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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 _________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
 _________________________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 001-08174
 _________________________________________________________
DUCOMMUN INCORPORATED
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 _________________________________________________________
Delaware 95-0693330
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
200 Sandpointe Avenue, Suite 700, Santa Ana, California
 92707-5759
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (657335-3665
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value per share DCONew York Stock Exchange
 _________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer ¨Accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer ¨Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price of which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter ended June 27, 2020 was $381 million.
The number of shares of common stock outstanding on February 3, 2021 was 11,763,468.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The following documents are incorporated by reference:
(a) Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the “2021 Proxy Statement”), incorporated partially in Part III hereof.



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DUCOMMUN INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARIES
  Page
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words “could,” “may,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “estimate,” “expect,” or similar expressions. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Generally, forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future actions, events or results of operations. Forward-looking statements specifically include, without limitation, the information in this Form 10-K regarding: future sales, earnings, cash flow, uses of cash and other measures of financial performance, projections or expectations for future operations, industry trends and expectations, our plans with respect to restructuring activities, completed acquisitions, future acquisitions and dispositions and expected business opportunities that may be available to us.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual outcomes and results to be materially different from those projected. We cannot guarantee future results, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. All written and oral forward-looking statements made in connection with this Form 10-K that are attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by “Risk Factors” contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and other cautionary statements included herein.
The information in this Form 10-K is not a complete description of our business. There can be no assurance that other factors will not affect the accuracy of these forward-looking statements or that our actual results will not differ materially from the results anticipated in such forward-looking statements. While it is impossible to identify all such factors, some factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those estimated by us include, but are not limited to, those factors or conditions described under Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and the following:
our ability to manage and otherwise comply with our covenants with respect to our outstanding indebtedness;
our ability to service our indebtedness;
our acquisitions, business combinations, joint ventures, divestitures, or restructuring activities may entail certain operational and financial risks;
the cyclicality of our end-use markets and the level of new commercial and military aircraft orders;
industry and customer concentration;
production rates for various commercial and military aircraft programs;
the level of U.S. Government defense spending;
compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and changes in regulatory requirements, including regulatory requirements applicable to government contracts and sub-contracts;
further consolidation of customers and suppliers in our markets;
product performance and delivery;
start-up costs, manufacturing inefficiencies and possible overruns on contracts;
increased design, product development, manufacturing, supply chain and other risks and uncertainties associated with our growth strategy to become a supplier of higher-level assemblies;
our ability to manage the risks associated with international operations and sales;
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions;
pandemics, such as COVID-19, significantly impacting the global economy and specifically, the commercial aerospace end-use market;
disasters, natural or otherwise, damaging or disrupting our operations;
unfavorable developments in the global credit markets;
our ability to operate within highly competitive markets;
technology changes and evolving industry and regulatory standards;
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possible goodwill and other asset impairments;
the risk of environmental liabilities;
the risk of cyber security attacks or not being able to detect such attacks; and
litigation with respect to us.
We caution the reader that undue reliance should not be placed on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We do not undertake any duty or responsibility to update any of these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K except as required by law.

