
(2)The Peer Group is self-determined and consists of the following companies: Belden, Inc., Apogee Enterprises, Inc., Quanex Building Products Corporation, Atkore International Group, Inc., and Masonite
11


International Corporation. The performance graph presented in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 21, 2020, consisted of this peer group.
(3)The peer group index uses only the Peer Group’s performance and excludes the performance of the Company. The peer group index uses beginning of period market capitalization weighting.
(4)Each data line represents annual index levels derived from compounded daily returns that include all dividends.
(5)The index level for all data lines was set to $100.00 on December 31, 2015.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The following financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The table below presents, as of and for the dates indicated, selected historical financial information for the Company.
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019201820172016
 (in thousands, except per share data)
Statement of Income Data:
Net sales$1,276,948 $1,274,994 $1,288,683 $1,164,248 $940,790 
Cost of goods sold1,082,413 1,109,023 1,098,961 1,008,073 820,673 
Gross profit194,535 165,971 189,722 156,175 120,117 
Selling, general and administrative expenses97,008 94,442 90,212 76,726 69,351 
Operating income97,527 71,529 99,510 79,449 50,766 
Net interest and other income1,269 4,199 2,174 427 48 
Income before income taxes98,796 75,728 101,684 79,876 50,814 
Provision for income taxes22,729 17,599 23,534 12,859 16,975 
Net income$76,067 $58,129 $78,150 $67,017 $33,839 
Earnings per common and common equivalent shares – basic$3.69 $2.78 $3.75 $3.23 $1.63 
Weighted average common and common equivalent shares – basic20,599 20,904 20,845 20,767 20,704 
Earnings per common and common equivalent shares – diluted$3.68 $2.77 $3.74 $3.21 $1.63 
Weighted average common and common equivalent shares – diluted20,653 20,990 20,910 20,847 20,773 
Annual dividends declared per common share$0.08 $0.08 $0.08 $0.08 $0.08 

 As of December 31,
 20202019201820172016
 (in thousands)
Balance Sheet Data:
Working capital$461,541 $473,942 $445,665 $375,353 $325,500 
Total assets966,454 883,154 818,060 733,975 657,964 
Long-term debt— — — — — 
Stockholders’ equity837,729 779,096 720,456 641,345 573,109 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Introduction
The following management’s discussion and analysis is intended to provide a better understanding of key factors, drivers and risks regarding the Company and the building wire industry. The duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak and its long-term impact on our business are uncertain at this time. Developments surrounding the COVID-19 global pandemic are continuing to change daily, and we have limited visibility into the extent to which market demand for our products as well as sector manufacturing and distribution capacity will be impacted.
Executive Overview
Encore Wire sells a commodity product in a highly competitive market. Management believes that the historical strength of the Company’s growth and earnings is in large part attributable to the following main factors:
industry-leading order fill rates and responsive customer service
product innovations and product line expansions based on listening to and understanding customer needs and market trends
low cost manufacturing operations, resulting from a state-of-the-art manufacturing complex
low distribution and freight costs due in large part to the “one campus” business model
a focused management team leading a skilled work force
low general and administrative overhead costs, and
a team of experienced independent manufacturers’ representatives with strong customer relationships across the United States.
These factors, and others, have allowed Encore Wire to grow from a startup in 1989 to what management believes is one of the largest electric building wire companies in the United States of America. Encore has built a loyal following of customers throughout the United States. These customers have developed a brand preference for Encore Wire in a commodity product line due to the reasons noted above, among others. The Company prides itself on striving to grow sales by expanding its product offerings where profit margins are acceptable. Senior management monitors gross margins daily, frequently extending down to the individual order level. Management strongly believes that this “hands-on” focused approach to the building wire business has been an important factor in the Company's success, and will lead to continued success.
The construction and remodeling industries drive demand for building wire. In 2020, unit sales were down 5.4% in copper wire versus 2019. In 2019, unit sales increased 4.1% in copper wire versus 2018. In 2018, unit sales of copper wire sold increased 4.5% versus 2017.
General
The Company’s operating results are driven by several key factors, including the volume of product produced and shipped, the cost of copper and other raw materials, the competitive pricing environment in the wire industry and the resulting influence on gross margins and the efficiency with which the Company’s plants operate during the period, among others. Price competition for electrical wire and cable is significant, and the Company sells its products in accordance with prevailing market prices. Copper, a commodity product, is the principal raw material used by the Company in manufacturing its products. The price of copper fluctuates, depending on general economic conditions and in relation to supply and demand and other factors, which causes monthly variations in the cost of copper purchased by the Company. Additionally, the SEC allows shares of physically backed copper exchange traded funds (“ETFs”) to be listed and publicly traded. Such funds and other copper ETFs like it hold copper cathode as collateral against their shares. The acquisition of copper cathode by Copper ETFs may materially decrease or interrupt the availability of copper for immediate delivery in the United States, which could materially increase the Company’s cost of copper. In addition to rising copper prices and potential supply shortages, we believe that ETFs and similar copper-backed derivative products could lead to increased price volatility for copper. The Company cannot predict copper prices in the future or the effect of fluctuations in the cost of copper on the Company’s future operating results. Wire prices can, and frequently do change on a daily basis. This competitive pricing market for wire does not always mirror changes in copper prices, making margins highly volatile. Historically, the cost of aluminum has been much lower and less volatile than copper. The tables below highlight the range of closing prices of copper on the Comex exchange for the periods shown.

13


COMEX COPPER CLOSING PRICE 2020
October
2020
November
2020
December
2020
Quarter Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Year Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
High$3.19 $3.42 $3.63 $3.63 $3.63 
Low2.86 3.07 3.47 2.86 2.12 
Average3.06 3.20 3.53 3.27 2.80 
COMEX COPPER CLOSING PRICE 2019
 October
2019
November
2019
December
2019
Quarter Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Year Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
High$2.68 $2.72 $2.86 $2.86 $2.98 
Low2.55 2.62 2.61 2.55 2.51 
Average2.61 2.65 2.77 2.68 2.72 
COMEX COPPER CLOSING PRICE 2018
October
2018
November
2018
December
2018
Quarter Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Year Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
High$2.82 $2.80 $2.80 $2.82 $3.29 
Low2.66 2.68 2.63 2.63 2.56 
Average2.76 2.75 2.72 2.75 2.92 
COMEX COPPER CLOSING PRICE 2020 by Quarter
Quarter Ended Mar. 31, 2020Quarter Ended June 30, 2020Quarter Ended Sept. 30, 2020Quarter Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Year Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
High$2.88 $2.71 $3.11 $3.63$3.63
Low2.12 2.19 2.72 2.86 2.12 
Average2.56 2.43 2.93 3.27 2.80 
COMEX COPPER CLOSING PRICE 2019 by Quarter
Quarter Ended Mar. 31, 2019Quarter Ended June 30, 2019Quarter Ended Sept. 30, 2019Quarter Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Year Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
High$2.96 $2.98 $2.74 $2.86$2.98
Low2.57 2.63 2.51 2.55 2.51 
Average2.81 2.78 2.62 2.68 2.72 
14


