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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-36124
Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Pennsylvania46-2116489
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
845 Berkshire Blvd., Suite 200
Wyomissing, PA 19610
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: 610 401-2900
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareGLPINASDAQ
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Emerging growth company
  
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes    No 
As of June 30, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter), the aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $7.1 billion. Such aggregate market value was computed by reference to the closing price of the common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2020.

The number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding as of February 16, 2021 was 232,780,891.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for its 2021 annual meeting of shareholders (when it is filed) will be incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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IMPORTANT FACTORS REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Forward-looking statements in this document are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements of Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. ("GLPI") and its subsidiaries (collectively, the "Company") to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include information concerning the Company's business strategy, plans, goals and objectives.
Forward-looking statements in this document include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our ability to grow our portfolio of gaming facilities. In addition, statements preceded by, followed by or that otherwise include the words "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "projects," "estimates," "plans," "may increase," "may fluctuate," and similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as "will," "should," "would," "may" and "could" are generally forward-looking in nature and not historical facts. You should understand that the following important factors could affect future results and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements:
The novel coronavirus COVID-19 (including variants thereof, "COVID-19") had, and may continue to have, a significant impact on our tenants' financial conditions and operations. As a result of the outbreak, our casino operations and those of our tenants were forced to close temporarily, as federal, state and local officials undertook various steps to mitigate the spread of infections from COVID-19. Although the majority of our tenants' operations have recommenced operations to strong results and our tenants have improved their liquidity profiles, there can be no assurance whether these encouraging results will continue in future periods, particularly with the potential for continued increased transmission from new strains of COVID-19;

the impact that the sharp increase in unemployment levels and uncertainty with respect to the future state of the economy could have on discretionary consumer spending, including on casino operations;

the current and uncertain future impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, including its effect on the ability or desire of people to gather in large groups (including in casinos), which could impact our financial results, operations, outlooks, plans, goals, growth, cash flows, liquidity, and stock price;

unforeseen consequences related to United States government stimulus packages or a failure to mitigate the sharp economic downturn from COVID-19;

our ability to realize significant value for the real property assets of Tropicana Las Vegas which we acquired from Penn National Gaming, Inc. (NASDAQ: PENN) ("Penn")) in return for $307.5 million of rent credits;

the availability of and the ability to identify suitable and attractive acquisition and development opportunities and the ability to acquire and lease the respective properties on favorable terms;

the degree and nature of our competition;

the ability to receive, or delays in obtaining, the regulatory approvals required to own and/or operate our properties, or other delays or impediments to completing our planned acquisitions or projects;

our ability to maintain our status as a real estate investment trust ("REIT"), given the highly technical and complex Internal Revenue Code (the "Code") provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist, where even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize REIT qualification and where requirements may depend in part on the actions of third parties over which the Company has no control or only limited influence;

the satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis in order for the Company to maintain its REIT status;

the ability and willingness of our tenants, operators and other third parties to meet and/or perform their obligations under their respective contractual arrangements with us, including lease and note requirements and in some cases, their obligations to indemnify, defend and hold us harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities;

the ability of our tenants and operators to maintain the financial strength and liquidity necessary to satisfy their respective obligations and liabilities to third parties, including, without limitation, to satisfy obligations under their existing credit facilities and other indebtedness;
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the ability of our tenants and operators to comply with laws, rules and regulations in the operation of our properties, to deliver high quality services, to attract and retain qualified personnel and to attract customers;

the ability to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;

the access to debt and equity capital markets, including for acquisitions or refinancing due to maturities;

adverse changes in our credit rating;

fluctuating interest rates and the potential phasing out of the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") after 2021;

the impact of global or regional economic conditions;

the ability to attract qualified personnel and our ability to retain our key management personnel;

GLPI's obligation to indemnify Penn and its subsidiaries in certain circumstances if the spin-off transaction described in Part 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K fails to be tax-free;

changes in the United States tax law and other state, federal or local laws, whether or not specific to real estate, REITs or to the gaming, lodging or hospitality industries;

changes in accounting standards;

the impact of weather or climate events or conditions, natural disasters, acts of terrorism and other international hostilities, war or political instability;

The historical financial statements included herein do not reflect what the business, financial position or results of operations of GLPI may be in the future.

other risks inherent in the real estate business, including potential liability relating to environmental matters and illiquidity of real estate investments; and

additional factors discussed in the sections entitled "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this report.
Other unknown or unpredictable factors may also cause actual results to differ materially from those projected by the forward-looking statements. Most of these factors are difficult to anticipate and are generally beyond the control of the Company.
You should consider the areas of risk described above, as well as those set forth under the heading "Risk Factors," in connection with considering any forward-looking statements that may be made by the Company generally. The Company does not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to any forward-looking statements, to report events or to report the occurrence of unanticipated events unless required to do so by law.


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In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms "we," "us," "our," the "Company" and "GLPI" refer to Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. and subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Overview
GLPI is a self-administered and self-managed Pennsylvania REIT. The Company was formed from the 2013 tax-free spin-off of the real estate assets of Penn and was incorporated in Pennsylvania on February 13, 2013, as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Penn. On November 1, 2013, Penn contributed to GLPI, through a series of internal corporate restructurings, substantially all of the assets and liabilities associated with Penn's real property interests and real estate development business, as well as the assets and liabilities of Louisiana Casino Cruises, Inc. (d/b/a Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge) and Penn Cecil Maryland, Inc. (d/b/a Hollywood Casino Perryville) (which are referred to herein as the "TRS Properties") and then spun-off GLPI to holders of Penn's common and preferred stock in a tax-free distribution (the "Spin-Off"). The assets and liabilities of GLPI were recorded at their respective historical carrying values at the time of the Spin-Off in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 505-60 - Spinoffs and Reverse Spinoffs. GLPI owns and operates the TRS Properties and holds the real estate of Tropicana Las Vegas through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Tropicana LV, LLC which together with the TRS Properties and GLP Holdings, Inc., is the Company's TRS Segment (the "TRS Segment").
In connection with the Spin-Off, Penn allocated its accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) for periods prior to the consummation of the Spin-Off between Penn and GLPI. In connection with its election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the year ended December 31, 2014, GLPI declared a special dividend to its shareholders to distribute any accumulated earnings and profits relating to the real property assets and attributable to any pre-REIT years, including any earnings and profits allocated to GLPI in connection with the Spin-Off, to comply with certain REIT qualification requirements.
GLPI's primary business consists of acquiring, financing, and owning real estate property to be leased to gaming operators in triple-net lease arrangements. Triple-net leases are leases in which the lessee pays rent to the lessor, as well as all taxes, insurance, utilities and maintenance expenses that arise from the use of the property. As of December 31, 2020, GLPI’s portfolio consisted of interests in 48 gaming and related facilities, including the TRS Segment, the real property associated with 33 gaming and related facilities operated by Penn, the real property associated with 7 gaming and related facilities operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation (NASDAQ: CZR) ("Caesars")), the real property associated with 4 gaming and related facilities operated by Boyd Gaming Corporation (NYSE: BYD) ("Boyd")) and the real property associated with the Casino Queen in East St. Louis, Illinois.  Penn, Caesars and Boyd are leading, diversified, multi-jurisdictional owners and managers of gaming and pari-mutual properties and established gaming providers with strong financial performance. These facilities, including our corporate headquarters building, are geographically diversified across 16 states and contain approximately 24.3 million square feet. As of December 31, 2020, the Company's properties were 100% occupied. We expect to continue growing our portfolio by pursuing opportunities to acquire additional gaming facilities to lease to gaming operators under prudent terms.
Properties and Leases
Penn Master Lease, Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Boyd Master Lease and Belterra Park Lease
As a result of the Spin-Off, GLPI owns substantially all of Penn's former real property assets (as of the consummation of the Spin-Off) and leases back most of those assets to Penn for use by its subsidiaries pursuant to a unitary master lease (the "Penn Master Lease"). The Penn Master Lease is a triple-net operating lease, the term of which expires October 31, 2033, with no purchase option, followed by three remaining 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions.
In April 2016, the Company acquired substantially all of the real estate assets of Pinnacle Entertainment, Inc. ("Pinnacle") for approximately $4.8 billion. GLPI originally leased these assets back to Pinnacle, under a unitary triple-net lease, the term of which expires April 30, 2031, with no purchase option, followed by four remaining 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions (the "Pinnacle Master Lease"). On October 15, 2018, the Company completed its previously announced transactions with Penn, Pinnacle and Boyd to accommodate Penn's acquisition of the majority of Pinnacle's operations, pursuant to a definitive agreement and plan of merger between Penn and Pinnacle, dated December 17, 2017 (the "Penn-Pinnacle Merger"). Concurrent with the Penn-Pinnacle Merger, the Company amended the Pinnacle Master Lease to allow for the sale of the operating assets of Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City, Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles and Belterra Casino Resort from Pinnacle to Boyd (the "Amended Pinnacle Master Lease") and entered into a new
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unitary triple-net master lease agreement with Boyd (the "Boyd Master Lease") for these properties on terms similar to the Company’s Amended Pinnacle Master Lease. The Boyd Master Lease has an initial term of 10 years (from the original April 2016 commencement date of the Pinnacle Master Lease and expiring April 30, 2026), with no purchase option, followed by five 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. The Company also purchased the real estate assets of Plainridge Park Casino ("Plainridge Park") from Penn for $250.0 million, exclusive of transaction fees and taxes and added this property to the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease. The Amended Pinnacle Master Lease was assumed by Penn at the consummation of the Penn-Pinnacle Merger. The Company also entered into a mortgage loan agreement with Boyd in connection with Boyd's acquisition of Belterra Park Gaming & Entertainment Center ("Belterra Park"), whereby the Company loaned Boyd $57.7 million (the "Belterra Park Loan"). In May 2020, the Company acquired the real estate of Belterra Park in satisfaction of the Belterra Park Loan, subject to a long-term lease (the "Belterra Park Lease") with a Boyd affiliate operating the property.
Meadows Lease
The real estate assets of the Meadows Racetrack and Casino (the "Meadows") are leased to Penn under a single property triple-net lease (the "Meadows Lease"). The Meadows Lease commenced on September 9, 2016 and has an initial term of 10 years, with no purchase option, and the option to renew for three successive 5-year terms and one 4-year term (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions.

Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease

On October 1, 2018, the Company closed its previously announced transaction to acquire certain real property assets from Tropicana Entertainment Inc. ("Tropicana") and certain of its affiliates pursuant to a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the "Real Estate Purchase Agreement") dated April 15, 2018 between Tropicana and GLP Capital L.P. ("GLP Capital"), the operating partnership of GLPI, which was subsequently amended on October 1, 2018 (as amended, the "Amended Real Estate Purchase Agreement"). Pursuant to the terms of the Amended Real Estate Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired the real estate assets of Tropicana Atlantic City, Tropicana Evansville, Tropicana Laughlin, Trop Casino Greenville and the Belle of Baton Rouge (the "GLP Assets") from Tropicana for an aggregate cash purchase price of $964.0 million, exclusive of transaction fees and taxes (the "Tropicana Acquisition"). Concurrent with the Tropicana Acquisition, Eldorado Resorts, Inc. (now doing business as Caesars) acquired the operating assets of these properties from Tropicana pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated April 15, 2018 by and among Tropicana, GLP Capital, Caesars and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Caesars and leased the GLP Assets from the Company pursuant to the terms of a new unitary triple-net master lease with an initial term of 15 years, with no purchase option, followed by four successive 5-year renewal periods (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions (the "Caesars Master Lease").

On June 15, 2020, the Company entered into an agreement to amend and restate the Caesars Master Lease (as amended, the "Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease") to, (i) extend the initial term of 15 years to 20 years, with renewals of up to an additional 20 years at the option of Caesars, (ii) remove the variable rent component in its entirety, commencing with the third lease year, (iii) in the third lease year increase annual land base rent to approximately $23.6 million and annual building base rent to approximately $62.1 million, (iv) provide fixed escalation percentages that delay the escalation of building base rent until the commencement of the fifth lease year with building base rent increasing annually by 1.25% in the fifth and sixth lease year, 1.75% in the seventh and eighth lease years and 2% in the ninth lease year and each lease year thereafter, (v) subject to regulatory approvals and the satisfaction of certain conditions, permit Caesars to elect to replace the Tropicana Evansville and/or Tropicana Greenville properties under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease with one or more of Caesars Gaming Scioto Downs, The Row in Reno, Isle Casino Racing Pompano Park, Isle Casino Hotel – Black Hawk, Lady Luck Casino – Black Hawk, Isle Casino Waterloo ("Waterloo"), Isle Casino Bettendorf ("Bettendorf") or Isle of Capri Casino Boonville, provided that the aggregate value of such new property, individually or collectively, is at least equal to the value of Tropicana Evansville or Tropicana Greenville, as applicable, (vi) permit Caesars to elect to sell its interest in Belle of Baton Rouge and sever it from the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease, subject to regulatory approvals and the satisfaction of certain conditions, and (vii) provide certain relief under the operating, capital expenditure and financial covenants thereunder in the event of facility closures due to pandemics, governmental restrictions and certain other instances of unavoidable delay. The Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease became effective on July 23, 2020 when all of the necessary regulatory approvals were received and notice periods were satisfied. On December 18, 2020, Caesars transferred to the Company the real estate assets of the Waterloo and Bettendorf in exchange for the transfer by the Company to Caesars of the real property assets of the Tropicana Evansville and a cash payment of $5.7 million. The Waterloo and Bettendorf facilities were added to the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease and the annual rent increased by approximately $520,000.


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Lumière Place Lease

On October 1, 2018 the Company entered into a loan agreement with Caesars in connection with Caesars’s acquisition of Lumière Place Casino ("Lumière Place"), whereby the Company loaned Caesars $246.0 million (the "CZR loan"). The CZR loan bore interest at a rate equal to (i) 9.09% until October 1, 2019 and (ii) 9.27% until its maturity. On the one-year anniversary of the CZR loan, the mortgage evidenced by a deed of trust on the Lumière Place property terminated and the loan became unsecured. On June 24, 2020, the Company received approval from the Missouri Gaming Commission to own the Lumière Place property in satisfaction of the CZR loan. On September 29, 2020, the transaction closed and we entered into a new triple net lease with Caesars (the "Lumière Place Lease") the initial term of which expires on October 31, 2033 with four separate renewal options of five years each, exercisable at the tenant's option. The Lumière Place Lease rent is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met.

Tropicana Las Vegas

On April 16, 2020, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries closed on its previously announced transaction to acquire the real property associated with the Tropicana Las Vegas Casino Hotel Resort ("Tropicana Las Vegas") from Penn in exchange for rent credits of $307.5 million, which were applied against future rent obligations due under the parties' existing leases during 2020. This asset has been placed in the Company's TRS Segment.

Morgantown Lease

On October 1, 2020, the Company and Penn closed on their previously announced transaction whereby GLPI acquired the land under Penn's gaming facility under construction in Morgantown, Pennsylvania in exchange for $30.0 million in rent credits that were fully utilized by Penn in the fourth quarter of 2020. The Company is leasing the land back to an affiliate of Penn for an initial annual rent of $3.0 million, provided, however, that (i) on the opening date and on each anniversary thereafter the rent shall be increased by 1.5% annually (on a prorated basis in for the remainder of the lease year in which the gaming facility opens) for each of the following three lease years and (ii) commencing on the fourth anniversary of the opening date and for each anniversary thereafter, (a) if the Consumer Price Index ("the CPI") increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent for such lease year shall increase by 1.25% of rent as of the immediately preceding lease year, and (b) if the CPI increase is less than 0.5% for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year (the "Morgantown Lease").

Bally's Master Lease

On October 27, 2020, the Company entered into a series of definitive agreements pursuant to which a subsidiary of Twin River Worldwide Holdings, Inc. (now doing business as Bally's Corporation (NYSE: BALY) ("Bally's")), will acquire 100% of the equity interests in the Caesars subsidiary that currently operates Tropicana Evansville and the Company will reacquire the real property assets of Tropicana Evansville from Caesars for a cash purchase price of approximately $340.0 million. In addition, the Company entered into a real estate purchase agreement with Bally's pursuant to which the Company will purchase the real estate assets of the Dover Downs Hotel & Casino, located in Dover, Delaware, which is currently owned and operated by Bally's, for a cash purchase price of approximately $144.0 million. At the closing of the transactions, which is expected in mid-2021, subject to regulatory approvals, the Tropicana Evansville and Dover Downs Hotel and Casino facilities will be added to a new master lease between the Company and Bally's (the “Bally's Master Lease”). The Company anticipates that the Bally's Master Lease will have an initial term of 15 years, with no purchase option, followed by four five-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. Rent under the Bally's Master Lease will be $40.0 million annually and is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% determined in relation to the annual increase in the Consumer Price Index.

Casino Queen Lease and Casino Queen Master Lease

Finally, GLPI leases the Casino Queen property in East St. Louis back to its operators on a triple-net basis on terms similar to those in the Penn Master Lease (the "Casino Queen Lease"). On November 25, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell the operations of its Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge to Casino Queen for $28.2 million. The Company will retain ownership of all real estate assets at Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and will simultaneously enter into a master lease with Casino Queen, which will include the Casino Queen property in East St. Louis that is currently leased by us to them and the Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge facility (the "Casino Queen Master Lease"). The initial annual cash rent on the retained real estate will be approximately $21.4 million and the lease will have an initial term of 15 years with four 5 year renewal options. This rental amount will be increased annually by 0.5% for the first six years. Beginning with the seventh lease year through the remainder of the lease term, if the CPI increases by at least 0.25% for any lease year then annual rent shall be increased by 1.25%, and if the CPI increase is less than 0.25% then rent will remain unchanged for such lease year. Additionally, the Company will complete the current land side development project that is in process and the rent under the
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Casino Queen Master Lease will be adjusted upon delivery to reflect a yield of 8.25% on GLPI's project costs. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals and is expected to close in the second half of 2021.

Hollywood Casino Perryville Lease

On December 11, 2020, Penn agreed to purchase from the Company the operations of our Hollywood Casino Perryville, located in Perryville, Maryland, for $31.1 million, with the closing of such purchase, subject to regulatory approvals, expected to occur during calendar year 2021 on a date selected by Penn with reasonable prior notice to the Company unless otherwise agreed by both parties. Upon closing, the Company will lease the real estate of the Perryville facility to Penn pursuant to a lease providing for initial annual rent on the retained real estate of $7.77 million, $5.83 million of which will be subject to escalation provisions beginning in the second lease year through the fourth lease year and shall increase by 1.50% and then to 1.25% for the remaining lease term. The escalation provisions beginning in the fifth lease year are subject to CPI being at least 0.5% for the preceding lease year (the "Hollywood Casino Perryville Lease").

COVID-19
In the first quarter of 2020, COVID-19 became a global pandemic. Responses to the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States included mandates from federal, state, and/or local authorities requiring temporary closures of, or imposed limitations, on the operations of non-essential businesses. All of the Company's tenants' casino operations, in addition to the Company's two TRS Properties, were closed in mid-March. Our properties began reopening at limited capacity in May and by early July nearly all had resumed operations at limited capacity. However, in the fourth quarter, increased spread of COVID-19 led some jurisdictions to impose temporary closures once again. As of the date of this filing, only one of our tenants' properties is closed.
Tax Status
In connection with the Spin-Off, Penn allocated its accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) for periods prior to the consummation of the Spin-Off between Penn and GLPI. In connection with its election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the year ended December 31, 2014, GLPI declared a special dividend to its shareholders to distribute any accumulated earnings and profits relating to the real property assets and attributable to any pre-REIT years, including any earnings and profits allocated to GLPI in connection with the Spin-Off, to comply with certain REIT qualification requirements. We intend to continue to be organized and to operate in a manner that will permit us to qualify as a REIT. To qualify as a REIT, we must meet certain organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement to distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to shareholders. As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on income that we distribute as dividends to our shareholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates, and dividends paid to our shareholders would not be deductible by us in computing taxable income. Any resulting corporate liability could be substantial and could materially and adversely affect our net income and net cash available for distribution to shareholders. Unless we were entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, we also would be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we failed to qualify to be taxed as a REIT.
Our TRS Segment is able to engage in activities resulting in income that is not qualifying income for a REIT. As a result, certain activities of the Company which occur within our TRS Segment are subject to federal and state income taxes.
Tenants
As of December 31, 2020, 33 of the Company’s real estate investment properties were leased to subsidiaries of Penn under the Penn Master Lease, the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, the Meadows Lease and the Morgantown Lease, 7 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to subsidiaries of Caesars under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease and the Lumière Place Lease and 4 of the Company's real estate investment properties were leased to subsidiaries of Boyd under the Boyd Master Lease and the Belterra Park Lease. We also lease a single real estate investment property to Casino Queen pursuant to the Casino Queen Lease.

Guarantees

The obligations under the Penn and Amended Pinnacle Master Leases, as well as the Meadows Lease and Morgantown Lease, are guaranteed by Penn and, with respect to each lease, jointly and severally by Penn's subsidiaries that occupy and operate the facilities covered by such lease. Similarly, the obligations under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease are jointly and severally guaranteed by Caesars and by most of Caesars's subsidiaries that occupy and operate the facilities leased under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease. The obligations under the Boyd Master Leases are
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jointly and severally guaranteed by Boyd's subsidiaries that occupy and operate the facilities leased under the Boyd Master Lease.