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
GENERAL
Ducommun Incorporated (“Ducommun,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading global provider of engineering and manufacturing services for high-performance products and high-cost-of failure applications used primarily in the aerospace and defense (“A&D”), industrial, medical and other industries (collectively, “Industrial”). Ducommun differentiates itself as a full-service solution-based provider, offering a wide range of value-added advanced products and services in our primary businesses of electronics, structures, and integrated solutions. We operate through two primary business segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. We are the successor to a business that was founded in California in 1849 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1970.
ACQUISITIONS
Acquisitions have been an important element of our growth strategy. We have supplemented our organic growth by identifying, acquiring and integrating acquisition opportunities that result in broader, more sophisticated product and service offerings while diversifying and expanding our customer base and markets.
For example, in October 2019, we acquired all the outstanding equity interests of Nobles Parent Inc., the parent company of Nobles Worldwide, Inc. (“Nobles”), a privately-held global leader in the design and manufacturing of high performance ammunition handling systems for a wide range of military platforms including fixed-wing aircraft, rotary-wing aircraft, ground vehicles, and shipboard systems for $76.8 million, net of cash acquired, funded by drawing down on our revolving credit facility. The acquisition of Nobles advanced our strategy to diversify and offer more customized, value-driven engineered products with aftermarket opportunities and is included in our Structural Systems segment.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Business Segment Information
We operate through two primary strategic businesses, Electronic Systems and Structural Systems, each of which is a reportable segment. The results of operations among our operating segments vary due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. Electronic Systems designs, engineers and manufactures high-reliability electronic and electromechanical products used in worldwide technology-driven markets including A&D and Industrial end-use markets. Electronic Systems’ product offerings primarily range from prototype development to complex assemblies as discussed in more detail below. Structural Systems designs, engineers and manufactures various sizes of complex contoured aerostructure components and assemblies and supplies composite and metal bonded structures and assemblies. Structural Systems’ products are primarily used on commercial aircraft, military fixed-wing aircraft and military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft.
Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems has multiple major product offerings in electronics manufacturing for diverse, high-reliability applications: complex cable assemblies and interconnect systems, printed circuit board assemblies, higher-level electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical components and assemblies, and lightning diversion systems. Components, assemblies, and lightning diversion products are provided principally for domestic and foreign commercial and military fixed-wing aircraft, military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft and space programs. Further, we provide select industrial high-reliability applications for the industrial, medical, and other end-use markets. We build custom, high-performance electronics and electromechanical systems. Our products include sophisticated radar enclosures, aircraft avionics racks and shipboard communications and control enclosures, printed circuit board assemblies, cable assemblies, wire harnesses, and interconnect systems, lightning diversion strips, surge suppressors, conformal shields and other high-level complex assemblies. Electronic Systems utilizes a highly-integrated production process, including manufacturing, engineering, fabrication, machining,
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assembly, electronic integration, and related processes. Engineering, technical and program management services are provided to a wide range of customers.
In response to customer needs and utilizing our in-depth engineering expertise, Electronic Systems is also considered a leading supplier of engineered products including, illuminated pushbutton switches and panels for aviation and test systems, microwave and millimeter switches and filters for radio frequency systems and test instrumentation, and motors and resolvers for motion control.
Electronic Systems also provides engineering expertise for aerospace system design, development, integration, and testing. We leverage the knowledge base, capabilities, talent, and technologies of this focused capability into direct support of our customers.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems has three major product offerings to support a global customer base: commercial aircraft, military fixed-wing aircraft, and military and commercial rotary-wing aircraft. Our applications include structural components, structural assemblies, bonded (metal and composite) components, precision profile extrusions and extruded assemblies, and ammunition handling systems. In the structural components products, Structural Systems provides design services, engineers, and manufacturing of large complex contoured aluminum, titanium and Inconel aerostructure components for the aerospace industry. Structural assembly products include winglets, engine components, and fuselage structural panels for aircraft. Metal and composite bonded structures and assemblies products include aircraft wing spoilers, large fuselage skins, rotor blades on rotary-wing aircraft and components, flight control surfaces, engine components, and ammunition handling systems. To support these products, Structural Systems maintains advanced machine milling, stretch-forming, hot-forming, metal bonding, composite layup, and chemical milling capabilities and has an extensive engineering capability to support both design services and manufacturing.
AEROSPACE AND DEFENSE END-USE MARKETS OVERVIEW
Our largest end-use markets are the aerospace and defense markets and our revenues from these markets represented 94% of our total net revenues in 2020. These markets are serviced by suppliers which are stratified, from the lowest value provided to the highest, into four tiers: original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), Tier One, Tier Two, and Tier Three. The OEMs provide the highest value and are also known as prime contractors (“Primes”). We derive a significant portion of our revenues from subcontracts with OEMs. As the prime contractor for various programs and platforms, the OEMs sell to their customers, who may include, depending upon the application, the U.S. Federal Government, foreign, state and local governments, global commercial airline carriers, regional jet carriers and various other customers. The OEMs also sell to global leasing companies that lease commercial aircraft. A significant portion of our revenues is earned from subcontracts with the Primes. Tier One suppliers manufacture aircraft sections and purchase assemblies. Tier Two suppliers provide more complex, value-added parts and may also assume more design risk, manufacturing risk, supply chain risk and project management risk than Tier Three suppliers. Tier Three suppliers principally provide components or detailed parts. We currently compete primarily with Tier Two and Tier Three suppliers. Our business growth strategy is to differentiate ourselves from competitors by providing more complex assemblies to our customers as a higher value added supplier.
Commercial Aerospace End-Use Market
The commercial aerospace end-use market is highly cyclical and is impacted by the level of global air passenger traffic in general, which in turn is influenced by global economic conditions, fleet fuel and maintenance costs and geopolitical developments. Revenues from the commercial aerospace end-use market represented 27% of our total net revenues for 2020.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented adverse impact to demand for civil air travel, creating a significant challenge for some of our customers and the entire commercial aerospace manufacturing and services sector. Global economic growth, a primary driver for air travel, is expected to have declined to between negative four percent and negative five percent in 2020. The latest International Air Transport Association (“IATA”) forecast projected full-year 2020 passenger traffic to be down more than 60% compared to 2019 as global economic activity slows due to COVID-19, and governments severely restricted travel to contain the spread of the virus. The recovery remains slow and uneven as travel restrictions and varying regional travel protocols continue to impact air travel. Generally, it is expected that domestic travel will recover faster than international travel. The pace of the commercial market recovery will be heavily dependent on COVID-19 infection rates, progress on testing, government travel restrictions, and timing and availability of vaccines.
In addition, airline financial performance, which also plays a role in the demand for new capacity, has been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. According to IATA, net losses in 2020 for the airline industry are expected to be approximately $118 billion, compared to net profits of $26 billion in 2019. Our customers are taking actions to combat the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the market by preserving liquidity. This comes in many forms such as deferral of advances and other
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payments to suppliers, deferrals of deliveries, reduced spending, and in some cases, cancellation of orders. We face a challenging environment in the near and medium future as airlines adjust to reduced air traffic, which in turn, will lower demand for commercial aerospace products. The current environment is also affecting the financial viability of some airlines.
In The Boeing Company’s (“Boeing”) 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), they indicated that they expect it will take approximately three years for worldwide travel to return to 2019 levels and a few years beyond that for the industry to return to the long-term trend growth of five percent.
The long-term outlook for the industry continues to remain positive due to the fundamental drivers of air travel demand: economic growth, increasing propensity to travel due to increased trade, globalization, and improved airline services driven by liberalization of air traffic rights between countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the near to medium term demand, but Boeing’s commercial market outlook forecast projects a four percent growth rate for passenger and cargo traffic over a 20 year period. Based on long-term global economic growth projections of two and a half percent average annual gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth, Boeing projects a demand for 43,000 new airplanes over the next 20 years. However, the industry remains vulnerable to various developments including business travel may not return to pre-pandemic levels due to the use of virtual meeting platforms, fuel price spikes, credit market fluctuations, acts of terrorism, natural disasters, conflicts, epidemics, pandemics, and increased global environmental regulations. We believe we are well positioned given our product capabilities and our initiatives to increase operating efficiencies to participate in the near term recovery and the long term projected growth rate for commercial air traffic and build rates for large commercial aircraft for the airframe manufacturing industry. If the recovery is slower than anticipated or any of the developments occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and/or cash flows.
Defense End-Use Market
Our defense end-use market includes products used in military and space, including technologies and structures applications. The defense end-use market is highly cyclical and is impacted by the level of government defense spending. Government defense spending is impacted by national defense policies and priorities, political climates, fiscal budgetary constraints, U.S. Federal budget deficits, projected economic growth and the level of global military or security threats, or other conflicts. Revenues from the military and space end-use market in 2020 represented 67% of our total net revenues during 2020.
The Omnibus appropriations acts for fiscal year 2021 (“FY2021”), enacted in December 2020, provided FY2021 appropriations for government departments and agencies, including the United States Department of Defense (“U.S. DoD”), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (“NASA”), and the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”), reducing budget uncertainty and the risk of sequestration. However, there continues to be uncertainty with respect to future program-level appropriations for the U.S. DoD and other government agencies, including NASA. Future budget cuts or investment priority changes, including changes associated with the authorizations and appropriations process, could result in reductions, cancellations, and/or delays of existing contracts or programs. Any of these impacts could have a material effect on our results of operations, financial position, and/or cash flows. For additional information related to our revenues from customers whose principal sales are to the U.S. Government and our direct sales to the U.S. Government, see “Risk Factors” contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”).
INDUSTRIAL END-USE MARKETS OVERVIEW
Our industrial, medical and other (collectively, “Industrial”) end-use markets are diverse and are impacted by the customers’ needs for increasing electronic content and a desire to outsource. Factors expected to impact these markets include capital and industrial goods spending and general economic conditions. Our products are used in heavy industrial manufacturing systems and certain medical applications. Revenues from the Industrial end-use markets were 6% of our total net revenues during 2020.
We believe our business in these markets in the long-term, is stable and we are well positioned in these markets even though the COVID-19 pandemic has had and will continue to have at least a near term impact on our on our business.
SALES AND MARKETING
Our commercial revenues are substantially dependent on airframe manufacturers’ production rates of new aircraft. Deliveries of new aircraft by airframe manufacturers are dependent on the demand and financial capacity of its customers, primarily airlines and leasing companies, to purchase the aircraft. Thus, revenues from commercial aircraft could be affected as a result of changes in new aircraft orders, or the cancellation or deferral by airlines of purchases of ordered aircraft. Further, our revenues from commercial aircraft programs could be affected by changes in our customers’ inventory levels and changes in our customers’ aircraft production build rates. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, both major large aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus SE (“Airbus”), have announced lower build rates for the near and medium future. While the ramp up in production and demand will be slower in the near and medium future, we will continue to identify opportunities to expand our presence and offerings with both major large aircraft manufacturers and their supply chain.
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Military components manufactured by us are employed in many of the country’s front-line fighters, bombers, rotary-wing aircraft and support aircraft, as well as land and sea-based applications. Our defense business is diversified among a number of military manufacturers and programs. In the space sector, we are expanding our presence with unmanned aerial vehicles and continue to support various satellite programs.
Our sales into the Industrial end-use markets are customer focused in the various markets and driven primarily by their capital spending and manufacturing outsourcing demands.
We continue to broaden and diversify our customer base in the end-use markets we serve by providing innovative product and service solutions by drawing on our core competencies, experience and technical expertise. Net revenues related to military and space, commercial aerospace, and Industrial end-use markets in 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
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Many of our contracts are firm fixed price contracts subject to termination at the convenience of the customer (as well as for default). In the event of termination for convenience, the customer generally is required to pay the costs we have incurred and certain other fees through the date of termination, plus a reasonable profit. Larger, long-term government subcontracts may have provisions for milestone payments, progress payments or cash advances for purchase of inventory.
Our marketing efforts primarily consist of developing strong, long-term relationships with our customers, which provide the basis for future sales. These close relationships allow us to gain a better insight into each customer’s business needs, identify ways to provide greater value to the customer, and allow us to be designed in early in various products and/or high volume products.
SEASONALITY
The timing of our revenues is governed by the purchasing patterns of our customers, and, as a result, we may not generate revenues equally during the year. However, no material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal.
MAJOR CUSTOMERS
We currently generate the majority of our revenues from the aerospace and defense industries. As a result, we have significant revenues from certain customers. The Boeing Company (“Boeing”) and Raytheon Technologies Corporation (“Raytheon”) were our largest customers, both generating more than 10 percent of our 2020 net revenues. Revenues from our top 10 customers, including Boeing and Raytheon were 61% of total net revenues during 2020. Net revenues by major customer for 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
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Net revenues from our customers, except the U.S. Government, are diversified over a number of different military and space, commercial aerospace, industrial, medical and other products. For additional information on revenues from major customers, see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
We perform concurrent engineering with our customers and product development activities under our self-funded programs, as well as under contracts with others. Concurrent engineering and product development activities are performed for commercial, military and space applications.
RAW MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
Raw materials and components used in the manufacturing of our products include aluminum, titanium, steel and carbon fibers, as well as a wide variety of electronic interconnect and circuit card assemblies and components. These raw materials are generally available from a number of suppliers and are generally in adequate supply. However, from time to time, we have experienced increases in lead times for and limited availability of, aluminum, titanium and certain other raw materials and/or components. Moreover, certain components, supplies and raw materials for our operations are purchased from single source suppliers and occasionally, directed by our customers. In such instances, we strive to develop alternative sources and design modifications to minimize the potential for business interruptions.
COMPETITION
The markets we serve are highly competitive, and our products and services are affected by varying degrees of competition. We compete worldwide with domestic and international companies in most markets. These companies may have competitive advantages as a result of greater financial resources, economies of scale and bundled products and services that we do not offer. Additional information related to competition is discussed in Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K. Our ability to compete depends principally upon the breadth of our technical capabilities, the quality of our goods and services, competitive pricing, product performance, design and engineering capabilities, new product innovation, the ability to solve specific customer needs, and customer relationships.
PATENTS AND LICENSES
We have several patents, but we do not believe that our operations are dependent upon any single patent or group of patents. In general, we rely on technical superiority, continual product improvement, exclusive product features, superior lead time, on-time delivery performance, quality, and customer relationships to maintain our competitive advantage.
BACKLOG AND REMAINING PERFORMANCE OBLIGATIONS
We define backlog as potential revenue that is based on customer placed purchase orders (“POs”) and long-term agreements (“LTAs”) with firm fixed price and expected delivery dates of 24 months or less. Backlog is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Backlog is affected by timing differences in the placement of customer orders and tends to be concentrated in several programs to a greater extent than our net revenues. Backlog in Industrial markets tends to be of a shorter duration and is generally fulfilled within a three month period. As a result of these factors, trends in our overall level of backlog may not be indicative of trends in our future net revenues. Backlog was $822.0 million at December 31, 2020, compared to $910.2 million at December 31, 2019. The decrease in backlog was primarily in the commercial aerospace end-use market.
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We define remaining performance obligations as customer placed POs with firm fixed price and firm delivery dates. The majority of the LTAs do not meet the definition of a contract under Accounting Standards Codification 606 (“ASC 606”) and thus, the backlog amount is greater than the remaining performance obligations amount as defined under ASC 606. Similar to backlog, revenue based on remaining performance obligations is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Remaining performance obligations were $779.7 million at December 31, 2020. We anticipate recognizing an estimated 65% or $507.0 million of our remaining performance obligations during 2021.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations issued by government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). Among other matters, these regulatory authorities impose requirements that regulate the emission, discharge, generation, management, transport and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, pollutants and contaminants. These regulations govern public and private response actions to hazardous or regulated substances that threaten to release or have been released to the environment, or endanger human health, and they require us to obtain and maintain licenses and permits in connection with our operations. We may also be required to investigate and remediate the effects of the release or disposal of materials at sites associated with past and present operations. Additionally, this extensive regulatory framework imposes significant compliance burdens and risks on us. We anticipate that capital expenditures will continue to be required for the foreseeable future to upgrade and maintain our environmental compliance efforts, however, we do not expect such expenditures to be material in 2021 and the foreseeable future.
Structural Systems has been directed by California environmental agencies to investigate and take corrective action for groundwater contamination at its facilities located in Adelanto (a.k.a., El Mirage) and Monrovia, California. Based on currently available information, we have accrued $1.5 million at December 31, 2020 for our estimated liabilities related to these sites. For further information, see Note 14 in the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K. In addition, see Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for certain risks related to environmental matters.
HUMAN CAPITAL
Our employees are critical to our success. We attract, develop, and retain employee talent by offering competitive compensation packages and fostering a culture of care about their well being. As such, we strive to make the safety of our workforce our highest priority as evidenced by our response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, we focus on protecting the health and safety of our employees and establishing a safe work environment by following the COVID-19 safety recommendations issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all of our facilities.
In addition, we endeavor to be a proactive corporate citizen by being responsive and supportive of the needs of our employees to attract qualified talent. We strive to provide opportunities for qualified members of underrepresented communities and women for advancement within our company and award scholarships to the children and grandchildren of our employees so that they may develop the skills that will support their entry into the workforce. In addition, in 2018, we implemented an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) to provide employees the opportunity to share in the ownership of our company and benefit from our performance through the purchase of our company’s stock. The ESPP allows eligible employees to accumulate contributions through after-tax payroll deductions to purchase shares of our company’s stock at a 15% discount and serves as a key retention mechanism for our human capital.
As of December 31, 2020, we employed 2,450 people, of which 445 are subject to collective bargaining agreements expiring in June 2021 and April 2022. We believe our relations with our employees are good. See Risk Factors contained within Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding certain risks related to our employees.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
General information about us can be obtained from our website address at www.ducommun.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, if any, are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information included on our website is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC registrants, including our company.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be affected by known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. We have summarized below the significant, known material risks to our business. Additional risk factors not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also impair our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Any of these risks, uncertainties and other factors could cause our future financial results to differ materially from recent financial results or from currently anticipated future financial results. The risk factors below should be considered together with the information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) as well as other required filings by us with the SEC.
CAPITAL STRUCTURE RISKS
Our indebtedness could limit our financing options, adversely affect our financial condition, and prevent us from fulfilling our debt obligations.
In December 2019, we completed the refinancing of a portion of our existing debt by entering into both a new revolving credit facility (“New Revolving Credit Facility”) and a new term loan (“New Term Loan”). These replaced the existing revolving credit facility that was entered into in November 2018 (“2018 Revolving Credit Facility”). The New Revolving Credit Facility is a $100.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility that matures on December 20, 2024 replacing the $100.0 million 2018 Revolving Credit Facility that would have matured on November 21, 2023. The New Term Loan is a $140.0 million senior secured term loan that matures on December 20, 2024. We also have an existing $240.0 million senior secured term loan that was entered into in November 2018 that matures on November 21, 2025 (“2018 Term Loan”). The original amounts available under the New Revolving Credit Facility, New Term Loan, and 2018 Term Loan (collectively, the “Credit Facilities”) in aggregate, totaled $480.0 million. In conjunction with the closing of the New Revolving Credit Facility and the New Term Loan, we drew down the entire $140.0 million on the New Term Loan and used those proceeds to pay off and close the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility of $58.5 million, paid down a portion of the 2018 Term Loan of $56.0 million, paid the accrued interest associated with the amounts being paid down on the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility and 2018 Term Loan, paid the fees related to this transaction, and the remainder used for general corporate expenses.
At December 31, 2020, we had a total of $320.6 million of outstanding long-term debt under the Credit Facilities. The total long-term debt was primarily the result of our acquisitions, LaBarge, Inc. in 2011, Lightning Diversion Systems, LLC (“LDS”) in September 2017, Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (“CTP”) in April 2018, and Nobles in October 2019.
Our ability to obtain additional financing or complete a debt refinancing in the future may be limited. Should we not have ready access to capital markets, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as selling assets; reducing or delaying scheduled expansions and/or capital investments; or seeking various other forms of capital. Our ability to complete reasonable alternative financing plans may be affected by circumstances and economic events outside of our control. We cannot ensure that we would be able to refinance our debt or enter into alternative financing plans in adequate amounts on commercially reasonable terms, terms acceptable to us or at all, or that such plans guarantee that we would be able to meet our debt obligations.
Our level of debt could:
limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
require a portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or other general corporate purposes;
increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions;
place us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors;
expose us to the risk of increased borrowing costs and higher interest rates as all of our borrowings under our Credit Facilities bear interest at variable rates, which could further adversely impact our cash flows;
limit our flexibility to plan for and react to changes in our business and the industry in which we compete;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions;
expose us to risk of unfavorable changes in the global credit markets; and
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the Credit Facilities and our other debt.
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The occurrence of any one of these events could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to satisfy our obligations in respect of our outstanding debt.
We require a considerable amount of cash to run our business.
Our ability to make payments on our debt in the future and to fund planned capital expenditures and working capital needs, will depend upon our ability to generate significant cash in the future. Our ability to generate cash is subject to economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that may be beyond our control.
In December 2019, we completed the refinancing of a portion of our existing debt by entering into the New Revolving Credit Facility to replace the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility and entered into the New Term Loan. The New Revolving Credit Facility is a $100.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility that matures on December 20, 2024 replacing the $100.0 million 2018 Revolving Credit Facility that would have matured on November 21, 2023. The New Term Loan is a $140.0 million senior secured term loan that matures on December 20, 2024. We also have the 2018 Term Loan of $240.0 million that is a senior secured term loan that matures on November 21, 2025. In conjunction with the closing of the New Revolving Credit Facility and the New Term Loan, we drew down the entire $140.0 million on the New Term Loan and used those proceeds to pay off and close the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility of $58.5 million, paid down a portion of the 2018 Term Loan of $56.0 million, paid the accrued interest associated with the amounts being paid down on the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility and 2018 Term Loan, paid the fees related to this transaction, with the remainder used for general corporate expenses.
The terms of the New Term Loan require that we make installment payments of 1.25% of the initial outstanding principal balance on a quarterly basis, on the last day of each calendar quarter. We were required to make installment payments of 0.25% of the outstanding principal balance of the 2018 Term Loan amount on a quarterly basis, however, the $56.0 million we paid as part of the December 2019 refinancing paid all the required quarterly installment payments on the 2018 Term Loan until maturity. In addition, if we exceed the annual excess cash flow threshold, we are required to make an annual additional principal payment based on the consolidated adjusted leverage ratio. Further, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the New Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.175% to 0.275%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio. In October 2015, we entered into interest rate cap hedges designated as cash flow hedges, with a portion of these interest rate cap hedges maturing on a quarterly basis, with notional value in aggregate, totaling $135.0 million. However, all of these interest rate cap hedges matured in June 2020. At December 31, 2020, the outstanding balance on the Credit Facilities was $320.6 million with an average interest rate of 3.59%. Should interest rates increase significantly, our debt service cost will increase. Any inability to generate sufficient cash flow could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
While we expect to meet all of our financial obligations, we cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our debt or to fund our other liquidity needs.
We require a considerable amount of cash to fund our anticipated voluntary principal prepayments on our Credit Facilities.
Our ability to continue to reduce the debt outstanding under our Credit Facilities through voluntary principal prepayments will be a contributing factor to our ability to keep our interest rate towards the lower end of the interest rate range as defined in the Credit Facilities. Our ability to make such prepayments will depend upon our ability to generate significant cash in the future. We cannot ensure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund any such prepayments.
The covenants in our Credit Facilities impose restrictions that may limit our operating and financial flexibility.
We are required to comply with a leverage covenant as defined in the New Revolving Credit Facility agreement. The leverage covenant is defined as Consolidated Funded Indebtedness less unrestricted cash and cash equivalents in excess of $5.0 million, divided by consolidated earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) and other adjustments.
At December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with the leverage covenant under the Credit Facilities. However, there is no assurance that we will continue to be in compliance with the leverage covenant in future periods.
The Credit Facilities’ agreements contains a number of significant restrictions and covenants that limit our ability, among other things, to incur additional indebtedness, to create liens, to make certain payments, investments, to engage in transactions with affiliates, to sell certain assets or enter into mergers.
These covenants could materially and adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs. Furthermore, they may restrict our ability to expand, pursue our business strategies and otherwise conduct our business. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by circumstances and events beyond our control, such as prevailing economic conditions
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and changes in regulations, and we cannot ensure that we will be able to comply with such covenants. These restrictions also limit our ability to obtain future financings to withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general.
A breach of any covenant in the Credit Facilities could result in a default under the Credit Facilities. A default, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the debt outstanding under the agreement. A default could permit our lenders to foreclose on any of our assets securing such debt. Even if new financing were available at that time, it may not be on terms or amounts that are acceptable to us or terms as favorable as our current agreements. If our debt is in default for any reason, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We may be adversely affected by changes in LIBOR reporting practices or the method in which LIBOR is determined.
In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, the authority that regulates London Interbank Offering Rate (“LIBOR”), announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”) has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) is the rate that represents the best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR, and organizations are currently working on industry wide and/or company specific transition from LIBOR to an alternative that will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark rates, or financing costs to borrowers. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, but could result in an increase in the cost of our variable rate debt.
The typical trading volume of our common stock may affect an investor’s ability to sell significant stock holdings in the future without negatively impacting stock price.
The level of trading activity may vary daily and typically represents only a small percentage of outstanding shares. As a result, a stockholder who sells a significant amount of shares in a short period of time could negatively affect our share price.
Our amount of debt may require us to raise additional capital to fund acquisitions.
We may sell additional shares of common stock or other equity securities to raise capital in the future, which could dilute the value of an investor’s holdings.
BUSINESS AND OPERATIONAL RISKS
Our end-use markets are cyclical.
We sell our products into aerospace, defense, and industrial end-use markets, which are cyclical and have experienced periodic declines. Our sales are, therefore, unpredictable and may tend to fluctuate based on a number of factors, including global economic conditions, geopolitical developments and conditions, pandemics, and other developments affecting our end-use markets and the customers served. Consequently, results of operations in any period should not be considered indicative of the operating results that may be experienced in any future period.
We depend upon a selected base of industries and customers, which subjects us to unique risks which may adversely affect us.
