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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                    
Commission file number 001-35961
lbtya-20201231_g1.jpg
Liberty Global plc
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
England and Wales 98-1112770
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Griffin House 
161 Hammersmith Rd
London
United KingdomW6 8BS
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +44.208.483.6449 or 303.220.6600
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A ordinary sharesLBTYANasdaq Global Select Market
Class B ordinary sharesLBTYBNasdaq Global Select Market
Class C ordinary sharesLBTYKNasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: none
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Check one:
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and ask price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $12.3 billion.
The number of outstanding ordinary shares of Liberty Global plc as of January 31, 2021 was: 181,355,249 shares of class A ordinary shares, 12,561,444 shares of class B ordinary shares and 383,495,825 shares of class C ordinary shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive proxy statement for the Registrant’s 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.



LIBERTY GLOBAL PLC
2020 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  Page
Number
PART I
Item 1.
Business
I-1
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
I-31
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
I-43
Item 2.
Properties
I-43
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
I-43
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
I-43
PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
II-1
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
II-4
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
II-36
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
II-41
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
II-41
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
II-41
Item 9B.
Other Information
II-41
PART III
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
III-1
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
III-1
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters
III-1
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
III-1
Item 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
III-1
PART IV
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
IV-1
Item 16.Form 10-K Summary
IV-6






PART I

Item 1.    BUSINESS

Who We Are
We are Liberty Global plc (Liberty Global), an international converged broadband internet, video, fixed-line telephony and mobile services company. We are focused on building a strong convergence of fixed and mobile communication opportunities, and we are constantly striving to enhance and simplify our customers’ lives through quality services and products that give them the freedom to connect, converse, work and be entertained anytime, anywhere they choose. To that end, we deliver market-leading products through next-generation networks that connect customers subscribing to 49.3 million (at December 31, 2020) broadband internet, video, fixed-line telephony and mobile services across our brands. Our primary business operations are listed below, all of which we consolidate, with the exception of the VodafoneZiggo JV (defined below). We also have significant investments in ITV plc, Skillz Inc., All3Media Group, Univision Holdings Inc., CANAL+ Polska S.A. (formerly known as ITI Neovision S.A.), EdgeConneX Inc., Lions Gate Entertainment Corp, the Formula E racing series and several regional sports networks.

Primary Business Operations:
BrandEntityLocation
Ownership(1)
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Virgin MediaUnited Kingdom & Ireland100.0%
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TelenetBelgium 60.7%
lbtya-20201231_g4.jpg (2)
UPC Switzerland
Sunrise
SwitzerlandUPC Switzerland 100%
Sunrise 98.9%
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UPC PolandPoland100.0%
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UPC SlovakiaSlovakia100.0%
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VodafoneZiggoNetherlands50.0%
(1)As of December 31, 2020.
(2)UPC Switzerland and Sunrise are referred to throughout the document as Sunrise UPC; however the two entities are currently operating independently until the statutory “squeeze-out” procedure under Swiss law is completed and the entities can fully integrate. For more information see General Development of Business - Expansion and Acquisition discussion below and note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
I-1


General Development of Business
As a result of a series of mergers that were completed on June 7, 2013, Liberty Global became the publicly-held parent company of the successors by merger of Liberty Global, Inc. (the predecessor to Liberty Global) and Virgin Media Inc. (Virgin Media). In the following text, the terms “we”, “our”, “our company” and “us” may refer, as the context requires, to Liberty Global (or its predecessor) or collectively to Liberty Global (or its predecessor) and its subsidiaries. Unless otherwise indicated, convenience translations into United States (U.S.) dollars are calculated as of December 31, 2020, and operational data, including subscriber statistics and ownership percentages, are as of December 31, 2020.
Acquisitions and Dispositions

We have also completed a number of strategic acquisitions and dispositions over the last several years. We made these acquisitions and dispositions in order to execute on our strategy to focus on markets where we have focused on creating national champion converged businesses in core markets and to unlock significant synergies. Our significant acquisitions include:

On November 11, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Sunrise Communications Group AG (Sunrise) through the settlement of the all cash public tender offer to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Sunrise (the Sunrise Acquisition). As of December 31, 2020, Liberty Global holds 98.9% of the share capital of Sunrise and has initiated a statutory “squeeze-out” procedure according to applicable Swiss law pursuant to which we will acquire the remaining Sunrise Shares that we do not yet own. This “squeeze-out” procedure is expected to be completed during the first half of 2021.
On June 3, 2019, Telenet Group Holding N.V. (Telenet) acquired the remaining 50.0% of De Vijver Media NV (De Vijver Media) that it did not already own (the De Vijver Media Acquisition). De Vijver Media provides content production, broadcasting and advertising services in Belgium.
On June 19, 2017, Telenet acquired Coditel Brabant sprl, operating under the brand name SFR BeLux (SFR BeLux), which provided broadband operations in Belgium (Brussels and Wallonia) and Luxembourg.
On May 16, 2016, we acquired Cable & Wireless Communications Limited (C&W), a provider of telecommunication services, including mobile and high-speed broadband, focused in Latin America and the Caribbean. In connection with the Split-off Transaction referenced below under —Dispositions, we have since transferred C&W to Liberty Latin America Ltd. (Liberty Latin America).
On February 11, 2016, Telenet acquired BASE Company N.V. (BASE), the third-largest mobile network operator in Belgium.
For additional information on our acquisitions see note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, we have completed various other smaller acquisitions in the normal course of business.
We have completed the following dispositions during the past several years:
On July 31, 2019, we completed the sale of our operations in Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic to Vodafone Group plc (Vodafone). The operations of Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic are collectively referred to herein as the “Vodafone Disposal Group.” In connection with the sale of the Vodafone Disposal Group, we have agreed to provide certain transitional services to Vodafone for a period of up to four years. These services principally comprise network and information technology-related functions.
On May 2, 2019, we completed the sale of our direct-to-home satellite (DTH) operations, which serves customers in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania (UPC DTH) to M7 Group (M7). In connection with the sale of UPC DTH, we have agreed to provide certain transitional services to M7 for a period of up to two years. These services principally comprise network and information technology-related functions.
On July 31, 2018, we completed the sale of our Austrian operations (UPC Austria) to Deutsche Telekom AG (Deutsche Telekom). In connection with the sale of UPC Austria, we have agreed to provide certain transitional services to Deutsche Telekom for a period of up to four years. These services principally comprise network and information technology-related functions.
On December 29, 2017, we effected the split-off of our LiLAC Group (the Split-off Transaction) by distributing 100% of the common shares of Liberty Latin America to holders of our then LiLAC ordinary shares. The “LiLAC Group” consisted of our businesses, assets and liabilities in Latin America and the Caribbean, including C&W, VTR.com SpA, a 60% interest in Liberty Cablevision of Puerto Rico LLC and related cash and cash equivalents and
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indebtedness. Following such distribution, the LiLAC Shares were redesignated as deferred shares (with virtually no economic rights) and subsequently canceled. In connection with the Split-off Transaction, Liberty Latin America became a separate publicly traded company.
On December 31, 2016, our company and Vodafone contributed our respective operations in the Netherlands to VodafoneZiggo Group Holding B.V., a 50:50 joint venture (referred to herein as the VodafoneZiggo JV). We treat the VodafoneZiggo JV as an equity investment.
For additional information on our more recent dispositions, see note 6 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We have also completed various other smaller dispositions in the normal course of business and as required by regulatory authorities in connection with approving certain of our acquisitions. Further, we are evaluating a change in jurisdiction of incorporation to Bermuda, which has U.S.-style corporate laws and lower administrative costs. To the extent the Company determines to move forward with any re-domicile transaction, we would seek shareholder approval in advance.

Pending Transactions

On May 7, 2020, we entered into a Contribution Agreement (the Contribution Agreement) with, among others, Telefonica SA (Telefónica). Pursuant to the Contribution Agreement, Liberty Global and Telefónica agreed to form a 50:50 joint venture (the U.K. JV), which will combine Virgin Media’s operations in the U.K. along with certain other Liberty Global subsidiaries created as a result of the pending U.K. JV (together, the U.K. JV Entities) with Telefónica’s mobile business in the U.K. to create a nationwide integrated communications provider.

The consummation of the transaction contemplated by the Contribution Agreement is subject to certain conditions, including competition clearance by the applicable regulatory authorities. The Contribution Agreement also includes customary termination rights, including a right of the parties to terminate the agreement if the transaction has not closed within 24 months following the date of the Contribution Agreement, which may be extended by six months under certain circumstances.
Network Expansion and Upgrades
We have expanded our broadband footprint through new build projects and strategically selected acquisitions. Our new build projects consist of network extension programs pursuant to which we connect additional homes and businesses to our broadband communications network (Network Extensions). Our investment in Network Extensions is critical not only for our business to grow, but also for the countries and communities in which we operate. The Network Extensions, together with upgrades to our existing networks and next generation customer premises equipment, provide our customers the means to enter the gigaworld society. During 2020, through our Network Extensions, we connected approximately 561,000 additional residential and commercial premises (excluding upgrades) to our networks, including approximately 426,000 residential and commercial premises connected by Virgin Media in the United Kingdom (U.K.), and Ireland. We expect to continue the Network Extensions in 2021. Depending on a variety of factors, however, including the financial and operations results of our new build programs, the Network Extensions may be continued, modified or cancelled at our discretion.

Equity Transactions

Share repurchases are an important part of our strategy in returning value to our shareholders. Pursuant to our share repurchase programs authorized by our board of directors, we have repurchased a significant amount of our shares since our inception in 2005. During 2020, our share repurchases were:
Title of sharesNumber of shares
Average price paid per share(1)
Aggregate purchase price(1)
in millions
Class A ordinary shares1,309,000 $22.38 $29.4 
Class C ordinary shares54,473,323 $19.15 $1,043.2 
_______________

(1)Amounts include direct acquisition costs.
At December 31, 2020, the remaining amount authorized for share repurchases was $1.0 billion. For a further description of our share repurchases, see note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Forward Looking Statements
Certain statements in this Annual Report constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. To the extent that statements in this Annual Report are not recitations of historical fact, such statements constitute forward-looking statements, which, by definition, involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. In particular, statements under Item 1. Business, Item 1A. Risk Factors, Item 2. Properties, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk may contain forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our business, product, foreign currency and finance strategies, our property and equipment additions (including with respect to Network Extensions), subscriber growth and retention rates, competitive, regulatory and economic factors, the timing and impacts of proposed transactions, the maturity of our markets, the potential impact of the recent outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) on our company, the anticipated impacts of new legislation (or changes to existing rules and regulations), anticipated changes in our revenue, costs or growth rates, our liquidity, credit risks, foreign currency risks, interest rate risks, target leverage levels, debt covenants, our future projected contractual commitments and cash flows and other information and statements that are not historical fact. Where, in any forward-looking statement, we express an expectation or belief as to future results or events, such expectation or belief is expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. In evaluating these statements, you should consider the risks and uncertainties discussed under Item 1A. Risk Factors and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, as well as the following list of some but not all of the factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from anticipated results or events:
economic and business conditions and industry trends in the countries in which we or our affiliates operate;
the competitive environment in the industries in the countries in which we or our affiliates operate, including competitor responses to our products and services;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and interest rates;
instability in global financial markets, including sovereign debt issues and related fiscal reforms;
consumer disposable income and spending levels, including the availability and amount of individual consumer debt;
changes in consumer television viewing and broadband usage preferences and habits;
consumer acceptance of our existing service offerings, including our cable television, broadband internet, fixed-line telephony, mobile and business service offerings, and of new technology, programming alternatives and other products and services that we may offer in the future;
our ability to manage rapid technological changes;
our ability to maintain or increase the number of subscriptions to our cable television, broadband internet, fixed-line telephony and mobile service offerings and our average revenue per household;
our ability to provide satisfactory customer service, including support for new and evolving products and services;
our ability to maintain or increase rates to our subscribers or to pass through increased costs to our subscribers;
the impact of our future financial performance, or market conditions generally, on the availability, terms and deployment of capital;
changes in, or failure or inability to comply with, government regulations in the countries in which we or our affiliates operate and adverse outcomes from regulatory proceedings;
government intervention that requires opening our broadband distribution networks to competitors, such as the obligations imposed in Belgium;
our ability to obtain regulatory approval and shareholder approval and satisfy other conditions necessary to close acquisitions and dispositions and the impact of conditions imposed by competition and other regulatory authorities in connection with acquisitions;
our ability to successfully acquire new businesses and, if acquired, to integrate, realize anticipated efficiencies from, and implement our business plan with respect to, the businesses we have acquired or that we expect to acquire;
changes in laws or treaties relating to taxation, or the interpretation thereof, in the U.K., the U.S. or in other countries in which we or our affiliates operate;
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changes in laws and government regulations that may impact the availability and cost of capital and the derivative instruments that hedge certain of our financial risks;
our ability to navigate the potential impacts on our business of the U.K.’s departure from the E.U.;
the ability of suppliers and vendors (including our third-party wireless network providers under our mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) arrangements) to timely deliver quality products, equipment, software, services and access;
the availability of attractive programming for our video services and the costs associated with such programming, including retransmission and copyright fees payable to public and private broadcasters;
uncertainties inherent in the development and integration of new business lines and business strategies;
our ability to adequately forecast and plan future network requirements, including the costs and benefits associated with the planned Network Extensions;
the availability of capital for the acquisition and/or development of telecommunications networks and services;
problems we may discover post-closing with the operations, including the internal controls and financial reporting process, of businesses we acquire;
the leakage of sensitive customer data;
the outcome of any pending or threatened litigation;
the loss of key employees and the availability of qualified personnel;
changes in the nature of key strategic relationships with partners and joint venturers;
our equity capital structure; and
events that are outside of our control, such as political unrest in international markets, terrorist attacks, malicious human acts, natural disasters, epidemics, pandemics (such as COVID-19) and other similar events.
The broadband distribution and mobile service industries are changing rapidly and, therefore, the forward-looking statements of expectations, plans and intent in this Annual Report are subject to a significant degree of risk. These forward-looking statements and the above-described risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to disseminate any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement.

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Description of Business
We are one of the world’s leading converged video, broadband and communications companies, with a commitment to providing our customers the “best in class” communications and entertainment services. These services are delivered to our residential and business customers over our networks and include broadband internet, video, telephony and mobile services. Telenet, the VodafoneZiggo JV and Sunrise UPC deliver mobile services as mobile network operators, and Virgin Media, UPC Poland and UPC Slovakia deliver mobile services as MVNOs through third-party networks. Sunrise UPC also delivers mobile services as a MVNO pursuant to a legacy contract prior to the Sunrise acquisition. We design our services to enable our customers to access the digital world on their own terms and at their own pace. Offering “best in class” connectivity is at the core of our strategy. Today, our extensive broadband network enables us to deliver ultra high-speed internet service across our markets, be it through fiber, cable or mobile technology. We are striving to extend our reach and reinforce our speed leadership. In most of our footprint we offer converged fixed and mobile experiences in and out of the home, and it is our ambition to further enhance this proposition and make it available to all our customers.

We provide residential and business telecommunication services in the U.K. and Ireland through Virgin Media, Belgium through Telenet, Switzerland through Sunrise UPC, Poland through UPC Poland and Slovakia through UPC Slovakia. In terms of video subscribers, we operate the largest cable network in each of these countries, except in Poland, where we operate the second largest cable network. We also have investments in the VodafoneZiggo JV, which operates the largest cable network in the Netherlands, and in various content businesses.
A breakdown of our revenue by major category for our consolidated reportable segments appears in note 20 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
By connecting our customers through our telecommunication services, we recognize that we are a global corporate citizen and that we play a role in addressing the environmental impacts generated through our business. By seeking to address these issues, we strengthen our company and provide strong benefits to the communities in which we operate. We remain a leader in our sector on climate change with an unwavering commitment to reducing our impact on the environment. In 2019 we continued to improve our operations to meet our new 2030 and 2050 science-based targets in line with the Paris Climate Accord. In fact, we were 40 times more carbon efficient compared to 2012. We also avoided more than 11,000 metric tons of carbon emissions and 2,500 metric tons of e-waste through our various environmental initiatives. Our gigabit broadband deployments in cities throughout our operating territories and efforts to accelerate the transition to 5G will underpin a low carbon economy, while revolutionizing healthcare, flexible working regimes and countless other aspects of our lives. Diversity and inclusion have long been priorities for Liberty Global and our operating companies, and will become even more integral moving forward. Over the past several years, Liberty Global, Virgin Media, VodafoneZiggo, Telenet and UPC Poland have all pursued gender diversity as strategic goals, with an emphasis on building a gender-diverse pipeline. Similarly, inclusion is a key focus area and we are committed to providing an environment that empowers everyone to bring their full selves to work while creating more inviting workplaces regardless of age, race, gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation.



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Liberty Global Statistics

The following tables present certain operating data as of December 31, 2020, with respect to the networks of our consolidated subsidiaries. The following tables reflect 100% of the data applicable to each of our subsidiaries regardless of our ownership percentage.