Rent

The rent structure under the Penn Master Lease includes a fixed component, a portion of which is subject to an annual 2% escalator if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities, which is prospectively adjusted, subject to certain floors (i) every five years to an amount equal to 4% of the average net revenues of all facilities under the Penn Master Lease (other than Hollywood Casino Columbus and Hollywood Casino Toledo) during the preceding five years in excess of a contractual baseline, and (ii) monthly by an amount equal to 20% of the net revenues of Hollywood Casino Columbus and Hollywood Casino Toledo during the preceding month in excess of a contractual baseline, although Hollywood Casino Toledo has a monthly percentage rent floor that equals $22.9 million annually due to Penn's 2019 purchase of a competing facility, the Greektown Casino Hotel in Detroit, Michigan.

Similar to the Penn Master Lease, the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease and Boyd Master Lease both include fixed components, a portion of which is subject to an annual 2% escalator if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities, which is prospectively adjusted, subject to certain floors (namely the Bossier City Boomtown property in the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease due to Penn's acquisition of a competing facility, Margaritaville Resort Casino), every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of all facilities under the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease and Boyd Master Lease during the preceding two years in excess of contractual baselines.

The Belterra Park Lease rent terms are consistent with the Boyd Master Lease. The annual rent is comprised of a fixed component, part of which is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities which is adjusted, every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of Belterra Park during the preceding two years in excess of a contractual baseline.

The Meadows Lease contains a fixed component, subject to annual escalators, and a component that is based on the performance of the facility, which is reset every two years to an amount determined by multiplying (i) 4% by (ii) the average annual net revenues of the facility for the trailing two-year period. The Meadows Lease contains an annual escalator provision for up to 5% of the base rent, if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, which remains at 5% until the earlier of ten years or the year in which total rent is $31 million, at which point the escalator will be reduced to 2% annually thereafter.

The rent structure under the Casino Queen Lease also includes a fixed component, a portion of which is subject to an annual 2% escalator if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, and a component that is based on the performance of the facility, which is reset every five years to an amount equal to the greater of (i) the annual amount of non-fixed rent applicable for the lease year immediately preceding such rent reset year and (ii) an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of the facility for the trailing five-year period.

The Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease became effective on July 23, 2020, and among other things, changed the rental terms to become entirely fixed in nature, with the majority being subject to fixed escalations beginning in the 5th lease year as previously discussed.

As previously discussed, on September 29, 2020, we entered into the Lumière Place Lease with Caesars the initial term of which expires on October 31, 2033 with four separate renewal options of five years each, exercisable at the tenant's option. The Lumière Place Lease rent is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met.
 
On October 1, 2020, the Company acquired the underlying land at Penn's development facility in Morgantown, Pennsylvania in exchange for $30.0 million in rent credits and entered into the Morgantown Lease whereby the Company is leasing the underlying land back to an affiliate of Penn for an initial annual rent of $3.0 million, provided, however, that (i) on the opening date and on each anniversary thereafter the rent shall be increased by 1.5% annually (on a prorated basis for the remainder of the lease year in which the gaming facility opens) for each of the following three lease years and (ii) commencing on the fourth anniversary of the opening date and for each anniversary thereafter, (a) if the CPI increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent for such lease year shall increase by 1.25% of rent as of the immediately preceding lease year, and (b) if the CPI increase is less than 0.5% for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year.

Furthermore, the Company's master leases provide for a floor on the percentage rent described above, should the Company's tenants acquire or commence operating a competing facility within a restricted area (typically 60 miles from a
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property under the existing master lease with such tenant). These clauses provide landlord protections by basing the percentage rent floor for any affected facility on the net revenues of such facility for the calendar year immediately preceding the year in which the competing facility is acquired or first operated by the tenant.

In addition to rent, as triple-net lessees, all of the Company's tenants are required to pay the following executory costs: (1) all facility maintenance, (2) all insurance required in connection with the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties, including coverage of the landlord's interests, (3) taxes and other impositions levied on or with respect to the leased properties, (other than taxes on the income of the lessor), and (4) all utilities and other services necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties.
Termination of Leases
Our tenants do not have the ability to terminate their obligations under our long-term tenant leases prior to the expiration of the initial term without the Company's consent. If our long-term tenant leases are terminated prior to their initial expiration other than with our consent, our tenants may be liable for damages and incur charges such as continued payment of rent through the end of the lease term and maintenance costs for the leased property. All of our tenant leases contain a limited number of renewal options which may be exercised at our tenants' option.
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Property Features
The following table summarizes certain features of our properties as of December 31, 2020:
 LocationTenant/Lease Agreement
Approx.
Property
Square
Footage (1)
Owned
Acreage
Leased
Acreage (2)
Hotel
Rooms
Tenant Occupied Properties       
Hollywood Casino LawrenceburgLawrenceburg, INPenn/Penn Master Lease634,000 73.1 32.1 295 
Hollywood Casino AuroraAurora, ILPenn/Penn Master Lease222,189 0.4 1.7 — 
Hollywood Casino JolietJoliet, ILPenn/Penn Master Lease322,446 275.6 — 100 
Argosy Casino AltonAlton, ILPenn/Penn Master Lease124,569 0.2 3.6 — 
Hollywood Casino ToledoToledo, OHPenn/Penn Master Lease285,335 42.3 — — 
Hollywood Casino ColumbusColumbus, OHPenn/Penn Master Lease354,075 116.2 — — 
Hollywood Casino at Charles Town Races
Charles Town, WVPenn/Penn Master Lease511,249 298.6 — 153 
Hollywood Casino at Penn National Race Course
Grantville, PAPenn/Penn Master Lease451,758 573.7 — — 
M ResortHenderson, NVPenn/Penn Master Lease910,173 83.5 — 390 
Hollywood Casino BangorBangor, MEPenn/Penn Master Lease257,085 6.4 37.9 152 
Zia Park Casino (3)
Hobbs, NMPenn/Penn Master Lease109,067 317.4 — — 
Hollywood Casino Gulf CoastBay St. Louis, MSPenn/Penn Master Lease425,920 578.7 — 291 
Argosy Casino RiversideRiverside, MOPenn/Penn Master Lease450,397 37.9 — 258 
Hollywood Casino TunicaTunica, MSPenn/Penn Master Lease315,831 — 67.7 494 
Boomtown BiloxiBiloxi, MSPenn/Penn Master Lease134,800 1.5 1.0 — 
Hollywood Casino St. LouisMaryland Heights, MOPenn/Penn Master Lease645,270 220.8 — 502 
Hollywood Gaming at Dayton Raceway
Dayton, OHPenn/Penn Master Lease191,037 119.7 — — 
Hollywood Gaming at Mahoning Valley Race Course
Youngstown, OHPenn/Penn Master Lease177,448 193.4 — — 
1st Jackpot Casino
Tunica, MSPenn/Penn Master Lease78,941 52.9 93.8 — 
Ameristar Black HawkBlack Hawk, COPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease775,744 104.1 — 536 
Ameristar East ChicagoEast Chicago, INPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease509,867 — 21.6 288 
Ameristar Council Bluffs (3)
Council Bluffs, IAPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease312,047 36.2 22.6 160 
L'Auberge Baton RougeBaton Rouge, LAPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease436,461 99.1 — 205 
Boomtown Bossier CityBossier City, LAPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease281,747 21.8 — 187 
L'Auberge Lake CharlesLake Charles, LAPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease1,014,497 — 234.5 995 
Boomtown New OrleansNew Orleans, LAPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease278,227 53.6 — 150 
Ameristar VicksburgVicksburg, MSPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease298,006 74.1 — 148 
River City Casino and HotelSt. Louis, MOPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease431,226 — 83.4 200 
Jackpot Properties (4)
Jackpot, NVPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease419,800 79.5 — 416 
Plainridge Park CasinoPlainville, MAPenn/Amended Pinnacle Master Lease196,473 87.9 — — 
The Meadows Racetrack and Casino (3)
Washington, PAPenn/Meadows Lease417,921 155.5 — — 
Hollywood Casino MorgantownMorgantown, PAPenn/Morgantown Lease— 36.0 — — 
Casino Queen
East St. Louis, ILCasino Queen330,502 67.2 — 157 
Belterra Casino Resort Florence, INBoyd/Boyd Master Lease782,393 167.1 148.5 662 
Ameristar Kansas CityKansas City, MOBoyd/Boyd Master Lease763,939 224.5 31.4 184 
Ameristar St. CharlesSt. Charles, MOBoyd/Boyd Master Lease1,272,938 241.2 — 397 
Belterra Park Gaming & Entertainment CenterCincinnati, OHBoyd/Belterra Park Lease372,650 160.0 — — 
Tropicana Atlantic CityAtlantic City, NJCaesars/Amended Caesars Master Lease4,232,018 18.3 — 2,364 
Tropicana LaughlinLaughlin, NVCaesars/Amended Caesars Master Lease936,453 93.6 — 1,487 
Isle Casino Hotel BettendorfBettendorf, IACaesars/Amended Caesars Master Lease738,905 24.6 — 509 
Isle Casino Hotel WaterlooWaterloo, IACaesars/Amended Caesars Master Lease287,436 52.6 — 194 
Trop Casino Greenville Greenville, MSCaesars/Amended Caesars Master Lease94,017 — 7.4 40 
Belle of Baton RougeBaton Rouge, LACaesars/Amended Caesars Master Lease386,398 13.1 0.8 288 
Lumiere PlaceSt. Louis, MOCaesars/Lumiere Place Lease807,407 18.5 — 494 
22,978,662 4,820.8 788.0 12,696 
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Other Properties
Other owned buildings and land (5)
variousN/A23,400 3.9 — — 
TRS Segment      
Hollywood Casino Baton RougeBaton Rouge, LAGLPI95,318 25.1 — — 
Hollywood Casino PerryvillePerryville, MDGLPI97,961 36.3 — — 
Tropicana Las Vegas (6)
Las Vegas, NVPenn1,148,212 35.1 — 1,467 
  1,341,491 96.5 — 1,467 
Total24,343,553 4,921.2 788.014,163 


(1)Square footage includes air-conditioned space and excludes parking garages and barns.

(2)Leased acreage reflects land subject to leases with third-parties and includes land on which certain of the current facilities and ancillary supporting structures are located as well as parking lots and access rights.

(3)    These properties include hotels not owned by the Company. Square footage and rooms associated with properties not owned by GLPI are excluded from the table above.

(4)    Encompasses two gaming properties in Jackpot, Nevada: Cactus Pete's and The Horseshu.

(5)     This includes our corporate headquarters building and undeveloped land the Company owns at locations other than its tenant occupied properties.
    
(6)    The Company acquired the real property associated with Tropicana Las Vegas from Penn in exchange for $307.5 million of rent credits in April 2020. The property is operated by an affiliate of Penn pursuant to a triple net lease for nominal rent for the earlier of two years (subject to three one-year extensions at the Company's option) or until the Tropicana Las Vegas is sold. See Note 7 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
Competition
We compete for additional real property investments with other REITs, including two other publicly traded gaming focused REITs, MGM Growth Properties LLC and VICI Properties Inc., investment companies, private equity and hedge fund investors, sovereign funds, lenders, gaming companies and other investors. Some of our competitors are significantly larger and have greater financial resources and lower costs of capital than we have, making it more challenging to identify and successfully capitalize on acquisition opportunities that meet our investment objectives.
In addition, revenues from our gaming properties are dependent on the ability of our gaming tenants and operators to compete with other gaming operators. The gaming industry is characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants, including riverboat casinos, dockside casinos, land-based casinos, video lottery, sweepstakes and poker machines not located in casinos, Native American gaming, emerging varieties of internet gaming, sports betting and other forms of gaming in the U.S. In a broader sense, our gaming tenants and operators face competition from all manner of leisure and entertainment activities, including: shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts and travel. Legalized gaming is currently permitted in various forms throughout the U.S., in several Canadian provinces and on various lands taken into trust for the benefit of certain Native Americans in the U.S. and Canada. In addition, established gaming jurisdictions could award additional gaming licenses or permit the expansion or relocation of existing gaming operations. New, relocated or expanded operations by other persons may increase competition for our gaming tenants and could have a material adverse impact on our gaming tenants and operators and us as landlord. Finally, the imposition of smoking bans and/or higher gaming tax rates have a significant impact on our gaming tenants' ability to compete with facilities in nearby jurisdictions.
Segments
Consistent with how our Chief Operating Decision Maker (as such term is defined in ASC 280 - Segment Reporting) reviews and assesses our financial performance, we have two reportable segments, GLP Capital, L.P. (a wholly-owned subsidiary of GLPI through which GLPI owns substantially all of its real estate assets) ("GLP Capital") and the TRS Segment. The GLP Capital reportable segment consists of the leased real property and represents the majority of our business. The TRS Segment consists of Hollywood Casino Perryville, Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and Tropicana Las Vegas. See "Item 7—
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Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 8—Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 19—Segment Information" for further information with respect to the Company's segments.
Information about our Executive Officers
NameAgePosition
Peter M. Carlino74 Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
Brandon J. Moore46 Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Desiree A. Burke55 Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Treasurer
Matthew Demchyk39 Senior Vice President, Chief Investment Officer
Steven L. Ladany40 Senior Vice President, Chief Development Officer
Peter M. Carlino.    Mr. Carlino has been the Company's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since the Company's inception in November 2013. Mr. Carlino was the founder of Penn and served as its Chief Executive Officer from 1994 through October 2013. Mr. Carlino also served as the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Penn from April 1994 through May 28, 2019. Mr. Carlino continues to serve as Chairman Emeritus on Penn's Board of Directors and has served in such position since June 2019. Mr. Carlino has served as the Chairman of the Board of Directors and as Chief Executive Officer for Penn, and now the Company, collectively for over 25 years.
Brandon J. Moore.    Mr. Moore is our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary. Mr. Moore joined the Company in January 2014. Previously, he served as Penn's Vice President, Senior Corporate Counsel from March 2010 where he was a member of the legal team responsible for a variety of transactional, regulatory and general legal matters. Prior to joining Penn, Mr. Moore was with Ballard Spahr LLP, where he provided advanced legal counsel to clients on matters including merger and acquisition transactions, debt and equity financings, and various other matters.
Desiree A. Burke. Ms. Burke is our Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Treasurer. She joined the Company in April 2014 as our Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer. Previously, Ms. Burke served as Penn's Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer from November 2009. Additionally, she served as Penn's Vice President and Corporate Controller from November 2005 to October 2009. Prior to her time at Penn National Gaming, Inc., Ms. Burke was the Executive Vice President/Director of Financial Reporting and Control for MBNA America Bank, N.A. She joined MBNA in 1994 and held positions of ascending responsibility in the finance department during her tenure. Ms. Burke is a CPA.
Matthew Demchyk. Mr. Demchyk became our Senior Vice President, Chief Investment Officer in January 2021 in which he leads the Company's investment strategy and is responsible for capital allocation. Mr. Demchyk joined the Company in February 2019 as our Senior Vice President of Investments. Previously, he served as Portfolio Manager of Real Estate Securities at Millennium Partners for nine years. Prior to joining Millennium Partners, he managed a portfolio of REIT equity securities at Carlson Capital and served as Assistant Portfolio Manager at CenterSquare Investment Management, a leading REIT dedicated asset manager. Mr. Demchyk is a CFA Charterholder.
Steven L. Ladany. Mr. Ladany became our Senior Vice President, Chief Development Officer in January 2021 and leads the Company's ongoing merger, acquisition and development efforts. Mr. Ladany joined the Company in September 2014 as Vice President, Finance and served in that role until March 2019, when he was promoted to Senior Vice President, Finance. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Ladany served as a Vice President at Revel Casino Hotel, a regional gaming property currently known as Ocean Casino Resort, and as a Vice President at J.P. Morgan in the Syndicated and Leveraged Finance group within the firm's investment banking division.

    
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Tax Considerations
We elected to be treated as a REIT on our 2014 U.S. federal income tax return and we, together with an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, GLP Holdings, Inc., jointly elected to treat each of GLP Holdings, Inc., Louisiana Casino Cruises, Inc. and Penn Cecil Maryland, Inc. as a "taxable REIT subsidiary" ("TRS") effective on the first day of the first taxable year of GLPI as a REIT. In addition, during 2020, the Company and Tropicana LV, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, elected to treat Tropicana LV, LLC as a TRS. We intend to continue to be organized and to operate in a manner that will permit us to qualify as a REIT. Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, distribution levels, and diversity of stock ownership, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Code. Our ability to qualify to be taxed as a REIT also requires that we satisfy certain tests, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets that we own directly or indirectly. The material qualification requirements are summarized below. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy such requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. Additionally, while we intend to operate so that we continue to qualify to be taxed as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS") will not challenge our qualification, or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future.
Taxation of REITs in General
As a REIT, generally we will be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and therefore will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our net REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our shareholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the "double taxation" at the corporate and shareholder levels that generally results from an investment in a C corporation. A "C corporation" is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the shareholder level when the income is distributed. In general, the income that we generate is taxed only at the shareholder level upon a distribution of dividends to our shareholders. We will nonetheless be subject to U.S. federal tax in the following circumstances:
We will be taxed at regular corporate rates on any undistributed net taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.

For tax years that began prior to January 1, 2018, we may be subject to the "alternative minimum tax" on our items of tax preference, including any deductions of net operating losses.

If we have net income from prohibited transactions, which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax.

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or certain leasehold terminations as "foreclosure property," we may thereby avoid the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction), but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate (currently 21%).

If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and/or the 95% gross income test, as discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because we satisfy other requirements, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount based on the magnitude of the failure, as adjusted to reflect the profit margin associated with our gross income.

If we violate the asset tests (other than certain de minimis violations) or other requirements applicable to REITs, as described below, and yet maintain our qualification as a REIT because there is reasonable cause for the failure and other applicable requirements are met, we may be subject to a penalty tax. In that case, the amount of the penalty tax will be at least $50,000 per failure, and, in the case of certain asset test failures, will be determined as the amount of net income generated by the nonqualifying assets in question multiplied by the highest corporate tax rate (currently 21%) if that amount exceeds $50,000 per failure.

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year and (iii) any undistributed net taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (a) the amounts that we actually distributed and (b) the amounts we retained and upon which we paid income tax at the corporate level.

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We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT's shareholders.

A 100% tax may be imposed on transactions between us and a TRS that do not reflect arm's-length terms.

If we acquire appreciated assets from a corporation that is not a REIT (i.e., a corporation taxable under subchapter C of the Code) in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the subchapter C corporation, we may be subject to tax on such appreciation at the highest corporate income tax rate then applicable if we subsequently recognize gain on a disposition of any such assets during the five-year period following their acquisition from the subchapter C corporation.

The earnings of our TRS Segment will generally be subject to U.S. federal, state and corporate income tax.
In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes, including payroll taxes and state, local, and foreign income, property, gross receipts and other taxes on our assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.
Requirements for Qualification—General
The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
1.that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
2.the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;
3.that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for its election to be subject to tax as a REIT;
4.that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to specific provisions of the Code;
5.the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;
6.in which, during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer "individuals" (as defined in the Code to include specified tax-exempt entities); and
7.that meets other tests described below, including with respect to the nature of its income and assets.
The Code provides that conditions (1) through (4) must be met during the entire taxable year, and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Conditions (5) and (6) need not be met during a corporation's initial tax year as a REIT (which, in our case, was 2014). Our charter provides restrictions regarding the ownership and transfers of our stock, which are intended to assist us in satisfying the stock ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in the applicable Treasury regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirements described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement.
To monitor compliance with the stock ownership requirements, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our stock. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the stock (i.e., the persons required to include our dividends in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these record-keeping requirements. If, upon request by the Company, a shareholder fails or refuses to comply with the demands, such holder will be required by Treasury regulations to submit a statement with his, her or its tax return disclosing the actual ownership of our stock and other information.

