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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File No. 001-07511
STATE STREET CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
MA
04-2456637
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Lincoln Street
Boston,
MA
02111
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(617)
786-3000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 par value per share
STT
New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/4,000th ownership interest in a share of
STT.PRD
New York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series D, without par value per share
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/4,000th ownership interest in a share of
STT.PRG
New York Stock Exchange
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series G, without par value per share

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes    No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer  Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the per share price ($63.55) at which the common equity was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2020) was approximately $22.34 billion.
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of January 29, 2021 was 351,786,357.
Portions of the following documents are incorporated by reference into Parts of this Report on Form 10-K, to the extent noted in such Parts, as indicated below:
(1) The registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A on or before April 30, 2021 (Part III).




STATE STREET CORPORATION
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K FOR THE YEAR ENDED
December 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Forward-Looking Statements4
Risk Factors Summary4
PART I
Item 1Business
Item 1ARisk Factors
Item 1BUnresolved Staff Comments
Item 2Properties
Item 3Legal Proceedings
Item 4Mine Safety Disclosures
Supplemental ItemInformation about our Executive Officers
PART II
Item 5Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6Selected Financial Data
Item 7Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
General
Overview of Financial Results
Consolidated Results of Operations
Total Revenue
Net Interest Income
Provision for Credit Losses
Expenses
Acquisition Costs
Restructuring and Repositioning Charges
  Income Tax Expense
Line of Business Information
Investment Servicing
Investment Management
Financial Condition
Investment Securities
Loans and Leases
Cross-Border Outstandings
Risk Management
Credit Risk Management
Liquidity Risk Management
Operational Risk Management
Information Technology Risk Management
Market Risk Management
Model Risk Management
Strategic Risk Management
Capital
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Significant Accounting Estimates
Recent Accounting Developments
Item 7AQuantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
State Street Corporation | 2



Item 8Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Consolidated Statement of Income
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Statement of Condition
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Shareholders' Equity
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Fair Value
Note 3. Investment Securities
Note 4. Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses
Note 5. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Note 6. Other Assets
Note 7. Deposits
Note 8. Short-Term Borrowings
Note 9. Long-Term Debt
Note 10. Derivative Financial Instruments
Note 11. Offsetting Arrangements
Note 12. Commitments and Guarantees
Note 13. Contingencies
Note 14. Variable Interest Entities
Note 15. Shareholders' Equity
Note 16. Regulatory Capital
Note 17. Net Interest Income
Note 18. Equity-Based Compensation
Note 19. Employee Benefits
Note 20. Occupancy Expense and Information Systems and Communications Expense
Note 21. Expenses
Note 22. Income Taxes
Note 23. Earnings Per Common Share
Note 24. Line of Business Information
Note 25. Revenue From Contracts with customers
Note 26. Non-U.S. Activities
Note 27. Parent Company Financial Statements
Note 28. Subsequent Events
Item 9Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9AControls and Procedures
Item 9BOther Information
PART III
Item 10Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11Executive Compensation
Item 12Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14Principal Accounting Fees and Services
PART IV
Item 15Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16Form 10-K Summary
EXHIBIT INDEX
SIGNATURES
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Forward-Looking Statements
This Form 10-K, as well as other reports and proxy materials submitted by us under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, registration statements filed by us under the Securities Act of 1933, our annual report to shareholders and other public statements we may make, may contain statements (including statements in our Management's Discussion and Analysis included in such reports, as applicable) that are considered “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. securities laws, including statements about our goals and expectations regarding our business, financial and capital condition, results of operations, strategies, cost savings and transformation initiatives, investment portfolio performance, dividend and stock purchase programs, outcomes of legal proceedings, market growth, acquisitions, joint ventures and divestitures, client growth and new technologies, services and opportunities, as well as industry, governmental, regulatory, economic and market trends, initiatives and developments, the business environment and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts.
Terminology such as “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” “objective,” “forecast,” “outlook,” “believe,” “priority,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “seek,” “may,” “will,” “trend,” “target,” “strategy” and “goal,” or similar statements or variations of such terms, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such terms.
Forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, which change over time, are based on management's expectations and assumptions at the time the statements are made and are not guarantees of future results. Management's expectations and assumptions, and the continued validity of the forward-looking statements, are subject to change due to a broad range of factors affecting the U.S. and global economies, regulatory environment and the equity, debt, currency and other financial markets, as well as factors specific to State Street and its subsidiaries, including State Street Bank. Factors that could cause changes in the expectations or assumptions on which forward-looking statements are based cannot be foreseen with certainty and include the factors described under the headings "Risk Factors Summary" and "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, including under "Management's Discussion and Analysis."
Actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed in our forward-looking statements and from our historical financial results due to the factors discussed in this section and elsewhere in this Form 10-K or disclosed in our other SEC filings. Forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K should not be relied on as representing our expectations or assumptions as of any time
subsequent to the time this Form 10-K is filed with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to revise our forward-looking statements after the time they are made. The factors discussed herein are not intended to be a complete statement of all risks and uncertainties that may affect our businesses. We cannot anticipate all developments that may adversely affect our business or operations or our consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Forward-looking statements should not be viewed as predictions and should not be the primary basis on which investors evaluate State Street. Any investor in State Street should consider all risks and uncertainties disclosed in our SEC filings, including our filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, in particular our annual reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K, or registration statements filed under the Securities Act of 1933, all of which are accessible on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov or on the “Investor Relations” section of our corporate website at www.statestreet.com.
Risk Factors Summary
The following is a summary of the material risks we are exposed to in the course of our business activities. The below summary does not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read the below summary together with the more detailed discussion of risks set forth under the heading "Risk Factors," as well as elsewhere in this Form 10-K under the heading "Management's Discussion and Analysis."
Strategic Risks
We are subject to intense competition, which could negatively affect our profitability;
We are subject to significant pricing pressure and variability in our financial results and our AUC/A and AUM;
Our development and completion of new products and services, including State Street Alpha, may involve costs and dependencies and expose us to increased risk;
Our business may be negatively affected by our failure to update and maintain our technology infrastructure;
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to create significant risks and uncertainties for our business;
Acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures, and the integration, retention and development of the benefits of our acquisitions, pose risks for our business;
The integration of CRD may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected, and the anticipated benefits and cost synergies may not be fully realized; and
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Competition for qualified members of our workforce is intense, and we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled people we need to support our business.
Financial Market Risks
We could be adversely affected by geopolitical, economic and market conditions;
We have significant International operations, and disruptions in European and Asian economies could have an adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations or financial condition;
Our investment securities portfolio, consolidated financial condition and consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the financial markets;
Our business activities expose us to interest rate risk;
We assume significant credit risk to counterparties, who may also have substantial financial dependencies with other financial institutions, and these credit exposures and concentrations could expose us to financial loss;
Our fee revenue represents a significant portion of our consolidated revenue and is subject to decline based on, among other factors, the investment activities of our clients;
If we are unable to effectively manage our capital and liquidity, our consolidated financial condition, capital ratios, results of operations and business prospects could be adversely affected;
We may need to raise additional capital or debt in the future, which may not be available to us or may only be available on unfavorable terms; and
If we experience a downgrade in our credit ratings, or an actual or perceived reduction in our financial strength, our borrowing and capital costs, liquidity and reputation could be adversely affected.
Compliance and Regulatory Risks
Our business and capital-related activities, including common share repurchases, may be adversely affected by capital and liquidity standards required as a result of capital stress testing;
We face extensive and changing government regulation in the jurisdictions in which we operate, which may increase our costs and compliance risks;
We are subject to enhanced external oversight as a result of the resolution of prior regulatory or governmental matters;
Our businesses may be adversely affected by government enforcement and litigation;
We are subject to various legal proceedings relating to the manner in which we have invoiced certain expenses, and the outcome of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations or harm our business or reputation;
Any misappropriation of the confidential information we possess could have an adverse impact on our business and could subject us to regulatory actions, litigation and other adverse effects;
Our calculations of risk exposures, total RWA and capital ratios depend on data inputs, formulae, models, correlations and assumptions that are subject to change, which could materially impact our risk exposures, our total RWA and our capital ratios from period to period;
Changes in accounting standards may adversely affect our consolidated financial statements;
Changes in tax laws, rules or regulations, challenges to our tax positions and changes in the composition of our pre-tax earnings may increase our effective tax rate; and
The transition away from LIBOR may result in additional costs and increased risk exposure.
Operational Risks
Our control environment may be inadequate, fail or be circumvented, and operational risks could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations;
Cost shifting to non-U.S. jurisdictions and outsourcing may expose us to increased operational risk and reputational harm and may not result in expected cost savings;
If we, or the third parties with which we do business, experience failures, attacks or unauthorized access to our or their respective information technology systems or facilities, or disruptions to our continuous operations, this could result in significant costs, reputational damage and limits on our business activities;
Long-term contracts expose us to pricing and performance risk;
Our businesses may be negatively affected by adverse publicity or other reputational harm;
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property;
The quantitative models we use to manage our business may contain errors that could result in material harm;
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Our reputation and business prospects may be damaged if our clients incur substantial losses or are restricted in redeeming their interests in investment pools that we sponsor or manage;
The impacts of climate change could adversely affect our business operations; and
We may incur losses as a result of unforeseen events including terrorist attacks, natural disasters, the emergence of a new pandemic or acts of embezzlement.
PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GENERAL
State Street Corporation, referred to as the Parent Company, is a financial holding company organized in 1969 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Our executive offices are located at One Lincoln Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (telephone (617) 786-3000). For purposes of this Form 10-K, unless the context requires otherwise, references to “State Street,” “we,” “us,” “our” or similar terms mean State Street Corporation and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. The Parent Company is a source of financial and managerial strength to our subsidiaries. Through our subsidiaries, including our principal banking subsidiary, State Street Bank and Trust Company, referred to as State Street Bank, we provide a broad range of financial products and services to institutional investors worldwide, with $38.79 trillion of AUC/A and $3.47 trillion of AUM as of December 31, 2020.
As of December 31, 2020, we had consolidated total assets of $314.71 billion, consolidated total deposits of $239.80 billion, consolidated total shareholders' equity of $26.20 billion and over 39,000 employees. We operate in more than 100 geographic markets worldwide, including the U.S., Canada, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.
On the “Investor Relations” section of our corporate website at www.statestreet.com, we make available, free of charge, all reports we electronically file with, or furnish to, the SEC including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after those documents have been filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. These documents are also accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We have included the website addresses of State Street and the SEC in this report as inactive textual references only. Information on those websites is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K.
We have Corporate Governance Guidelines, as well as written charters for the Examining and Audit
Committee, the Executive Committee, the Human Resources Committee, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, the Risk Committee and the Technology and Operations Committee of our Board of Directors, or Board, and a Code of Ethics for senior financial officers, a Standard of Conduct for Directors and a Standard of Conduct for our employees. Each of these documents is posted on the "Investor Relations" section of our website under "Corporate Governance."
We provide additional disclosures required by applicable bank regulatory standards, including supplemental qualitative and quantitative information with respect to regulatory capital (including market risk associated with our trading activities) and the liquidity coverage ratio, summary results of State Street-run stress tests which we conduct under the Dodd-Frank Act and resolution plan disclosures required under the Dodd-Frank Act. These additional disclosures are available on the “Investor Relations” section of our website under "Filings and Reports."
We use acronyms and other defined terms for certain business terms and abbreviations, as defined on the acronyms list and glossary under Item 8 in this Form 10-K.
BUSINESS DESCRIPTION
Overview
We conduct our business primarily through State Street Bank, which traces its beginnings to the founding of the Union Bank in 1792. State Street Bank's current charter was authorized by a special Act of the Massachusetts Legislature in 1891, and its present name was adopted in 1960. State Street Bank operates as a specialized bank, referred to as a trust or custody bank, that services and manages assets on behalf of its institutional clients.
Our clients include mutual funds, collective investment funds and other investment pools, corporate and public retirement plans, insurance companies, foundations, endowments and investment managers.
LINES OF BUSINESS
We have two lines of business: Investment Servicing and Investment Management.
Investment Servicing
Our Investment Servicing line of business performs core custody and related value-added functions, such as providing institutional investors with clearing, settlement and payment services. Our financial services and products allow our large institutional investor clients to execute financial transactions on a daily basis in markets across the globe. As most institutional investors cannot economically or efficiently build their own technology and operational processes necessary to facilitate their global securities settlement needs, our role as a
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global trust and custody bank is generally to aid our clients to efficiently perform services associated with the clearing, settlement and execution of securities transactions and related payments.
Our Investment Servicing products and services include: custody; product accounting; daily pricing and administration; master trust and master custody; depotbank services (a fund oversight role created by non-U.S. regulation); record-keeping; cash management; foreign exchange, brokerage and other trading services; securities finance and enhanced custody products; deposit and short-term investment facilities; loans and lease financing; investment manager and alternative investment manager operations outsourcing; performance, risk and compliance analytics; and financial data management to support institutional investors.
Included within our Investment Servicing line of business is Charles River Systems, Inc. (CRD), which we acquired in October 2018. The Charles River Investment Management solution is a technology offering which is designed to automate and simplify the institutional investment process across asset classes, from portfolio management and risk analytics through trading and post-trade settlement, with integrated compliance and managed data throughout. With the acquisition of CRD, we took the first step in building our front-to-back platform, State Street AlphaSM (State Street Alpha). Today, our State Street Alpha platform combines portfolio management, trading and execution, advanced data aggregation, analytics and compliance tools, and integration with other industry platforms and providers.
We provide some or all of the Investment Servicing integrated products and services to clients in the U.S. and in many other markets, including, among others, Australia, Cayman Islands, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, South Korea and the U.K. As of December 31, 2020, we serviced AUC/A of approximately $28.25 trillion in the Americas, approximately $8.10 trillion in Europe and the Middle East and approximately $2.45 trillion in the Asia-Pacific region1.
Investment Management
Our Investment Management line of business, through State Street Global Advisors, provides a broad range of investment management strategies and products for our clients. Our investment management strategies and products span the risk/reward spectrum for equity, fixed income and cash assets, including core and enhanced indexing, multi-asset strategies, active quantitative and fundamental active capabilities and alternative investment strategies. Our AUM is currently primarily weighted to indexed strategies. In addition, we provide a breadth
of services and solutions, including environmental, social and governance investing, defined benefit and defined contribution and Global Fiduciary Solutions (formerly Outsourced Chief Investment Officer). State Street Global Advisors is also a provider of ETFs, including the SPDR® ETF brand. While management fees are primarily determined by the values of AUM and the investment strategies employed, management fees reflect other factors as well, including the benchmarks specified in the respective management agreements related to performance fees. As of December 31, 2020, State Street Global Advisors had AUM of approximately $3.47 trillion.
Additional information about our lines of business is provided under “Line of Business Information” included in our Management's Discussion and Analysis, and in Note 24 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-K. Additional information about our non-U.S. activities is included in Note 26 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-K.
COMPETITION
We operate in a highly competitive environment in all areas of our business globally. Our competitors include a broad range of financial institutions and servicing companies, including other custodial banks, deposit-taking institutions, investment management firms, insurance companies, mutual funds, broker/dealers, investment banks, benefits consultants, investment analytics businesses, business service and software companies and information services firms. As our businesses grow and markets evolve, we may encounter increasing and new forms of competition around the world.
We believe that many key factors drive competition in the markets for our business. Technological expertise, economies of scale, required levels of capital, pricing, quality and scope of services, and sales and marketing are critical to our Investment Servicing line of business. For our Investment Management line of business, key competitive factors include expertise, experience, availability of related service offerings, quality of service, price, efficiency of our products and services, and performance.
Our competitive success may depend on our ability to develop and market new and innovative services, to adopt or develop new technologies, to implement efficiencies into our operational processes, to bring new services to market in a timely fashion at competitive prices, to integrate existing and future products and services effectively into State Street Alpha, to continue to expand our relationships with existing clients, and to attract new clients.
We are a systemically important financial institution (SIFI) and are subject to extensive
1 Geographic mix is generally based on the domicile of the entity servicing the funds and is not necessarily representative of the underlying asset mix.
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regulation and supervision with respect to our operations and activities. Not all of our competitors have similarly been designated as systemically important nor are all of them subject to the same degree of regulation as a bank or financial holding company, and therefore some of our competitors may not be subject to the same limitations, requirements and standards with respect to their operations and activities. Most other financial institutions designated as systemically important have substantially greater financial resources and a broader base of operations than we do and are, consequently, in a better competitive position to manage and bear the costs of this enhanced regulatory requirement. See "Supervision and Regulation" in this Item for more information.
HUMAN RESOURCES
Our employees are a core asset and a key driver of our long-term performance. Our employees drive the company’s value proposition, innovate better ways to serve our clients and act as custodians of our reputation. We seek to empower our employees by providing development and learning opportunities to keep our personnel engaged and help our teams reach their full potential, by promoting an inclusive and diverse workplace and by improving productivity and efficiency. We first measure our executives’ business and technical performance, and then may further adjust their compensation, based on their risk performance and their performance against critical leadership behaviors and culture traits that align with our human capital management strategy.
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on how we managed our human capital. Nearly all of our workforce began working remotely, reaching approximately 90% in April 2020, and we instituted safety protocols and procedures for the essential employees who returned to work on site. During this period of uncertainty for our employees, we committed in the first quarter of 2020 that no workforce reductions would occur in 2020, other than for performance or conduct reasons. Due to the net impact of hiring and attrition levels, both of which we monitor closely, our workforce at the end of 2020 was up 1% compared to 2019 at approximately 39,000 employees, 67% of whom are located outside the U.S. Moreover, approximately 90% of responding employees indicated during an all-employee survey that they were proud of the way the company is responding to the crisis.