Consolidated Operating Data - December 31, 2020
 
 Homes
Passed
(1)
Fixed-Line Customer
Relationships
(2)
Total
RGUs
(3)
Video
Internet Subscribers
(4)
Basic Video Subscribers
(5)
Enhanced Video
Subscribers
(6)
Total
Video
Telephony Subscribers
(7)
Mobile Subscribers (8)
United Kingdom15,310,800 5,626,700 13,381,300 5,420,100 — 3,498,000 3,498,000 4,463,200 3,358,300 
Belgium3,373,000 2,048,100 4,680,600 1,697,100 123,700 1,688,000 1,811,700 1,171,800 2,815,700 
Switzerland (9)2,406,300 1,477,400 3,367,900 1,135,800 342,000 893,500 1,235,500 996,600 2,181,300 
Ireland946,500 435,200 992,500 383,000 — 309,500 309,500 300,000 119,600 
Poland3,635,200 1,525,000 3,267,500 1,289,700 255,000 1,079,800 1,334,800 643,000 62,700 
Slovakia624,300 190,600 403,800 144,000 31,200 139,700 170,900 88,900 — 
Total Liberty Global26,296,100 11,303,000 26,093,600 10,069,700 751,900 7,608,500 8,360,400 7,663,500 8,537,600 
VodafoneZiggo JV (10)7,298,700 3,836,300 9,467,600 3,363,500 504,900 3,326,400 3,831,300 2,272,800 5,189,800 

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__________________
(1)Homes Passed are homes, residential multiple dwelling units or commercial units that can be connected to our networks without materially extending the distribution plant. Certain of our Homes Passed counts are based on census data that can change based on either revisions to the data or from new census results. Due to the fact that we do not own the partner networks (defined below) used in Switzerland (see note 9 below), we do not report homes passed for Switzerland’s partner networks.
(2)Fixed-Line Customer Relationships are the number of customers who receive at least one of our internet, video or telephony services that we count as Revenue Generating Units (RGUs), without regard to which or to how many services they subscribe. Fixed-Line Customer Relationships generally are counted on a unique premises basis. Accordingly, if an individual receives our services in two premises (e.g., a primary home and a vacation home), that individual generally will count as two Fixed-Line Customer Relationships. We exclude mobile-only customers from Fixed-Line Customer Relationships.
(3)RGU is separately a Basic Video Subscriber, Enhanced Video Subscriber, Internet Subscriber or Telephony Subscriber (each as defined and described below). A home, residential multiple dwelling unit, or commercial unit may contain one or more RGUs. For example, if a residential customer in our U.K. market subscribed to our enhanced video service, fixed-line telephony service and broadband internet service, the customer would constitute three RGUs. Total RGUs is the sum of Basic Video, Enhanced Video, Internet and Telephony Subscribers. RGUs generally are counted on a unique premises basis such that a given premises does not count as more than one RGU for any given service. On the other hand, if an individual receives one of our services in two premises (e.g., a primary home and a vacation home), that individual will count as two RGUs for that service. Each bundled cable, internet or telephony service is counted as a separate RGU regardless of the nature of any bundling discount or promotion. Non-paying subscribers are counted as subscribers during their free promotional service period. Some of these subscribers may choose to disconnect after their free service period. Services offered without charge on a long-term basis (e.g., VIP subscribers or free service to employees) generally are not counted as RGUs. We do not include subscriptions to mobile services in our externally reported RGU counts. In this regard, our RGU counts exclude our separately reported postpaid and prepaid mobile subscribers.
(4)Internet Subscriber is a home, residential multiple dwelling unit or commercial unit that receives internet services over our networks, or that we service through a partner network. In Switzerland, we offer a 10 Mbps internet service to our Basic and Enhanced Video Subscribers without an incremental recurring fee. Our Internet Subscribers in Switzerland include 51,500 subscribers who have requested and received this service.
(5)Basic Video Subscriber is a home, residential multiple dwelling unit or commercial unit that receives our video service over our broadband network or through a partner network either via an analog video signal or via a digital video signal without subscribing to any recurring monthly service that requires the use of encryption-enabling technology. Encryption-enabling technology includes smart cards, or other integrated or virtual technologies that we use to provide our enhanced service offerings. We count RGUs on a unique premises basis. In other words, a subscriber with multiple outlets in one premises is counted as one RGU and a subscriber with two homes and a subscription to our video service at each home is counted as two RGUs. We have approximately 30,600 “lifeline” customers that are counted on a per connection basis, representing the least expensive regulated tier of video cable service, with only a few channels.
(6)Enhanced Video Subscriber is a home, residential multiple dwelling unit or commercial unit that receives our video service over our broadband network or through a partner network via a digital video signal while subscribing to any recurring monthly service that requires the use of encryption-enabling technology. Enhanced Video Subscribers are counted on a unique premises basis. For example, a subscriber with one or more set-top boxes that receives our video service in one premises is generally counted as just one subscriber. An Enhanced Video Subscriber is not counted as a Basic Video Subscriber. As we migrate customers from basic to enhanced video services, we report a decrease in our Basic Video Subscribers equal to the increase in our Enhanced Video Subscribers. Subscribers to enhanced video services provided by our operations in Switzerland over partner networks largely receive basic video services from the partner networks as opposed to our operations.
(7)Telephony Subscriber is a home, residential multiple dwelling unit or commercial unit that receives voice services over our networks, or that we service through a partner network. Telephony Subscribers exclude mobile telephony subscribers. In Switzerland, we offer a basic phone service to our Basic and Enhanced Video Subscribers without an incremental recurring fee. Our Telephony Subscribers in Switzerland include 202,800 subscribers who have requested and received this service.
(8)Our Mobile Subscriber count represents the number of active subscriber identification module (SIM) cards in service rather than services provided. For example, if a mobile subscriber has both a data and voice plan on a smartphone this would equate to one mobile subscriber. Alternatively, a subscriber who has a voice and data plan for a mobile handset and a data plan for a laptop would be counted as two mobile subscribers. Customers who do not pay a recurring monthly fee are excluded from our mobile subscriber counts after periods of inactivity ranging from 30 to 90 days, based on industry standards within the respective country. In a number of countries, our mobile subscribers receive mobile services pursuant to prepaid contracts. As of December 31, 2020, our mobile subscriber count included 475,900, 381,800 and 134,400 prepaid Mobile Subscribers in Switzerland, Belgium and the U.K., respectively.
(9)Pursuant to service agreements, Switzerland offers broadband internet, video and telephony services over networks owned by third-party cable operators (“partner networks”). A partner network RGU is only recognized if there is a direct billing relationship with the customer. At December 31, 2020, Switzerland’s partner networks accounted for 118,100 Fixed-Line Customer Relationships, 300,800 RGUs, which include 110,000 Internet Subscribers, 105,100 Video Subscribers and 85,700 Telephony Subscribers.
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Subscribers to our enhanced video services provided over partner networks largely receive basic video services from the partner networks as opposed to our operations. Due to the fact that we do not own these partner networks, we do not include the 657,300 homes passed by Switzerland’s partner networks at December 31, 2020. In addition, with the completion of the acquisition of Sunrise, we now service homes through Sunrise's existing agreements with Swisscom AG (Swisscom), Swiss Fibre Net and local utilities, which are not included in Switzerland's homes passed count. Including these arrangements, our operations in Switzerland have the ability to offer fixed services to a national footprint.
(10)Amounts related to the VodafoneZiggo JV's fixed-line and mobile products include small business and multiple dwelling unit subscribers. In addition, the mobile amount shown for the VodafoneZiggo JV's includes medium and large enterprise subscribers. Prepaid mobile customers are excluded from the VodafoneZiggo JV's mobile telephony subscriber counts after a period of inactivity of nine months.
Additional General Notes to Table:
Most of our broadband communications subsidiaries provide broadband internet, video, telephony, mobile, data or other business services. Certain of our business service revenue is derived from small or home office (SOHO) subscribers that pay a premium price to receive enhanced service levels along with video, internet or telephony services that are the same or similar to the mass marketed products offered to our residential subscribers. All mass marketed products provided to SOHOs, whether or not accompanied by enhanced service levels and/or premium prices, are included in the respective RGU and customer counts of our broadband communications operations, with only those services provided at premium prices considered to be “SOHO RGUs” or “SOHO customers”. To the extent our existing customers upgrade from a residential product offering to a SOHO product offering, the number of SOHO RGUs or SOHO customers will increase, but there is no impact to our total RGU or customer counts. With the exception of our business SOHO subscribers, we generally do not count customers of business services as customers or RGUs for external reporting purposes.
In Belgium, Telenet leases a portion of its network under a long-term finance lease arrangement. These tables include operating statistics for Telenet’s owned and leased networks.
While we take appropriate steps to ensure that subscriber statistics are presented on a consistent and accurate basis at any given balance sheet date, the variability from country to country in (1) the nature and pricing of products and services, (2) the distribution platform, (3) billing systems, (4) bad debt collection experience and (5) other factors add complexity to the subscriber counting process. We periodically review our subscriber counting policies and underlying systems to improve the accuracy and consistency of the data reported on a prospective basis. Accordingly, we may from time to time make appropriate adjustments to our subscriber statistics based on those reviews.
Subscriber information for acquired entities is preliminary and subject to adjustment until we have completed our review of such information and determined that it is presented in accordance with our policies.

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Products and Services

Our main products and services are WiFi and internet services, video, mobile, and telephony services.
Intelligent WiFi and Internet Services
Connectivity is a critical building block for vibrant communities. As highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic, all aspects of society, including families, businesses, education and healthcare, to name a few, rely heavily on connectivity and the digital services that depend on it. To meet our customers’ expectations of seamless connectivity, we are developing a fully digital, cloud based “Connectivity Ecosystem” built on top of our fiber-rich fixed broadband network and recently expanded mobile network. The Connectivity Ecosystem is orchestrated by a fully cloud-based digital journey, enabling fast and flexible introduction of new hardware and services, as well as cloud to cloud open API integration, simplifying the on-boarding of new services and devices. The devices used within our Connectivity Ecosystem are connected and protected through our security gateway and VPN, both at home and on the go. At home, our customers can benefit from the gigabit speeds enabled by our “Connect Box” (described below), as well as “Intelligent WiFi”, which has optimization functionalities, such as the ability to adapt to the number of people and devices online at any given time in order to improve and extend wireless connectivity reach and speeds. In addition, we introduced our first “Smart Home” bundles in select markets, enabling those customers to take their smart home ambitions to the next level, including enhanced entertainment, home automation and home security. Finally, our “Connect App” is the digital touchpoint that allows customers to access and manage all of our services. The full suite of the Connectivity Ecosystem is live in our U.K. and Switzerland markets, and we intend to expand availability in select markets during the first quarter of 2021.

Our "Connect Box" is our next generation intelligent WiFi and telephony gateway that enables us to maximize the impact of our ultrafast broadband networks by providing reliable wireless connectivity anywhere in the home. This gateway can be self-installed and allows customers to customize their home WiFi service. Our Connect Box is available in all our markets, and currently, approximately 10 million of our customers have a Connect Box. In addition to our core markets, we distribute our Connect Box to other markets in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. Robust wireless connectivity is increasingly important with our customers spending more and more time using bandwidth-heavy services on multiple devices. In Belgium, Switzerland and the U.K., we also offer our Connect App that, among other things, allows our customers to find their best WiFi access. In addition, we provide intelligent WiFi boosters, which increase speed, reliability and coverage by adapting to the environment at home. We also brought to market and are looking to expand the availability of our new Gigabit Connect Box based on DOCSIS 3.1 technology that provides even better in-home WiFi service to customers.

Internet speed is of crucial importance to our customers, as they spend more time streaming video and other bandwidth-heavy services on multiple devices. Our extensive broadband network enables us to deliver ultra high-speed internet service across our markets. Our residential subscribers access the internet via cable modems connected to their internet capable devices, or wirelessly via a WiFi gateway device. We offer multiple tiers of broadband internet service up to Gigabit speeds and available to over 14 million homes across our footprint. In 2020, our networks continued to be recognized, with Virgin Media U.K. being awarded Fastest Broadband Provider in the U.K. and the VodafoneZiggo JV winning the Best Internet Provider award in the Netherlands for the tenth year in a row.

The speed of service depends on the location and the tier of service selected. By leveraging our existing fiber-rich broadband networks and our Network Extensions, we are in a position to deliver gigabit services by deploying the next generation DOCSIS 3.1 technology. DOCSIS 3.1 technology is an international standard that defines the requirements for data transmission over a cable system. Not only does DOCSIS 3.1 technology improve our internet speeds, it allows for network growth. Currently, our ultra high-speed internet service is based primarily on DOCSIS 3.1 technology, and we offer this technology in all of our markets.

We offer value-added broadband services in certain of our markets for an incremental charge. These services include Intelligent WiFi features, security (e.g., anti-virus, anti-spyware, firewall and spam protection), Smart Home services, and online storage solutions and web spaces. Subscribers to our internet service pay a monthly fee based on the tier of service selected. In addition to the monthly fee, customers pay an activation service fee upon subscribing to an internet service. This one-time fee may be waived for promotional reasons. We determine pricing for each different tier of internet service through an analysis of speed, market conditions and other factors.
In all of our markets, we have deployed community WiFi via routers in the home (the Community WiFi), which provides secure access to the internet for our customers. Community WiFi is enabled by a cable modem WiFi access point (WiFi modem) in a Connect Box, a set-top box or a Horizon box of our internet customers. The Community WiFi is created through the sharing of access to the public channel of our customers’ home wireless routers. The public channel is a separate network
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from the secure private network used by the customer within the home and is automatically enabled when the WiFi modem is installed. Public WiFi access points (covering train stations, hotels, bars, restaurants and other public places) are also available for no additional cost.

Video Services

Our video service is, and continues to be, one of the foundations of our product offerings in our markets. Our cable operations offer multiple tiers of digital video programming and audio services, starting with a basic video service. Subscribers to our basic video service pay a fixed monthly fee and receive digital or analog video channels (including a limited number of high definition (HD) and ultra high definition 4K resolution (4K) channels) and several digital and analog radio channels, as well as an electronic programming guide. In the markets where we encrypt our basic digital service, our digital service is generally offered at an incremental cost equal to or slightly higher than the monthly fee for our basic analog service. We tailor our video services in each country of operation based on programming preferences, culture, demographics and local regulatory requirements.
We also offer a variety of premium channel packages to meet the special interests of our subscribers. For an additional monthly charge, a subscriber may upgrade to one of our extended digital tier services and receive an increased number of video and radio channels, including the channels in the basic tier service and additional HD and 4K channels. Our channel offerings include general entertainment, sports, movies, documentaries, lifestyles, news, adult, children and ethnic and foreign channels.
Discounts to our monthly service fees are available to any subscriber who selects a bundle of two or more of our services (bundled services): video, internet, fixed-line telephony and, in most of our markets, mobile services. Bundled services consist of double-play for two services, triple-play for three services and, where available, quad-play for four services.
To meet customer demands, we have enhanced our video services with additional relevant content services and features, which increase viewing comfort and address individual user needs. Our latest next generation product suite is called “Horizon 4”, a multi-screen entertainment platform that combines linear television (including recording and Replay TV features), premium video-on-demand (“VoD”) offerings, an increasing amount of integrated premium video apps and mobile viewing into one entertainment experience. Horizon 4 comes with a state of the art user interface that is intuitively easy to navigate. Content recommendations and favorite channel settings can be customized to individual user profiles. Video playback control, such as pause and resume, navigation shortcuts and content searches can all be conducted via a voice control button on the remote control, a feature highly appreciated by our customers. Horizon 4 is available in all of our markets on the latest set top boxes capable of delivering 4K video content and achieved significant positive customer feedback, manifesting in high product net promoter score (NPS) figures. Horizon 4 is marketed under the name “Telenet TV-Box” in Belgium, “UPC TV” in Switzerland, “Virgin TV360” in the U.K. and Ireland, “UPC TV 4K Box” in Poland and “MediaBox Next” in the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV.
The predecessor version of Horizon 4, Horizon 3, is deployed on set-top boxes in the Netherlands (through the VodafoneZiggo JV), Switzerland and Ireland. While in Switzerland and Ireland these set-top boxes will continue to be exchanged for the latest hardware with Horizon 4 over time, in the Netherlands they will be flashed with the Horizon 4 software.

In the U.K., the forerunner product of Horizon 4 is based on the TiVo platform and was developed under a strategic partnership agreement with TiVo Inc. The TiVo platform is deployed on a basic set-top box as well as the Virgin Media V6 box. Similar to Horizon 4, the Virgin Media V6 box combines 4K video, including high dynamic range, with improved streaming functionalities and more processing power. The Virgin Media V6 box allows customers to record six channels simultaneously while watching a seventh channel. Customers can also start watching programming on one television and pick up where they left off on other boxes in another room or through an app on their smart phones and tablets. Over 70% of our U.K. customers have the Virgin Media V6 box. Similar to the deployed hardware in the Netherlands via the VodafoneZiggo JV, over time these V6 boxes will be flashed with the latest Horizon 4 software, bringing our latest and most successful television and entertainment experience to our U.K. customers without the need of exchanging the installed hardware.

One of our key video services is “Replay TV”. Through Replay TV, the last seven days of content is made available via the electronic programming guide (EPG) for on demand viewing. Customers can simply open the EPG, scroll back and replay linear programming instantly. Replay TV also allows our customers to replay a television program from the start even while the live broadcast is in progress. Additionally, customers have the option of recording TV programs in the cloud (or onto the hard disk drive in the set top box in the U.K. and in Ireland). Replay TV is one of the most used and appreciated features on our platforms.
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In most of our markets, we offer transactional VoD giving subscribers access to thousands of movies and television series. In several of our markets, our subscription VoD service is included in our enhanced video offerings. This service is tailored to the specific market based on available content, consumer preferences and competitive offers, and includes various programming, such as music, kids, documentaries, adult, sports and TV series. We continue to develop our VoD services to provide a growing collection of programming from local and international suppliers, such as Disney/Fox, NBCU/Universal, CBS/Paramount, Warner and Sony, among others. In addition, in many of our markets we offer premium over the top (OTT) services like Netflix and Amazon Prime Video via certain of our set-top boxes.   
Most of this content is also available via our online mobile app, “Horizon Go”, which is available on mobile devices (iOS, Android and Windows) and, in some market places, via Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV and Android TV devices. Thanks to the 360 integration of Horizon 4 across multiple screens, customers can pause a program, series or movie and seamlessly continue watching from where they left off on another device, whether a television, tablet, smart phone or laptop. Additionally, Horizon Go enables customers to remotely schedule the recording of a television program on their Horizon 4 box at home.
In the summer of 2020, we launched our first IP-only streaming device in Poland, which runs the full Horizon 4 product suite and features a small dongle-like form factor that can be tucked away behind a TV screen. This all-IP TV box has extremely low power consumption, and its casing is made from recycled plastic, proudly winning us Digital TV Europe’s Video Tech Innovation Sustainability Award in December 2020. We intend to roll out the all-IP TV box to additional markets in 2021 and beyond.
Mobile Services
Mobile services are another key building block for us to provide customers with seamless connectivity. Virgin Media and UPC Poland offer mobile services as MVNOs over third-party networks, and Telenet, the VodafoneZiggo JV and UPC Sunrise offer mobile services as mobile network providers.
Where mobile telephony services are provided via MVNOs, the relevant mobile operator leases a third-party’s radio access network and owns the core network, including switching, backbone and interconnections. These arrangements permit us to offer our customers in these markets mobile services without having to build and operate a cellular radio tower network.
Our MVNO partners are:
CountryPartner
U.K.
BT / EE(1)
Switzerland
Swisscom(2)
IrelandThree (Hutchison)
PolandOrange/Play
____________

(1)Our U.K. operations agreed to a new MVNO agreement with Vodafone U.K. in November 2019, however, the MVNO arrangement with EE will continue until the end of 2021 by which time the full migration to the Vodafone U.K. network is expected to be complete.
(2)Our Switzerland operations completed migration to the Swisscom network in the beginning of 2019, and also have the right to access the Sunrise network as a mobile network operator.
        