We currently generate a majority of our revenues from customers in the aerospace and defense industry. Our business depends, in part, on the level of new military and commercial aircraft orders. As a result, we have significant sales to certain customers. Sales to The Boeing Company (“Boeing”) and Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. (“Spirit”) comprise a significant portion of our commercial aerospace end-use market. A significant portion of our net sales in our military and space end-use markets are made under subcontracts with original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), under their prime contracts with the U. S. Government. We had significant sales to Lockheed Martin Corporation (“Lockheed”), Northrop Grumman Corporation (“Northrop”), and Raytheon Technologies Corporation (“Raytheon”) in 2020 in our defense technologies end-use market.
Our customers may experience delays in the launch of new products, labor strikes, diminished liquidity or credit unavailability, weak demand for their products, or other difficulties in their business. In addition, shifts in government spending priorities have caused and may continue to cause additional uncertainty in the placement of orders.
Our revenues from our top ten customers, which represented 61% of our total 2020 net revenues, were diversified over a number of different aerospace and defense products. Any significant change in production rates by these customers would have a material effect on our results of operations and cash flows. There is no assurance that our current significant customers will continue to buy products from us at current levels, or that we will retain any or all of our existing customers, or that we will be able to form new relationships with customers upon the loss of one or more of our existing customers. This risk may be further
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complicated by pricing pressures, competition prevalent in our industry and other factors. A significant reduction in sales to any of our major customers, the loss of a major customer, or a default of a major customer on accounts receivable could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.
Boeing was our largest customer prior to 2020 and remains one of our largest customers in 2020, and the 737 MAX was our highest revenue platform prior to 2020. Boeing recently received regulatory approval of the 737 MAX and as such, we expect to begin a modest ramp up in our production rates. Revenue growth with our other commercial customers and defense OEMs (also known as prime contractors) has helped to mitigate a significant portion of this risk for the time being. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has dampened civil air travel demand significantly, and if traveler confidence does not return in the near future, it may make it difficult to continue to offset a significant portion of this risk.
We generally make sales under purchase orders and contracts that are subject to cancellation, modification or rescheduling. Changes in the economic environment and the financial condition of the industries we serve could result in customer cancellation of contractual orders or requests for rescheduling. Some of our contracts have specific provisions relating to schedule and performance, and failure to deliver in accordance with such provisions could result in cancellations, modifications, rescheduling and/or penalties, in some cases at the customers’ convenience and without prior notice. While we have normally recovered our direct and indirect costs plus profit, such cancellations, modifications, or rescheduling that cannot be replaced in a timely fashion, could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
A significant portion of our business depends upon U.S. Government defense spending.
We derive a significant portion of our business from customers whose principal sales are to the U.S. Government. Accordingly, the success of our business depends upon government spending generally or for specific departments or agencies in particular. Such spending, among other factors, is subject to the uncertainties of governmental appropriations and national defense policies and priorities, constraints of the budgetary process, timing and potential changes in these policies and priorities, and the adoption of new laws or regulations or changes to existing laws or regulations.
These and other factors could cause the government and government agencies, or prime contractors that use us as a subcontractor, to reduce their purchases under existing contracts, to exercise their rights to terminate contracts for convenience or to abstain from exercising options to renew contracts, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, the levels of U.S. Department of Defense (“U.S. DoD”) spending in future periods are difficult to predict and are impacted by numerous factors such as the political environment, U.S. foreign policy, macroeconomic conditions and the ability of the U.S. Government to enact relevant legislation such as the authorization and appropriations bills. The Budget Control Act (“2011 Act”) established limits on U.S. government discretionary spending, including a reduction of defense spending between the 2012 and 2021 U.S. Government fiscal years. Accordingly, long-term uncertainty remains with respect to overall levels of defense spending and it is likely that U.S. Government discretionary spending levels will continue to be subject to pressure.
Exports of certain of our products are subject to various export control regulations and authorizations, and we may not be successful in obtaining the necessary U.S. Government approvals and related export licenses for proposed sales to certain foreign customers.
We must comply with numerous laws and regulations relating to the export of some of our products before we are permitted to sell those products outside the United States. Compliance often entails the submission and timely receipt of the necessary export approvals, licenses, or authorizations from the U.S. Government. Over the last several years, the U.S. export licensing environment for munitions has been adversely affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the changing geopolitical environment and heightened tensions with other countries (which shift and evolve over time). Accordingly, we can give no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining, in a timely manner or at all, the approvals, licenses or authorizations we need to sell our products outside the United States, which may result in the cancellation of orders and significant penalties to our customers if we do not make deliveries and fulfill our contractual commitments. Any significant delay in, or impairment of, our ability to sell products outside of the United States could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Contracts with some of our customers, including Federal government contracts, contain provisions which give our customers a variety of rights that are unfavorable to us and the OEMs to whom we provide products and services, including the ability to terminate a contract at any time for convenience.
Contracts with some of our customers, including Federal government contracts, contain provisions and are subject to laws and regulations that provide rights and remedies not typically found in commercial contracts. These provisions may allow our customers to:
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terminate existing contracts, in whole or in part, for convenience, as well as for default, or if funds for contract performance for any subsequent year become unavailable;
terminate existing contracts if we are suspended or debarred from doing business with the federal government or with a governmental agency;
prohibit future procurement awards with a particular agency as a result of a finding of an organizational conflict of interest based upon prior related work performed for the agency that would give a contractor an unfair advantage over competing contractors; and
claim rights in products and systems produced by us.
If the U.S. Government terminates a contract for convenience, the counterparty with whom we have contracted on a subcontract may terminate its contract with us. As a result of any such termination, whether on a direct government contract or subcontract, we may recover only our incurred or committed costs, settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the U.S. Government terminates a direct contract with us for default, we may not even recover those amounts and instead may be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. Government in procuring undelivered items and services from another source.
In addition, the U.S. Government is typically required to open all programs to competitive bidding and, therefore, may not automatically renew any of its prime contracts. If one or more of our customers’ government prime or subcontracts is terminated or canceled, our failure to replace sales generated from such contracts would result in lower sales and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Further consolidation in the aerospace industry could adversely affect our business and financial results.
The aerospace and defense industry is experiencing significant consolidation, including our customers, competitors and suppliers. Consolidation among our customers may result in delays in the awarding of new contracts and losses of existing business. Consolidation among our competitors may result in larger competitors with greater resources and market share, which could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully. Consolidation among our suppliers may result in fewer sources of supply and increased cost to us.
Our growth strategy includes evaluating selected acquisitions, which entails certain risks to our business and financial performance.
We have historically achieved a portion of our growth through acquisitions and expect to evaluate selected future acquisitions as part of our strategy for growth. Any acquisition of another business entails risks and it is possible that we may not realize the expected benefits from an acquisition or that an acquisition could adversely affect our existing operations. Acquisitions entail certain risks, including:
difficulty in integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired company within our existing operations or in maintaining uniform standards;
loss of key employees or customers of the acquired company;
the failure to achieve anticipated synergies;
unrecorded liabilities of acquired companies that we fail to discover during our due diligence investigations or that are not subject to indemnification or reimbursement by the seller; and
management and other personnel having their time and resources diverted to evaluate, negotiate and integrate acquisitions.
We may not be successful in achieving expected operating efficiencies and sustaining or improving operating expense reductions, and may experience business disruptions associated with restructuring, performance center consolidations, realignment, cost reduction, and other strategic initiatives.
In recent years, we have implemented a number of restructuring, realignment, and cost reduction initiatives, including performance center consolidations, organizational realignments, and reductions in our workforce. While we have realized some efficiencies from these actions, we may not realize the benefits of these initiatives to the extent we anticipated. Further, such benefits may be realized later than expected, and the ongoing difficulties in implementing these measures may be greater than anticipated, which could cause us to incur additional costs or result in business disruptions. In addition, if these measures are not successful or sustainable, we may have to undertake additional realignment and cost reduction efforts, which could result in significant additional charges. Moreover, if our restructuring and realignment efforts prove ineffective, our ability to achieve our other strategic and business plan goals may be adversely impacted.
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As we move up the value chain to become a more value added supplier, enhanced design, product development, manufacturing, supply chain project management and other skills will be required.
We may encounter difficulties as we execute our growth strategy to move up the value chain to become a more value added supplier of more complex assemblies. Difficulties we may encounter include, but are not limited to, the need for enhanced and expanded product design skills, enhanced ability to control and influence our suppliers, enhanced quality control systems and infrastructure, enhanced large-scale project management skills, and expanded industry certifications. Assuming incremental project design responsibilities would require us to assume additional risk in developing cost estimates and could expose us to increased risk of losses. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining the enhanced skills required to move up the value chain or that our customers will outsource such functions to us.
Risks associated with operating and conducting our business outside the United States could adversely impact us.
We have manufacturing facilities in Thailand and Mexico and also derive a portion of our net revenues from direct foreign sales. Further, our customers may derive portions of their revenues from non-U.S. customers. As a result, we are subject to the risks of conducting and operating our business internationally, including:
political instability;
economic and geopolitical developments and conditions;
pandemics and disasters, natural or otherwise;
compliance with a variety of international laws, as well as U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies conducting business abroad, including, but not limited to, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
imposition of taxes, export controls, tariffs, embargoes and other trade restrictions;
difficulties repatriating funds or restrictions on cash transfers; and
potential for new tariffs imposed on imports by the U.S. administration.
While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, we believe any one or more of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Customer pricing pressures could reduce the demand and/or price for our products and services.
The markets we serve are highly competitive and price sensitive. We compete worldwide with a number of domestic and international companies that have substantially greater manufacturing, purchasing, marketing and financial resources than we do. Many of our customers have the in-house capability to fulfill their manufacturing requirements. Our larger competitors may be able to compete more effectively for very large-scale contracts than we can by providing different or greater capabilities or benefits such as technical qualifications, past performance on large-scale contracts, geographic presence, price and availability of key professional personnel. If we are unable to successfully compete for new business, our net revenues growth and operating margins may decline.
Several of our major customers have completed extensive cost containment efforts and we expect continued pricing pressures in 2021 and beyond. Competitive pricing pressures may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. Further, there can be no assurance that competition from existing or potential competitors in other segments of our business will not have a material adverse effect on our financial results. If we do not continue to compete effectively and win contracts, our future business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to meet our financial obligations may be materially compromised.
Our products and processes are subject to risk of obsolescence as a result of changes in technology and evolving industry and regulatory standards.
The future success of our business depends in large part upon our and our customers’ ability to maintain and enhance technological capabilities, develop and market manufacturing services that meet changing customer needs and successfully anticipate or respond to technological advances in manufacturing processes on a cost-effective and timely basis, while meeting evolving industry and regulatory standards. To address these risks, we invest in product design and development, and incur related capital expenditures. There can be no guarantee that our product design and development efforts will be successful, or that funds required to be invested in product design and development or incurred as capital expenditures will not increase materially in the future.
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We may not have the ability to renew facilities leases on terms favorable to us and relocation of operations presents risks due to business interruption.
Certain of our manufacturing facilities and offices are leased and have lease terms that expire between 2021 and 2026. The majority of these leases provide renewal options at the fair market rental rate at the time of renewal, which, if renewed, could be significantly higher than our current rental rates. We may be unable to offset these cost increases by charging more for our products and services. Furthermore, continued economic conditions may continue to negatively impact and create greater pressure in the commercial real estate market, causing higher incidences of landlord default and/or lender foreclosure of properties, including properties occupied by us. While we maintain certain non-disturbance rights in most cases, it is not certain that such rights will in all cases be upheld and our continued right of occupancy in such instances could be potentially jeopardized. An occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Additionally, if we choose to move any of our operations, those operations may be subject to additional relocation costs and associated risks of business interruption.
LEGAL, REGULATORY, TAX, AND ACCOUNTING RISKS
We are subject to extensive regulation and audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.
The accuracy and appropriateness of certain costs and expenses used to substantiate our direct and indirect costs for the U.S. Government contracts are subject to extensive regulation and audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency, an arm of the U.S. DoD. Such audits and reviews could result in adjustments to our contract costs and profitability. However, we cannot ensure the outcome of any future audits and adjustments may be required to reduce net sales or profits upon completion and final negotiation of audits. If any audit or review were to uncover inaccurate costs or improper activities, we could be subject to penalties and sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or prohibition from conducting future business with the U.S. Government. Any such outcome could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We are subject to a number of procurement laws and regulations. Our business and our reputation could be adversely affected if we fail to comply with these laws.
We must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and impose certain risks and costs on our business. A violation of specific laws and regulations, by us, our employees, or others working on our behalf, such as a supplier or a venture partner, could harm our reputation and result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the termination of our contracts, suspension or debarment from bidding on or being awarded contracts, loss of our ability to export products or services and civil or criminal investigations or proceedings.
In some instances, these laws and regulations impose terms or rights that are different from those typically found in commercial transactions. For example, the U.S. Government may terminate any of our customers’ government contracts and subcontracts either at its convenience or for default based on our performance. Upon termination for convenience of a fixed-price type contract, we normally are entitled to receive the purchase price for delivered items, reimbursement for allowable costs for work-in-process and an allowance for profit on the contract or adjustment for loss if completion of performance would have resulted in a loss.
Our operations are subject to numerous extensive, complex, costly and evolving laws, regulations and restrictions, including cybersecurity requirements, and failure to comply with these laws, regulations and restrictions could subject us to penalties and sanctions that could harm our business.
Prime contracts with our major customers that have contracts with various agencies of the U.S. Government are subject to numerous laws and regulations which affect how we do business with our customers and may impose added costs to our business. As a result, our contracts and operations are subject to numerous, extensive, complex, costly and evolving laws, regulations and restrictions, principally by the U.S. Government or their agencies. These laws, regulations and restrictions govern items including, but not limited to, the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts, disclosure of cost and pricing data, civil penalties for violations of false claims to the U.S. Government for payment, defining reimbursable costs, establishing ethical standards for the procurement process, controlling the import and export of defense articles and services, and cybersecurity requirements.
Noncompliance could expose us to liability for penalties, including termination of our contracts and subcontracts, disqualification from bidding on future U.S. Government contracts and subcontracts, suspension or debarment from U.S. Government contracting and various other fines and penalties. Noncompliance found by any one agency could result in fines,
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penalties, debarment or suspension from receiving additional contracts with all U.S. Government agencies. Given our dependence on U.S. Government business, suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
In addition, the U.S. Government may revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract rules and regulations, at any time, including increased usage of fixed-price contracts, procurement reform, and compliance with cybersecurity requirements. Such changes could impair our ability to obtain new contracts or subcontracts or renew contracts or subcontracts under which we currently perform when those contracts are put up for competitive bidding. Any new contracting methods could be costly or administratively difficult for us to implement and could adversely affect our future net revenues.
In addition, our international operations subject us to numerous U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, regulations relating to import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, repatriation of earnings, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act. Changes in regulations or political environments may affect our ability to conduct business in foreign markets including investment, procurement and repatriation of earnings. Failure by us or our sales representatives or consultants to comply with these laws and regulations could result in certain liabilities and could possibly result in suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Environmental liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.
We are subject to various federal, local, and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to the use, storage, transport, discharge and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous chemicals and materials used and emissions generated during our manufacturing process. We do not carry insurance for these potential environmental liabilities. Any failure by us to comply with present or future regulations could subject us to future liabilities or the suspension of production, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. Moreover, some environmental laws relating to contaminated sites can impose joint and several liability retroactively regardless of fault or the legality of the activities giving rise to the contamination. Compliance with existing or future environmental laws and regulations may require extensive capital expenditures, increase our cost or impact our production capabilities. Even if such expenditures are made, there can be no assurance that we will be able to comply. We have been directed to investigate and take corrective action for groundwater contamination at certain sites and our ultimate liability for such matters will depend upon a number of factors. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
The occurrence of litigation in which we could be named as a defendant is unpredictable.
From time to time, we and our subsidiaries are involved in various legal and other proceedings that are incidental to the conduct of our business. While we believe no current proceedings, if adversely determined, could have a material adverse effect on our financial results, no assurances can be given. Any such claims may divert financial and management resources that would otherwise be used to benefit our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Product liability claims in excess of insurance could adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
We face potential liability for property damage, personal injury, or death as a result of the failure of products designed or manufactured by us. Although we currently maintain product liability insurance (including aircraft product liability insurance), any material product liability not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We use estimates when bidding on fixed-price contracts. Changes in our estimates could adversely affect our financial results.
We enter into contracts providing for a firm, fixed-price for the sale of a majority of our products, regardless of the production costs incurred by us. In many cases, we make multi-year firm, fixed-price commitments to our customers, without assurance that our anticipated production costs will be achieved. Contract bidding and accounting require judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract net sales and costs, including estimating cost increases over time and efficiencies to be gained, and making assumptions for supplier sourcing and quality, manufacturing scheduling and technical issues over the life of the contract. Such assumptions can be particularly difficult to estimate for contracts with new customers. Inaccurate estimates of these costs could result in reduced profits or incurred losses. Due to the significance of the judgments and estimates involved, it is possible that materially different amounts could be obtained if different assumptions were used or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Therefore, any changes in our underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
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Goodwill and/or other assets could be impaired in the future, which could result in substantial charges.
Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis as of the first day of our fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances occur which could indicate potential impairment. In assessing the recoverability of goodwill, management is required to make certain critical estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions include projected sales levels, including the addition of new customers, programs or platforms and increased content on existing programs or platforms, improvements in manufacturing efficiency, and reductions in operating costs. Due to many variables inherent in the estimation of a business’s fair value and the relative size of our recorded goodwill, changes in estimates and assumptions may have a material effect on the results of our impairment analysis. If any of these or other estimates and assumptions are not realized in the future, or if market multiples decline, we may be required to record an impairment charge for goodwill.
We also test intangible assets with indefinite life periods for potential impairment annually and on an interim basis if there are indicators of potential impairment.
In addition, we evaluate amortizable intangible assets, fixed assets, production cost of contracts, and lease right-of-use assets for impairment if there are indicators of a potential impairment.
Further, impairment charges may be incurred against other intangible assets or long-term assets if asset utilization declines, customer demand declines or other circumstances indicate that the asset carrying value may not be recoverable.
Our goodwill and other intangible assets as of December 31, 2020 were $295.6 million, or 35% of total assets. If our goodwill and/or other assets are impaired, it could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See “Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets” in Note 6 of our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
Unanticipated changes in our tax provision or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our profitability.
Significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Furthermore, changes in income tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation, could result in higher or lower income tax rates assessed or changes in the taxability of certain sales or the deductibility of certain expenses, thereby affecting our income tax expense and profitability. For example, we recorded provisional estimates of the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”) enacted in December 2017 in accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) in our 2017 consolidated financial statements. During 2018, these estimates were subject to further analysis and review which could have required adjustments, but no adjustments were required to be made in 2018. In addition, we are regularly under audit by tax authorities. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals.
Our ability to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud may be adversely affected if our internal control over financial reporting is not effective.
The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our shareholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate as a result of changed conditions, and fraud. Due to these inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls that provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, our ability to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud could be adversely affected.
LABOR AND SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS
We are dependent upon our ability to attract and retain key personnel.
Our success depends in part upon our ability to attract and retain key engineering, technical and managerial personnel, at both the executive and performance center level. We face competition for management, engineering and technical personnel from other companies and organizations. The loss of members of our senior management group, or key engineering and technical personnel, could negatively impact our ability to grow and remain competitive in the future and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
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Labor disruptions by our employees could adversely affect our business.
As of December 31, 2020, we employed 2,450 people. Two of our performance centers are parties to collective bargaining agreements, covering 155 full time hourly employees in one of those performance centers and 290 full time hourly employees in the other performance center, and will expire in June 2021 and April 2022, respectively. Although we have not experienced any material labor-related work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be good, labor stoppages may occur in the future. If the unionized workers were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, if we are unable to negotiate acceptable collective bargaining agreements with the unions or if other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations, higher ongoing labor costs and possible loss of customer contracts, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on our suppliers to meet the quality and delivery expectations of our customers.
Our ability to deliver our products and services on schedule and to satisfy specific quality levels is dependent upon a variety of factors, including execution of internal performance plans, availability of raw materials, internal and supplier produced parts and structures, conversion of raw materials into parts and assemblies, and performance of suppliers and others.
We rely on numerous third-party suppliers for raw materials and a large proportion of the components used in our production process. Certain of these raw materials and components are available only from single sources or a limited number of suppliers, or similarly, customers’ specifications may require us to obtain raw materials and/or components from a single source or certain suppliers. Many of our suppliers are small companies with limited financial resources and manufacturing capabilities. We do not currently have the ability to manufacture these components ourselves. These and other factors, including import tariffs, the loss of a critical supplier or raw materials and/or component shortages, could cause disruptions or cost inefficiencies in our operations. Additionally, our competitors that have greater direct purchasing power, may have product cost advantages which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
GENERAL RISKS
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact but could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused and continues to cause significant volatility in financial markets, including the market price of our stock, and in the commercial aerospace industry during 2020, which has raised the prospect of an extended global recession. Public health problems resulting from COVID-19 and precautionary measures instituted by governments and businesses to mitigate its spread, including travel restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place directives, and shutting down of non-essential businesses has and continues to contribute to a general slowdown in the global economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and if it continues for an extended period of time, it could have a material adverse impact on our business and the businesses of our customers, suppliers and distribution partners, and could further disrupt our operations. Changes in our operations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic or employee illnesses resulting from the pandemic, may result in inefficiencies or delays, including in sales and product development efforts and our manufacturing and supply chain, and additional costs related to business continuity initiatives, that cannot be fully mitigated through succession planning, employees working remotely, or teleconferencing technologies. The spread of COVID-19 along with related travel restrictions and operational issues has caused a decrease in the demand for air travel and has resulted in lower demand from civil aviation customers for our products. While the full extent and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be reasonably estimated with certainty at this time, COVID-19 has had a significant impact on our business, the businesses of our customers and suppliers, as well as our results of operations and financial condition, and may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition in 2021 and beyond.
Cybersecurity attacks, internal system or service failures may adversely impact our business and operations.
Any system or service disruptions, including those caused by projects to improve our information technology systems, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could disrupt our business and impair our ability to effectively provide products and related services to our customers and could have a material adverse effect on our business. We could also be subject to systems failures, including network, software or hardware failures, whether caused by us, third-party service providers, intruders or hackers, computer viruses, natural disasters, power shortages or terrorist attacks. Cybersecurity threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, unauthorized attempts to gain access to sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected information related to us or our products, our employees, customers or suppliers, or other acts that could lead to disruptions in our business. Any such failures could cause loss of data and interruptions or delays in our business, cause us to incur remediation costs, subject us to claims and damage our reputation. In addition, the failure or disruption of our communications or utilities could cause us to interrupt or suspend our operations or otherwise adversely affect our business. Our property and
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business interruption insurance may be inadequate to compensate us for all losses that may occur as a result of any system or operational failure or disruption which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Assertions by third parties that we violated their intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Third parties may claim that we, our customers, licensees, or parties indemnified by us are infringing upon or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights. Such claims may be made by competitors seeking to obtain a competitive advantage or by other parties. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and groups have begun purchasing intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies like ours.
Any claims that we violated a third party’s intellectual property rights can be time consuming and costly to defend and distract management’s attention and resources, even if the claims are without merit. Such claims may also require us to redesign affected products and services, enter into costly settlement or license agreements or pay costly damage awards, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or providing the affected products and services. Even if we have an agreement to indemnify us against such costs, the indemnifying party may not have sufficient financial resources or otherwise be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology on favorable terms or cannot or do not substitute similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be adversely impacted.
Damage or destruction of our facilities caused by storms, earthquake, fires or other causes could adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
We have operations located in regions of the U.S. that may be exposed to damaging storms, earthquakes, fires and other natural disasters. Although we maintain standard property casualty insurance covering our properties and may be able to recover costs associated with certain natural disasters through insurance, we do not carry any earthquake insurance because of the cost of such insurance. Many of our properties are located in Southern California, an area subject to earthquake activity. Our California performance centers generated $178.6 million in net revenues during 2020. Even if covered by insurance, any significant damage or destruction of our facilities due to storms, earthquakes, fires or other natural disasters could result in our inability to meet customer delivery schedules and may result in the loss of customers and significant additional costs to us. Thus, any significant damage or destruction of our properties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. See discussion of a fire on June 29, 2020 which severely damaged our Guaymas, Mexico performance center in Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Form 10-K for further information.
 