Results of Operations
The following table presents certain items of income and expense as a percentage of net sales for the periods indicated.
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net sales100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of goods sold:
Copper57.3 %60.8 %62.3 %
Other raw materials13.5 %14.0 %12.8 %
Depreciation1.4 %1.2 %1.1 %
Labor and overhead10.8 %11.0 %9.6 %
LIFO adjustment1.8 %— %(0.5)%
84.8 %87.0 %85.3 %
Gross profit15.2 %13.0 %14.7 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses7.6 %7.4 %7.0 %
Operating income7.6 %5.6 %7.7 %
Net interest and other income0.1 %0.4 %0.2 %
Income before income taxes7.7 %6.0 %7.9 %
Provision for income taxes1.8 %1.4 %1.8 %
Net income5.9 %4.6 %6.1 %
The following discussion and analysis relate to factors that have affected the operating results of the Company for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. Reference should also be made to the Financial Statements and the related notes included under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report. Additional information about results for year end 2018 and certain year-on-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018 can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Net sales for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 were $1.277 billion compared to $1.275 billion during the same period in 2019 and $1.289 billion during the same period in 2018. Copper unit volume, measured in pounds of copper contained in the wire sold, decreased 5.4% in the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 versus the twelve months ended December 31, 2019. The 1.1% decrease in net sales dollars in 2019 versus 2018 is primarily the result of a 2.0% decrease in copper wire sales. Sales dollars were driven lower primarily by a 5.8% decrease in average selling price of copper wire, partially offset by a 4.1% increase in copper wire pounds shipped. Average selling prices for wire sold were primarily driven lower by falling copper commodity prices.
Cost of goods sold was $1.082 billion in 2020 versus $1.109 billion in 2019 and $1.099 million in 2018. The decrease in 2020 compared to 2019 was mainly driven by a decrease in material costs, and to a lesser extent, a decrease in labor and overhead costs year-over year. The decrease in 2020 from 2019 reflects a 5.4% decrease in copper volume shipped, offset by a 2.6% increase in the cost of copper purchased. The increase in 2019 compared to 2018 was mainly driven by an increase in labor and overhead costs, and to a lesser extent, a decrease in material costs year-over year. The material cost increase in 2019 from 2018 reflects a 4.1% increase in copper volume shipped, offset by a 6.2% decrease in the cost of copper purchased.
Gross profit percentage for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was 15.2% compared to 13.0% during the same period in 2019 and 14.7% during the same period in 2018. The average selling price of wire per copper pound sold increased 4.7% in the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 versus the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, while the average cost of copper per pound purchased increased 2.6%. The average selling price of wire per copper pound sold decreased 5.8% in the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 versus the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, while the average cost of copper per pound purchased decreased 6.2%.
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Net income for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was $76.1 million versus $58.1 million in the same period in 2019 and $78.2 million in the same period in 2018. Fully diluted net earnings per common share were $3.68 in the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 versus $2.77 in the same period in 2019 and $3.74 in the same period in 2018.
Inventories consist of the following at December 31 (in thousands):
202020192018
Raw materials$40,842 $25,882 $28,455 
Work-in-process30,311 25,381 30,529 
Finished goods88,544 83,222 88,708 
Total159,697 134,485 147,692 
Adjust to LIFO cost(67,375)(44,801)(45,325)
Inventory$92,322 $89,684 $102,367 
The quantity of total copper inventory on hand increased somewhat in 2020, compared to 2019. The other materials category, which includes a large number of raw materials, had quantity changes that included increases and decreases in various other materials. This resulted in a LIFO adjustment increasing cost of sales by $22.6 million in 2020.
The quantity of total copper inventory on hand decreased somewhat in 2019, compared to 2018. The other materials category, which includes a large number of raw materials, had quantity changes that included increases and decreases in various other materials. This resulted in a LIFO adjustment decreasing cost of sales by $0.5 million in 2019.
Based on the current copper and other raw material prices, there is no LCM adjustment necessary in the periods presented above. Future reductions in the price of copper and other raw materials could require the Company to record an LCM adjustment against the related inventory balance, which would result in a negative impact on net income.
Gross profit was $194.5 million, or 15.2% of net sales, in 2020 compared to $166.0 million, or 13.0% of net sales, in 2019 and $189.7 million, or 14.7% of net sales, in 2018. The changes in gross profit were due to the factors discussed above.
Selling expenses, which are made up of freight and sales commissions, were $66.8 million in 2020, $66.0 million in 2019 and $67.0 million in 2018. As a percentage of net sales, selling expenses were 5.2% in all three years. General and administrative expenses, as a percentage of net sales, were 2.3% in 2020 versus 2.2% in 2019 and 1.8% in 2018. Accounts receivable write-offs were $0.3 million in 2020, $0.2 million in 2019 and $0 in 2018. The Company increased the reserve for credit losses in 2020 by $0.7 million, and did not increase the reserve in either 2019 or 2018.
Net interest and other income was $1.3 million in 2020, $4.2 million in 2019 and $2.2 million in 2018. The decrease in 2020 reflects the economic impact of the pandemic and its effect on interest rates during the year and the resulting interest earned.
Our effective tax rate was 23.0% in 2020, 23.2% in 2019 and 23.1% in 2018. The differences between the provisions for income taxes and the income taxes computed using the federal income tax statutory rate are primarily due to changes in tax laws and state taxes.
As a result of the foregoing factors, the Company’s net income was $76.1 million in 2020, $58.1 million in 2019 and $78.2 million in 2018.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company does not currently have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on the Company’s financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table summarizes the Company’s cash flow activities (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
Net cash provided by operating activities$57,462 $106,121 $81,590 
Net cash used in investing activities(85,991)(52,456)(26,065)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(19,313)(1,105)(482)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents$(47,842)$52,560 $55,043 
Annual dividends paid$(1,650)$(1,673)$(1,668)
The Company maintains a substantial inventory of finished products to satisfy customers’ prompt delivery requirements. As is customary in the industry, the Company provides payment terms to most of its customers that exceed terms that it receives from its suppliers. In general, the Company’s standard payment terms result in the collection of a significant majority of net sales within approximately 75 days of the date of the invoice. Therefore, the Company’s liquidity needs have generally consisted of working capital necessary to finance receivables and inventory. Capital expenditures have historically been necessary to expand and update the production capacity of the Company’s manufacturing operations. The Company has historically satisfied its liquidity and capital expenditure needs with cash generated from operations, borrowings under its various debt arrangements and sales of its common stock. We believe that the Company has sufficient liquidity and do not believe COVID-19 will materially impact our liquidity, but we continue to assess the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our business, including on our customer base and suppliers.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no debt outstanding.
The Company is party to a Credit Agreement (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”) with two banks, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and letter of credit issuer, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association as syndication agent. The Credit Agreement extends through October 1, 2021, and provides for maximum borrowings of $150.0 million. In the third quarter of 2016, the Company signed a Third Amendment to the Credit Agreement, which, along with other minor changes, eliminated the restriction of maximum borrowings based on the amount of eligible accounts receivable plus the amount of eligible finished goods and raw materials, less any reserves established by the banks. Additionally, at our request and subject to certain conditions, the commitments under the Credit Agreement may be increased by a maximum of up to $100.0 million as long as existing or new lenders agree to provide such additional commitments. Borrowings under the line of credit bear interest, at the Company’s option, at either (1) LIBOR plus a margin that varies from 0.875% to 1.75% depending upon the Leverage Ratio (as defined in the Credit Agreement), or (2) the base rate (which is the highest of the federal funds rate plus 0.5%, the prime rate, or LIBOR plus 1.0%) plus 0% to 0.25% (depending upon the Leverage Ratio). A commitment fee ranging from 0.15% to 0.30% (depending upon the Leverage Ratio) is payable on the unused line of credit. At December 31, 2020, there were no borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement, and letters of credit outstanding in the amount of $0.6 million left $149.4 million of credit available under the Credit Agreement. Obligations under the Credit Agreement are the only contractual borrowing obligations or commercial borrowing commitments of the Company. Obligations under the Credit Agreement are unsecured and contain customary covenants and events of default. The Company was in compliance with the covenants as of December 31, 2020.
On February 9, 2021, the Company terminated the Credit Agreement and entered into a new agreement. The Company is now party to a Credit Agreement ( the “2021 Credit Agreement”) with two banks, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and letter of credit issuer, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association as syndication agent. The 2021 Credit Agreement extends through February 9, 2026, and provides for maximum borrowings of $200.0 million.
The Company paid interest totaling $0.2 million, $0.2 million and $0.3 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, none of which was capitalized.
On November 10, 2006, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to an authorized number of shares of its common stock on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions at prices determined by the President of the Company during the term of the program. The Company’s Board of Directors has authorized several increases and annual extensions of this stock repurchase program, and, as of December 31, 2020, 1,000,000 shares remained authorized for repurchase through March 31, 2021. Subsequently, the authorization for repurchase was extended through March 31, 2022. The Company repurchased 441,250 shares of its stock in 2020, and did not repurchase any shares of its stock in 2019 or 2018. The Company also has a broker agreement to repurchase stock in the open market at certain trigger points pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 plan announced on November 28, 2007.
17