Reflecting the key role of human capital in our business strategy, in 2020, we renamed the Board of Directors’ Executive Compensation Committee as the Human Resources Committee and highlighted in its charter the Committee’s oversight responsibilities for human capital management, including recruitment, retention and inclusion and diversity initiatives. We also established the Enterprise Talent Management Committee, a management-level committee, consisting of senior leaders of our organization, which
oversees our global business activities. The Enterprise Talent Management Committee provides leadership, input and advisory oversight for all aspects of our global talent related initiatives that support achievement of our strategic priority to become a high-performing organization.
Our Culture and Values
Our culture and values help to define us as a company and are embodied in the following culture traits we expect of our employees:
Choose to Own It;
Break Through Silos;
Deliver Results with Integrity and Speed;
Do Better Every Day; and
Care for Our Colleagues, Clients and Community.
We believe that an inclusive and diverse culture where all employees feel valued and engaged makes State Street a desirable place to work, helps us to attract key talent and retain employees as they grow in their careers and fosters an environment that enhances each individual’s productivity and professional satisfaction.
The integrity and ethical decision-making of our employees is also paramount for our culture. We encourage employees to speak up if they see behavior that is inconsistent with our Standard of Conduct and values, and we provide multiple channels for them to do so. Our goal is to promote ethical conduct by treating minor policy breaches as learning opportunities, with major policy breaches and misconduct treated promptly, professionally, and seriously.
Compensation Philosophy
Our overall aim with respect to compensation is to reward and motivate high-performing employees and to provide competitive incentive opportunities, encouraging employees to learn and grow in their careers. Compensation is typically comprised of fixed compensation, which reflects individual skills and abilities relative to role requirements, and variable compensation, which is designed to link total compensation opportunities to organizational, business line, risk management and individual performance. Our compensation program is intended to drive our business strategy by differentiating pay based on performance against annual objectives.
Development and Learning
Professional development and employee learning are key elements of our talent retention strategy. We seek to align our learning and development programs with our long-term strategy by offering skills enhancement targeting the rapidly changing, technology-centric demands of the financial services industry to our workforce. We also provide
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targeted professional development opportunities and new roles for key talent, which we believe helps to deepen our employees’ skillsets and provides them with a broader perspective on the organization. To help leverage our internal talent, we launched an internal talent marketplace during 2020. The talent marketplace is an innovative way for employees to access new roles, skills, and opportunities, and for managers to recruit internal talent. By broadening every employee’s access to roles and by showing managers the full breadth of talent at State Street, our goal is to provide better pathways to long-term success for all employees.
Inclusion and Diversity
While inclusion and diversity have long been a focus for our company, we are working to accelerate progress against our racial/ethnic diversity goals and build more equity through all of our talent processes and within our communities via “10 Actions Against Racism and Inequality,” which we announced in July 2020. These concrete actions are intended to address racial and social injustice by improving inclusion and diversity within our own organization and advocating for the same in our industry. While we have taken many steps to address inequality and racism in our organization, in our communities, and through our asset stewardship program, we have more work to do. This includes our plan to increase the representation, development, and advancement of Black and Latinx employees and working with our Board of Directors to add Black and Latinx directors by 2022. More details on the “10 Actions” are available on our website.
At the end of 2020, our global workforce was 54.5% male and 45.2% female, and women represented 30.1% of our leadership (defined as senior vice president level and above). In the U.S., 30% of our workforce self-identified as employees of color. We also publish our demographic data in our EEO-1 report, which is included in our Corporate Responsibility Report (renamed as our ‘Environmental, Social and Governance Report’ for 2020), and can be found in the Values section of our website.
Organizational Effectiveness
Driving improvements in both individual and organizational productivity is a key ongoing focus of our overall human capital management strategy. We seek to enhance the value each employee is able to contribute by investing in new technologies, designing more effective organizational structures, improving processes and operating models, optimizing our global footprint, and aligning incentives to outcomes. We believe that improving the productivity of our workforce will yield more engaged and higher performing employees and better products and services for our clients.
Additional Information
Additional information on our human capital management strategy, including detailed demographic data, will be contained in our 2020 Environmental, Social and Governance Report, which we expect to make available on our website by April 30, 2021.
SUPERVISION AND REGULATION
We are registered with the Federal Reserve as a bank holding company pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. The Bank Holding Company Act generally limits the activities in which bank holding companies and their non-banking subsidiaries may engage to managing or controlling banks and to a range of activities that are considered to be closely related to banking. Bank holding companies that have elected to be treated as financial holding companies, such as the Parent Company, may engage in a broader range of activities considered to be "financial in nature." The regulatory limits on our activities also apply to non-banking entities that we are deemed to “control” for purposes of the Bank Holding Company Act, which may include companies of which we own or control 5% or more of a class of voting shares. The Federal Reserve may order a bank holding company to terminate any activity, or its ownership or control of a non-banking subsidiary, if the Federal Reserve finds that the activity, ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of a banking subsidiary or is inconsistent with sound banking principles or statutory purposes. The Bank Holding Company Act also requires a bank holding company to obtain prior approval of the Federal Reserve before it acquires substantially all the assets of any bank, or ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank.
The Parent Company has elected to be treated as a financial holding company and, as such, may engage in a broader range of non-banking activities than permitted for bank holding companies and their subsidiaries that have not elected to become financial holding companies. Financial holding companies may engage directly or indirectly, either de novo or by acquisition, in activities that are defined by the Federal Reserve to be financial in nature, provided that the financial holding company gives the Federal Reserve after-the-fact notice of the new activities. Activities defined to be financial in nature include, but are not limited to: providing financial or investment advice; underwriting; dealing in or making markets in securities; making merchant banking investments, subject to significant limitations; and any activities previously found by the Federal Reserve to be closely related to banking. In order to maintain our status as a financial holding company, we and each of our U.S. depository institution subsidiaries are expected to be well capitalized and well managed, as defined in applicable regulations and determined in part by the
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results of regulatory examinations, and must comply with Community Reinvestment Act obligations. Failure to maintain these standards may result in restrictions on our activities and may ultimately permit the Federal Reserve to take enforcement actions against us and restrict our ability to engage in activities defined to be financial in nature. Currently, under the Bank Holding Company Act, we may not be able to engage in new activities or acquire shares or control of other businesses.
In response to the 2008 financial crisis, as well as other factors, such as technological and market changes, both the scope of the laws and regulations and the intensity of the supervision to which our business is subject has increased. Regulatory enforcement and fines have also increased across the banking and financial services sector. Many of these changes have occurred as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations, most of which are now in place. Subsequently, in May 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (EGRRCPA) was enacted. The EGRRCPA’s revisions to the U.S. financial regulatory framework have altered certain laws and regulations applicable to us and other major financial services firms. Irrespective of any regulatory change, we expect that our business will remain subject to extensive regulation and supervision.
In addition, increased regulatory requirements and initiatives have been and are being implemented internationally with respect to financial institutions, including the implementation of the Basel III rule (refer to “Regulatory Capital Adequacy and Liquidity Standards” in this “Supervision and Regulation” section and under "Capital" in “Financial Condition” in our Management's Discussion and Analysis in this Form 10-K for a discussion of Basel III), the European Commission’s Investment Firm Review and Central Securities Depositories Regulation, as well as upcoming proposals for a review of the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive and proposals under the Capital Markets Union Action Plan.
Many aspects of our business are subject to regulation by other U.S. federal and state governmental and regulatory agencies and self-regulatory organizations (including securities exchanges), and by non-U.S. governmental and regulatory agencies and self-regulatory organizations. Some aspects of our public disclosure, corporate governance principles and internal control systems are subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations and rules of the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange.
Regulatory Capital Adequacy and Liquidity Standards
Basel III Rule
We, as an advanced approaches banking organization, are subject to the Basel III framework in
the U.S. The provisions of the Basel III rule related to minimum capital requirements, regulatory capital buffers and deductions and adjustments to regulatory capital were fully implemented as of January 1, 2019. We are also subject to the market risk capital rule jointly issued by U.S. banking regulators to implement the changes to the market risk capital framework in the U.S.
As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, we, as an advanced approaches banking organization, are subject to a "capital floor," also referred to as the Collins Amendment, in the assessment of our regulatory capital adequacy, including the capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer described below in this "Supervision and Regulation" section. Our risk-based capital ratios for regulatory assessment purposes are the lower of each ratio calculated under the standardized approach and the advanced approaches.
Risk Weighted Assets
The Basel III rule provides for two frameworks for the calculation of RWA for purposes of bank regulatory compliance: the “standardized” approach and the “advanced” approaches, which are applicable to advanced approaches banking organizations, like us.
The standardized approach prescribes standardized risk weights for certain on- and off-balance sheet exposures in the calculation of RWA. The advanced approaches consist of the Advanced Internal Ratings-Based Approach (AIRB) used for the calculation of RWA related to credit risk and the Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) used for the calculation of RWA related to operational risk.
In November 2019, the Federal Reserve and the other U.S. federal banking agencies (U.S. Agencies) issued a final rule that, among other things, implements the standardized approach for counterparty credit risk (SA-CCR), a new methodology for calculating the exposure amount for derivative contracts. Under the final rule, which becomes effective on January 1, 2022, we will have the option to use the SA-CCR or the Internal Model Methodology (IMM) to measure the exposure amount of our cleared and uncleared derivative transactions under our advanced approaches calculation. We will be required to determine the amount of these exposures using the SA-CCR under our standardized approach capital calculation. Due to the nature of our trading activities, the impact of the final rule may have a greater proportional impact on our RWA than on some of our G-SIB peers. In addition, under the final rule we will be required to use a simplified formula to determine the RWA amount of our central counterparty default fund contributions.

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Minimum Risk-Based Capital Requirements
Among other things, the Basel III rule (as amended) requires:
a minimum CET1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5% and a minimum SLR of 3% for advanced approaches banking organizations;
a minimum Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6%;
a minimum total capital ratio of 8%; and
the stress capital and countercyclical capital buffers, referenced below, as well as a G-SIB surcharge and the enhanced SLR (which acts as an SLR buffer) described in "Capital" in "Financial Condition" in our Management's Discussion and Analysis in this Form 10-K.
Under the Basel III rule, our total regulatory capital is composed of three tiers: CET1 capital, Tier 1 capital (which includes CET1 capital), and Tier 2 capital. The total of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital, adjusted as applicable, is referred to as total regulatory capital.
CET1 capital is composed of core capital elements, such as qualifying common shareholders' equity and related surplus plus retained earnings and the cumulative effect of foreign currency translation plus net unrealized gains (losses) on debt and equity securities classified as AFS, less treasury stock and less goodwill and other intangible assets, net of related deferred tax liabilities. Tier 1 capital is composed of CET1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital instruments which, for us, includes four series of preferred equity outstanding as of December 31, 2020. Tier 2 capital includes certain eligible subordinated long-term debt instruments. Total regulatory capital consists of Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital.
Certain other items, if applicable, must be deducted from Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital, including certain investments in the capital of unconsolidated banking, financial and insurance entities and the amount of expected credit losses that exceeds recorded allowances for loan and other credit losses. Expected credit losses are calculated for wholesale credit exposures by formula in conformity with the Basel III rule.
G-SIB Surcharge
The eight U.S. bank holding companies deemed to be G-SIBs, including us, are required to calculate the G-SIB surcharge annually according to two methods, and be bound by the higher of the two:
Method 1: Assesses systemic importance based upon five equally-weighted components: size, interconnectedness, complexity, cross-jurisdictional activity and substitutability; or
Method 2: Alters the calculation from Method 1 by factoring in a short-term wholesale funding score in place of substitutability and applying a 2x multiplier to the sum of the five components.
Method 2 is the binding methodology for us as of December 31, 2020, and our applicable surcharge for 2021 was calculated to be 1.0% based on a calculation date of December 31, 2019.
Stress Capital Buffer
On March 4, 2020, the U.S. Agencies issued the Stress Capital Buffer (SCB) final rule that replaces, under the standardized approach, the capital conservation buffer (2.5%) with an SCB calculated as the difference between the institution’s starting and lowest projected CET1 ratio under the CCAR severely adverse scenario plus planned common stock dividend payments (as a percentage of RWA) from the fourth through seventh quarter of the CCAR planning horizon. The SCB requirement, which became effective October 1, 2020, can be no less than 2.5% of RWA. On June 25, 2020, we were notified by the Federal Reserve of our preliminary SCB at the minimum of 2.5% for the period of October 1, 2020 through September 30, 2021, which was later finalized on August 10, 2020. For additional information about the SCB final rule, refer to “Capital Planning, Stress Tests and Dividends” in this "Supervision and Regulation" section.
Under the SCB final rule, a banking organization would be able to make capital distributions (subject to other regulatory constraints, such as regulatory review of its capital plans) and discretionary bonus payments without specified limitations, as long as it maintains the required capital conservation buffer of 2.5% plus the applicable G-SIB surcharge (plus any potentially applicable countercyclical capital buffer) over the minimum required risk-based capital ratios and leverage based requirements. From time to time, under certain economic conditions, banking regulators may establish a minimum countercyclical capital buffer up to a maximum of 2.5% of total RWA. The countercyclical capital buffer was initially set by banking regulators at zero, and has not been increased since its inception.
Assuming a countercyclical buffer of 0%, the minimum capital ratios as of January 1, 2021, including a capital conservation buffer and an SCB of 2.5% for advanced and standardized approaches, respectively, and a G-SIB surcharge of 1.0%, are 8.0% for CET1 capital, 9.5% for Tier 1 risk-based capital and 11.5% for total risk-based capital, in order for us to make capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments without limitation.

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Leverage Ratios
We are subject to a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio and a supplementary leverage ratio. The Tier 1 leverage ratio is based on Tier 1 capital and adjusted quarterly average on-balance sheet assets. The Tier 1 leverage ratio differs from the SLR primarily in that the denominator of the Tier 1 leverage ratio is a quarterly average of on-balance sheet assets, while the SLR additionally includes off-balance sheet exposures. We must maintain a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4%.
We are also subject to a minimum SLR of 3%, and as a U.S. G-SIB, we must maintain a 2% SLR buffer in order to avoid any limitations on distributions to shareholders and discretionary bonus payments to certain executives. If we do not maintain this buffer, limitations on these distributions and discretionary bonus payments would be increasingly stringent based upon the extent of the shortfall.
In November 2019, pursuant to the EGRRCPA, the U.S. Agencies adopted a final rule that establishes a deduction for central bank deposits from a custodial banking organization’s total leverage exposure for purpose of calculating the SLR and which is not applicable to total leverage exposure under the calculation of Tier 1 leverage. This deduction is equal to the lesser of (i) the total amount of funds the custodial banking organization and its consolidated subsidiaries have on deposit at qualifying central banks and (ii) the total amount of client funds on deposit at the custodial banking organization that are linked to fiduciary or custodial and safekeeping accounts. The rule became effective on April 1, 2020. For the quarter ended December 31, 2020, we excluded $76.7 billion of average balances
held on deposit at central banks from the denominator used in the calculation of our SLR based on this custodial banking exclusion. The TLAC and LTD that State Street is required to hold under SLR-based requirements reflect the exclusion of certain central bank balances as a consequence of the rule.
In addition, on May 15, 2020, the U.S. banking regulators issued an interim final rule temporarily permitting, until March 31, 2021, banking organizations to exclude U.S. Treasury securities and deposits at Federal Reserve Banks from the calculation of the SLR denominator. While we already receive the benefit of excluding central bank deposits pursuant to the final rule implementing the EGRRCPA, we have further excluded U.S. Treasury securities, in the amount of $13.60 billion of average balances pursuant to this temporary relief. See "Subsidiaries" in this section for further discussion of the impact of the final rule on State Street Bank.
The SA-CCR final rule adopted in November 2019, which becomes effective on January 1, 2022, also requires us to incorporate the SA-CCR into the calculation of our total leverage exposure for the purpose of calculating SLR.
On April 11, 2018, the Federal Reserve proposed modifications to the SLR that would replace the current 2% SLR buffer applicable to us with an SLR buffer equal to 50% of our applicable G-SIB capital surcharge. The Federal Reserve has not finalized these proposed modifications.







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Selected Recent Regulatory Developments Summary
Final Rule Issued
Final Rule Effective DateDescription
March 2020October 1, 2020
The U.S. Agencies issued the SCB final rule that replaced, under the standardized approach, the capital conservation buffer of 2.5% with an SCB calculated as the difference between the institution’s starting and lowest projected CET1 ratio under the CCAR severely adverse scenario plus planned common stock dividend payments (as a percentage of RWA) from the fourth through seventh quarter of the CCAR planning horizon. The SCB requirement can be no less than 2.5% of RWA. For additional information about the SCB final rule, refer to "Stress Capital Buffer" and “Capital Planning, Stress Tests and Dividends” in this "Supervision and Regulation" section.
September 2020December 28, 2020
Following the launch of the MMLF program, which we participate in, the Federal Reserve issued an interim final rule on March 19, 2020 (followed by a final rule on September 29, 2020), allowing Bank Holding Companies (BHCs) to exclude assets purchased through the MMLF program from their RWA, total leverage exposure and average total consolidated assets. For the quarter ended December 31, 2020, we deducted $4.2 billion of MMLF program average HTM securities.