Where mobile services are available, subscribers pay varying monthly fees depending on whether the mobile service is combined with our cable services or includes mobile data services via mobile phones, tablets or laptops. We offer our customers the option to purchase mobile handsets and, in most of our markets, make such purchase pursuant to a contract independent of their mobile services contract. We refer to these arrangements as split contracts. In Belgium, for those subscribers on Telenet’s own network, it is offering more flexible bundles adjusted to customers’ needs so they can use the full capacity of their package, regardless of their appetite to use either more data, minutes or text messages. As a mobile network provider, Telenet also has agreements with other mobile providers to use its mobile network for their mobile offerings.
Our mobile services typically include voice, short message service (or SMS) and internet access. Calls, both within and out of network, incur a charge or are covered under a postpaid monthly service plan. Our mobile services are primarily on a postpaid basis with customers subscribing to services for periods ranging from activation for a SIM-only contract to up to 24 months (or 36 months in the U.K.), with the latter often taken with a subsidized mobile handset. In Belgium and Switzerland, however, our postpaid service is offered without a minimum contract term. In the U.K. and Belgium, we also offer a prepaid service, where the customers pay in advance for a pre-determined amount of airtime or data and generally have no minimum contract term. In almost all of our markets, subscribers to a double- or triple-play bundle receive a discount on their mobile service fee.
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Telephony Services
Multi-feature telephony services are available through voice-over-internet-protocol (VoIP) technology in most of our broadband communication markets. In the U.K., we also provide traditional circuit-switched telephony services. We pay interconnect fees to other telephony and internet providers when calls by our subscribers terminate on another network and receive similar fees from providers when calls by their users terminate on our network through interconnection points.
Our telephony service may be selected in several of our markets on a standalone basis and in all of our markets in combination with one or more of our other services. Our telephony service includes a basic fixed-line telephony product for line rental and various calling plans, which may consist of any of the following: unlimited network, national or international calling, unlimited off-peak calling and minute packages, including calls to fixed and mobile phones. We also offer value added services, such as a personal call manager, unified messaging and a second or third phone line at an incremental cost.
Multiple Dwelling Units and Partner Networks
Pursuant to an agreement executed on June 28, 2008 (the PICs Agreement) with four associations of municipalities in Belgium (the pure intercommunales or PICs), Telenet leases the PICs broadband communications network and, accordingly, makes its services available to all of the homes passed by the cable network owned by the PICs. Telenet has a direct customer relationship with the basic and enhanced video subscribers on the PICs network. Pursuant to the PICs Agreement, Telenet has full rights to use substantially all of the PICs network under a long-term finance lease. Unless extended, the PICs Agreement will expire on September 23, 2046, and cannot be terminated earlier (except in the case of non-payment or bankruptcy of Telenet). For additional information on the PICs Agreement, see note 19 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For over 70% of the basic video subscribers of Sunrise UPC, Sunrise UPC maintains billing relationships with landlords or housing associations and provides basic video service to the tenants. The landlord or housing association administers the billing for the basic video service with their tenants and manages service terminations for their rental units. When tenants select triple-play bundles with or without mobile service from Sunrise UPC, they then migrate to a direct billing relationship with us.
Sunrise UPC offers broadband internet, enhanced video and telephony services directly to the video cable subscribers of those partner networks that enter into service operating contracts with Sunrise UPC. Sunrise UPC has the direct customer billing relationship with these subscribers. By permitting Sunrise UPC to offer some or all of its broadband internet, enhanced video and telephony products directly to those partner network subscribers, Sunrise UPC’s service operating contracts have expanded the addressable markets for Sunrise UPC’s digital products. In exchange for the right to provide digital products directly to the partner network subscribers, Sunrise UPC pays to the partner network a share of the revenue generated from those subscribers. Sunrise UPC also provides network maintenance services and engineering and construction services to its partner networks.
Business Services
In addition to our residential services, we offer business services in all of our operations. For business and public sector organizations, we provide a complete range of voice, advanced data, video, wireless and cloud-based services, as well as mobile and converged fixed-mobile services. Our business customers include SOHO (generally up to five employees), small business and medium and large enterprises. We also provide business services on a wholesale basis to other operators.
Our business services are designed to meet the specific demands of our business customers with a wide range of services, including increased data transmission speeds and virtual private networks. These services fall into five broad categories:
data services for fixed internet access, with a 4G connectivity backup, IP virtual private networks based on SDWAN solutions, and high capacity point-to-point services, including dedicated cloud connections;
cloud collaboration VoIP solutions and circuit switch telephony, unified communications and conferencing options;
wireless services for mobile voice and data, as well as managed WiFi networks;
video programming packages and select channel lineups for targeted industries; and
value added services, including managed security systems, cloud enabled business applications, storage and web hosting.
Our intermediate to long-term strategy is to enhance our capabilities and offerings in the business sector so we become a preferred provider in the business market. To execute this strategy, customer experience and strategic marketing play a key role.
Our business services are provided to customers at contractually established prices based on the size of the business, type of services received and the volume and duration of the service agreement. SOHO and small business customers pay business
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market prices on a monthly subscription basis to receive enhanced service levels and business features that support their needs. For more advanced business services, these customers generally enter into a service agreement. For medium to large business customers, we enter into individual agreements that address their needs. These agreements are generally for a period of at least one year.
Investments—VodafoneZiggo JV
We own a 50% interest in the VodafoneZiggo JV, which is a leading Dutch company that provides fixed, mobile and integrated communication and entertainment services to consumers and businesses in the Netherlands. In connection with the formation of the VodafoneZiggo JV, we entered into a shareholders agreement with Vodafone providing for the governance of the VodafoneZiggo JV, including decision-making process, information access, dividend policy and non-compete provisions. It also provides for restrictions on transfer of interests in the VodafoneZiggo JV and exit arrangements. Under the dividend policy, the VodafoneZiggo JV is required to distribute all unrestricted cash to Vodafone and us, subject to minimum cash requirements and financing arrangements. We also entered into a framework agreement with the VodafoneZiggo JV to provide access to each partner’s expertise in the telecommunications business. For additional information on the above agreements, see note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The fiber-rich broadband network of the VodafoneZiggo JV passes 7.3 million homes. The VodafoneZiggo JV also offers nationwide 4G and 5G mobile coverage. At December 31, 2020, the VodafoneZiggo JV had 9.5 million RGUs, of which 3.8 million were video, 3.4 million were broadband internet and 2.3 million were fixed-line telephony. In addition, the VodafoneZiggo JV had 5.2 million mobile customers. Besides its residential services, the VodafoneZiggo JV offers extensive business services throughout the Netherlands. The operations of the VodafoneZiggo JV are subject to various regulations, which are described below under Regulatory Matters—The Netherlands.
The VodafoneZiggo JV’s customers continue to have access to Horizon TV and its functionalities (marketed as “Ziggo TV”), including Replay TV, the Ziggo Go app, pause live TV and VoD, 500 Mbps nationwide broadband internet to residential customers, 600 Mbps broadband internet to business customers and an extensive WiFi community network. The VodafoneZiggo JV also has its own sports channel, Ziggo Sport, and offers exclusive programming, such as HBO. Additionally, as of December 2020, the VodafoneZiggo JV has made 1 Gbps broadband internet available in 3 million households. The VodafoneZiggo JV’s customers also have access to Vodafone’s nationwide 4G (referred to herein as LTE) and 5G wireless services, under either a prepaid or postpaid service plan. The VodafoneZiggo JV provides its mobile services under various licenses, and recently acquired new spectrum licenses in the 700 MHz and 1400 MHz band, and renewed its license in the 2100 MHz band during the multiband auction in July 2020. With its mobile services, the VodafoneZiggo JV is able to offer quad-play bundles and converged services to its residential and business customers.
For all its services, the VodafoneZiggo JV competes primarily with the provision of similar services from the incumbent telecommunications operator Koninklijke KPN N.V. (KPN). KPN offers (1) internet protocol television (IPTV) over fiber optic lines where the fiber is to the home, cabinet, or building or to the node networks (fiber-to-the-home/-cabinet/-building/-node is referred to herein as FTTx) and through broadband internet connections using digital subscriber lines (DSL) or very high-speed DSL technology (VDSL) or an enhancement to VDSL called “vectoring”, (2) digital terrestrial television (DTT), and (3) LTE services. Where KPN has enhanced its VDSL system, it offers broadband internet with download speeds of up to 200 Mbps and on its FTTx networks, it offers download speeds of up to 1 Gbps. Its ability to offer a bundled triple-play of broadband internet, video and telephony services and fixed-mobile convergence services creates competitive pressure on the VodafoneZiggo JV’s operations, including the pricing and bundling of its video products. KPN’s video services include many of the interactive features that the VodafoneZiggo JV offers its subscribers, including pausing live TV, replay and third party apps. Portions of the VodafoneZiggo JV’s network have been overbuilt by KPN’s and other providers’ FTTx networks and expansion of these networks is expected to continue. Another significant competitor is the Netherlands operations of Deutsche Telekom.
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Additional Business Information
Technology
Our broadband internet, video and fixed-line telephony services are primarily transmitted over a hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) cable network. This network is composed primarily of national and regional fiber networks, which are connected to the home over the last few hundred meters by coaxial cable. Alongside our HFC network, we are increasingly rolling out services based on fiber to the home (FTTH) and leveraging fixed wireless access (FWA) technologies to service customers not covered by our fixed networks in areas where it may not be cost effective to deploy fixed networks.
We closely monitor our network capacity and customer usage. Where necessary, we increase our capacity incrementally, for instance by splitting nodes in our cable network. We also continue to explore improvements to our services and new technologies that will enhance our customer’s connected entertainment experience. These actions include:
recapturing bandwidth and optimizing our networks by:
increasing the number of nodes in our markets;
increasing the bandwidth of our hybrid fiber coaxial cable network to 1 GHz;
converting analog channels to digital;
moving channels to IP delivery;
deploying additional DOCSIS 3.1 channels;
replacing copper lines with modern optic fibers; and
using digital compression technologies.
freeing spectrum for high-speed internet, VoD and other services by encouraging customers to move from analog to digital services;
increasing the efficiency of our networks by moving headend functions (encoding, transcoding and multiplexing) to cloud storage systems;
enhancing our network to accommodate business services;
using wireless technologies to extend our services outside of the home;
offering remote access to our video services through laptops, smart phones and tablets;
expanding the availability of Horizon TV and Virgin TV Go, as well as Horizon 4, and related products and developing and introducing online media sharing and streaming or cloud-based video; and
testing new technologies.
As stated under General Development of Business—Expansion and Acquisitions above, we are expanding our HFC and FTTH footprint through our Network Extensions. In addition, we are seeking mobile service opportunities where we have established cable networks and expanding our fixed-line networks where we have a strong mobile offering. This will allow us to offer converged fixed-line and mobile services to our customers.
We deliver high-speed data and fixed-line telephony over our broadband network in our markets. The cable networks of our operations in Europe are connected to our “Aorta” backbone. The Aorta backbone is recognized as a Tier 1 Carrier, which permits us to serve our customers through settlement free collaboration with other carriers without the cost of using a third-party network.
    In support of our connectivity strategy, we are moving our customers into a gigabit society. All of our broadband networks are already capable of supporting the next generation of ultra high-speed internet service at gigabit speeds. To provide these speeds to our subscribers, we launched our next generation gateways that will enable DOCSIS 3.1 technology throughout our footprint. The use of DOCSIS 3.1 technology provides us significantly higher efficiencies on our networks and allow us to offer faster speeds, in-home WiFi and better services. The new gateways and the continued upgrades to our network in the coming years will allow us to maximize high-speed connectivity over our broadband networks and deliver gigabit services in a cost-effective manner. It will also allow us to meet the expectations of our customers for high-speed internet access both in cities and rural areas of our footprint. While DOCSIS 3.1 technology will provide up to 2.5 Gbps, we are looking beyond our currently deployed technologies to DOCSIS 4.0 and FTTH / XGS-PON, which will enable 10 Gbps and beyond.

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Supply Sources

Content. In our markets, entertainment platforms remain a key part of the telecommunication services bundle. Therefore, in addition to providing services that allow our customers to view programming when and where they want, we are investing in content that customers want. Our content strategy is based on:
proposition (exceeding our customers' entertainment desires and expectations);
product (delivering the best content available);
procurement (investment in the best brands, shows and sports); and
partnering (strategic alignment, acquisitions and growth opportunities).
We license almost all of our programming and on-demand offerings from content providers and third-party rights holders, including broadcasters and cable programming networks. Under our distribution agreements, we generally pay a monthly fee on a per channel or per subscriber basis, with occasional minimum pay guarantees. For on-demand programming, we generally pay a revenue share for transactional VoD (often with minimum guarantees) and a flat fee or a monthly fee per subscriber for subscription VoD. For a majority of our agreements, we seek to include the rights to offer the licensed programming to our customers through multiple delivery platforms and through our apps for smart phones and tablets.
In seeking licenses for content, our primary focus is on partnering with leading international providers, such as Disney/Fox, Warner Media (including HBO), NBCUniversal, the BBC and Discovery. We also seek to carry in each of our markets key public and private broadcasters and in some markets we acquire local premium programing through select relationships with companies such as Sky plc (Sky) (U.K. and Ireland) and BT Group plc (BT). For our VoD services, we license a variety of programming, including box sets of television series, movies, music, kids’ programming and documentaries. In addition, we currently have arrangements with Netflix International B.V. (Netflix) and with Amazon Europe Core S.A.R.L. (Amazon). Pursuant to these arrangements, the Netflix service and Amazon Prime Video services respectively are available via certain of our set-top boxes to our video customers across many of our markets each as premium OTT services. The Netflix app is available to our customers in the U.K., the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV, Ireland, Switzerland and Belgium. The Amazon Prime Video app is currently available to our customers in the U.K. and Ireland.

Exclusive content is another element of our content strategy. To support this approach, we are investing in content assets. We have invested in various content companies, including ITV plc, All3Media Ltd., LionsGate Entertainment, STX, Virgin Media TV (formerly TV3 Group in Ireland) and De Vijver Media. We are also investing in sports, both as a broadcaster and as a rights owner. We have our own sports channels, Play Sports in Belgium, MySports in Switzerland, which Sunrise UPC licenses to other platforms in Switzerland, and VMSports in Ireland. Also, the VodafoneZiggo JV owns Ziggo Sport. The basic Ziggo Sport service is available exclusively to the VodafoneZiggo JV’s customers; however, the premium service is widely available through license arrangements.

In addition, we have commissioned our own drama series content. Through All3Media Ltd., which we own jointly with Discovery, Inc., we co-produced a television series, known as The Feed, which was released in 2019 in several of our markets, and co-produced Blood in Ireland, which aired in 2018 and 2020. With LionsGate Entertainment, we pre-purchased the spy thriller series The Rook, which premiered in 2019. In addition, we have produced the Swiss sitcom Fassler-Kunz, the Swiss series Im Heimatland and the original Belgium series Chaussée d’Amour and De Dag with local production companies. These television series will primarily be available to our customers on an on-demand basis. We will also continue to commission, produce and/or co-produce content for our free-to-air (FTA) assets and VoD platforms in Ireland, and Telenet will continue to commission, produce and/or co-produce content for its FTA assets via SBS Belgium and VoD platforms in Belgium mainly via Streamz, its newly created joint venture for subscription VoD with DPG Media.

Customer Premises Equipment. We purchase each type of customer premises equipment from a number of different suppliers, with at least two or more suppliers providing our high-volume products. Customer premises equipment includes set-top boxes, modems, WiFi routers and boosters, digital video recorders (DVRs), tuners and similar devices. For each type of equipment, we retain specialists to provide customer support. For our broadband services, we use a variety of suppliers for our network equipment and the various services we offer. Similarly, we use a variety of suppliers for mobile handsets to offer our customers mobile services.

Software Licenses. We license software products, including email and security software, and content, such as news feeds, from several suppliers for our internet services. The agreements for these products typically require us to pay a fee for software licenses and/or a share of advertising revenue for content licenses. For our TiVo service in the U.K., we have a partnership arrangement where TiVo is the provider of the user interface software for our next generation set-top boxes, which provides
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converged television and broadband internet capabilities. In 2017, we entered into a multi-year extension of our agreements with TiVo. For our mobile network operations and our fixed-line telephony services, we license software products, such as voicemail, text messaging and caller ID, from a variety of suppliers. For these licenses we seek to enter into long-term contracts, which generally require us to pay based on usage of the services.

For our mobile services provided through MVNO arrangements, we are dependent on third-party wireless network providers. Each of our MVNO operations has an agreement with such a provider to carry the mobile communications traffic of our customers. We seek to enter into medium to long-term arrangements for these services. Any termination of these arrangements could significantly impact our MVNO operated mobile services.

Competition
All of our businesses operate in highly competitive and rapidly evolving markets. The speed of technological advances and product innovations is likely to continue to increase, giving customers many options for telecommunications services. Our customers want access to high quality telecommunication products that provide seamless connectivity and experience. Accordingly, our ability to offer converged services (video, internet, fixed telephony and mobile) is a key component of our strategy. In many of our markets, we compete with companies that provide converged mobile and fixed-line services, as well as companies that are established in one or more communication products. Consequently, our businesses face significant competition. In all markets, we seek to differentiate our offerings by focusing on delivering quality high-speed internet at competitive prices and providing excellent customer service. In this section, we begin with an overview on the competitive nature of the broadband internet, video and mobile and fixed-line telephony services in our markets, and then provide information on key competitors in our more material markets.
We believe that our deep-fiber access provides us with several competitive advantages. For instance, our cable networks enable concurrent delivery of internet access, together with real-time television and VoD content, without impairing our high-speed internet service. In addition, our cable infrastructure allows us to provide triple-play bundled services of broadband internet, television and fixed-line telephony services without relying on a third-party service provider or network. Where mobile is available, our networks, together with our deep fiber access, allow us to provide a comprehensive set of converged mobile and fixed-line services. Our capacity is designed to support peak consumer demand, and our networks have been resilient despite significantly increased demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. In serving the business market, many aspects of the network can be leveraged at very low incremental costs given that business demand peaks at a time when consumer demand is low, and peaks at lower levels than consumer demand.

Overall, we are experiencing increased convergence as customers look to receive all their media and communication services from one provider. In our largest video markets, our key competitors are: BT (U.K.), Proximus NV/SA (Proximus) (Belgium) and Swisscom (Switzerland). Also, as described above under Products and Services—Investments—VodafoneZiggo JV, the key competitor for the VodafoneZiggo JV is KPN. Each of these competitors have extensive resources allowing them to offer competitively priced bundled services. As a result, our ability to offer triple-play or quad-play bundles and fixed-mobile convergence bundles is one of our key strategies to attract and retain customers. We seek to distinguish ourselves through our multimedia gateway services, interactive video products (such as Replay TV and VoD), proprietary sports offerings, expanded content offers (for both in and out of the home) and our high-speed connectivity services backed by intelligent in-home WiFi solutions.
Internet
With respect to broadband internet services and online content, our businesses face competition in a rapidly evolving marketplace from incumbent and non-incumbent telecommunications companies, mobile operators and cable-based ISPs, many of which have substantial resources. The internet services offered by these competitors include both fixed-line broadband internet via cable, DSL or FTTx networks and wireless broadband. These competitors have a range of product offerings with varying speeds and pricing, as well as interactive services, data and other non-video services offered to households and businesses. With the demand for mobile internet services increasing, competition from wireless services using various advanced technologies is an important competitive factor. In several of our markets, competitors offer high-speed mobile data via LTE networks as well as next generation 5G wireless technology which is in the active roll-out phase. In this intense competitive environment, internet speed and pricing are the key drivers for customers.
Our strategy is seamless speed leadership. Our focus is on increasing the maximum speed of our connections while providing a reliable customer experience and offering a variety of service tiers, prices, bundled products and a range of value added services, including smart in-home connectivity solutions. We update our bundles and packages on an ongoing basis to meet the needs of our customers. Our ultra high download speed of 1Gbps is available in all of Belgium, Switzerland and substantially all of Ireland, as well as large parts of the U.K., Poland and Slovakia. We use our competitively priced ultra high-
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speed internet services with access to Community WiFi to encourage customers to switch to our services from other providers. Our aim is to safeguard our high-end customer base and enable us to become more aggressive at the low- and medium-end of the internet market. By fully utilizing up to 1 Gbps technical capabilities of DOCSIS 3.1 technology on our cable systems, we can compete with any FTTx, DSL or LTE players today.
Across Europe, our key competition in this product market is from the offering of broadband internet products using various FTTx and DSL-based technologies by the incumbent players and third parties. The introduction of cheaper and ever faster fixed-line broadband offerings is further increasing the competitive pressure in this market. A notable emerging factor is an overbuild of our networks with FTTx technology by the incumbent players and other third parties. At the moment, we do not consider our networks to be substantially overbuilt; however certain FTTx providers have announced upgrade plans that might indicate increased competition in the future. It is unclear if announced plans will be realized due to significant operational and financial challenges in rolling out FTTx. We are confident that our hybrid fiber-coaxial networks can be upgraded to higher speeds, to match or exceed potential FTTx based products. Furthermore, in some instances FTTx upgrades or new build could provide an opportunity for Liberty Global to take wholesale access and expand our geographical coverage.

We are expanding our ultra high-speed services and increasing our download speeds. In most of our markets, we offer our internet service on a standalone basis or through bundled offerings that include video, fixed-line telephony and mobile services. Mobile data is also increasingly important and we are addressing this through our mobile products and active expansion of the up to date wireless technology, including 5G.