Net cash provided by operations decreased $48.6 million to $57.5 million in 2020 compared to $106.1 million in 2019 and $81.6 million in 2018. The decrease in cash provided by operations of $48.6 million in 2020 versus 2019 was due to several factors. Net income increased to $76.1 million in 2020 from $58.1 million in 2019. Accounts receivable increased in 2020, resulting in cash used of $53.4 million versus cash provided of $12.3 million in 2019, a decrease in operating cash flow of $65.7 million. Accounts receivable was impacted by the $78.5 million increase in net sales in the fourth quarter of 2020 versus the fourth quarter of 2019, brought on by a 21.1% increase in the average selling price per pound of copper wire sold, and a 4.3% increase in copper volume shipped. Changes in inventory resulted in cash used of $2.6 million in 2020 versus cash provided of $12.7 million in 2019, a $15.3 million decrease in cash provided. Changes in trade accounts payable and accrued liabilities resulted in cash provided of $7.6 million in 2020 versus cash provided of $2.0 million in 2019, a positive swing of $5.6 million. These changes in cash flow were the primary drivers of the $48.6 million decrease in net cash flow provided by operations in 2020 versus 2019.
Net cash provided by operations increased $24.5 million to $106.1 million in 2019 compared to $81.6 million in 2018. The increase in cash provided by operations of $24.5 million in 2019 versus 2018 was due to several factors. Net income decreased to $58.1 million in 2019 from $78.2 million in 2018. Accounts receivable decreased in 2019, resulting in cash provided of $12.3 million versus cash used of $6.5 million in 2018, an increase in operating cash flow of $18.8 million. Accounts receivable generally fluctuates in proportion to dollar sales and, to a lesser extent, are affected by the timing of when sales occur during a given quarter. Additionally, accounts receivable can fluctuate based upon the payment timing patterns of certain large customers, although increases in accounts receivable at the end of quarterly reporting periods for this reason have not historically raised collectability issues. Changes in inventory resulted in cash provided of $12.7 million in 2019 versus cash used of $10.0 million in 2018, a $22.7 million increase in cash provided. Changes in trade accounts payable and accrued liabilities resulted in cash provided of $2.0 million in 2019 versus cash provided of $0.2 million in 2018, a positive swing of $1.8 million. These changes in cash flow were the primary drivers of the $24.5 million increase in net cash flow provided by operations in 2019 versus 2018.
Net cash used in investing activities was $86.0 million in 2020 versus $52.5 million in 2019 and $26.1 million in 2018. In 2020, capital expenditures were used primarily for the construction of our new service center, the acceleration of spending for our repurposed distribution center, and the purchase and installation of machinery and equipment throughout the Company. In 2019 and 2018, capital expenditures were used primarily for the purchase and installation of machinery and equipment throughout the Company.
The net cash used by financing activities of $19.3 million in 2020 consisted primarily of $20.7 million used to purchase Company stock and dividend payments of $1.7 million, partially offset by $3.0 million proceeds from issuance of Company stock related to employees exercising stock options. The net cash used by financing activities of $1.1 million in 2019 consisted primarily of $1.7 million in dividend payments offset by $0.6 million proceeds from issuance of Company stock related to employees exercising stock options. The net cash used by financing activities of $0.5 million in 2018 consisted primarily of $1.7 million in dividend payments, offset by $1.2 million proceeds from issuance of Company stock related to employees exercising stock options.
Our two-phased expansion plans announced earlier this year continue in earnest and remain on schedule. The construction of the new service center is progressing well with a planned opening in the second quarter of 2021. Phase two of our expansion plans will focus on repurposing our existing distribution center to expand manufacturing capacity and extend our market reach. Spending on Phase two has already commenced as we have accelerated the timing of orders with manufacturers due to increased lead times required for certain machinery and equipment in the current environment. Phase two completion is anticipated in early 2022. Total capital expenditures were $86 million in 2020. We expect total capital expenditures to range from $100 - $120 million in 2021, $50 - $70 million in 2022, and $40 - $60 million in 2023. Our strong balance sheet and ability to consistently generate high levels of operating cash flow should provide ample allowance to fund planned capital expenditures.
Contractual Obligations
As shown below, the Company had the following contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020.
 Payments Due by Period ($ in Thousands)
Contractual ObligationsTotalLess Than
1 Year
1-3 Years3-5 YearsMore Than
5 Years
Purchase Obligations$144,479 $144,479 — — — 
Note:     Amounts listed as purchase obligations consist of open purchase orders for major raw material purchases and $60.2 million of capital equipment and construction purchase orders open as of December 31, 2020.
18


Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Management’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations are based upon the Company’s financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. See Note 1 to the Financial Statements included under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this annual report. Management believes the following critical accounting policies affect its more significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of its financial statements.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, using the last-in, first out (LIFO) method, or market. The Company maintains two inventory pools for LIFO purposes. As permitted by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, the Company maintains its inventory costs and cost of goods sold on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis and makes a monthly adjustment to adjust total inventory and cost of goods sold from FIFO to LIFO. The Company applies the lower of cost or market (LCM) test by comparing the LIFO cost of its raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods inventories to estimated market values, which are based primarily upon the most recent quoted market price of copper and other raw materials and finished wire prices as of the end of each reporting period. The Company performs a lower of cost or market calculation quarterly. As of December 31, 2020, no LCM adjustment was required. However, decreases in copper and other material prices could necessitate establishing an LCM reserve in future periods. Additionally, future reductions in the quantity of inventory on hand could cause copper or other raw materials that are carried in inventory at costs different from the cost of copper and other raw materials in the period in which the reduction occurs to be included in costs of goods sold for that period at the different price.
Revenue from the sale of the Company’s products is recognized when goods are shipped to the customer, title and risk of loss are transferred, pricing is fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. A provision for payment discounts and customer rebates is estimated based upon historical experience and other relevant factors and is recorded within the same period that the revenue is recognized.
The Company has provided an allowance for credit losses on customer receivables based upon estimates of those customers’ inability to make required payments. Such allowance is established and adjusted based upon the makeup of the current receivable portfolio, past bad debt experience and current market conditions. If the financial condition of our customers was to deteriorate and impair their ability to make payments to the Company, additional allowances for losses might be required in future periods.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) is the sole source of authoritative U.S. GAAP other than Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") issued rules and regulations that apply only to SEC registrants. The FASB issues an Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) to communicate changes to the codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. The following are those ASUs that are relevant to the Company.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326),” which makes significant changes to the accounting for credit losses on financial assets and disclosures about them. This ASU requires immediate recognition of management’s estimates of current expected credit losses. Under the prior model, losses were recognized only as they were incurred, which FASB has noted delayed recognition of expected losses that might not yet have met the threshold of being probable. The guidance affects all entities in all industries and applies to a wide variety of financial assets, including trade receivables. We adopted this new standard January 1, 2020 and applied a loss rate model to compute the expected credit loss allowance of our short-term trade receivable balances, which we concluded are representative of one collective pool. This method is based on relevant information from past events, including historical experiences, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect collectability. Our evaluation of the new standard concluded that it had no material impact on our financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” which simplifies the accounting for income taxes, eliminates certain exceptions within ASC 740, Income Taxes, and clarifies certain aspects of the current guidance to promote consistency among reporting entities. This ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted in any interim or annual period. We are evaluating the effect of adopting this new accounting guidance but do not expect adoption will have a material impact on the Company's financial statements or disclosures.
Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
19


This report contains various forward-looking statements and information that are based on management’s belief as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to management. Although the Company believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, it can give no assurance that such expectations will prove to have been correct. Such statements are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those expected.
Among the key factors that may have a direct bearing on the Company’s operating results and stock price are:
fluctuations in the global and national economy
the impact of a global pandemic
fluctuations in the level of activity in the construction industry, including remodeling
demand for the Company’s products
the impact of price competition on the Company’s margins
fluctuations in the price of copper, aluminum and other key raw materials
the loss of key manufacturers’ representatives who sell the Company’s product line
fluctuations in utility costs, especially electricity and natural gas, and freight costs
fluctuations in insurance costs and the availability of coverage of various types
weather related disasters at the Company’s and/or key vendor’s operating facilities
stock price fluctuations due to “stock market expectations” and other external variables
unforeseen future legal issues and/or government regulatory changes
changes in tax laws
patent and intellectual property disputes, and
fluctuations in the Company’s financial position or national banking issues that impede the Company’s ability to obtain reasonable and adequate financing.
This list highlights some of the major factors that could affect the Company’s operations or stock price, but cannot enumerate all the potential issues that management faces on a daily basis, many of which are totally out of management’s control. For further discussion of the factors described herein and their potential effects on the Company, see “Item 1. Business,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
The Company does not engage in metal futures trading or hedging activities and does not enter into derivative financial instrument transactions for trading or other speculative purposes. However, the Company is generally exposed to commodity price and interest rate risks.
The Company purchases copper cathode primarily from miners and commodity brokers at prices determined each month based on the average daily COMEX closing prices for copper for that month, plus a negotiated premium. As a result, fluctuations in copper prices caused by market forces can significantly affect the Company’s financial results. Interest rate risk is attributable to the Company’s long-term debt. As of December 31, 2020, the Company was a party to the Credit Agreement. Amounts outstanding under the Credit Agreement, as amended, are payable on October 1, 2021, with interest payments due quarterly. At December 31, 2020, the balance outstanding under the Credit Agreement was zero.
There is inherent rollover risk for borrowings under the Credit Agreement as such borrowings mature and are renewed at current market rates. The extent of this risk is not quantifiable or predictable because of the variability of future interest rates and the Company’s future financing requirements.
20


For further information regarding market risk, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
21


Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The financial statements of the Company and the notes thereto appear on the following pages.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Encore Wire Corporation
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of Encore Wire Corporation (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related statements of income, stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 22, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the account or disclosure to which it relates.












