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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended:December 31, 2020
 
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to 
Commission File Number:001-11954(Vornado Realty Trust)
Commission File Number:001-34482(Vornado Realty L.P.)

Vornado Realty Trust
Vornado Realty L.P.
(Exact name of registrants as specified in its charter)
Vornado Realty TrustMaryland22-1657560
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
Vornado Realty L.P.Delaware13-3925979
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
888 Seventh Avenue,New York, New York10019
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(212) 894-7000
(Registrants’ telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Registrant Title of Each Class Trading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Vornado Realty Trust Common Shares of beneficial interest, $.04 par value per share VNONew York Stock Exchange
  Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Shares of beneficial
interest, liquidation preference $25.00 per share:
  
Vornado Realty Trust 5.70% Series K VNO/PKNew York Stock Exchange
Vornado Realty Trust 5.40% Series L VNO/PLNew York Stock Exchange
Vornado Realty Trust5.25% Series MVNO/PMNew York Stock Exchange
Vornado Realty Trust5.25% Series NVNO/PNNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Registrant Title of Each Class
Vornado Realty TrustSeries A Convertible Preferred Shares of beneficial interest, liquidation preference $50.00 per share
Vornado Realty L.P. Class A Units of Limited Partnership Interest



Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
Vornado Realty Trust: Yes       No    Vornado Realty L.P.: Yes       No 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
 
Vornado Realty Trust: Yes       No     Vornado Realty L.P.: Yes       No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Vornado Realty Trust: Yes       No     Vornado Realty L.P.: Yes       No   
  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

Vornado Realty Trust: Yes       No     Vornado Realty L.P.: Yes       No   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” "non-accelerated filer," “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
    Vornado Realty Trust:
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
    Vornado Realty L.P.:
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Vornado Realty Trust: Yes       No     Vornado Realty L.P.: Yes       No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
Vornado Realty Trust: Yes       No     Vornado Realty L.P.: Yes       No 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common shares held by non-affiliates of Vornado Realty Trust, i.e. by persons other than officers and trustees of Vornado Realty Trust, was $6,727,146,000 at June 30, 2020.

As of December 31, 2020, there were 191,354,679 common shares of beneficial interest outstanding of Vornado Realty Trust.

There is no public market for the Class A units of limited partnership interest of Vornado Realty L.P. Based on the June 30, 2020 closing share price of Vornado Realty Trust’s common shares, which are issuable upon redemption of the Class A units, the aggregate market value of the Class A units held by non-affiliates of Vornado Realty L.P., i.e. by persons other than Vornado Realty Trust and its officers and trustees, was $396,866,000 at June 30, 2020.

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Part III: Portions of Proxy Statement for Annual Meeting of Vornado Realty Trust’s Shareholders to be held on May 20, 2021.



EXPLANATORY NOTE
 
This report combines the Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 of Vornado Realty Trust and Vornado Realty L.P. Unless stated otherwise or the context otherwise requires, references to “Vornado” refer to Vornado Realty Trust, a Maryland real estate investment trust (“REIT”), and references to the “Operating Partnership” refer to Vornado Realty L.P., a Delaware limited partnership. References to the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” mean collectively Vornado, the Operating Partnership and those subsidiaries consolidated by Vornado.
The Operating Partnership is the entity through which we conduct substantially all of our business and own, either directly or through subsidiaries, substantially all of our assets. Vornado is the sole general partner and also a 92.8% limited partner of the Operating Partnership. As the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, Vornado has exclusive control of the Operating Partnership’s day-to-day management.
Under the limited partnership agreement of the Operating Partnership, unitholders may present their Class A units for redemption at any time (subject to restrictions agreed upon at the time of issuance of the units that may restrict such right for a period of time). Class A units may be tendered for redemption to the Operating Partnership for cash; Vornado, at its option, may assume that obligation and pay the holder either cash or Vornado common shares on a one-for-one basis. Because the number of Vornado common shares outstanding at all times equals the number of Class A units owned by Vornado, the redemption value of each Class A unit is equivalent to the market value of one Vornado common share, and the quarterly distribution to a Class A unitholder is equal to the quarterly dividend paid to a Vornado common shareholder. This one-for-one exchange ratio is subject to specified adjustments to prevent dilution. Vornado generally expects that it will elect to issue its common shares in connection with each such presentation for redemption rather than having the Operating Partnership pay cash. With each such exchange or redemption, Vornado’s percentage ownership in the Operating Partnership will increase. In addition, whenever Vornado issues common shares other than to acquire Class A units of the Operating Partnership, Vornado must contribute any net proceeds it receives to the Operating Partnership and the Operating Partnership must issue to Vornado an equivalent number of Class A units of the Operating Partnership. This structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership REIT, or UPREIT.
The Company believes that combining the Annual Reports on Form 10-K of Vornado and the Operating Partnership into this single report provides the following benefits:
enhances investors’ understanding of Vornado and the Operating Partnership by enabling investors to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;
eliminates duplicative disclosure and provides a more streamlined and readable presentation because a substantial portion of the disclosure applies to both Vornado and the Operating Partnership; and
creates time and cost efficiencies in the preparation of one combined report instead of two separate reports.
The Company believes it is important to understand the few differences between Vornado and the Operating Partnership in the context of how Vornado and the Operating Partnership operate as a consolidated company. The financial results of the Operating Partnership are consolidated into the financial statements of Vornado. Vornado does not have any significant assets, liabilities or operations, other than its investment in the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership, not Vornado, generally executes all significant business relationships other than transactions involving the securities of Vornado. The Operating Partnership holds substantially all of the assets of Vornado. The Operating Partnership conducts the operations of the business and is structured as a partnership with no publicly traded equity. Except for the net proceeds from equity offerings by Vornado, which are contributed to the capital of the Operating Partnership in exchange for Class A units of partnership in the Operating Partnership, and the net proceeds of debt offerings by Vornado, which are contributed to the Operating Partnership in exchange for debt securities of the Operating Partnership, as applicable, the Operating Partnership generates all remaining capital required by the Company’s business. These sources may include working capital, net cash provided by operating activities, borrowings under the revolving credit facility, the issuance of secured and unsecured debt and equity securities and proceeds received from the disposition of certain properties.



To help investors better understand the key differences between Vornado and the Operating Partnership, certain information for Vornado and the Operating Partnership in this report has been separated, as set forth below:
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities;
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations includes information specific to each entity, where applicable; and
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data which includes the following specific disclosures for Vornado Realty Trust and Vornado Realty L.P.:
Note 11. Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests
Note 12. Shareholders' Equity/Partners' Capital
Note 15. Stock-based Compensation
Note 19. (Loss) Income Per Share/(Loss) Income Per Class A Unit
This report also includes separate Part II, Item 9A. Controls and Procedures sections and separate Exhibits 31 and 32 certifications for each of Vornado and the Operating Partnership in order to establish that the requisite certifications have been made and that Vornado and the Operating Partnership are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and 18 U.S.C. §1350.



INDEX
Item Financial Information:Page Number
____________________
(1) These items are omitted in whole or in part because Vornado, the Operating Partnership’s sole general partner, will file a definitive Proxy Statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after December 31, 2020, portions of which are incorporated by reference herein.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements contained herein constitute forward‑looking statements as such term is defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. They represent our intentions, plans, expectations and beliefs and are subject to numerous assumptions, risks and uncertainties. Our future results, financial condition and business may differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. You can find many of these statements by looking for words such as “approximates,” “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “would,” “may” or other similar expressions in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. We also note the following forward-looking statements: in the case of our development and redevelopment projects, the estimated completion date, estimated project cost and cost to complete; and estimates of future capital expenditures, dividends to common and preferred shareholders and operating partnership distributions. Many of the factors that will determine the outcome of these and our other forward-looking statements are beyond our ability to control or predict. For further discussion of factors that could materially affect the outcome of our forward-looking statements, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Currently, one of the most significant factors is the ongoing adverse effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, operating performance and the effect it has had and may continue to have on our tenants, the global, national, regional and local economies and financial markets and the real estate market in general. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic, which are highly uncertain at this time but that impact could be material. Moreover, you are cautioned that the COVID-19 pandemic will heighten many of the risks identified in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For these statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or the date of any document incorporated by reference. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to our forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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PART I


ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
Vornado is a fully‑integrated REIT and conducts its business through, and substantially all of its interests in properties are held by, the Operating Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership. Accordingly, Vornado’s cash flow and ability to pay dividends to its shareholders are dependent upon the cash flow of the Operating Partnership and the ability of its direct and indirect subsidiaries to first satisfy their obligations to creditors. Vornado is the sole general partner of, and owned approximately 92.8% of the common limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership as of December 31, 2020.
We currently own all or portions of: 
New York:
20.6 million square feet of Manhattan office space in 33 properties;
2.7 million square feet of Manhattan street retail space in 65 properties;
1,989 units in 10 Manhattan residential properties;
The 1,700 room Hotel Pennsylvania located on Seventh Avenue at 33rd Street in the heart of the Penn District (closed since April 1, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic);
A 32.4% interest in Alexander’s, Inc. (“Alexander’s”) (NYSE: ALX), which owns seven properties in the greater New York metropolitan area, including 731 Lexington Avenue, the 1.3 million square foot Bloomberg, L.P. headquarters building;
Signage throughout the Penn District and Times Square; and
Building Maintenance Services LLC ("BMS"), a wholly owned subsidiary, which provides cleaning and security services for our buildings and third parties.
Other Real Estate and Investments:
The 3.7 million square foot theMART in Chicago;
A 70% controlling interest in 555 California Street, a three-building office complex in San Francisco’s financial district aggregating 1.8 million square feet;
A 25.0% interest in Vornado Capital Partners, our real estate fund. We are the general partner and investment manager of the fund. The fund is in wind-down; and
Other real estate and investments.
OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY
Our business objective is to maximize Vornado shareholder value. We intend to achieve this objective by continuing to pursue our investment philosophy and to execute our operating strategies through:
maintaining a superior team of operating and investment professionals and an entrepreneurial spirit;
investing in properties in select markets, such as New York City, where we believe there is a high likelihood of capital appreciation;
acquiring quality properties at a discount to replacement cost and where there is a significant potential for higher rents;
developing and redeveloping properties to increase returns and maximize value; and
investing in operating companies that have a significant real estate component.
We expect to finance our growth, acquisitions and investments using internally generated funds and proceeds from asset sales and by accessing the public and private capital markets. We may also offer Vornado common or preferred shares or Operating Partnership units in exchange for property and may repurchase or otherwise reacquire these securities in the future.
DISPOSITIONS
We completed the following sale transactions during 2020:
$1.05 billion net proceeds from the sale of 35 condominium units at 220 Central Park South ("220 CPS"); and
$28 million net proceeds from the sale of all of our 6,250,000 common shares of Pennsylvania Real Estate Investment Trust.
FINANCINGS
We completed the following financing transactions during 2020:
$800 million unsecured term loan balance increased from $750 million;
$700 million mortgage loan on 770 Broadway extended to March 2022;
$500 million refinancing of PENN11;
$350 million mortgage loan paid down by $50 million and extended to August 2025 on the retail condominium of 731 Lexington Avenue (32.4% interest);
$300 million issuance of 5.25% Series N cumulative redeemable preferred shares;
$94 million financing of The Alexander, a 312-unit residential building (32.4% interest); and
$52.5 million mortgage loan repayment on our land under a portion of the Borgata Hotel and Casino complex.
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DEVELOPMENT AND REDEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURES
220 Central Park South
We are completing construction of a residential condominium tower containing 397,000 salable square feet at 220 CPS. The development cost of this project (exclusive of land cost) is estimated to be approximately $1.480 billion, of which $1.455 billion has been expended as of December 31, 2020.
Penn District
Farley
Our 95% joint venture (5% is owned by the Related Companies ("Related")) is developing Farley Office and Retail, which will include approximately 844,000 rentable square feet of commercial space, comprised of approximately 730,000 square feet of office space and approximately 114,000 square feet of restaurant and retail space. The total development cost of this project is estimated to be approximately $1,120,000,000, an increase of $90,000,000, which is primarily due to higher projected tenant improvement allowances for the office, restaurant and retail space. As of December 31, 2020, $791,994,000 has been expended, which has been reduced by $88,000,000 of historic tax credit investor contributions (at our share).
The joint venture entered into a development agreement with Empire State Development (“ESD”), an entity of New York State, to build the adjacent Moynihan Train Hall, with Vornado and Related each guaranteeing the joint venture's obligations. The joint venture entered into a design-build contract with Skanska Moynihan Train Hall Builders ("Skanska") pursuant to which they built the Moynihan Train Hall on the joint venture's behalf. Skanska substantially completed construction as of December 31, 2020, thereby fulfilling this obligation to ESD. The joint venture, which we consolidate on our consolidated balance sheets, leased the entire property during the construction period and pursuant to ASC 842-40-55, was required to recognize all development expenditures for Moynihan Train Hall. Accordingly, the development expenditures funded by governmental agencies were presented as “Moynihan Train Hall development expenditures” with a corresponding obligation recorded to “Moynihan Train Hall Obligation” on our consolidated balance sheets. On December 31, 2020, upon substantial completion of Moynihan Train Hall, the portions of the property not pertaining to the joint venture's commercial space were severed from its lease with ESD and we removed the "Moynihan Train Hall development expenditures" and the offsetting “Moynihan Train Hall obligation” from our consolidated balance sheets.
PENN1
We are redeveloping PENN1, a 2,545,000 square foot office building located on 34th Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenue. In December 2020, we entered into an agreement with the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (the “MTA”) to oversee the redevelopment of the Long Island Rail Road Concourse at Penn Station (the "Concourse"), within the footprint of PENN1. Skanska USA Civil Northeast, Inc. will perform the redevelopment under a fixed price contract for $396,000,000 which is being funded by the MTA. In connection with the redevelopment, we entered into an agreement with the MTA which will result in the widening of the Concourse to relieve overcrowding and our trading of 15,000 square feet of back of house space for 22,000 square feet of retail frontage space. The total development cost of our PENN1 project is estimated to be $450,000,000, an increase of $125,000,000, which is primarily due to the addition of the Concourse retail redevelopment project and sustainability initiatives, including the installation of triple pane high energy performance windows and the implementation of an electrification program to allow PENN1 to access more clean renewable electricity. As of December 31, 2020, $167,894,000 has been expended.
PENN2
We are redeveloping PENN2, a 1,795,000 square foot (as expanded) office building, located on the west side of Seventh Avenue between 31st and 33rd Street. The development cost of this project is estimated to be $750,000,000, of which $91,219,000 has been expended as of December 31, 2020.
We are also making districtwide improvements within the Penn District. The development cost of these improvements is estimated to be $100,000,000, of which $19,618,000 has been expended as of December 31, 2020.
Other
We are redeveloping a 78,000 square foot Class A office building at 345 Montgomery Street, a part of our 555 California Street complex in San Francisco (70.0% interest) located at the corner of California and Pine Street. The development cost of this project is estimated to be approximately $66,000,000, of which our share is $46,000,000. As of December 31, 2020, $55,261,000 has been expended, of which our share is $38,683,000.
We are redeveloping a 165,000 square foot office building at 825 Seventh Avenue, located at the corner of 53rd Street and Seventh Avenue (50.0% interest). The redevelopment cost of this project is estimated to be approximately $30,000,000, of which our share is $15,000,000. As of December 31, 2020, $26,508,000 has been expended, of which our share is $13,254,000.
We are also evaluating other development and redevelopment opportunities at certain of our properties in Manhattan including, in particular, the Penn District.
There can be no assurance that the above projects will be completed, completed on schedule or within budget.
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COMPETITION
We compete with a large number of real estate investors, property owners and developers, some of which may be willing to accept lower returns on their investments. Principal factors of competition are rents charged, sales prices, attractiveness of location, the quality of the property and the breadth and the quality of services provided. Our success depends upon, among other factors, trends of the global, national, regional and local economies, the financial condition and operating results of current and prospective tenants and customers, availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs, taxes, governmental regulations, legislation, population and employment trends. See "Risk Factors" in Item 1A for additional information regarding these factors.
SEGMENT DATA
We operate in the following reportable segments: New York and Other. Financial information related to these reportable segments for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is set forth in Note 24 – Segment Information to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
SEASONALITY 
Our revenues and expenses are subject to seasonality during the year which impacts quarterly net earnings, cash flows and funds from operations, and therefore impacts comparisons of the current quarter to the previous quarter. The New York segment has historically experienced higher utility costs in the first and third quarters of the year. 
TENANTS ACCOUNTING FOR OVER 10% OF REVENUES 
None of our tenants accounted for more than 10% of total revenues in any of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
CERTAIN ACTIVITIES 
We do not base our acquisitions and investments on specific allocations by type of property. We have historically held our properties for long‑term investment; however, it is possible that properties in our portfolio may be sold or otherwise disposed of when circumstances warrant. Further, we have not adopted a policy that limits the amount or percentage of assets which could be invested in a specific property or property type. Generally our activities are reviewed and may be modified from time to time by Vornado’s Board of Trustees without the vote of our shareholders or Operating Partnership unitholders. 
HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES