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We occupy 27 owned or leased facilities, totaling 2.0 million square feet of manufacturing area and office space. At December 31, 2020, facilities which were in excess of 50,000 square feet each were all manufacturing facilities as follows:
 
LocationSegmentSquare
Feet
Owned/Expiration
of Lease
Carson, CaliforniaStructural Systems299,000Owned
Monrovia, CaliforniaStructural Systems274,000Owned
Parsons, KansasStructural Systems176,000Owned
Coxsackie, New YorkStructural Systems151,000Owned
Carson, CaliforniaElectronic Systems117,0002021
Joplin, MissouriElectronic Systems104,0002021
Phoenix, ArizonaElectronic Systems100,0002022
Adelanto, CaliforniaStructural Systems88,000Owned
Orange, CaliforniaStructural Systems80,000Owned
Appleton, WisconsinElectronic Systems77,000Owned
Carson, CaliforniaStructural Systems77,0002024
Huntsville, ArkansasElectronic Systems69,0002026
Joplin, MissouriElectronic Systems55,000Owned
Tulsa, OklahomaElectronic Systems55,000Owned
Orange, CaliforniaStructural Systems53,0002024
Berryville, ArkansasElectronic Systems50,000Owned
Management believes these properties are adequate to meet our current requirements, are in good condition and are suitable for their present use. All properties are occupied except for Phoenix, Arizona.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of our legal proceedings.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DCO. As of December 31, 2020, we had 157 holders of record of our common stock. We have not paid any dividends since the first quarter of 2011 and we do not expect to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
See “Part III, Item 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS” for information relating to shares to be issued under equity compensation plans.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.
Performance Graph
The following graph compares the yearly percentage change in our cumulative total shareholder return with the cumulative total return of the Russell 2000 Index and the median of our 2021 Proxy Statement peers (“Median of Proxy Peers”) over a five year
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period, assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. A modified version of this graph over a three year period will be used in our 2021 Proxy Statement, assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. The graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance:
dco-20201231_g3.jpg