August 2020January 1, 2021
In March 2020, the U.S. Agencies issued an interim final rule (followed by a final rule in August 2020) that revised the definition of eligible retained income for all U.S. banking organizations, including us. The revised definition of eligible retained income makes any automatic limitations on capital distributions that could apply to us under the federal banking agencies’ capital or TLAC rules take effect on a more gradual basis in the event that a banking organization’s capital, leverage or TLAC ratios were to decline below regulatory requirements, including applicable regulatory capital buffers.
October 2020April 1, 2021The U.S. Agencies issued a final rule that will require us and State Street Bank to make certain deductions from regulatory capital for investments in certain unsecured debt instruments, including eligible LTD under the TLAC rule, issued by us and other U.S. and foreign G-SIBs.
October 2020July 1, 2021
In October 2020, the U.S. Agencies issued a final rule implementing the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision's (BCBS) NSFR in the United States, which will apply to us and State Street Bank. The final rule requires large banking organizations to maintain an amount of available stable funding, which is a weighted measure of a company’s funding sources over a one-year time horizon, calculated by applying standardized weightings to the company’s equity and liabilities based on their expected stability, that is no less than the amount of required stable funding, which is calculated by applying standardized weightings to assets, derivatives exposures and certain other items based on their liquidity characteristics.
November 2019January 1, 2022
The U.S. Agencies issued a final rule that, among other things, implements the standardized approach for counterparty credit risk (SA-CCR), a new methodology for calculating the exposure amount for derivative contracts under the U.S. regulatory capital rules. Under the final rule, we will have the option to use the SA-CCR or the Internal Model Methodology (IMM) to measure the exposure amount of our cleared and uncleared derivative transactions under our advanced approaches calculation. We will be required to determine the amount of these exposures using the SA-CCR under our standardized approach capital calculation. Due to the nature of our trading activities, the impact of the final rule may have a greater proportional impact on our RWA than on some of our G-SIB peers. In addition, under the final rule we will be required to use a simplified formula to determine the RWA amount of our central counterparty default fund contributions. The final rule also requires us to incorporate the SA-CCR into the calculation of our total leverage exposure for the purpose of calculating SLR.
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As a systemically important financial institution, we are subject to enhanced supervision and prudential standards. Our status as a G-SIB has also resulted in heightened prudential and conduct expectations of our U.S. and international regulators with respect to our capital and liquidity management and our compliance and risk oversight programs. These heightened expectations have increased our regulatory compliance costs, including personnel, technology and systems, as well as significant additional implementation and related costs to enhance our regulatory compliance programs. Regulatory compliance requirements are anticipated to remain at least at the elevated levels we have experienced over the past several years.
Failure to meet current and future regulatory capital requirements could subject us to a variety of enforcement actions, including the termination of State Street Bank's deposit insurance by the FDIC, and to certain restrictions on our business, including those that are described above in this “Supervision and Regulation” section.
Not all of our competitors have similarly been designated as systemically important nor are all of them subject to the same degree of regulation as a bank or financial holding company, and therefore some of our competitors may not be subject to the same additional capital requirements.
For additional information about our regulatory capital position and our regulatory capital adequacy, as well as current and future regulatory capital requirements, refer to "Capital" in “Financial Condition" in our Management's Discussion and Analysis, and Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-K.
Total Loss-Absorbing Capacity
In 2016, the Federal Reserve released its final rule on TLAC, LTD and clean holding company requirements for U.S. domiciled G-SIBs, such as us. The requirements are intended to improve the resiliency and resolvability of certain U.S. banking organizations through enhanced prudential standards. The TLAC rule imposes: (1) external TLAC requirements (i.e., combined eligible Tier 1 regulatory capital and LTD); (2) separate external LTD requirements; and (3) clean holding company requirements that impose restrictions on certain types of liabilities and limit non-TLAC related third party liabilities to 5% of external TLAC.
Among other things, the TLAC rule required us to comply with minimum requirements for external TLAC and external LTD effective January 1, 2019. Specifically, as of January 2021, we must hold
(1) combined eligible Tier 1 regulatory capital and LTD in the amount equal to the greater of 21.5% of total RWA (18.0% minimum plus a 2.5% capital conservation
buffer plus a G-SIB surcharge calculated for these purposes under Method 1 of 1.0% plus any applicable counter-cyclical buffer, which is currently 0%) and 9.5% of total leverage exposure (7.5% minimum plus the enhanced SLR buffer of 2.0%), as defined by the SLR rule; and
(2) qualifying external LTD equal to the greater of 7.0% of RWA (6.0% minimum plus a G-SIB surcharge calculated for these purposes under method 2 of 1.0%) and 4.5% of total leverage exposure, as defined by the SLR rule.
Liquidity Coverage Ratio and Net Stable Funding Ratio
In addition to capital standards, the Basel III framework introduced two quantitative liquidity standards: the LCR and the NSFR.
We are subject to the rule issued by the U.S. Agencies implementing the BCBS LCR in the U.S. The LCR is intended to promote the short-term resilience of internationally active banking organizations, like us, to improve the banking industry's ability to absorb shocks arising from market stress over a 30 calendar day period and improve the measurement and management of liquidity risk.
The LCR measures an institution’s HQLA against its net cash outflows under a prescribed stress environment. We report LCR to the Federal Reserve daily and are required to calculate and maintain an LCR that is equal to or greater than 100%. In addition, we publicly disclose certain qualitative and quantitative information about our LCR consistent with the requirements of the Federal Reserve's final rule.
Compliance with the LCR has required that we maintain an investment portfolio that contains an adequate amount of HQLA. In general, HQLA investments generate a lower investment return than other types of investments, resulting in a negative impact on our NII and our NIM. In addition, the level of HQLA we are required to maintain under the LCR is dependent upon our client relationships and the nature of services we provide, which may change over time. Deposits resulting from certain services provided (“operational deposits”) are treated as more resilient during periods of stress than other deposits. As a result, if balances of operational deposits increased relative to our total client deposit base, we would expect to require less HQLA in order to maintain our LCR. Conversely, if balances of operational deposits decreased relative to our total client deposit base, we would expect to require more HQLA. On May 5, 2020, the U.S. banking agencies issued a rule that modifies the LCR rule to neutralize the impact on LCR of the advances made by the
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MMLF (and Paycheck Protection Liquidity Facility) and the exposures securing such advances.
In October 2020, the U.S. Agencies issued a final rule implementing the BCBS’s NSFR in the United States. The final rule requires large banking organizations to maintain an amount of available stable funding, which is a weighted measure of a company’s funding sources over a one-year time horizon, calculated by applying standardized weightings to the company’s equity and liabilities based on their expected stability, that is no less than the amount of required stable funding, which is calculated by applying standardized weightings to assets, derivatives exposures and certain other items based on their liquidity characteristics. As a U.S. G-SIB, we will be required to maintain an NSFR that is equal to or greater than 100%. The final rule will become effective as of July 1, 2021. The final rule will also require us to publicly disclose our quarterly NSFR on a semiannual basis beginning in 2023.
Capital Planning, Stress Tests and Dividends
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve has adopted capital planning and stress test requirements for large bank holding companies, including us, which form part of the Federal Reserve’s annual CCAR framework. The Federal Reserve conducts its own stress tests of our business operations using supervisory models, the results of which it uses to calibrate our annual SCB, subject to a minimum of 2.5%. In addition, under the Federal Reserve’s capital plan rule, we must conduct periodic stress testing of our business operations and submit an annual capital plan to the Federal Reserve, taking into account the results of separate stress tests designed by us and by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve conducts a qualitative assessment of our capital plan as part of the CCAR process to evaluate the strength of our capital planning practices, including our ability to identify, measure, and determine the appropriate amount of capital for our risks, and controls and governance supporting capital planning.
On March 4, 2020, the Federal Reserve issued a final rule to integrate its annual capital planning and stress testing requirements with certain ongoing regulatory capital requirements. The final rule, which applies to certain bank holding companies, including us, introduced an SCB and related changes to the capital planning and stress testing processes. The SCB became effective on October 1, 2020.
In the standardized approach, the SCB replaced the capital conservation buffer of 2.5%. The standardized approach SCB equals the greater of (i) 2.5%; and (ii) the maximum decline in our CET1 capital ratio under the severely adverse scenario over the supervisory stress test measurement period, plus the ratio of (a) the sum of the dollar amount of our planned common stock dividends for the fourth
through seventh quarters of the supervisory stress test projection period to (b) our projected RWA for the quarter in which our projected CET1 capital ratio reaches its minimum in the supervisory stress test. Regulatory capital requirements under the standardized approach include the SCB, as summarized above, as well as our G-SIB capital surcharge and any applicable countercyclical capital buffer.
The final rule made related changes to capital planning and stress testing processes for bank holding companies subject to the SCB requirement. In particular, the final rule assumes that bank holding companies maintain a constant level of assets and RWA throughout the supervisory stress test projection period. In addition, under the final rule the supervisory stress test no longer assumes that bank holding companies make all nine quarters of planned capital distributions under stress, although the SCB incorporates the dollar amount of four quarters of planned common stock dividends, as described above.
The final rule did not change regulatory capital requirements under the advanced approaches, the Tier 1 leverage ratio or the SLR.
On June 25, 2020, we were notified by the Federal Reserve of the results from the 2020 DFAST stress test, including our preliminary SCB of 2.5%. On August 10, 2020, the Federal Reserve announced that our final SCB effective October 1, 2020 is 2.5%, resulting in no change to our existing regulatory capital requirements.
Although the final SCB rule changed the effect of the CCAR process so that the SCB applied to our baseline capital measures, rather than CCAR, is the source of our stress-based capital requirements, we continue to be subject to capital plan requirements and the CCAR process. Under the capital planning and CCAR requirements, our annual capital plan must include a description of all of our planned capital actions over a nine-quarter planning horizon, including any capital qualifying instruments, any capital distributions, such as payments of dividends on, or repurchases of, our stock, and any similar action that the Federal Reserve determines could affect our consolidated capital. The capital plan must include a discussion of how we will maintain capital above the minimum regulatory capital ratios, including the minimum ratios under the Basel III rule, and serve as a source of strength to State Street Bank under supervisory stress scenarios. Changes in our strategy, merger or acquisition activity or unanticipated uses of capital could result in a change in our capital plan and its associated capital actions, including capital raises or modifications to planned capital actions, such as repurchases of our stock, and may require resubmission of the capital plan to the Federal Reserve if, among other reasons, we would not meet our regulatory capital requirements after making the proposed capital distribution.
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In addition to its capital planning requirements, the Federal Reserve has the authority to prohibit or to limit the payment of dividends, the repurchase of common stock, or other capital actions that reduce capital by the banking organizations it supervises, including the Parent Company and State Street Bank, if, in the Federal Reserve’s opinion, the capital action would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in light of the financial condition of the banking organization. All of these policies and other requirements could affect our ability to pay dividends and repurchase our stock or require us to provide capital assistance to State Street Bank and any other banking subsidiary. Our common stock and other stock dividends, including the declaration, timing and amount thereof, remain subject to consideration and approval by our Board of Directors at the relevant times.
In connection with our 2019 capital plan, our Board approved a common stock purchase program authorizing the purchase of up to $2.0 billion of our common stock from July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020 (the 2019 Program). We repurchased a total of $1.0 billion of our common stock in the third and fourth quarters of 2019 under the 2019 Program and a total of $500 million of our common stock in the first quarter of 2020 under the 2019 Program. On March 16, 2020, we, along with the other U.S. G-SIBs, suspended common share repurchases and maintained this suspension through the fourth quarter of 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This suspension was consistent with limitations imposed by the Federal Reserve beginning in the second quarter of 2020.
On June 25, 2020, the Federal Reserve announced distribution limitations for CCAR banking organizations, including us, during the third quarter of 2020. On September 30, 2020, the Federal Reserve announced that it would extend the limitations for the fourth quarter of 2020. The limitations prohibited us from making any capital distribution (excluding any capital distribution arising from the issuance of a capital instrument eligible for inclusion in the numerator of a regulatory capital ratio), unless otherwise approved by the Federal Reserve. During the third and fourth quarters of 2020, CCAR banking organizations were, however, authorized to make share repurchases relating to issuances of common stock related to employee stock ownership plans; provided that the organization did not increase the amount of its common stock dividends, to pay common stock dividends that did not exceed an amount equal to the average of the organization’s net income for the four preceding calendar quarters, unless otherwise specified by the Federal Reserve; and to make scheduled payments on additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital instruments.
Due to the economic challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve required all participating CCAR banks to resubmit their capital plans under updated scenarios that were released by the Federal Reserve on September 17, 2020.
We resubmitted our 2020 Capital Plan and received results from the Federal Reserve on December 18, 2020. In addition to providing results, the Federal Reserve also announced modifications to the applicable distribution limitations for CCAR banking organizations, including us, that would be in effect for the first quarter of 2021. The modified limitations continue to prohibit any capital distribution (excluding any capital distribution arising from the issuance of a capital instrument eligible for inclusion in the numerator of a regulatory capital ratio), unless otherwise approved by the Federal Reserve. During the first quarter of 2021, CCAR banking organizations that are U.S. bank holding companies, including us, are, however, authorized to:
• pay common stock dividends and make share repurchases that, in the aggregate, do not exceed an amount equal to the average of the organization's net income for the four preceding calendar quarters, provided that the organization does not increase the amount of its common stock dividends to be larger than the level paid in the second quarter of 2020;
• make share repurchases that equal the amount of share issuances related to expensed employee compensation; and
• redeem and make scheduled payments on additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital instruments.
The modified restrictions allow us to resume common share repurchases in the first quarter of 2021, and in January 2021 our Board approved a first quarter 2021 repurchase program for the purchase of up to $475 million of our common stock through March 31, 2021.
When permitted, stock purchases may be made using various types of mechanisms, including open market purchases, accelerated share repurchases or transactions off market, and may be made under Rule 10b5-1 trading programs. The timing of stock purchases, types of transactions and number of shares purchased will depend on several factors, including market conditions and State Street’s capital positions, financial performance and investment opportunities. Our common stock purchase programs do not have specific price targets and may be suspended at any time. We may employ third-party broker/dealers to acquire shares on the open market in connection with our common stock purchase programs. The common stock purchase program does not have specific price targets and may be suspended at any time.
The Federal Reserve, under the Dodd-Frank Act, previously required us to conduct semi-annual State Street-run stress tests and to publicly disclose the summary results of our State Street-run stress
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tests under the severely adverse economic scenario. We are also required to undergo an annual supervisory stress test conducted by the Federal Reserve. The EGRRCPA modifies certain aspects of these stress-testing requirements, reducing the number of scenarios in the Federal Reserve’s supervisory stress test from three to two and modifying our obligation to perform company-run stress-tests from semi-annually to annually. The Federal Reserve adopted a final rule in October 2019 that, among other things, implemented this modification.
The Volcker Rule
We are subject to the Volcker Rule and implementing regulations. The Volcker Rule prohibits banking entities, including us and our affiliates, from engaging in certain prohibited proprietary trading activities, as defined in the Volcker Rule regulations, subject to exemptions for market-making related activities, risk-mitigating hedging, underwriting and certain other activities. The Volcker Rule also requires banking entities to either restructure or divest certain ownership interests in, and relationships with, covered funds (as such terms are defined in the Volcker Rule regulations).
The Volcker Rule regulations require banking entities to establish extensive programs designed to promote compliance with the restrictions of the Volcker Rule. We have established a compliance program which we believe complies with the Volcker Rule regulations as currently in effect. Our compliance program restricts our ability in the future to service certain types of funds, in particular covered funds for which State Street Global Advisors acts as an advisor and certain types of trustee relationships. Consequently, Volcker Rule compliance entails both the cost of a compliance program and loss of certain revenue and future opportunities.
In October 2019, the Federal Reserve and the other federal financial regulatory agencies responsible for the Volcker Rule regulations adopted an interagency final rule that revised certain elements of those regulations. The changes focused on proprietary trading, including the metrics reporting requirements and certain requirements imposed in connection with permitted market making, underwriting and risk-mitigating hedging activities, including market-making in and underwriting of covered funds. These revisions became effective on January 1, 2020, with compliance required by January 1, 2021. The agencies responsible for the Volcker Rule regulations adopted a separate interagency final rule in June 2020 focused on the covered funds provisions which generally prohibit any banking entity from acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in, sponsoring, or having certain relationships with, a hedge fund or private equity fund. These revisions became effective on October 1,
2020. These revisions do not have a material impact on us.
Enhanced Prudential Standards
The Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, establishes a systemic risk regime to which large bank holding companies with $100 billion or more in consolidated assets, such as us, are subject. The Federal Reserve is required to tailor the application of the enhanced prudential standards to bank holding companies based on their size, complexity, risk profile and other factors. U.S. G-SIBs, such as us, are expected to remain subject to the most stringent requirements, including heightened capital, leverage, liquidity and risk management requirements and single-counterparty credit limits (SCCL).
The FSOC can recommend prudential standards, reporting and disclosure requirements for SIFIs to the Federal Reserve, and must approve any finding by the Federal Reserve that a financial institution poses a grave threat to financial stability and must undertake mitigating actions. The FSOC is also empowered to designate systemically important payment, clearing and settlement activities of financial institutions, subjecting them to prudential supervision and regulation, and, assisted by the Office of Financial Research within the U.S. Department of the Treasury, can gather data and reports from financial institutions, including us.