As of December 31, 2020, we have approximately 2,899 employees, consisting of (i) 246 corporate staff; (ii) 2,568 employees of the New York segment comprised of 1,997 employees of Building Maintenance Services LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary, which provides cleaning, security and engineering services primarily to our New York properties, 422 employees at the Hotel Pennsylvania and 149 employees in leasing and property management; and (iii) 85 employees of theMART. The foregoing does not include employees of partially owned entities. 
We continue to pursue our investment philosophy and to execute our operating strategies through maintaining a superior team of operating and investment professionals and an entrepreneurial spirit. We value our employees as our greatest asset, and to foster their talent and growth, we provide training and education, promote career and personal development, and encourage innovation and engagement.
PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICES 
Our principal executive offices are located at 888 Seventh Avenue, New York, New York 10019; telephone (212) 894‑7000. 
MATERIALS AVAILABLE ON OUR WEBSITE 
Copies of our Annual Report on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8‑K and amendments to those reports, as well as Reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5 regarding officers, trustees or 10% beneficial owners, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a), 15(d) or 16(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available free of charge through our website (www.vno.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. Also available on our website are copies of our Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee Charter, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, and Corporate Governance Guidelines. In the event of any changes to these charters or the code or guidelines, changed copies will also be made available on our website. Copies of these documents are also available directly from us free of charge. Our website also includes other financial and non-financial information, including certain non-GAAP financial measures, none of which is a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Copies of our filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are also available free of charge from us, upon request.
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ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS 
Material factors that may adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition are summarized below. We refer to the equity and debt securities of both Vornado and the Operating Partnership as our “securities” and the investors who own shares of Vornado or units of the Operating Partnership, or both, as our “equity holders.” The risks and uncertainties described herein may not be the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition. See “Forward-Looking Statements” contained herein on page 6.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR PROPERTIES AND INDUSTRY
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows have been and are expected to continue to be adversely affected by the recent COVID-19 pandemic and the impact could be material to us.
Our business has been and is expected to continue to be adversely affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the preventive measures taken to curb the spread of the virus. In March 2020, our “non-essential” retail tenants were ordered to temporarily close and although substantially all re-opened in the latter part of June 2020, there continue to be limitations on occupancy and other restrictions that affect their ability to resume full operations and impact their financial health. Our office buildings remain open and many of our office tenants are working remotely. Trade shows at theMART were cancelled beginning March 2020 and are expected to resume in 2021. In April 2020, we closed the Hotel Pennsylvania. While we believe our tenants are required to pay rent under their leases and we have commenced legal proceedings against certain tenants that have failed to pay rent under their leases, in limited circumstances, we have agreed to and may continue to agree to rent deferrals and abatements for certain of our tenants.
Federal, state and local regulations may also affect our ability to collect rent or enforce remedies for the failure to pay rent. Certain of our tenants have incurred and may continue to incur significant costs or losses as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and/or incur other liabilities related to shelter-in-place orders, quarantines, infection or other related factors that may adversely impact their ability to pay us timely or at all. Tenants that experience deteriorating financial conditions may be unwilling or unable to pay rent on a timely basis, or at all. Tenants may also reassess their long-term physical space needs as a result of potential trends arising out of the COVID-19 pandemic, including increasing numbers of employees working from home, increased shopping through e-commerce, technological innovations and new norms regarding physical space needs.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused, and is likely to continue to cause, severe economic, market or other disruptions worldwide. Conditions in the bank lending, capital and other financial markets may deteriorate as a result of the pandemic, our access to capital and other sources of funding may become constrained and the ratios of our debt to asset values may deteriorate, which could adversely affect the availability and terms of future borrowings, renewals or refinancings. In addition, the deterioration of global, national, regional and local economic conditions as a result of the pandemic may ultimately decrease occupancy levels and/or rent levels across our portfolio as tenants reduce or defer their spending, which may result in less cash flow available for operating costs, to pay our indebtedness and for distribution to our shareholders and the impact could be material. In addition, the value of our real estate assets may decline, which may result in non-cash impairment charges in future periods and the impact could be material.
The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the outbreak (and any other strains of the coronavirus) and governmental responses thereto, including the efficacy (including duration) and distribution of vaccines, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict. Due to the speed with which the situation is developing, we are not able at this time to estimate the ultimate effect of these factors on our business but the adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be material.
A significant portion of our properties is located in the New York City Metropolitan area and is affected by the economic cycles and risks inherent to this area. 
In 2020, approximately 87% of our net operating income ("NOI", a non-GAAP measure) came from properties located in the New York City metropolitan area. We may continue to concentrate a significant portion of our future acquisitions, development and redevelopment in this area. Real estate markets are subject to economic downturns and we cannot predict how economic conditions will impact this market in either the short or long term. Declines in the economy or declines in real estate markets in the New York City metropolitan area, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, have hurt and could continue to hurt our financial performance and the value of our properties. In addition to the factors affecting the national economic condition generally, the factors affecting economic conditions in this region include:
financial performance and productivity of the media, advertising, professional services, financial, technology, retail, insurance and real estate industries;
business layoffs or downsizing;
any oversupply of, or reduced demand for, real estate;
industry slowdowns;
relocations of businesses;
changing demographics;
increased work from home and use of alternative work places;
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changes in the number of domestic and international tourists to our markets (including as a result of changes in the relative strengths of world currencies and as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic);
the fiscal health of New York State and New York City governments and local transit authorities, particularly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
infrastructure quality; and
changes in rates or the treatment of the deductibility of state and local taxes.
It is impossible for us to ensure the accuracy of predictions of the future or the effect of trends in the economic and investment climates of the geographic areas in which we concentrate, and more generally of the United States, or the real estate markets in these areas. Local, national or global economic downturns could negatively affect the value of our properties, our businesses and profitability.
We are subject to risks that affect the general and New York City retail environments.
Certain of our properties are Manhattan retail properties. In 2020, approximately 15% of our NOI is from Manhattan retail properties. As such, these properties are affected by the general and New York City retail environments, including office and residential occupancy rates, the level of consumer spending and consumer confidence, Manhattan tourism, the threat of terrorism, increasing competition from on-line retailers, other retailers, and outlet malls, and the impact of technological change upon the retail environment generally. These factors could adversely affect the financial condition of our retail tenants, or result in the bankruptcy of such tenants, and the willingness of retailers to lease space in our retail locations, which could have an adverse effect on the value of our properties, our business and profitability.
Our performance and the value of an investment in us are subject to risks associated with our real estate assets and with the real estate industry.
The value of our real estate and the value of an investment in us fluctuates depending on conditions in the general economy and the real estate business. These conditions may also adversely impact our revenues and cash flows.
The factors that affect the value of our real estate investments include, among other things:
global, national, regional and local economic conditions;
competition from other available space, including co-working space and sub-leases;
local conditions such as an oversupply of space or a reduction in demand for real estate in the area;
how well we manage our properties;
the development and/or redevelopment of our properties;
changes in market rental rates;
the impact on our retail tenants and demand for retail space at our properties due to increased competition from online shopping;
the timing and costs associated with property improvements and rentals;
whether we are able to pass all or portions of any increases in operating costs through to tenants;
changes in real estate taxes and other expenses;
the ability of state and local governments to operate within their budgets;
whether tenants and users such as customers and shoppers consider a property attractive;
changes in consumer preferences adversely affecting retailers and retail store values;
changes in space utilization by our tenants due to technology, economic conditions and business environment;
the financial condition of our tenants, including the extent of tenant bankruptcies or defaults;
consequences of any armed conflict involving, or terrorist attacks against, the United States or individual acts of violence in public spaces;
trends in office real estate;
availability of financing on acceptable terms or at all;
inflation or deflation;
fluctuations in interest rates;
our ability to obtain adequate insurance;
changes in zoning laws and taxation;
government regulation;
potential liability under environmental or other laws or regulations;
natural disasters;
general competitive factors;
climate changes; and
pandemics.
The rents or sales proceeds we receive and the occupancy levels at our properties may decline as a result of adverse changes in any of these factors. If rental revenues, sales proceeds and/or occupancy levels decline, we generally would expect to have less cash
11