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Qualified REIT Subsidiaries

The Code provides that a corporation that is a "qualified REIT subsidiary" shall not be treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of a "qualified REIT subsidiary" shall be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT. A "qualified REIT subsidiary" is a corporation, all of the capital stock of which is owned by the REIT, that has not elected to be a "taxable REIT subsidiary" (discussed below). In applying the requirements described herein, all of our "qualified REIT subsidiaries" will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of such subsidiaries will be treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit. These subsidiaries, therefore, will not be subject to federal corporate income taxation, although they may be subject to state and local taxation.
Taxable REIT Subsidiaries
In general, we may jointly elect with a subsidiary corporation, whether or not wholly-owned, to treat such subsidiary corporation as a TRS. We generally may not own more than 10% of the securities of a taxable corporation, as measured by voting power or value, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. The separate existence of a TRS is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, a TRS generally is subject to corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow that we and our subsidiaries generate in the aggregate and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
We are not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the TRS to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat the dividends paid to us, if any, as income. This treatment can affect our income and asset test calculations, as described below. Because we do not include the assets and income of TRSs on a look-through basis in determining our compliance with the REIT requirements, we may use such entities to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude us from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. For example, we may use a TRS to perform services or conduct activities that give rise to certain categories of income or to conduct activities that, if conducted by us directly, would be treated in our hands as prohibited transactions.
The TRS rules impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT or the REIT's tenants that are not conducted on an arm's-length basis. We intend that all of our transactions with our TRS, if any, will be conducted on an arm's-length basis.
Income Tests
As a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding gross income from sales of inventory or dealer property in "prohibited transactions," discharge of indebtedness and certain hedging transactions, generally must be derived from "rents from real property," gains from the sale of real estate assets (but not including certain debt instruments of publicly offered REITs that are not secured by mortgages on real property), interest income derived from mortgage loans secured by real property (including certain types of mortgage-backed securities), dividends received from other REITs, and specified income from temporary investments. Second, at least 95% of our gross income in each taxable year, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, discharge of indebtedness and certain hedging transactions, must be derived from some combination of income that qualifies under the 75% gross income test described above, as well as other dividends, interest, and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property. Income and gain from certain hedging transactions will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.
Rents received by a REIT will qualify as "rents from real property" in satisfying the gross income requirements described above only if several conditions are met.

The amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term "rents from real property" solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of gross receipts or sales.

Rents received from a tenant will not qualify as "rents from real property" in satisfying the gross income tests if the REIT, or a direct or indirect owner of 10% or more of the REIT, directly or constructively, owns 10% or more of such tenant (a "Related Party Tenant"). However, rental payments from a taxable REIT subsidiary will qualify as rents from real property even if we own more than 10% of the total value or combined voting power of the taxable REIT subsidiary if (i) at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants and the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space or (ii) the property leased is a "qualified lodging facility," as defined in Section 856(d)(9)(D) of the Code, or a "qualified health care property," as defined in Section 856(e)(6)(D)(i) of the Code, and certain other conditions are satisfied.
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Rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property will not qualify as "rents from real property" if such rent exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

The REIT generally must not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to tenants, except through an "independent contractor" who is adequately compensated and from whom the REIT derives no income, or through a taxable REIT subsidiary. The "independent contractor" requirement, however, does not apply to the extent the services provided by the REIT are "usually or customarily rendered" in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only, and are not otherwise considered "rendered to the occupant." In addition, a de minimis rule applies with respect to non-customary services. Specifically, if the value of the non-customary service income with respect to a property (valued at no less than 150% of the direct costs of performing such services) is 1% or less of the total income derived from the property, then all rental income except the non-customary service income will qualify as "rents from real property." A taxable REIT subsidiary may provide services (including noncustomary services) to a REIT’s tenants without "tainting" any of the rental income received by the REIT, and will be able to manage or operate properties for third parties and generally engage in other activities unrelated to real estate.

We do not anticipate receiving rent that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person (except by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of gross receipts or sales consistent with the rules described above). Our former parent, Penn, received a private letter ruling from the IRS that concluded certain rental formulas under the Penn Master Lease will not cause any amounts received under the Penn Master Lease to be treated as other than rents from real property. While we do not expect to seek similar rulings for additional leases we enter into that have substantially similar terms as the Penn Master Lease, we intend to treat amounts received under those leases consistent with the conclusions in the ruling, though there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge such treatment. We also do not anticipate receiving more than a de minimis amount of rents from any Related Party Tenant or rents attributable to personal property leased in connection with real property that will exceed 15% of the total rents received with respect to such real property. We may receive certain types of income that will not qualify under the 75% or 95% gross income tests. In particular, dividends received from a taxable REIT subsidiary will not qualify under the 75% test. We believe, however, that the aggregate amount of such items and other non-qualifying income in any taxable year will not cause GLPI to exceed the limits on non-qualifying income under either the 75% or 95% gross income tests.
We may directly or indirectly receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally are treated as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions will generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any dividends that we receive from another REIT or qualified REIT subsidiary, however, will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.
We believe that we have and will continue to be in compliance with these gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may still qualify to be taxed as a REIT for such year if we are entitled to relief under applicable provisions of the Code. These relief provisions will be generally available if (i) our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and (ii) following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income test for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury regulations. It is not possible to state whether we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions in all circumstances. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify to be taxed as a REIT. Even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, the Code imposes a tax based upon the amount by which we fail to satisfy the particular gross income test.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter, we must also satisfy five tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by some combination of "real estate assets," cash, cash items, U.S. government securities, and, under some circumstances, stock or debt instruments purchased with new capital. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property (such as land, buildings, leasehold interest in real property and, for taxable years that began or after January 1, 2016, personal property leased with real property if the rents attributable to the personal property would be rents from real property under the income tests discussed above), interests in mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, shares in other qualifying REITs, and stock or debt instruments held for less than one year purchased with the proceeds from an offering of shares of our stock or certain debt and, for tax years that began on or after January 1, 2016, debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% asset test are subject to the additional asset tests described below.
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Second, the value of any one issuer's securities that we own may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets.
Third, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer's outstanding securities, as measured by either voting power or value. The 5% and 10% asset tests do not apply to securities of TRSs and qualified REIT subsidiaries and the 10% asset test does not apply to "straight debt" having specified characteristics and to certain other securities described below. Solely for purposes of the 10% asset test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose, certain securities described in the Code. The safe harbor under which certain types of securities are disregarded for purposes of the 10% value limitation includes (1) straight debt securities (including straight debt securities that provide for certain contingent payments); (2) any loan to an individual or an estate; (3) any rental agreement described in Section 467 of the Code, other than with a "related person"; (4) any obligation to pay rents from real property; (5) certain securities issued by a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (6) any security issued by a REIT; and (7) any other arrangement that, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, is excepted from the definition of a security. In addition, for purposes of applying the 10% value limitation, (a) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership is not considered a security; (b) any debt instrument issued by a partnership is not treated as a security if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is from sources that would qualify for the 75% REIT gross income test; and (c) any debt instrument issued by a partnership is not treated as a security to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership.
Fourth, the aggregate value of all securities of TRSs that we hold, together with other non-qualified assets (such as furniture and equipment or other tangible personal property, or non-real estate securities) may not, in the aggregate, exceed 20% of the value of our total assets.
Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our gross assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property.
However, certain relief provisions are available to allow REITs to satisfy the asset requirements or to maintain REIT qualification notwithstanding certain violations of the asset and other requirements. For example, if we should fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, such a failure would not cause us to lose our REIT qualification if we (i) satisfied the asset tests at the close of the preceding calendar quarter and (ii) the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset requirements was not wholly or partly caused by an acquisition of non-qualifying assets, but instead arose from changes in the relative market values of our assets. If the condition described in (ii) was not satisfied, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose or by making use of the relief provisions described above.
In the case of de minimis violations of the 10% and 5% asset tests, a REIT may maintain its qualification despite a violation of such requirements if (i) the value of the assets causing the violation does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the REIT's total assets and $10,000,000 and (ii) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or the relevant tests are otherwise satisfied within that time frame.
Even if we did not qualify for the foregoing relief provisions, one additional provision allows a REIT which fails one or more of the asset requirements to nevertheless maintain its REIT qualification if (i) the REIT provides the IRS with a description of each asset causing the failure, (ii) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (iii) the REIT pays a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 per failure and (b) the product of the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure multiplied by the highest applicable corporate tax rate (currently 21%) and (iv) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or otherwise satisfies the relevant asset tests within that time frame.
We believe that we have been and will continue to be in compliance with the asset tests described above.
Annual Distribution Requirements
In order to qualify to be taxed as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our shareholders in an amount at least equal to:
(i)the sum of

(a)    90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to our net capital gains and the deduction for dividends paid; and

(b)    90% of our after tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property (as described below); minus

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(ii)the excess of the sum of specified items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to our net capital gain and the deduction for dividends paid.
We generally must make these distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if paid with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration. These distributions will be treated as received by our shareholders in the year in which paid. In order for distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not be "preferential dividends." A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (i) pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class and (ii) in accordance with any preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents. Given our status as a "publicly offered REIT" (within the meaning of the Code), the preferential dividend rules do not apply to us for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014.
To the extent that we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be subject to tax at ordinary corporate tax rates on the retained portion. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute, some or all of our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect for our shareholders to include their proportionate shares of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income, and to receive a corresponding credit for their share of the tax that we paid. Our shareholders would then increase the adjusted basis of their stock by the difference between (i) the amounts of capital gain dividends that we designated and that they include in their taxable income, minus (ii) the tax that we paid on their behalf with respect to that income.
To the extent that in the future we may have available net operating losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements.
If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year and (iii) any undistributed net taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a non-deductible 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (a) the amounts actually distributed, plus (b) the amounts of income we retained and on which we have paid corporate income tax.
We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt, acquire assets, or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends through the distribution of other property (including shares of our stock) in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.
If our taxable income for a particular year is subsequently determined to have been understated, we may be able to rectify a resultant failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying "deficiency dividends" to shareholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In this case, we may be able to avoid losing REIT qualification or being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described above. We will be required to pay interest based on the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.
For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, any distribution must be paid in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if such distributions are declared in October, November or December of the taxable year, are payable to shareholders of record on a specified date in any such month, and are actually paid before the end of January of the following year. Such distributions are treated as both paid by us and received by our shareholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.
In addition, at our election, a distribution for a taxable year may be declared before we timely file our tax return for the year, provided we pay such distribution with or before our first regular dividend payment after such declaration, and such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such taxable year. Such distributions are taxable to our shareholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement.

We believe that we have satisfied the annual distribution requirements for the year ended December 31, 2020. Although we intend to satisfy the annual distribution requirements to continue to qualify as a REIT for the year ending December 31, 2021 and thereafter, economic, market, legal, tax or other considerations could limit our ability to meet those requirements.
Failure to Qualify
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If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification other than the income or asset tests, we could avoid disqualification as a REIT if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. Relief provisions are also available for failures of the income tests and asset tests, as described above in "Income Tests" and "Asset Tests."
If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions described above do not apply, we would be subject to tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. We cannot deduct distributions to shareholders in any year in which we are not a REIT, nor would we be required to make distributions in such a year. In this situation, to the extent of current and accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes), distributions to shareholders would be taxable as regular corporate dividends. Such dividends paid to U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts and estates may be taxable at the preferential income tax rates (i.e., currently the 20% maximum U.S. federal rate) for qualified dividends. In addition, subject to the limitations of the Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we lost our qualification. It is not possible to state whether, in all circumstances, we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs
The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the Treasury which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. Changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could adversely affect an investment in our common stock.
On December 22, 2017, H.R. 1, known as the Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018 (the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act") was signed into law. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act makes significant changes to the U.S. federal income taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. In addition to reducing corporate and individual income tax rates, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act eliminates or restricts various deductions that, along with other provisions, may change the way that we calculate our REIT taxable income and our TRSs' taxable income. Significant provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that investors should be aware of include provisions that: (i) lower the corporate income tax rate to 21%, (ii) provide noncorporate taxpayers with a deduction of up to 20% of certain income earned through partnerships and REITs, (iii) limit the net operating loss deduction to 80% of taxable income, where taxable income is determined without regard to the net operating loss deduction itself, generally eliminates net operating loss carry backs and allow unused net operating losses to be carried forward indefinitely, (iv) expand the ability of businesses to deduct the cost of certain property investments in the year in which the property is purchased, and (v) generally lower tax rates for individuals and other noncorporate taxpayers, while limiting deductions such as miscellaneous itemized deductions and state and local tax deductions. In addition, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act limits the deduction for net interest expense incurred by a business to 30% of the "adjusted taxable income" of the taxpayer. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Stability Act increased the limitation to 50% of “adjusted taxable income” for tax years beginning in 2019 and 2020. The limitation on the interest expense deduction does not apply to certain small-business taxpayers or electing real property trades or businesses, such as any real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, acquisition, conversion, rental, operation, management, leasing, or brokerage trade or business. Making the election to be treated as a real property trade or business requires the electing real property trade or business to depreciate non-residential real property, residential rental property, and qualified improvement property over a longer period using the alternative depreciation system. We have not yet elected out of the new interest expense limitation.

The effect of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is highly uncertain, both in terms of its direct effect on the taxation of holders of our common stock and its indirect effect on the value of our assets or market conditions generally.

Shareholders are urged to consult with their own tax advisors with respect to the impact that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and other legislation may have on their investment and the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on their investment in our shares.
Regulation
The ownership, operation, and management of, and provision of certain products and services to, gaming and racing facilities are subject to pervasive regulation. Gaming laws are generally based upon declarations of public policy designed to protect gaming consumers and the viability and integrity of the gaming industry. Gaming laws also may be designed to protect and maximize state and local revenues derived through taxes and licensing fees imposed on gaming industry participants as well as to enhance economic development and tourism. To accomplish these public policy goals, gaming laws establish
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procedures to ensure that participants in the gaming industry, including landlords and other suppliers, meet certain standards of character and fitness. In addition, gaming laws require gaming industry participants to:
ensure that unsuitable individuals and organizations have no role in gaming operations, including suppliers, and in some cases, landowners;

establish procedures designed to prevent cheating and fraudulent practices;

establish and maintain responsible accounting practices and procedures;

maintain effective controls over their financial practices, including establishment of minimum procedures for internal fiscal affairs and the safeguarding of assets and revenues;

maintain systems for reliable record keeping;

file periodic reports with gaming regulators;

ensure that contracts and financial transactions are commercially reasonable, reflect fair market value and are arms-length transactions; and

establish programs to promote responsible gaming.
These regulations impact our business in three important ways: (1) our ownership and operation of the TRS Properties; (2) our ownership of land and buildings in which gaming activities are operated by third party tenants pursuant to long-term leases; and (3) the operations of our gaming tenants. Our ownership and operation of the TRS Properties subject GLPI, its subsidiaries and its officers and directors to the jurisdiction of the gaming regulatory agencies in Louisiana and Maryland. Further, many gaming and racing regulatory agencies in the jurisdictions in which our gaming tenants operate require GLPI and its affiliates to maintain a license as a key business entity, principal affiliate, business entity, qualifier, operator or supplier because of its status as landlord, including Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
Our businesses and those operated by our tenants are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations in addition to gaming regulations. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, employees, health care, currency transactions, taxation, zoning and building codes, and marketing and advertising. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Material changes, new laws or regulations, or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities could adversely affect our operating results.
Insurance
We have comprehensive liability, property and business interruption insurance at our TRS Properties. In regards to our properties subject to triple-net leases, the lease agreements require our tenants to procure and maintain their own comprehensive liability, property and business interruption insurance policies, including protection for our insurable interests as the landlord.
Environmental Matters
Our properties are subject to environmental laws regulating, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges and the handling and disposal of wastes, including medical wastes. Certain of the properties we own utilize above or underground storage tanks to store heating oil for use at the properties. Other properties were built during the time that asbestos-containing building materials were routinely installed in residential and commercial structures. Our triple-net leases obligate the tenants thereunder to comply with applicable environmental laws and to indemnify us if their noncompliance results in losses or claims against us, and we expect that any future leases will include the same provisions for other operators. An operator's failure to comply could result in fines and penalties or the requirement to undertake corrective actions which may result in significant costs to the operator and thus adversely affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.
Pursuant to U.S. federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be required to investigate, remove and/or remediate a release of hazardous substances or other regulated materials at, or emanating from, such property. Further, under certain circumstances, such owners or operators of real property may be held liable for property damage, personal injury and/or natural resource damage resulting from or arising in connection with such releases. Certain of these laws have been interpreted to provide for joint and several liability unless the harm is divisible and there is a reasonable basis for allocation of responsibility. We also may be liable under certain of these laws for
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damage that occurred prior to our ownership of a property or at a site where we or our tenants sent wastes for disposal. The failure to properly remediate a property could result in fines or sanctions and may also adversely affect our ability to lease, sell or rent the property or to borrow funds using the property as collateral.
In connection with the ownership of our real property, we could be legally responsible for environmental liabilities or costs relating to a release of hazardous substances or other regulated materials at or emanating from such property. In order to assess the potential for such liability, we conduct routine due diligence of environmental conditions prior to acquisition. We are not aware of any environmental issues that are expected to have a material impact on the operations of any of our properties.
Pursuant to the Penn Master Lease and a Separation and Distribution Agreement between Penn and GLPI, any liability arising from or relating to environmental liabilities arising from the businesses and operations of Penn's real property holdings prior to the Spin-Off (other than any liability arising from or relating to the operation or ownership of the TRS Properties and except to the extent first discovered after the end of the term of the Penn Master Lease) was retained by Penn and Penn will indemnify GLPI (and its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees and agents and certain other related parties) against any losses arising from or relating to such environmental liabilities. Similarly, pursuant to a Separation and Distribution Agreement originally between Pinnacle's operating company and GLPI (as successor to Pinnacle Entertainment), any liability arising from or relating to environmental liabilities arising from the business and operations of Pinnacle's real property holdings prior to the Company's acquisition of the majority of Pinnacle's real property assets (except to the extent first discovered after the end of the term of the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease) was retained by Pinnacle and Pinnacle will indemnify GLPI (and its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees and agents and certain other related parties) against any losses arising from or relating to such environmental liabilities. Effective October 15, 2018, Penn assumed all obligations of Pinnacle pursuant to a merger of Pinnacle with and into a subsidiary of Penn. There can be no assurance that Penn will be able to fully satisfy these indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from Penn any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses.
Corporate Responsibility at GLPI

We believe that environmental and community stewardship is an integral component of growing shareholder value and we are committed to fostering a corporate culture that encourages and seeks the betterment of the Company and the communities in which we operate or conduct business. With this in mind, we endeavor to integrate environmental, social and governance (ESG) practices that create long-term economic value for our shareholders, employees and other constituents.

We have initiated an ESG strategy to further understand the environmental impact of our leased properties, as well as an undertaking of Greenhouse Gas inventory at our own corporate headquarters.

We strive to maintain a corporate environment that fosters a sense of community and well-being and that encourages our employees to focus on their long-term success along with the long-term success of the Company.

We promote sustainable practices and environmental stewardship throughout the organization, with a particular emphasis on energy efficiency, recycling, indoor environmental quality and environmental awareness.

The Leased properties in our portfolio are leased to gaming operators in triple-net lease arrangements, meaning each gaming operator is ultimately responsible for maintaining the buildings including controlling its energy usage and the implementation of environmentally sustainable practices. We are committed to promoting awareness, influencing and engaging with our tenants where possible, regarding sustainability practices and environmentally beneficial energy solutions. Many of our tenants have implemented similar efficiency and conservation measures in recent capital expenditure projects, including cost-saving indoor and outdoor LED lighting retrofits, installation of guest room occupancy-based thermostats, building management systems upgrades, and installation of electronic vehicle charging stations.

Recognizing that sustainability is a journey, we are committed to continuous improvement and will strive to engage and communicate with our key stakeholders as we make progress on our ESG stewardship.
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Human Capital
As of December 31, 2020, we had 560 full and part-time employees. Substantially all of these employees are employed at Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and Hollywood Casino Perryville. We strive to maintain a corporate environment that fosters a sense of community and well-being and that encourages our employees to focus on their long-term success along with the long-term success of the Company. We offer, among other things, competitive and balanced compensation programs on par with those of our peers and competitors that include well-rounded healthcare, prescription drug and disability insurance benefits for our employees and their families, participation in a 401(k) plan, with a matching contribution by the Company, competitive paid time-off benefits, a parental leave program that applies to both women and men and an employee assistance plan that provides professional support, access to special programs and certain resources to our employees experiencing personal, work, financial or family related issues.

We are passionate about developing and growing our talent. We devote substantial efforts to retaining, motivating and supporting our employees by providing access to such benefits and opportunities as tuition reimbursement, professional development reimbursement and internal growth and advancement. We created a Leadership Academy to cultivate management and leadership skills to empower our employees to succeed.

We view providing our employees with a healthy and safe working environment as essential. Our goal is to reduce the potential for injury or illness by maintaining safe working conditions, such as providing proper tools and training to all employees. Our corporate headquarters and Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and Hollywood Casino Perryville are smoke-free environments. Additionally, we offer resources to our employees to encourage healthy habits, such as tobacco cessation and health coaches for those employees with certain chronic conditions, including but not limited to diabetes and asthma.

We also believe that maintaining and promoting a diverse and inclusive workplace where every employee feels valued and respected is essential for us to grow as a company. As such, we are focused on cultivating a diverse and inclusive culture where our employees can freely bring diverse perspectives and varied experiences to work. We seek to hire and retain highly talented employees and empower those employees to create value for our shareholders. In our employee recruitment and selection process and operation of our business, we adhere to equal employment policies and provide annual trainings on diversity and inclusion. We employ, train and refresh our employees in accordance with our nondiscriminatory, inclusive practices and policies implemented to prevent discrimination and protect our employees, customers and stakeholders from offensive and harmful behaviors.