Virgin Media. In the U.K., we have a number of significant competitors in the market for broadband internet services, including fixed-line incumbent telecommunications providers. Of these broadband internet providers, BT is the largest, which provides broadband internet access services to both its own retail customers and third-party retail providers. BT has refocused its efforts to rollout a FTTx service supporting 1 Gbps speed to four million homes and businesses by March 2021 with the current plans to build FTTx in 107 locations, and a target to cover 20 million homes by 2030. As a result of these objectives, BT has launched a range of ultrafast consumer packages offering speeds of up to 900 Mbps.
Operators such as Sky and TalkTalk deploy their own network access equipment in BT exchanges via a process known as local loop unbundling (LLU). This allows an operator to reduce the recurring operating costs charged by BT by reducing the proportion of traffic that must travel directly over BT’s network. LLU deployment requires a substantial capital investment to implement and requires a large customer base to deliver a return on investment. In addition, we currently see limited competition from mobile broadband developments, such as LTE and 5G mobile services and WiFi services.
Telenet. In the Flanders region of Belgium, Telenet is the leading provider of residential broadband internet services. Telenet’s primary competitor is Proximus. Proximus is a well-established competitor offering quad-play bundles. Proximus’ DSL and VDSL services provide download speeds up to 100 Mbps. Moreover, Proximus offers up to 1 Gbps speed via its fiber network that is available in selected cities and being actively deployed. Similar to its video services, Telenet faces competition in the provision of internet services from other providers who have wholesale access to Telenet’s cable network. Through such access, Orange Belgium currently offers its mobile subscribers a triple-play bundle including enhanced video, mobile and fixed broadband internet services. In this competitive market, Telenet is using its fixed-mobile converged offers to promote its services.
Sunrise UPC. In Switzerland, Swisscom is the largest provider of broadband internet services, and is Sunrise UPC’s primary competitor. It is also continuing to expand its FTTx network and roll out G.fast technology. Swisscom offers download speeds ranging from up to 50 Mbps to up to 10 Gbps, depending on the region. Swisscom continues to expand its FTTx network to Switzerland households in our footprint, as well as in our partner network footprints. It has built its FTTx network in several cities in cooperation with municipality-owned utility companies and, where no cooperation agreement has been reached, Swisscom is building its own FTTx network. Salt, a predominantly mobile player, also competes in this arena, with a focus on fixed-mobile convergence through a combination of FTTx and fixed wireless access technologies offering 10 Gbps internet speeds. In this competitive market, Sunrise UPC increased its introductory speed to 100 Mbps in line with market dynamics, is promoting its broadband services through its bundled offers and introduced a 1 Gbps service across its footprint. Moreover, the recent acquisition of Sunrise opens up vast opportunities to generate market synergies and further enhance Sunrise UPC’s competitive edge. Sunrise is a predominantly mobile player also focused on fixed-mobile convergence. To that end, Sunrise has looked to increase its FTTx network via fixed access agreements with Swisscom and utility fiber networks and its own fixed wireless access technologies. For more information on the Sunrise Acquisition, see note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Video Distribution
Our video services compete primarily with traditional FTA broadcast television services, DTH satellite service providers, OTT and broadcaster VoD providers, as well as other fixed-line and mobile telecommunications carriers and broadband providers offering a similar range of video services. Many of these competitors have a national footprint and offer features, pricing and video services individually and in bundles comparable to what we offer. In certain markets, we also compete with other cable providers who have overbuilt portions of our systems.

OTT video content providers utilizing our or our competitors' high-speed internet connections are also a significant competitive factor, as are other video service providers that overlap our service areas. The OTT video providers (such as HBO Now, Amazon Prime Video, Netflix, Disney+ and AppleTV+) offer VoD service for television series, movies and programming from broadcasters. Generally, the content libraries of such services are offered for a monthly fee. Typically these services are available on multiple devices in and out of the home. Moreover, broadcasters offer direct to customer content, including VoD, live and catch-up television via their own platforms (such as BBC iPlayer and RTL). To enhance our competitive position, we provide our subscribers with TV everywhere products and premium OTT video services through our online mobile apps, VoD and Replay TV services or through our arrangements with Netflix and Amazon, as well as YouTube and relevant local OTT VoD services. Our businesses also compete to varying degrees with other sources of information and entertainment, such as online entertainment, newspapers, magazines, books, live entertainment/concerts and sporting events.

Our ability to attract and retain customers depends on our continued ability to acquire appealing content, provide easy to use services on acceptable terms and to deliver content on multiple devices inside and outside the home. Some competitors have obtained long-term exclusive contracts for certain programming, which limits the opportunities for other providers to offer such programs. Other competitors have obtained long-term exclusive contracts for programs, but our operations have limited access to certain of such programming through select contracts with these companies, including Sky and BT in the U.K. and Ireland. Moreover, telecommunication providers increasingly offer access to OTT platforms through their systems. For instance, Sky obtained significant competitive advantage through its deal to carry Disney on Sky’s set-top box. If exclusive content offerings increase through other providers, programming options could be a deciding factor for subscribers on selecting a video service.
Similar to our technological advances in our video services (such as launches of Horizon 4, apps on 3rd party devices and all-IP TV box), our competitors are also improving their video platforms with next generation set-top boxes, TV everywhere products and other interactive services. Similarly, VDSL, which is either provided directly by the owner of the network or by a third-party, is a significant part of the competitive environment in many of our markets, as are FTTx networks. In all of our markets, competitive video services are offered by the incumbent telecommunications operator, whose strategies include video services over DSL, VDSL and FTTx networks and, in some cases, DTH and DTT. The ability of incumbent operators to offer the triple-play of broadband internet, video and fixed-line telephony services and, in most countries, a quad-play with mobile services, is exerting competitive pressure on our operations, including the pricing and bundling of our video products. In order to gain video market share, the incumbent operators and alternative service providers in a number of our larger markets are pricing their DTT, IPTV or DTH video packages at a discount to the retail price of the comparable digital cable service.
We compete on value by offering advanced digital services with a premier user interface, such as cloud recording and DVR functionality, HD/4K, VoD, voice control, OTT aggregation, Replay TV and multiscreen services via a superior user interface. We also compete by offering attractive content packages, as well as bundled services, at reasonable prices. In each of the countries where we operate, we tailor our packages to include attractive channel offerings and offer recurring discounts for bundled services and loyalty contracts, as well as integrated billing for OTT services. In addition, from time to time, we modify our digital channel offerings to improve the quality of our programming. Where mobile voice and data are available, we focus on our converged service offerings at attractive prices. In our other operations, we use the triple-play bundle as a means of driving video, as well as other products where convenience and price can be leveraged across the portfolio of services. We also continue to enhance our Horizon 4 platform to meet our customers’ desire to view programming anytime and anywhere, such as new applications and expanding its availability in our markets.
Virgin Media. Virgin Media’s digital television services compete primarily with FTA television and with Sky, the primary pay satellite television provider. Sky offers competitively priced triple-play and quad-play services in the U.K. and Ireland. Other significant competitors are BT and TalkTalk Telecom Group plc (TalkTalk) in the U.K. and Eircom Limited in Ireland, each of which offer triple-play services, as well as IPTV video services. Each of these competitors have multimedia home gateways.
Sky owns the U.K. rights to various entertainment, sports and movie programming content and channels. Sky is both a principal competitor in the pay-television market and an important supplier of content to us. Various Sky channels, including Sky Sports, are available over Sky’s satellite system and our cable networks, as well as via Sky’s apps and online players and other television platforms, and some of the channels are available on BT and TalkTalk platforms.
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Virgin Media distributes several basic and premium video channels supplied by Sky. BT is also both a principal competitor and an important supplier of content to us. BT owns premium BT Sport channels, providing a range of sports content, including football (soccer) from the English Premier League and exclusive rights to the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The BT Sport channels are available on our cable network as well as our competitors’ networks.
In this competitive market, Virgin Media is expanding its broadband network and promotes its 4K and HDR ready boxes running on its latest Horizon 4 platform (marketed as “Virgin TV360”) in the U.K. and in Ireland. The on-line streaming service Virgin TV Go is available throughout the Virgin Media footprint. Virgin Media customers also have access to third-party apps (e.g. Netflix, Amazon Prime Video and YouTube). In addition, Virgin Media’s ability to include mobile for its U.K. and Ireland customers for a low incremental fee creating a fixed-mobile convergence bundle is a key market offer.
Telenet. Telenet’s principal competitor is Proximus, the incumbent telecommunications operator, which has interactive digital television, replay television, VoD, OTT and HD service as part of its video offer, as well as mobile-only video propositions tailored to the needs of younger market segments. Proximus offers customers a wide range of both individual and bundled services at competitive prices. Also, Telenet and other Belgian cable operators must give alternative providers access to their cable networks. Orange Belgium N.V. (Orange Belgium) gained such access in 2016 and currently offers its mobile subscribers a triple play bundle, including mobile, enhanced video and broadband internet services. Telenet may face increased competition from other providers of video services who take advantage of the wholesale access and may be able to offer triple- and quad-play services. For more information on wholesale access, see Regulatory Matters—Belgium.
In order to compete effectively against alternative providers, Telenet leverages its extensive cable network, the broad acceptance of its basic cable television services and Yelo Play and its additional features, such as HD and DVR functionality, VoD offerings, its Play Sports channel and original programming (e.g. Chaussée d'Amour and De Dag) delivered via the Horizon 4 multimedia box. Telenet is able to offer international, national, regional and local content, including Dutch-language broadcasts, to its subscribers. It is also using mobile services to drive its other products through its converged offerings. In addition, Telenet continues to enhance its Yelo Play and Horizon Go apps as well as programming and the addition of sports rights.
Sunrise UPC. Our main competitor in Switzerland is Swisscom, the incumbent telecommunications operator, which provides IPTV services over DSL, VDSL and FTTx networks. Swisscom offers VoD services, DVR and replay functionality, HD channels and has exclusive rights to distribute certain sports programming. Swisscom launched an advanced set-top box in the market with voice control, Smart Home integration and content aggregation beyond video, such as music streaming and gaming services. Although its presence is limited, Salt focuses on value propositions by including TV within their bundles and providing access to OTT via Apple TV. In this saturated market, price competition and high promotional intensity are significant factors. To compete effectively in Switzerland, Sunrise UPC is promoting Horizon 4 (marketed as “UPC TV”) and related family of products together with Replay TV and VoD, giving subscribers the ability to personalize their programming and viewing preferences while delivering excellent user interface with voice control. Sunrise UPC has its own sports channel, My Sports and aggregates third-party apps (e.g. Netflix and YouTube). Sunrise UPC uses its high-speed internet service with speeds of up to 1 Gbps to promote its extended digital bundles and offer mobile services. The recent acquisition of Sunrise is expected to further strengthen Sunrise UPC’s position in the national video market. For more information on the Sunrise Acquisition, see note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Mobile and Telephony Services
    In Belgium, as a mobile network operator, we are one of the larger mobile providers based on number of SIM cards. We also substantially expanded our mobile business with the acquisition of Sunrise in Switzerland and new MVNO arrangements with Vodafone in the U.K. In our other European markets, however, we currently have limited mobile presence. In the markets where we are a large mobile provider, we continue to deploy additional bandwidth to deliver our wide range of services to our customers and expand our LTE and 5G services. Where we are a small mobile provider, we face significant competition from other mobile telephony providers, many of whom offer LTE and 5G services and are making significant advances acquiring customers. In all of our markets competition is intense. We offer various calling plans, such as unlimited calling, national or international calling, unlimited off-peak calling and minute packages, including calls to fixed and mobile phones. In addition, we use our bundled offers with our video and ultra high-speed internet services to gain mobile subscribers. Our ability to offer fixed-mobile convergence services is a key driver.

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    The market for fixed-line telephony services is saturated in almost all of our markets. Changes in market share are driven by the combination of price and quality of services provided and the inclusion of telephony services in bundled offerings. Our fixed-line telephony services compete against the incumbent telecommunications operators. In all of our markets, we also compete with other VoIP operators offering service across broadband lines. OTT telephony is another competitive factor. In addition, our businesses face competition from other cable telephony providers, FTTx-based providers or other indirect access providers.

    Competition in both the residential and business fixed-line telephony markets is extremely competitive due to market trends, the offering of carrier pre-select services, number portability, the replacement of fixed-line with mobile telephony and the growth of VoIP services, as well as continued deregulation of telephony markets and general price competition. Our fixed-line telephony strategy is focused around value leadership, and we position our services as “anytime” or “any destination”. Our portfolio of calling plans include a variety of innovative calling options designed to meet the needs of our subscribers. In many of our markets, we provide product innovation, such as telephone apps that allow customers to make and receive calls from their fixed-line call packages and voice over WiFi to allow telephony even with no mobile reception. In addition, we offer varying plans to meet customer needs and, similar to our mobile services, we use our telephony bundle options with our digital video and internet services to help promote our telephony services and flat rate offers are standard.

In each of our markets, we face competition with a dominant fixed-line telephony provider, most of which also have competitive mobile offers based on LTE or 5G services. In our largest markets, the key dominant telephony providers are BT (U.K.), Proximus (Belgium) and Swisscom (Switzerland). These telephony competitors are also the largest mobile operators in these markets based on number of SIM cards. These competitors include their mobile products in bundles with fixed-line services. Moreover, there is a fundamental shift in customer preference towards mobile. As a result, we expect fixed telephony users to decline in favor of mobile connectivity.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2020, we, including our consolidated subsidiaries, had an aggregate of approximately 23,000 full-time equivalent employees, including approximately 121 in the United States, but excluding contractors and temporary employees. Our purpose – Tomorrow’s Connections Today – is fundamental to what Liberty Global stands for and represents the shared ambition of our employees, customers and the communities in which we live and operate.
Creating opportunity and value in the dynamic environment we operate in is an important part of how we fulfill our promise that employees can Grow With Us. This is underpinned by significant investments in our global people strategy, reaching and enabling approximately 23,000 full-time equivalent employees and the multiple culture building programs led by the office of our CEO. As part of our commitment to helping our people Grow With Us and achieve their potential, Liberty Global commits significant ongoing investment to leadership and skills development. Our skills development offerings cover key talent communities within the group - from graduates and apprentices, through people managers, emerging leaders and senior leaders. This approach supports our goal of helping employees achieve their full potential, developing high performing teams and purposeful leaders.

We are united in our resolve to build a safe, accepting and inclusive culture in our workplace and have been actively involved in similar efforts in our local communities. A diverse and inclusive culture is critical to our performance, reputation and innovation, and it brings us closer to the communities in which we live and operate. In 2020, we refreshed our focus on Diversity, Equity & Inclusion (DE&I) by: defining a new global strategy, appointing our first global Chief DE&I Officer and establishing an executive level DE&I Council. Chaired by our CEO and Chief DE&I Officer and comprising 19 executives representative of our operations, the DE&I Council’s role is to spearhead strategic goals and programs in support of realizing our new multi-year DE&I strategy.

Our compensation program plays a key role in promoting our company’s operating and financial success and provides incentives for our management team to execute our financial and operational goals. We place great importance on our ability to attract, retain and motivate talented executives who can be responsive to new and different opportunities for our company and thereby create value for our customers and shareholders. The primary goals of our executive compensation program are to: motivate our executives to maximize their contributions to the success of our company, attract and retain the best leaders for our business and align executives’ interests to create shareholder value.

At Liberty Global we are committed to the health and safety of our employees and visitors to our sites and we ensure compliance with all relevant national health and safety regulations. The COVID-19 pandemic provides a powerful reminder of the critical role that connectivity plays in our lives. As an essential service provider to families, businesses, hospitals and schools, our COVID-19 response has been strong and well-received in our markets. We have prioritized the safety and well-
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being of our employees and customers while maintaining the highest-quality video, voice and broadband services, despite exceptional demands on our networks. For employees, we expanded work-from-home plans and increased health measures within our offices. We have made available a series of well-being resources based on a four-pronged strategy focused on the mental, physical, social and financial aspects of health and well-being. We also established a $4 million response fund to help employees and their families significantly affected by the crisis. Our executive leadership team and board of directors pledged $2 million to the response fund, which was matched by our company to support our employees in need.

We measure employee engagement on a quarterly basis against external benchmarks defined by an outside organization that provides employee engagement insights to hundreds of the world’s leading organizations. We are performing in line with global industry benchmarks, and we exceed benchmarks set by high performing organizations in areas such as in inclusion, well-being, manager support and senior leadership communication. The high performing organization norm is comprised of organizations with strong financial performance and superior human resource practices, representing the gold standard for employee engagement. Results are owned by managers and executives, who are accountable for setting out action plans. In addition, we gather regular qualitative and quantitative insights with methods such as pulse surveys and focus groups. This approach informs decision making across key employee focus areas, including for example, well-being, targeted support during the COVID-19 pandemic, and skills development.

Regulatory Matters
General Overview - E.U., U.K. and Switzerland
Video distribution, broadband internet, fixed-line telephony and mobile businesses are regulated in each of the countries in which we operate. The scope of regulation varies from country to country, although in some significant respects regulation in European markets is harmonized under the regulatory structure of the European Union (E.U.).
Adverse regulatory developments could subject our businesses to a number of risks. Regulation could limit growth, revenue and the number and type of services offered, leading to increased operating costs and property and equipment additions. Moreover, regulation may restrict our operations and subject them to further competitive pressure, including pricing restrictions, interconnect and other access obligations, and restrictions or controls on content. Failure to comply with current or future regulation could expose our businesses to various penalties.
As of February 1, 2021, the E.U. includes 27 Member States; namely, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. As such, these countries are required to harmonize certain laws with E.U. rules by transposing directives into their national law. In addition, other types of E.U. rules (or regulations) are directly enforceable in those countries without any implementation at the national level.
The United Kingdom (U.K.) formally left the E.U. on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit”, and entered into a transition period until December 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the E.U. reached the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement” referred to as the “E.U.-U.K. Agreement”. On December 30, 2020, the E.U.-U.K. Agreement was approved by the U.K. Parliament, with retrospective ratification from the E.U. Parliament expected to follow in 2021. In the meantime, the E.U.-U.K. Agreement has been provisionally brought into effect. The E.U.-U.K. Agreement focuses on four main sectors, namely (1) trade, (2) economic and social cooperation, (3) security and (4) governance. Trade in goods between the E.U. and the U.K. will take place on a zero tariff and zero quota basis. Additionally, even though checks will apply to all traded goods, customs procedures will be simplified. Principles on state aid are also contained in the E.U.-U.K. Agreement to prevent either side from granting unfair subsidies, and a dispute settlement mechanism is provided to ensure businesses from the E.U. and the U.K. compete on a level playing field. In the services sector, the U.K. will no longer benefit from the freedom to supply services across the E.U., and free movement of persons between the E.U. and the U.K. has ended. In addition, the E.U.-U.K. Agreement does not cover audiovisual services. With respect to data movement between the two regions, the E.U. will allow personal data to flow to the U.K. for four months (extendable to six months) without any changes, as it continues its adequacy assessment of the U.K.’s data protection regime, while the U.K. indicated that free flow of data to the E.U. will be allowed. In relation to the telecommunications sector, the U.K. and the E.U. have agreed to maintain the existing levels of liberalization in their markets, including standard provisions on authorizations, access to and use of telecoms networks, interconnection, fair and transparent regulation and the allocation of scarce resources. Service providers from either the E.U. or the U.K. will not have to wait for prior authorization before they deliver services. The E.U.-U.K. Agreement contains measures to encourage cooperation on the promotion of fair and transparent rates for international mobile roaming. The effects of Brexit could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, as more fully detailed in Item 1A. Risk Factors
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included in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. There can be no assurance that future U.K. policy in this area will remain as favorable to our company as is currently the case.     
Regulation in Switzerland, which is not a Member State of the E.U., is discussed separately below, as well as regulations in certain Member States in which we face regulatory issues that may have a material impact on our business.
E.U. Communications Regulation
The European Electronic Communications Code (the Code) is the primary source of communications regulation in the European Union. The Code came into effect on December 20, 2018 and had to be transposed by the Member States into national law by December 21, 2020. Most Member States are reported to be late with the implementation of the changes that were prescribed by the Code.
The Code primarily seeks to develop open markets for communication services within Europe. It harmonizes the rules within the E.U. for the establishment and operation of electronic communication networks, including cable television and traditional telephony networks, and the offer of electronic communication services, such as telephony (including OTT services), internet and, to some degree, television services.
Set forth below are certain key provisions included in the Code. This description is not intended to be a comprehensive or exhaustive description of all regulation in this area.
Licensing and Exclusivity. The Code requires Member States to abolish exclusivities on communication networks and services in their territory and allow service providers into their markets based on a simple registration. The Code sets forth an exhaustive list of conditions that may be imposed on communication networks and services. Possible obligations include, among other things, financial charges for universal service or for the costs of regulation, environmental requirements, data privacy and other consumer protection rules, “must carry” obligations, provision of customer information to law enforcement agencies and access obligations.
Significant Market Power. Specific obligations imposed by National Regulatory Authoritis (NRAs) in E.U. Member States apply only to service providers deemed to have Significant Market Power (defined below) in a relevant market. For purposes of the Code, a service provider has “Significant Market Power” where, either individually or jointly with others, it enjoys a position of significant economic strength, affording it the power to behave independently of competitors, customers and consumers to an appreciable extent.
As part of the implementation of certain provisions of the Code, NRAs are required to analyze certain markets predefined by the European Commission to determine if any service provider has Significant Market Power. NRAs may, however, perform analysis of other markets, applying an additional test, called the three criteria test, which looks at the competitiveness of the market during the regulatory period, existence of barriers to market entry and the sufficiency of competition law to deal with market issues.