available for operating costs, to pay indebtedness and for distribution to equity holders. In addition, some of our major expenses, including mortgage payments, real estate taxes and maintenance costs generally do not decline when the related rents decline.
Terrorist attacks may adversely affect the value of our properties and our ability to generate cash flow. 
We have significant investments in the New York City, Chicago and San Francisco metropolitan areas. In response to a terrorist attack or the perceived threat of terrorism, tenants in these areas may choose to relocate their businesses to less populated, lower-profile areas of the United States that may be perceived to be less likely targets of future terrorist activity and fewer customers may choose to patronize businesses in these areas. This, in turn, would trigger a decrease in the demand for space in these areas, which could increase vacancies in our properties and force us to lease space on less favorable terms. Furthermore, we may experience increased costs in security, equipment and personnel. As a result, the value of our properties and the level of our revenues and cash flows could decline materially.
Natural disasters and the effects of climate change could have a concentrated impact on the areas where we operate and could adversely impact our results. 
Our investments are concentrated in the New York, Chicago and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Natural disasters, including earthquakes, storms, tornados, floods and hurricanes, could cause significant damage to our properties and the surrounding environment or area. Potentially adverse consequences of “global warming,” including rising sea levels, could similarly have an impact on our properties and the economies of the metropolitan areas in which we operate. Government efforts to combat climate change may impact the cost of operating our properties. Over time, these conditions could result in declining demand for office space in our buildings or the inability of us to operate the buildings at all. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) property insurance on terms we find acceptable, increasing the cost of energy at our properties and requiring us to expend funds as we seek to repair and protect our properties against such risks. The incurrence of these losses, costs or business interruptions may adversely affect our operating and financial results.
U.S. federal tax reform legislation now and in the future could affect REITs generally, the geographic markets in which we operate, the trading of our shares and our results of operations, both positively and negatively, in ways that are difficult to anticipate.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “2017 Act”) represented sweeping tax reform legislation that made significant changes to corporate and individual tax rates and the calculation of taxes, as well as international tax rules. As a REIT, we are generally not required to pay federal taxes otherwise applicable to regular corporations if we comply with the various tax regulations governing REITs. Shareholders, however, are generally required to pay taxes on REIT dividends. The 2017 Act and future tax reform legislation could impact our share price or how shareholders and potential investors view an investment in REITs. For example, the decrease in corporate tax rates in the 2017 Act could decrease the attractiveness of the REIT structure relative to companies that are not organized as REITs. In addition, while certain elements of the 2017 Act do not impact us directly as a REIT, they could impact the geographic markets in which we operate as well as our tenants in ways, both positive and negative, that are difficult to anticipate. For example, the limitation in the 2017 Act on the deductibility of certain state and local taxes may make operating in jurisdictions that impose such taxes at higher rates less desirable than operating in jurisdictions imposing such taxes at lower rates. The overall impact of the 2017 Act and other legislation also depends on the future interpretations and regulations that may be issued by U.S. tax authorities, which may be affected by changes in governmental administrations, and it is possible that future guidance could adversely impact us.
Real estate is a competitive business and that competition may adversely impact us.
We compete with a large number of real estate investors, property owners and developers, some of which may be willing to accept lower returns on their investments. Principal factors of competition are rents charged, sales prices, attractiveness of location, the quality of the property and the breadth and the quality of services provided. Substantially all of our properties face competition from similar properties in the same market, which may adversely impact the rents we can charge at those properties and our results of operations.
We depend on leasing space to tenants on economically favorable terms and collecting rent from tenants who may not be able to pay.
Our financial results depend significantly on leasing space in our properties to tenants on economically favorable terms. In addition, because a majority of our income comes from renting of real property, our income, funds available to pay indebtedness and funds available for distribution to equity holders will decrease if a significant number of our tenants cannot pay their rent or if we are not able to maintain occupancy levels on favorable terms. If a tenant does not pay its rent, we may not be able to enforce our rights as landlord without delays and may incur substantial legal and other costs. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, Federal, state and local regulations have affected our ability to collect rent or enforce remedies for the failure to pay rent. Even if we are able to enforce our rights, a tenant may not have recoverable assets. Additionally, in limited circumstances, we have agreed and may continue to agree to rent deferrals and abatements for certain of our tenants.
We may be adversely affected by trends in office real estate.
In 2020, approximately 83% of our NOI is from our office properties. Work from home, flexible work schedules, open workplaces, videoconferencing, and teleconferencing are becoming more common, particularly as a result of the COVID-19
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pandemic. These practices may enable businesses to reduce their office space requirements. There is also an increasing trend among some businesses to utilize shared office spaces and co-working spaces. A continuation of the movement towards these practices could, over time, erode the overall demand for office space and, in turn, place downward pressure on occupancy, rental rates and property valuations.
We may be unable to renew leases or relet space as leases expire.
When our tenants decide not to renew their leases upon their expiration, we may not be able to relet the space. Even if tenants do renew or we can relet the space, the terms of renewal or reletting, considering among other things, rent and other concessions, the cost of improvements to the property and leasing commissions, may be less favorable than the terms in the expired leases. In addition, changes in space utilization by our tenants may impact our ability to renew or relet space without the need to incur substantial costs in renovating or redesigning the internal configuration of the relevant property. If we are unable to promptly renew the leases or relet the space at similar rates or if we incur substantial costs in renewing or reletting the space, our cash flow and ability to service debt obligations and pay dividends and distributions to equity holders could be adversely affected.
Bankruptcy or insolvency of tenants may decrease our revenue, net income and available cash.
From time to time, some of our tenants have declared bankruptcy, and other tenants may declare bankruptcy or become insolvent in the future. The bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant could cause us to suffer lower revenues and operational difficulties, including leasing the remainder of the property. As a result, the bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant could result in decreased net income and funds available to pay our indebtedness or make distributions to equity holders.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR OPERATIONS AND STRATEGIES
We face risks associated with property acquisitions. 
We have acquired in the past and intend to continue to pursue the acquisition of properties and portfolios of properties, including, but not limited to, large portfolios that could increase our size and result in alterations to our capital structure. Our acquisition activities and their success are subject to the following risks:
even if we enter into an acquisition agreement for a property, we may be unable to complete that acquisition after making a non-refundable deposit and incurring certain other acquisition-related costs;
we may be unable to obtain or assume financing for acquisitions on favorable terms or at all;
acquired properties may fail to perform as expected;
the actual costs of repositioning, redeveloping or maintaining acquired properties may be greater than our estimates and may require significantly greater time and attention of management than anticipated;
the acquisition agreement will likely contain conditions to closing, including completion of due diligence investigations to our satisfaction or other conditions that are not within our control, which may not be satisfied;
acquired properties may be located in new markets where we may face risks associated with a lack of market knowledge or understanding of the local economy, lack of business relationships in the area, costs associated with opening a new regional office and unfamiliarity with local governmental and permitting procedures;
we may acquire real estate through the acquisition of the ownership entity subjecting us to the risks of that entity and we may be exposed to the liabilities of properties or companies acquired, some of which we may not be aware of at the time of acquisition; and
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of properties, into our existing operations, and this could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Any delay or failure on our part to identify, negotiate, finance and consummate such acquisitions in a timely manner and on favorable terms, or operate acquired properties to meet our financial expectations, could impede our growth and have an adverse effect on us, including our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the market value of our securities.
We are exposed to risks associated with property redevelopment and repositioning that could adversely affect us, including our financial condition and results of operations.
We continue to engage in redevelopment and repositioning activities with respect to our properties, and, accordingly, we are subject to certain risks, which could adversely affect us, including our financial condition and results of operations. These risks include, without limitation, (i) the availability and pricing of financing on favorable terms or at all; (ii) the availability and timely receipt of zoning and other regulatory approvals; (iii) the potential for the fluctuation of occupancy rates and rents at redeveloped properties, which may result in our investment not being profitable; (iv) start up, repositioning and redevelopment costs may be higher than anticipated; (v) cost overruns and untimely completion of construction (including risks beyond our control, such as weather or labor conditions, or material shortages); (vi) the potential that we may fail to recover expenses already incurred if we abandon development or redevelopment opportunities after we begin to explore them; (vii) the potential that we may expend funds on and devote management time to projects which we do not complete; (viii) the inability to complete leasing of a property on schedule or at all, resulting in an increase in carrying or redevelopment costs; and (ix) the possibility that properties will be leased at below expected rental rates. These risks could result in substantial unanticipated delays or expenses and could prevent the initiation or the completion
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of redevelopment activities or the ultimate rents achieved on new developments, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, the market value of our common shares and ability to satisfy our principal and interest obligations and to make distributions to our shareholders.
From time to time we have made, and in the future we may seek to make one or more material acquisitions. The announcement of such a material acquisition may result in a rapid and significant decline in the price of our securities.
From time to time we have made, and in the future we may seek to make one or more material acquisitions that we believe will maximize shareholder value. However, an announcement by us of one or more significant acquisitions could result in a quick and significant decline in the price of our securities.
It may be difficult to sell real estate timely, which may limit our flexibility.
Real estate investments are relatively illiquid. Consequently, we may have limited ability to dispose of assets in our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions which could have an adverse effect on our sources of working capital and our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.
We may not be permitted to dispose of certain properties or pay down the debt associated with those properties when we might otherwise desire to do so without incurring additional costs. In addition, when we dispose of or sell assets, we may not be able to reinvest the sales proceeds and earn similar returns.
As part of an acquisition of a property, or a portfolio of properties, we may agree, and in the past have agreed, not to dispose of the acquired properties or reduce the mortgage indebtedness for a long-term period, unless we pay certain of the resulting tax costs of the seller. These agreements could result in us holding on to properties that we would otherwise sell and not pay down or refinance. In addition, when we dispose of or sell assets, we may not be able to reinvest the sales proceeds and earn returns similar to those generated by the assets that were sold.
From time to time we have made, and in the future we may seek to make investments in companies over which we do not have sole control. Some of these companies operate in industries with different risks than investing and operating real estate.
From time to time we have made, and in the future we may seek to make, investments in companies that we may not control, including, but not limited to, Alexander’s, our Fifth Avenue and Times Square JV, and other equity and loan investments. Although these businesses generally have a significant real estate component, some of them operate in businesses that are different from investing and operating real estate. Consequently, we are subject to operating and financial risks of those industries and to the risks associated with lack of control, such as having differing objectives than our partners or the entities in which we invest, or becoming involved in disputes, or competing directly or indirectly with these partners or entities. In addition, we rely on the internal controls and financial reporting controls of these entities and their failure to maintain effectiveness or comply with applicable standards may adversely affect us.
We are subject to risks involved in real estate activity through joint ventures and private equity real estate funds.
We currently own properties through joint ventures and private equity real estate funds with other persons and entities and may in the future acquire or own properties through joint ventures and funds when we believe circumstances warrant the use of such structures. Joint venture and fund investments involve risk, including: the possibility that our partners might refuse to make capital contributions when due and therefore we may be forced to make contributions to maintain the value of the property; that we may be responsible to our partners for indemnifiable losses; that our partners might at any time have business or economic goals that are inconsistent with ours; that third parties may be hesitant or refuse to transact with the joint venture or fund due to the identity of our partners; and that our partners may be in a position to take action or withhold consent contrary to our recommendations, instructions or requests. We and our respective joint venture partners may each have the right to trigger a buy-sell, put right or forced sale arrangement, which could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partner’s interest, or to sell the underlying asset, at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction, without our consent or on unfavorable terms. In some instances, joint venture and fund partners may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflicts of interest. These conflicts may include compliance with the REIT requirements, and our REIT status could be jeopardized if any of our joint ventures or funds do not operate in compliance with REIT requirements. To the extent our partners do not meet their obligations to us or our joint ventures or funds, or they take action inconsistent with the interests of the joint venture or fund, we may be adversely affected.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDEBTEDNESS AND ACCESS TO CAPITAL
Capital markets and economic conditions can materially affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations as well as the value of an investment in our debt and equity securities.
There are many factors that can affect the value of our debt and equity securities, including the state of the capital markets and the economy. Demand for office and retail space typically declines nationwide due to an economic downturn, bankruptcies, downsizing, layoffs and cost cutting. Government action or inaction may adversely affect the state of the capital markets. The cost and availability of credit may be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets and wider credit spreads, which may adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, including our results of operations, and the liquidity and financial condition of our tenants. Our inability or the inability of our tenants to timely refinance maturing liabilities and access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs may materially affect our financial condition and results of operations and the value of our securities.
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We may not be able to obtain capital to make investments.
We depend primarily on external financing to fund the growth of our business. This is because one of the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, for a REIT is that it distributes 90% of its taxable income, excluding net capital gains, to its shareholders. This, in turn, requires the Operating Partnership to make distributions to its unitholders. There is a separate requirement to distribute net capital gains or pay a corporate level tax in lieu thereof. Our access to debt or equity financing depends on the willingness of third parties to lend or make equity investments and on conditions in the capital markets generally. Although we believe that we will be able to finance any investments we may wish to make in the foreseeable future, there can be no assurance that new financing will be available or available on acceptable terms. For information about our available sources of funds, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” and the notes to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We depend on dividends and distributions from our direct and indirect subsidiaries. The creditors and preferred equity holders of these subsidiaries are entitled to amounts payable to them by the subsidiaries before the subsidiaries may pay any dividends or distributions to us.
Substantially all of Vornado’s assets are held through its Operating Partnership that holds substantially all of its properties and assets through subsidiaries. The Operating Partnership’s cash flow is dependent on cash distributions to it by its subsidiaries, and in turn, substantially all of Vornado’s cash flow is dependent on cash distributions to it by the Operating Partnership. The creditors of each of Vornado’s direct and indirect subsidiaries are entitled to payment of that subsidiary’s obligations to them, when due and payable, before distributions may be made by that subsidiary to its equity holders. Thus, the Operating Partnership’s ability to make distributions to its equity holders depends on its subsidiaries’ ability first to satisfy their obligations to their creditors and then to make distributions to the Operating Partnership. Likewise, Vornado’s ability to pay dividends to its holders of common and preferred shares depends on the Operating Partnership’s ability first to satisfy its obligations to its creditors and make distributions to holders of its preferred units and then to make distributions to Vornado.
Furthermore, the holders of preferred units of the Operating Partnership are entitled to receive preferred distributions before payment of distributions to the Operating Partnership’s equity holders, including Vornado. Thus, Vornado’s ability to pay cash dividends to its equity holders and satisfy its debt obligations depends on the Operating Partnership’s ability first to satisfy its obligations to its creditors and make distributions to holders of its preferred units and then to its equity holders, including Vornado. As of December 31, 2020, there were four series of preferred units of the Operating Partnership not held by Vornado with a total liquidation value of $54,571,000.
In addition, Vornado’s participation in any distribution of the assets of any of its direct or indirect subsidiaries upon the liquidation, reorganization or insolvency is only after the claims of the creditors, including trade creditors and preferred equity holders, are satisfied.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness that could affect our future operations.
As of December 31, 2020, our consolidated mortgages and unsecured indebtedness, excluding related premium, discount and deferred financing costs, net, totaled $7.4 billion. We are subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to meet our required debt service. Our debt service costs generally will not be reduced if developments in the market or at our properties, such as the entry of new competitors or the loss of major tenants, cause a reduction in the income from our properties. Should such events occur, our operations may be adversely affected. If a property is mortgaged to secure payment of indebtedness and income from such property is insufficient to pay that indebtedness, the property could be foreclosed upon by the mortgagee resulting in a loss of income and a decline in our total asset value.
We have outstanding debt, and the amount of debt and its cost may increase and refinancing may not be available on acceptable terms.
We rely on both secured and unsecured, variable rate and non-variable rate debt to finance acquisitions and development activities and for working capital. If we are unable to obtain debt financing or refinance existing indebtedness upon maturity, our financial condition and results of operations would likely be adversely affected. In addition, the cost of our existing debt may increase, especially in the case of a rising interest rate environment, and we may not be able to refinance our existing debt in sufficient amounts or on acceptable terms. If the cost or amount of our indebtedness increases or we cannot refinance our debt in sufficient amounts or on acceptable terms, we are at risk of credit ratings downgrades and default on our obligations that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect results of operations.
The interest rate hedge instruments we use to manage some of our exposure to interest rate volatility involve risk and counterparties may fail to perform under these arrangements. In addition, these arrangements may not be effective in reducing our exposure to interest rate changes and when existing interest rate hedges terminate, we may incur increased costs in putting in place further interest rate hedges. Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our results of operations.