We recognize and respect the freedom of employees to exercise their lawful rights and free association and collective bargaining. Certain of our employees at Hollywood Casino Perryville are currently represented by labor unions. The Seafarers Entertainment and Allied Trade Union represents 129 of our employees under an agreement that expires in January 2032. Additionally, United Industrial Service Transportation Professional and Government Workers of North America and Local No. 27 United Food and Commercial Workers represent certain employees under collective bargaining agreements that expire in 2021 and 2033, respectively, neither of which represents more than 50 of our employees at Hollywood Casino Perryville. We value the relationships we have with not only those employees but their representation as well. We believe our relations with its employees are good.

Available Information
For more information about us, visit our website at www.glpropinc.com. The contents of our website are not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our electronic filings with the SEC (including all annual reports on Form 10-K and Form 10-K/A, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and Form 10-Q/A, and current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to these reports), including the exhibits, are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with or furnish them to the SEC.
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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Risk Factors Relating to Our Business
The majority of our revenues are dependent on Penn and its subsidiaries until we further diversify our portfolio. Any event that has a material adverse effect on Penn’s business, financial position or results of operations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.

The majority of our revenue is based on the revenue derived under our master leases with subsidiaries of Penn. Because these master leases are triple-net leases, we depend on Penn to operate the properties that we own in a manner that generates revenues sufficient to allow Penn to meet its obligations to us, including payment of rent and all insurance, taxes, utilities and maintenance and repair expenses, and to indemnify, defend and hold us harmless from and against various claims, litigation and liabilities arising in connection with its business. There can be no assurance that Penn will have sufficient assets, income or access to financing to enable it to satisfy its payment obligations to us under the master leases. The ability of Penn to fulfill its obligations depends, in part, upon the overall profitability of its gaming operations and, other than limited contractual protections afforded to us as a landlord, we have no control over Penn or its operations. The inability or unwillingness of Penn to meet its subsidiaries’ rent obligations and other obligations under the master leases may materially and adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations, including our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.

Due to our dependence on rental payments from Penn as a significant source of revenue, we may be limited in our ability to enforce our rights under the master leases. Failure by Penn to comply with the terms of its master leases or to comply with the gaming regulations to which the leased properties are subject could require us to find another lessee for such leased property. In such event, we may be unable to locate a suitable lessee at similar rental rates or at all, which would have the effect of reducing our rental revenues. Likewise, our financial position may be materially weakened if Penn failed to renew or extend any master lease as such lease expires and we are unable to lease or re-lease our properties on economically favorable terms.

Any event that has a material adverse effect on Penn’s business, financial position or results of operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations. In addition, continued consolidation in the gaming industry would increase our dependence on our existing tenants and could make it increasingly difficult for us to find alternative tenants for our properties.
Our pursuit of investments in, and acquisitions or development of, additional properties may be unsuccessful or fail to meet our expectations.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and face competition from other REITs (including other gaming-focused REITs), investment companies, private equity and hedge fund investors, sovereign funds, lenders, gaming companies (including gaming companies considering REIT structures) and other investors, some of whom are significantly larger and have greater resources and lower costs of capital. Increased competition may make it more challenging to identify and successfully capitalize on acquisition opportunities that meet our investment objectives. If we cannot identify and purchase a sufficient number of investment properties at favorable prices or if we are unable to finance acquisitions on commercially favorable terms, our business, financial position or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Additionally, the fact that we must distribute 90% of our net taxable income in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT may limit our ability to rely upon rental payments from our leased properties or subsequently acquired properties in order to finance acquisitions. As a result, if debt or equity financing is not available on acceptable terms, further acquisitions might be limited or curtailed and completing proposed acquisitions may be adversely impacted. Furthermore, fluctuations in the price of our common stock may impact our ability to finance additional acquisitions through the issuance of common stock and/or cause significant dilution.
Investments in and acquisitions of gaming properties and other properties we might seek to acquire entail risks associated with real estate investments, including that the investment's performance will fail to meet expectations or that the tenant, operator or manager will underperform. Real estate development projects present other risks, including construction delays or cost overruns that increase expenses, the inability to obtain required zoning, occupancy and other governmental approvals and permits on a timely basis, and the incurrence of significant development costs prior to completion of the project.
We are dependent on the gaming industry and may be susceptible to the risks associated with it, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations.
As the owner and landlord of gaming facilities, we are impacted by the risks associated with the gaming industry. Therefore, our success is to some degree dependent on the gaming industry, which could be adversely affected by economic conditions in general, changes in consumer trends and preferences and other factors over which we and our tenants have no control. As we are subject to risks inherent in substantial investments in a single industry, a decrease in the gaming business may have a greater adverse effect on our revenues than if we owned a more diversified real estate portfolio, particularly because
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a component of the rent under our leases is based, over time, on the revenue of the gaming facilities operated by our tenants. Decreases in discretionary consumer spending brought about by weakened general economic conditions such as, but not limited to, high unemployment levels, higher income taxes, low levels of consumer confidence, weakness in the housing market, cultural and demographic changes, and increased stock market volatility may negatively impact our revenues and operating cash flow.
The gaming industry is characterized by an increasing number of gaming facilities with an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants, including riverboat casinos, dockside casinos, land-based casinos, video lottery, sweepstakes and poker machines not located in casinos, Native American gaming and other forms of gaming in the U.S. Furthermore, competition from alternative wagering products, such as internet lotteries, sweepstakes, social gaming products, daily fantasy sports and other internet wagering gaming services, online sports wagering or games of skill, which allow their customers a wagering alternative to the casino-style, such as remote home gaming or in non-casino settings, could divert customers from our properties and thus adversely affect our TRS Properties and the business of our tenants and, indirectly, our business. Present state or federal laws that restrict the forms of gaming authorized or the number of competitors that offer gaming in the applicable jurisdiction are subject to change and may increase the competition affecting our TRS Properties and the business of our tenants and, indirectly, our business. Currently, there are proposals that would legalize several forms of internet gaming and other alternative wagering products in a number of states. Further, several states have already approved intrastate internet gaming and sports betting. Expansion of internet gaming and sports betting in other jurisdictions may compete with our traditional operations, which could have an adverse impact on our business and result of operations.
The operations of our TRS Properties and of our tenants in our leased facilities are subject to disruptions or reduced patronage as a result of severe weather conditions, changing climate conditions, natural disasters and other casualty events. Because many of our facilities are located on or adjacent to bodies of water, they are subject to risks in addition to those associated with land-based facilities, including loss of service due to casualty, forces of nature, mechanical failure, extended or extraordinary maintenance, flood, hurricane or other severe weather and climate conditions. A component of the rent under our leases is based, over time, on the revenues of the gaming facilities operated by Penn, Caesars, Boyd and Casino Queen on our properties; consequently, a casualty that leads to the loss of use of a casino facility subject to our leases for an extended period may negatively impact our revenues.
COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a significant impact on our tenants' financial conditions and operations.
In December 2019, a new strain of novel coronavirus, COVID-19, was reported in China and shortly thereafter spread across the globe. This global pandemic outbreak led to unprecedented responses by federal, state and local officials. Certain responses have included mandates from authorities requiring temporary closures of or imposed limitations on the operations of many businesses in the attempt to mitigate the spread of infections. Unemployment levels rose sharply and economic activity levels declined dramatically as a result. The United States government implemented various significant aid packages to support the economy and credit markets to combat these declines.

Our TRS Properties and our tenants' casino operations were forced to close temporarily in mid-March through various dates into May and June 2020. Even though most of our properties recommenced operations to encouraging results, including certain locations where earnings were higher than the corresponding period in the prior year, it is uncertain whether these strong results will continue in future periods, particularly with the recent increases in COVID-19 case counts throughout the United States which in turn has resulted in additional temporary closures of certain casino facilities in various jurisdictions. As of the date of this filing, 1 facility out of our 48 facilities is temporarily closed. Although rent payments continue to be paid by our tenants, the temporary closures will likely result in lower variable rent reset amounts and reduce the likelihood of rent escalators that are tied to certain rent coverage ratios which contain such clauses. The ultimate impact of COVID-19 on us is highly uncertain and subject to change and will depend on future developments, which cannot be accurately predicted, including the duration of the pandemic, continued emergence of new strains of COVID-19, the speed with which available vaccines are administered to the public, additional or modified government actions, new information that will emerge concerning the severity and impact of COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain COVID-19 or address its impact in the short and long term, among others.

Our ability to realize significant value for the real property assets of Tropicana Las Vegas is uncertain.

Our ability to realize significant value for the real property assets of Tropicana Las Vegas, which we acquired from Penn in return for $307.5 million of rent credits, is uncertain given current economic conditions resulting from COVID-19. It is possible that we may need to wait for a prolonged period of time before market conditions improve to enable us to realize significant value for the Tropicana real property assets, if at all.

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We face extensive regulation from gaming and other regulatory authorities.
The ownership, operation, and management of gaming and racing facilities are subject to pervasive regulation. These regulations impact both our ownership and operation of the TRS Properties and the operations of our gaming tenants. Our ownership and operation of the TRS Properties subject us, our officers, directors and shareholders to the jurisdiction of the gaming regulatory agencies in Louisiana and Maryland. Further, many gaming and racing regulatory agencies in the jurisdictions in which our tenants operate require GLPI, its affiliates and certain officers and directors to maintain licenses as a key business entity, principal affiliate, business entity qualifier, operator, supplier or key person because of GLPI's status as landlord. For GLPI to maintain such licenses in good standing, certain of GLPI's officers and directors are also required to maintain licenses or a finding of suitability.
Many jurisdictions also require any person who acquires beneficial ownership of more than a certain percentage of securities of a company licensed in such jurisdiction, typically 5%, to report the acquisition to gaming authorities, and gaming authorities may require such holders to apply for qualification or a finding of suitability, subject to limited exceptions for "institutional investors" that hold a company's voting securities for passive investment purposes only. Some jurisdictions may also limit the number of gaming licenses or gaming facilities in which a person may hold an ownership or a controlling interest. Subject to certain administrative proceeding requirements, the gaming regulators have the authority to deny any application or limit, condition, restrict, revoke or suspend any license, registration, finding of suitability or approval, or fine any person licensed, registered or found suitable or approved, for any cause deemed reasonable by the gaming authorities.
Additionally, substantially all material loans, significant acquisitions, leases, sales of securities and similar financing transactions by us and our subsidiaries must be reported to and in some cases approved by gaming authorities in advance of the transaction. Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries may make a public offering of securities without the prior approval of certain gaming authorities. Changes in control through merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisitions, management or consulting agreements, or otherwise are subject to receipt of prior approval of certain gaming authorities. Entities seeking to acquire control of GLPI or one of its subsidiaries must satisfy gaming authorities with respect to a variety of stringent licensing standards prior to assuming control.
Required regulatory approvals can delay or prohibit transfers of our gaming properties, which could result in periods in which we are unable to receive rent for such properties.
The tenants of our gaming properties are operators of gaming facilities and must be licensed under applicable state law. Prior to the transfer of gaming facilities, including a controlling interest, the new owner or operator generally must become licensed under applicable state law. In the event that any current lease or any future lease agreement we enter into is terminated or expires and a new tenant is found, any delays in the new tenant receiving regulatory approvals from the applicable state government agencies, or the inability to receive such approvals, may prolong the period during which we are unable to collect the applicable rent.
Our pursuit of strategic acquisitions unrelated to the gaming industry may be unsuccessful or fail to meet our expectations.

We may pursue strategic acquisitions of real property assets unrelated to the gaming industry, including acquisitions that may be complementary to our existing gaming properties.  Our management does not possess the same level of expertise with the dynamics and market conditions applicable to non-gaming assets, which could adversely affect the results of our expansion into other asset classes.  In addition, we may be unable to achieve our desired return on our investments in new or adjacent asset classes.
Our charter restricts the ownership and transfer of our outstanding stock, which may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or change of control of our company.
In order for us to qualify to be taxed as a REIT, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares of stock may be owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals at any time during the last half of each taxable year after the first year for which GLPI elected to qualify to be taxed as a REIT (2014). Additionally, at least 100 persons must beneficially own GLPI stock during at least 335 days of a taxable year (other than the first taxable year for which GLPI elected to be taxed as a REIT). GLPI's charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes the Board of Directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve GLPI's qualification as a REIT. GLPI's charter also provides that, subject to certain exceptions approved by the Board of Directors, no person may beneficially or constructively own more than 7% in value or in number, whichever is more restrictive, of GLPI's outstanding shares of all classes and series of stock. The constructive ownership rules are complex and may cause shares of stock owned directly or constructively by a group of related individuals or entities to be constructively owned by one individual or entity. These ownership limits could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control of GLPI that might involve a premium price for shares of GLPI stock or otherwise be in the best interests of GLPI shareholders. The acquisition of less than 7% of our outstanding stock by an individual or entity could cause that individual or entity to own
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beneficially or constructively in excess of 7% in value of our outstanding stock, and thus violate our charter's ownership limit. Our charter prohibits any person from owning shares of our stock that would result in our being "closely held" under Section 856(h) of the Code. Any attempt to own or transfer shares of our stock in violation of these restrictions may result in the transfer being automatically void. GLPI's charter also provides that shares of GLPI's capital stock acquired or held in excess of the ownership limit will be transferred to a trust for the benefit of a designated charitable beneficiary, and that any person who acquires shares of GLPI's capital stock in violation of the ownership limit will not be entitled to any dividends on the shares or be entitled to vote the shares or receive any proceeds from the subsequent sale of the shares in excess of the lesser of the market price on the day the shares were transferred to the trust or the amount realized from the sale. GLPI or its designee will have the right to purchase the shares from the trustee at this calculated price as well. A transfer of shares of GLPI's capital stock in violation of the limit may be void under certain circumstances. GLPI's 7% ownership limitation may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of GLPI, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for GLPI's shareholders. To assist GLPI in complying with applicable gaming laws, our charter also provides that capital stock of GLPI that is owned or controlled by an unsuitable person or an affiliate of an unsuitable person will be transferred to a trust for the benefit of a designated charitable beneficiary, and that any such unsuitable person or affiliate will not be entitled to any dividends on the shares or be entitled to vote the shares or receive any proceeds from the subsequent sale of the shares in excess of the lesser of the price paid by the unsuitable person or affiliate for the shares or the amount realized from the sale, in each case less a discount in a percentage (up to 100%) to be determined by our Board of Directors in its sole and absolute discretion. The shares shall additionally be redeemable by GLPI, out of funds legally available for that redemption, to the extent required by the gaming authorities making the determination of unsuitability or to the extent determined to be necessary or advisable by our Board of Directors, at a redemption price equal to the lesser of (i) the market price on the date of the redemption notice, (ii) the market price on the redemption date, or (iii) the actual amount paid for the shares by the owner thereof, in each case less a discount in a percentage (up to 100%) to be determined by our Board of Directors in its sole and absolute discretion.
Pennsylvania law and provisions in our charter and bylaws may delay or prevent takeover attempts by third parties and therefore inhibit our shareholders from realizing a premium on their stock.
Our charter and bylaws, in addition to Pennsylvania law, contain provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage prospective acquirors to negotiate with our Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. Our charter and bylaws, among other things (i) permit the Board of Directors, without further action of the shareholders, to issue and fix the terms of preferred stock, which may have rights senior to those of the common stock; (ii) establish certain advance notice procedures for shareholder proposals, and require all director candidates to be recommended by the nominating committee of the Board of Directors following the affirmative determination by the nominating committee that such nominee is likely to meet the applicable suitability requirements of any federal, state or local regulatory body having jurisdiction over us; (iii) provide that a director may only be removed by shareholders for cause and upon the vote of 75% of the shares entitled to vote; (iv) do not permit direct nomination by shareholders of nominees for election to the Board of Directors, but instead permit shareholders to recommend potential nominees to our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee; (v) require shareholders to have beneficially owned at least 1% of our outstanding common stock in order to recommend a person for nomination for election to the Board of Directors, or to present a shareholder proposal, for action at a shareholders' meeting; and (vi) provide for super majority approval requirements for amending or repealing certain provisions in our charter and in order to approve an amendment or repeal of any provision of our bylaws that has not been proposed by our Board of Directors.
In addition, specific anti-takeover provisions in Pennsylvania law could make it more difficult for a third party to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions require (i) approval of certain transactions by a majority of the voting stock other than that held by the potential acquirer; (ii) the acquisition at "fair value" of all the outstanding shares not held by an acquirer of 20% or more; (iii) a five-year moratorium on certain "business combination" transactions with an "interested shareholder;" (iv) the loss by interested shareholders of their voting rights over "control shares;" (v) the disgorgement of profits realized by an interested shareholder from certain dispositions of our shares; and (vi) severance payments for certain employees and prohibiting termination of certain labor contracts.
We believe these provisions will protect our shareholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors and by providing our Board of Directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make GLPI immune from takeovers or to prevent a transaction from occurring. However, these provisions will apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some shareholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board of Directors determines is not in the best interests of GLPI. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.

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We may experience uninsured or under insured losses, which could result in a significant loss of the capital we have invested in a property, decrease anticipated future revenues or cause us to incur unanticipated expense.
While our leases require, and new lease agreements are expected to require, that comprehensive insurance and hazard insurance be maintained by the tenants, a tenant's failure to comply could lead to an uninsured or under insured loss and there can be no assurance that we will be able to recover such uninsured or under insured amounts from such tenant. Further, there are certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes and floods, that may be uninsurable or not economically insurable. Insurance coverage may not be sufficient to pay the full current market value or current replacement cost of a loss. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations, and other factors also might make it infeasible to use insurance proceeds to replace the property after such property has been damaged or destroyed. Under such circumstances, the insurance proceeds received might not be adequate to restore the economic position with respect to such property.
If we or one of our tenants experience a loss that is uninsured, or that exceeds our or our tenant's policy coverage limits, we could lose the capital invested in the damaged properties as well as the anticipated future cash flows from those properties. In addition, if the damaged properties were subject to recourse indebtedness, we could continue to be liable for the indebtedness even if these properties were irreparably damaged.
In addition, even if damage to our properties is covered by insurance, a disruption of our or our tenant's business caused by a casualty event may result in the loss of business or tenants. The business interruption insurance we or our tenant's carry may not fully compensate us for the loss of business or tenants due to an interruption caused by a casualty event.
A disruption in the financial markets may make it more difficult to evaluate the stability, net assets and capitalization of insurance companies and any insurer's ability to meet its claim payment obligations. A failure of an insurance company to make payments to us or our tenants upon an event of loss covered by an insurance policy could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile, and holders of our common stock could lose a significant portion of their investment if the market price of our common stock declines.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile, and shareholders may not be able to resell their shares of our common stock at or above the price at which they acquired the common stock due to fluctuations in its market price, including changes in price caused by factors unrelated to our performance or prospects.
Specific factors that may have a significant effect on the market price for our common stock include, among others, the following:
changes in stock market analyst recommendations or earnings estimates regarding our common stock or other comparable REITs;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue stream or future prospects;

strategic actions taken by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions;

our failure to close pending acquisitions;

our failure to achieve the perceived benefits of our acquisitions, including financial results, as rapidly as or to the extent anticipated by financial or industry analysts;

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business and operations or the gaming industry;

changes in tax or accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

changes in the interest rate environment and/or the impact of rising inflation;

adverse conditions in the financial markets or general U.S. or international economic conditions, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism and responses to such events; and

sales of our common stock by members of our management team or other significant shareholders.
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Environmental compliance costs and liabilities associated with real estate properties owned by us may materially impair the value of those investments.
As an owner of real property, we are subject to various federal, state and local environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Although we do not operate or manage most of our properties, we may be held primarily or jointly and severally liable for costs relating to the investigation and clean-up of any property from which there has been a release or threatened release of a regulated material as well as other affected properties, regardless of whether we knew of or caused the release.
In addition to these costs, which are typically not limited by law or regulation and could exceed the property's value, we could be liable for certain other costs, including governmental fines and injuries to persons, property or natural resources. Further, some environmental laws create a lien on the contaminated site in favor of the government for damages and the costs the government incurs in connection with such contamination.
Although we require our operators and tenants to undertake to indemnify us for certain environmental liabilities, including environmental liabilities they cause, the amount of such liabilities could exceed the financial ability of the tenant or operator to indemnify us. The presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination may adversely affect our ability to sell or lease the real estate or to borrow using the real estate as collateral.
Changes to U.S. federal income tax laws could materially and adversely affect us and our shareholders.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made significant changes to the federal income taxation of individuals and corporations under the Code, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. In addition to reducing corporate and individual income tax rates, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act eliminates or restricts various deductions that, along with other provisions, may change the way that we calculate our REIT taxable income and our TRS’s taxable income. Significant provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that investors should be aware of include provisions that: (i) lower the corporate income tax rate to 21%, (ii) provide noncorporate taxpayers with a deduction of up to 20% of certain income earned through partnerships and REITs, (iii) limit the net operating loss deduction to 80% of taxable income, where taxable income is determined without regard to the net operating loss deduction itself, generally eliminates net operating loss carry backs and allows unused net operating losses to be carried forward indefinitely, (iv) expand the ability of businesses to deduct the cost of certain property investments in the year in which the property is purchased, (v) generally lower tax rates for individuals and other noncorporate taxpayers, while limiting deductions such as miscellaneous itemized deductions and state and local tax deductions, and (vi) limit the deduction for net interest expense incurred by a business to 30% of the "adjusted taxable income" of the taxpayer, but do not apply to certain small-business taxpayers or electing real property trades or businesses, including REITs. The effect of these, and the many other, changes made is highly uncertain, both in terms of their direct effect on the taxation of holders of our common stock and their indirect effect on the value of our assets or market conditions generally. In addition, future changes in tax laws, including the proposed tax agenda presented by the new U.S. presidential administration, or tax rulings, could affect our effective tax rate, the tax rate of shareholders of our stock, and overall benefit of maintaining our status as a REIT. For example, the reduction in the corporate income tax rate resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act could be reduced or rescinded, individual tax rates may increase, and the §199A deduction for REIT dividends could be phased out. .