In the event that a service provider is found to have Significant Market Power in any particular market, single or jointly with another provider, an NRA could impose certain conditions on that service provider. The European Commission has the power to veto a finding by an NRA of Significant Market Power (or the absence thereof), which power also applies with respect to market definition. The European Commission does not, however, have the power to veto any remedies, such as access obligations, imposed as a result of a finding of Significant Market Power. We have been found to have Significant Market Power in certain markets in which we operate and further findings of Significant Market Power are possible.
Video Services. The regulation of distribution, but not the content, of television services to the public is harmonized by the Code. Member States are allowed to impose on certain service providers under their jurisdiction reasonable must carry obligations for the transmission of specified radio and television broadcast channels. Such obligations are required to be based on clearly defined general interest objectives, be proportionate and transparent and are subject to periodic review. We are subject to must carry regulations in all markets in which we operate, which are different among Member States. We do not expect the European Commission or the Member States to curtail such obligations in the foreseeable future.
Net Neutrality, Roaming and Call Termination
In November 2015, the European Parliament adopted the regulation on the first E.U.-wide net neutrality regime. The regulation, which is directly applicable in all Member States, permits the provision of specialized services, optimized for specific content and subjects service providers to reasonable traffic management requirements. The regulation also abolished
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retail roaming tariffs beginning in June 2017 and introduced wholesale roaming price caps. In 2019, the E.U. also introduced caps on wholesale rates for intra-E.U. calls (i.e. calls from the users’ Member State of residence to another Member State) to bring these in line with the wholesale roaming caps.
Call termination tariffs are set by NRAs following an assessment of the relevant mobile and fixed call termination markets. The Code introduced the system of single maximum E.U.-wide voice termination rates for fixed and mobile. On December 18, 2020, the European Commission adopted a delegated regulation directly applicable in all Member States, which sets the maximum termination rates that service providers are allowed to charge each other for mobile and fixed termination services. By 2022, all fixed service providers will be subject to a maximum fixed termination rate of €0.07 per minute and by 2024 the single maximum rate for mobile termination will be €0.2 per minute.
Broadcasting and Content Law
Although the distribution of video channels by a service provider is within the scope of the Code, the activities of a broadcaster are harmonized by other elements of E.U. law, in particular the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD). The AVMSD was revised and reissued on December 18, 2018. E.U. Member States were required to implement the revised AVMSD into national law by September 19, 2020; however, a number of Member States are reported to be late with implementation.
Generally, broadcasts originating in and intended for reception within an E.U. Member State must respect the laws of that Member State. Pursuant to the AVMSD, however, E.U. Member States are required to allow broadcast signals of broadcasters established in another E.U. Member State to be freely transmitted within their territory, so long as the broadcaster complies with the law of their home state. This is referred to as the country of origin principle and applies to both linear and non-linear services. In addition, when we offer third-party VoD services on our network, it is the business of the third-party provider of the services, and not us as the distributor, that is regulated in respect of these services.
The AVMSD established quotas, applicable to both linear and non-linear services, for the transmission of European-produced programming and programs made by European producers who are independent of broadcasters. Such obligations are applicable to certain of our businesses.
Member States are also allowed to require service providers to contribute financially to the production of European works, including requiring financial contributions from VoD providers established in other territories that targets audiences in their jurisdiction. Such obligations are applicable to (or are expected to become applicable to) certain of our businesses.
In addition, according to the regulation of the European Commission addressing the portability of online audiovisual content services, commercial providers of online content services (including OTT service providers) are required to enable subscribers who are temporarily present in any Member State with access and use of online content services in substantially the same manner as in the Member State of residence. Our services comply with these portability requirements.
Copyright Law
In April 2019, the European Commission adopted a new directive relating to satellite and cable retransmissions. The directive introduces a new country of origin principle in relation to online content, extends the existing copyright clearance system to other technologies (such as satellite, mobile and IPTV) and extends a similar rights clearance system to directly injected cable channels. Member States are required to transpose the majority of this directive into national law by June 2021.

Technological Regulation
The European Commission is increasingly imposing additional mandatory requirements and encouraging voluntary solutions regarding energy consumption of the telecommunications equipment we provide our customers. We have been participating in discussions and studies regarding energy consumption with the European Commission and with experts working on their behalf. In addition, we have been working to lower power consumption of our set-top boxes. We have also worked with a large group of companies to create a voluntary agreement on set-top box power consumption as an alternative to regulation, which has been formally recognized by the European Commission. Nevertheless, legislation in this area may be adopted that could adversely affect the cost and/or the functionality of equipment we deploy to customers.
Pursuant to an E.U. Regulation on standby power (the Standby Regulation), many devices are required to have either a low power standby mode or off mode, unless such mode is inappropriate for the intended use of the product. In particular, the Standby Regulation sets, among others, the maximum power consumption of networked consumer equipment while in the so-called “Networked Standby” mode. As a result, all of the devices we purchase and/or develop operate under the power management requirements of the Standby Regulation and are subject to audit to ensure compliance.
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Also, the Radio Equipment Directive, which has been transposed into national legislation by E.U. Member States, establishes a regulatory framework for placing radio equipment on the market. Its objective is a single market for radio equipment by setting essential requirements for safety and health, electromagnetic compatibility, and the efficient use of the radio spectrum. It also provides the basis for further regulation governing some additional aspects, including technical features for the protection of privacy, personal data and fraud, interoperability, access to emergency services, and compliance regarding the combination of radio equipment and software. It also takes into account the need for improved market surveillance, especially for the traceability obligations of manufacturers, importers and distributors. As a result, all of the devices we purchase and/or develop which contain radio interfaces (such as WiFi), must operate under these rules.
There is a Mutual Recognition Agreement established between the E.U. and Switzerland for the purpose of mutual recognition of conformity assessment of regulated products. As a result, the Standby Regulation and the Radio Equipment Directive are also applicable in Switzerland.
As part of the E.U.’s Radio Spectrum Policy Program, spectrum made available through the switch off of analog television has been approved for mobile broadband. This spectrum, known as the “digital dividend”, is in the 700 - 862 MHz band. The terms under which this spectrum becomes available varies among the European countries in which we operate. Certain uses of this spectrum may interfere with services carried on our cable networks. If this occurs, we may need to: (1) avoid using certain frequencies on our cable networks for certain or all of our services, (2) make some changes to our networks, or (3) change the equipment that we deploy. In approving mobile broadband, however, the Radio Spectrum Policy Program states that the new mobile services must co-exist with existing services, such as cable and DTT, to avoid harmful interference. As a result, we are in ongoing discussions with relevant Member States and the European Commission to develop mitigation techniques and to engage NRAs to launch regulatory dialog with equipment manufacturers and mobile providers to develop co-existing networks.
Other European Level Regulation
In addition to the industry-specific regimes discussed above, our operating companies must comply with a range of both specific and general legislation concerning data protection, competition, consumer protection and cybersecurity, among other matters.
In May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) with respect to data protection and retention became effective in the E.U. The GDPR sets strict standards regarding the handling, use and retention of personal data. Organizations that fail to comply face stiff penalties. As required, our operations have implemented various measures internally and with third-party vendors to meet these requirements. In addition, in January 2017, the European Commission published a proposal for a new e-Privacy regulation, replacing the current e-Privacy Directive that regulates privacy related issues in the electronic communications sector. Negotiations among E.U. Member States are still in process, and the proposal still needs to go through the legislative process.
With respect to cybersecurity, in 2016, the E.U. adopted a directive on security of network and information systems (NIS Directive), which provides legal measures to boost the overall level of cybersecurity in the E.U. In principle, our operations within the E.U. do not fall under the NIS Directive as it exempts providers of Electronic Communications Services, which are governed by the E.U. telecommunications framework. Exceptions to this are some national national transpositions of the NIS Directive, for instance in the Netherlands and Ireland, which require our network and communication equipment to be compliant with such obligations. In addition, in December 2020, the European Commission presented a revised version of the current NIS Directive as part of a new cybersecurity strategy. The legislative proposal seeks to expand the scope of the current NIS Directive by adding new sectors based on their criticality for the economy and society, including telecoms providers, which would imply stricter enforcement regimes in the future. The proposal still needs to go through the legislative process and adoption by E.U. institutions.
In December 2020, the European Commission also published the Digital Services Act (DSA) legislative proposal to replace the 2000 E-Commerce Directive. The DSA sets clear responsibilities and accountability for providers of intermediary services, especially improving the mechanisms for the removal of illegal content and for the effective protection of users’ fundamental rights online. The DSA proposal, which complements sector-specific legislation such as the AVMSD, still needs to go through the legislative process and is expected to have limited impact on us.
Additionally, in December 2020, the European Commission published a legislative proposal concerning a new Digital Markets Act (DMA). The DMA aims to tackle unfair practices carried out by digital platforms acting as gatekeepers on the market and only applies to major providers of core platform services, such as search engines, social networks and online intermediation services. The DMA requires proactive action and prohibits a number of practices by such digital platforms with respect to interoperability and data sharing. The DMA proposal still needs to go through the legislative process and is expected to have limited impact on us.
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Our operating companies are also subject to both national and European level regulations on competition and on consumer protection, which are broadly harmonized at the E.U. level and largely regulated under the Code. For example, while our operating companies may offer their services in bundled packages in European markets, they are sometimes not permitted to make a subscription to one service, such as cable television, conditional upon a subscription to another service, such as telephony. They may also face restrictions on the degree to which they may discount certain products included in the bundled packages.
United Kingdom
The U.K. Office of Communications (Ofcom) is the key regulatory authority for the communications sector in which Virgin Media operates in the U.K. It is responsible for furthering the interests of citizens in relation to communications matters and furthering the interests of consumers in relevant markets where appropriate by promoting competition. Ofcom is also responsible for regulating the BBC, a role previously undertaken by the BBC Trust. In December 2020, it was also announced that Ofcom has been appointed the regulatory body responsible for online harms in the U.K., but the legislation which underpins the regulatory framework, the Online Safety Bill, still needs to progress through Government and Parliament before being passed. The U.K. Competition and Markets Authority has jurisdiction with respect to competition matters.
End of Contract Notifications and Annual Best Tariff Notifications. In 2019, Ofcom issued new regulatory requirements originating from the European Electronic Communications Code, that, effective from February 2020, obligate providers to (i) alert customers who are approaching the end of a minimum contract term to the fact that their contract period is coming to an end and to set out the best new price that the provider can offer them and (ii) once a year, alert customers who are out of contract to that fact and again confirm the best new price the provider can offer them. In both cases, providers must also set out the price available to new customers for an equivalent service offering. These new requirements adversely impacted our revenue and increased certain of our costs in the U.K. during 2020, and we expect additional and potentially more significant adverse impacts on our operating results in the U.K. in future periods.
Broadband Expansion. At the end of 2019, super-fast broadband was available to more than 95% of U.K. premises. To stimulate private investment in this endeavor, the U.K. government has been using money from the publicly funded BBC license fee, underspend from the Analogue TV Switch-Off Project and other sources of public investment. The state aid measure permitting this subsidy was renewed (and amended) in 2016 and is expected, through amendments to its “underspend” provisions, to result in up to an additional 1% to 2% super-fast coverage, making it available to 97%-98% of the population by the end of 2020.
The U.K. government has also been supporting the market rollout of full fiber and 5G services. Such support has included public funding for the creation of a match-funded “full fiber deployment” fund, business rate relief for the deployment of new full fiber networks and public funding for a strategic program of full fiber and 5G trials. The U.K. government’s November 2017 budget included £190.0 million ($259.4 million) for the first and second phases of its local full fiber deployment fund and £160.0 million ($218.4 million) for the first phase of the 5G trials. In the second half of 2019, the U.K. government set out its ambition for all premises to have access to a gigabit capable service by the end of 2025. To facilitate this, it announced a gigabit capability public fund of £5 billion ($7 billion) for areas that are not commercially viable. As further detailed in the U.K. government’s Spending Review issued in November 2020, £1.2 billion of the £5 billion gigabit capability fund would be available to subsidize the rollout of gigabit-capable broadband in the hardest to reach areas of the U.K. between now and 2025, with the possibility of additional draw downs from the gigabit capability fund if industry has the capacity to use such funds. In addition, the National Infrastructure Strategy, which was published alongside the Spending Review, highlighted that the U.K. government is now working with industry to target a minimum of 85% gigabit capable coverage by 2025, while seeking to accelerate rollout further to get as close to 100% as possible.
The Telecommunications Infrastructure Bill received Royal Assent in February 2018, which gave effect to the U.K. government’s plans to provide full business rate relief for new fiber infrastructure built during the 2017-2022 rating period. Secondary legislation followed in April 2018, clarifying that the relief also applies to newly lit fiber and any plant and machinery used to build the infrastructure. In addition, the U.K. government published its Telecoms Infrastructure Review in July 2018. This Review explored whether the conditions for investment in fiber are optimal in the U.K. and what policy changes should be considered to encourage greater investment in new digital infrastructure. The Government concluded that, with the right policy support, infrastructure based competition will deliver FTTP/Gbit capable networks to approximately 90% of U.K. premises. To facilitate this, the U.K. government intends to introduce a notification regime for multiple dwelling unit wayleaves, introduce a requirement for new housing developments to have Gbit capable access and increase consistency in street works and duct access. To this end, following consultation, the Telecommunications Infrastructure (Leasehold Property) Bill was presented to parliament in October 2019 and is expected to be passed in 2021, with the bill currently awaiting its third reading in the House of Lords. New building regulations requiring new housing developments to have Gbit capable access are expected to be consulted on in the first quarter of 2021 and made law during the first half of 2021. The U.K. government conducted its fundamental review into business rates over the summer of 2020 and is expected to publish its recommendations in the first half of 2021.
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In November 2015, the U.K. government announced that everyone would have a legal right to request a broadband connection of at least 10 Mbps regardless of where they live. To facilitate this, a broadband Universal Service Obligation (USO) was introduced via secondary legislation, which took effect in March 2020. The USO is aimed, in particular, at addressing the final 5% of the population in the U.K. without access to a broadband connection of a reasonable speed. Ofcom is responsible for implementation, including designation of the Universal Service Providers (USPs), currently BT and KCOM Group PLC. Additionally, Ofcom is responsible for deciding whether the USO constitutes an “unfair burden” on the USPs and, if so, designing an industry funding mechanism to compensate the USPs. In May 2020, Ofcom issued a statement confirming its approach to assessing any unfair burden claims as well as determining which operators would be required to contribute to a universal service industry fund. Ofcom allows USPs to request Ofcom’s review of potential compensation claims for any efficiently incurred ‘unfair net cost burden’ once per year. If Ofcom accepts a request for review, it will consider whether it is fair for the USP to bear some or all of the burden, as well as consider the cost to Ofcom and the industry of establishing and administering an industry fund. The net burden would be assessed based on the incremental cost of delivering the USO, less the benefits associated with being the USP. Ofcom intends to determine which operators would contribute to the fund and how much they would contribute at a later date. Ofcom has also indicated the USPs cannot make this request any earlier than March 2021. In the meantime, the number of consumers who would be eligible for the universal service is expected to decline, as providers continue to upgrade and expand their networks.
Television and VoD Services. In the U.K., Virgin Media is required to hold individual licenses under the Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996 for any television channels (including barker channels), which Virgin Media owns or operates and for the provision of certain other services on its cable television platform, such as electronic program guides. These television licensable content service (TLCS) licenses are granted and administered by Ofcom. Under these licenses, each covered service must comply with a number of Ofcom codes, including the Broadcasting Code, and with all directions issued by Ofcom. Breach of any of the terms of a TLCS license may result in the imposition of fines on the license holder and, ultimately, the license being revoked.
As a provider of an on-demand program service (ODPS), Virgin Media must comply with a number of statutory obligations in relation to “editorial content” and notify Ofcom of its intention to provide an ODPS. Failure to notify Ofcom or comply with the relevant statutory obligations may result in the imposition of fines or, ultimately, the prohibition on providing an ODPS.
New Security Regulations. In November 2020, the U.K. government introduced the Telecoms Security Bill, which will impose a new security framework on telecoms providers and provide the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport with new powers to direct telecoms providers to remove High Risk Vendors (HRVs) from their networks. The bill is expected to be passed into law by the spring of 2021.
Regulation of Broadband Markets. In March 2018, Ofcom completed its latest review of the Wholesale Local Access market (incorporating physical or passive network access via methods such as LLU and duct access). Ofcom found that BT continues to hold Significant Market Power and imposed corresponding remedies on it until April 2021. These remedies include price controls on “virtual” access to its wholesale 40/10Mbps FTTx product, the maintenance of access and pricing controls on its wholesale copper products and improvements to the existing physical infrastructure access product (third-party access to BT’s duct and pole estate).
Future Approach to Regulation. In July 2018, Ofcom published a Strategic Policy Position, setting out its intended future approach to regulation from April 2021 (aimed at creating regulatory certainty to support investment in full fiber broadband). It includes an intention to take a more holistic consideration of business and residential markets (ultimately combining previously separate markets) and to consider different regulatory approaches in different parts of the country, reflecting the varying levels of network competition. In January 2020, Ofcom published the provisional conclusions from its holistic review of the residential broadband and business connectivity markets, setting out its intended approach to regulating them (to apply for a five year period beginning in April 2021) . It proposes to categorize areas of the country and apply regulation depending on the level of competition in those areas. In both non-competitive areas (~30% of premises) and in potentially competitive areas (~70% of premises), BT Openreach will continue to be required to provide wholesale access to its network; however, in the latter such wholesale access will be limited to BT Openreach’s entry-level superfast broadband service and the price will rise in line with inflation. Although Ofcom has not identified any competitive areas at this stage, once it does so, all regulation will be lifted from those areas.
Ofcom intends to regulate BT Openreach’s wholesale business connections (or “leased lines”) in a similar way to residential broadband by varying its approach geographically to reflect the level of current or prospective competition and increasing charges in line with inflation.