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Covenants in our debt instruments could adversely affect our financial condition and our acquisitions and development activities.
The mortgages on our properties contain customary covenants such as those that limit our ability, without the prior consent of the applicable lender, to further mortgage the applicable property or to discontinue insurance coverage. Our unsecured indebtedness and debt that we may obtain in the future may contain customary restrictions, requirements and other limitations on our ability to incur indebtedness, including covenants that limit our ability to incur debt based upon the level of our ratio of total debt to total assets, our ratio of secured debt to total assets, our ratio of EBITDA to interest expense, and fixed charges, and that require us to maintain a certain ratio of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt. Our ability to borrow is subject to compliance with these and other covenants. In addition, failure to comply with our covenants could cause a default under the applicable debt instrument, and we may then be required to repay such debt with capital from such other sources or give possession of a secured property to the lender. Under those circumstances, other sources of capital may not be available to us or may be available only on unattractive terms.
A downgrade in our credit ratings could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Our credit rating and the credit ratings assigned to our debt securities and our preferred shares could change based upon, among other things, our results of operations and financial condition. These ratings are subject to ongoing evaluation by credit rating agencies, and any rating could be changed or withdrawn by a rating agency in the future if, in its judgment, circumstances warrant such action. Moreover, these credit ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold our common shares or any other securities. If any of the credit rating agencies that have rated our securities downgrades or lowers its credit rating, or if any credit rating agency indicates that it has placed any such rating on a “watch list” for a possible downgrading or lowering, or otherwise indicates that its outlook for that rating is negative, such action could have a material adverse effect on our costs and availability of funding, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, the trading/redemption price of our securities, and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay dividends and distributions to our equity holders.
RISK RELATED TO OUR ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE
Vornado’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust (the “declaration of trust”) sets limits on the ownership of its shares.
Generally, for Vornado to maintain its qualification as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares of beneficial interest of Vornado may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals at any time during the last half of Vornado’s taxable year. The Internal Revenue Code defines “individuals” for purposes of the requirement described in the preceding sentence to include some types of entities. Under Vornado’s declaration of trust, as amended, no person may own more than 6.7% of the outstanding common shares of any class, or 9.9% of the outstanding preferred shares of any class, with some exceptions for persons who held common shares in excess of the 6.7% limit before Vornado adopted the limit and other persons approved by Vornado’s Board of Trustees. In addition, our declaration of trust includes restrictions on ownership of our common shares and preferred shares to preserve our status as a "domestically controlled qualified investment entity" within the meaning of Section 897 (h)(4)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. These restrictions on transferability and ownership may delay, deter or prevent a change in control of Vornado or other transaction that might involve a premium price or otherwise be in the best interest of equity holders.
The Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”) contains provisions that may reduce the likelihood of certain takeover transactions.
The MGCL imposes conditions and restrictions on certain “business combinations” (including, among other transactions, a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance of equity securities) between a Maryland REIT and certain persons who beneficially own at least 10% of the corporation’s stock (an “interested shareholder”). Unless approved in advance by the board of trustees of the trust, or otherwise exempted by the statute, such a business combination is prohibited for a period of five years after the most recent date on which the interested shareholder became an interested shareholder. After such five-year period, a business combination with an interested shareholder must be: (a) recommended by the board of trustees of the trust, and (b) approved by the affirmative vote of at least (i) 80% of the trust’s outstanding shares entitled to vote and (ii) two-thirds of the trust’s outstanding shares entitled to vote which are not held by the interested shareholder with whom the business combination is to be effected, unless, among other things, the trust’s common shareholders receive a “fair price” (as defined by the statute) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested shareholder for his or her shares.
In approving a transaction, Vornado’s Board of Trustees may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the Board of Trustees. Vornado’s Board of Trustees has adopted a resolution exempting any business combination between Vornado and any trustee or officer of Vornado or its affiliates. As a result, any trustee or officer of Vornado or its affiliates may be able to enter into business combinations with Vornado that may not be in the best interest of our equity holders. With respect to business combinations with other persons, the business combination provisions of the MGCL may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of Vornado or other transaction that might involve a premium price or otherwise be in the best interest of our equity holders. The business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of Vornado and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
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Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits our Board of Trustees, without shareholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in our declaration of trust or bylaws, to implement certain takeover defenses, including adopting a classified board or increasing the vote required to remove a trustee. Such takeover defenses may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us under the circumstances that otherwise could provide our common shareholders with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then current market price.
Vornado may issue additional shares in a manner that could adversely affect the likelihood of certain takeover transactions.
Vornado’s declaration of trust authorizes the Board of Trustees to:
cause Vornado to issue additional authorized but unissued common shares or preferred shares;
classify or reclassify, in one or more series, any unissued preferred shares;
set the preferences, rights and other terms of any classified or reclassified shares that Vornado issues; and
increase, without shareholder approval, the number of shares of beneficial interest that Vornado may issue.
Vornado’s Board of Trustees could establish a series of preferred shares whose terms could delay, deter or prevent a change in control of Vornado, and therefore of the Operating Partnership, or other transaction that might involve a premium price or otherwise be in the best interest of our equity holders, although Vornado’s Board of Trustees does not now intend to establish a series of preferred shares of this kind. Vornado’s declaration of trust and bylaws contain other provisions that may delay, deter or prevent a change in control of Vornado or other transaction that might involve a premium price or otherwise be in the best interest of our equity holders.
We may change our policies without obtaining the approval of our equity holders.
Our operating and financial policies, including our policies with respect to acquisitions of real estate or other companies, growth, operations, indebtedness, capitalization, dividends and distributions, are exclusively determined by Vornado’s Board of Trustees. Accordingly, our equity holders do not control these policies.
Steven Roth and Interstate Properties may exercise substantial influence over us. They and some of Vornado’s other trustees and officers have interests or positions in other entities that may compete with us.
As of December 31, 2020, Interstate Properties, a New Jersey general partnership, and its partners beneficially owned an aggregate of approximately 7.0% of the common shares of beneficial interest of Vornado and 26.1% of the common stock of Alexander’s, which is described below. Steven Roth, David Mandelbaum and Russell B. Wight, Jr. are the three partners of Interstate Properties. Mr. Roth is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado, the managing general partner of Interstate Properties, and the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of Alexander’s. Messrs. Wight and Mandelbaum are Trustees of Vornado and Directors of Alexander’s.
Because of these overlapping interests, Mr. Roth and Interstate Properties and its partners may have substantial influence over Vornado, and therefore over the Operating Partnership. In addition, certain decisions concerning our operations or financial structure may present conflicts of interest among Messrs. Roth, Mandelbaum and Wight and Interstate Properties and our other equity holders. In addition, Mr. Roth, Interstate Properties and its partners, and Alexander’s currently and may in the future engage in a wide variety of activities in the real estate business which may result in conflicts of interest with respect to matters affecting us, such as which of these entities or persons, if any, may take advantage of potential business opportunities, the business focus of these entities, the types of properties and geographic locations in which these entities make investments, potential competition between business activities conducted, or sought to be conducted, competition for properties and tenants, possible corporate transactions such as acquisitions and other strategic decisions affecting the future of these entities.
We manage and lease the real estate assets of Interstate Properties under a management agreement for which we receive an annual fee equal to 4% of annual base rent and percentage rent. See Note 23 – Related Party Transactions to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
There may be conflicts of interest between Alexander’s and us.
As of December 31, 2020, we owned 32.4% of the outstanding common stock of Alexander’s. Alexander’s is a REIT that has seven properties, which are located in the greater New York metropolitan area. In addition to the 2.3% that they indirectly own through Vornado, Interstate Properties, which is described above, and its partners owned 26.1% of the outstanding common stock of Alexander’s as of December 31, 2020. Mr. Roth is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado, the managing general partner of Interstate Properties, and the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of Alexander’s. Messrs. Wight and Mandelbaum are Trustees of Vornado and Directors of Alexander’s and general partners of Interstate Properties. Ms. Mandakini Puri and Dr. Richard West are Trustees of Vornado and Directors of Alexander’s. In addition, Matthew Iocco, our Executive Vice President – Chief Accounting Officer, is the Chief Financial Officer of Alexander’s.
We manage, develop and lease Alexander’s properties under management, development and leasing agreements under which we receive annual fees from Alexander’s. These agreements are described in Note 7 - Investments in Partially Owned Entities to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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RISKS RELATED TO OUR COMMON SHARES AND OPERATING PARTNERSHIP CLASS A UNITS
The trading price of Vornado’s common shares has been volatile and may continue to fluctuate. 
The trading price of Vornado’s common shares has been volatile and may continue to fluctuate widely as a result of several factors, many of which are outside our control. In addition, the stock market is subject to fluctuations in the share prices and trading volumes that affect the market prices of the shares of many companies. These broad market fluctuations have in the past and may in the future adversely affect the market price of Vornado’s common shares and the redemption price of the Operating Partnership’s Class A units. In particular, the market price of our common shares has been further adversely impacted since March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors include:
our financial condition and performance;
the financial condition of our tenants, including the extent of tenant bankruptcies or defaults;
actual or anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition;
our dividend policy;
the reputation of REITs and real estate investments generally and the attractiveness of REIT equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate companies, and fixed income securities;
uncertainty and volatility in the equity and credit markets;
fluctuations in interest rates;
changes in revenue or earnings estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to our securities or those of other REITs;
failure to meet analysts’ revenue or earnings estimates;
speculation in the press or investment community;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;
the extent of institutional investor interest in us;
the extent of short-selling of Vornado common shares and the shares of our competitors;
fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;
general financial and economic market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for REITs and other real estate related companies;
domestic and international economic factors unrelated to our performance;
changes in tax laws and rules; and
all other risk factors addressed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
A significant decline in Vornado’s stock price could result in substantial losses for our equity holders.
Vornado has many shares available for future sale, which could hurt the market price of its shares and the redemption price of the Operating Partnership’s units.
The interests of equity holders could be diluted if we issue additional equity securities. As of December 31, 2020, Vornado had authorized but unissued 58,645,321 common shares of beneficial interest, $.04 par value, and 58,386,598 preferred shares of beneficial interest, no par value; of which 21,582,407 common shares are reserved for issuance upon redemption of Class A Operating Partnership units, convertible securities and employee stock options and 11,200,000 preferred shares are reserved for issuance upon redemption of preferred Operating Partnership units. Any shares not reserved may be issued from time to time in public or private offerings or in connection with acquisitions. In addition, common and preferred shares reserved may be sold upon issuance in the public market after registration under the Securities Act or under Rule 144 under the Securities Act or other available exemptions from registration. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of Vornado’s common and preferred shares or Operating Partnership Class A and preferred units will have on the market prices of our securities.
 In addition, under Maryland law, Vornado’s Board of Trustees has the authority to increase the number of authorized shares without shareholder approval.
Loss of our key personnel could harm our operations and adversely affect the value of our common shares and Operating Partnership Class A units.
We are dependent on the efforts of Steven Roth, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado. While we believe that we could find a replacement for him and other key personnel, the loss of their services could harm our operations and adversely affect the value of our securities.
RISKS RELATED TO REGULATORY COMPLIANCE
Vornado may fail to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT and may be required to pay federal income taxes at corporate rates.
Although we believe that Vornado will remain organized and will continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, Vornado may fail to remain so qualified. Qualifications are governed by highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations and depend on various facts and circumstances that are not entirely within our control. In addition, legislation, new regulations, administrative
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interpretations or court decisions may significantly change the relevant tax laws and/or the federal income tax consequences of qualifying as a REIT. If, with respect to any taxable year, Vornado fails to maintain its qualification as a REIT and does not qualify under statutory relief provisions, Vornado could not deduct distributions to shareholders in computing our taxable income and would have to pay federal income tax on its taxable income at regular corporate rates. The federal income tax payable would include any applicable alternative minimum tax. If Vornado had to pay federal income tax, the amount of money available to distribute to equity holders and pay its indebtedness would be reduced for the year or years involved, and Vornado would not be required to make distributions to shareholders in that taxable year and in future years until it was able to qualify as a REIT and did so. In addition, Vornado would also be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost, unless Vornado were entitled to relief under the relevant statutory provisions.
We may face possible adverse federal tax audits and changes in federal tax laws, which may result in an increase in our tax liability.
In the normal course of business, certain entities through which we own real estate either have undergone or may undergo tax audits. Although we believe that we have substantial arguments in favor of our positions, in some instances there is no controlling precedent or interpretive guidance. There can be no assurance that audits will not occur with increased frequency or that the ultimate result of such audits will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
    At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended, including with respect to our hotel ownership structure. We cannot predict if or when any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation, or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, Treasury regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation, or interpretation may take effect retroactively. Vornado, its taxable REIT subsidiaries, and our securityholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, U.S. federal income tax law, Treasury regulation or administrative interpretation.
We may face possible adverse state and local tax audits and changes in state and local tax law.
Because Vornado is organized and qualifies as a REIT, it is generally not subject to federal income taxes, but we are subject to certain state and local taxes. In the normal course of business, certain entities through which we own real estate either have undergone, or are currently undergoing, tax audits. Although we believe that we have substantial arguments in favor of our positions in the ongoing audits, in some instances there is no controlling precedent or interpretive guidance on the specific point at issue. There can be no assurance that audits will not occur with increased frequency or that the ultimate result of such audits will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
From time to time changes in state and local tax laws or regulations are enacted, which may result in an increase in our tax liability. A shortfall in tax revenues for states and municipalities in which we operate may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes including changes in laws, regulations and administration of property and transfer taxes. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional taxes on our assets or income. These increased tax costs could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and the amount of cash available for the payment of dividends and distributions to our security holders.
Compliance or failure to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA") or other safety regulations and requirements could result in substantial costs.
ADA generally requires that public buildings, including our properties, meet certain Federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines by the Federal government or the award of damages to private litigants and/or legal fees to their counsel. From time to time persons have asserted claims against us with respect to some of our properties under the ADA, but to date such claims have not resulted in any material expense or liability. If, under the ADA, we are required to make substantial alterations and capital expenditures in one or more of our properties, including the removal of access barriers, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the amount of cash available for distribution to equity holders.
Our properties are subject to various federal, state and local regulatory requirements, such as state and local fire and life safety requirements. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we could incur fines or private damage awards. We do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether compliance with future requirements will require significant unanticipated expenditures that will affect our cash flow and results of operations.
We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws and environmental contamination may impair our ability to lease and/or sell real estate.
Our operations and properties are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations concerning the protection of the environment, including air and water quality, hazardous or toxic substances and health and safety. Under some environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances released at a property. The owner or operator may also be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage or personal injuries and for investigation and clean-up costs incurred by those parties because of the contamination. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of the release of the substances or caused the release. The
19


presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination may also impair our ability to sell or lease real estate or to borrow using the real estate as collateral. Other laws and regulations govern indoor and outdoor air quality including those that can require the abatement or removal of asbestos-containing materials in the event of damage, demolition, renovation or remodeling and govern emissions of and exposure to asbestos fibers in the air. The maintenance and removal of lead paint and certain electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are also regulated by federal and state laws. We are also subject to risks associated with human exposure to chemical or biological contaminants such as molds, pollens, viruses and bacteria which, above certain levels, can be alleged to be connected to allergic or other health effects and symptoms in susceptible individuals. Our predecessor companies may be subject to similar liabilities for activities of those companies in the past. We could incur fines for environmental compliance and be held liable for the costs of remedial action with respect to the foregoing regulated substances or related claims arising out of environmental contamination or human exposure to contamination at or from our properties.
 Each of our properties has been subject to varying degrees of environmental assessment. To date, these environmental assessments have not revealed any environmental condition material to our business. However, identification of new compliance concerns or undiscovered areas of contamination, changes in the extent or known scope of contamination, human exposure to contamination or changes in clean-up or compliance requirements could result in significant costs to us.
In addition, we may become subject to costs or taxes, or increases therein, associated with natural resource or energy usage (such as a “carbon tax”). These costs or taxes could increase our operating costs and decrease the cash available to pay our obligations or distribute to equity holders.
GENERAL RISKS
The occurrence of cyber incidents, or a deficiency in our cyber security, as well as other disruptions of our IT networks and related systems, could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships or reputation, all of which could negatively impact our financial results.
We face risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, persons who access our systems from inside or outside our organization, and other significant disruptions of our IT networks and related systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Although we have not experienced cyber incidents that are individually, or in the aggregate, material, we have experienced cyber attacks in the past, which have thus far been mitigated by preventative, detective, and responsive measures that we have put in place. Our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations (including managing our building systems) and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain of our tenants. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Unauthorized parties, whether within or outside our company, may disrupt or gain access to our systems, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through human error, misfeasance, fraud, trickery, or other forms of deceit, including break-ins, use of stolen credentials, social engineering, phishing, computer viruses or other malicious codes, and similar means of unauthorized and destructive tampering. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed to not be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.
A security breach or other significant disruption involving our IT networks and related systems could disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of certain of our tenants; result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or which could expose us to damage claims by third-parties for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes; result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our tenants for the efficient use of their leased space; require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result; subject us to litigation claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, fines, penalties, governmental investigations and enforcement actions or termination of leases or other agreements; or damage our reputation among our tenants and investors generally. Any or all of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A cyber attack or systems failure could interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting requirements, which could adversely affect us. A cyber attack could also compromise the confidential information of our employees, tenants, customers and vendors. A successful attack could disrupt and materially affect our business operations, including damaging relationships with tenants, customers and vendors. Any compromise of our information security systems could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information (which
20