We face risks associated with security breaches through cyber-attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems.

We face risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusions over the internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, persons inside our organization or persons with access to systems inside our organization, and other significant disruptions of our IT networks and related systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. A security breach or other significant disruption involving our IT networks and related systems could disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems; result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants and/or missed reporting deadlines; result in our inability to monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT; result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes; require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result; subject us to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties or termination of certain agreements; or damage our reputation among our tenants and investors generally.
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Risk Factors Relating to our Status as a REIT
If we do not qualify to be taxed as a REIT, or fail to remain qualified as a REIT, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular corporation and could face a substantial tax liability, which may reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
We elected on our 2014 U.S. federal income tax return to be treated as a REIT and intend to continue to be organized and to operate in a manner that will permit us to qualify as a REIT. We currently operate, and intend to continue to operate, in a manner that will allow us to continue to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We received an opinion from our special tax advisors, Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz and KPMG LLP (collectively the "Special Tax Advisors"), with respect to our qualification as a REIT in connection with the Spin-Off. Opinions of advisors are not binding on the IRS or any court. The opinions of the Special Tax Advisors represent only the view of the Special Tax Advisors based on their review and analysis of existing law and on certain representations as to factual matters and covenants made by us, including representations relating to the values of our assets and the sources of our income. The opinions are expressed as of the date issued. The Special Tax Advisors have no obligation to advise us or the holders of our common stock of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed or of any subsequent change in applicable law. Furthermore, both the validity of the opinions of Special Tax Advisors and our qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis, the results of which are not monitored by the Special Tax Advisors. Our ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon our analysis of the characterization and fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals.
Penn has received a private letter ruling from the IRS with respect to certain issues relevant to our qualification as a REIT. In general, the ruling provides, subject to the terms and conditions contained therein, that (1) certain of the assets to be held by us after the Spin-Off and (2) the methodology for calculating a certain portion of rent received by us pursuant to the Penn Master Lease will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT. No assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification as a REIT on the basis of other issues or facts outside the scope of the ruling.
If we were to fail to qualify to be taxed as a REIT in any taxable year, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, and dividends paid to our shareholders would not be deductible by us in computing our taxable income. Any resulting corporate liability could be substantial and would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our shareholders, which in turn could have an adverse impact on the value of our common stock. Unless we were entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, we also would be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we failed to qualify to be taxed as a REIT.
Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Code and violations of these provisions could jeopardize our REIT qualifications.
Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Our qualification as a REIT depends on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. In addition, our ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify to be taxed as a REIT may depend in part on the actions of third parties over which we have no control or only limited influence.
We could fail to qualify to be taxed as a REIT if income we receive from Penn, Caesars, Boyd, or their subsidiaries, is not treated as qualifying income.
Under applicable provisions of the Code, we will not be treated as a REIT unless we satisfy various requirements, including requirements relating to the sources of our gross income. Rents received or accrued by us from Penn, Caesars, Boyd, or their subsidiaries, will not be treated as qualifying rent for purposes of these requirements if the Penn Master Lease, Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease or Boyd Master Lease is not respected as a true lease for U.S. federal income tax purposes and is instead treated as a service contract, joint venture or some other type of arrangement. If the Penn Master Lease, Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease or Boyd Master Lease is not respected as a true lease for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may fail to qualify to be taxed as a REIT. Furthermore, our qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. Our ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon our analysis of the characterization and fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals.
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In addition, subject to certain exceptions, rents received or accrued by us from Penn, Caesars, Boyd, or their subsidiaries, will not be treated as qualifying rent for purposes of these requirements if we or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of Penn stock, Caesars stock or Boyd stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of Penn stock, Caesars stock or Boyd stock. Our charter provides for restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock, including restrictions on such ownership or transfer that would cause the rents received or accrued by us from Penn, Caesars, Boyd, or their subsidiaries, to be treated as non-qualifying rent for purposes of the REIT gross income requirements. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that such restrictions will be effective in ensuring that rents received or accrued by us from Penn, Caesars, Boyd, or their subsidiaries, will not be treated as qualifying rent for purposes of REIT qualification requirements.
Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.
The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to income from "qualified dividends" payable by U.S. corporations to U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts and estates is currently 20%. Ordinary dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the reduced rates. However, for taxable years that begin after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026: (i) the U.S. federal income tax brackets generally applicable to ordinary income of individuals, trusts and estates have been modified (with the rates generally reduced) and (ii) shareholders that are individuals, trusts or estates are generally entitled to a deduction equal to 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary income dividends received from a REIT (not including dividends that are eligible for the reduced rates applicable to "qualified dividend income" or treated as capital gain dividends), subject to certain limitations.
The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts or estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the stock of REITs, including our stock, even taking into account the lower 37% maximum rate for ordinary income and the 20% deduction for ordinary REIT dividends received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026.
REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan.
We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gains, in order to qualify to be taxed as a REIT (assuming that certain other requirements are also satisfied) so that U.S. federal corporate income tax does not apply to earnings that we distribute. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement and qualify for taxation as a REIT but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and including any net capital gains, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed net taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we distribute to our shareholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under U.S. federal income tax laws. We intend to make distributions to our shareholders to comply with the REIT requirements of the Code.
From time to time, we may generate taxable income greater than our cash flow as a result of differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash or the effect of nondeductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt or amortization payments. If we do not have other funds available in these situations, we could be required to borrow funds on unfavorable terms, sell assets at disadvantageous prices, distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, or pay dividends in the form of taxable in-kind distributions of property, including potentially, shares of our common stock, to make distributions sufficient to enable us to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year. These alternatives could increase our costs or reduce our equity. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to grow, which could adversely affect the value of our stock. Restrictions on our indebtedness, including restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness or make certain distributions, could preclude us from meeting the 90% distribution requirement. Decreases in funds from operations due to unfinanced expenditures for acquisitions of properties or increases in the number of shares of our common stock outstanding without commensurate increases in funds from operations each would adversely affect our ability to maintain distributions to our shareholders. Moreover, the failure of Penn to make rental payments under the Penn Master Lease, the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease or the Meadows Lease, as applicable, would materially impair our ability to make distributions. Consequently, there can be no assurance that we will be able to make distributions at the anticipated distribution rate or any other rate.
Even if we remain qualified as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flow.
Even if we remain qualified for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state, and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income and state or local income, property and transfer taxes. For example, we hold certain of our assets and conduct related activities through TRS subsidiary corporations that are subject to
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federal, state, and local corporate-level income taxes as regular C corporations as well as state and local gaming taxes. In addition, we may incur a 100% excise tax on transactions with a TRS if they are not conducted on an arm's-length basis. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive acquisition opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.
To qualify to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must ensure that, at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets consist of cash, cash items, government securities and "real estate assets" (as defined in the Code), including certain mortgage loans and securities. The remainder of our investments (other than government securities, qualified real estate assets and securities issued by a TRS) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our total assets (other than government securities, qualified real estate assets and securities issued by a TRS) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 20% of the value of our total assets can be represented by securities of one or more TRSs. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate or forego otherwise attractive investments. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to our shareholders.
In addition to the asset tests set forth above, to qualify to be taxed as a REIT we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the amounts we distribute to shareholders and the ownership of our stock. We may be unable to pursue investments that would be otherwise advantageous to us in order to satisfy the source-of-income or asset-diversification requirements for qualifying as a REIT. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to make certain attractive investments.
Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.
The REIT provisions of the Code substantially limit our ability to hedge our assets and liabilities. Income from certain hedging transactions that we may enter into to manage risk of interest rate changes with respect to borrowings made or to be made to acquire or carry real estate assets or from transactions to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that satisfy the REIT gross income tests (including gain from the termination of such a transaction) does not constitute "gross income" for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests that apply to REITs, provided that certain identification requirements are met. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions or fail to properly identify such transaction as a hedge, the income is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may be required to limit our use of advantageous hedging techniques or implement those hedges through a TRS. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities because the TRS may be subject to tax on gains or expose us to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates that we would otherwise want to bear. In addition, losses in the TRS will generally not provide any tax benefit, except that such losses could theoretically be carried back or forward against past or future taxable income in the TRS.
We could be subject to tax on any unrealized net built-in gains on the assets acquired from Pinnacle (prior to the Penn-Pinnacle Merger), which could have a material and adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We own appreciated assets that were held by a C corporation before we acquired them in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our ownership is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the C corporation. If we dispose of any such appreciated assets during the five-year period following our acquisition of the assets from the C corporation, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate tax rates on any gain from such assets to the extent of the excess of the fair market value of the assets on the date that they were acquired by us over the adjusted tax basis of such assets on such date, which are referred to as built-in gains. The assets acquired from Pinnacle (prior to the Penn-Pinnacle Merger) are expected to have significant built-in-gains. Because, prior to the original Pinnacle transaction, Pinnacle was a C corporation, if we dispose of any such appreciated assets during the five-year period following the transactions, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate tax rates on any gain from such assets to the extent of the built-in-gain in such assets at the time of the transaction.
We would be subject to this tax liability even if we continue to qualify and maintain our status as a REIT. Any recognized built-in gain will retain our character as ordinary income or capital gain and will be taken into account in determining REIT taxable income and our distribution requirement. Any tax on the recognized built-in gain will reduce REIT taxable income. We may choose not to sell in a taxable transaction appreciated assets we might otherwise sell during the five-year period in which the built-in gain tax applies in order to avoid the built-in gain tax. However, there can be no assurances that such a taxable transaction will not occur. If we sell such assets in a taxable transaction, the amount of corporate tax that we
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will pay will vary depending on the actual amount of net built-in gain or loss present in those assets as of the time we became a REIT. The amount of tax could be significant.
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure
We may have future capital needs and may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms.
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $5.8 billion in long-term indebtedness, net of unamortized debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts, consisting of:
$424.0 million of total indebtedness outstanding under our senior unsecured credit facility (the "Credit Facility");

$5,375.0 million of outstanding senior unsecured notes; and

approximately $0.9 million of finance lease liabilities related to certain assets.
We may incur additional indebtedness in the future to refinance our existing indebtedness or to finance newly-acquired properties. Any significant additional indebtedness could require a substantial portion of our cash flow to make interest and principal payments due on our indebtedness. Greater demands on our cash resources may reduce funds available to us to pay dividends, make capital expenditures and acquisitions, or carry out other aspects of our business strategy. Increased indebtedness may also limit our ability to adjust rapidly to changing market conditions, make us more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions and create competitive disadvantages for us compared to other companies with relatively lower debt levels and/or borrowing costs. Increased future debt service obligations may limit our operational flexibility, including our ability to acquire properties, finance or refinance our properties, contribute properties to joint ventures or sell properties as needed. If we incur additional indebtedness or such other obligations, the risks associated with our leverage, including our possible inability to service our debt, may increase.
We may be unable to obtain additional financing or financing on favorable terms or our operating cash flow may be insufficient to satisfy our financial obligations under indebtedness outstanding from time to time (if any). If financing is not available when needed, or is available on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to develop new or enhance our existing properties, complete acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a material amount of indebtedness which could have significant effects on our business including the following:
it may limit our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements and general corporate or other purposes;

a material portion of our cash flows will be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, including indebtedness we may incur in the future, and will not be available for other purposes, including to make acquisitions;

it could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or are less leveraged;

it could make us more vulnerable to downturns in general economic or industry conditions or in our business, or prevent us from carrying out activities that are important to our growth;

it could increase our interest expense if interest rates in general increase because our indebtedness under the Credit Facility bears interest at floating rates;

it could limit our ability to take advantage of strategic business opportunities;

it could make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness. Any failure to comply with the obligations of any of our debt instruments could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of our indebtedness under the Credit Facility and other outstanding debt obligations; and

it could impact our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
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We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us under our Credit Facility or from other debt financing, in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to satisfy our debt service obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our indebtedness, selling assets or seeking to raise additional capital, including by issuing equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities. Our ability to restructure or refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our indebtedness could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt service requirements or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms may have an adverse effect, which could be material to our business, financial position or results of operations.
Our shareholders may be subject to significant dilution caused by the additional issuance of equity securities.
If and when additional funds are raised through the issuance of equity securities, including under our "at the market" offering program relating to our common stock (the "ATM Program") or in connection with future acquisitions, our shareholders may experience significant dilution. Additionally, sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock, make it more difficult for our shareholders to sell their GLPI common stock at a time and price that they deem appropriate and impair our future ability to raise capital through an offering of our equity securities.
Adverse changes in our credit rating may affect our borrowing capacity and borrowing terms.
Our outstanding debt is periodically rated by nationally recognized credit rating agencies. The credit ratings are based upon our operating performance, liquidity and leverage ratios, overall financial position, and other factors viewed by the credit rating agencies as relevant to both our industry and the economic outlook. Our credit rating may affect the amount of capital we can access, as well as the terms of any financing we obtain. Because we rely in part on debt financing to fund growth, the absence of an investment grade credit rating or any credit rating downgrade may have a negative effect on our future growth.
If we cannot obtain additional capital, our growth may be limited.
As described above, in order to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT each year, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, excluding net capital gains, to our shareholders. As a result, our retained earnings available to fund acquisitions, development, or other capital expenditures are nominal, and we rely upon the availability of additional debt or equity capital to fund these activities. Our long-term ability to grow through acquisitions or development, which is an important component of our strategy, may be limited if we cannot obtain additional debt financing or raise equity capital. Market conditions may make it difficult to obtain debt financing or raise equity capital, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing or that we will be able to obtain such capital on favorable terms.
An increase in market interest rates could increase our interest costs on existing and future debt and could adversely affect our stock price.
If interest rates increase, so could our interest costs for any new debt and our variable rate debt obligations. This increased cost could make the financing of any acquisition more costly, as well as lower our current period earnings. Rising interest rates could limit our ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or cause us to pay higher interest rates upon refinancing. In addition, an increase in interest rates could decrease the access third parties have to credit, thereby decreasing the amount they are willing to pay for our assets and consequently limiting our ability to reposition our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions.
Further, the dividend yield on our common stock, as a percentage of the price of such common stock, may influence the price of such common stock. Thus, an increase in market interest rates may lead prospective purchasers of our common stock to expect a higher dividend yield, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
The majority of our debt is at fixed rates and our exposure to variable interest rates is currently limited to our revolving credit facility and our Term Loan A-2. Both of these debt instruments are indexed to LIBOR which is expected to be phased out between December 31, 2021 through June 30, 2023. The discontinuance of LIBOR would affect our interest expense and earnings. The borrowings under our Credit Facility will be subject to the expected LIBOR transition. LIBOR is currently expected to transition to a new standard rate, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”). We are currently monitoring the transition and cannot be certain whether SOFR will become the standard rate for our variable rate debt. However, the transition away from LIBOR rates will likely require us to renegotiate our revolving credit facility. We intend to continue to monitor the developments with respect to the phase out of LIBOR and work with our lenders to minimize the impact of any LIBOR
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transition on our financial condition and results of operations, but can provide no assurances regarding the impact of the discontinuance of LIBOR.
Covenants in our debt agreements may limit our operational flexibility, and a covenant breach or default could materially adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations.
The agreements governing our indebtedness contain customary covenants, including restrictions on our ability to grant liens on our assets, incur indebtedness, sell assets, make investments, engage in acquisitions, mergers or consolidations and pay certain dividends and other restricted payments. Specifically, our debt agreements contain the following financial covenants: a maximum total debt to total asset value ratio of 60% (subject to increase to 65% for specified periods in connection with certain acquisitions), a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.5 to 1, a maximum senior secured debt to total asset value ratio of 40% and a maximum unsecured debt to unencumbered asset value ratio of 60%. These restrictions may limit our operational flexibility. Covenants that limit our operational flexibility as well as defaults under our debt instruments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.
Risk Factors Relating to Our Acquisition of Penn, Pinnacle and Tropicana's Gaming Properties
Our recourse against Tropicana, including for any breaches under the Amended Real Estate Purchase Agreement or the Tropicana Merger Agreement, is limited.

As is customary for a public company target in a merger and acquisition transaction, Tropicana has no obligation to indemnify us or Caesars for any breaches of its representations and warranties or covenants included in the Merger Agreement and the Real Estate Purchase Agreement, or for any pre-closing liabilities or claims. While we have certain arrangements in place with Caesars in connection with certain limited pre-closing liabilities, if any issues arise post-closing (other than as provided for in the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease), we may not be entitled to sufficient, or any, indemnification or recourse from Tropicana or Caesars, which could have a materially adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Penn has contractual obligations to indemnify us for certain liabilities, including liabilities as successor in interest to Pinnacle. However, there can be no assurance that these indemnities will be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that Penn's ability to satisfy its and Pinnacle's indemnification obligations will not be impaired in the future.
Penn has contractual obligations to indemnify us for certain liabilities, including liabilities as successor in interest to Pinnacle. However, third parties could seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that Penn and Pinnacle agreed to retain, and there can be no assurance that Penn will be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from Penn any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses while seeking recovery from Penn and such recovery could have a material adverse impact on Penn's financial condition and ability to pay rent due under the Penn Master Lease and/or the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
Rental Properties
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had 45 rental properties, consisting of the real property associated with 33 gaming and related facilities operated by Penn, the real property associated with seven gaming and related facilities operated by Caesars, the real property associated with four gaming and related facilities operated by Boyd and the real property associated with the Casino Queen in East St. Louis, Illinois. All rental properties are subject to long-term triple-net leases. For additional information pertaining to our tenant leases and our rental properties see Item 1.
TRS Segment
Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge
Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge is a dockside riverboat casino located on approximately 21.1 acres, which we own, on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the East Baton Rouge Downtown Development District. The property site serves as the dockside embarkation for Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and features a two-story building. We also own approximately 4.0 acres of land which features a railroad underpass that provides unimpeded access to the casino property.
Hollywood Casino Perryville
We own 36.3 acres of land in Perryville, Maryland where Hollywood Casino Perryville is located. The property is located directly off Interstate 95 in Cecil County, Maryland just 35 miles northeast of Baltimore and 70 miles from Washington, D.C.

Tropicana Las Vegas

This property was acquired on April 16, 2020 from Penn in exchange for $307.5 million of rent credits. We own approximately 35 acres on the strip of Las Vegas, Nevada and the real estate of the casino which has a 1,467 room hotel and structured and surface parking. An affiliate of Penn continues to operate the casino and hotel business pursuant to a triple net lease with the Company for nominal rent for the earlier of two years (subject to three one-year extensions at the Company's option).

Corporate Office

The Company's corporate headquarters building is located in Wyomissing, Pennsylvania and is owned by the Company.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is subject to various legal and administrative proceedings relating to personal injuries, employment matters, commercial transactions and other matters arising in the normal course of business. The Company does not believe that the financial outcome of these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial position or results of operations. In addition, the Company maintains what it believes is adequate insurance coverage to further mitigate the risks of such proceedings. However, such proceedings can be costly, time consuming and unpredictable and, therefore, no assurance can be given that the final outcome of such proceedings may not materially impact the Company's consolidated financial condition or results of operations. Further, no assurance can be given that the amount or scope of existing insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover losses arising from such matters.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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PART II
ITEM 5.   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "GLPI." As of February 16, 2021, there were approximately 720 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
The Company's annual dividend is greater than or equal to at least 90% of its REIT taxable income on an annual basis, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gains. U.S. federal income tax law generally requires that a REIT annually distribute at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains, and that it pay regular corporate rates to the extent that it annually distributes less than 100% of its taxable income.
Cash available for distribution to GLPI shareholders is derived from income from real estate and the income of the TRS Segment. All distributions will be made by GLPI at the discretion of its Board of Directors and will depend on the financial position, results of operations, cash flows, capital requirements, debt covenants, applicable laws and other factors as the Board of Directors of GLPI deems relevant. See Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements for further details on dividends.