Under the Federal Reserve's enhanced prudential standards regulation under the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, we are required to comply with various liquidity-related risk management standards and maintain a liquidity buffer of unencumbered highly liquid assets based on the results of internal liquidity stress testing. This liquidity buffer is in addition to other liquidity requirements, such as the LCR and, when effective, the NSFR. The regulations also establish requirements and responsibilities for our risk committee and mandate risk management standards.
On June 14, 2018, the Federal Reserve finalized rules that established SCCL for large banking organizations. U.S. G-SIBs, including us, are subject to a limit of 15% of Tier 1 capital for aggregate net credit exposures to any “major counterparty” (defined to include other U.S. G-SIBs, foreign G-SIBs and non-bank systemically important financial institutions supervised by the Federal Reserve). In addition, we are subject to a limit of 25% of Tier 1 capital for aggregate net credit exposures to any other unaffiliated counterparty. The final SCCL rules became effective for us on January 1, 2020.
The Federal Reserve has established a rule that imposes contractual requirements on certain “qualified financial contracts” to which U.S. G-SIBs, including us, and their subsidiaries are parties. Under
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the rule, certain qualified financial contracts generally must expressly provide that transfer restrictions and default rights against a U.S. G-SIB, or subsidiary of a U.S. G-SIB, are limited to the same extent as they would be under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and Title II of the Dodd-Frank Act and their implementing regulations. In addition, certain qualified financial contracts may not, among other things, permit the exercise of any cross-default right against a U.S. G-SIB or subsidiary of a U.S. G-SIB based on an affiliate’s entry into insolvency, resolution or similar proceedings, subject to certain creditor protections. There is a phased-in compliance schedule based on counterparty type, and the first compliance date was January 1, 2019.
The systemic-risk regime also provides that for U.S. G-SIBs deemed to pose a grave threat to U.S. financial stability, the Federal Reserve, upon an FSOC vote, must limit that institution’s ability to merge, restrict its ability to offer financial products, require it to terminate activities, impose conditions on activities or, as a last resort, require it to dispose of assets. Upon a grave threat determination by the FSOC, the Federal Reserve must issue rules that require financial institutions subject to the systemic-risk regime to maintain a debt-to-equity ratio of no more than 15 to 1 if the FSOC considers it necessary to mitigate the risk of the grave threat. The Federal Reserve also has the ability to establish further standards, including those regarding contingent capital, enhanced public disclosures and limits on short-term debt, including off-balance sheet exposures.
Recovery and Resolution Planning
We are required to periodically submit a plan for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of material financial distress or failure, commonly referred to as a resolution plan or a living will, to the Federal Reserve and the FDIC under Section 165(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act. Through resolution planning, we seek, in the event of our insolvency, to maintain State Street Bank’s role as a key infrastructure provider within the financial system, while minimizing risk to the financial system and maximizing value for the benefit of our stakeholders. We have and will continue to focus management attention and resources to meet regulatory expectations with respect to resolution planning.
We submitted our updated 2019 165(d) resolution plan describing our preferred resolution strategy to the Federal Reserve and FDIC (the Agencies) before July 1, 2019, and our resolution strategy is materially consistent with our prior resolution strategy. In reviewing the 2019 plan, the Agencies noted meaningful improvements over prior plan submissions. The Agencies did not identify any deficiencies in the 2019 plan, but did identify one shortcoming related to the implementation of
governance mechanisms. We submitted to the Agencies our plan to remediate this shortcoming in line with the expected timeframe. In addition to the above letter, the Federal Reserve and FDIC jointly issued a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on November 1, 2019. This final rule revised the implementation requirements under the Dodd- Frank Act's resolution planning provisions by means of establishing a biennial filing cycle for the U.S. G-SIBs, including State Street. This cycle alternates between a targeted resolution plan, followed two years later by a full resolution plan. The Agencies have published the scope for the upcoming targeted resolution plan to include the core elements of resolution planning and some specific firm level information, including impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic. The next resolution plan is due on July 1, 2021.
In the event of material financial distress or failure, our preferred resolution strategy is the SPOE Strategy. The SPOE Strategy provides that prior to the bankruptcy of the Parent Company and pursuant to a support agreement among the Parent Company, SSIF (a direct subsidiary of the Parent Company), our Beneficiary Entities (as defined below) and certain of our other entities, SSIF is obligated, up to its available resources, to recapitalize and/or provide liquidity to State Street Bank and the other entities benefiting from such capital and/or liquidity support (collectively with State Street Bank, “Beneficiary Entities”), in amounts designed to prevent the Beneficiary Entities from themselves entering into resolution proceedings. Following the recapitalization of, or provision of liquidity to the Beneficiary Entities, the Parent Company would enter into a bankruptcy proceeding under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. The Beneficiary Entities and our other subsidiaries would be transferred to a newly organized holding company held by a reorganization trust for the benefit of the Parent Company’s claimants.
Under the support agreement, the Parent Company pre-funded SSIF by contributing certain of its assets (primarily its liquid assets, cash deposits, investments in intercompany debt, investments in marketable securities and other cash and non-cash equivalent investments) to SSIF at the time it entered into the support agreement and will continue to contribute such assets, to the extent available, on an ongoing basis. In consideration for these contributions, SSIF has agreed in the support agreement to provide capital and liquidity support to the Parent Company and all of the Beneficiary Entities in accordance with the Parent Company’s capital and liquidity policies. Under the support agreement, the Parent Company is only permitted to retain cash needed to meet its upcoming obligations and to fund expected expenses during a potential bankruptcy proceeding. SSIF has provided the Parent
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Company with a committed credit line and issued (and may issue) one or more promissory notes to the Parent Company (the "Parent Company Funding Notes") that together are intended to allow the Parent Company to continue to meet its obligations throughout the period prior to the occurrence of a "Recapitalization Event" (as defined below). The support agreement does not obligate SSIF to maintain any specific level of resources and SSIF may not have sufficient resources to implement the SPOE Strategy.
In the event a Recapitalization Event occurs, the obligations outstanding under the Parent Company Funding Notes would automatically convert into or be exchanged for capital contributed to SSIF. The obligations of the Parent Company and SSIF under the support agreement are secured through a security agreement that grants a lien on the assets that the Parent Company and SSIF would use to fulfill their obligations under the support agreement to the Beneficiary Entities. SSIF is a distinct legal entity separate from the Parent Company and the Parent Company’s other affiliates.
In accordance with our policies, we are required to monitor, on an ongoing basis, the capital and liquidity needs of State Street Bank and our other Beneficiary Entities. To support this process, we have established a trigger framework that identifies key actions that would need to be taken or decisions that would need to be made if certain events tied to our financial condition occur. In the event that we experience material financial distress, the support agreement requires us to model and calculate certain capital and liquidity triggers on a regular basis to determine whether or not the Parent Company should commence preparations for a bankruptcy filing and whether or not a Recapitalization Event has occurred.
Upon the occurrence of a Recapitalization Event: (1) SSIF would not be authorized to provide any further liquidity to the Parent Company; (2) the Parent Company would be required to contribute to SSIF any remaining assets it is required to contribute to SSIF under the support agreement (which specifically exclude amounts designated to fund expected expenses during a potential bankruptcy proceeding); (3) SSIF would be required to provide capital and liquidity support to the Beneficiary Entities to support such entities’ continued operation to the extent of its available resources and consistent with the support agreement; and (4) the Parent Company would be expected to commence Chapter 11 proceedings under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. No person or entity, other than a party to the support agreement, should rely on any of our affiliates being or remaining a Beneficiary Entity or receiving capital or liquidity support pursuant to the support agreement, including in evaluating any of our entities from a creditor's perspective or determining whether
to enter into a contractual relationship with any of our entities.
A “Recapitalization Event” is defined under the support agreement as the earlier occurrence of: (1) one or more capital and liquidity thresholds being breached or (2) the authorization by the Parent Company's Board of Directors for the Parent Company to commence bankruptcy proceedings. The thresholds are set at levels intended to provide for the availability of sufficient capital and liquidity to enable an orderly resolution without extraordinary government support. The SPOE Strategy and the obligations under the support agreement may result in the recapitalization of State Street Bank and the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings by the Parent Company at an earlier stage of financial stress than might otherwise occur without such mechanisms in place. An expected effect of the SPOE Strategy and applicable TLAC regulatory requirements is that our losses will be imposed on the Parent Company shareholders and the holders of long-term debt and other forms of TLAC securities currently outstanding or issued in the future by the Parent Company, as well as on any other Parent Company creditors, before any of our losses are imposed on the holders of the debt securities of the Parent Company's operating subsidiaries or any of their depositors or creditors, or before U.S. taxpayers are put at risk.
State Street Bank is also required to submit periodically to the FDIC a plan for resolution in the event of its failure, referred to as an Insured Depository Institution plan. In November 2018, the FDIC announced that until the FDIC completed revisions to its IDI plan requirements, no IDI plans would be required to be filed. In January 2021, the FDIC lifted the moratorium on IDI plan filings for IDIs with $100 billion or more in assets, including State Street Bank. In lifting the moratorium, the FDIC stated that it will provide at least 12 months’ advance notice prior to requiring submission of an institution’s next IDI plan.
Additionally, we are required to submit a recovery plan for State Street to the Federal Reserve. This plan includes detailed governance triggers and contingency actions that can be implemented in a timely manner in the event of extreme financial distress in those entities.
Orderly Liquidation Authority
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, certain financial companies, including bank holding companies such as the Parent Company, and certain covered subsidiaries, can be subjected to the orderly liquidation authority which went into effect in 2010. For the FDIC to be appointed as our receiver, two-thirds of the FDIC Board and two-thirds of the Federal Reserve Board must recommend appointment, and the U.S. Treasury Secretary, in consultation with the U.S. President, must then make certain extraordinary
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financial distress and systemic risk determinations. Absent such actions, we, as a bank holding company, would remain subject to the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.
The orderly liquidation authority went into effect in 2010, and rulemaking is proceeding incrementally, with some regulations now finalized and others planned but not yet proposed. If the FDIC were appointed as the receiver of the Parent Company pursuant to the orderly liquidation authority, the FDIC would have considerable powers to resolve the Parent Company, including: (1) the power to remove officers and directors responsible for the Parent Company's failure and to appoint new directors and officers; (2) the power to assign assets and liabilities to a third party or bridge financial company without the need for creditor consent or prior court review; (3) the ability to differentiate among similarly situated creditors, subject to a minimum recovery right to receive at least what they would have received in bankruptcy liquidation; and (4) broad powers to administer the claims process to determine distributions from the assets of the receivership to creditors not transferred to a third party or bridge financial institution.
In 2013, the FDIC released its proposed SPOE strategy for resolution of a SIFI under the orderly liquidation authority. The FDIC’s release outlines how it would use its powers under the orderly liquidation authority to resolve a SIFI by placing its top-tier U.S. holding company in receivership and keeping its operating subsidiaries open and out of insolvency proceedings by transferring the operating subsidiaries to a new bridge holding company, recapitalizing the operating subsidiaries and imposing losses on the shareholders and creditors of the holding company in receivership according to their statutory order of priority.
Derivatives
Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act imposed a comprehensive regulatory structure on the OTC derivatives market, including requirements for clearing, exchange trading, capital, margin, reporting and record-keeping. Title VII also requires certain persons to register as a major swap participant, a swap dealer or a securities-based swap dealer. The CFTC, the SEC, and other U.S. regulators have largely implemented key provisions of Title VII, although certain final regulations have only been in place a short period of time and others have not been finalized. Through this rulemaking process, these regulators collectively have adopted or proposed, among other things, regulations relating to reporting and record-keeping obligations, margin and capital requirements, the scope of registration and the central clearing and exchange trading requirements for certain OTC derivatives. The CFTC has also issued rules to enhance the oversight of clearing and trading entities. The CFTC, along with other
regulators, including the Federal Reserve, have also issued rules with respect to margin requirements for uncleared derivatives transactions.
State Street Bank has registered provisionally with the CFTC as a swap dealer. As a provisionally registered swap dealer, State Street Bank is subject to significant regulatory obligations regarding its swap activity and the supervision, examination and enforcement powers of the CFTC and other regulators. The CFTC has granted State Street Bank a limited-purpose swap dealer designation. Under this limited-purpose designation, interest rate swap activity engaged in by State Street Bank’s Global Treasury group is not subject to certain of the swap regulatory requirements otherwise applicable to swaps entered into by a registered swap dealer, subject to a number of conditions. For all other swap transactions, our swap activities remain subject to all applicable swap dealer regulations.
Subsidiaries
The Federal Reserve is the primary federal banking agency responsible for regulating us and our subsidiaries, including State Street Bank, with respect to both our U.S. and non-U.S. operations. Our banking subsidiaries are subject to supervision and examination by various regulatory authorities and have regulatory requirements that may differ from State Street Corporation.
State Street Bank
State Street Bank is a member of the Federal Reserve System, its deposits are insured by the FDIC and it is subject to applicable federal and state banking laws and to supervision and examination by the Federal Reserve, as well as by the Massachusetts Commissioner of Banks, the FDIC, and the regulatory authorities of those states and countries in which State Street Bank operates a branch.
As with the Parent Company, State Street Bank is considered an advanced approaches banking organization subject to the Basel III framework in the U.S. and is also subject to the market risk capital rule jointly issued by U.S. Agencies to implement the changes to the market risk capital framework in the U.S. As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, State Street Bank, as an advanced approaches banking organization, is subject to a "capital floor," also referred to as the Collins Amendment, in the assessment of its regulatory capital adequacy, including the capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer described above in this "Supervision and Regulation" section.
Under the Basel III rule, State Street Bank's regulatory capital calculations, including any additions or deductions from capital for regulatory purposes, are consistent with the calculations of the Parent Company.
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Similar to our Parent Company, State Street Bank is subject to the Tier 1 leverage ratio and the supplementary leverage ratio. However, as State Street Bank is the insured depository institution subsidiary of one of the eight US G-SIBs, it is required to maintain a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5% and a minimum SLR of 6% to be considered well-capitalized.
Furthermore, for the purposes of calculating the SLR ratio, State Street Bank is similarly subject to a final rule adopted by the U.S. Agencies that establishes a deduction for central bank deposits from a custodial banking organization’s total leverage exposure. For the quarter ended December 31, 2020, State Street Bank excluded $76.7 billion of average balances held on deposit at central banks from the denominator used in the calculation of our SLR based on this custodial banking exclusion. In addition, State Street Bank is temporarily permitted, until March 31, 2021, to elect to exclude U.S. Treasury securities from the calculation of the SLR denominator, provided that, in order to make such an election, it must request regulatory approval before making capital distributions, including paying dividends to its parent company, as long as the exclusion is in effect. State Street Bank elected not to take this temporary exclusion and accordingly did not exclude U.S. Treasury securities from the calculation of the SLR denominator.
Pursuant to the BCBS NSFR final rule, as a subsidiary of a U.S. G-SIB, State Street Bank will be similarly required to maintain an NSFR that is equal to or greater than 100%.
We and our subsidiaries that are not subsidiaries of State Street Bank are affiliates of State Street Bank under federal banking laws, which impose restrictions on various types of transactions, including loans, extensions of credit, investments or asset purchases by or from State Street Bank, on the one hand, to us and those of our subsidiaries, on the other. Transactions of this kind between State Street Bank and its affiliates generally are limited with respect to each affiliate to 10% of State Street Bank’s capital and surplus, as defined by the aforementioned banking laws, are limited in the aggregate for all affiliates to 20% of State Street Bank's capital and surplus, and in some cases are also subject to strict collateral requirements. Derivatives, securities borrowing and securities lending transactions between State Street Bank and its affiliates became subject to these restrictions pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act. The Dodd-Frank Act also expanded the scope of transactions required to be collateralized. In addition, the Volcker Rule generally prohibits similar transactions between the Parent Company or any of its affiliates and covered funds for which we or any of our affiliates serve as the investment manager, investment adviser, commodity trading advisor or sponsor and other covered funds organized and
offered pursuant to specific exemptions in the Volcker Rule regulations.
Federal law also requires that certain transactions by a bank with affiliates be on terms and under circumstances, including credit standards, that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions involving other non-affiliated companies. Alternatively, in the absence of comparable transactions, the transactions must be on terms and under circumstances, including credit standards, that in good faith would be offered to, or would apply to, non-affiliated companies.
State Street Bank is also prohibited from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with any extension of credit or lease or sale of property or furnishing of services. Federal law provides for a depositor preference on amounts realized from the liquidation or other resolution of any depository institution insured by the FDIC.
Other Subsidiaries
Our other subsidiary trust companies are subject to supervision and examination by the OCC, the Federal Reserve or by the appropriate state banking regulatory authorities of the states in which they are organized and operate. Our non-U.S. banking subsidiaries are subject to regulation by the regulatory authorities of the countries in which they operate.