may be confidential, proprietary and/or commercially sensitive in nature) and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.
Competition for acquisitions may reduce the number of acquisition opportunities available to us and increase the costs of those acquisitions.
We may acquire properties when we are presented with attractive opportunities. We may face competition for acquisition opportunities from other well-capitalized investors, including publicly traded and privately held REITs, private real estate funds, domestic and foreign financial institutions, life insurance companies, sovereign wealth funds, pension trusts, partnerships and individual investors, which may adversely affect us because that competition may cause an increase in the purchase price for a desired acquisition property or result in a competitor acquiring the desired property instead of us.
If we are unable to successfully acquire additional properties, our ability to grow our business could be adversely affected. In addition, increases in the cost of acquisition opportunities could adversely affect our results of operations.
Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined and phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.
The chief executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority ("FCA"), which regulates the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), previously announced that the FCA intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. In response, the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York organized the Alternative Reference Rates Committee which identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") as its preferred alternative to USD-LIBOR in derivatives and other financial contracts. In November 2020, the ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the benchmark administrator for USD LIBOR rates, proposed extending the publication of certain commonly-used USD LIBOR settings until June 30, 2023 and the FCA issued a statement supporting such proposal. In connection with this proposal, certain U.S. banking regulators issued guidance strongly encouraging banks to generally cease entering into new contracts referencing USD LIBOR as soon as practicable and in any event by December 31, 2021. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, including when LIBOR will cease to be available or when there will be sufficient liquidity in the SOFR markets.
We have outstanding debt and derivatives with variable rates that are indexed to LIBOR. In the transition from the use of LIBOR to SOFR or other alternatives, the level of interest payments we incur may change. In addition, although certain of our LIBOR based obligations provide for alternative methods of calculating the interest rate payable on certain of our obligations (including transition to an alternative benchmark rate) if LIBOR is not reported and we have been entering into amendments to certain of our financing agreements to provide for alternative benchmark rates if LIBOR is discontinued, uncertainty as to the extent and manner of future changes may result in interest rates and/or payments that are higher than or lower than or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the interest rates and/or payments that would have been made on our obligations if LIBOR was available in its current form. Use of alternative interest rates or other LIBOR reforms could result in increased volatility or a tightening of credit markets which could adversely affect our ability to obtain cost-effective financing. In addition, the transition of our existing LIBOR financing agreements to alternative benchmarks may result in unanticipated changes to the overall interest rate paid on our liabilities.
Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance.
For our properties (except Farley), we maintain general liability insurance with limits of $300,000,000 per occurrence and per property, of which $235,000,000 includes communicable disease coverage, and we maintain all risk property and rental value insurance with limits of $2.0 billion per occurrence, with sub-limits for certain perils such as flood and earthquake and effective February 15, 2021, excluding communicable disease coverage. Our California properties have earthquake insurance with coverage of $350,000,000 per occurrence and in the aggregate, subject to a deductible in the amount of 5% of the value of the affected property. We maintain coverage for certified terrorism acts with limits of $6.0 billion per occurrence and in the aggregate (as listed below), $1.2 billion for non-certified acts of terrorism, and $5.0 billion per occurrence and in the aggregate for terrorism involving nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological (“NBCR”) terrorism events, as defined by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, as amended to date and which has been extended through December 2027.
Penn Plaza Insurance Company, LLC (“PPIC”), our wholly owned consolidated subsidiary, acts as a re-insurer with respect to a portion of all risk property and rental value insurance and a portion of our earthquake insurance coverage, and as a direct insurer for coverage for acts of terrorism including NBCR acts. Coverage for acts of terrorism (excluding NBCR acts) is fully reinsured by third party insurance companies and the Federal government with no exposure to PPIC. For NBCR acts, PPIC is responsible for a deductible of $1,759,257 and 20% of the balance of a covered loss and the Federal government is responsible for the remaining portion of a covered loss. We are ultimately responsible for any loss incurred by PPIC.
For Farley, we maintain general liability insurance with limits of $100,000,000 per occurrence, and builder’s risk insurance including coverage for existing property and development activities of $2.8 billion per occurrence and in the aggregate. We maintain coverage for certified and non-certified terrorism acts with limits of $1.85 billion and $1.17 billion per occurrence, respectively, and in the aggregate.
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We continue to monitor the state of the insurance market and the scope and costs of coverage for acts of terrorism and other events. However, we cannot anticipate what coverage will be available on commercially reasonable terms in the future. We are responsible for uninsured losses and for deductibles and losses in excess of our insurance coverage, which could be material.
Our debt instruments, consisting of mortgage loans secured by our properties, senior unsecured notes and revolving credit agreements contain customary covenants requiring us to maintain insurance. Although we believe that we have adequate insurance coverage for purposes of these agreements, we may not be able to obtain an equivalent amount of coverage at reasonable costs in the future. Further, if lenders insist on greater coverage than we are able to obtain it could adversely affect our ability to finance or refinance our properties and expand our portfolio.
ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
There are no unresolved comments from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
We operate in two reportable segments: New York and Other. The following pages provide details of our real estate properties as of December 31, 2020.
   