22


Valuation of inventories
Description of the Matter
At December 31, 2020, the Company’s inventory balance was $92.3 million. As discussed in Notes 1 and 2 to the financial statements, inventories are stated at the lower of cost, using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method, or market. The Company maintains two inventory pools for LIFO purposes. As permitted by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, the Company maintains its inventory costs and cost of goods sold on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis and adjusts total inventory and cost of goods sold from FIFO to LIFO at each month end.

Auditing management’s calculations to adjust the FIFO inventory balances to LIFO was challenging due to the complexities of the manual calculations.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s calculations of the adjustments to convert FIFO inventory balances to LIFO, including controls over management’s review of the manual calculations described above.

To test the LIFO inventory balance, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, assessing methodologies and testing the underlying data used in the Company’s calculations to adjust the FIFO inventory balances to LIFO. We also tested the mathematical accuracy of the Company’s calculations.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1990.
Dallas, Texas
February 22, 2021


23


Encore Wire Corporation
Balance Sheets
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019
(In thousands, except share data)
20202019
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$183,123 $230,965 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $2,215 and $1,801
275,781 223,098 
Inventories92,322 89,684 
Income taxes receivable1,256 3,602 
Prepaid expenses and other2,651 1,889 
Total current assets555,133 549,238 
Property, plant and equipment – at cost:
Land and land improvements60,662 52,354 
Construction-in-progress91,688 49,847 
Buildings and improvements153,094 152,536 
Machinery and equipment373,902 334,204 
Furniture and fixtures15,345 10,926 
Total property, plant and equipment694,691 599,867 
Accumulated depreciation(283,923)(266,688)
Property, plant and equipment – net410,768 333,179 
Other assets553 737 
Total assets$966,454 $883,154 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Trade accounts payable$56,726 $40,509 
Accrued liabilities36,866 34,787 
Total current liabilities93,592 75,296 
Deferred income taxes and other35,133 28,762 
Commitments and contingencies
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $.01 par value:
Authorized shares – 2,000,000; none issued
  
Common stock, $.01 par value:
Authorized shares – 40,000,000;
Issued shares – 27,025,388 and 26,939,403
270 269 
Additional paid-in capital67,885 63,009 
Treasury stock, at cost – 6,468,705 and 6,027,455 shares
(111,718)(91,056)
Retained earnings881,292 806,874 
Total stockholders’ equity837,729 779,096 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$966,454 $883,154 
See accompanying notes.
24


Encore Wire Corporation
Statements of Income
For the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
(In thousands, except per share data)
202020192018
Net sales$1,276,948 $1,274,994 $1,288,683 
Cost of goods sold1,082,413 1,109,023 1,098,961 
Gross profit194,535 165,971 189,722 
Selling, general and administrative expenses97,008 94,442 90,212 
Operating income97,527 71,529 99,510 
Net interest and other income1,269 4,199 2,174 
Income before income taxes98,796 75,728 101,684 
Provision for income taxes22,729 17,599 23,534 
Net income$76,067 $58,129 $78,150 
Earnings per common and common equivalent share – basic$3.69 $2.78 $3.75 
Earnings per common and common equivalent share – diluted$3.68 $2.77 $3.74 
Weighted average common and common equivalent shares outstanding – basic20,599 20,904 20,845 
Weighted average common and common equivalent shares outstanding – diluted20,653 20,990 20,910 
Cash dividends declared per share$0.08 $0.08 $0.08 
See accompanying notes.
25


Encore Wire Corporation
Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(In thousands, except per share data)
 Common Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Treasury Stock
Retained
Earnings
 
SharesAmountSharesAmountTotal
Balance at January 1, 201826,859 $269 $58,192 (6,027)$(91,056)$673,940 $641,345 
Net income— — — — — 78,150 78,150 
Exercise of stock options42 — 1,186 — — — 1,186 
Stock-based compensation5 — 1,444 — — — 1,444 
Dividend declared—$0.08 per share
— — — — — (1,669)(1,669)
Balance at December 31, 201826,906 269 60,822 (6,027)(91,056)750,421 720,456 
Net income— — — — — 58,129 58,129 
Exercise of stock options22 — 568 — — — 568 
Stock-based compensation11 — 1,619 — — — 1,619 
Dividend declared—$0.08 per share
— — — — — (1,676)(1,676)
Balance at December 31, 201926,939 269 63,009 (6,027)(91,056)806,874 779,096 
Net income— — — — — 76,067 76,067 
Exercise of stock options69 1 2,998 — — — 2,999 
Stock-based compensation17 — 1,878 — — — 1,878 
Dividend declared—$0.08 per share
— — — — — (1,649)(1,649)
Purchase of treasury stock— — — (441)(20,662)— (20,662)
Balance at December 31, 202027,025 $270 $67,885 (6,468)$(111,718)$881,292 $837,729 
See accompanying notes.
26


Encore Wire Corporation
Statements of Cash Flows
For the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
(In thousands)
202020192018
Operating Activities
Net income$76,067 $58,129 $78,150 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash
provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization19,459 17,707 16,513 
Deferred income taxes6,429 3,376 3,033 
Stock-based compensation attributable to equity awards1,878 1,619 1,444 
Other470 754 (187)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(53,383)12,255 (6,468)
Inventories(2,638)12,683 (10,002)
Other assets(746)(229)627 
Trade accounts payable and accrued liabilities7,580 2,040 165 
Current income taxes receivable / payable2,346 (2,213)(1,685)
Net cash provided by operating activities57,462 106,121 81,590 
Investing Activities
Purchases of property, plant and equipment(86,082)(52,484)(26,181)
Proceeds from sale of assets91 28 116 
Net cash used in investing activities(85,991)(52,456)(26,065)
Financing Activities
Purchase of treasury stock(20,662)  
Borrowings from revolver  67,300 
Repayments to revolver  (67,300)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net2,999 568 1,186 
Dividends paid(1,650)(1,673)(1,668)
Net cash used in financing activities(19,313)(1,105)(482)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents(47,842)52,560 55,043 
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period230,965 178,405 123,362 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$183,123 $230,965 $178,405 
See accompanying notes.
27