Our subsidiaries, State Street Global Advisors FM and State Street Global Advisors Ltd., act as investment advisers to investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940. State Street Global Advisors FM, incorporated in Massachusetts in 2001 and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, is registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and is registered with the CFTC as a commodity trading adviser and pool operator. State Street Global Advisors Ltd., incorporated in 1990 as a U.K. limited company and domiciled in the U.K., is also registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. State Street Global Advisors Ltd. is also authorized and regulated by the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (U.K. FCA) and is an investment firm under the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive. Our subsidiary, State Street Global Advisors Asia Limited, a Hong Kong incorporated company, is registered as an investment adviser with the SEC and additionally is licensed by the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong to perform a variety of activities, including asset management. State Street Global Advisors Asia Limited also holds permits as a qualified foreign institutional Investor (QFII) and a renminbi qualified foreign institutional investor (RQFII), approved by the Securities Regulatory Commission in the People’s Republic of
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China, and in Korea is registered with the Financial Services Commission as a cross-border investment advisory company and a cross-border discretionary investment management company. In addition, a major portion of our investment management activities are conducted by State Street Global Advisors Trust Company, which is a subsidiary of State Street Bank and a Massachusetts chartered limited purpose trust company subject to the supervision of the Massachusetts Commissioner of Banks and the Federal Reserve with respect to these activities.
Many aspects of our investment management activities are subject to federal and state laws and regulations primarily intended to benefit the investment holder, rather than our shareholders. These laws and regulations generally grant supervisory agencies and bodies broad administrative powers, including the power to limit or restrict us from conducting our investment management activities in the event that we fail to comply with such laws and regulations, and examination authority. Our business related to investment management and trusteeship of collective trust funds and separate accounts offered to employee benefit plans is subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), and is regulated by the U.S. DOL.
We have three subsidiaries that operate as a U.S. broker/dealer and are registered as such with the SEC, are subject to regulation by the SEC (including the SEC's net capital rule) and are members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, a self-regulatory organization. State Street Global Advisors Funds Distributors, LLC operates as a limited purpose broker/dealer that provides distributing and related marketing activities for U.S. mutual funds and ETFs associated with State Street Global Advisors. State Street Global Advisors Funds Distributors, LLC also may privately offer certain State Street Global Advisors advised funds. State Street Global Markets, LLC is a U.S. broker/dealer that provides agency execution services. We also acquired Charles River Brokerage, LLC, a U.S. broker/dealer, as part of our acquisition of CRD. In addition, we have a subsidiary, SwapEX, LLC, registered with the CFTC in the U.S. as a swap execution facility.
Our businesses, including our investment management and securities businesses, are also regulated extensively by non-U.S. governments, securities exchanges, self-regulatory organizations, central banks and regulatory bodies, especially in those jurisdictions in which we maintain an office. For instance, among others, the U.K. FCA and the United Kingdom Prudential Regulation Authority regulate our activities in the U.K.; the Central Bank of Ireland regulates our activities in Ireland; the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority regulates our
activities in Germany; the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier regulates our activities in Luxembourg; our German banking group is also subject to direct supervision by the European Central Bank under the ECB Single Supervisory Mechanism; the Securities and Futures Commission regulates our asset management activities in Hong Kong; the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission regulate our activities in Australia; and the Financial Services Agency and the Bank of Japan regulate our activities in Japan. We have established policies, procedures and systems designed to comply with the requirements of these organizations. However, as a global financial services institution, we face complexity, costs and risks related to regulation.
The majority of our non-U.S. asset servicing operations are conducted pursuant to the Federal Reserve's Regulation K through State Street Bank’s Edge Act subsidiary or through international branches of State Street Bank. An Edge Act corporation is a corporation organized under federal law that conducts foreign business activities. In general, banks may not make investments in their Edge Act corporations (and similar state law corporations) that exceed 20% of their capital and surplus, as defined in the relevant banking regulations, and the investment of any amount in excess of 10% of capital and surplus requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve.
In addition to our non-U.S. operations conducted pursuant to Regulation K, we also make new investments abroad directly (through us or through our non-banking subsidiaries) pursuant to the Federal Reserve's Regulation Y, or through international bank branch expansion, neither of which is subject to the investment limitations applicable to Edge Act subsidiaries.
Additionally, Massachusetts has its own bank holding company statute, under which we, among other things, may be required to obtain prior approval by the Massachusetts Board of Bank Incorporation for an acquisition of more than 5% of any additional bank's voting shares, or for other forms of bank acquisitions.
Anti-Money Laundering and Financial Transparency
We and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and related regulations, which contain AML and financial transparency provisions and which require implementation of an AML compliance program, including processes for verifying client identification and monitoring client transactions and detecting and reporting suspicious activities. AML laws outside the U.S. contain similar requirements. We have implemented policies, procedures and internal controls that are designed to
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promote compliance with applicable AML laws and regulations. AML laws and regulations applicable to our operations may be more stringent than similar requirements applicable to our non-regulated competitors or financial institutions principally operating in other jurisdictions. Compliance with applicable AML and related requirements is a common area of review for financial regulators, and any failure by us to comply with these requirements could result in fines, penalties, lawsuits, regulatory sanctions, difficulties in obtaining governmental approvals, restrictions on our business activities or harm to our reputation.
Deposit Insurance
The Dodd-Frank Act made permanent the general $250,000 deposit insurance limit for insured deposits. The FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) is funded by assessments on FDIC-insured depository institutions. The FDIC assesses DIF premiums based on an insured depository institution's average consolidated total assets, less the average tangible equity of the insured depository institution during the assessment period. For larger institutions, such as State Street Bank, assessments are determined based on regulatory ratings and forward-looking financial measures to calculate the assessment rate, which is subject to adjustments by the FDIC, and the assessment base.
The FDIC is required to determine whether and to what extent adjustments to the assessment base are appropriate for “custody banks" that satisfy specified institutional eligibility criteria. The FDIC has concluded that certain liquid assets could be excluded from the deposit insurance assessment base of custody banks. This has the effect of reducing the amount of DIF insurance premiums due from custody banks. State Street Bank qualifies as a custody bank for this purpose. The custody bank assessment adjustment may not exceed total transaction account deposits identified by the institution as being directly linked to a fiduciary or custody and safekeeping asset.
Prompt Corrective Action
The FDIC Improvement Act of 1991 requires the appropriate federal banking regulator to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to a depository institution if that institution does not meet certain capital adequacy standards, including minimum capital ratios. While these regulations apply only to banks, such as State Street Bank, the Federal Reserve is authorized to take appropriate action against a parent bank holding company, such as our Parent Company, based on the under-capitalized status of any banking subsidiary. In certain instances, we would be required to guarantee the performance of a capital restoration plan if one of our banking subsidiaries were undercapitalized.
Support of Subsidiary Banks
Under Federal Reserve regulations, a bank holding company such as our Parent Company is required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its banking subsidiaries. This requirement was added to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act by the Dodd-Frank Act. This means that we have a statutory obligation to commit resources to State Street Bank and any other banking subsidiary in circumstances in which we otherwise might not do so absent such a requirement. In the event of bankruptcy, any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a banking subsidiary will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and will be entitled to a priority payment.
Insolvency of an Insured U.S. Subsidiary Depository Institution
If the FDIC is appointed the conservator or receiver of an FDIC-insured U.S. subsidiary depository institution, such as State Street Bank, upon its insolvency or certain other events, the FDIC has the ability to transfer any of the depository institution’s assets and liabilities to a new obligor without the approval of the depository institution’s creditors, enforce the terms of the depository institution’s contracts pursuant to their terms or repudiate or disaffirm contracts or leases to which the depository institution is a party. Additionally, the claims of holders of deposit liabilities and certain claims for administrative expenses against an insured depository institution would be afforded priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution, including claims of debt holders of the institution and, under current interpretation, depositors in non-U.S. branches and offices, in the liquidation or other resolution of such an institution by any receiver. As a result, such persons would be treated differently from and could receive, if anything, substantially less than the depositors in U.S. offices of the depository institution.
Cyber Risk Management
In October 2016, the Federal Reserve, FDIC and OCC issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking regarding enhanced cyber risk management standards, which would apply to a wide range of large financial institutions and their third-party service providers, including us and our banking subsidiaries. The proposed standards would expand existing cyber-security regulations and guidance to focus on cyber risk governance and management; management of internal and external dependencies; and incident response, cyber resilience and situational awareness. In addition, the proposal contemplates more stringent standards for institutions with systems that are critical to the financial sector. Although the FDIC and OCC in 2019 each withdrew
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the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, the Federal Reserve has not withdrawn the advance notice and may still propose such a rule.
Further discussion of cyber-security risk management is provided in "Information Technology Risk Management" included in our Management's Discussion and Analysis in this Form 10-K.
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES
Economic policies of the U.S. government and its agencies influence our operating environment. Monetary policy conducted by the Federal Reserve directly affects the level of interest rates, which may affect overall credit conditions of the economy. Monetary policy is applied by the Federal Reserve through open market operations in U.S. government securities, changes in reserve requirements for depository institutions, and changes in the discount rate and availability of borrowing from the Federal Reserve. Government regulation of banks and bank holding companies is intended primarily for the protection of depositors of the banks, rather than for the shareholders of the institutions and therefore may, in some cases, be adverse to the interests of those shareholders. We are similarly affected by the economic policies of non-U.S. government agencies, such as the ECB.
STATISTICAL DISCLOSURE BY BANK HOLDING COMPANIES
The following information included under Items 6, 7 and 8 in this Form 10-K, is incorporated by reference herein:
“Selected Financial Data” table (Item 6) - presents return on average common equity, return on average assets, common dividend payout and equity-to-assets ratios.
“Distribution of Average Assets, Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity; Interest Rates and Interest Differential” table (Item 8) - presents consolidated average balance sheet amounts, related fully taxable-equivalent interest earned and paid, related average yields and rates paid and changes in fully taxable-equivalent interest income and interest expense for each major category of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities.
“Investment Securities” section included in our Management's Discussion and Analysis (Item 7) and Note 3, “Investment Securities,” to the consolidated financial statements (Item 8) - disclose information regarding book values, market values, maturities and weighted-average yields of securities (by category).
“Loans and Leases” section included in our Management’s Discussion and Analysis (Item 7) and Note 4, “Loans,” to the consolidated financial statements (Item 8) - disclose our policy for placing loans and leases on non-accrual status and
distribution of loans, loan maturities and sensitivities of loans to changes in interest rates.
“Loans and Leases” and “Cross-Border Outstandings” sections of Management’s Discussion and Analysis (Item 7) - disclose information regarding our cross-border outstandings and other loan concentrations.
“Credit Risk Management” section included in Management’s Discussion and Analysis (Item 7) and Note 4, “Loans,” to the consolidated financial statements (Item 8) - present the allocation of the allowance for credit losses, and a description of factors which influenced management’s judgment in determining amounts of additions or reductions to the allowance, if any, charged or credited to results of operations.
“Distribution of Average Assets, Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity; Interest Rates and Interest Differential” table (Item 8) - discloses deposit information.
Note 8, “Short-Term Borrowings,” to the consolidated financial statements (Item 8) - discloses information regarding our short-term borrowings.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS 
Risk Factors
In the normal course of our business activities, we are exposed to a variety of risks. The following is a discussion of material risk factors applicable to us. Additional information about our risk management framework is included under “Risk Management” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis in this Form 10-K. Additional risks beyond those described in our Management's Discussion and Analysis or in the following discussion may apply to our activities or operations as currently conducted, or as we may conduct them in the future, or in the markets in which we operate or may in the future operate.
Strategic Risks
We are subject to intense competition in all aspects of our business, which could negatively affect our ability to maintain or increase our profitability.
The markets in which we operate across all facets of our business are both highly competitive and global. These markets are changing as a result of new and evolving laws and regulations applicable to financial services institutions. Regulatory-driven market changes cannot always be anticipated, and may adversely affect the demand for, and profitability of, the products and services that we offer. In addition, new market entrants and competitors may address changes in the markets more rapidly than we do, may have materially greater resources to invest in infrastructure and product development than we do, or may provide clients with a more attractive offering of products and services, adversely affecting our
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business. Our efforts to develop and market new products, particularly in the “Fintech” sector, may position us in new markets with pre-existing competitors with strong market position. We have also experienced, and anticipate that we will continue to experience, significant pricing pressure in many of our core businesses, particularly our custodial and investment management services. This pricing pressure has and may continue to impact our revenue growth and operational margins and may limit the positive impact of new client demand and growth in AUC/A. Many of our businesses compete with other domestic and international banks and financial services companies, such as custody banks, investment advisors, broker/dealers, outsourcing companies and data processing companies. Further consolidation within the financial services industry could also pose challenges to us in the markets we serve, including potentially increased downward pricing pressure across our businesses.
Some of our competitors including our competitors in core services, have substantially greater capital resources than we do, are not subject to as stringent capital or other regulatory requirements as we are, or may not be as constrained as we are by these requirements due to the relative size of our balance sheet. In some of our businesses, we are service providers to significant competitors. These competitors are in some instances significant clients, and the retention of these clients involves additional risks, such as the avoidance of actual or perceived conflicts of interest and the maintenance of high levels of service quality and intra-company confidentiality. The ability of a competitor to offer comparable or improved products or services at a lower price would likely negatively affect our ability to maintain or increase our profitability. Many of our core services are subject to contracts that have relatively short terms or may be terminated by our client after a short notice period. In addition, pricing pressures as a result of the activities of competitors, client pricing reviews, and rebids, as well as the introduction of new products, may result in a reduction in the prices we can charge for our products and services.
We are subject to variability in our assets under custody and/or administration and assets under management, and in our financial results, due to the significant size of many of our institutional clients, and are also subject to significant pricing pressure due to the considerable market influence exerted by those clients.
Our clients include institutional investors, such as mutual funds, collective investment funds, UCITS, hedge funds and other investment pools, corporate and public retirement plans, insurance companies, foundations, endowments and investment managers. In both our asset servicing and asset management businesses, we endeavor to attract institutional
investors controlling large and diverse pools of assets, as those clients typically have the opportunity to benefit from the full range of our expertise and service offerings. Due to the large pools of assets controlled by these clients, the loss or gain of one client, or even a portion of the assets controlled by one client, could have a significant effect on our AUC/A or our AUM, as applicable, in the relevant period. Loss of all or a portion of the servicing of a client's assets can occur for a variety of reasons. For example, as a result of a decision to diversify providers, one of our large asset servicing clients has advised us it expects to move a significant portion of its ETF assets currently with State Street to one or more other providers, pending necessary approvals. The transition is expected to begin in 2022 but will principally occur in 2023. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the fee revenue associated with the transitioning assets represented approximately 1.5% of our total fee revenue. Our AUM or AUC/A are also affected by decisions by institutional owners to favor or disfavor certain investment instruments or categories. Similarly, if one or more clients change the asset class in which a significant portion of assets are invested (e.g., by shifting investments from emerging markets to the U.S.), those changes could have a significant effect on our results of operations in the relevant period, as our fee rates often change based on the type of asset classes we are servicing or managing. As our fee revenue is significantly impacted by our levels of AUC/A and AUM, changes in levels of different asset classes could have a corresponding significant effect on our results of operations in the relevant period. Large institutional clients also, by their nature, are often able to exert considerable market influence, and this, combined with strong competitive forces in the markets for our services, has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant pressure to reduce the fees we charge for our services in both our asset servicing and asset management lines of business. Our strategy of focusing our efforts on the segments of the market for investor services represented by very large asset managers and asset owners causes us to be particularly impacted by this industry trend. Many of these large clients are also under competitive and regulatory pressures that are driving them to manage the expenses that they and their investment products incur more aggressively, which in turn exacerbates their pressures on our fees.
Development and completion of new products and services, including State Street Alpha, may impose costs on us, involve dependencies on third parties and may expose us to increased operational and model risk.
Our financial performance depends, in part, on our ability to develop and market new and innovative services and to adopt or develop new technologies that differentiate our products or provide cost efficiencies, while avoiding increased related
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expenses. This dependency is exacerbated in the current “FinTech” environment, where financial institutions are investing significantly in evaluating new technologies, such as distributed ledger technology (“Blockchain"), and developing potentially industry-changing products, services and standards. For example, in 2018, we acquired CRD, and are leveraging the capabilities acquired to create State Street Alpha by combining with offerings from our Investment Servicing business line. The introduction of new products and services can require significant time and resources, including regulatory approvals and the development and implementation of technical data management, control and model validation requirements and effective security and resiliency elements. New products and services, such as State Street Alpha, often also involve dependencies on third parties to, among other things, access innovative technologies, develop new distribution channels or form collaborative product and service offerings, and can require complex strategic alliances and joint venture relationships. Substantial risks and uncertainties are associated with the introduction of new products and services, strategic alliances and joint ventures, including rapid technological change in the industry, our ability to access technical, data and other information from our clients, significant and ongoing investments required to bring new products and services to market in a timely manner at competitive prices, sharing of benefits in those relationships, conflicts with existing business partners and clients, protection of intellectual property, the competition for employees with the necessary expertise and experience and sales and other materials that fully and accurately describe the product or service and its underlying risks and are compliant with applicable regulations. New products or services may fail to operate or perform as expected and may not be suitable for the intended client or may not produce anticipated efficiencies, savings or benefits for either the client or us. Our failure to manage these risks and uncertainties also exposes us to enhanced risk of operational lapses, which may result in the recognition of financial statement liabilities. Regulatory and internal control requirements, capital requirements, competitive alternatives, vendor relationships and shifting market preferences may also determine if such initiatives can be brought to market in a manner that is timely and attractive to our clients. Failure to successfully manage all of the above risks in the development and implementation of new products or services, including completion of State Street Alpha, could have a material adverse effect on our business and reputation, consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
Our business may be negatively affected by our failure to update and maintain our technology infrastructure.