 
Square Feet
NEW YORK SEGMENT
Property
%
Ownership
Type%
Occupancy
 
In ServiceUnder
Development
or Not
Available
for Lease
Total
Property
PENN1 (ground leased through 2098)(1)
100.0 %Office / Retail85.4 %
 
2,202,000 343,000 2,545,000 
1290 Avenue of the Americas70.0 %Office / Retail98.7 %
 
2,118,000 — 2,118,000 
PENN2100.0 %Office / Retail100.0 %
 
433,000 1,187,000 1,620,000 
909 Third Avenue (ground leased through 2063)(1)
100.0 %Office98.6 %
 
1,350,000 — 1,350,000 
280 Park Avenue(2)
50.0 %Office / Retail97.3 % 1,262,000 — 1,262,000 
Independence Plaza, Tribeca (1,327 units)(2)
50.1 %Retail / Residential100.0 %
(3)
1,245,000 13,000 1,258,000 
770 Broadway100.0 %Office / Retail99.3 %
 
1,182,000 — 1,182,000 
PENN11100.0 %Office / Retail99.4 %
 
1,153,000 — 1,153,000 
90 Park Avenue100.0 %Office / Retail98.8 %
 
956,000 — 956,000 
One Park Avenue(2)
55.0 %Office / Retail99.2 %
 
943,000 — 943,000 
888 Seventh Avenue (ground leased through 2067)(1)
100.0 %Office / Retail90.6 %
 
885,000 — 885,000 
100 West 33rd Street100.0 %Office100.0 %
 
859,000 — 859,000 
Farley Office and Retail
      (ground and building leased through 2116)(1)
95.0 %Office / Retail(4)— 844,000 844,000 
330 West 34th Street (65.2% ground leased through 2149)(1)
100.0 %Office / Retail73.0 %
 
724,000 — 724,000 
85 Tenth Avenue(2)
49.9 %Office / Retail71.4 %
 
627,000 — 627,000 
650 Madison Avenue(2)
20.1 %Office / Retail96.7 %
 
601,000 — 601,000 
350 Park Avenue100.0 %Office / Retail97.9 %
 
574,000 — 574,000 
150 East 58th Street(5)
100.0 %Office / Retail89.4 %
 
544,000 — 544,000 
7 West 34th Street(2)
53.0 %Office / Retail99.6 %
 
477,000 — 477,000 
33-00 Northern Boulevard (Center Building)100.0 %Office99.6 %
 
471,000 — 471,000 
595 Madison Avenue100.0 %Office / Retail77.7 %
 
333,000 — 333,000 
640 Fifth Avenue(2)
52.0 %Office / Retail95.7 %
 
315,000 — 315,000 
50-70 W 93rd Street (325 units)(2)
49.9 %Residential 84.6 %
 
283,000 — 283,000 
Manhattan Mall100.0 %Retail13.4 %
 
256,000 — 256,000 
40 Fulton Street100.0 %Office / Retail75.7 %
 
251,000 — 251,000 
4 Union Square South100.0 %Retail94.5 %
 
204,000 — 204,000 
61 Ninth Avenue (2 buildings) (ground leased through 2115)(1)(2)
45.1 %Office / Retail94.5 % 192,000 — 192,000 
260 Eleventh Avenue (ground leased through 2114)(1)
100.0 %Office100.0 %
 
184,000 — 184,000 
512 W 22nd Street(2)
55.0 %Office / Retail42.0 %
 
173,000 — 173,000 
825 Seventh Avenue51.2 %
Office (2) / Retail
(4)— 169,000 169,000 
1540 Broadway(2)
52.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
161,000 — 161,000 
Paramus100.0 %Office85.2 %
 
129,000 — 129,000 
666 Fifth Avenue (2)(6)
52.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
114,000 — 114,000 
1535 Broadway(2)
52.0 %Retail / Theatre98.2 %
 
107,000 — 107,000 
57th Street (2 buildings)(2)
50.0 %Office / Retail87.8 %
 
103,000 — 103,000 
689 Fifth Avenue(2)
52.0 %Office / Retail85.3 %
 
98,000 — 98,000 
478-486 Broadway (2 buildings) (10 units)100.0 %Retail / Residential100.0 %
(3)
35,000 53,000 88,000 
150 West 34th Street100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
78,000 — 78,000 
510 Fifth Avenue100.0 %Retail51.5 %
 
66,000 — 66,000 
655 Fifth Avenue(2)
50.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
57,000 — 57,000 
155 Spring Street100.0 %Retail97.3 %
 
50,000 — 50,000 
435 Seventh Avenue100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
43,000 — 43,000 
________________________________________
See notes on page 25.
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ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES – CONTINUED
   Square Feet
NEW YORK SEGMENT – CONTINUED
Property
%
Ownership
Type%
Occupancy
In ServiceUnder
Development
or Not
Available
for Lease
Total
Property
692 Broadway100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
36,000 — 36,000 
606 Broadway50.0 %Office / Retail100.0 %
 
36,000 — 36,000 
697-703 Fifth Avenue(2)
44.8 %Retail100.0 %
 
26,000 — 26,000 
759-771 Madison Avenue (40 East 66th Street (5 units))100.0 %Retail / Residential76.1 %
(3)
26,000 — 26,000 
1131 Third Avenue100.0 %Retail100.0 %23,000 — 23,000 
131-135 West 33rd Street100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
23,000 — 23,000 
715 Lexington Avenue100.0 %Retail100.0 % 10,000 12,000 22,000 
828-850 Madison Avenue100.0 %Retail100.0 % 13,000 5,000 18,000 
443 Broadway100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
16,000 — 16,000 
334 Canal Street (4 units)100.0 %Retail / Residential100.0 %
(3)
15,000 — 15,000 
537 West 26th Street100.0 %Event space— %— 14,000 14,000 
304 Canal Street (4 units)100.0 %Retail / Residential100.0 %
(3)
13,000 — 13,000 
677-679 Madison Avenue (8 units)100.0 %Retail / Residential100.0 %
(3)
13,000 — 13,000 
431 Seventh Avenue100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
10,000 — 10,000 
138-142 West 32nd Street100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
8,000 — 8,000 
148 Spring Street100.0 %Retail72.7 %
 
8,000 — 8,000 
339 Greenwich Street100.0 %Retail100.0 %8,000 — 8,000 
150 Spring Street (1 unit)100.0 %Retail / Residential100.0 %
(3)
7,000 — 7,000 
966 Third Avenue100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
7,000 — 7,000 
968 Third Avenue(2)
50.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
7,000 — 7,000 
137 West 33rd Street100.0 %Retail100.0 %
 
3,000 — 3,000 
57th Street(2)
50.0 %Land(4)— — — 
Eighth Avenue and 34th Street100.0 %Land(4)— — — 
Other (3 buildings)100.0 %Retail 84.8 %16,000 — 16,000 
Hotel Pennsylvania(7)
100.0 %Hoteln/a
 
— 1,400,000 1,400,000 
Alexander's, Inc.:   
 
   
731 Lexington Avenue(2)
32.4 %Office / Retail99.0 %
 
1,075,000 — 1,075,000 
Rego Park II, Queens (6.6 acres)(2)
32.4 %Retail96.3 %
 
609,000 — 609,000 
Rego Park I, Queens (4.8 acres)(2)
32.4 %Retail100.0 %
 
260,000 78,000 338,000 
The Alexander Apartment Tower, Queens (312 units)(2)
32.4 %Residential82.4 %
 
255,000 — 255,000 
Flushing, Queens (1.0 acre ground leased through 2037)(1)(2)
32.4 %Retail100.0 %
 
167,000 — 167,000 
Paramus, New Jersey (30.3 acres
ground leased to IKEA through 2041)(1)(2)
32.4 %Land100.0 %
 
— — — 
Rego Park III, Queens (3.4 acres)(2)
32.4 %Land(4)— — — 
Total New York Segment 92.7 %
 
24,528,000 4,118,000 28,646,000 
Our Ownership Interest  92.1 %
 
18,777,000 3,935,000 22,712,000 
________________________________________
See notes on page 25.

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ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES – CONTINUED