Ofcom Review of Business Connectivity Markets. Ofcom published the conclusions of its last review of the business connectivity (leased lines) market in the third quarter of 2019. The review maintained the existing approach, to market
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definition, (flat) price caps for some wholesale BT services and a narrow dark fibre remedy on BT (in areas where infrastructure competition is non-existent and unlikely to occur). It also introduced an extension of the duct and pole remedy applying to BT to enable its use for (standalone) business grade services. Ofcom published its latest review of the business connectivity market in January 2020, as part of the broader, holistic review of the connectivity markets (see above under Future Approach to Regulation).
Mobile Service. Prior to January 1, 2021, as an MVNO, Virgin Media was subject to E.U. regulations relating to retail prices for roaming services. These regulations: set limits on certain wholesale tariffs for international mobile voice roaming, SMS tariffs and data roaming within the E.U.; provided for greater levels of transparency of retail pricing information; imposed measures to guard against bill shock in respect of data roaming; and prohibited the imposition of additional retail charges for roaming within the E.U. Following the expiration of the Brexit transition period on December 31, 2020, the U.K. is no longer subject to the same E.U. regulations. Instead, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement between the E.U. and the U.K. simply states that the parties will endeavor to cooperate on promoting transparent and reasonable rates for international mobile roaming services. However, the U.K. previously introduced a number of consumer measures aimed at providing safeguards for consumers, which will continue to apply. Such measures include limits on the amount that customers can be charged for using mobile data abroad before having to opt in if they wish to use more data and alert warnings as customers reach various milestones in data allowances included within their packages.
Mobile termination charges applied by mobile network operators are regulated by Ofcom under a Significant Market Power charge control condition. Under Virgin Media’s MVNO agreement, these mobile termination charges are passed on to Virgin Media. Ofcom has set mobile termination charges for the period of 2018-2021, with rates reducing by approximately 5% from their starting levels by the end of this period. In August 2020, Ofcom launched a consultation on its review of the Wholesale Voice Markets 2021-26, which seeks to regulate both fixed and mobile voice markets beginning in April 2021. In its consultation, Ofcom proposed to continue to impose caps on the charges for terminating both mobile and fixed calls.
Fixed Voice Termination. Virgin Media has been designated as a provider with Significant Market Power on fixed voice termination. As a result, the rates it charges other providers for termination on its network are subject to regulation. This requires, among other things, the provision of termination on fair and reasonable terms, conditions and charges, which must be no higher than BT’s regulated charges, unless certain conditions are met.
Belgium
The Belgisch Instituut voor Post en Telecommunicate (the BIPT), the Belgian NRA, has determined that Telenet is an operator with Significant Market Power in the market for call termination on an individual fixed public telephone network. Reciprocal termination rates have been imposed, which results in Telenet charging the interconnection rate of the incumbent telecommunications operator, Proximus. BIPT has confirmed a wholesale tariff of €0.116 ($0.14) per minute, which is currently in effect.
BIPT has adopted a bottom-up long run incremental cost model to calculate tariffs for call termination on individual mobile networks, resulting in a nominal value of €0.99 ($1.21) per minute, which is currently in effect. BIPT has also designated Telenet, as a mobile network operator, as having Significant Market Power in the market for “call termination on individual networks.”
In 2011, BIPT and the regional regulators for the media sectors (together, the Belgium Regulatory Authorities) found Telenet to have Significant Market Power in the broadcasting market (the 2011 Decision). The 2011 Decision imposed on Telenet an obligation to provide third-party operators, at specified “retail minus” tariff rates, with (1) a resale offer of an analog television package, (2) access to digital television platforms and (3) a resale offer of broadband internet access in combination with the digital television access obligation.
In 2018 the Belgium Regulatory Authorities adopted a market review decision (the 2018 Decision), which replaced the 2011 Decision. The 2018 Decision finds that Telenet has Significant Market Power in the wholesale broadband market. The obligations include (1) providing third-party operators with access to the digital television platform (including basic digital video and analog video) and (2) making available to third-party operators a bitstream offer of broadband internet access (including fixed voice as an option). Telenet considered the 2018 Decision to be inconsistent with the principle of technology-neutral regulation and the European Single Market Strategy to stimulate further investments in broadband networks. Telenet filed an appeal with the Brussels Markets Court that was rejected on September 4, 2019.
The 2018 Decision no longer applied a retail minus pricing on Telenet, and instead, it imposed a 17% reduction in monthly wholesale cable resale access prices during an interim period before setting “reasonable access tariffs”. On May 26, 2020, the Belgium Regulatory Authorities adopted a final decision regarding the “reasonable access tariffs” to replace the interim prices,
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which represents an estimated decrease of 11.5%, as compared to the initial August 1, 2018 interim rates, and is applicable as of July 1, 2020. These rates are expected to evolve over time due to, among other reasons, broadband capacity usage.
The 2018 Decision aims to, and in its application, may strengthen Telenet’s competitors by granting them resale access to Telenet’s network to offer competing products and services notwithstanding Telenet’s substantial historical financial outlays in developing the infrastructure. In addition, any resale access granted to competitors could (1) limit the bandwidth available to Telenet to provide new or expanded products and services to the customers served by its network and (2) adversely impact Telenet’s ability to maintain or increase its revenue and cash flows. The extent of any such adverse impacts ultimately will be dependent on the extent that competitors take advantage of the resale access afforded to Telenet’s network, the rates that Telenet receives for such access and other competitive factors or market developments.
Switzerland
Switzerland has a regulatory system that partially reflects the principles of the E.U., but otherwise is distinct from the European regulatory system of telecommunications. The Telecommunications Act (Fernmeldegesetz) regulates, in general, the transmission of information, including the transmission of radio and television signals. Most aspects of the distribution of radio and television, however, are regulated under the Radio and Television Act (Bundesgesetz über Radio und Fernsehen). In addition, the Competition Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Surveillance of Post and Telecommunications are potentially relevant to our business. With respect to energy consumption of electronic home devices, the Energy Act and the Energy Ordinance are applicable to set-top boxes and modems.
Providers of telecommunication services using resources attributed to Switzerland’s Federal Office of Communications (such as addressing elements and licensed radio frequencies) must register with the Federal Office of Communications. Dominant providers must grant access to their network to third parties, including LLU access; however, it is restricted to the copper wire network of the incumbent, Swisscom. Therefore, such unbundling obligations do not apply to our business in Switzerland and other cable operators. Also, any dominant provider must grant access to its ducts, subject to sufficient capacity being available in the relevant duct. At this time, only Swisscom has been determined to be dominant in this regard. Dominant operators are obliged to provide interconnection and all providers of services forming part of the universal service in Switzerland have to ensure interoperability of services.
    In regards to call termination as part of interconnection agreements, Swisscom as market dominant provider, must offer these services at cost-oriented prices and disclose the conditions and prices for their individual access services. In interconnection agreements with Swisscom, reciprocal termination rates are imposed.

    The final Telecommunications Act and corresponding ordinances were published in November 2020 and became binding on January 1, 2020, with transition periods for certain obligations (such as call filter and roaming obligations). Changes include more extensive consumer and youth protection measures (such as decreasing roaming fees, measures to prevent spoofing). In terms of net neutrality, it foresees more transparency for the customerthe customer must be informed if peer-to-peer traffic is treated unequally and traffic management measures are only allowed under certain very restrictive circumstances (e.g. to fight exceptional network congestion). In addition, customers must be informed about the quality of the internet service (both fixed and mobile internet), and providers must introduce a call filter blocking unlawful calls. New and stronger obligations were also implemented regarding roaming (such as requiring mobile providers to: offer discounted roaming packages with a validity of 12 months, bill roaming charges by the second or per kilobyte and establish maximum spend limits for all roaming services).

Under the Radio and Television Act and the corresponding ordinance, the Federal Government and the Federal Office of Communications can select up to 25 programs that have to be distributed without the cable operator being entitled to compensation. When a program is not on the mandatory distribution list, network operators must still treat all programs in an equal and non-discriminatory manner.
In September 2016, the Intelligence Agencies Act was approved by the Swiss population and became effective in September 2017. For Telecommunications service providers, the Intelligence Agencies Act set forth new obligations regulating cable traffic.
In September 2020, the Swiss Parliament adopted a revised version of the Swiss Data Protection Act (DPA), which provides more transparency regarding the processing of data, strengthens the individual’s information rights (e.g. if his/her data is processed in a foreign country) and follows the developments in the E.U., allowing for the continued flow of personal data from the EEA to Switzerland. The corresponding ordinances to the Swiss DPA are expected to be published for the public consultation phase in the spring of 2021.
In terms of 5G expansion developments, the network rollout is significantly hampered at different levels. On a federal level, signature collection is under way for five different people initiatives, all targeting 5G. On the cantonal level, several
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cantons have suspended permitting of 5G and several cantonal parliaments are requesting a moratoria for 5G and mast citing. On a communal level, several municipalities have stopped antenna permitting and/or issued planning zones, making it impossible to process permits for new antennas as well as minor changes to existing ones.
The Netherlands

Similar to our other operations, the VodafoneZiggo JV is subject to must carry obligations, including a number of regional and local broadcasting channels, as well as public broadcasting channels.

On August 5, 2013, the Autoriteit Consument & Markt (ACM), the Netherlands NRA, published a market analysis decision on call termination, which combines both the fixed termination market and the mobile termination market. Following various administrative actions, the Dutch Supreme Administrative Court upheld the ACM decision in July 2017. The implementation of the new tariff became effective on July 12, 2017, and will apply until the date that new European tariffs enter into force.
In July 2015, the Dutch incumbent telecommunications operator KPN filed an appeal against the European Commission regarding its decision to approve the acquisition of Ziggo, which we completed in November 2014. In October 2017, the European General Court ruled that the European Commission did not state sufficient reasons for not analyzing the possible vertical anti-competitive effects on the market for premium pay TV sports channels; thereby annulling the European Commission’s clearance of the Ziggo acquisition. The E.U. Merger Regulation provides in such a case that the transaction be re-examined by the European Commission with a view of adopting a new decision. As a result, we filed a formal re-notification of the Ziggo acquisition with the European Commission. In May 2018, the European Commission again cleared the acquisition. In November 2018, KPN appealed the new European Commission’s clearance of Ziggo/UPC on grounds similar to last time. VodafoneZiggo JV submitted a Statement in Intervention in June 2019. An oral hearing was held on September 15, 2020, and on January 27, 2021 the court rejected KPN’s appeal.

KPN also filed a court challenge against the European Commission’s 2016 decision that approved the VodafoneZiggo JV transaction. KPN is seeking annulment of the 2016 decision. Oral hearings took place in November 2018.On May 23, 2019, the Court rejected KPN’s appeal.

On February 27, 2018, the ACM published a draft decision of its analysis of the LLU market, concluding that there is a single market for local and central access. ACM referred to this market as the Wholesale Fixed Access market and concluded that KPN and the VodafoneZiggo JV had joint Significant Market Power. As a result, ACM imposed on the VodafoneZiggo JV an obligation to offer wholesale cable access and continued wholesale cable access regulation of KPN. Following a market consultation, ACM submitted the draft decision to the European Commission. After comments by the European Commission, ACM published the final decision on September 28, 2018, which became effective on October 1, 2018. The VodafoneZiggo JV published a draft Reference Offer on December 31, 2018 and published tariffs on March 31, 2019. In parallel, the VodafoneZiggo JV appealed ACM’s decision before the national court and initiated an action before the European General Court. The national court annulled ACM’s decision and as a result, the VodafoneZiggo JV is no longer obligated to offer cable access. In the action before the European General Court, a decision on the admissibility is expected on February 25, 2021.

On November 9, 2018, the implementation of the NIS Directive by the Netherlands entered into force. In general, providers of electronic communication services are not in scope of the NIS Directive. The legislator for the Netherlands, however, decided to apply, to a certain extent, the NIS Directive on providers of electronic communication services. As a result, the VodafoneZiggo JV must notify the Netherlands Telecoms Agency and the National Cyber Security Center when a cybersecurity incident occurs, as well as the Netherlands Data Protection Authority if a data breach occurs.

Available Information
All our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as amendments to such filings are available on our internet website free of charge generally within 24 hours after we file such material with the SEC. Our website address is www.libertyglobal.com. The information on our website is not part of this Annual Report and is not incorporated by reference herein.
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Item 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report, you should consider the following risk factors in evaluating our results of operations, financial condition, business and operations or an investment in the shares of our company.
The risk factors described in this section have been separated into four groups:
risks that relate to the competition we face and the technology used in our businesses;
risks that relate to our operating in overseas markets and being subject to foreign regulation;
risks that relate to certain financial matters; and
other risks, including risks that, among other things, relate to the obstacles that may be faced by anyone who may seek to acquire us. 
Although we describe below and elsewhere in this Annual Report the risks we consider to be the most material, there may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that also could have material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition, business or operations in the future. In addition, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
If any of the events described below, individually or in combination, were to occur, our businesses, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Factors Relating to Competition and Technology
We operate in increasingly competitive markets, and there is a risk that we will not be able to effectively compete with other service providers. The markets for cable television, broadband internet, telephony and mobile services are highly competitive. In the provision of video services, we face competition from FTA and DTT broadcasters, video provided via satellite platforms, networks using DSL, VDSL or vectoring technology, multi-channel multipoint distribution system operators, FTTx networks, OTT video service providers, and, in some countries where parts of our systems are overbuilt, cable networks, among others. Our operating businesses are facing increasing competition from video services provided by, or over the networks of, incumbent telecommunications operators and other service providers. As the availability and speed of broadband internet increases, we also face competition from OTT video content providers utilizing our or our competitors’ high-speed internet connections. In the provision of telephony and broadband internet services, we are experiencing increasing competition from the incumbent telecommunications operators and other service providers in each country in which we operate, as well as providers of mobile voice and data. The incumbent telecommunications operators typically dominate the market for these services and have the advantage of nationwide networks and greater resources than we have to devote to the provision of these services. Many of the incumbent operators offer double-play, triple-play and quadruple-play bundles of services. In many countries, we also compete with other operators using LLU to provide these services, other facilities-based operators and wireless providers. Developments in the DSL as well as investments into FTTx technology by the incumbent telecommunications operators and alternative providers have improved the attractiveness of our competitors’ products and services and strengthened their competitive position. Developments in wireless technologies, such as 5G and fixed wireless access (FWA), are creating additional competitive challenges.
In some of our markets, national and local government agencies may seek to become involved, either directly or indirectly, in the establishment of FTTx networks, DTT systems or other communications systems. We intend to pursue available options to restrict such involvement or to ensure that such involvement is on commercially reasonable terms. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be successful in these pursuits. As a result, we may face competition from entities not requiring a normal commercial return on their investments. In addition, we may face more vigorous competition than would have been the case if there were no government involvement.
We expect the level and intensity of competition to continue to increase from both existing competitors and the influx of new market entrants as a result of changes in the regulatory framework of the industries in which we operate, as well as strategic alliances and cooperative relationships among industry participants. Increased competition could result in increased customer churn, reductions of customer acquisition rates for some products and services and significant price and promotional competition in our markets. In combination with difficult economic environments, these competitive pressures could adversely impact our ability to increase or, in certain cases, maintain the revenue, average revenue per RGU or mobile subscriber, as applicable (ARPU), RGUs, mobile subscribers, Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in note 20 to our consolidated financial statements), Adjusted EBITDA margins and liquidity of our operating segments.
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Changes in technology may limit the competitiveness of and demand for our services. Technology in the video, telecommunications and data services industries is changing rapidly, including advances in current technologies and the emergence of new technologies. New technologies, products and services may impact consumer behavior and therefore demand for our products and services. The ability to anticipate changes in technology and consumer tastes and to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services on a timely basis will affect our ability to continue to grow, increase our revenue and number of subscribers and remain competitive. New products and services, once marketed, may not meet consumer expectations or demand, can be subject to delays in development and may fail to operate as intended. A lack of market acceptance of new products and services that we may offer, or the development of significant competitive products or services by others, could have a material adverse impact on our revenue and Adjusted EBITDA.
Our significant property and equipment additions, namely in connection with our Network Extensions, may not generate a positive return. Significant additions to our property and equipment are, or in the future may be, required to add customers to our networks and to upgrade or expand our broadband communications networks and upgrade customer premises equipment to enhance our service offerings and improve the customer experience. Additions to our property and equipment, which are currently underway, including in connection with our Network Extensions, require significant capital expenditures for equipment and associated labor costs to build out and/or upgrade our networks as well as for related customer premises equipment. Additionally, significant competition, the introduction of new technologies, the expansion of existing technologies, such as FTTx and advanced DSL technologies, the impact of natural disasters, or adverse regulatory developments could cause us to decide to undertake previously unplanned builds or upgrades of our networks and customer premises equipment.
No assurance can be given that any rebuilds, upgrades or extensions of our network (including the Network Extensions) will increase penetration rates, increase average monthly subscription revenue per average cable RGU or mobile subscriber, as applicable, or otherwise generate positive returns as anticipated, or that we will have adequate capital available to finance such rebuilds, upgrades or extensions. Additionally, costs related to our Network Extensions and property and equipment additions could end up being greater than originally anticipated or planned. If this is the case, we may require additional financing sooner than anticipated or we may have to delay or abandon some or all of our development and expansion plans or otherwise forego market opportunities. Additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all, and our ability to incur additional debt will be limited by our debt agreements. If we are unable to, or elect not to, pay for costs associated with adding new customers, expanding, extending or upgrading our networks or making our other planned or unplanned additions to our property and equipment, or are delayed in making such investments, our growth could be limited and our competitive position could be harmed.
We depend almost exclusively on our relationships with third-party programming providers and broadcasters for programming content, and a failure to acquire a wide selection of popular programming on acceptable terms could adversely affect our business. The success of our video subscription business depends, in large part, on our ability to provide a wide selection of popular programming to our subscribers. We generally do not produce our own content and we depend on our agreements, relationships and cooperation with public and private broadcasters and collective rights associations to obtain such content. If we fail to obtain a diverse array of popular programming for our pay television services, including a sufficient selection of HD channels as well as non-linear content (such as a selection of attractive VoD content and rights for ancillary services such as DVR and catch up or 'Replay' services), on satisfactory terms, we may not be able to offer a compelling video product to our customers at a price they are willing to pay. Additionally, we are frequently negotiating and renegotiating programming agreements and our annual costs for programming can vary. There can be no assurance that we will be able to renegotiate or renew the terms of our programming agreements on acceptable terms or at all. There has also been a rise in the number of direct-to-consumer offerings from content owners which impacts negotiations and the content, rights and restrictions available. Programming and copyright costs represent a significant portion of our operating costs and are subject to rise in future periods due to various factors, including (1) higher costs associated with the expansion of our digital video content, including rights associated with ancillary product offerings and rights that provide for the broadcast of live sporting events and (2) rate increases.
If we are unable to obtain or retain attractively priced competitive content, demand for our existing and future video services could decrease, thereby limiting our ability to attract new customers, maintain existing customers and/or migrate customers from lower-tier programming to higher-tier programming, thereby inhibiting our ability to execute our business plans. Furthermore, we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage if certain of our competitors obtain exclusive programming rights, particularly with respect to popular sports and movie programming, and as certain players in the OTT market, for example Netflix, Amazon and Disney, increasingly produce their own exclusive content.