Encore Wire Corporation
Notes to Financial Statements
December 31, 2020
1. Significant Accounting Policies
Business
The Company conducts its business in one segment – the manufacture of electric building wire, principally NM-B cable, for use primarily as interior wiring in homes, apartments, and manufactured housing, and THHN/THWN-2 cable and metal-clad and armored cable for use primarily as wiring in commercial and industrial buildings. The Company sells its products primarily through manufacturers’ representatives located throughout the United States and, to a lesser extent, through its own direct marketing efforts. The principal customers for Encore’s building wire are wholesale electrical distributors.
Copper, a commodity product, is the principal raw material used in the Company’s manufacturing operations. The price of copper fluctuates, depending on general economic conditions and in relation to supply and demand and other factors, and has caused monthly variations in the cost of copper purchased by the Company. The Company cannot predict future copper prices or the effect of fluctuations in the cost of copper on the Company’s future operating results.
Basis of Presentation
The Company's financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its former wholly-owned subsidiary, which was dissolved in December 2018. For periods prior to the subsidiary's dissolution, all intercompany accounts and transactions were eliminated upon consolidation.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. To date, COVID-19 has surfaced in nearly all regions around the world and resulted in travel restrictions and business slowdowns or shutdowns in affected areas. Almost all U.S. states, and many local jurisdictions and countries around the world, have, at times during the pandemic, issued “shelter-in-place” orders, quarantines, executive orders and similar government orders, restrictions, and recommendations for their residents to control the spread of COVID-19. The Company is unable to predict the impact that the continued spread of COVID-19 will have on our financial position and operating results in future periods due to numerous uncertainties. The duration and severity of the outbreak and its long-term impact on our business remain uncertain.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition
The majority of our revenue is derived by fulfilling customer orders for the purchase of our products, which include electrical building wire and cable. We recognize revenue at the point in time that control of the ordered products is transferred to the customer, which is typically upon shipment to the customer from our manufacturing facilities and based on agreed upon shipping terms on the related purchase order. Amounts billed and due from our customers are classified as accounts receivables on the balance sheet and require payment on a short-term basis through standard payment terms.
Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for fulfilling product orders. The amount of consideration we expect to receive and revenue we recognize includes estimates for trade payment discounts and customer rebates which are estimated using historical experience and other relevant factors and is recorded within the same period that the revenue is recognized. We review and update these estimates regularly and the impact of any adjustments are recognized in the period the adjustments are identified. The adjustments resulting from updated estimates of trade payment discounts and customer rebates were not material.
Freight Expenses
The Company classifies shipping and handling costs as a component of selling, general and administrative expenses. Shipping and handling costs were approximately $35.2 million, $33.9 million and $35.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
28


Certain items are required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis, primarily cash equivalents held in banks. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. A three-level hierarchy is followed for disclosure to show the extent and level of judgment used to estimate fair value measurements:
Level 1 – Inputs used to measure fair value are unadjusted quoted prices that are available in active markets for the identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date.
Level 2 – Inputs used to measure fair value, other than quoted prices included in Level 1, are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date through correlation with market data, including quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets and quoted prices in markets that are not active. Level 2 also includes assets and liabilities that are valued using models or other pricing methodologies that do not require significant judgment since the input assumptions used in the models, such as interest rates and volatility factors, are corroborated by readily observable data from actively quoted markets for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3 – Inputs used to measure fair value are unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and reflect the use of significant management judgment. These values are generally determined using pricing models for which the assumptions utilize management’s estimates of market participant assumptions.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, excluding certificates of deposit, approximated fair value, a Level 1 measurement. At December 31, 2020, the Company had no certificates of deposit. At December 31, 2019, the carrying value of the Company’s certificates of deposit totaled $161.3 million approximated fair value, a Level 2 measurement.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Accounts Receivable
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents with high credit quality financial institutions.
Accounts receivable represent amounts due from customers, primarily wholesale electrical distributors, related to the sale of the Company’s products. Such receivables are uncollateralized and are generally due from customers located throughout the United States. Encore has three customers, each of whom slightly exceeds 10% of the Company's total sales. The Company establishes an allowance for credit losses based upon the makeup of the current portfolio, past bad debt experience and current market conditions.
Allowance for Losses Progression (In Thousands)202020192018
Beginning balance January 1$1,801 $2,030 $2,028 
Write-offs of bad debts(286)(230) 
Collection of previous write-offs 1 2 
Adjustment to allowance for credit losses700   
Ending balance at December 31$2,215 $1,801 $2,030 
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. At December 31, 2020, the Company’s cash equivalents consisted of investments in money market accounts with the Company’s banks. At December 31, 2019, the Company’s cash equivalents consisted of investments in money market accounts and certificates of deposit with the Company’s banks.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method, or market. The Company evaluates the market value of its raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods inventory primarily based upon current raw material and finished goods prices at the end of each period.
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Depreciation of property, plant and equipment for financial reporting is provided on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets as follows: buildings and improvements, 3 to 39 years; machinery and equipment, 2 to 20
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years; and furniture and fixtures, 5 to 20 years. Accelerated cost recovery methods are used for tax purposes. Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation
Compensation cost for all equity-based compensation expected to vest is measured at fair value on the date of grant and recognized over the related service period. The fair value of stock awards is determined based on the number of shares granted and the quoted price of Encore’s common stock, and the fair value of stock options and stock appreciation rights is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes model. Such value is recognized as expense over the service period, net of estimated forfeitures, on a straight-line basis. To the extent actual forfeitures or updated estimates of forfeitures differ from management’s current estimates, such amounts are recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised.
Earnings Per Share
Earnings per common and common equivalent share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common stock and common stock equivalents outstanding during each period. The dilutive effects of stock awards, which are common stock equivalents, are calculated using the treasury stock method.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are provided for based on the liability method, resulting in deferred income tax assets and liabilities arising due to temporary differences. Temporary differences are differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years. The effect on deferred income tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period the change in rate is enacted.
Comprehensive Income
Comprehensive income is defined as the change in equity of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. There were no differences between comprehensive income and reported income in the periods presented.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) is the sole source of authoritative U.S. GAAP other than Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") issued rules and regulations that apply only to SEC registrants. The FASB issues an Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) to communicate changes to the codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. The following are those ASUs that are relevant to the Company.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326),” which makes significant changes to the accounting for credit losses on financial assets and disclosures about them. This ASU requires immediate recognition of management’s estimates of current expected credit losses. Under the prior model, losses were recognized only as they were incurred, which FASB has noted delayed recognition of expected losses that might not yet have met the threshold of being probable. The guidance affects all entities in all industries and applies to a wide variety of financial assets, including trade receivables. We adopted this new standard January 1, 2020 and applied a loss rate model to compute the expected credit loss allowance of our short-term trade receivable balances, which we concluded are representative of one collective pool. This method is based on relevant information from past events, including historical experiences, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect collectability. Upon adoption, we recognized a $0.7 million increase to our allowance for credit losses and a corresponding cumulative adjustment to reduce retained earnings, net of income taxes, of $0.5 million. This transition adjustment reflects the development of our models to estimate expected credit losses over the life of our financial assets, which primarily consist of our accounts receivable. Pursuit to ASU 2016-13, we have evaluated our customers’ financial strength and liquidity based on aging of accounts receivable, payment history, and other relevant information, including ratings agency, credit ratings and alerts, and publicly available reports.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” which simplifies the accounting for income taxes, eliminates certain exceptions within ASC 740, Income Taxes, and clarifies certain aspects of the current guidance to promote consistency among reporting entities. This ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted in any interim or annual period. We are evaluating the effect of adopting this new accounting guidance but do not expect adoption will have a material impact on the Company's financial statements or disclosures.
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2. Inventories
Inventories consist of the following as of December 31:
In Thousands20202019
Raw materials$40,842 $25,882 
Work-in-process30,311 25,381 
Finished goods88,544 83,222 
Total159,697 134,485 
Adjust to LIFO cost(67,375)(44,801)
Inventory$92,322 $89,684 
There were no liquidations of inventories that had a material impact on the Company’s results of operations for any period presented.
3. Accrued Liabilities
Accrued liabilities consist of the following as of December 31:
In Thousands20202019
Sales rebates payable$19,317 $16,622 
SAR Liability5,343 3,087 
Property taxes payable4,427 4,011 
Accrued salaries4,096 7,924 
Other accrued liabilities3,683 3,143 
Total accrued liabilities$36,866 $34,787 