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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Our Operations

GLPI is a self-administered and self-managed Pennsylvania REIT. The Company was formed from the 2013 tax-free spin-off of the real estate assets of Penn and was incorporated in Pennsylvania on February 13, 2013, as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Penn. On November 1, 2013, Penn contributed to GLPI, through a series of internal corporate restructurings, substantially all of the assets and liabilities associated with Penn's real property interests and real estate development business, as well as the assets and liabilities of the TRS Properties and then spun-off GLPI to holders of Penn's common and preferred stock in the Spin-Off. The Company elected on its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year that began on January 1, 2014 to be treated as a REIT and the Company, together with an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, GLP Holdings, Inc., jointly elected to treat each of GLP Holdings, Inc., Louisiana Casino Cruises, Inc. (d/b/a Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge) and Penn Cecil Maryland, Inc. (d/b/a Hollywood Casino Perryville) as a "taxable REIT subsidiary" effective on the first day of the first taxable year of GLPI as a REIT. In addition, during 2020, the Company and Tropicana LV, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company which holds the real estate of Tropicana Las Vegas, elected to treat Tropicana LV, LLC as a “taxable REIT subsidiary”. As a result of the Spin-Off, GLPI owns substantially all of Penn's former real property assets (as of the consummation of the Spin-Off) and leases back most of those assets to Penn for use by its subsidiaries, under the Penn Master Lease and owns and operates the TRS Properties through its indirect wholly-owned subsidiary, GLP Holdings, Inc. The assets and liabilities of GLPI were recorded at their respective historical carrying values at the time of the Spin-Off.

GLPI's primary business consists of acquiring, financing, and owning real estate property to be leased to gaming operators in triple-net lease arrangements. As of December 31, 2020, GLPI's portfolio consisted of interests in 48 gaming and related facilities, including the TRS Segment, the real property associated with 33 gaming and related facilities operated by Penn, the real property associated with 7 gaming and related facilities operated by Caesars, the real property associated with 4 gaming and related facilities operated by Boyd and the real property associated with the Casino Queen in East St. Louis, Illinois. These facilities, including our corporate headquarters building, are geographically diversified across 16 states and contain approximately 24.3 million square feet. As of December 31, 2020, our properties were 100% occupied. We expect to continue growing our portfolio by pursuing opportunities to acquire additional gaming facilities to lease to gaming operators under prudent terms.

Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Boyd Master Lease and Belterra Park Lease

In April 2016, the Company acquired substantially all of the real estate assets of Pinnacle for approximately $4.8 billion. GLPI originally leased these assets back to Pinnacle, under the Pinnacle Master Lease, the term of which expires on April 30, 2031, with no purchase option, followed by four remaining 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. On October 15, 2018, the Company completed the previously announced Penn-Pinnacle Merger to accommodate Penn's acquisition of the majority of Pinnacle's operations, pursuant to a definitive agreement and plan of merger between Penn and Pinnacle, dated December 17, 2017. Concurrent with the Penn-Pinnacle Merger, the Company amended the Pinnacle Master Lease to allow for the sale of the operating assets of Ameristar Casino Hotel Kansas City, Ameristar Casino Resort Spa St. Charles and Belterra Casino Resort from Pinnacle to Boyd and entered into the Boyd Master Lease for these properties on terms similar to the Company’s Amended Pinnacle Master Lease. The Boyd Master Lease has an initial term of 10 years (from the original April 2016 commencement date of the Pinnacle Master Lease and expiring April 30, 2026), with no purchase option, followed by five 5-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. The Company also purchased the real estate assets of Plainridge Park from Penn for $250.0 million, exclusive of transaction fees and taxes and added this property to the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease. The Amended Pinnacle Master Lease was assumed by Penn at the consummation of the Penn-Pinnacle Merger. The Company also entered into the Belterra Park Loan with Boyd in connection with Boyd's acquisition of Belterra Park. In May 2020, the Company acquired the real estate of Belterra Park in satisfaction of the Belterra Park Loan, subject to the Belterra Park Lease with a Boyd affiliate operating the property. The Belterra Park Lease rent terms are consistent with the Boyd Master Lease. The annual rent is comprised of a fixed component, part of which is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, and a component that is based on the performance of the facilities which is adjusted, subject to certain floors, every two years to an amount equal to 4% of the average annual net revenues of Belterra Park during the preceding two years in excess of a contractual baseline.

The Meadows Lease

The real estate assets of the Meadows are leased to Penn pursuant to the Meadows Lease. The Meadows Lease commenced on September 9, 2016 and has an initial term of 10 years, with no purchase option, and the option to renew for
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three successive 5-year terms and one 4-year term (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. The Meadows Lease contains a fixed component, subject to annual escalators, and a component that is based on the performance of the facility, which is reset every two years to an amount determined by multiplying (i) 4% by (ii) the average annual net revenues of the facility for the trailing two-year period. The Meadows Lease contains an annual escalator provision for up to 5% of the base rent, if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met, which remains at 5% until the earlier of ten years or the year in which total rent is $31 million, at which point the escalator will be reduced to 2% annually thereafter.

Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease and Lumière Place Lease

On October 1, 2018, the Company closed its previously announced transaction to acquire certain real property assets from Tropicana and certain of its affiliates pursuant to the Real Estate Purchase Agreement dated April 15, 2018 between Tropicana and GLP Capital, which was subsequently amended on October 1, 2018. Pursuant to the terms of the Amended Real Estate Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired the real estate assets of Tropicana Atlantic City, Tropicana Evansville, Tropicana Laughlin, Trop Casino Greenville and the Belle of Baton Rouge from Tropicana for an aggregate cash purchase price of $964.0 million, exclusive of transaction fees and taxes. Concurrent with the Tropicana Acquisition, Caesars acquired the operating assets of these properties from Tropicana pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated April 15, 2018 by and among Tropicana, GLP Capital, Caesars and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Caesars and leased the GLP Assets from the Company pursuant to the terms of the Caesars Master Lease. Additionally, on October 1, 2018, the Company entered into the CZR loan in connection with Caesars’s acquisition of Lumière Place. The CZR loan was satisfied and replaced with the Lumière Place Lease on September 29, 2020, the initial term of which expires on October 31, 2033, with 4 separate renewal options of five years each, exercisable at the tenants' option. The Lumière Place Lease rent is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% if certain rent coverage ratio thresholds are met. On June 15, 2020, the Company amended and restated the Caesars Master Lease (as amended, the "Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease") to, (i) extend the initial term of 15 years to 20 years, with renewals of up to an additional 20 years at the option of Caesars, (ii) remove the variable rent component in its entirety commencing with the third lease year, (iii) in the third lease year increase annual land base rent to approximately $23.6 million and annual building base rent to approximately $62.1 million, (iv) provide fixed escalation percentages that delay the escalation of building base rent until the commencement of the fifth lease year with building base rent increasing annually by 1.25% in the fifth and sixth lease year, 1.75% in the seventh and eighth lease years and 2% in the ninth lease year and each lease year thereafter, (v) subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, permit Caesars to elect to replace the Tropicana Evansville and/or Tropicana Greenville properties under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease with one or more of Caesars Gaming Scioto Downs, The Row in Reno, Isle Casino Racing Pompano Park, Isle Casino Hotel – Black Hawk, Lady Luck Casino – Black Hawk, Waterloo, Bettendorf or Isle of Capri Casino Boonville, provided that the aggregate value of such new property, individually or collectively, is at least equal to the value of Tropicana Evansville or Tropicana Greenville, as applicable (vi) permit Caesars to elect to sell its interest in Belle of Baton Rouge and sever it from the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease (with no change to the rent obligation to the Company), subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, and (vii) provide certain relief under the operating, capital expenditure and financial covenants thereunder in the event of facility closures due to pandemics, governmental restrictions and certain other instances of unavoidable delay. The effectiveness of the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease was subject to the review of certain gaming regulatory agencies and the expiration of applicable gaming regulatory advance notice periods which were received on July 23, 2020. On December 18, 2020, the Company and Caesars completed an Exchange Agreement with subsidiaries of Caesars in which Caesars transferred to the Company the real estate assets of Waterloo and Bettendorf in exchange for the transfer by the Company to Caesars of the real property assets of Tropicana Evansville, plus a cash payment of $5.7 million.

Tropicana Las Vegas
On April 16, 2020, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries closed on its previously announced transaction to acquire the real property associated with the Tropicana Las Vegas from Penn in exchange for rent credits of $307.5 million, which were applied against future rent obligations due under the parties' existing leases during 2020. An affiliate of Penn will continue to operate the casino and hotel business of the Tropicana Las Vegas pursuant to a triple net lease with GLPI for nominal rent for the earlier of two years (subject to three one-year extensions at the Company's option) or until the Tropicana Las Vegas is sold. We will conduct a sale process with respect to the Tropicana Las Vegas, with Penn receiving 75% of the net proceeds above $307.5 million (plus certain taxes, expenses and costs) if a sale agreement is signed during the first 12 months following closing and 50% of net proceeds above $307.5 million (plus certain taxes, expenses and costs) if a sale agreement is signed during the subsequent 12 months following closing. Penn will not be entitled to receive any net sale proceeds if the relevant sale agreement is signed at any time after 24 months from closing.


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Morgantown Lease

On October 1, 2020, the Company and Penn closed on their previously announced transaction whereby GLPI acquired the land under Penn's gaming facility under construction in Morgantown, Pennsylvania in exchange for $30.0 million in rent credits that were utilized by Penn in the fourth quarter of 2020. The Company is leasing the land back to an affiliate of Penn pursuant to the Morgantown Lease for an initial annual rent of $3.0 million, provided, however, that (i) on the opening date and on each anniversary thereafter the rent shall be increased by 1.5% annually (on a prorated basis for the remainder of the lease year in which the gaming facility opens) for each of the following three lease years and (ii) commencing on the fourth anniversary of the opening date and for each anniversary thereafter, (a) if the CPI increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent for such lease year shall increase by 1.25% of rent as of the immediately preceding lease year, and (b) if the CPI increase is less than 0.5% for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year subject to escalation provisions following the opening of the property.

Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge

On November 25, 2020, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to sell the operations of our Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge to Casino Queen Holding Company Inc. ("Casino Queen") for $28.2 million. The Company will retain ownership of all real estate assets at Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge and will simultaneously enter into a master lease with Casino Queen, which will include the Casino Queen property in East St. Louis that is currently leased by us to them and the Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge facility. The initial annual cash rent will be approximately $21.4 million and the lease will have an initial term of 15 years with four 5 year renewal options exercisable by the tenant. This rental amount will be increased annually by 0.5% for the first six years. Beginning with the seventh lease year through the remainder of the lease term, if the CPI increases by at least 0.25% for any lease year then annual rent shall be increased by 1.25%, and if the CPI increase is less than 0.25% then rent will remain unchanged for such lease year.Additionally, the Company will complete the current landside development project that is in process and the rent under the master lease will be adjusted upon delivery to reflect a yield of 8.25% on GLPI's project costs. The Company will also have a right of first refusal with Casino Queen for other sale leaseback transactions up to $50 million over the next 2 years. Finally, upon the closing of the transaction, which is anticipated to occur in mid 2021, subject to regulatory approvals and customary closing conditions, GLPI will forgive the Casino Queen Loan which has been previously written off in return for a one-time cash payment of $4 million.

Hollywood Casino Perryville

On December 11, 2020, Penn agreed to purchase from the Company the operations of our Hollywood Casino Perryville, located in Perryville, Maryland, for $31.1 million, with the closing of such purchase, subject to regulatory approvals, expected to occur during calendar year 2021 on a date selected by Penn with reasonable prior notice to the Company unless otherwise agreed by both parties. Upon closing, the Company will lease the real estate assets of the Perryville facility to Penn pursuant to a lease providing for initial annual rent of $7.77 million, $5.83 million of which will be subject to escalation provisions beginning in the second lease year through the fourth lease year and shall increase by 1.50% and then to 1.25% for the remaining lease term. The escalation provisions beginning in the fifth lease year are subject to CPI being at least 0.5% for the preceding lease year.
As of December 31, 2020, the majority of our earnings are the result of the rental revenues we receive from our triple-net master leases with Penn, Boyd and Caesars. Additionally, we have rental revenue from the Casino Queen property which is leased back to a third-party operator on a triple-net basis pursuant to the Casino Queen Lease. In addition to rent, the tenants are required to pay the following executory costs: (1) all facility maintenance, (2) all insurance required in connection with the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties, including coverage of the landlord's interests, (3) taxes levied on or with respect to the leased properties (other than taxes on the income of the lessor) and (4) all utilities and other services necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties. 
Additionally, in accordance with ASC 842, we record revenue for the ground lease rent paid by our tenants with an offsetting expense in land rights and ground lease expense within the Consolidated Statement of Income as we have concluded that as the lessee we are the primary obligor under the ground leases. We sublease these ground leases back to our tenants, who are responsible for payment directly to the landlord.

Gaming revenue for our TRS Properties is derived primarily from gaming on slot machines and to a lesser extent, table game and poker revenue, which is highly dependent upon the volume and spending levels of customers at our TRS Properties. Other revenues at our TRS Properties are derived from our dining, retail and certain other ancillary activities.

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Our Competitive Strengths
We believe the following competitive strengths will contribute significantly to our success:
Geographically Diverse Property Portfolio
As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio consisted of 48 gaming and related facilities, including 45 rental properties, the TRS Segment. Our portfolio, including our corporate headquarters building, comprises approximately 24.3 million square feet and approximately 5,700 acres of land and is broadly diversified by location across 16 states. We expect that our geographic diversification will limit the effect of a decline in any one regional market on our overall performance.
Financially Secure Tenants
Three of the company's tenants, Penn, Caesars and Boyd, are leading, diversified, multi-jurisdictional owners and managers of gaming and pari-mutuel properties and established gaming providers with strong financial performance. All three of these tenants raised significant amounts of capital in 2020 to bolster their liquidity positions in response to COVID-19. Additionally, all of the aforementioned tenants are publicly traded companies that are subject to the informational filing requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and are required to file periodic reports on Form 10-K and Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Readers are directed to Penn's, Caesar's and Boyd's respective websites for further financial information on these companies.
Long-Term, Triple-Net Lease Structure
Our real estate properties are leased under long-term triple-net leases guaranteed by our tenants, pursuant to which the tenant is responsible for all facility maintenance, insurance required in connection with the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties, including coverage of the landlord's interests, taxes levied on or with respect to the leased properties (other than taxes on our income) and all utilities and other services necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties.
Resilient Regional Gaming Characteristics
We believe that the recession resulting from COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the resiliency of the regional gaming market. In spite of all our properties being forced to close during mid-March 2020, the Company collected all contractual rents, inclusive of rent credits, due in 2020. Furthermore, our tenants' results since they have reopened has been strong and in some cases better than prior to COVID-19, due to their increased focus on cost efficiencies and decreasing and/or eliminating lower margin amenities. Although we are unable to predict whether these results will continue, we believe that our assets should generate substantial cash flows well into the future for both ourselves and our tenants.
Flexible UPREIT Structure
We have the flexibility to operate through an umbrella partnership, commonly referred to as an UPREIT structure, in which substantially all of our properties and assets are held by GLP Capital or by subsidiaries of GLP Capital. Conducting business through GLP Capital allows us flexibility in the manner in which we structure and acquire properties. In particular, an UPREIT structure enables us to acquire additional properties from sellers in exchange for limited partnership units, which provides property owners the opportunity to defer the tax consequences that would otherwise arise from a sale of their real properties and other assets to us. As a result, this structure potentially may facilitate our acquisition of assets in a more efficient manner and may allow us to acquire assets that the owner would otherwise be unwilling to sell because of tax considerations. We believe that this flexibility will provide us an advantage in seeking future acquisitions.
Experienced and Committed Management Team
Our management team has extensive gaming and real estate experience. Peter M. Carlino, our chief executive officer, has more than 30 years of experience in the acquisition and development of gaming facilities and other real estate projects. Through years of public company experience, our management team also has extensive experience accessing both debt and equity capital markets to fund growth and maintain a flexible capital structure.
Segment Information
 
Consistent with how our Chief Operating Decision Maker (as such term is defined in ASC 280 - Segment Reporting) reviews and assesses our financial performance, we have two reportable segments, GLP Capital and the TRS Segment. The GLP Capital reportable segment consists of the leased real property and represents the majority of our business. The TRS Segment consists of our operations at Hollywood Casino Perryville and Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge, as well as the real estate of Tropicana Las Vegas we acquired in 2020.
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Executive Summary
 
Financial Highlights
 
We reported total revenues and income from operations of $1,153.2 million and $809.3 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $1,153.5 million and $717.4 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2019.  The major factors affecting our results for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, were as follows:

Total income from real estate was $1,050.2 million and $1,025.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Total income from real estate increased by $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to favorable non-cash straight line rent adjustments on our Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Boyd Master Lease and Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease. Additionally current year results were positively impacted by higher building base rents as the majority of our leases incurred escalators in 2019. This was partially offset by lower percentage rent from the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease and Boyd Master Lease which reset on May 1, 2020 and the Meadows Lease which reset on October 1, 2020 as well as lower ground rents due to the casino closures related to COVID-19. Finally, 2020 results were negatively impacted by lower percentage rent on the Penn Master Lease due to the temporary closures of Hollywood Casino Columbus and to a lesser extent, Hollywood Casino Toledo from mid-March 2020 to June 19, 2020.

Net revenues for our TRS Properties decreased by $25.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, due to decreased revenues at both TRS Properties. The largest driver of the decrease resulted from the temporary closures of the properties during 2020 due to COVID-19. The TRS Properties were closed in mid-March 2020. Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge reopened to the public on May 18, 2020 and Hollywood Casino Perryville reopened on June 19, 2020 with various restrictions to limit capacity in accordance with regulatory requirements.
 
Total operating expenses decreased by $92.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, primarily driven by a non-cash gain on the disposition of property related to the Evansville swap transaction of $41.4 million, the $13 million loan impairment charge recorded on the Casino Queen Loan in 2019, lower land rights and ground lease expense due primarily to the acceleration of amortization of expense related to the ground lease for the closure of the Resorts Casino Tunica property and lower ground rents due to the casino closures from COVID-19 and decreased expenses at both TRS Properties during 2020 due to the temporary closures from COVID-19. Finally, depreciation expense declined due primarily to the acceleration of $10.3 million related to the closure of the Resorts Casino Tunica property in 2019.

Other expenses, net decreased by $22.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to lower interest expense resulting from the refinancing of long term debt.

Net income increased by $114.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to the variances explained above.

Segment Developments
 
The following are recent developments that have had or are expected to have an impact on us by segment:
 
GLP Capital

Due to temporary casino closures that occurred during 2020 as a result of COVID-19, for our leases that contain variable rent which is reset on varying schedules depending on the lease, we would expect downward resets. In the aggregate, the portion of our cash rents that are variable represented approximately 15% of our 2020 full year cash rental income. Of that variable rent, approximately 29% resets every five years which is associated with our Penn Master Lease and Casino Queen Lease, 41% resets every two years and 30% resets monthly which is associated with the Penn Master Lease (of which approximately 51% is subject to a floor or $22.9 million annually for Hollywood Casino Toledo). The percentage rent in the Penn Master Lease decreased by $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended 2019 due to the temporary closures of Hollywood Casino Columbus and to a lesser extent, Hollywood Casino Toledo from mid-March 2020 to June 19, 2020, which was partially offset by the strong reopening performance of these properties in the third quarter of 2020 as well as the benefit Hollywood Casino Toledo experienced due to the
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Detroit, Michigan gaming market being closed until August 5, 2020 and being closed once again from November 18, 2020 to December 23, 2020.

The variable rent resets in the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease and the Boyd Master Lease reset for the two year period ended April 30, 2020, which resulted in a $5.0 million and a $1.4 million reduction in annual variable rent on each of these leases, respectively, which will prevail for the subsequent two year period through April 30, 2022. In addition, the Meadows Lease variable rent reset occurred in October 2020 which lowered variable rent annually by $2.1 million. The Caesars Master Lease variable rent reset was scheduled to occur in October 2020; however, the variable rent component was removed in its entirety commencing with the third lease year in connection with the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease. We have no other variable resets scheduled to occur until 2022.

The fact that several wholly-owned subsidiaries of Penn lease a substantial number of our properties which account for a significant portion of our revenue, pursuant to two master leases and a single property lease.

On April 16, 2020, we acquired from Penn the real property assets of Tropicana Las Vegas in return for $307.5 million in rent credits. There can be no assurance that we will realize a return on this investment.

On October 1, 2020, the Company and Penn closed on their previously announced transaction whereby GLPI acquired the land under Penn's gaming facility under construction in Morgantown, Pennsylvania in exchange for $30.0 million in rent credits that were utilized in 2020. The Company is leasing the land back to an affiliate of Penn pursuant to the Morgantown Lease for an initial annual rent of $3.0 million, provided, however, that (i) on the opening date and on each anniversary thereafter the rent shall be increased by 1.5% annually (on a prorated basis for the remainder of the lease year in which the gaming facility opens) for each of the following three lease years and (ii) commencing on the fourth anniversary of the opening date and for each anniversary thereafter, (a) if the CPI increase is at least 0.5% for any lease year, the rent for such lease year shall increase by 1.25% of rent as of the immediately preceding lease year, and (b) if the CPI increase is less than 0.5% for such lease year, then the rent shall not increase for such lease year subject to escalation provisions following the opening of the property.

In connection with the Exchange Agreement with Caesars described earlier, whereby the Company acquired Waterloo and Bettendorf to replace Tropicana Evansville under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease, the Company recorded a non-cash gain of $41.4 million in the fourth quarter of 2020, which represented the difference between the fair value of the properties received compared to the carrying value of Tropicana Evansville and the cash payment of $5.7 million made to Caesars.