In order to maintain and grow our business, we must make strategic decisions about our current and future business plans and effectively execute upon those plans. Strategic initiatives that we are currently developing or executing against include cost initiatives, enhancements and efficiencies to our operational processes, improvements to existing and new service offerings, targeting for sales growth certain segments of the markets for investor services and asset management, and enhancements to existing and development of new information technology and other systems. Implementing strategic programs and creating cost efficiencies involves certain strategic, technological and operational risks. Many features of our present initiatives include investment in systems integration and new technologies and also the development of new, and the evolution of existing, methods and tools to accelerate the pace of innovation, the introduction of new services and enhancements to the resiliency of our systems and operations. These initiatives also may result in increased or unanticipated costs or earnings volatility, may take longer than anticipated to implement and may result in increases in operating losses, inadvertent data disclosures or other operating errors. In implementing these programs, we may have material dependencies on third parties. The transition to new operating processes and technology infrastructure may also cause disruptions in our relationships with clients and employees or loss of institutional understanding and may present other unanticipated technical or operational hurdles. In addition, the relocation to or expansion of servicing activities and other operations in different geographic regions or vendors may entail client, regulatory and other third party data use, storage and security challenges, as well as other regulatory compliance, business continuity and other considerations. As a result, we may not achieve some or all of the anticipated cost savings or other benefits and may experience unanticipated challenges from clients, regulators or other parties or reputational harm. In addition, some systems development initiatives may not have access to significant resources or management attention and, consequently, may be delayed or unsuccessful. Many of our systems require enhancements to meet the requirements of evolving regulation, to enhance security and resiliency and decommission obsolete technologies, to permit us to optimize our use of capital or to reduce the risk of operating error. In addition, the implementation of our State Street Alpha platform and integration of CRD requires substantial systems development and expense. We may not have the
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resources to pursue all of these objectives simultaneously.
The COVID-19 Pandemic Continues to Create Significant Risks and Uncertainties for Our Business.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios and other regulatory requirements in the United States and internationally, will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, the effectiveness of our work from home arrangements and staffing levels in operational facilities, challenges associated with our return to office plans such as maintaining a safe office environment and integrating at-home and in-office staff, the impact of market participants on which we rely, actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic and the impact of equity market valuations and extended sales and implementation cycles for some clients on our service and management fee revenue.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, caused fluctuations in equity market valuations, at times decreased liquidity in fixed income markets, created significant volatility and disruption in financial markets, increased unemployment levels and disrupted global supply chains. This has created, at peak periods of volatility, extraordinary demand on our transaction processing capabilities in our asset servicing business and volatility in our foreign exchange and asset management businesses. The market and economic uncertainty has also increased the risks inherent in our activities as a credit provider to investment pools and other institutional investors and caused us to increase our provision for credit losses. In addition, our and other market participants’ reliance upon work from home capabilities, and the potential inability to maintain critical staff in our operational facilities, including facilities in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, China, India and Poland, present risks associated with our and local infrastructure, increasingly restrictive local regulations, illness, quarantine, the sustainability of a work from home environment and increased risk of cyber-security attacks. Any material or extended disruption of our ability to deliver services or meet our responsibilities in the settlement of securities or other market activities is likely to result in operating losses, loss of revenue or penalties under our service contracts which may have a material adverse impact on our results of operation and financial condition. Moreover, governmental actions in response to the pandemic are meaningfully influencing the interest rate environment, which has reduced, and may continue to reduce, our net interest income and net interest margin.
In March 2020, we announced, together with the other U.S.-based G-SIBs, that we temporarily suspended our common stock repurchase program, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Subsequently, in connection with a requirement for all CCAR banking organizations, including State Street, to participate in additional supervisory capital stress tests due to the challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve limited the ability of all CCAR banking organizations to make capital distributions for the remainder of 2020. As a result, we did not return capital to shareholders in the form of common stock repurchases during the nine months ended December 31, 2020. In December 2020, we announced, following the results of the additional stress test, that we have been authorized to continue to pay common stock dividends at current levels and to resume purchasing common shares in the first quarter of 2021 in the aggregate amount up to the average of our quarterly net income during 2020. However, there can be no assurance the Federal Reserve will not require additional stress testing, modify existing or apply new limitations on distributions of capital to shareholders or introduce new or additional regulatory actions, restrictions or requirements in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic or associated market or industry developments. Where permitted consistent with regulatory standards, the timing of stock purchases, types of transactions and number of shares purchased under our stock purchase programs will depend on several factors, including market conditions and our capital positions, financial performance and investment opportunities. Our common stock purchase programs do not have specific price targets and may be suspended at any time.
Acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures pose risks for our business.
As part of our business strategy, we acquire complementary businesses and technologies, enter into strategic alliances and joint ventures and divest portions of our business. We undertake transactions of varying sizes to, among other reasons, expand our geographic footprint, access new clients, distribution channels, technologies or services, develop closer or more collaborative relationships with our business partners, efficiently deploy capital or leverage cost savings or other business or financial opportunities. We may not achieve the expected benefits of these transactions, which could result in increased costs, lowered revenues, ineffective deployment of capital, regulatory concerns, exit costs or diminished competitive position or reputation.
Transactions of this nature also involve a number of risks and financial, accounting, tax, regulatory, strategic, managerial, operational, cultural and employment challenges, which could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations and
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financial condition. For example, the businesses that we acquire or our strategic alliances or joint ventures may under-perform relative to the price paid or the resources committed by us; we may not achieve anticipated revenue growth or cost savings; or we may otherwise be adversely affected by acquisition-related charges. The intellectual property of an acquired business may be an important component of the value that we agree to pay for it. However, such acquisitions are subject to the risks that the acquired business may not own the intellectual property that we believe we are acquiring, that the intellectual property is dependent on licenses from third parties, that the acquired business infringes on the intellectual property rights of others, that the technology does not have the acceptance in the marketplace that we anticipated or that the technology requires significant investment to remain competitive. Similarly, such acquisitions present risks on our ability to retain the acquired talent, which may be essential to achieve our objectives in the acquisition. The integration of an acquired business's information technology infrastructure into ours has in the past and may in the future also expose us to additional security and resiliency risks. Further, past acquisitions have resulted in the recognition of goodwill and other significant intangible assets in our consolidated statement of condition. For example, we recorded goodwill and intangible assets of approximately $2.46 billion associated with our acquisition of CRD in 2018. These assets are not eligible for inclusion in regulatory capital under applicable requirements. In addition, we may be required to record impairment in our consolidated statement of income in future periods if we determine that the value of these assets has declined.
Through our acquisitions or joint ventures, we may also assume unknown or undisclosed business, operational, tax, regulatory and other liabilities, fail to properly assess known contingent liabilities or assume businesses with internal control deficiencies. While in most of our transactions we seek to mitigate these risks through, among other things, due diligence, indemnification provisions or insurance, these or other risk-mitigating provisions we put in place may not be sufficient to address these liabilities and contingencies and involve credit and execution risks associated with successfully seeking recourse from a third party, such as the seller or an insurance provider. Other major financial services firms have recently paid significant penalties to resolve government investigations into matters conducted in significant part by acquired entities.
Various regulatory approvals or consents, formal or informal, are generally required prior to closing of these transactions, which may include approvals, non-objections or regulatory exceptions from the Federal Reserve and other domestic and non-U.S.
regulatory authorities. These regulatory authorities may impose conditions on the completion of the acquisition or require changes to its terms that materially affect the terms of the transaction or our ability to capture some of the opportunities presented by the transaction, or may not approve the transaction. Any such conditions, or any associated regulatory delays, could limit the benefits of the transaction. Acquisitions or joint ventures we announce may not be completed if we do not receive the required regulatory approvals, if regulatory approvals are significantly delayed or if other closing conditions are not satisfied.
The integration and the retention and development of the benefits of our acquisitions result in risks to our business and other uncertainties.
In recent years, we have undertaken several acquisitions, including our 2018 acquisition of CRD and our 2016 acquisition of the General Electric Asset Management (GEAM) business. The integration of acquisitions presents risks that differ from the risks associated with our ongoing operations. Integration activities are complicated and time consuming and can involve significant unforeseen costs. We may not be able to effectively assimilate services, technologies, key personnel or businesses of acquired companies into our business or service offerings as anticipated, and we may not achieve related revenue growth or cost savings. We also face the risk of being unable to retain, or cross-sell our products or services to, the clients of acquired companies or joint ventures and the risk of being unable to cross-sell acquired products or services to our existing clients. In particular, some clients, including significant clients, of an acquired business may have the right to transition their business to other providers on short notice for convenience, fiduciary or other reasons and may take the opportunity of the acquisition or market, commercial, relationship, service satisfaction or other developments following the acquisition to terminate, reduce or renegotiate the fees or other terms of our relationship. Any such client losses, reductions or renegotiations likely will reduce the expected benefits of the acquisition, including revenues, cross-selling opportunities and market share, cause impairment to goodwill and other intangibles or result in reputational harm, which effects could be material, and we may not have recourse against the seller of the business or the client. The risk of client loss is even greater where the client is a competitor of ours. Acquisitions of technology firms can involve extensive information technology integration, with associated risk of defects, security breaches and resiliency lapses and product enhancement and development activities, the costs of which can be difficult to estimate, as well as heightened cultural and compliance concerns in
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integrating an unregulated firm into a bank regulatory environment. Acquisitions of Investment Servicing businesses entail information technology systems conversions, which involve operational risks, as well as fiduciary and other risks associated with client retention. Acquisitions of Asset Management businesses similarly involve fiduciary and similar risks associated with client retention, distribution channels and additional servicing opportunities. Joint ventures involve all of these risks, as well as risks associated with shared control and decision-making (even in majority-owned situations), minority rights and exit rights, which can delay, challenge or foreclose execution on material opportunities or initiatives, create regulatory risks and limit divestment opportunities.
With any acquisition, the integration of the operations and resources of the businesses could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of our and the acquired company's ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures or policies that could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with clients, business partners or employees, maintain regulatory compliance or achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition. Integration efforts may also divert management attention and resources.
Integration of CRD and its business, operations and employees with our own may be more difficult, costly or time consuming than expected, and the anticipated benefits and cost synergies of the acquisition may not be fully realized, which could adversely impact our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.
We completed our acquisition of CRD on October 1, 2018. The success of the acquisition, including the achievement of anticipated growth opportunities and cost synergies of the acquisition, continues to be subject to a number of uncertainties and will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully combine and integrate CRD’s business into our business in an efficient and effective manner. The combined company may face significant challenges in implementing such integration, including challenges related to:
integrating CRD's business into our own in a manner that permits the combined company to achieve the cost and operating synergies anticipated to result from the acquisition, which could result in the anticipated benefits of the acquisition not being realized partly or wholly in the time frame currently anticipated or at all;
retaining CRD’s clients, some of which are our competitors;
retaining key management and technical personnel;
integrating CRD’s software solutions with our existing products and services and related operations and systems, including performance, risk and compliance analytics, investment manager operations outsourcing, accounting, administration and custody;
accelerating the development of enhancements to the features and functions of CRD’s software solutions;
coordinating and integrating our internal operations, compensation programs, policies and procedures, and corporate structures;
potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen or increased costs and expenses;
the possibility of faulty assumptions underlying expectations regarding potential synergies and the integration process;
incurring significant acquisition-related costs and expenses associated with combining our operations; and
performance shortfalls as a result of the diversion of management’s attention and resources caused by integrating the companies’ operations.
Any of these factors could result in our failure to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition, on the expected timeline or at all, and could adversely impact our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.
Competition for qualified members of our workforce is intense, and we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled people we need to support our business.
Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to attract and retain key personnel. Competition for the best people in most activities in which we engage can be intense, and we may not be able to hire people or retain them, particularly in light of challenges associated with compensation restrictions applicable, or which may become applicable, to banks and some asset managers and that are not applicable to other financial services firms in all jurisdictions or to technology firms, generally. The unexpected loss of services of key personnel in business units, control functions, information technology, operations or other areas could have a material adverse impact on our business because of their skills, their knowledge of our markets, operations and clients, their years of industry experience and, in some cases, the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. Similarly, the loss of key personnel, either individually or as a group, could adversely affect our clients' perception of our ability to continue to manage certain types of investment management mandates to provide other services to
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them or to maintain a culture of innovation and proficiency.
Financial Market Risks
Geopolitical and economic conditions and developments could adversely affect us, particularly if we face increased uncertainty and unpredictability in managing our businesses.
Global financial markets can suffer from substantial volatility, illiquidity and disruption, particularly as a result of geopolitical disruptions, slower economic growth and a shifting monetary policy stance from key central banks. If such volatility, illiquidity or disruption were to result in an adverse economic environment in the U.S. or internationally or result in a lack of confidence in the financial stability of major developed or emerging markets, such developments could have an adverse effect on our business, as well as the businesses of our clients and our significant counterparties, and could also increase the difficulty and unpredictability of aligning our business strategies, our infrastructure and our operating costs in light of uncertain market and economic conditions. These risks could be compounded by tighter monetary policy conditions, disruptions to free trade and political uncertainty in the U.S. and internationally.
Market disruptions can adversely affect our consolidated results of operations if the value of our AUC/A or AUM decline, while the costs of providing the related services remain constant or increase. They may also result in investor preference trends towards asset classes and markets deemed more secure, such as cash or non-emerging markets, with respect to which our fee rates are often lower. These factors could reduce the profitability of our asset-based fee revenue and could also adversely affect our transaction-based revenue, such as revenues from securities finance and foreign exchange activities, and the volume of transactions that we execute for or with our clients. Further, the degree of volatility in foreign exchange rates can affect our foreign exchange trading revenue. In general, increased currency volatility tends to increase our market risk but also increases our opportunity to generate foreign exchange revenue. Conversely, periods of lower currency volatility tend to decrease our market risk but also decrease our foreign exchange revenue.
In addition, as our business grows globally and a significant percentage of our revenue is earned (and of our expenses paid) in currencies other than U.S. dollars, our exposure to foreign currency volatility could affect our levels of consolidated revenue, our consolidated expenses and our consolidated results of operations, as well as the value of our investment in our non-U.S. operations and our non-U.S. investment portfolio holdings. The extent to which
changes in the strength of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies affect our consolidated results of operations, including the degree of any offset between increases or decreases to both revenue and expenses, will depend upon the nature and scope of our operations and activities in the relevant jurisdictions during the relevant periods, which may vary from period to period.
As our product offerings expand, in part as we seek to take advantage of perceived opportunities arising under various regulatory reforms and resulting market changes, the degree of our exposure to various market and credit risks will evolve, potentially resulting in greater revenue volatility.
Our businesses have significant International operations, and disruptions in European and Asian economies could have an adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
European economic growth has faced significant impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, notably with growth in the European Union expected to contract markedly in 2021. New or continued economic deterioration will renew concerns about sovereign debt sustainability, interdependencies among financial institutions and sovereigns, and political and other risks despite stimulus from central banks. Continued uncertainty in the external environment has led to increased concern around the near- to medium-term outlook for economic progress in the regions in which we operate, including Europe and Asia.
In addition, uncertainty around implications of the United Kingdom's exit from the E.U., known as Brexit, and related developments, present risks which include potential negative impacts to economic activity or to cooperation in the future relationship between the U.K. and E.U. and the resulting consequences for market access for financial services. In order to conform to anticipated restrictions on activity between the E.U. and the U.K. following Brexit, we have developed and implemented plans that seek to maintain our servicing and operational capabilities, in all material respects, independent of the final outcome. There can be no assurance, however, that our plans will address effectively, in whole or in part, all potential contingencies associated with Brexit or that we may not experience additional costs or inefficiencies associated with our European activities or client dissatisfaction, delays in receiving regulatory approvals or other difficulties in executing our regional strategy.
Given the scope of our International operations, economic or market uncertainty, volatility, illiquidity or disruption resulting from these and related factors could have a material adverse impact on our
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consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
Our investment securities portfolio, consolidated financial condition and consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in market factors, including interest rates, credit spreads and credit performance.
Our investment securities portfolio represented approximately 35% of our total assets as of December 31, 2020. The gross interest income associated with our investment portfolio represented approximately 14% of our total gross revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 and has represented as much as 31% of our total gross revenue in the fiscal years since 2007. As such, our consolidated financial condition and results of operations are materially exposed to the risks associated with our investment portfolio, including changes in interest rates, credit spreads, credit performance (including risk of default), credit ratings, our access to liquidity, foreign exchange markets and mark- to-market valuations, and our ability to profitably manage changes in repayment rates of principal with respect to our portfolio securities. The continued low interest rate environment that has persisted since the financial crisis began in mid-2007 limits our ability to achieve a NIM consistent with our prior historical averages. In addition, certain regulatory liquidity standards, such as the LCR, require that we maintain minimum levels of HQLA in our investment portfolio, which generally generate lower rates of return than other investment assets. This has resulted in increased levels of HQLA as a percentage of our investment portfolio and an associated negative impact on our NII and our NIM. As a result we may not be able to attain our prior historical levels of NII and NIM. For additional information regarding these liquidity requirements, refer to the “Liquidity Coverage Ratio and Net Stable Funding Ratio” section of “Supervision and Regulation” in Business in this Form 10-K. We may enter into derivative transactions to hedge or manage our exposure to interest rate risk, as well as other risks, such as foreign exchange risk and credit risk. Derivative instruments that we hold for these or other purposes may not achieve their intended results and could result in unexpected losses or stresses on our liquidity or capital resources.