4. Debt
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no debt outstanding.
The Company is party to a Credit Agreement (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”) with two banks, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and letter of credit issuer, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association as syndication agent. The Credit Agreement extends through October 1, 2021, and provides for maximum borrowings of $150.0 million. In the third quarter of 2016, the Company signed a Third Amendment to the Credit Agreement, which, along with other minor changes, eliminated the restriction of maximum borrowings based on the amount of eligible accounts receivable plus the amount of eligible finished goods and raw materials, less any reserves established by the banks. Additionally, at our request and subject to certain conditions, the commitments under the Credit Agreement may be increased by a maximum of up to $100.0 million as long as existing or new lenders agree to provide such additional commitments. Borrowings under the line of credit bear interest, at the Company’s option, at either (1) LIBOR plus a margin that varies from 0.875% to 1.75% depending upon the Leverage Ratio (as defined in the Credit Agreement), or (2) the base rate (which is the highest of the federal funds rate plus 0.5%, the prime rate, or LIBOR plus 1.0%) plus % to 0.25% (depending upon the Leverage Ratio). A commitment fee ranging from 0.15% to 0.30% (depending upon the Leverage Ratio) is payable on the unused line of credit. At December 31, 2020, there were no borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement, and letters of credit outstanding in the amount of $0.6 million left $149.4 million of credit available under the Credit Agreement. Obligations under the Credit Agreement are the only contractual borrowing obligations or commercial borrowing commitments of the Company. Obligations under the Credit Agreement are unsecured and contain customary covenants and events of default. The Company was in compliance with the covenants as of December 31, 2020.
On February 9, 2021, the Company terminated the Credit Agreement and entered into a new agreement. The Company is now party to a Credit Agreement ( the “2021 Credit Agreement”) with two banks, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and letter of credit issuer, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association as syndication agent. The 2021 Credit Agreement extends through February 9, 2026, and provides for maximum borrowings of $200.0 million.
The Company paid interest totaling $0.2 million, $0.2 million and $0.3 million in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, none of which was capitalized.
5. Income Taxes
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On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was signed into law. The CARES Act includes several provisions for corporations including payroll tax credits, deferment of employer social security tax payments, expanded net operating loss carryback periods, accelerated alternative minimum tax credit refunds, modifications to the net interest deduction limitations, and technical corrections to tax depreciation methods for qualified improvement property. The CARES Act did not have a material impact on the Company's income tax provision in the year ended December 31, 2020.
The provision for income tax expense are summarized as follows for the years ended December 31:
In Thousands202020192018
Current:
Federal$14,277 $12,675 $18,523 
State2,024 1,549 1,978 
Deferred:
Federal6,285 3,260 2,603 
State143 115 430 
Total income tax expense$22,729 $17,599 $23,534 
The differences between the provision for income taxes and income taxes computed using the federal income tax rate are as follows for the years ended December 31:
In Thousands202020192018
Amount computed using the statutory rate$20,747 $15,903 $21,354 
State income taxes, net of federal tax benefit1,732 1,314 1,903 
Other250 382 277 
Total income tax expense$22,729 $17,599 $23,534 
The tax effect of each type of temporary difference giving rise to the net deferred tax liability at December 31 is as follows:
In Thousands20202019
Depreciation$(35,869)$(27,547)
Inventory503 (1,970)
Allowance for credit losses499 406 
Uniform capitalization rules276 265 
Other754 1,438 
Net deferred income tax liability$(33,837)$(27,408)
The Company's inventory costing method for federal income tax purposes differs from the method allowed by GAAP. Both methods of inventory costing result in the same recovery of inventory. However, the timing of the recovery varies. As of December 31, 2020 the Company's tax inventory exceeds its book inventory, which created a deferred tax asset of $503k.
The Company made income tax payments of $14.1 million in 2020, $16.4 million in 2019 and $22.3 million in 2018.
The Company was audited by the IRS for the year 2015. The audit concluded with no adjustments. The Company’s federal income tax returns for the years subsequent to December 31, 2016 remain subject to examination. The Company’s income tax returns in major state income tax jurisdictions remain subject to examination for various periods subsequent to December 31, 2015. The Company has no reserves for uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2020 and 2019. Interest and penalties resulting from audits by tax authorities have been immaterial and are included in the provision for income taxes in the statements of income.
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6. Stock-Based Compensation
Total stock-based compensation expense by type of award was as follows for the years ended December 31:
In Thousands202020192018
Stock options$561 $635 $1,209 
Stock appreciation rights (“SARs”)3,377 2,906 894 
Restricted Stock Awards1,101 $907 $ 
Stock grants244 269 $235 
Total stock-based compensation expense$5,283 $4,717 $2,338 
In 2020, the Board of Directors adopted a new stock option plan called the Encore Wire 2020 Long Term Incentive Plan (the “2020 LTIP”) which was approved by the Company’s stockholders at the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The 2020 LTIP permits the granting of 1,000,000 securities in the form of options to purchase shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights, restricted common stock, restricted stock units, unrestricted common stock, dividend equivalents, cash awards, or performance awards to non-employee directors, officers and employees of the Company. The 2010 Stock Option Plan expired on February 20, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, 994,500 securities remained available for grant under the 2020 LTIP.
Stock Options:
No stock option awards were granted in 2020 or 2019. The Company granted stock option awards in 2018 with exercise prices equal to the fair market value of its stock on the date of grant of the options. These options vest ratably over a period of five years from the time the options were granted. The maximum term of any option previously granted under the 2010 Stock Option Plan or granted in the future under the 2020 LTIP is ten years. New shares are issued upon the exercise of options.
The following presents a summary of stock option activity for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Number
of
Shares
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(In Thousands)
Outstanding at January 1, 2020393,500 $42.36 
Exercised(68,972)49.80 
Forfeited/Canceled(10,028)51.63 
Outstanding at December 31, 2020314,500 $41.82 5.1 years$5,898 
Vested and exercisable at December 31, 2020226,000 $40.03 4.5 years$4,642 
The fair value of stock options granted in the year ended December 31, 2018, was estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option pricing model and the following weighted average assumptions:
Year Ended December 31,
2018
Risk-free interest rate2.36 %
Expected dividend yield0.16 %
Expected volatility31.40 %
Expected lives5.0 years
The Company bases expected volatilities on historical volatilities of Encore's common stock. The expected life represents the weighted average period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding giving consideration to vesting periods and management’s consideration of historical exercise patterns. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for periods corresponding to the expected life of the option. The expected dividend yield is based on the annualized dividend payment paid on common shares.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the weighted average grant date fair value of options granted was $15.95. During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the total intrinsic value of options exercised was $0.4 million, $0.7 million and $0.9 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested stock options of $0.7 million was expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 1.8 years.
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Stock Appreciation Rights:
In 2014, the Board of Directors adopted a new stock appreciation rights plan called the Encore Wire 2014 Stock Appreciation Rights Plan (the “2014 SARs Plan”). The 2014 SARs Plan permits the grant of SARs that may only be settled in cash to non-executive officers and employees of the Company. SARs granted to employees vest ratably over a period of five years from the time the SARs were granted. The maximum term of any SARs granted under the 2014 SARs Plan is ten years. These awards are classified as liability awards. The liability balances were $5.3 million and $3.1 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and are included in accrued liabilities. Compensation cost for these awards is determined using a fair value method and remeasured at each reporting date until the date of settlement. As of December 31, 2020, a total of 679,500 SARs were outstanding under the 2014 SARs Plan.
The following presents a summary of SARs activity for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Cash-settled SARsWeighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(In Thousands)
Outstanding at January 1, 2020565,300 $48.18 
Granted227,500 58.77 
Exercised(85,500)57.52 
Forfeited/Canceled(27,800)53.01 
Outstanding at December 31, 2020679,500 $51.99 7.7 years$5,831 
Vested and exercisable at December 31, 2020113,900 $47.31 6.6 years$1,511 
The fair value of SARs granted during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, was estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option pricing model and the following weighted average assumptions:
Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
Risk-free interest rate0.18 %1.62 %2.53 %
Expected dividend yield0.13 %0.14 %0.16 %
Expected volatility35.51 %28.46 %30.83 %
Expected lives2.8 years3.0 years3.0 years
The Company bases expected volatilities on historical volatilities of Encore's common stock. The expected life represents the weighted average period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding giving consideration to vesting periods and management’s consideration of historical exercise patterns. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for periods corresponding to the expected life of the option. The expected dividend yield is based on the annualized dividend payment paid on common shares.
During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the weighted average grant date fair value of SARs granted was $17.94, $17.19 and $14.94, respectively, and the total intrinsic value of SARs exercised was $1.1 million, $2.1 million, and $1.1 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested SARs of $6.6 million was expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 3.1 years.
Restricted Stock Awards:
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company granted 37,000 shares and 60,000 shares, respectively, of restricted stock to employees pursuant to the 2010 Stock Option Plan, with weighted grant date fair values of $58.90 and $54.49 per share, respectively. There were no restricted shares issued in 2018. As of December 31, 2020, there was $3.4 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested shares. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.5 years. The total fair value of shares vested during the year ending December 31, 2020 was $0.7 million.
The following presents a summary of restricted stock activity for the year ended December 31, 2020:
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Weighted Average
Number of SharesGrant Date Fair Value
Outstanding at January 1, 202050,000 $55.00 
Granted37,000 58.90 
Vested(12,000)55.94 
Unvested at December 31, 2020$75,000 $56.77 