On October 27, 2020, the Company entered into a series of definitive agreements pursuant to which a subsidiary of Bally's will acquire 100% of the equity interests in the Caesars subsidiary that currently operates Tropicana Evansville and the Company will reacquire the real property assets of Tropicana Evansville from Caesars for a cash purchase price of approximately $340.0 million. In addition, the Company entered into a real estate purchase agreement with Bally's pursuant to which the Company will purchase the real estate assets of the Dover Downs Hotel & Casino, located in Dover, Delaware which is currently owned and operated by Bally's, for a cash purchase price of approximately $144.0 million. At the closing of the transactions, which is expected in mid-2021, subject to regulatory approvals, the Tropicana Evansville and Dover Downs Hotel and Casino facilities will be added to the Bally's Master Lease. The Company anticipates that the Bally's Master Lease will have an initial term of 15 years, with no purchase option, followed by four five-year renewal options (exercisable by the tenant) on the same terms and conditions. Rent under the Bally's Master Lease will be $40.0 million annually and is subject to an annual escalator of up to 2% determined in relation to the annual increase in the Consumer Price Index. On November 6, 2020, the Company issued 9.2 million common shares at $36.25 to partially finance the funding required for this transaction.

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TRS Segment

The Company's wholly-owned and operated TRS Properties closed in mid-March 2020 due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Our property in Baton Rouge reopened on May 18, 2020 and our property in Perryville, Maryland reopened on June 19, 2020 with enhanced safety protocols and capacity restrictions. To date, both properties have performed well in spite of lower attendance levels; however we are unable to predict whether this will continue as we believe results have benefited from pent up demand, reduced competition from non-gaming leisure related activities and federal stimulus benefits.

As previously discussed, the Company has entered into definitive agreements to sell the operations of the TRS Properties while maintaining the real estate assets and in turn entering into lease agreements with the operators. These transactions are subject to customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals and are anticipated to close in mid-2021.

On April 16, 2020, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries acquired the real property associated with the Tropicana Las Vegas from Penn. This asset has been placed in the Company's TRS Segment. An affiliate of Penn will continue to operate the casino and hotel business of the Tropicana Las Vegas pursuant to a triple net lease with GLPI for nominal rent for the earlier of two years (subject to three one-year extensions at the Company's option) or until the Tropicana Las Vegas is sold. The Company will conduct a sale process with respect to the Tropicana Las Vegas, with Penn receiving 75% of the net proceeds above $307.5 million (plus certain taxes, expenses and costs) if a sale agreement is signed during the first 12 months following closing and 50% of net proceeds above $307.5 million (plus certain taxes, expenses and costs) if a sale agreement is signed during the subsequent 12 months following closing. Penn will not be entitled to receive any net sale proceeds if the relevant sale agreement is signed at any time after 24 months from closing.


Critical Accounting Estimates
We make certain judgments and use certain estimates and assumptions when applying accounting principles in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. The nature of the estimates and assumptions are material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain factors or the susceptibility of such factors to change. We have identified the accounting for leases, income taxes, and real estate investments as critical accounting estimates, as they are the most important to our financial statement presentation and require difficult, subjective and complex judgments.
We believe the current assumptions and other considerations used to estimate amounts reflected in our consolidated financial statements are appropriate. However, if actual experience differs from the assumptions and other considerations used in estimating amounts reflected in our consolidated financial statements, the resulting changes could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations and, in certain situations, could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition.
Leases
 
As a REIT, the majority of our revenues are derived from rent received from our tenants under long-term triple-net leases. Currently, we have master leases with Penn, Caesars and Boyd under which we lease thirty one, six and three properties, respectively, to these tenants. We also have a long-term lease with Casino Queen and separate single property leases with Penn, Caesars and Boyd. The accounting guidance under ASC 842 is complex and requires the use of judgments and assumptions by management to determine the proper accounting treatment of a lease. We perform a lease classification test upon the entry into any new tenant lease or lease modification to determine if we will account for the lease as an operating or sales-type lease. The revenue recognition model and thus the presentation of our financial statements is significantly different under operating leases and sales-type leases.

Under the operating lease model, as the lessor, the assets we own and lease to our tenants remain on our balance sheet as real estate investments and we record rental revenues on a straight-line basis over the lease term. This includes the recognition of percentage rents that are fixed and determinable at the lease inception date on a straight-line basis over the entire lease term, resulting in the recognition of deferred rental revenue on our consolidated balance sheets. Deferred rental revenue is amortized to rental revenue on a straight-line basis over the remainder of the lease term. The lease term includes the initial non-cancelable lease term and any reasonably assured renewal periods. Contingent rental income that is not fixed and determinable at lease inception is recognized only when the lessee achieves the specified target.

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Under the sales-type lease model, however, at lease inception we would record an investment in sales-type lease on our consolidated balance sheet rather than recording the actual assets we own. Furthermore, the cash rent we receive from tenants is not entirely recorded as rental revenue, but rather a portion is recorded as interest income and a portion is recorded as a reduction to the lease receivable. Under ASC 842, for leases with both land and building components, leases may be bifurcated between operating and sales-type leases. To determine if our real estate leases trigger full or partial sales-type lease treatment we conduct the five lease tests outlined in ASC 842 below. If a lease meets any of the five criteria below, it is accounted for as a sales-type lease.

1)    Transfer of ownership - The lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term. This criterion is met in situations in which the lease agreement provides for the transfer of title at or shortly after the end of the lease term in exchange for the payment of a nominal fee, for example, the minimum required by statutory regulation to transfer title.

2)    Bargain purchase option - The lease contains a bargain purchase option, which is a provision allowing the lessee, at its option, to purchase the leased property for a price which is sufficiently lower than the expected fair value of the property at the date the option becomes exercisable and that is reasonably certain to be exercised.

3)    Lease term - The lease term is for the major part of the remaining economic life of the underlying asset. However, if the commencement date falls at or near the end of the economic life of the underlying asset, this criterion shall not be used for purposes of classifying the lease.

4)    Minimum lease payments - The present value of the sum of the lease payments and any residual value guaranteed by the lessee that is not already reflected in the lease payments equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the underlying asset.

5)    Specialized nature - The underlying asset is of such specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to the lessor at the end of the lease term.

Additionally, the adoption of ASC 842 requires us to record right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on balance sheet for the assets we lease from third-party landlords, including equipment and real estate. As a lessee, we utilize our own incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate utilized to determine the initial lease liability and right-of-use asset we record on balance sheet, as well as the lease's classification as an operating or finance lease, using the same tests outlined above. Although both operating and finance leases result in the same right-of-use asset and lease liability being recorded on balance sheet at lease inception, the expense profile of the two lease types differs, in that expense is straight-lined over the term of an operating lease, while the expense profile under a finance lease is front-loaded. Furthermore, expense under the operating lease model is classified simply as lease expense, whereas the finance lease model breaks the expense into the interest expense and asset amortization expense.

The tests outlined above, as well as the resulting calculations, require subjective judgments, such as determining, at lease inception, the fair value of the underlying leased assets, the residual value of the assets at the end of the lease term, the likelihood a tenant will exercise all renewal options (in order to determine the lease term), the estimated remaining economic life of the leased assets, and an allocation of rental income received under our Master Leases to the underlying leased assets. A slight change in estimate or judgment can result in a materially different financial statement presentation.
Income Taxes
We elected on our U.S. federal income tax return for our taxable year that began on January 1, 2014 to be treated as a REIT and we, together with an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, GLP Holdings, Inc., jointly elected to treat each of GLP Holdings, Inc., Louisiana Casino Cruises, Inc. and Penn Cecil Maryland, Inc. as a "taxable REIT subsidiary" effective on the first day of the first taxable year of GLPI as a REIT. In addition, during 2020, the Company and Tropicana LV, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company which holds the real estate of Tropicana Las Vegas, elected to treat Tropicana LV, LLC as a “taxable REIT subsidiary”. We intend to continue to be organized and to operate in a manner that will permit us to qualify as a REIT. To qualify as a REIT, we must meet certain organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement to distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to shareholders determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, and meet the various other requirements imposed by the Code relating to matters such as operating results, asset holdings, distribution levels, and diversity of stock ownership.
As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on income that we distribute as dividends to our shareholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates, and dividends paid to our
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shareholders would not be deductible by us in computing taxable income. Any resulting corporate liability could be substantial and could materially and adversely affect our net income and net cash available for distribution to shareholders. Unless we were entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, we also would be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we failed to qualify to be taxed as a REIT. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Our TRS Segment is able to engage in activities resulting in income that would not be qualifying income for a REIT. As a result, certain activities of the Company which occur within our TRS Segment are subject to federal and state income taxes.
Real Estate Investments
Real estate investments primarily represent land and buildings leased to the Company's tenants. Real estate investments that we received in connection with the Spin-Off were contributed to us at Penn's historical carrying amount. We record the acquisition of real estate at fair value, including acquisition and closing costs. The cost of properties developed by GLPI includes costs of construction, property taxes, interest and other miscellaneous costs incurred during the development period until the project is substantially complete and available for occupancy. We consider the period of future benefit of the asset to determine the appropriate useful lives. Depreciation is computed using a straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the buildings and building improvements. If we used a shorter or longer estimated useful life, it could have a material impact on our results of operations.
We continually monitor events and circumstances that could indicate that the carrying amount of our real estate investments may not be recoverable or realized. The factors considered by the Company in performing these assessments include evaluating whether the tenant is current on their lease payments, the tenant’s rent coverage ratio, the financial stability of the tenant and its parent company, and any other relevant factors. When indicators of potential impairment suggest that the carrying value of a real estate investment may not be recoverable, we estimate the fair value of the investment by calculating the undiscounted future cash flows from the use and eventual disposition of the investment. This amount is compared to the asset's carrying value. If we determine the carrying amount is not recoverable, we would recognize an impairment charge equivalent to the amount required to reduce the carrying value of the asset to its estimated fair value, calculated in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP"). We group our real estate investments together by lease, the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are available, in evaluating impairment. In assessing the recoverability of the carrying value, we must make assumptions regarding future cash flows and other factors. Factors considered in performing this assessment include current operating results, market and other applicable trends and residual values, as well as the effect of obsolescence, demand, competition and other factors. If these estimates or the related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record an impairment loss.

Results of Operations
 
The following are the most important factors and trends that contribute or may contribute to our operating performance:

The fact that several wholly-owned subsidiaries of Penn lease a substantial number of our properties, pursuant to two master leases and two single property leases and account for a significant portion of our revenue.

The risks related to economic conditions, including uncertainty related to COVID-19 and the effect of such conditions on consumer spending for leisure and gaming activities, which may negatively impact our gaming tenants and operators and the variable rent and annual rent escalators we receive from our tenants as outlined in the long-term triple-net leases with these tenants.

The ability to refinance our significant levels of debt at attractive terms and obtain favorable funding in connection with future business opportunities.
 
The fact that the rules and regulations of U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by legislators, the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Changes to the tax laws or interpretations thereof, with or without retroactive application, could materially and adversely affect GLPI's investors or GLPI.


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The consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are summarized below:

    
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
 (in thousands)
Total revenues$1,153,165 $1,153,473 
Total operating expenses343,891 436,050 
Income from operations809,274 717,423 
Total other expenses(299,686)(321,778)
Income before income taxes509,588 395,645 
Income tax expense3,877 4,764 
Net income$505,711 $390,881 

In accordance with the SEC's recent amendments to modernize and simplify Regulation S-K, the Company has omitted the discussion comparing its operating results for the year ended December 31, 2019 to its operating results for the year ended December 31, 2018 from its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. Readers are directed to Item 7 of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for these disclosures.

Certain information regarding our results of operations by segment for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is summarized below:
 Total RevenuesIncome (Loss) from Operations
Year Ended December 31,Year Ended December 31,
2020201920202019
 (in thousands)
GLP Capital$1,050,166 $1,025,082 $792,467 $694,215 
TRS Segment102,999 128,391 16,807 23,208 
Total$1,153,165 $1,153,473 $809,274 $717,423 


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FFO, AFFO and Adjusted EBITDA
 
Funds From Operations ("FFO"), Adjusted Funds From Operations ("AFFO") and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures used by the Company as performance measures for benchmarking against the Company’s peers and as internal measures of business operating performance, which is used as a bonus metric. The Company believes FFO, AFFO and Adjusted EBITDA provide a meaningful perspective of the underlying operating performance of the Company’s current business. This is especially true since these measures exclude real estate depreciation and we believe that real estate values fluctuate based on market conditions rather than depreciating in value ratably on a straight-line basis over time. 

FFO, AFFO and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures that are considered supplemental measures for the real estate industry and a supplement to GAAP measures. The National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts defines FFO as net income (computed in accordance with GAAP), excluding (gains) or losses from sales of property and real estate depreciation. We define AFFO as FFO excluding stock based compensation expense, the amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts, other depreciation, amortization of land rights, straight-line rent adjustments, losses on debt extinguishment, and loan impairment charges, reduced by maintenance capital expenditures. Finally, we define Adjusted EBITDA as net income excluding interest, taxes on income, depreciation, (gains) or losses from sales of property, stock based compensation expense, straight-line rent adjustments, amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts, amortization of land rights, losses on debt extinguishment, and loan impairment charges.
 
FFO, AFFO and Adjusted EBITDA are not recognized terms under GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures: (i) do not represent cash flows from operations as defined by GAAP; (ii) should not be considered as an alternative to net income as a measure of operating performance or to cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities; and (iii) are not alternatives to cash flows as a measure of liquidity. In addition, these measures should not be viewed as an indication of our ability to fund our cash needs, including to make cash distributions to our shareholders, to fund capital improvements, or to make interest payments on our indebtedness. Investors are also cautioned that FFO, AFFO and Adjusted EBITDA, as presented, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other real estate companies, including REITs due to the fact that not all real estate companies use the same definitions. Our presentation of these measures does not replace the presentation of our financial results in accordance with GAAP.

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The reconciliation of the Company’s net income per GAAP to FFO, AFFO, and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows:
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
(in thousands)
Net income$505,711 $390,881 
(Gains) losses from dispositions of property(41,393)92 
Real estate depreciation220,069 230,716 
Funds from operations$684,387 $621,689 
Straight-line rent adjustments4,576 34,574 
Other depreciation10,904 9,719 
Amortization of land rights12,022 18,536 
Amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts (1)
10,503 11,455 
Stock based compensation20,004 16,198 
Losses on debt extinguishment18,113 21,014 
Loan impairment charges— 13,000 
Capital maintenance expenditures(3,130)(3,017)
Adjusted funds from operations$757,379 $743,168 
Interest, net281,573 300,764 
Income tax expense3,877 4,764 
Capital maintenance expenditures3,130 3,017 
Amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts (1)
(10,503)(11,455)
Adjusted EBITDA$1,035,456 $1,040,258 

(1) Such amortization is a non-cash component included in interest, net.














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The reconciliation of each segment’s net income per GAAP to FFO, AFFO, and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is as follows: 
     
 GLP Capital TRS Segment
Year Ended December 31,Year Ended December 31,
2020201920202019
 (in thousands)
Net income (loss)$508,060 $382,184 $(2,349)$8,697 
(Gains) losses from dispositions of property(41,402)84 
Real estate depreciation220,069 230,716 — — 
Funds from operations$686,727 $612,908 $(2,340)$8,781 
Straight-line rent adjustments4,576 34,574 — — 
Other depreciation1,972 1,992 8,932 7,727 
Amortization of land rights12,022 18,536 — — 
Amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts (1)
10,503 11,455 — — 
Stock based compensation20,004 16,198 — — 
Losses on debt extinguishment18,113 21,014 — — 
Loan impairment charges— 13,000 — — 
Capital maintenance expenditures(186)(22)(2,944)(2,995)
Adjusted funds from operations$753,731 $729,655 $3,648 $13,513 
Interest, net (2)
265,597 290,360 15,976 10,404 
Income tax expense697 657 3,180 4,107 
Capital maintenance expenditures186 22 2,944 2,995 
Amortization of debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts (1)
(10,503)(11,455)— — 
Adjusted EBITDA$1,009,708 $1,009,239 $25,748 $31,019 
 

(1) Such amortization is a non-cash component included in interest, net.

(2)    Interest expense, net for the GLP Capital segment is net of an intercompany interest elimination of $16.0 million and $10.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
 
Net income, FFO, AFFO, and Adjusted EBITDA for our GLP Capital segment were $508.1 million, $686.7 million, $753.7 million and $1,009.7 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020. This compared to net income, FFO, AFFO, and Adjusted EBITDA, for our GLP Capital segment of $382.2 million, $612.9 million, $729.7 million and $1,009.2 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in net income in our GLP Capital segment was primarily driven by a $73.2 million decrease in operating expenses from a gain on the disposition of property related to the Evansville swap transaction of $41.4 million in 2020, lower land right and ground lease expense due to the acceleration of these items for the Penn closure of its Resorts Casino Tunica property in 2019 and a $13.0 million loan impairment charge related to the Casino Queen Loan in 2019. The Company also had a $27.7 million decrease in other expenses, resulting from lower interest expense due to refinancing activities and lower debt extinguishment charges, along with a $25.1 million increase in income from real estate.

The increase in income from real estate in our GLP Capital segment was primarily due to favorable non-cash straight-line rent adjustments of $30.0 million on our Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Boyd Master Lease and Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease in accordance with ASC 842. We also experienced higher building base rents as the majority of our leases incurred escalators in 2019. This was partially offset by lower percentage rent resets that occurred on May 1, 2020 for the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease of $3.3 million and the Boyd Master Lease of $0.9 million due primarily to the impact of the casino closures from COVID-19, lower percentage rent of $4.0 million on the Penn Master Lease due to the temporary closure of Hollywood Casino Columbus and to a lesser extent, Hollywood Casino Toledo from mid-March 2020 to June 19, 2020 due to COVID-19, and lower percentage rent on the Meadows Lease as the variable rent reset occurred in October 2020 which decreased percentage rent by $0.5 million.

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The decrease in operating expenses in our GLP Capital segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year period was primarily from a gain on the disposition of property related to the Evansville swap transaction of $41.4 million along with lower depreciation expense and land right amortization expense in our REIT segment of $24.1 million primarily from lower rent expense on the Company's long term ground leases due to the impact of COVID-19 and the acceleration of depreciation and amortization in 2019 resulting from the closing of Penn's Resorts Casino Tunica property. Additionally, there was a loan impairment charge of $13.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 related to the Casino Queen Loan. These items were partially offset by charges of $6.3 million associated with severance and stock based compensation acceleration charges for the departure of our former chief financial officer.

The decrease in other expenses, net for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year was driven by lower interest expense from our refinancing activities that occurred in the third quarter of 2019 and first quarter of 2020 and lower debt extinguishment charges compared to the prior year.

The increase in FFO for our GLP Capital segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 is due to the items described above, excluding gains from the disposition of property and real estate depreciation. The increase in AFFO is due to the items described above, excluding the impact of straight-line rent adjustments, loan impairment charges and the other items listed on the previous table.

The net loss of $2.3 million for our TRS Segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the net income of $8.7 million for the prior year is primarily related to the impact of the mandated closures of our facilities during mid-March 2020 to May and June 2020 due to COVID-19 along with an increase in depreciation expense related to the acquisition of Tropicana Las Vegas.

Revenues
 
Revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (in thousands):
 
 Year Ended December 31, Percentage
20202019VarianceVariance
Rental income
$1,031,036 $996,166 $34,870 3.5 %
Interest income from real estate loans
19,130 28,916 (9,786)(33.8)%
Total income from real estate1,050,166 1,025,082 25,084 2.4 %
Gaming, food, beverage and other
102,999 128,391 (25,392)(19.8)%
Total revenues$1,153,165 $1,153,473 $(308)— %
 
 
Total income from real estate

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, total income from real estate was $1,050.2 million and $1,025.1 million, respectively, for our GLP Capital segment. In accordance with ASC 842, the Company records revenue for the ground lease rent paid by its tenants with an offsetting expense in land rights and ground lease expense within the consolidated statement of income as the Company has concluded that as the lessee it is the primary obligor under the ground leases. The Company subleases these ground leases back to its tenants, who are responsible for payment directly to the landlord. 

Total income from real estate increased $25.1 million, or 2.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. As previously discussed, this was primarily due to favorable non-cash straight line rent adjustments on our Amended Pinnacle Master Lease, Boyd Master Lease and the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease in accordance with ASC 842. Additionally the current year was positively impacted by higher building base rents as the majority of our leases incurred escalators in 2019. This was partially offset by lower ground lease rents due to the impact of COVID-19, lower percentage rent from the Amended Pinnacle Master Lease and Boyd Master Lease which reset on May 1, 2020 and the Meadows Lease which reset on October 1, 2020. Finally, the year ended December 31, 2020 was negatively impacted by lower percentage rent on the Penn Master Lease due to the closures of Hollywood Casino Columbus and to a lesser extent, Hollywood Casino Toledo.