We depend on third-party suppliers and licensors to supply necessary equipment, software and certain services required for our businesses. We rely on third-party vendors for the equipment, software and services that we require in order to provide services to our customers. Our suppliers often conduct business worldwide and their ability to meet our needs is subject to various risks, including political and economic instability, natural calamities, interruptions in transportation systems, terrorism and labor issues. As a result, we may not be able to obtain the equipment, software and services required for our businesses on a
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timely basis or on satisfactory terms. Any shortfall in customer premises equipment could lead to delays in completing extensions to our networks and in connecting customers to our services and, accordingly, could adversely impact our ability to maintain or increase our RGUs, revenue and cash flows. Also, if demand exceeds the suppliers’ and licensors’ capacity or if they experience financial difficulties, the ability of our businesses to provide some services may be materially adversely affected, which in turn could affect our businesses’ ability to attract and retain customers. Although we actively monitor the creditworthiness of our key third-party suppliers and licensors, the financial failure of a key third-party supplier or licensor could disrupt our operations and have an adverse impact on our revenue and cash flows. We rely upon intellectual property that is owned or licensed by us to use various technologies, conduct our operations and sell our products and services. Legal challenges could be made against our use of our or our licensed intellectual property rights (such as trademarks, patents and trade secrets) and we may be required to enter into licensing arrangements on unfavorable terms, incur monetary damages or be enjoined from use of the intellectual property rights in question.
Certain of our businesses that offer mobile telephony and data services rely on the radio access networks of third-party wireless network providers to carry our mobile communications traffic. Our services to mobile customers in many jurisdictions in which we operate rely on the use of MVNO arrangements in which we utilize the radio access networks of third-party wireless network providers to carry our mobile communications traffic. If any of our MVNO arrangements are terminated, or if the respective third-party wireless network provider fails to provide the services required under an MVNO arrangement, or if a third-party wireless network provider fails to deploy and maintain its network, and we are unable to find a replacement network operator on a timely and commercially reasonable basis or at all, we could be prevented from continuing the mobile services relying on such MVNO arrangement. Additionally, as our MVNO arrangements come to term, we may not be able to renegotiate renewal or replacement MVNO arrangements on the same or more favorable terms.
Failure in our or third-party technology or telecommunications systems, leakage of sensitive customer data, or security breaches could significantly disrupt our operations, reduce our customer base and result in fines, litigation or lost revenue. Our success depends, in part, on the continued and uninterrupted performance of our information technology and network systems, including internet sites, data hosting and processing facilities and other hardware, software and technical applications and platforms, as well as our customer service centers. Some of these are managed, hosted, provided or used by third-party service providers or their vendors, to assist in conducting our business. In addition, the hardware supporting a large number of critical systems for our cable network in a particular country or geographic region is housed in a relatively small number of locations. Our and our third-party service providers’ systems and equipment (including our routers and set-top boxes) are vulnerable to damage or security breach from a variety of sources, including telecommunications failures, power loss, malicious human acts, security flaws, and natural disasters. Moreover, despite security measures, unauthorized parties may gain access to or disrupt our or our third-party service providers’ servers, systems and equipment by, among other things, hacking into our servers, systems and equipment or those of our third-party service providers through fraud, computer viruses, worms, phishing, physical or electronic break-ins or burglaries, or errors by our or our third-party service providers’ employees. We and our third-party service providers may not be able to anticipate or respond in an adequate and timely manner to attempts to obtain authorized access to, disable or degrade our or our third-party service providers’ systems because the techniques for doing so change frequently, are increasingly complex and sophisticated and are difficult to detect for periods of time. In addition, as discussed further below, the security measures and procedures we and our third-party service providers have in place to protect personal data and other information may not be sufficient to counter all data security breaches, cyber-attacks, or system failures. In some cases, mitigation efforts may depend on third parties who may not deliver products or services that meet the required contractual standards or whose hardware, software or network services may be subject to error, defect, delay, or outage.
Through our operations, sales and marketing activities, we collect and store certain personal information related to our customers. This may include phone numbers, drivers license numbers, contact preferences, personal information stored on electronic devices, and payment information, including credit and debit card data. We also gather and retain information about employees in the normal course of business. In certain circumstances, where it is lawful to do so, we may share information about such persons with third-party service providers that assist with certain aspects of our business. Unauthorized parties may attempt to gain access to such data and information using the same methods described in the prior paragraph. As a result, data and information we gather could be subject to misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or accidental release or loss of information maintained in our information technology systems and networks and those of our third-party service providers, including customer and personnel data. As a result of the increasing awareness concerning the importance of safeguarding personal information, the potential misuse of such information and legislation that has been adopted or is being considered across all of our markets regarding the protection, privacy and security of personal information, information-related risks are increasing, particularly for businesses like ours that handle a large amount of personal data. Failure to comply with these data protection laws may result in, among other consequences, fines, litigation or regulatory actions by state, federal or non-U.S. authorities.
Despite the precautions we have taken, unanticipated problems affecting our systems and equipment could cause business disruptions such as failures in our information technology systems, disruption in the transmission of signals over our networks,
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unauthorized access to the data and information we gather or similar problems. Further, although we devote significant resources to our cybersecurity programs and have implemented security measures to protect our systems and data, and to prevent, detect and respond to data security incidents, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent these threats. Any disruptive situation that causes loss, misappropriation, misuse or leakage of data could damage our reputation and the credibility of our operations, and could subject us to potential liability, including litigation or other legal actions against us, the imposition of penalties, fines, fees or liabilities, which may not be covered by our insurance policies, and lost customers and revenue. While we maintain cyber liability insurance that provides both third-party liability and first-party liability insurance coverage, such insurance may not be sufficient to protect against all of our businesses’ losses from any future disruptions or breaches of their systems or other events as described above. Also, a cybersecurity breach and the changing cybersecurity landscape could require us to devote significant management resources to address the problems associated with the breach and to expend significant additional resources to upgrade further the security measures we employ to protect customer, employee, or other personal information against cyber-attacks and other wrongful attempts to access such information, which could result in a disruption of our operations. This includes additional infrastructure capacity spending to mitigate any system degradation and the reallocation of resources from development activities. To date, other than the non-permitted access of one of Virgin Media’s databases (see note 19 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), we have not been subject to cyberattacks or network disruptions that, individually or in the aggregate, have been material to our operations or financial condition. Although we have not detected another material security breach or cybersecurity incident to date, we have been the target of events of this nature and expect to be subject to similar attacks in the future.
The “Virgin” brand is used by our subsidiary Virgin Media under licenses from Virgin Enterprises Limited and is not under the control of Virgin Media. The activities of the group of companies utilizing the “Virgin” brand and other licensees could have a material adverse effect on the goodwill of customers towards Virgin Media as a licensee and the licenses from Virgin Enterprises Limited can be terminated in certain circumstances. The “Virgin” brand is integral to Virgin Media’s corporate identity. Virgin Media is reliant on the general goodwill of consumers towards the Virgin brand. Consequently, adverse publicity in relation to the group of companies utilizing the “Virgin” brand or its principals, particularly Sir Richard Branson, who is closely associated with the brand, or in relation to another licensee of the “Virgin” name and logo (particularly in the U.K., where Virgin Media does business) could have a material adverse effect on Virgin Media’s reputation and on Virgin Media’s and our business and results of operations. In addition, the licenses from Virgin Enterprises Limited can be terminated in certain circumstances. For example, Virgin Enterprises Limited can terminate the licenses, after providing Virgin Media with an opportunity to cure, (1) if Virgin Media or any of its affiliates commits persistent and material breaches or a flagrant and material breach of the licenses, (2) if Virgin Enterprises Limited has reasonable grounds to believe that the use (or lack of use) of the licensed trademarks by Virgin Media has been or is likely to result in a long-term and material diminution in the value of the “Virgin” brand, or (3) if a third-party who is not (or one of whose directors is not) a “fit and proper person”, such as a legally disqualified director or a bankrupt entity, acquires “control” of Liberty Global. Such a termination could have a material adverse effect on Virgin Media’s and our business and results of operations.
Factors Relating to Overseas Operations and Foreign Regulation
Our businesses are conducted almost exclusively outside of the U.S., which gives rise to numerous operational risks. Our businesses operate almost exclusively in countries outside the U.S. and are thereby subject to the following inherent risks:
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
potentially adverse tax consequences;
export and import restrictions, custom duties, tariffs and other trade barriers;
increases in taxes and governmental fees;
economic and political instability; and
changes in foreign and domestic laws and policies that govern operations of foreign-based companies. 
Operational risks that we may experience in certain countries include disruptions of services or loss of property or equipment that are critical to overseas businesses due to expropriation, nationalization, war, insurrection, terrorism or general social or political unrest.
We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk. We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk with respect to our consolidated debt in situations where our debt is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the operations whose cash flows support our ability to repay or refinance such debt. Although we generally seek to match the
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denomination of our and our subsidiaries’ borrowings with the functional currency of the operations that are supporting the respective borrowings, market conditions or other factors may cause us to enter into borrowing arrangements that are not denominated in the functional currency of the underlying operations (unmatched debt). In these cases, our policy is to provide for an economic hedge against foreign currency exchange rate movements by using derivative instruments to synthetically convert unmatched debt into the applicable underlying currency. At December 31, 2020, substantially all of our debt was either directly or synthetically matched to the applicable functional currencies of the underlying operations.
In addition to the exposure that results from the mismatch of our borrowings and underlying functional currencies, we are exposed to foreign currency risk to the extent that we enter into transactions denominated in currencies other than our or our subsidiaries’ respective functional currencies (non-functional currency risk), such as equipment purchases, programming contracts, notes payable and notes receivable (including intercompany amounts). Changes in exchange rates with respect to amounts recorded on our consolidated balance sheets related to these items will result in unrealized (based upon period-end exchange rates) or realized foreign currency transaction gains and losses upon settlement of the transactions. Moreover, to the extent that our revenue, costs and expenses are denominated in currencies other than our respective functional currencies, we will experience fluctuations in our revenue, costs and expenses solely as a result of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Generally, we will consider hedging non-functional currency risks when the risks arise from agreements with third parties that involve the future payment or receipt of cash or other monetary items to the extent that we can reasonably predict the timing and amount of such payments or receipts and the payments or receipts are not otherwise hedged. In this regard, we have entered into foreign currency forward contracts to hedge certain of these risks. For additional information concerning our foreign currency forward contracts, see note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We also are exposed to unfavorable and potentially volatile fluctuations of the U.S. dollar (our reporting currency) against the currencies of our operating subsidiaries when their respective financial statements are translated into U.S. dollars for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. Cumulative translation adjustments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive earnings or loss as a separate component of equity. Any increase (decrease) in the value of the U.S. dollar against any foreign currency that is the functional currency of one of our operating subsidiaries will cause us to experience unrealized foreign currency translation losses (gains) with respect to amounts already invested in such foreign currencies. Accordingly, we may experience a negative impact on our comprehensive earnings or loss and equity with respect to our holdings solely as a result of foreign currency translation. Our primary exposure to foreign currency translation risk during the three months ended December 31, 2020 was to the British pound sterling, euro and Swiss franc as 47.3%, 30.6% and 18.8% of our reported revenue during the period was derived from subsidiaries whose functional currencies are the British pound sterling, euro and Swiss franc, respectively. In addition, our reported operating results are impacted by changes in the exchange rates for the Swiss franc and other local currencies in Europe. We do not hedge against the risk that we may incur non-cash losses upon the translation of the financial statements of our subsidiaries and affiliates into U.S. dollars.
Our businesses are subject to risks of adverse regulation. Our businesses are subject to the unique regulatory regimes of the countries in which they operate. Video distribution, broadband internet, telephony and mobile businesses are subject to licensing or registration eligibility rules and regulations, which vary by country. Specifically, the E.U. requires Member States to abolish communication network exclusivity in its territory, allowing operators into the E.U. markets based on a simple registration and resulting in greater competition in territories where our businesses may already be active. It is possible that countries in which we operate may adopt laws and regulations regarding electronic commerce, which could dampen the growth of the internet services being offered and developed by these businesses. In a number of countries, our ability to increase the prices we charge for our cable television service or make changes to our services, including the programming packages we offer is limited by regulation or conditions imposed by competition authorities or is subject to review by regulatory authorities or is subject to termination rights of customers. More significantly, regulatory authorities may require us to grant third parties access to our bandwidth, frequency capacity, facilities or services to distribute their own services or resell our services to end customers. Consequently, our businesses must adapt their ownership and organizational structure as well as their pricing and service offerings to satisfy the rules and regulations to which they are subject. A failure to comply with applicable rules and regulations could result in penalties, restrictions on our business or loss of required licenses or other adverse conditions.
Adverse changes in rules and regulations could:
impair our ability to use our bandwidth in ways that would generate maximum revenue and Adjusted EBITDA;
create a shortage of capacity on our networks, which could limit the types and variety of services we seek to provide our customers;
impact our ability to access spectrum for our mobile services;
strengthen our competitors by granting them access and lowering their costs to enter into our markets; and
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have a significant adverse impact on our results of operations. 
Businesses, including ours, that offer multiple services, such as video distribution as well as internet, telephony, and/or mobile services, or that are vertically integrated and offer both video distribution and programming content, often face close regulatory scrutiny from competition authorities in several countries in which they operate. This is particularly the case with respect to any proposed business combinations, which will often require clearance from the European Commission or national competition authorities, which can block, impose conditions on, or delay, an acquisition, thus possibly hampering our opportunities for growth. In the event conditions are imposed and we fail to meet them in a timely manner, the relevant governmental authority may impose fines and, if in connection with a merger transaction, may require restorative measures, such as a mandatory disposition of assets or divestiture of operations.
For information regarding certain other regulatory developments that could adversely impact our results of operations in future periods, see Legal and Regulatory Proceedings and Other Contingencies - Other Regulatory Matters in note 19 to our consolidated financial statements.
New legislation may significantly alter the regulatory regimes applicable to us, which could adversely affect our competitive position and profitability, and we may become subject to more extensive regulation if we are deemed to possess significant market power in any of the markets in which we operate. Significant changes to the existing regulatory regimes applicable to the provision of cable television, telephony, internet and mobile services have been and are still being introduced. For example, in the E.U. a large element of regulation affecting our business derives from the European Electronic Communications Code (Code) that is the primary source of communications regulation in the E.U. The Code is the basis of the regulatory regimes concerning many of the services we offer across the E.U. and covers issues such as access, user rights, privacy, must carry for video services and competition. In addition, we are subject to review by competition or national regulatory authorities in certain countries concerning whether we exhibit Significant Market Power. A finding of Significant Market Power can result in our company becoming subject to pricing, open access, unbundling and other requirements that could provide a more favorable operating environment for existing and potential competitors. This has resulted, for example, in obligations with respect to call termination for our telephony business in Europe and video and broadband internet access obligations in Belgium.
The U.K.’s departure from the E.U. could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. On June 23, 2016, the U.K. held a referendum in which voters approved, on an advisory basis, an exit from the E.U., commonly referred to as “Brexit”. The U.K. formally exited the E.U. on January 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the E.U. reached the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement”, referred to as the E.U.-U.K. Agreement. On December 30, 2020, the E.U.-U.K. Agreement was approved by the U.K. Parliament, with retrospective ratification from the E.U. Parliament expected to follow in 2021. In the meantime, the E.U.-U.K. Agreement has been provisionally brought into effect. The E.U.-U.K. Agreement focuses on four main sectors, namely trade, economic and social cooperation, security and governance. For more information regarding the E.U.-U.K. Agreement, see Item 1. Business - Regulatory Matters - Overview discussion above. Examples of the potential impact Brexit could have on our business, financial condition or results of operations include:
changes in foreign currency exchange rates and disruptions in the capital markets. For example, a sustained period of weakness in the British pound sterling or the euro could have an adverse impact on our liquidity, including our ability to fund repurchases of our equity securities and other U.S. dollar-denominated liquidity requirements;
shortages of labor necessary to conduct our business, including our Network Extensions in the U.K.;
disruption to our U.K. supply chain and related increased cost of supplies;
a weakened U.K. economy resulting in decreased consumer demand for our products and services in the U.K.;
legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which E.U. laws and directives to replace or replicate, or where previously implemented by enactment of U.K. laws or regulations, to retain, amend or repeal; and
various geopolitical forces may impact the global economy and our business, including, for example, other E.U. member states (in particular those member states where we have operations) proposing referendums to, or electing to, exit the E.U.
We cannot be certain that we will be successful with respect to acquisitions, dispositions, partnerships or other similar transactions, or that we will achieve the anticipated benefits thereof. Historically, our businesses have grown, in part, through selective acquisitions that enabled them to take advantage of existing networks, local service offerings and region-specific management expertise, and we have also taken advantage of attractive opportunities to sell select businesses. We expect to seek
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to continue improving our company through attractive acquisitions, dispositions, partnerships or other similar transactions in selected markets, such as the SFR BeLux acquisition in June 2017, the De Vijver Media acquisition in June 2019, the UPC Austria disposition in July 2018 and the sales of the operations of UPC DTH and the Vodafone Disposal Group in May 2019 and July 2019, respectively, and the Sunrise Acquisition in November 2020. Our ability to complete any transaction may be limited by many factors, including government regulation, availability of financing, our or our counterparty’s debt covenants, the prevalence of complex ownership structures among potential targets, acquirers, or partners, disapproval by shareholders of potential targets or acquirers, and competition from other potential acquirers, including private equity funds. Even if we are successful in completing such transactions, integration and separation activities may present significant costs and challenges. We cannot be assured that we will be successful with respect to acquisitions, dispositions, partnerships or other similar transactions or realizing the anticipated benefits thereof.
In addition, we anticipate that most, if not all, companies acquired by us will be located outside the U.S. Foreign companies may not have disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls over financial reporting that are as thorough or effective as those required by U.S. securities laws. While we intend to conduct appropriate due diligence and to implement appropriate controls and procedures as we integrate acquired companies, we may not be able to certify as to the effectiveness of these companies’ disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls over financial reporting until we have fully integrated them.
We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities. We are subject to income taxes as well as non-income based taxes, such as value added tax (VAT) in the U.K., the U.S. and many other jurisdictions around the world. In addition, most tax jurisdictions that we operate in have complex and subjective rules regarding the valuation of intercompany services, cross-border payments between affiliated companies and the related effects on income tax, VAT and transfer tax. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities in many of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, any material differences as a result of final determinations of tax audits or tax disputes could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations in the period or periods for which determination is made.

We are subject to changing tax laws, treaties and regulations in and between countries in which we operate, including treaties between and among the U.K., the U.S. and many other jurisdictions in which we have a presence. Also, various income tax proposals in the jurisdictions in which we operate could result in changes to the existing laws on which our deferred taxes are calculated. A change in these tax laws, treaties or regulations, or in the interpretation thereof, could result in a materially higher income or non-income tax expense, and any such material changes could cause a material change in our effective tax rate. In this regard, there have been significant changes or proposed changes to the tax laws in numerous jurisdictions in which we operate, the impacts of which have been reflected accordingly in our financial statements.   

Further changes in the tax laws of the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate could arise as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting project that has been undertaken by the OECD or the European Commission Anti-Tax Avoidance Package. The OECD, which represents a coalition of member countries that encompass most of the jurisdictions in which we operate, and the European Commission have undertaken studies and are publishing action plans that include recommendations aimed at addressing what they believe are issues within tax systems that may lead to tax avoidance by companies. It is possible that jurisdictions in which we do business could react to these initiatives or their own concerns by enacting tax legislation that could adversely affect us or our shareholders through increasing our tax liabilities.