Our investment securities portfolio represents a greater proportion of our consolidated statement of condition and our loan portfolio represents a smaller proportion (approximately 9% of our total assets as of December 31, 2020), in comparison to many other major financial institutions. In some respects, the accounting and regulatory treatment of our investment securities portfolio may be less favorable to us than a more traditional held-for-investment lending portfolio. For example, under the Basel III
rule, after-tax changes in the fair value of AFS investment securities, such as those which represent a majority of our investment portfolio, are included in Tier 1 capital. Since loans held for investment are not subject to a fair value accounting framework, changes in the fair value of loans (other than expected credit losses) are not similarly included in the determination of Tier 1 capital under the Basel III rule. Due to this differing treatment, we may experience increased variability in our Tier 1 capital relative to other major financial institutions whose loan-and-lease portfolios represent a larger proportion of their consolidated total assets than ours.
Additional risks associated with our investment portfolio include:
Asset class concentration. Our investment portfolio continues to have significant concentrations in several classes of securities, including agency residential MBS, commercial MBS and other ABS, and securities with concentrated exposure to consumers. These classes and types of securities experienced significant liquidity, valuation and credit quality deterioration during the financial crisis that began in mid-2007. We also hold non-U.S. government securities, non-U.S. MBS and ABS with exposures to European countries, whose sovereign-debt markets have experienced increased stress at times since 2011 and may continue to experience stress in the future. For further information, refer to the risk factor titled “Our businesses have significant European operations, and disruptions in European economies could have an adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations or financial condition". Further, we hold a portfolio of U.S. state and municipal bonds, the value of which may be affected by the budget deficits that a number of states and municipalities currently face, resulting in risks associated with this portfolio.
Effects of market conditions. If market conditions deteriorate, our investment portfolio could experience a decline in market value, whether due to a decline in liquidity or an increase in the yield required by investors to hold such securities, regardless of our credit view of our portfolio holdings. In addition, in general, deterioration in credit quality, or changes in management's expectations regarding repayment timing or in management's investment intent to hold securities to maturity, in each case with respect to our portfolio holdings, could result in recognition of an allowance for expected credit losses or in impairment. Similarly, if a material portion of our investment portfolio were to experience credit deterioration, our
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capital ratios as calculated pursuant to the Basel III rule could be adversely affected. This risk is greater with portfolios of investment securities that contain credit risk than with holdings of U.S. Treasury securities.
Effects of interest rates. Our investment portfolio is further subject to changes in both U.S. and non-U.S. (primarily in Europe) interest rates, and could be negatively affected by changes in those rates, whether or not expected. This is particularly true in the case of a quicker-than-anticipated increase in interest rates, which would decrease market values in the near-term, or monetary policy that results in persistently low or negative rates of interest on certain investments. The latter has been the case, for example, with respect to ECB monetary policy, including negative interest rates in some jurisdictions, with associated negative effects on our investment portfolio reinvestment, NII and NIM. The effect on our NII has been exacerbated by the effects in recent fiscal years of the strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies, particularly the Euro. If European interest rates remain low or decrease and the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to the Euro, the negative effects on our NII likely will continue or increase. The overall level of NII can also be impacted by the size of our deposit base, as further increases in interest rates could lead to reduced deposit levels and also lower overall NII. Further, a reduction in deposit levels could increase the requirements under the regulatory liquidity standards requiring us to invest a greater proportion of our investment portfolio holdings in HQLA that have lower yields than other investable assets. See also, “Our business activities expose us to interest rate risk” in this section.
Our business activities expose us to interest rate risk.
In our business activities, we assume interest rate risk by investing short-term deposits received from our clients in our investment portfolio of longer- and intermediate-term assets. Our NII and NIM are affected by among other things, the levels of interest rates in global markets, changes in the relationship between short- and long-term interest rates, the direction and speed of interest rate changes and the asset and liability spreads relative to the currency and geographic mix of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. These factors are influenced, among other things, by a variety of economic and market forces and expectations, including monetary policy and other activities of
central banks, such as the Federal Reserve and ECB, that we do not control. Our ability to anticipate changes in these factors or to hedge the related on- and off-balance sheet exposures, and the cost of any such hedging activity, can significantly influence the success of our asset-and-liability management activities and the resulting level of our NII and NIM. The impact of changes in interest rates and related factors will depend on the relative duration and fixed- or floating-rate nature of our assets and liabilities. Sustained lower interest rates, a flat or inverted yield curve and narrow credit spreads generally have a constraining effect on our NII. In addition, our ability to change deposit rates in response to changes in interest rates and other market and related factors is limited by client relationship considerations. For additional information about the effects on interest rates on our business, refer to the Market Risk Management section, "Asset-and-Liability Management Activities" in our Management's Discussion and Analysis in this Form 10-K.
We assume significant credit risk to counterparties, many of which are major financial institutions. These financial institutions and other counterparties may also have substantial financial dependencies with other financial institutions and sovereign entities. These credit exposures and concentrations could expose us to financial loss.
The financial markets are characterized by extensive interdependencies among numerous parties, including banks, central banks, broker/dealers, insurance companies and other financial institutions. These financial institutions also include collective investment funds, such as mutual funds, UCITS and hedge funds that share these interdependencies. Many financial institutions, including collective investment funds, also hold, or are exposed to, loans, sovereign debt, fixed-income securities, derivatives, counterparty and other forms of credit risk in amounts that are material to their financial condition. As a result of our own business practices and these interdependencies, we and many of our clients have concentrated counterparty exposure to other financial institutions and collective investment funds, particularly large and complex institutions, sovereign issuers, mutual funds, UCITS and hedge funds. Although we have procedures for monitoring both individual and aggregate counterparty risk, significant individual and aggregate counterparty exposure is inherent in our business, as our focus is on servicing large institutional investors.
In the normal course of our business, we assume concentrated credit risk at the individual obligor, counterparty or group level. Such concentrations may be material and can often exceed 10% of our consolidated total shareholders' equity. Our material counterparty exposures change daily,
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and the counterparties or groups of related counterparties to which our risk exposure exceeds 10% of our consolidated total shareholders' equity are also variable during any reported period; however, our largest exposures tend to be to other financial institutions.
Concentration of counterparty exposure presents significant risks to us and to our clients because the failure or perceived weakness of our counterparties (or in some cases of our clients' counterparties) has the potential to expose us to risk of financial loss. Changes in market perception of the financial strength of particular financial institutions or sovereign issuers can occur rapidly, are often based on a variety of factors and are difficult to predict.
This was observed during the financial crisis that began in 2007-2008, when economic, market, political and other factors contributed to the perception of many financial institutions and sovereign issuers as being less credit worthy. This led to credit downgrades of numerous large U.S. and non-U.S. financial institutions and several sovereign issuers (which exposure stressed the perceived creditworthiness of financial institutions, many of which invest in, accept collateral in the form of, or value other transactions based on the debt or other securities issued by sovereigns) and substantially reduced value and liquidity in the market for their credit instruments. These or other factors could again contribute to similar consequences or other market risks associated with reduced levels of liquidity. As a result, we may be exposed to increased counterparty risks, either resulting from our role as principal or because of commitments we make in our capacity as agent for some of our clients.
Additional areas where we experience exposure to credit risk include:
Short-term credit. The degree of client demand for short-term credit tends to increase during periods of market turbulence, which may expose us to further counterparty-related risks. For example, investors in collective investment vehicles for which we act as custodian may experience significant redemption activity due to adverse market or economic news. Our relationship with our clients and the nature of the settlement process for some types of payments may result in the extension of short-term credit in such circumstances. We also provide committed lines of credit to support such activity. For some types of clients, we provide credit to allow them to leverage their portfolios, which may expose us to potential loss if the client experiences investment losses or other credit difficulties.
Industry and country risks. In addition to our exposure to financial institutions, we are from time to time exposed to concentrated credit risk at an industry or country level. This concentration risk also applies to groups of unrelated counterparties that may have similar investment strategies involving one or more particular industries, regions, or other characteristics. These unrelated counterparties may concurrently experience adverse effects to their performance, liquidity or reputation due to events or other factors affecting such investment strategies. Though potentially not material individually (relative to any one such counterparty), our credit exposures to such a group of counterparties could expose us to a single market or political event or a correlated set of events that, in the aggregate, could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Subcustodian risks. Our use of unaffiliated subcustodians exposes us to credit risk, in addition to other risks, such as operational risk, dependencies on credit extensions and risks of the legal systems of the jurisdictions in which the subcustodians operate, each of which may be material. Our operating model exposes us to risk of unaffiliated sub-custodians to a degree greater than some of our competitors who have banking operations in more jurisdictions than we do. Our sub-custodians operate in all jurisdictions in which our clients invest, including emerging and other underdeveloped markets that entail heightened risks. These risks are amplified due to evolving regulatory requirements with respect to our financial exposures in the event those subcustodians are unable to return clients’ assets, including, in some regulatory regimes, such as the E.U.'s UCITS V directive, requirements that we be responsible for resulting losses suffered by our clients. We may agree to similar or more stringent standards with clients that are not subject to such regulations. Our subcustodians are also large, global financial institutions with whom we have other credit exposures. This credit exposure to these financial institutions or subcustodians may limit the financial relationship we may have with these counterparties.
Settlement risks. We are exposed to settlement risks, particularly in our payments and foreign exchange activities. Those activities may lead to extension of credit and consequent losses in the event of a
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counterparty breach or an operational error, including the failure to provide credit. Due to our membership in several industry clearing or settlement exchanges, we may be required to guarantee obligations and liabilities, or provide financial support, in the event that other members do not honor their obligations or default. Moreover, not all of our counterparty exposure is secured, and even when our exposure is secured, the realizable value of the collateral may have declined by the time we exercise our rights against that collateral. This risk may be particularly acute if we are required to sell the collateral into an illiquid or temporarily-impaired market or with respect to clients protected by sovereign immunity. We are exposed to risk of short-term credit or overdraft of our clients in connection with the process to facilitate settlement of trades and related foreign exchange activities, particularly when contractual settlement has been agreed with our clients. The occurrence of overdrafts at peak volatility could create significant credit exposure to our clients depending upon the value of such clients' collateral at the time.
Securities lending and repurchase agreement indemnification. On behalf of clients enrolled in our securities lending program, we lend securities to banks, broker/dealers and other institutions. In the event of a failure of the borrower to return such securities, we typically agree to indemnify our clients for the amount by which the fair market value of those securities exceeds the proceeds of the disposition of the collateral posted by the borrower in connection with such transaction. We also lend and borrow securities as riskless principal, and in connection with those transactions receive a security interest in securities held by the borrowers in their securities portfolios and advance cash or securities as collateral to securities lenders. Borrowers are generally required to provide collateral equal to a contractually agreed percentage equal to or in excess of the fair market value of the loaned securities. As the fair market value of the loaned securities or collateral changes, additional collateral is provided by the borrower or collateral is returned to the borrower. In addition, our agency securities lending clients often purchase securities or other financial instruments from financial counterparties, including broker/dealers, under repurchase arrangements, frequently as a method of reinvesting the cash collateral they receive from lending their securities.
Under these arrangements, the counterparty is obligated to repurchase these securities or financial instruments from the client at the same price (plus an agreed rate of return) at some point in the future. The value of the collateral is intended to exceed the counterparty's payment obligation, and collateral is adjusted daily to account for shortfall under, or excess over, the agreed-upon collateralization level. As with the securities lending program, we agree to indemnify our clients from any loss that would arise on a default by the counterparty under these repurchase arrangements if the proceeds from the disposition of the securities or other financial assets held as collateral are less than the amount of the repayment obligation by the client's counterparty. In such instances of counterparty default, for both securities lending and repurchase agreements, we, rather than our client, are exposed to the risks associated with collateral value.
Repurchase and resale transactions. We enter into repurchase and resale transactions in eligible securities with sponsored clients and with other FICC members and, pursuant to FICC Government Securities Division rules, submit, novate and net the transactions. We may sponsor clients to clear their eligible repurchase transactions with FICC, backed by our guarantee to FICC of the prompt and full payment and performance of our sponsored member clients’ respective obligations. Although we obtain a security interest from our sponsored clients in the collateral that they receive, we are exposed to the associated risks, including insufficiency of the value of collateral.
Stable value arrangements. We enter into stable value wrap derivative contracts with unaffiliated stable value funds that allow a stable value fund to provide book value coverage to its participants. During the 2008 financial crisis, the book value of obligations under many of these contracts exceeded the market value of the underlying portfolio holdings. Concerns regarding the portfolio of investments protected by such contracts, or regarding the investment manager overseeing such an investment option, may result in redemption demands from stable value products covered by benefit-responsive contracts at a time when the portfolio's market value is less than its book value, potentially exposing us to risk of loss.
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Private equity subscription finance credit facilities. We provide credit facilities to private equity funds. The portfolio consists of capital call lines of credit, the repayment of which is dependent on the receipt of capital calls from the underlying limited partner investors in the funds managed by these firms.
U.S. municipal obligations remarketing credit facilities. We provide credit facilities in connection with the remarketing of U.S. municipal obligations, potentially exposing us to credit exposure to the municipalities issuing such bonds and contingent liquidity risk.
Leveraged loans. In recent years, we have increased our investment in leveraged loans, both in the U.S. and in Europe. We invest in these loans to non-investment grade borrowers through participation in loan syndications in the non-investment grade lending market. We rate these loans as "speculative" under our internal risk-rating framework, and these loans have significant exposure to credit losses relative to higher-rated loans. We are therefore at a higher risk of default with respect to these investments relative to other of our investments activities. In addition, unlike other financial institutions that may have an active role in managing individual loan compliance, our investment in these loans is generally as a passive investor with limited control. As this portfolio grows and becomes more seasoned, our allowance for credit losses related to these loans may increase through additional provisions for credit losses.
Commercial Real Estate. We finance commercial and multi-family properties, which serve as collateral for our loans. Although collateralized, these loans may become under-secured if the value of the collateral was over-estimated or changes. Loan payments are dependent on the successful operation and management of the underlying collateral property to generate sufficient cash flow to repay the loan in a timely fashion. A material decline in real estate markets or economic conditions could negatively impact value or property performance, which could adversely impact timely loan repayment, which may result in increased provision for credit losses on loans, and actual losses, either of which would have an adverse impact on our net income. We seek to minimize these risks by maintaining lending policies and procedures and underwriting standards, however, there can be no assurance that
these will protect us from credit-related losses or delinquencies.
Unavailability of netting. We are generally not able to net exposures across counterparties that are affiliated entities and may not be able in all circumstances to net exposures to the same legal entity across multiple products. As a consequence, we may incur a loss in relation to one entity or product even though our exposure to an entity's affiliates or across product types is over-collateralized. In some cases, for example in our securities finance and foreign exchange activities, we are able to enter into netting agreements that allow us to net offsetting exposures and payment obligations against one another. In the event we become unable, due to operational constraints, actions by regulators, changes in accounting principles, law or regulation (or related interpretations) or other factors, to net some or all of our offsetting exposures and payment obligations under those agreements, we would be required to gross up our assets and liabilities on our statement of condition and our calculation of RWA, accordingly. This would result in a potentially material increase in our regulatory ratios, including LCR, and present increased credit, liquidity, asset-and-liability management and operational risks, some of which could be material.
Under currently prevailing regulatory restrictions on credit exposure we are required to limit our exposures to specific issuers or counterparties or groups of counterparties, including financial institutions and sovereign issuers. These credit exposure restrictions have and may further adversely affect certain of our businesses, may require that we expand our credit exposure to a broader range of issuers and counterparties, including issuers and counterparties that represent increased credit risk, may reduce or foreclose our ability to enter into advantageous transactions or ventures with particular counterparties and may require that we modify our operating models or the policies and practices we use to manage our consolidated statement of condition. The effects of these considerations may increase when evaluated under a stressed environment in stress testing, including CCAR. In addition, we are an adherent to the International Swaps and Derivatives Association 2015 Universal Resolution Stay Protocol and as such are subject to restrictions against the exercise of rights and remedies against fellow adherents, including other major financial institutions, in the event they or an affiliate of theirs enters into resolution. Although our overall business is subject to these factors, several of our activities are particularly
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sensitive to them including our currency trading business and our securities finance business.
Given the limited number of strong counterparties in the current market, we are not able to mitigate all of our and our clients' counterparty credit risk.
Fee revenue represents a significant majority of our consolidated revenue and is subject to decline, among other things, in the event of a reduction in, or changes to, the level or type of investment activity by our clients.
We rely primarily on fee-based services to derive our revenue. This contrasts with commercial banks that may rely more heavily on interest-based sources of revenue, such as loans. During 2020 total fee revenue represented approximately 81% of our total revenue. Fee revenue generated by our Investment Servicing and Investment Management businesses is augmented by foreign exchange trading services, securities finance and software and processing fee revenue. The level of these fees is influenced by several factors, including the mix and volume of our AUC/A and our AUM, the value and type of securities positions held (with respect to assets under custody) and the volume of our clients' portfolio transactions, and the types of products and services used by our clients.
In addition, our clients include institutional investors, such as mutual funds, collective investment funds, UCITS, hedge funds and other investment pools, corporate and public retirement plans, insurance companies, foundations, endowments and investment managers. Economic, market or other factors that reduce the level or rates of savings in or with those institutions, either through reductions in financial asset valuations or through changes in investor preferences, could materially reduce our fee revenue and have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations.
If we are unable to effectively manage our capital and liquidity, including by continuously attracting deposits and other short-term funding, our consolidated financial condition, including our regulatory capital ratios, our consolidated results of operations and our business prospects, could be adversely affected.
Liquidity management, including on an intra-day basis, is critical to the management of our consolidated statement of condition and to our ability to service our client base. We generally use our liquidity to:
meet clients' demands for return of their deposits;
extend credit to our clients in connection with our investor services businesses; and
fund the pool of long- and intermediate-term assets that are included in the investment securities and loan portfolio carried in our consolidated statement of condition.
Because the demand for credit by our clients, particularly settlement related extensions of credit, is difficult to predict and control, and may be at its peak at times of disruption in the securities markets, and because the average maturity of our investment securities and loan portfolios is longer than the contractual maturity of our client deposit base, we need to continuously attract, and are dependent on access to, various sources of short-term funding. Since the 2008 financial crisis, the level of client deposits held by us has tended to increase during times of market disruption; however, since such deposits are considered to be transitory, we have historically deposited so-called excess deposits with U.S. and non-U.S. central banks and in other highly liquid but low-yielding instruments. These levels of excess client deposits, when they manifest, have increased our NII but have adversely affected our NIM.
In managing our liquidity, our primary source of short-term funding is client deposits, which are predominantly transaction-based deposits by institutional investors. Our ability to continue to attract these deposits, and other short-term funding sources such as certificates of deposit, is subject to variability based on a number of factors, including volume and volatility in global financial markets, the interest rates that we are prepared to pay for these deposits, the loss or gain of one or more clients, client interest in reducing non-interest bearing deposits, the perception of safety of these deposits or short-term obligations relative to alternative short-term investments available to our clients, including the capital markets, and the classification of certain deposits for regulatory purposes and related discussions we may have from time to time with clients regarding better balancing our clients' cash management needs with our economic and regulatory objectives.
The Parent Company is a non-operating holding company and generally maintains only limited cash and other liquid resources at any time primarily to meet anticipated near-term obligations. To effectively manage our liquidity we routinely transfer assets among affiliated entities, subsidiaries and branches. Internal or external factors, such as regulatory requirements and standards, including resolution planning and restrictions on dividend distributions, influence our liquidity management and may limit our ability to effectively transfer liquidity internally which could, among other things, restrict our ability to fund operations, dividends or stock repurchases or pay interest on debt securities or require us to seek
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external and potentially more costly capital and impact our liquidity position.
In addition, while not obligations of ours, the investment products that we manage for third parties may be exposed to liquidity risks. These products may be funded on a short-term basis or the clients participating in these products may have a right to the return of cash or assets on limited notice. These business activities include, among others, securities finance collateral pools, money market and other short-term investment funds and liquidity facilities utilized in connection with municipal bond programs. If clients demand a return of their cash or assets, particularly on limited notice, and these investment pools do not have the liquidity to support those demands, we could be forced to sell investment securities held by these asset pools at unfavorable prices, damaging our reputation as a service provider and potentially exposing us to claims related to our management of the pools.
The availability and cost of credit in short-term markets are highly dependent on the markets' perception of our liquidity and creditworthiness. Our efforts to monitor and manage our liquidity risk, including on an intra-day basis, may not be successful or sufficient to deal with dramatic or unanticipated changes in the global securities markets or other event-driven reductions in liquidity. As a result of such events, among other things, our cost of funds may increase, thereby reducing our NII, or we may need to dispose of a portion of our investment securities portfolio, which, depending on market conditions, could result in a loss from such sales of investment securities being recorded in our consolidated statement of income.
We may need to raise additional capital or debt in the future, which may not be available to us or may only be available on unfavorable terms.
We may need to raise additional capital or debt in order to maintain our credit ratings, in response to regulatory changes, including capital rules, or for other purposes, including financing acquisitions and joint ventures. For example, in November 2019, January 2020 and March 2020, we issued additional long-term debt in order to maintain levels to satisfy internal and regulatory requirements, and in September 2018 and July 2018 we issued preferred stock and common stock, respectively, to finance our acquisition of CRD.
However, our ability to access the capital markets, if needed, on a timely basis or at all will depend on a number of factors, such as the state of the financial markets and securities law requirements and standards. In the event of rising interest rates, disruptions in financial markets, negative perceptions of our business or our financial strength, or other factors that would increase our cost of borrowing, we
cannot be sure of our ability to raise additional capital or debt, if needed, on terms acceptable to us. Any diminished ability to raise additional capital or debt, if needed, could adversely affect our business and our ability to implement our business plan, capital plan and strategic goals, including the financing of acquisitions and joint ventures and our efforts to maintain regulatory compliance.
Any downgrades in our credit ratings, or an actual or perceived reduction in our financial strength, could adversely affect our borrowing costs, capital costs and liquidity position and cause reputational harm.
Major independent rating agencies publish credit ratings for our debt obligations based on their evaluation of a number of factors, some of which relate to our performance and other corporate developments, including financings, acquisitions and joint ventures, and some of which relate to general industry conditions. We anticipate that the rating agencies will continue to review our ratings regularly based on our consolidated results of operations and developments in our businesses, including regulatory considerations such as resolution planning. One or more of the major independent credit rating agencies have in the past downgraded, and may in the future downgrade, our credit ratings, or have negatively revised their outlook for our credit ratings. The current market and regulatory environment and our exposure to financial institutions and other counterparties, including sovereign entities, increase the risk that we may not maintain our current ratings, and we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to maintain our current credit ratings. Downgrades in our credit ratings may adversely affect our borrowing costs, our capital costs and our ability to raise capital and, in turn, our liquidity. A failure to maintain an acceptable credit rating may also preclude us from being competitive in various products.
Additionally, our counterparties, as well as our clients, rely on our financial strength and stability and evaluate the risks of doing business with us. If we experience diminished financial strength or stability, actual or perceived, due to the effects of market or regulatory developments, announced or rumored business developments, consolidated results of operations, a decline in our stock price or a downgrade to our credit rating, our counterparties may be less willing to enter into transactions, secured or unsecured, with us, our clients may reduce or place limits on the level of service we provide to them or seek to transfer the business, in whole or in part, to other service providers or our prospective clients may select other service providers. Any or, all of these may have adverse effects on our business and reputation.
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The risk that we may be perceived as less creditworthy than other market participants is higher as a result of recent market developments, which include an environment in which the consolidation, and in some instances failure, of financial institutions, including major global financial institutions, has resulted in a smaller number of much larger counterparties and competitors. If our counterparties perceive us to be a less viable counterparty, our ability to enter into financial transactions on terms acceptable to us or our clients, on our or our clients' behalf, will be materially compromised. If our clients reduce their deposits with us or select other service providers for all or a portion of the services we provide to them, our revenues will decrease accordingly.
Compliance and Regulatory Risks
Our business and capital-related activities, including our ability to return capital to shareholders and repurchase our capital stock, may be adversely affected by our implementation of regulatory capital and liquidity standards that we must meet or as a result of regulatory capital stress testing.
Basel III and Dodd-Frank Act
We are required to calculate our risk-based capital ratios under both the Basel III advanced approaches and the Basel III standardized approach, and we are subject to the more stringent of the risk-based capital ratios calculated under the advanced approaches and those calculated under the standardized approach in the assessment of our capital adequacy.
In implementing various aspects of these capital regulations, we are making interpretations of the regulatory intent. The Federal Reserve may determine that we are not in compliance with the capital rules and may require us to take actions to come into compliance that could adversely affect our business operations, our regulatory capital structure, our capital ratios or our financial performance, or otherwise restrict our growth plans or strategies. In addition, banking regulators could change the Basel III rule or their interpretations as they apply to us, including changes to these standards or interpretations made in regulations implementing provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act, which could adversely affect us and our ability to comply with the Basel III rule.
Along with the Basel III rule, banking regulators also introduced additional requirements, such as the SLR, LCR and the recently finalized NSFR, each of which presents compliance risks.
For example, the specification of the various elements of the NSFR in the final rule could have a material effect on our business activities, including the management and composition of our investment
securities portfolio and our ability to extend credit through committed facilities, loans to our clients or our principal securities lending activities. In addition, further capital and liquidity requirements are being implemented or are under consideration by U.S. and international banking regulators. Any of these rules, or any additional regulatory initiatives introduced under the new administration, could have a material effect on our capital and liquidity planning and related activities, including the management and composition of our investment securities portfolio and our ability to extend committed contingent credit facilities to our clients. The full effects of these rules, and of other regulatory initiatives related to capital or liquidity, on us and State Street Bank are subject to further regulatory guidance, action or rule-making.
Systemic Importance
As a G-SIB, we are generally subject to the most stringent provisions under the Basel III rule. For example, we are subject to the Federal Reserve's rules on the implementation of capital surcharges for U.S. G-SIBs, and on TLAC, LTD and clean holding company requirements for U.S. G-SIBs which we refer to as the "TLAC rule". For additional information on these requirements, refer to the “Regulatory Capital Adequacy and Liquidity Standards” section under “Supervision and Regulation” in Business in this Form 10-K.
Not all of our competitors have similarly been designated as systemically important nor are all of them subject to the same degree of regulation as a bank or financial holding company, and therefore some of our competitors are not subject to the same additional capital requirements.
Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review
We are required by the Federal Reserve to conduct periodic stress testing of our business operations and to develop an annual capital plan as part of the Federal Reserve's CCAR process. The stress testing and CCAR processes, the severity and other characteristics of which may evolve from year-to-year, are used by the Federal Reserve to evaluate our management of capital and the adequacy of our regulatory capital and to determine the SCB that we must maintain above our minimum regulatory capital requirements in order for us to make capital distributions and discretionary bonuses without limitation. The results of the stress testing and CCAR processes are difficult to predict due, among other things, to the Federal Reserve's use of proprietary stress models that differ from our internal models. The results of the Federal Reserve’s supervisory stress tests may result in an increase in our SCB requirement. The amounts of the planned capital actions in our capital plan in any year, including stock repurchases and dividends, may be substantially reduced from the amounts included in prior capital
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plans. These reductions may reflect changes in one or more different factors, including our business prospects and related capital needs, our capital position, proposed acquisitions or other uses of capital, the models used in our capital planning process, the supervisory models used by the Federal Reserve to stress our balance sheet, the Federal Reserve’s hypothetical economic scenarios for the CCAR process, the Federal Reserve’s CCAR instructions and the Federal Reserve’s supervisory expectations for the capital planning process. Any of these potential events could require us, as applicable, to revise our stress-testing or capital management approaches, resubmit our capital plan or postpone, cancel or alter our planned capital actions. In addition, changes in our business strategy, merger or acquisition activity or uses of capital could result in a change in our capital plan and its associated capital actions, and may require us to resubmit our capital plan to the Federal Reserve and recalculate our SCB requirement. We are also subject to asset quality reviews and stress testing by the ECB and in the future we may be subject to similar reviews and testing by other regulators.
Our implementation of capital and liquidity requirements, including our capital plan, may not be approved or may be objected to by the Federal Reserve, and the Federal Reserve may impose capital requirements in excess of our expectations or require us to maintain levels of liquidity that are higher than we may expect and which may adversely affect our consolidated revenues. In the event that our implementation of capital and liquidity requirements under regulatory initiatives or our current capital structure are determined not to conform with current and future capital requirements, our ability to deploy capital in the operation of our business or our ability to distribute capital to shareholders or to repurchase our capital stock may be constrained, and our business may be adversely affected. In addition, we may choose to forgo business opportunities, due to their impact on our capital plan or stress tests, including CCAR and our SCB requirement. Likewise, in the event that regulators in other jurisdictions in which we have banking subsidiaries determine that our capital or liquidity levels do not conform with current and future regulatory requirements, our ability to deploy capital, our levels of liquidity or our business operations in those jurisdictions may be adversely affected.
For additional information about the above matters, refer to “Regulatory Capital Adequacy and Liquidity Standards” section under "Supervision and Regulation" in Business and “Capital” section under "Financial Condition" in our Management's Discussion and Analysis in this Form 10-K.
We face extensive and changing government regulation in the U.S. and in non-U.S. jurisdictions
in which we operate, which may increase our costs and expose us to risks related to compliance.
Most of our businesses are subject to extensive regulation by multiple regulatory bodies, and many of the clients to which we provide services are themselves subject to a broad range of regulatory requirements. These regulations may affect the scope of, and the manner and terms of delivery of, our services. As a financial institution with substantial international operations, we are subject to extensive regulation and supervisory oversight, both inside and outside of the U.S. This regulation and supervisory oversight affects, among other things, the scope of our activities and client services, our capital and organizational structure, our ability to fund the operations of our subsidiaries, our lending practices, our dividend policy, our common stock purchase actions, the manner in which we market our services, our acquisition activities and our interactions with foreign regulatory agencies and officials.
In particular, we are registered with the Federal Reserve as a bank holding company pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. The Bank Holding Company Act generally limits the activities in which we and our non-banking subsidiaries may engage to managing or controlling banks and to activities considered to be closely related to banking. As a bank holding company that has elected to be treated as a financial holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act, we and some of our non-banking subsidiaries may also engage in a broader range of activities considered to be “financial in nature.” Financial holding company status may be denied if we and our banking subsidiaries do not remain well capitalized and well managed or fail to comply with Community Reinvestment Act obligations. Currently, under the Bank Holding Company Act, we may not be able to engage in new activities or acquire shares or control of other businesses.
We are unable to predict what, if any, changes to the regulatory environment may be enacted by Congress, both chambers of which are now under Democratic control, or the new presidential administration and what the impact of any such changes will be on our results of operations or financial condition, including increased expenses or changes in the demand for our services or our ability to engage in transactions to expand our business, or on the U.S.-domestic or global economies or financial markets.
Moreover, the turnover of the presidential administration is expected to result in certain changes in the leadership and senior staffs of the federal banking agencies. Such changes are likely to impact the rulemaking, supervision, examination and enforcement priorities and policies of the agencies.
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The potential impact of any changes in agency personnel, policies and priorities on the financial services sector, including us, cannot be predicted at this time.
We expect that our business will remain subject to extensive regulation and supervision. Several other aspects of the regulatory environment in which we operate, and related risks, are discussed below. Additional information is provided under "Supervision and Regulation” in Business in this Form 10-K.
Resolution Planning
We are required to periodically submit a plan for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of material financial distress or failure commonly referred to as a resolution plan or a living will to the Federal Reserve and the FDIC under Section 165(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act. Through resolution planning, we seek, in the event of insolvency, to maintain State Street Bank’s role as a key infrastructure provider within the financial system, while minimizing risk to the financial system and maximizing value for the benefit of our stakeholders. Significant management attention and resources are required in an effort to meet regulatory expectations with respect to resolution planning.
In the event of material financial distress or failure, our preferred resolution strategy is the SPOE Strategy. Our resolution plan, including our implementation of the SPOE Strategy with a secured support agreement, involves important risks, including that: (1) the SPOE Strategy and the obligations under the related secured support agreement may result in the recapitalization of and/or provision of liquidity to State Street Bank and our other material entities and the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings by the Parent Company at an earlier stage of financial stress than might otherwise occur without such mechanisms in place; (2) an expected effect of the SPOE Strategy, together with applicable TLAC regulatory requirements, is that our losses will be imposed on Parent Company shareholders and the holders of long-term debt and other forms of TLAC securities currently outstanding or issued in the future by the Parent Company, as well as on any other Parent Company creditors, before any of our losses are imposed on the holders of the debt securities of State Street Bank or certain of the Parent Company’s other operating subsidiaries or any of their depositors or creditors and before U.S. taxpayers are put at risk; (3) there can be no assurance that there would be sufficient recapitalization resources available to ensure that State Street Bank and our other material entities are adequately capitalized following the triggering of the requirements to provide capital and/or liquidity under the support agreement; and (4) there can be no assurance that credit rating agencies, in response to our resolution plan or the support agreement, will not downgrade, place on negative watch or change their outlook on our debt credit
ratings, generally or on specific debt securities. Additional information about the SPOE Strategy, including related risks, is provided under "Recovery and Resolution Planning" in Business in this Form 10-K.
Systemic Importance
Our qualification in the U.S. as a SIFI, and our designation by the Financial Stability Board as a G-SIB, to which certain regulatory capital surcharges may apply, subjects us to incrementally higher capital and prudential requirements, increased scrutiny of our activities and potential additional regulatory requirements or heightened regulatory expectations as compared to those applicable to some of the financial institutions with which we compete as a custodian or asset manager. This qualification and designation also has significantly increased, and may continue to increase, our expenses associated with regulatory compliance, including personnel and systems, as well as implementation and related costs to enhance our programs.
Global and Non-U.S. Regulatory Requirements
The breadth of our business activities, together with the scope of our global operations and varying business practices in relevant jurisdictions, increase the complexity and costs of meeting our regulatory compliance obligations, including in areas that are receiving significant regulatory scrutiny. We are, therefore, subject to related risks of non-compliance, including fines, penalties, lawsuits, regulatory sanctions, difficulties in obtaining governmental approvals, limitations on our business activities or reputational harm, any of which may be significant. For example, the global nature of our client base requires us to comply with complex laws and regulations of multiple jurisdictions relating to economic sanctions and money laundering. In addition, we are required to comply not only with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, but also with the applicable anti-corruption laws of other jurisdictions in which we operate. Further, our global operating model requires that we comply with information security, resiliency and outsourcing oversight requirements, including with respect to affiliated entities, of multiple jurisdictions and enable our clients to comply with information security, resiliency and outsourcing oversight requirements imposed upon them. Regulatory scrutiny of compliance with these and other laws and regulations is increasing and may, in some respects, impede the implementation of our global operating model that is central to both delivery of client service requirements and cost efficiency. We sometimes face inconsisten