The reason for the decline in interest income from real estate loans was due to the CZR loan and Belterra Park Loan both being satisfied in 2020 as the Company acquired the real estate subject to the Lumière Place Lease and the Belterra Park Lease. See Note 8 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

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Details of the Company's income from real estate for the year ended December 31, 2020 was as follows (in thousands):

Year Ended December 31, 2020Penn Master LeaseAmended Pinnacle Master LeaseCaesars Master Lease Lumiere LeaseBoyd Master Lease Belterra LeasePENN - Meadows LeaseCasino Queen Lease PENN Morgantown LeaseTotal
Building base rent$279,406 $227,201 $62,156 $5,828 $75,643 $1,783 $15,811 $9,101 $— $676,929 
Land base rent93,969 71,256 15,916 — 11,785 1,263 — — 750 194,939 
Percentage rent82,595 28,452 10,020 — 10,308 1,211 10,637 5,424 — 148,647 
Total cash rental income (1)$455,970 $326,909 $88,092 $5,828 $97,736 $4,257 $26,448 $14,525 $750 $1,020,515 
Straight-line rent adjustments8,926 (10,555)(2,980)— (1,448)(808)2,289 — — (4,576)
Ground rent in revenue2,317 5,770 5,299 — 1,519 — — — 14,905 
Other rental revenue— — — — — — 192 — — 192 
Total rental income$467,213 $322,124 $90,411 $5,828 $97,807 $3,449 $28,929 $14,525 $750 $1,031,036 
Interest income from mortgaged real estate— — — 16,976 — 2,154 — — — 19,130 
Total income from real estate$467,213 $322,124 $90,411 $22,804 $97,807 $5,603 $28,929 $14,525 $750 $1,050,166 

(1) Included in cash rental income were rent credits of $337.5 million that were recognized in connection with the Tropicana Las Vegas and Morgantown transactions with Penn. See Note 7 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Gaming, food, beverage and other revenue

Gaming, food, beverage and other revenue for our TRS Properties decreased by $25.4 million, or 19.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. These properties were closed in mid-March 2020 due to COVID-19. Hollywood Casino Baton Rouge reopened to the public on May 18, 2020 and Hollywood Casino Perryville reopened on June 19, 2020 with various restrictions to limit capacity in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results since reopening have exceeded the corresponding periods in the prior years as spend per visit has increased which has more than offset lower visitation levels.

Operating Expenses
 
Operating expenses for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31, Percentage
20202019VarianceVariance
Gaming, food, beverage and other$56,698 $74,700 $(18,002)(24.1)%
Land rights and ground lease expense29,041 42,438 (13,397)(31.6)%
General and administrative68,572 65,385 3,187 4.9 %
Gains (losses) from disposition of properties(41,393)92 (41,485)(45,092.4)%
Depreciation230,973 240,435 (9,462)(3.9)%
Loan impairment charges— 13,000 (13,000)N/A
Total operating expenses$343,891 $436,050 $(92,159)(21.1)%
 
Gaming, food, beverage and other expense
 
Gaming, food, beverage and other expense for our TRS Properties decreased by approximately $18.0 million, or 24.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to the impact of COVID-19, which temporarily forced our TRS Properties to close as previously discussed.

Land rights and ground lease expense

Land rights and ground lease expense includes the amortization of land rights and rent expense related to the Company's long-term ground leases. Land rights and ground lease expense decreased by $13.4 million, or 31.6%, for the year
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ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to the acceleration of amortization expense of $6.3 million related to the closure of Penn's Resorts Casino Tunica property in 2019 and lower ground lease rents paid by our tenants in 2020 that are based on the facilities' revenues which declined due to the impact of COVID-19. We sublease these ground leases back to our tenants, who are responsible for payment directly to the applicable landlord. These amounts are required to be recorded in both revenue and expense within the consolidated statements of income as we have concluded that as the lessee the Company is the primary obligor under the ground leases.
General and administrative expense
 
General and administrative expenses include items such as compensation costs (including stock-based compensation awards), professional services and costs associated with development activities. General and administrative expenses increased by $3.2 million, or 4.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This is primarily attributable to the negative impact from severance and stock acceleration charges of $6.3 million, related to the departure of our former chief financial officer which were partially offset by lower payroll costs primarily attributable to the temporary closures of our TRS Properties due to COVID-19 and lower bonus expense.

Gains and losses from dispositions of property

In connection with the Exchange Agreement with Caesars, whereby the Company acquired Waterloo and Bettendorf to replace Tropicana Evansville under the Amended and Restated Caesars Master Lease, the Company recorded a non-cash gain of $41.4 million in the fourth quarter of 2020 which represented the difference between the fair value of the properties received compared to the carrying value of Tropicana Evansville and the cash payment of $5.7 million.

Depreciation expense

Depreciation expense decreased by $9.5 million, or 3.9%, to $231.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to the closure of the Resorts Casino Tunica property in 2019 which resulted in the acceleration of $10.3 million of depreciation expense to bring the net book value related to the building value of this property to zero.

Loan impairment charges

On March 17, 2017 the Company provided the Casino Queen Loan to CQ Holding Company, to partially finance its acquisition of Lady Luck Casino in Marquette, Iowa. During 2018, the operating results of Casino Queen declined substantially and Casino Queen defaulted under its senior credit agreement and also the Casino Queen Loan. As a result, the operations of Casino Queen were put up for sale during the fourth quarter of 2018. At December 31, 2018, active negotiations for the sale of Casino Queen's operations were taking place and full payment of the principal was still expected, due to the anticipation that the operations were to be sold in the near term for an amount allowing for repayment of the full $13.0 million of loan principal due to GLPI.

During 2019, the operating results of Casino Queen continued to decline, the secured debt of Casino Queen was sold to a third-party casino operator at a discount and the Company no longer expected the Casino Queen Loan to be repaid. Therefore, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $13.0 million through the Consolidated Statement of Income for the year ended December 31, 2019 to reflect the write-off of the Casino Queen Loan.

Other income (expenses)
 
Other income (expenses) for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows (in thousands): 
 Year Ended December 31, Percentage
20202019VarianceVariance
Interest expense$(282,142)$(301,520)$19,378 (6.4)%
Interest income569 756 (187)(24.7)%
Losses on debt extinguishment(18,113)(21,014)2,901 (13.8)%
Total other expenses$(299,686)$(321,778)$22,092 (6.9)%
 
 

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Interest expense

For the year ended December 31, 2020, interest expense related to our fixed and variable rate borrowings was $282.1 million, as compared to $301.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2019. Interest expense decreased primarily due to refinancing activities, such as the issuance of $400 million of 3.35% senior unsecured notes due 2024 and $700 million of 4.000% senior unsecured notes due 2030 during the third quarter of 2019. These proceeds were utilized to repay higher cost unsecured borrowings with near term maturities. Interest expense also benefited from the first quarter 2020 redemption of $215.2 million of 4.875% senior unsecured notes that were due in November 2020 and $400.0 million of 4.375% of senior unsecured notes that were due in April 2021, which were funded by borrowings under our revolving credit facility. Towards the end of the first quarter of 2020, we fully drew down our revolving credit facility by borrowing just over $530 million to increase liquidity levels given the near term uncertainty associated with COVID-19. We subsequently repaid all of our outstanding advances on our revolving credit facility on June 25, 2020, with cash on hand and the net proceeds from our 4.00%, $500 million unsecured note issuance due in January 2031 and Term Loan A-2 borrowings. On August 18, 2020, we raised an additional $200 million of 4.00%, unsecured notes at a premium to par and used the proceeds to repay Term Loan A-1 borrowings. Although these latter two transactions had a negative impact on interest expense they further increased the duration and fixed rate nature of our debt profile.

Losses on debt extinguishment

In the first quarter of 2020, the Company redeemed all $215.2 million aggregate principal amount of the Company's outstanding 4.875% senior unsecured notes due in November 2020 and all $400 million aggregate principal amount of the Company's outstanding 4.375% senior unsecured notes due in April 2021, resulting in the retirement of such senior notes. The Company recorded losses on the early extinguishment of debt related to the current year retirements of $18.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 primarily for call premium charges and debt issuance write-offs.

On September 12, 2019, the Company completed a cash tender offer (the "2019 Tender Offer") to purchase its $1,000 million aggregate principal amount 4.875% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2020 (the "2020 Notes"). The Company received early tenders from the holders of approximately $782.6 million in aggregate principal of the 2020 Notes, or approximately 78% of its outstanding 2020 Notes, in connection with the 2019 Tender Offer at a price of 102.337% of the unpaid principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest through the settlement date. Subsequent to the early tender deadline, an additional $2.2 million in aggregate principal of the 2020 Notes was tendered at a price of 99.337% of the unpaid principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest through the settlement date, for a total redemption of $784.8 million of the 2020 Notes. The Company recorded a loss on the early extinguishment of debt related to the 2019 Tender Offer, of approximately $21.0 million, for the difference between the reacquisition price of the tendered 2020 Notes and their net carrying value.

Taxes

Our income tax expense decreased $0.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we had income tax expense of approximately $3.9 million, compared to income tax expense of $4.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2019. Our income tax expense is primarily driven from the operations of the TRS Segment, which are taxed at the corporate rate. Our effective tax rate (income taxes as a percentage of income before income taxes) was 0.8% and 1.2% for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Our primary sources of liquidity and capital resources are cash flow from operations, borrowings from banks, and proceeds from the issuance of debt and equity securities.
 
Net cash provided by operating activities was $428.1 million and $750.3 million during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The decrease in net cash provided by operating activities of $322.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 was primarily due to a decrease in cash receipts from tenants and customers of $361.6 million, partially offset by $21.9 million and $13.4 million decreases in cash paid for operating expenses and interest, respectively. The decrease in cash receipts collected from our tenants and customers for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the corresponding period in the prior year was primarily due to the recognition of $337.5 million in non-cash rent recognized in connection with the Tropicana Las Vegas and Morgantown transactions and the impact of COVID-19, which forced our TRS Properties to temporarily close in mid-March 2020 until May and June of 2020. The reason for the decline in cash paid for operating expenses is primarily attributable to the temporary closures of our TRS properties.
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Investing activities used net cash of $9.5 million and $2.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2020 primarily consisted of capital expenditures of $3.1 million and $5.9 million for the acquisition of real estate assets primarily relating to the Evansville swap transaction. Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily consisted of capital expenditures of $3.0 million, partially offset by proceeds from sales of property and equipment of $0.2 million.

Financing activities provided net cash of $63.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2020 and used net cash of $746.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2019. Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was driven by $2,076.4 million of proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt and $320.9 million of net proceeds from the issuance of common stock. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we issued approximately 9.2 million shares of our common stock in a primary equity offering and approximately 0.1 million shares of common stock through our ATM. This was partially offset by repayments of long-term debt of $2,060.9 million, dividend payments of $230.5 million, $15.7 million of premium and related costs paid on the tender of senior unsecured notes, taxes paid related to shares withheld for tax purposes on restricted stock award vestings of $15.3 million and financing costs of $11.6 million.

Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2019 was driven by repayments of long-term debt of $1,477.9 million, dividend payments of $589.1 million, $18.9 million of premium and related costs paid on the tender of senior unsecured notes, taxes paid related to shares withheld for tax purposes on restricted stock award vestings, net of stock option exercises of $9.1 million and financing costs of $10.0 million, partially offset by $1,358.9 million of proceeds from the issuance of long-term debt. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company issued $1,100.0 million par value in new senior unsecured notes, completed a cash tender for a portion of our 2020 Notes, partially repaid borrowings under our Term Loan A-1 and revolving credit facilities and launched a $600 million ATM Program.

Capital Expenditures
 
Capital expenditures are accounted for as either capital project or capital maintenance (replacement) expenditures. Capital project expenditures are for fixed asset additions that expand an existing facility or create a new facility. The cost of properties developed by the Company include costs of construction, property taxes, interest and other miscellaneous costs incurred during the development period until the project is substantially complete and available for occupancy. Capital maintenance expenditures are expenditures to replace existing fixed assets with a useful life greater than one year that are obsolete, worn out or no longer cost effective to repair.

During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 we spent approximately $3.1 million and $3.0 million respectively, for capital maintenance expenditures. The majority of the capital maintenance expenditures were for slot machines and slot machine equipment at our TRS Properties. Our tenants are responsible for capital maintenance expenditures at our leased properties.

Debt

Senior Unsecured Credit Facility

Prior to June 25, 2020, the Company's senior unsecured credit facility (the "Credit Facility"), consisted of a $1,175 million revolving credit facility (the "Revolver") with a maturity date of May 21, 2023, and a $449 million Term Loan A-1 facility with a maturity date of April 28, 2021.

The Company fully drew down on its Revolver in the first quarter of 2020 to increase its liquidity position and repay certain senior unsecured notes as described below. On June 25, 2020, the Company entered into an amendment to the Credit Facility (as amended, the "Amended Credit Facility" which extended the maturity date of approximately $224 million of outstanding Term Loan A-1 facility borrowings to May 21, 2023, which term loans are now classified as a new tranche of term loans (Term Loans A-2). Additionally, the Company borrowed incremental Term Loans A-2 totaling $200 million. Furthermore, on June 25, 2020, the Company also closed on an offering of $500 million of 4.00% unsecured senior notes due in January 2031 priced at a slight discount to par. The Company utilized the proceeds from these two financings along with cash on hand to repay all outstanding obligations under its Revolver. On August 18, 2020, the Company borrowed an additional $200 million of 4.00% unsecured senior notes due in January 2031 priced at a premium to par. The Company utilized the net proceeds from this additional borrowing to repay indebtedness under the Term Loan A-1 facility.

At December 31, 2020, the Amended Credit Facility had a gross outstanding balance of $424.0 million, consisting of the $424.0 million Term Loan A-2 facility. No amounts were outstanding under the Revolver. Additionally, at December 31,
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2020, the Company was contingently obligated under letters of credit issued pursuant to the Amended Credit Facility with face amounts aggregating approximately $0.4 million, resulting in $1,174.6 million of available borrowing capacity under the Revolver.

The interest rates payable on the loans are, at the Company's option, equal to either a LIBOR rate or a base rate plus an applicable margin, which ranges from 1.0% to 2.0% per annum for LIBOR loans and 0.0% to 1.0% per annum for base rate loans, in each case, depending on the credit ratings assigned to the Amended Credit Facility. At December 31, 2020, the applicable margin was 1.50% for LIBOR loans and 0.50% for base rate loans. In addition, the Company is required to pay a commitment fee on the unused portion of the commitments under the Revolver at a rate that ranges from 0.15% to 0.35% per annum, depending on the credit ratings assigned to the Amended Credit Facility. At December 31, 2020, the commitment fee rate was 0.25%. The Company is not required to repay any loans under the Amended Credit Facility prior to maturity and may prepay all or any portion of the loans under the Amended Credit Facility prior to maturity without premium or penalty, subject to reimbursement of any LIBOR breakage costs of the lenders. The Company's wholly owned subsidiary, GLP Capital is the primary obligor under the Amended Credit Facility, which is guaranteed by GLPI.

The Amended Credit Facility contains customary covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, the ability of GLPI and its subsidiaries to grant liens on their assets, incur indebtedness, sell assets, make investments, engage in acquisitions, mergers or consolidations or pay certain dividends and other restricted payments. The Amended Credit Facility contains the following financial covenants, which are measured quarterly on a trailing four-quarter basis: a maximum total debt to total asset value ratio, a maximum senior secured debt to total asset value ratio, a maximum ratio of certain recourse debt to unencumbered asset value and a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio. In addition, GLPI is required to maintain a minimum tangible net worth and its status as a REIT. GLPI is permitted to pay dividends to its shareholders as may be required in order to maintain REIT status, subject to the absence of payment or bankruptcy defaults. GLPI is also permitted to make other dividends and distributions subject to pro forma compliance with the financial covenants and the absence of defaults. The Amended Credit Facility also contains certain customary affirmative covenants and events of default, including the occurrence of a change of control and termination of the Penn Master Lease (subject to certain replacement rights). The occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the Amended Credit Facility will enable the lenders under the Amended Credit Facility to accelerate the loans and terminate the commitments thereunder. At December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all required financial covenants under the Amended Credit Facility.

Senior Unsecured Notes

    At December 31, 2020, the Company had an outstanding balance of $5,375.0 million of senior unsecured notes (the "Senior Notes").

In the first quarter of 2020, the Company redeemed all $215.2 million aggregate principal amount of the Company’s outstanding 4.875% senior unsecured notes due in November 2020 and all $400 million aggregate principal amount of the Company’s outstanding 4.375% senior unsecured notes due in April 2021, incurring a loss on the early extinguishment of debt related to the redemption of $17.3 million, primarily for call premium charges and debt issuance write-offs.

On June 25, 2020, the Company issued $500 million of 4.00% senior unsecured notes due January 2031 at an issue price equal to 98.827% of the principal amount to repay indebtedness under its Revolver. On August 18, 2020 the Company issued an additional $200 million of 4.00% senior unsecured notes due January 2031 at an issue price equal to 103.824% of the principal amount to repay Term Loan A-1 indebtedness, incurring a loss on the early extinguishment of debt of $0.8 million, related to debt issuance write-offs. These bond offerings have extended the maturities of our long-term debt.

On August 29, 2019, the Company issued $400 million of 3.35% Senior Unsecured Notes maturing on September 1, 2024 at an issue price equal to 99.899% of the principal amount (the "2024 Notes") and $700 million of 4.00% Senior Unsecured Notes maturing on January 15, 2030 at an issue price equal to 99.751% of the principal amount (the "2030 Notes"). Interest on the 2024 Notes is payable semi-annually on March 1 and September 1 of each year, commencing on March 1, 2020. Interest on the 2030 Notes is payable semi-annually on January 15 and July 15 of each year, commencing on January 15, 2020. The net proceeds from the sale of the 2024 Notes and 2030 Notes were used to (i) finance the Company's cash tender offer to purchase its 4.875% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2020 (described below) (ii) repay outstanding borrowings under the Company's revolving credit facility and (iii) repay a portion of the outstanding borrowings under the Company's Term Loan A-1 facility.

On September 12, 2019, the Company completed a cash tender offer (the "2019 Tender Offer") to purchase its $1,000 million aggregate principal amount 4.875% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2020 (the "2020 Notes"). The Company received early tenders from the holders of approximately $782.6 million in aggregate principal of the 2020 Notes, or approximately 78% of its
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outstanding 2020 Notes, in connection with the 2019 Tender Offer at a price of 102.337% of the unpaid principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest through the settlement date. Subsequent to the early tender deadline, an additional $2.2 million in aggregate principal of the 2020 Notes was tendered at a price of 99.337% of the unpaid principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest through the settlement date, for a total redemption of $784.8 million of the 2020 Notes. The Company recorded a loss on the early extinguishment of debt related to the 2019 Tender Offer, of approximately $21.0 million, for the difference between the reacquisition price of the tendered 2020 Notes and their net carrying value.
The Company may redeem the Senior Notes of any series at any time, and from time to time, at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes redeemed, plus a "make-whole" redemption premium described in the indenture governing the Senior Notes, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date, except that if Senior Notes of a series are redeemed 90 or fewer days prior to their maturity, the redemption price will be 100% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes redeemed, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date. If GLPI experiences a change of control accompanied by a decline in the credit rating of the Senior Notes of a particular series, the Company will be required to give holders of the Senior Notes of such series the opportunity to sell their Senior Notes of such series at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes of such series, together with accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the repurchase date. The Senior Notes also are subject to mandatory redemption requirements imposed by gaming laws and regulations. 
The Senior Notes were issued by GLP Capital, L.P. and GLP Financing II, Inc. (the "Issuers"), two wholly-owned subsidiaries of GLPI, and are guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by GLPI. The guarantees of GLPI are full and unconditional. The Senior Notes are the Issuers' senior unsecured obligations and rank pari passu in right of payment with all of the Issuers' senior indebtedness, including the Credit Facility, and senior in right of payment to all of the Issuers' subordinated indebtedness, without giving effect to collateral arrangements.
The Senior Notes contain covenants limiting the Company’s ability to: incur additional debt and use its assets to secure debt; merge or consolidate with another company; and make certain amendments to the Penn Master Lease. The Senior Notes also require the Company to maintain a specified ratio of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt. These covenants are subject to a number of important and significant limitations, qualifications and exceptions.
 
At December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with all required financial covenants under its Senior Notes.

Finance Lease Liability

The Company assumed the finance lease obligations related to certain assets at its Aurora, Illinois property. GLPI recorded the asset and liability associated with the finance lease on its consolidated balance sheet. The original term of the finance lease is 30 years and it will terminate in 2026.
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Summarized financial information for Subsidiary Issuers and Parent Guarantor
As of December 31, 2020As of December 31, 2019
Real estate investments, net$2,720,767 $2,514,806 
Real estate loans— 246,000 
Right-of-use assets and land rights, net121,866 181,593 
Cash and cash equivalents480,066 4,281 
Long term debt, net of unamortized debt issuance costs, bond premiums and original issuance discounts5,754,689 5,737,962 
Accrued interest72,285 60,695 
Lease liabilities58,654 89,856 
Deferred rental revenue265,891 271,837 
For the year ended December 31, 2020For the year ended December 31, 2019
Revenues$580,428 $575,451 
Income from operations446,708 384,170 
Interest expense(282,142)(301,520)
Net income