Stock Grants:
In May 2020, the Company granted 1,100 shares of stock to each of the 5 non-employee directors, with a grant date fair value of $44.31 per share. In June 2019, the Company granted 1,000 shares of stock to each of the 5 non-employee directors pursuant to the 2010 Stock Option Plan with a grant date fair value of $53.81 per share. In May 2018, the Company granted 1,000 shares of stock to each of the 5 non-employee directors, with a grant date fair value of $46.95 per share.
7. Earnings Per Share
The following table sets forth certain components of the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share for the years ended December 31:
In Thousands202020192018
Numerator:
Net income$76,067 $58,129 $78,150 
Denominator:
Denominator for basic earnings per share – weighted average shares20,599 20,904 20,845 
Effect of dilutive securities:
Employee stock awards54 86 65 
Denominator for diluted earnings per share – weighted average shares20,653 20,990 20,910 
Stock options to purchase common stock at exercise prices in excess of the average actual stock price for the period that were anti-dilutive and that were excluded from the determination of diluted earnings per share are as follows:
In Thousands, Except Per Share Data202020192018
Weighted average anti-dilutive stock options136 118 181 
Weighted average exercise price per share$51.20 $51.05 $50.20 

8. Stockholders’ Equity
On November 10, 2006, the Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to an authorized number of shares of its common stock on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions at prices determined by the President of the Company during the term of the program. The Company’s Board of Directors has authorized several increases and annual extensions of this stock repurchase program, and, as of December 31, 2020, 1,000,000 shares remained authorized for repurc