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Not applicable.
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Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
Ducommun Incorporated (“Ducommun,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading global provider of engineering and manufacturing services for high-performance products and high-cost-of failure applications used primarily in the aerospace, defense, industrial, medical, and other industries. We differentiate ourselves as a full-service solution-based provider, offering a wide range of value-added products and services in our primary businesses of electronics, structures and integrated solutions. We operate through two primary business segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems, each of which is a reportable segment.
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Our Business
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on our overall business during the year ended December 31, 2020. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, precautionary measures were instituted by governments and businesses to mitigate its spread, including the imposition of travel restrictions, quarantines, shelter in place directives, and shutting down of non-essential businesses.
We have made the safety of our workforce our top priority by implementing numerous well-being protocols related to health and welfare at all of our facilities. Safety protocols consistent with guidelines provided by state and local governments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) have been put into practice, including social distancing, provision of personal protective equipment, enhanced cleaning, and flexible work arrangements wherever possible. We have also offered enhanced leave and benefits to our employees and provide frequent updates to ensure our workforce is kept apprised of evolving regulations and safety measures.
On March 27, 2020, the U.S. enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) which provides tax relief to individuals and businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic. We have not requested or accepted any loans or payments that are available under the CARES Act, however, we have utilized the option to defer payment of the employer portion of payroll taxes (Social Security) that would otherwise be required to be made during the period beginning March 27, 2020 to December 31, 2020. One half of the deferred amount is required to be paid by December 31, 2021, with the remaining 50% to be paid by December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2020, we deferred $6.1 million, which is included as part of accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
The COVID-19 pandemic has and continues to contribute to a general slowdown in the global economy and specifically, the commercial aerospace end-use market. Both major large aircraft manufacturers, The Boeing Company and Airbus SE, have announced lower build rates for the near and medium future. In its 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K, Boeing indicated it expects it will take approximately three years for worldwide travel to return to 2019 levels and a few years beyond that for the industry to return to long-term trend growth of five percent. While the full extent and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be reasonably estimated with certainty at this time, COVID-19 has had a significant impact on our business, the businesses of our customers and suppliers, as well as our results of operations and financial condition, and may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition for 2021 and beyond. See Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”).
Recap for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Net revenues of $628.9 million
Net income of $29.2 million, or $2.45 per diluted share
Adjusted EBITDA of $87.9 million
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation expense, restructuring charges, inventory purchase accounting adjustments, and loss on extinguishment of debt (“Adjusted EBITDA”) was $87.9 million and $92.3 million for years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
When viewed with our financial results prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and accompanying reconciliations, we believe Adjusted EBITDA provides additional useful information to clarify and enhance the understanding of the factors and trends affecting our past performance and future prospects. We define these measures, explain how they are calculated, and provide reconciliations of these measures to the most comparable GAAP measure in the table below. Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios, as presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), are supplemental measures of our performance that are not required by, or presented in
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accordance with, GAAP. They are not a measurement of our financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP, or as an alternative to net cash provided by operating activities as measures of our liquidity. The presentation of these measures should not be interpreted to mean that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items.
We use Adjusted EBITDA non-GAAP operating performance measures internally as complementary financial measures to evaluate the performance and trends of our businesses. We present Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios, as applicable, because we believe that measures such as these provide useful information with respect to our ability to meet our operating commitments.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
They do not reflect our cash expenditures, future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
They do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
They do not reflect the significant interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;
Although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
They are not adjusted for all non-cash income or expense items that are reflected in our statements of cash flows;
They do not reflect the impact on earnings of charges resulting from matters unrelated to our ongoing operations; and
Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently from us, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA and the related financial ratios should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business or as a measure of cash that will be available to us to meet our obligations. You should compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA only as supplemental information. See our consolidated financial statements contained in this Form 10-K.
However, in spite of the above limitations, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful to an investor in evaluating our results of operations because these measures:
Are widely used by investors to measure a company’s operating performance without regard to items excluded from the calculation of such terms, which can vary substantially from company to company depending upon accounting methods and book value of assets, capital structure and the method by which assets were acquired, among other factors;
Help investors to evaluate and compare the results of our operations from period to period by removing the effect of our capital structure from our operating performance; and
Are used by our management team for various other purposes in presentations to our Board of Directors as a basis for strategic planning and forecasting.
The following financial items have been added back to or subtracted from our net income when calculating Adjusted EBITDA:
Interest expense may be useful to investors for determining current cash flow;
Income tax expense may be useful to investors because it represents the taxes which may be payable for the period and the change in deferred taxes during the period, and may reduce cash flow available for use in our business;
Depreciation may be useful to investors because it generally represents the wear and tear on our property and equipment used in our operations;
Amortization expense may be useful to investors because it represents the estimated attrition of our acquired customer base and the diminishing value of product rights;
Stock-based compensation expense may be useful to our investors for determining current cash flow;
Restructuring charges may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
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Guaymas fire related expenses may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance;
Purchase accounting inventory step-ups may be useful to our investors as they do not necessarily reflect the current or on-going cash charges related to our core operating performance;
Loss on extinguishment of debt may be useful to our investors for determining current cash flow; and
Other debt refinancing costs may be useful to our investors in evaluating our core operating performance.
Reconciliations of net income to Adjusted EBITDA and the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net revenues were as follows:

(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
Net income$29,174 $32,461 $9,035 
Interest expense13,653 18,290 13,024 
Income tax expense2,807 5,302 1,236 
Depreciation13,824 13,519 13,501 
Amortization15,026 14,786 11,795 
Stock-based compensation expense9,299 7,161 5,040 
Restructuring charges (1)
2,424 — 14,792 
Guaymas fire related expenses1,704 — — 
Inventory purchase accounting adjustments (2)
— 511 622 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— 180 926 
Other debt refinancing costs— 77 697 
Adjusted EBITDA$87,911 $92,287 $70,668 
% of net revenues14.0 %12.8 %11.2 %

(1)2018 included $0.1 million of restructuring charges that were recorded as cost of goods sold.
(2)2019 and 2018 included inventory purchase accounting adjustments of inventory that was stepped up as part of our purchase price allocation from our acquisitions of Nobles Worldwide, Inc. (“Nobles”) and Certified Thermoplastics Co., LLC (“CTP”) in October 2019 and April 2018, respectively, and are both part of our Structural Systems operating segment.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2020 Compared to 2019
The following table sets forth net revenues, selected financial data, the effective tax rate and diluted earnings per share:

(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
2020%
of Net Revenues
2019%
of Net Revenues
Net Revenues$628,941 100.0 %$721,088 100.0 %
Cost of Sales491,203 78.1 %568,891 78.9 %
Gross Profit137,738 21.9 %152,197 21.1 %
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses89,808 14.3 %95,964 13.3 %
Restructuring Charges2,424 0.4 %— — %
Operating Income45,506 7.2 %56,233 7.8 %
Interest Expense(13,653)(2.2)%(18,290)(2.6)%
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt— — %(180)— %
Other Income, Net128 — %— — %
Income Before Taxes31,981 5.0 %37,763 5.2 %
Income Tax Expense2,807 nm5,302 nm
Net Income$29,174 4.6 %$32,461 4.5 %
Effective Tax Rate8.8 %nm14.0 %nm
Diluted Earnings Per Share$2.45 nm$2.75 nm
nm = not meaningful
Net Revenues by End-Use Market and Operating Segment
Net revenues by end-use market and operating segment during 2020 and 2019, respectively, were as follows:

(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
% of Net Revenues
Change2020201920202019
Consolidated Ducommun
Military and space$99,059 $422,859 $323,800 67.2 %44.9 %
Commercial aerospace
(180,361)168,142 348,503 26.8 %48.3 %
Industrial(10,845)37,940 48,785 6.0 %6.8 %
Total$(92,147)$628,941 $721,088 100.0 %100.0 %
Electronic Systems
Military and space$64,431 $308,676 $244,245 78.6 %67.8 %
Commercial aerospace(21,326)46,017 67,343 11.7 %18.7 %
Industrial(10,845)37,940 48,785 9.7 %13.5 %
Total$32,260 $392,633 $360,373 100.0 %100.0 %
Structural Systems
Military and space$34,628 $114,183 $79,555 48.3 %22.1 %
Commercial aerospace(159,035)122,125 281,160 51.7 %77.9 %
Total$(124,407)$236,308 $360,715 100.0 %100.0 %
Net revenues for 2020 were $628.9 million compared to $721.1 million for 2019. The year-over-year decrease was primarily due to the following:
$180.4 million lower revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets due to lower build rates on large aircraft platforms; partially offset by
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$99.1 million higher revenues in our military and space end-use markets due to higher build rates on military fixed-wing aircraft platforms, additional content and higher build rates on other military and space platforms, and higher build rates on various missile platforms.
Net Revenues by Major Customers
A significant portion of our net revenues are from our top ten customers as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
20202019
Boeing Company10.5 %16.6 %
Lockheed Martin Corporation5.0 %4.0 %
Northrop Grumman Corporation9.1 %4.0 %
Raytheon Technologies Corporation20.9 %15.6 %
Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc.3.3 %12.2 %
Top ten customers(1)
61.1 %65.4 %
(1) Includes The Boeing Company (“Boeing”), Lockheed Martin Corporation (“Lockheed Martin”), Northrop Grumman Corporation (“Northrop”), Raytheon Technologies Corporation (“Raytheon”), and Spirit AeroSystems Holdings, Inc. (“Spirit”).
The revenues from Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop, Raytheon, and Spirit are diversified over a number of commercial, military and space programs and were generated by both operating segments.
Gross Profit
Gross profit consists of net revenues less cost of sales. Cost of sales includes the cost of production of finished products and other expenses related to inventory management, manufacturing quality, and order fulfillment. Gross profit margin increased to 21.9% in 2020 compared to 21.1% in 2019 primarily due to favorable product mix, partially offset by unfavorable manufacturing volume.
Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”) Expenses
SG&A expenses decreased $6.2 million in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily due to lower other corporate expenses of $3.0 million, lower professional services fees of $2.6 million, and one-time severance charges of $1.7 million in the prior year, which did not recur in 2020, partially offset by higher amortization of intangibles of $1.8 million.
Restructuring Charges
Restructuring charges increased $2.4 million in 2020 compared to 2019 due to the restructuring plan that began in 2020 that was expected to increase operating efficiencies. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on restructuring activities.
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily due to lower interest rates, partially offset by a higher outstanding balance on the Credit Facilities driven by the acquisition of Nobles Worldwide, Inc. (“Nobles”) in October 2019, and higher net draw downs on the Revolving Credit Facility, including $50.0 million during the first quarter of 2020 to hold as cash on hand, $25.0 million of which was repaid during the fourth quarter of 2020. See Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our long-term debt.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt for 2019 was related to the refinancing of our existing Credit Facilities in December 2019 which resulted in writing off of a portion of the unamortized debt issuance costs associated with the existing Credit Facilities of $0.2 million. The New Credit Facilities were utilized to pay off the existing Revolving Credit Facility and a portion of the existing Term Loan. See Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our long-term debt.
Income Tax Expense
We recorded an income tax expense of $2.8 million (an effective tax rate of 8.8%) in 2020, compared to $5.3 million (an
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effective tax rate of 14.0%) in 2019. The decrease in the effective tax rate for 2020 compared to 2019 was primarily due to higher discrete income tax benefits recognized from releases of uncertain tax positions and additional research and development tax credits related to 2019. The higher discrete income tax benefits were partially offset by a reduction in discrete income tax benefits related to changes in valuation allowance and other deferred tax assets.
Our unrecognized tax benefits were $4.1 million and $5.7 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively. We record interest and penalty charges, if any, related to uncertain tax positions as a component of tax expense and unrecognized tax benefits. The amounts accrued for interest and penalty charges as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 were not significant. If recognized, $2.4 million would affect the effective income tax rate. Due to federal and state statute of limitations for tax year 2016 that expired on October 15, 2020, we released uncertain tax positions of $2.2 million and recognized income tax benefits of $2.1 million in 2020. We do not expect the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits to increase or decrease by a material amount in the next twelve months.
We file U.S. Federal and state income tax returns. We are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for tax years after 2016 and by state taxing authorities for tax years after 2015. While we are no longer subject to examination prior to those periods, carryforwards generated prior to those periods may still be adjusted upon examination by the IRS or state taxing authority if they either have been or will be used in a subsequent period. We believe we have adequately accrued for tax deficiencies or reductions in tax benefits, if any, that could result from the examination and all open audit years.
On March 27, 2020, the U.S. enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) that provides tax relief to individuals and businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic. We considered the provisions of the CARES Act and determined they do not have a material impact to our overall income taxes. We have utilized the option to defer payment of the employer portion of payroll taxes (Social Security) that would otherwise be required to be made during the period beginning March 27, 2020 to December 31, 2020. See COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Our Business included in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”). As of December 31, 2020, we deferred income tax deductions related to payroll taxes of $6.1 million and a deferred tax asset of $1.4 million is included as part of the net deferred income taxes on the consolidated balance sheet.
On December 27, 2020, the U.S. enacted the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (the “Act”) that provides additional tax relief to individuals and businesses affected by the coronavirus pandemic. We considered the provisions of the Act and determined they do not have a material impact to our overall income taxes.
Net Income and Earnings per Diluted Share
Net income and earnings per diluted share for 2020 were $29.2 million, or $2.45 per diluted share, compared to net income and earnings per diluted share for 2019 of $32.5 million, or $2.75 per diluted share. The decrease in net income in 2020 compared to 2019 was due to a decrease of $14.5 million in gross profit as a result of lower revenues and higher restructuring charges of $2.4 million, partially offset by lower SG&A expenses of $6.2 million, lower interest expense of $4.6 million, and lower income tax expense of $2.5 million.
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Business Segment Performance
We report our financial performance based upon the two reportable operating segments: Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. The results of operations differ between our reportable operating segments due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. The following table summarizes our business segment performance for 2020 and 2019:
 
%(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
%
of Net  Revenues
%
of Net  Revenues
Change2020201920202019
Net Revenues
Electronic Systems9.0 %$392,633 $360,373 62.4 %50.0 %
Structural Systems(34.5)%236,308 360,715 37.6 %50.0 %
Total Net Revenues(12.8)%$628,941 $721,088 100.0 %100.0 %
Segment Operating Income
Electronic Systems$51,894 $38,613 13.2 %10.7 %
Structural Systems19,584 46,836 8.3 %13.0 %
71,478 85,449 
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
(25,972)(29,216)(4.1)%(4.1)%
Total Operating Income$45,506 $56,233 7.2 %7.8 %
Adjusted EBITDA
Electronic Systems
Operating Income$51,894 $38,613 
Depreciation and Amortization14,038 14,170 
Restructuring Charges596 — 
66,528 52,783 16.9 %14.6 %
Structural Systems
Operating Income19,584 46,836 
Depreciation and Amortization14,559 13,663 
Restructuring Charges1,828 — 
Inventory Purchase Accounting Adjustments— 511 
Guaymas Fire Related Expenses1,704 — 
37,675 61,010 15.9 %16.9 %
Corporate General and Administrative Expenses (1)
Operating Loss(25,972)(29,216)
Other Income128 — 
Depreciation and Amortization253 472 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense9,299 7,161 
Other Debt Refinancing Costs— 77 
(16,292)(21,506)
Adjusted EBITDA$87,911 $92,287 14.0 %12.8 %
Capital Expenditures
Electronic Systems$5,037 $5,508 
Structural Systems8,570 13,338 
Corporate Administration— — 
Total Capital Expenditures$13,607 $18,846 
(1)Includes costs not allocated to either the Electronic Systems or Structural Systems operating segments.
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Electronic Systems
Electronic Systems’ net revenues in 2020 compared to 2019 increased $32.3 million primarily due to the following:
$64.4 million higher revenues in our military and space end-use markets due to higher build rates on military fixed-wing aircraft platforms, other military and space platforms, and various missile platforms; partially offset by
$21.3 million lower revenues in our commercial aerospace end-use markets due to lower build rates on other commercial aerospace platforms, large aircraft platforms, regional and business aircraft platforms, and commercial rotary-wing aircraft platforms; and
$10.8 million lower revenues in our industrial end-use markets due to timing of customer requirements.
Electronic Systems segment operating income in 2020 compared to 2019 increased $13.3 million due to favorable manufacturing volume and favorable product mix.
Structural Systems
Structural Systems’ net revenues in 2020 compared to 2019 decreased $124.4 million primarily due to the following:
$159.0 million lower revenues in commercial aerospace end-use markets due to lower build rates on large aircraft platforms; partially offset by
$34.6 million higher revenues in military and space end-use markets due to higher build rates on various missile platforms, additional content and higher build rates on other military and space platforms, and higher build rates on military fixed-wing aircraft platforms.
The Structural Systems operating income in 2020 compared to 2019 decreased $27.3 million primarily due to unfavorable manufacturing volume, partially offset by favorable product mix and lower other manufacturing costs.
On June 29, 2020, a fire severely damaged our performance center in Guaymas, Mexico, which is part of our Structural Systems segment. There were no injuries, however, property and equipment, inventory, and tooling in this leased facility were damaged. We have insurance coverage and expect the majority, if not all, of these items will be covered, less our deductible. The full financial impact cannot be estimated at this time as we are currently working with our insurance carriers to determine the cause of the fire. Our Guaymas performance center is comprised of two buildings with an aggregate total of 62,000 square feet. The loss of production from the Guaymas performance center is being absorbed by our other existing performance centers. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Corporate General and Administrative (“CG&A”) Expenses
CG&A expenses in 2020 compared to 2019 decreased $3.2 million primarily due to lower professional services fees of $2.2 million and one-time severance charges of $1.7 million in the prior year, which did not recur in 2020.
Backlog
We define backlog as customer placed purchase orders (“POs”) and long-term agreements (“LTAs”) with firm fixed price and expected delivery dates of 24 months or less. The majority of the LTAs do not meet the definition of a contract under ASC 606 and thus, the backlog amount disclosed below is greater than the remaining performance obligations amount disclosed in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Backlog is subject to delivery delays or program cancellations, which are beyond our control. Backlog is affected by timing differences in the placement of customer orders and tends to be concentrated in several programs to a greater extent than our net revenues. Backlog in industrial markets tends to be of a shorter duration and is generally fulfilled within a three month period. As a result of these factors, trends in our overall level of backlog may not be indicative of trends in our future net revenues.
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The decrease in backlog was primarily in the commercial aerospace end-use markets, partially offset by an increase in military and space end-use markets. The following table summarizes our backlog for 2020 and 2019:

(Dollars in thousands)
December 31,
Change20202019
Consolidated Ducommun
Military and space$78,370 $529,663 $451,293 
Commercial aerospace(162,316)268,326 430,642 
Industrial(4,267)24,019 28,286 
Total$(88,213)$822,008 $910,221 
Electronic Systems
Military and space$93,117 $404,144 $311,027 
Commercial aerospace(19,000)56,719 75,719 
Industrial(4,267)24,019 28,286 
Total$69,850 $484,882 $415,032 
Structural Systems
Military and space$(14,747)$125,519 $140,266 
Commercial aerospace(143,316)211,607 354,923 
Total$(158,063)$337,126 $495,189 

2019 Compared to 2018
See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 20, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Available Liquidity
Total debt, the weighted-average interest rate, cash and cash equivalents and available credit facilities were as follows:

(Dollars in millions)
December 31,
20202019
Total debt, including long-term portion$320.6 $310.0 
Weighted-average interest rate on debt3.59 %6.87 %
Term Loans interest rate3.81 %6.28 %
Cash and cash equivalents$56.5 $39.6 
Unused Revolving Credit Facility$74.8 $99.8 
In December 2019, we completed the refinancing of a portion of our existing debt by entering into a new revolving credit facility (“New Revolving Credit Facility”) to replace the existing revolving credit facility that was entered into in November 2018 (“2018 Revolving Credit Facility”) and entering into a new term loan (“New Term Loan”). The New Revolving Credit Facility is a $100.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility that will mature on December 20, 2024 replacing the $100.0 million 2018 Revolving Credit Facility that would have matured on November 21, 2023. The New Term Loan is a $140.0 million senior secured term loan that will mature on December 20, 2024. We also have an existing $240.0 million senior secured term loan that was entered into in November 2018 that will mature on November 21, 2025 (“2018 Term Loan”). The original amounts available under the New Revolving Credit Facility, New Term Loan, and 2018 Term Loan (collectively, the “Credit Facilities”) in aggregate, totaled $480.0 million. We are required to make installment payments of 1.25% of the original outstanding principal balance of the New Term Loan amount on a quarterly basis, on the last day of the calendar quarter. In addition, if we meet the annual excess cash flow threshold, we are required to make an annual additional principal payment
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based on the consolidated adjusted leverage ratio. During the first quarter of 2020, we made the required 2019 annual excess cash flow payment of $7.4 million. Further, the undrawn portion of the commitment of the New Revolving Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.175% to 0.275%, based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio. As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with all covenants required under the Credit Facilities. See Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
We drew down $50.0 million on the New Revolving Credit Facility during the first quarter of 2020 to hold as cash on hand, $25.0 million of which was repaid during the fourth quarter of 2020, and thus, we made no net aggregate voluntary prepayments during 2020.
In November 2018, we completed credit facilities to replace the then existing credit facilities. The November 2018 credit facilities consisted of the 2018 Term Loan and the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility (collectively, the “2018 Credit Facilities”). We were required to make installment payments of 0.25% of the outstanding principal balance of the 2018 Term Loan amount on a quarterly basis, however, in conjunction with the 2019 refinancing where we paid down $56.0 million on the 2018 Term Loan, it paid all the required quarterly installment payments on the 2018 Term Loan until maturity.
In October 2015, we entered into interest rate cap hedges designated as cash flow hedges with a portion of these interest rate cap hedges maturing on a quarterly basis, and a final quarterly maturity date of June 2020, in aggregate, totaling $135.0 million of our debt. We paid a total of $1.0 million in connection with entering into the interest rate cap hedges. The interest rate cap hedges matured during our second quarter of 2020 and as such, all remaining amounts related to the interest rate cap hedges were fully amortized and unrealized gains and losses recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income were also realized at that time. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
In October 2019, we acquired Nobles Parent Inc., the parent company of Nobles Worldwide, Inc. (“Nobles”) for an original purchase price of $77.0 million, net of cash acquired, all payable in cash. Upon the closing of the transaction, we paid a gross total aggregate of $77.3 million in cash by drawing down on the 2018 Revolving Credit Facility. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
We expect to spend a total of $16.0 million to $18.0 million for capital expenditures in 2021 (excluding capital expenditures we will spend to restore the manufacturing capabilities related to our Guaymas performance center that was severely damaged by fire on June 29, 2020), financed by cash generated from operations, principally to support new contract awards in Electronic Systems and Structural Systems. As part of our strategic plan to become a supplier of higher-level assemblies and win new contract awards, additional up-front investment in tooling will be required for newer programs which have higher engineering content and higher levels of complexity in assemblies. However, some portion of the expected capital expenditures in 2021 could be delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We believe the ongoing aerospace and defense subcontractor consolidation makes acquisitions an increasingly important component of our future growth. We will continue to make prudent acquisitions and capital expenditures for manufacturing equipment and facilities to support long-term contracts for commercial and military aircraft and defense programs.
We continue to depend on operating cash flow and the availability of our Credit Facilities to provide short-term liquidity. Cash generated from operations and bank borrowing capacity is expected to provide sufficient liquidity to meet our obligations during the next twelve months from the date of issuance of these financial statements.
Cash Flow Summary
2020 Compared to 2019
Net cash provided by operating activities during 2020 was $12.6 million, compared to $51.0 million during 2019. The lower cash provided by operating activities during 2020 was primarily due to higher contract assets, higher inventories, and lower accounts payable, partially offset by higher contract liabilities and lower accounts receivable.
Net cash used in investing activities during 2020 was $5.5 million compared to $94.9 million during 2019. The lower cash used in investing activities during 2020 was primarily due to lower payments for acquisitions.
Net cash provided by financing activities during 2020 was $9.7 million compared to $73.2 million during 2019. The lower cash provided by financing activities during 2020 was primarily due to lower net borrowings on the Credit Facilities.
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2019 Compared to 2018
See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 20, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein.
Contractual Obligations
A summary of our contractual obligations at December 31, 2020 was as follows (dollars in thousands):
Payments Due by Period
TotalLess Than
1 Year
1-3 Years3-5 YearsMore Than
5 Years
Long-term debt, including current portion$320,638 $7,000 $14,000 $299,638 $— 
Future interest on long-term debt56,672 12,232 24,064 18,826 1,550 
Purchase orders (1)
204,499 184,736 19,444 319 — 
Operating leases21,478 4,163 7,212 5,498 4,605 
Pension liability21,274 1,882 3,996 4,215 11,181 
Total (2)
$624,561 $210,013 $68,716 $328,496 $17,336 
(1)    Purchase orders include non-cancelable commitments as of December 31, 2020 in which a written purchase order has been issued but the goods have not been received.
(2)    As of December 31, 2020, we have recorded $4.1 million in long-term liabilities related to uncertain tax positions. We are not able to reasonably estimate the timing of the long-term payments, or the amount by which our liability may increase or decrease over time, therefore, the liability relate to uncertain tax positions has not been included in the contractual obligations table.
We have estimated that the fair value of our indemnification obligations as insignificant based upon our history with such obligations and insurance coverage and have included no such obligation in the table above.
Our ultimate liability with respect to groundwater contamination at certain Structural Systems facilities will depend upon a number of factors, including changes in existing laws and regulations, the design and cost of construction, operation and maintenance activities, and the allocation of liability among potentially responsible parties. The above table does not include obligations related to these matters. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for discussion of our environmental liabilities.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Our off-balance sheet arrangements consist of operating and finance leases not recorded as a result of the practical expedients utilized, right of offset of industrial revenue bonds and associated failed sales-leasebacks on property and equipment, and indemnities, none of which we believe may have a material current or future effect on our financial condition, liquidity, capital resources, or results of operations.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Critical accounting policies are those accounting policies that can have a significant impact on the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and that require the use of subjective estimates based upon past experience and management’s judgment. Because of the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ from these estimates. Below are those policies applied in preparing our financial statements that management believes are the most dependent on the application of estimates and assumptions. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
Our customers typically engage us to manufacture products based on designs and specifications provided by the end-use customer. This requires the building of tooling and manufacturing first article inspection products (prototypes) before volume manufacturing. Contracts with our customers generally include a termination for convenience clause.
We have a significant number of contracts that are started and completed within the same year, as well as contracts derived from long-term agreements and programs that can span several years. We recognize revenue under ASC 606, which utilizes a five-step model.
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The definition of a contract for us is typically defined as a customer purchase order as this is when we achieve an enforceable right to payment. The majority of our contracts are firm fixed-price contracts. The deliverables within a customer purchase order are analyzed to determine the number of performance obligations. In addition, at times, in order to achieve economies of scale and based on our customer’s forecasted demand, we may build in advance of receiving a purchase order from our customer. When that occurs, we would not recognize revenue until we have received the customer purchase order.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account under ASC 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, control is transferred and the performance obligation is satisfied. The majority of our contracts have a single performance obligation as the promise to transfer the individual goods or services are highly interrelated or met the series guidance. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the contract transaction price to each performance obligation using our best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract. The primary method used to estimate the standalone selling price is the expected cost plus a margin approach, under which we forecast our expected costs of satisfying a performance obligation and then add an appropriate margin for that distinct good or service.
We manufacture most products to customer specifications and the product cannot be easily modified for another customer. As such, these products are deemed to have no alternative use once the manufacturing process begins. In the event the customer invokes a termination for convenience clause, we would be entitled to costs incurred to date plus a reasonable profit. Contract costs typically include labor, materials, overhead, and when applicable, subcontractor costs. For most of our products, we are building assets with no alternative use and have enforceable right to payment, and thus, we recognize revenue using the over time method.
The majority of our performance obligations are satisfied over time as work progresses. Typically, revenue is recognized over time using an input measure (i.e., costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion, also known as cost-to-cost plus reasonable profit) to measure progress. Our typical revenue contract is a firm fixed price contract, and the cost of raw materials could make up a significant amount of the total costs incurred. As such, we believe using the total costs incurred input method would be the most appropriate method. While the cost of raw materials could make up a significant amount of the total costs incurred, there is a direct relationship between our inputs and the transfer of control of goods or services to the customer.
Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that can span multiple months or years. These assumptions include labor productivity and availability; the complexity of the work to be performed; the cost and availability of materials; and the performance of subcontractors.
As a significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the profitability of our contracts, we review and update our contract-related estimates on a regular basis. We recognize adjustments in estimated profit on contracts under the cumulative catch-up method. Under this method, the impact of the adjustment on profit recorded to date is recognized in the period the adjustment is identified. Revenue and profit in future periods of contract performance is recognized using the adjusted estimate. If at any time the estimate of contract profitability indicates an anticipated loss on the contract, we recognize the total loss in the quarter it is identified.
The impact of adjustments in contract estimates on our operating earnings can be reflected in either operating costs and expenses or revenue. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the net impact of these adjustments to our consolidated financial statements for 2020.
Payments under long-term contracts may be received before or after revenue is recognized. When revenue is recognized before we bill our customer, a contract asset is created for the work performed but not yet billed. Similarly, when we receive payment before we ship our products to our customer, a contract liability is created for the advance or progress payment.
We record provisions for the total anticipated losses on contracts, considering total estimated costs to complete the contract compared to total anticipated revenues, in the period in which such losses are identified. The provisions for estimated losses on contracts require us to make certain estimates and assumptions, including those with respect to the future revenue under a contract and the future cost to complete the contract. Our estimate of the future cost to complete a contract may include assumptions as to changes in manufacturing efficiency, operating and material costs, and our ability to resolve claims and assertions with our customers. If any of these or other assumptions and estimates do not materialize in the future, we may be required to adjust the provisions for estimated losses on contracts. The provision for estimated losses on contracts is included as part of contract liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Production cost of contracts includes non-recurring production costs, such as design and engineering costs, and tooling and other special-purpose machinery necessary to build parts as specified in a contract. Production costs of contracts are recorded to cost of sales using the over time revenue recognition model. We review the value of the production cost of contracts on a quarterly basis to ensure when added to the estimated cost to complete, the value is not greater than the estimated realizable value of the related contracts.
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Goodwill
Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis on the first day of the fourth fiscal quarter. If certain factors occur, including significant under performance of our business relative to expected operating results, significant adverse economic and industry trends, significant decline in our market capitalization for an extended period of time relative to net book value, a decision to divest individual businesses within a reporting unit, or a decision to group individual businesses differently, we may be required to perform an interim impairment test prior to the fourth quarter.
We may use either a qualitative or quantitative approach when testing a reporting unit’s goodwill for impairment. The qualitative approach for potential impairment analysis to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit was less than its carrying amount includes consideration of 1) margin of passing most recent annual goodwill impairment test or step one analysis, 2) earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, 3) long-term growth rate, 4) analyzing material adverse factors/changes between valuation dates, 5) general macroeconomic factors, and 6) industry and market conditions.
The quantitative approach for potential impairment analysis is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value is estimated by management using a combination of the income approach (discounted cash flow model) and the market approach. Management’s cash flow projections include significant judgments and assumptions, including the amount and timing of expected cash flows, long-term growth rates, and discount rates. The cash flows used in the discounted cash flow model are based on our best estimate of future revenues, gross margins, and adjusted after-tax earnings. The market approach also requires significant management judgment in selecting comparable business acquisitions and the transaction values observed and its related control premiums. In addition, we early adopted Accounting Standards Update 2017-04 (“ASU 2017-04”) on January 1, 2019 which simplified our goodwill impairment testing by eliminating step two of the goodwill impairment test.
We acquired Nobles in October 2019 and recorded goodwill of $34.9 million in our Structural Systems segment, which is also our reporting unit. Since a goodwill impairment analysis is required to be performed within one year of the acquisition date or sooner upon a triggering event, we performed a step one goodwill impairment analysis as of the first day of the fourth quarter of 2020 for our Structural Systems segment. The fair value of our Structural Systems segment exceeded its carrying value by 69% and thus, was not deemed impaired.
In the fourth quarter of 2020, the carrying amount of goodwill at the date of the most recent annual impairment evaluation for Electronic Systems and Structural Systems was $117.4 million and $53.4 million, respectively.
As of the date of our 2020 annual evaluation for goodwill impairment, for the Electronic Systems segment, we used a qualitative assessment including 1) margin of passing most recent step one analysis, 2) earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, 3) long-term growth rate, 4) analyzing material adverse factors/changes between valuation dates, 5) general macroeconomic factors, and 6) industry and market conditions. Based upon our qualitative assessment, we concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying amount and thus, goodwill was not deemed impaired.
Other Intangible Assets
We amortize acquired other intangible assets with finite lives over the estimated economic lives of the assets, ranging from 10 years to 18 years generally using the straight-line method. The value of other intangibles acquired through business combinations has been estimated using present value techniques which involve estimates of future cash flows. We evaluate other intangible assets for recoverability considering undiscounted cash flows, when significant changes in conditions occur, and recognize impairment losses, if any, based upon the estimated fair value of the assets.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
We measure and recognize compensation expense for share-based payment transactions to our employees and non-employees at their estimated fair value. The expense is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the share-based award, and is recognized over the requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity award). The fair value of stock options are determined using the Black-Scholes-Merton (“Black-Scholes”) valuation model, which requires assumptions and judgments regarding stock price volatility, risk-free interest rates, and expected options terms. Management’s estimates could differ from actual results. The fair value of unvested stock awards is determined based on the closing price of the underlying common stock on the date of grant except for market condition awards for which the fair value was based on a Monte Carlo simulation model.
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Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost being determined using a moving average cost basis for raw materials and actual cost for work-in-process and finished goods. The majority of our inventory is charged to cost of sales as raw materials are placed into production and the related revenue is recognized. Inventoried costs include raw materials, outside processing, direct labor and allocated overhead, adjusted for any abnormal amounts of idle performance center expense, freight, handling costs, and wasted materials (spoilage) incurred. We assess the inventory carrying value and reduce it, if necessary, to its net realizable value based on customer orders on hand, and internal demand forecasts using management’s best estimates given information currently available. The majority of our revenues are recognized over time, however, for revenue contracts where revenue is recognized using the point in time method, inventory is not reduced until it is shipped or transfer of control to the customer has occurred. Our ending inventory consists of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach that requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized, using enacted tax rates, for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities, operating losses, and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets are evaluated quarterly and are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return are recognized when it is more-likely-than-not, based on technical merits, to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement, including resolution of related appeals and/or litigation process, if any.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of recent accounting pronouncements.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our main market risk exposure relates to changes in U.S. and U.K. interest rates on our outstanding long-term debt. At December 31, 2020, we had borrowings of $320.6 million under our Credit Facilities.
The New Term Loan bears interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (i) the Eurodollar Rate (defined as the London Interbank Offered Rate [“LIBOR”]) plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.50% to 2.50% per year or (ii) the Base Rate (defined as the highest of [a] Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, [b] Bank of America’s prime rate, and [c] the Eurodollar Rate plus 1.00%) plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.50% to 1.50% per year, in each case based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
The New Revolving Credit Facility bears interest, at our option, at a rate equal to either (i) the Eurodollar Rate (defined as LIBOR) plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.50% to 2.50% per year or (ii) the Base Rate (defined as the highest of [a] Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, [b] Bank of America’s prime rate, and [c] the Eurodollar Rate plus 1.00%) plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.50% to 1.50% per year, in each case based upon the consolidated total net adjusted leverage ratio.
A hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in the interest rate would have an immaterial impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
The financial statements and supplementary data together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP included in Part IV, Item 15(a) 1 and 2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K are included herein by reference.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.
 
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ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”)) are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, we carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Based on this evaluation, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of December 31, 2020.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Management of the Company has assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013). Based on our assessment and those criteria, management concluded that the Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is included in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2020.
 
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
None.
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PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Directors of the Registrant
The information under the caption “Election of Directors” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The information under the caption “Executive Officers of the Registrant” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Audit Committee and Audit Committee Financial Expert
The information under the caption “Committees of the Board of Directors” relating to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act
The information under the caption “Delinquent Section 16(a) Reports” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
The information under the caption “Code of Business Conduct and Ethics” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
Changes to Procedures to Recommend Nominees
There have been no material changes to the procedures by which security holders may recommend nominees to the Company’s Board of Directors since the date of the Company’s last proxy statement.
 
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information under the captions “Compensation of Executive Officers,” “Compensation of Directors,” “Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation” and “Compensation Committee Report” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information under the caption “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
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Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides information about our compensation plans under which equity securities are authorized for issuance:
 
Number of Securities
to be Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants and Rights
(a)
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding
Options,
Warrants and Rights
(b)
Number of  Securities
Remaining
Available for
Future Issuance
Under Equity
Compensation Plans
(Excluding Securities
Reflected
in Column
(a))(c)(3)
Equity Compensation Plans approved by security holders(1)
835,004 $35.46 409,487 
Employee stock purchase plan approved by security holders(2)
— — 666,194 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total835,004 1,075,681 
 
(1)Consists of the 2020 Stock Incentive Plan (“2020 Plan”) and the 2013 Stock Incentive Plan, as Amended (“2013 Plan”), although the remaining shares available under the 2013 Plan as of May 6, 2020 were folded into the 2020 Plan plus any shares of common stock subject to outstanding awards under the 2013 Plan on or after May 6, 2020 that are forfeited, terminated, expire, or otherwise lapse without being exercised (to the extent applicable). The number of securities to be issued consists of 380,143 for stock options, 165,907 for restricted stock units and 288,954 for performance stock units at target. The weighted average exercise price applies only to the stock options.
(2)The 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan enables employees to purchase our common stock at a 15% discount to the lower of the market value at the beginning or end of each six month offering period. As such, the number of shares that may be issued during a given six month period and the purchase price of such shares cannot be determined in advance. See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV, Item 15(a) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3)Awards are not restricted to any specified form or structure and may include, without limitation, sales or bonuses of stock, restricted stock, stock options, reload stock options, stock purchase warrants, other rights to acquire stock, securities convertible into or redeemable for stock, stock appreciation rights, limited stock appreciation rights, phantom stock, dividend equivalents, performance units or performance shares, and an award may consist of one such security or benefit, or two or more of them in tandem or in alternative.
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information under the caption “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.
 
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
The information under the caption “Principal Accountant Fees and Services” contained in the 2021 Proxy Statement is incorporated herein by reference.

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PART IV
 
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
(a)
1.      Financial Statements
The following consolidated financial statements of Ducommun Incorporated and subsidiaries, are incorporated by reference in Item 8 of this report.
  Page
2.      Financial Statement Schedule
The following schedule for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is filed herewith:
Schedule II - Consolidated Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
All other schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable, not required, or the information has been otherwise supplied in the financial statements or notes thereto.
3.      Exhibits
See Item 15(b) for a list of exhibits.— 

ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY
— 

Signatures
— 

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Ducommun Incorporated
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Ducommun Incorporated and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related consolidated statements of income, of comprehensive income, of changes in shareholders’ equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)2 (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Changes in Accounting Principles
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for leases in 2019 and the manner in which it accounts for revenues from contracts with customers in 2018.
Basis for Opinions
The Company’s management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
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Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Goodwill Impairment Assessment - Structural Systems Reporting Unit
As described in Notes 1 and 6 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s consolidated goodwill balance was $171 million as of December 31, 2020, and the goodwill associated with the Structural Systems reporting unit was $53 million. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis on the first day of the fourth fiscal quarter. If certain factors occur, management may be required to perform an interim impairment test. Potential impairment is identified by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. Fair value is estimated by management using a combination of the income approach (discounted cash flow model) and the market approach. Management’s cash flow projections include significant judgments and assumptions, including the amount and timing of expected cash flows, long-term growth rates, and discount rates. The cash flows used in the discounted cash flow model are based on management’s best estimate of future revenues, gross margins, and adjusted after-tax earnings. The market approach also requires significant management judgment in selecting comparable business acquisitions and the transaction values observed and its related control premiums.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the goodwill impairment assessment of the Structural Systems reporting unit is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when estimating the fair value of the reporting unit; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumption related to the estimated gross margin; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s goodwill impairment assessment, including controls over the valuation of the Company’s Structural Systems reporting unit. These procedures also included, among others (i) testing management’s process for estimating the fair value of the reporting unit; (ii) evaluating the appropriateness of the valuation model; (iii) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data used in the model; and (iv) evaluating the significant assumption used by management related to the estimated gross margin. Evaluating management’s assumption related to the estimated gross margin involved evaluating whether the assumption used by management was reasonable considering (i) the current and past performance of the reporting unit; (ii) the consistency with external market and industry data; and (iii) whether the assumption was consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in the evaluation of the Company’s model.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Irvine, California
February 11, 2021
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1989.

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Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Dollars in thousands, except share and per share data)

 December 31,
 20202019
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$56,466 $39,584 
Accounts receivable (net of allowance for credit losses of $1,552 and $1,321 at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively)
58,025 67,133 
Contract assets154,028 106,670 
Inventories129,223 112,482 
Production cost of contracts6,971 9,402 
Other current assets5,571 5,497 
Total Current Assets410,284 340,768 
Property and Equipment, Net109,990 115,216 
Operating Lease Right-of-Use Assets16,348 19,105 
Goodwill170,830 170,917 
Intangibles, Net124,744 138,362 
Deferred Income Taxes33 55 
Other Assets5,118 6,006 
Total Assets$837,347 $790,429 
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$63,980 $82,597 
Contract liabilities28,264 14,517 
Accrued and other liabilities40,526 37,620 
Operating lease liabilities3,132 2,956 
Current portion of long-term debt7,000 7,000 
Total Current Liabilities142,902 144,690 
Long-Term Debt, Less Current Portion311,922 300,887 
Non-Current Operating Lease Liabilities14,555 17,565 
Deferred Income Taxes16,992 16,766 
Other Long-Term Liabilities21,642 17,721 
Total Liabilities508,013 497,629 
Commitments and Contingencies (Notes 12, 14)
Shareholders’ Equity
Common stock - $0.01 par value; 35,000,000 shares authorized; 11,728,212 and 11,572,668 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively
117 116 
Additional paid-in capital97,090 88,399 
Retained earnings241,727 212,553 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(9,600)(8,268)
Total Shareholders’ Equity329,334 292,800 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity$837,347 $790,429 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Income
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)

 Years Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net Revenues$628,941 $721,088 $629,307 
Cost of Sales491,203 568,891 506,711 
Gross Profit137,738 152,197 122,596 
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
89,808 95,964 84,007 
Restructuring Charges2,424  14,671 
Operating Income45,506 56,233 23,918 
Interest Expense(13,653)(18,290)(13,024)
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt (180)(926)
Other Income, Net128  303 
Income Before Taxes31,981 37,763 10,271 
Income Tax Expense2,807 5,302 1,236 
Net Income$29,174 $32,461 $9,035 
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share$2.50 $2.82 $0.79 
Diluted earnings per share$2.45 $2.75 $0.77 
Weighted-Average Number of Shares Outstanding
Basic11,676 11,518 11,390 
Diluted11,932 11,792 11,659 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(Dollars in thousands)
 
Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
Net Income$29,174 $32,461 $9,035 
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, Net of Tax:
Pension Adjustments:
Amortization of actuarial losses and prior service costs, net of tax of $236, $209, and $173 for 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively
757 676 570 
Actuarial losses arising during the period, net of tax benefit of $701, $502, and $302 for 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively
(2,251)(1,682)(899)
Change in net unrealized gains on cash flow hedges, net of tax of $57, $29, and $121 for 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively
162 95 407 
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, Net of Tax(1,332)(911)78 
Comprehensive Income, Net of Tax$27,842 $31,550 $9,113 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Ducommun Incorporated and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity
(Dollars in thousands, except share data)
 
Shares
Outstanding
Common
Stock
Treasury
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Balance at December 31, 201711,332,841 $113 $ $80,223 $161,364 $(6,117)$235,583 
Net income— — — — 9,035 — 9,035 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — 78