Factors Relating to Certain Financial Matters
Our substantial leverage could limit our ability to obtain additional financing and have other adverse effects. We seek to maintain our debt at levels that provide for attractive equity returns without assuming undue risk. In this regard, we generally seek to cause our operating subsidiaries to maintain their debt at levels that result in a consolidated debt balance that is between four and five times our consolidated Adjusted EBITDA. As a result, we are highly leveraged. At December 31, 2020, the outstanding principal amount of our consolidated debt, together with our finance lease obligations aggregated $15.1 billion, including $1.1 billion that is classified as current on our consolidated balance sheet and $13.1 billion that is not due until 2026 or thereafter. We believe that we have sufficient resources to repay or refinance the current portion of our debt and finance lease obligations and to fund our foreseeable liquidity requirements during the next 12 months. However, as our maturing debt grows in later years, we anticipate that we will seek to refinance or otherwise extend our debt maturities. In this regard, we completed refinancing transactions during 2020 that, among other things, resulted in the extension of certain of our subsidiaries’ debt maturities. No assurance can be given that we will be able to complete these refinancing transactions or otherwise extend our debt maturities. In this regard, it is not possible to predict how political and economic conditions, sovereign debt concerns or any adverse regulatory developments could impact the credit and equity markets we access and, accordingly, our future liquidity and financial position.
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Our ability to service or refinance our debt and to maintain compliance with the leverage covenants in the credit agreements and indentures of our borrowing groups is dependent primarily on our ability to maintain or increase the Adjusted EBITDA of our operating subsidiaries and to achieve adequate returns on our property and equipment additions and acquisitions. In addition, our ability to obtain additional debt financing is limited by the incurrence-based leverage covenants contained in the various debt instruments of our borrowing groups. For example, if the Adjusted EBITDA of one of our borrowing groups were to decline, our ability to obtain additional debt could be limited. Accordingly, if our cash provided by operations declines or we encounter other material liquidity requirements, we may be required to seek additional debt or equity financing in order to meet our debt obligations and other liquidity requirements as they come due. In addition, our current debt levels may limit our ability to incur additional debt financing to fund working capital needs, acquisitions, property and equipment additions, or other general corporate requirements. We can give no assurance that any additional debt or equity financing will be available on terms that are as favorable as the terms of our existing debt or at all. Further, our board of directors has approved share repurchase programs for Liberty Global. Any cash used by our company in connection with any future purchases of our ordinary shares would not be available for other purposes, including the repayment of debt. For additional information concerning our share repurchase programs, see note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to various debt instruments that contain restrictions on how we finance our operations and operate our businesses, which could impede our ability to engage in beneficial transactions. Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to significant financial and operating restrictions contained in outstanding credit agreements, indentures and similar instruments of indebtedness. These restrictions will affect, and in some cases significantly limit or prohibit, among other things, the ability of those subsidiaries to:
incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or make other upstream distributions;
make investments;
transfer, sell or dispose of certain assets, including subsidiary stock;
merge or consolidate with other entities;
engage in transactions with us or other affiliates; or
create liens on their assets. 
As a result of restrictions contained in these debt instruments, the companies party thereto, and their subsidiaries, could be unable to obtain additional capital in the future to:
fund property and equipment additions or acquisitions that could improve their value;
meet their loan and capital commitments to their business affiliates;
invest in companies in which they would otherwise invest;
fund any operating losses or future development of their business affiliates;
obtain lower borrowing costs that are available from secured lenders or engage in advantageous transactions that monetize their assets; or
conduct other necessary or prudent corporate activities. 
In addition, most of the credit agreements to which these subsidiaries are parties include financial covenants that require them, in certain circumstances, to maintain certain leverage ratios if the drawings under the applicable revolving credit facility exceed a certain percentage of the commitments under such revolving credit facility. Their ability to meet these financial covenants may be affected by adverse economic, competitive, or regulatory developments and other events beyond their control, and we cannot assure you that these financial covenants will be met. In the event of a default under such subsidiaries’ credit agreements or indentures, the lenders may accelerate the maturity of the indebtedness under those agreements or indentures, which could result in a default under other outstanding credit facilities or indentures. We cannot assure you that any of these subsidiaries will have sufficient assets to pay indebtedness outstanding under their credit agreements and indentures. Any refinancing of this indebtedness is likely to contain similar restrictive covenants.
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We are exposed to interest rate risks. Shifts in such rates may adversely affect the debt service obligation of our subsidiaries. We are exposed to the risk of fluctuations in interest rates, primarily through the credit facilities of certain of our subsidiaries, which are indexed to EURIBOR, LIBOR or other base rates. Although we enter into various derivative transactions to manage exposure to movements in interest rates, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to do so at a reasonable cost or at all. If we are unable to effectively manage our interest rate exposure through derivative transactions, any increase in market interest rates would increase our interest rate exposure and debt service obligations, which would exacerbate the risks associated with our leveraged capital structure.
In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. Additionally, the European Money Markets Institute (the authority that administers EURIBOR) has announced that measures will need to be undertaken by the end of 2021 to reform EURIBOR to ensure compliance with E.U. Benchmarks Regulation. In November 2020, ICE Benchmark administration (the entity that administers LIBOR) announced its intention to continue publishing USD LIBOR rates until June 30, 2023, with the exception of the one-week and two-month rates which, along with all GBP LIBOR rates, it intends to cease publishing after December 31, 2021. While this extension allows additional runway on existing contracts using USD LIBOR rates, companies are still encouraged to transition away from using USD LIBOR as soon as practicable and should not enter into new contracts that use USD LIBOR after 2021. The methodology for EURIBOR has been reformed and EURIBOR has been granted regulatory approval to continue to be used. Currently, it is not possible to predict the exact transitional arrangements for calculating applicable reference rates that may be made in the U.K., the U.S., the Eurozone or elsewhere given that a number of outcomes are possible, including the cessation of the publication of one or more reference rates.
In October 2020, the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (the ISDA) launched a new supplement (the Fallback Supplement), which effective January 25, 2021, will amend the standard definitions for interest rate derivatives to incorporate fallbacks for derivatives linked to certain key interbank offered rates (IBORs). The ISDA also launched a new protocol (the Fallback Protocol), also effective January 25, 2021, that will enable market participants to incorporate these revisions into their legacy non-cleared derivatives with other counterparties that choose to adhere to the protocol. The fallbacks for a particular currency will apply following a permanent cessation of the IBOR in that currency and will be adjusted versions of the risk-free rates identified in each currency. Our loan documents contain provisions that contemplate alternative calculations of the base rate applicable to our LIBOR-indexed and EURIBOR-indexed debt to the extent LIBOR or EURIBOR (as applicable) are not available, which alternative calculations we do not anticipate will be materially different from what would have been calculated under LIBOR or EURIBOR (as applicable). Additionally, no mandatory prepayment or redemption provisions would be triggered under our loan documents in the event that either the LIBOR rate or the EURIBOR rate is not available. It is possible, however, that any new reference rate that applies to our LIBOR-indexed or EURIBOR-indexed debt could be different than any new reference rate that applies to our LIBOR-indexed or EURIBOR-indexed derivative instruments. We anticipate managing this difference and any resulting increased variable-rate exposure through modifications to our debt and/or derivative instruments, however future market conditions may not allow immediate implementation of desired modifications and the company may incur significant associated costs.

We are subject to increasing operating costs and inflation risks, which may adversely affect our results of operations. While our operations attempt to increase our subscription rates to offset increases in programming and operating costs, there is no assurance that they will be able to do so. In certain countries in which we operate, our ability to increase subscription rates is subject to regulatory controls. Also, our ability to increase subscription rates may be constrained by competitive pressures. Therefore, operating costs may rise faster than associated revenue, resulting in a material negative impact on our cash flow and net earnings (loss). We are also impacted by inflationary increases in salaries, wages, benefits and other administrative costs in certain of our markets.
Continuing uncertainties and challenging conditions in the global economy and in the countries in which we operate may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The current macroeconomic environment is highly volatile, and continuing instability in global markets, including ongoing trade negotiations, the risk of deflation and the stability of the British pound sterling and the euro, has contributed to a challenging global economic environment. Future developments are dependent upon a number of political and economic factors, including the effectiveness of measures by the E.U. Commission to address debt burdens of certain countries in Europe and low growth expectations. As a result, we cannot predict how long challenging conditions will exist or the extent to which the markets in which we operate may deteriorate. Additional risks arising from the ongoing economic challenges in Europe are described below under the Risk Factor titled: We are exposed to sovereign debt and currency instability risks that could have an adverse impact on our liquidity, financial condition and cash flows.
Unfavorable economic conditions may impact a significant number of our subscribers and/or the prices we are able to charge for our products and services, and, as a result, it may be (1) more difficult for us to attract new subscribers, (2) more likely that subscribers will downgrade or disconnect their services and (3) more difficult for us to maintain ARPUs at existing
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levels. Countries may also seek new or increased revenue sources due to fiscal deficits. Such actions may further adversely affect our company. Accordingly, our ability to increase, or, in certain cases, maintain, the revenue, ARPUs, RGUs, mobile subscribers, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margins and liquidity of our operating segments could be adversely affected if the macroeconomic environment remains uncertain or declines further. We are currently unable to predict the extent of any of these potential adverse effects.
We are exposed to sovereign debt and currency instability risks that could have an adverse impact on our liquidity, financial condition and cash flows. Our operations are subject to macroeconomic and political risks that are outside of our control. For example, high levels of sovereign debt in the U.S. and several countries in which we or our affiliates operate, combined with weak growth and high unemployment, could potentially lead to fiscal reforms (including austerity measures), tax increases, sovereign debt restructurings, currency instability, increased counterparty credit risk, high levels of volatility and disruptions in the credit and equity markets, as well as other outcomes that might adversely impact our company. With regard to currency instability issues, concerns exist in the eurozone with respect to individual macro-fundamentals on a country-by-country basis, as well as with respect to the overall stability of the European monetary union and the suitability of a single currency to appropriately deal with specific fiscal management and sovereign debt issues in individual eurozone countries. The realization of these concerns could lead to the exit of one or more countries from the European monetary union and the re-introduction of individual currencies in these countries, or, in more extreme circumstances, the possible dissolution of the European monetary union entirely, which could result in the redenomination of a portion or, in the extreme case, all of our euro-denominated assets, liabilities and cash flows to the new currency of the country in which they originated. This could result in a mismatch in the currencies of our assets, liabilities and cash flows. Any such mismatch, together with the capital market disruption that would likely accompany any such redenomination event, could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and financial condition. Furthermore, any redenomination event would likely be accompanied by significant economic dislocation, particularly within the eurozone countries, which in turn could have an adverse impact on demand for our products and services, and accordingly, on our revenue and cash flows. Moreover, any changes from euro to non-euro currencies within the countries in which we operate would require us to modify our billing and other financial systems. No assurance can be given that any required modifications could be made within a time frame that would allow us to timely bill our customers or prepare and file required financial reports. In light of the significant exposure that we have to the euro through our euro-denominated borrowings, derivative instruments, cash balances and cash flows, a redenomination event could have a material adverse impact on our company.
We may not freely access the cash of our operating companies. Our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries. Our current sources of corporate liquidity include (1) our cash and cash equivalents and (2) interest and dividend income received on our cash and cash equivalents and investments. From time to time, we also receive (1) proceeds in the form of distributions or loan repayments from our subsidiaries or affiliates, (2) proceeds upon the disposition of investments and other assets and (3) proceeds in connection with the incurrence of debt or the issuance of equity securities. The ability of our operating subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make other payments or advances to us depends on their individual operating results and any statutory, regulatory or contractual restrictions to which they may be or may become subject and in some cases our receipt of such payments or advances may be limited due to tax considerations or the presence of noncontrolling interests. Most of our operating subsidiaries are subject to credit agreements or indentures that restrict sales of assets and prohibit or limit the payment of dividends or the making of distributions, loans or advances to shareholders and partners, including us. In addition, because these subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities they have no obligation to provide us funds for payment obligations, whether by dividends, distributions, loans or other payments.
We are exposed to the risk of default by the counterparties to our cash investments, derivative and other financial instruments, and undrawn debt facilities. Although we seek to manage the credit risks associated with our cash investments, derivative and other financial instruments, and undrawn debt facilities, we are exposed to the risk that our counterparties will default on their obligations to us. While we regularly review our credit exposures and currently have no specific concerns about the creditworthiness of any counterparty for which we have material credit risk exposures, we cannot rule out the possibility that one or more of our counterparties could fail or otherwise be unable to meet its obligations to us. Any such instance of default or failure could have an adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations, financial condition and/or liquidity. In this regard, (1) we may incur losses to the extent that we are unable to recover debts owed to us, including cash deposited and the value of financial losses, (2) we may incur significant costs to recover amounts owed to us, and such recovery may take a long period of time or may not be possible at all, (3) our derivative liabilities may be accelerated by the default of our counterparty, (4) we may be exposed to financial risks as a result of the termination of affected derivative contracts, and it may be costly or impossible to replace such contracts or otherwise mitigate such risks, (5) amounts available under committed credit facilities may be reduced and (6) disruption to the credit markets could adversely impact our ability to access debt financing on favorable terms, or at all.
At December 31, 2020, our exposure to counterparty credit risk included (1) derivative assets with an aggregate fair value of $83.2 million, (2) cash and cash equivalent and restricted cash balances of $4,717.3 million and (3) aggregate undrawn debt
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facilities of $1,554.5 million. For additional information on our derivative contracts, see note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our interest in the VodafoneZiggo JV is held pursuant to a Shareholders Agreement that contains provisions relating to governance as well as transfer and exit rights, which, depending on the circumstances, may not be in the best interest of our company. Our non-controlling interest in the VodafoneZiggo JV is held pursuant to a shareholders’ agreement (the Shareholders Agreement), which provides the terms of the governance of the VodafoneZiggo JV, including among others, decision-making process, information access, dividend policy and non-compete provisions. These provisions may prevent the VodafoneZiggo JV from making decisions or taking actions that would protect or advance the interests of our company, and could even result in the VodafoneZiggo JV making decisions or taking actions that adversely impact our company. Further, our ability to access the cash of the VodafoneZiggo JV pursuant to the dividend policy contained in the Shareholders Agreement may be restricted in certain circumstances. The Shareholders Agreement also provides for restrictions on the transfer of interests in the VodafoneZiggo JV, which could adversely affect our ability to sell our interest in the VodafoneZiggo JV and/or the prices at which our interest may be sold, as well as certain exit arrangements, which could force us to sell our interest. For additional information on the VodafoneZiggo JV and the Shareholders Agreement, see note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We may not report net earnings. We reported losses from continuing operations of $1,466.7 million, $1,409.0 million and $1,411.5 million during 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. In light of our historical financial performance, we cannot assure you that we will report net earnings in the near future.

Other Factors
We have not historically paid any cash dividends, and we may not pay dividends equally or at all on any class of our ordinary shares. We do not presently intend to pay cash dividends on any class of our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. However, we have the right to pay dividends, effect securities distributions or make bonus issues on Liberty Global Shares. In addition, any dividends or distributions on, or repurchases of Liberty Global Shares will reduce our “distributable reserves” (defined as our accumulated, realized profits less accumulated, realized losses, as measured for U.K. statutory purposes) legally available to be paid as dividends by our company under English law on any of our ordinary shares.
Our share price may change significantly, and you may not be able to resell our ordinary shares at or above the price you paid or at all, and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result. In addition to the factors discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the trading price of each class of our ordinary shares may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue and other operating results;
actual operating or financial results that vary from our guidance or the expectations of securities analysts and investors;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates by securities analysts and investors;
actual or anticipated future sales of our ordinary shares by us, our senior management or our other existing shareholders;
investor sentiment with respect to our competitors, our business partners, and our industry in general;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant services or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of companies in our industry, including our competitors;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;
media coverage of our business and financial performance; and
general domestic and international economic and political conditions.
The stock market has recently experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. In particular, price and volume fluctuations in the stock market as a
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whole may affect the market price of our ordinary shares in ways that may be unrelated or disproportionate to our operating performance. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our actual operating performance.
Securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs, divert our management’s attention and resources and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The loss of certain key personnel could harm our business. We have experienced employees at both the corporate and operational levels who possess substantial knowledge of our business and operations. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in retaining their services or that we would be successful in hiring and training suitable replacements without undue costs or delays. As a result, the loss of any of these key employees could cause significant disruptions in our business operations, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
John C. Malone has significant voting power with respect to corporate matters considered by our shareholders. John C. Malone beneficially owns outstanding ordinary shares of Liberty Global representing 30.15% of our aggregate voting power as of February 7, 2021. By virtue of Mr. Malone’s voting power in our company, as well as his position as Chairman of our board of directors, Mr. Malone may have significant influence over the outcome of any corporate transaction or other matters submitted to our shareholders for approval. For example, under English law and our articles of association, certain matters (including amendments to the articles of association) require the approval of 75% of the shareholders who vote (in person or by proxy) on the relevant resolution, and other certain corporate transactions or matters may require the approval of at least 75% of the outstanding shares of each class of our ordinary shares. Because Mr. Malone beneficially owns approximately 30.15% of our aggregate voting power and almost 70% of the outstanding Class B ordinary shares of Liberty Global, he has the ability to prevent the requisite approval threshold from being met even though the other shareholders may determine that such action or transaction is beneficial for the company. Mr. Malone’s rights to vote or dispose of his equity interests in our company are not subject to any restrictions in favor of us other than as may be required by applicable law and except for customary transfer restrictions pursuant to equity award agreements.
It may be difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if doing so may be beneficial to our shareholders. Certain provisions of our articles of association and of English law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company that a shareholder may consider favorable. These provisions include the following:
authorizing a capital structure with multiple classes of ordinary shares; a Class B that entitles the holders to 10 votes per share; a Class A that entitles the holders to one vote per share; and a Class C that, except as otherwise required by applicable law, entitles the holders to no voting rights;
authorizing the issuance of “blank check” shares (both ordinary and preference), which could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;
classifying our board of directors with staggered three-year terms, which may lengthen the time required to gain control of our board of directors, although under English law, shareholders of our company can remove a director without cause by ordinary resolution;
prohibiting shareholder action by written resolution, thereby requiring all shareholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the shareholders;
requiring the approval of 75% in value of the shareholders (or class of shareholders) and/or English court approval for certain statutory mergers or schemes of arrangements; and
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at shareholder meetings. 
Change in control provisions in our incentive plans and related award agreements or in executive employment agreements may also discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company, even if such change of control would be in the best interests of our shareholders.
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The enforcement of civil liabilities against us may be more difficult. Because we are a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, investors could experience more difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us in U.S. courts than would currently be the case for U.S. judgments obtained against a U.S. company. It may also be more difficult (or impossible) to bring some types of claims against us in courts sitting in England than it would be to bring similar claims against a U.S. company in a U.S. court. In particular, English law significantly limits the circumstances under which shareholders of English companies may bring derivative actions. Under English law generally, only the company can be the proper plaintiff in proceedings in respect of wrongful acts committed against us. Our articles of association provide for the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts for shareholder lawsuits against us or our directors.

We are exposed to the risks arising from widespread epidemic diseases in the countries in which we operate, such as the outbreak of COVID-19, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) to be a global pandemic. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, emergency measures have been imposed by governments worldwide, including travel restrictions, restrictions on social activity and the shutdown of non-essential businesses. These measures have adversely impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets. While it is not currently possible to estimate the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic or the adverse economic impact resulting from the preventative measures taken to contain or mitigate its outbreak, an extended period of global economic disruption could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations in future periods, including with respect to, among other items, (1) our ability to access capital necessary to fund property and equipment additions, debt service requirements, acquisitions and other investment opportunities, the repurchase of equity securities or other liquidity needs, (2) the ability of our customers to pay for our products and services, (3) our ability to maintain or increase our residential and business subscriber levels, (4) our ability to offer attractive programming, particularly in consideration of the recent cancellation of numerous worldwide sporting events, (5) the ability of our suppliers and vendors to provide products and services to us and (6) our share price. We may also be adversely impacted by any government mandated regulations on our business that could be implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, countries may seek new or increased revenue sources due to fiscal deficits that result from measures taken to mitigate the adverse economic impacts of COVID-19, such as by imposing new taxes on the products and services we provide. We are currently unable to predict the extent of any of these potential adverse effects.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
Item 2.    PROPERTIES
We lease our corporate offices in London, U.K., in Denver, Colorado, U.S. and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. All of our other real or personal property is owned or leased by our subsidiaries and affiliates.
Our subsidiaries and affiliates own or lease the fixed assets necessary for the operation of their respective businesses, including office space, transponder space, headend facilities, rights of way, cable television and telecommunications distribution equipment, telecommunications switches, base stations, cell towers and customer premises equipment and other property necessary for their operations. The physical components of their broadband networks require maintenance and periodic upgrades to support the new services and products they introduce. Subject to these maintenance and upgrade activities, our management believes that our current facilities are suitable and adequate for our business operations for the foreseeable future.
Item 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, our subsidiaries and affiliates have become involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of their operations in the normal course of business. For additional information, see note 19 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES