2020FYFALSE0001613665--09-30The Company's Board of Directors voted to terminate the defined benefit pension plan ("Pension Plan") effective February 1, 2018. Transfer of all Pension Plan assets, liabilities and administrative responsibilities were completed as of September 30, 2018.Reclassification due to adoption of ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income.Cumulative effect adjustment relates to the adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 872).and related ASUs on October 1, 2019. 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Washington, D.C. 20549
(Mark One)
For the Fiscal Year ended September 30, 2020
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-36688
Great Western Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification Number)
225 South Main Avenue57104
Sioux Falls,South Dakota
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share
GWBNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes     No  o 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  o   No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes     No   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes     No   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No  
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of March 31, 2020 was $1,126,685,245.
As of November 17, 2020, the number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding was 55,014,727.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the annual meeting of shareholders to be held on February 9, 2021, and to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, are incorporated by reference under Part III.



Except as otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to:
"we," "our," "us" and "Company" refers to Great Western Bancorp, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries;
"Bank" refers to Great Western Bank, a South Dakota banking corporation;
our "states" refers to the nine states (Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota) in which we currently conduct our business;
our "footprint" refers to the geographic markets within our states in which we currently conduct our business;
"ALLL" refers to allowance for loan and lease losses;
"AML" refers to anti-money laundering;
"AOCI" refers to accumulated other comprehensive income;
"ASC" refers to Accounting Standards Codification;
"ASC 310-30 loans" or "purchased credit impaired loans" refers to certain loans that had deteriorated credit quality at acquisition;
"ASU" refers to Accounting Standards Update;
"BHC Act" refers to the Bank Holding Company Act;
"BOLI" refers to Bank Owned Life Insurance;
"BSA" refers to the Bank Secrecy Act;
"CAN-SPAM Act" refers to the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act;
"Capital Rules" or "Basel III" refers to the Basel Committee’s December 2010 final capital framework for strengthening international capital standards;
"CARES Act" refers to The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act;
"CDD Rule" refers to the Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions rule;
"CECL" refers to the current expected credit loss model in ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments;
"CFPB" refers to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau;
"COSO" refers to the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission;
"COVID-19" or "COVID-19 pandemic" refers to the Coronavirus Disease 2019;
"CRA" refers to the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977;
"CRE" refers to commercial real estate;
"Exchange Act" refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;
"FACT Act" refers to the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003;
"FASB" refers to the Financial Accounting Standards Board;
"FCRA" refers to the Fair Credit Reporting Act;
"FDIA" refers to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act;
"FDIC" refers to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;
"FDICIA" refers to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991;
"FFIEC" refers to the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council;
"FHLB" refers to the Federal Home Loan Bank;
"FHLMC" refers to the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation;
"FinCEN" refers to the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network;
"FINRA" refers to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority;
"FNMA" refers to the Federal National Mortgage Association;
"FRB" or "Federal Reserve" refers to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System;
"FTE" refers to fully-tax equivalent;
"GAAP" or "U.S. GAAP" refers to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles;
"GLB Act" refers to Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act;

"GSE" refers to a Government Sponsored Enterprise;
"GWBCI" refers to Great Western Bancorporation, Inc., our predecessor, which was an Iowa corporation formed in 1968 which was previously the holding company for our Bank;
"HELOC" refers to home equity lines of credit;
"HF Financial" refers to HF Financial Corporation;
"HUD" refers to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development;
"IRA" refers to an individual retirement account;
"IRS" refers to the Internal Revenue Service;
"LIBOR" refers to London Interbank Offered Rate, and is a benchmark interest rate index for various adjustable-rate products;
"MERS" refers to the Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems, Inc.;
"NAB" refers to National Australia Bank Limited, an Australian public company that was our ultimate parent company prior to our initial public offering in October 2014 and, until July 31, 2015, our principal ultimate stockholder;
"NYSE" refers to the New York Stock Exchange;
"OFAC" refers to the Office of Foreign Assets Control;
"PPP" refers to Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program;
"REIT" refers to Real Estate Investment Trust;
"RPA" refers to a risk participation agreement;
"Sarbanes-Oxley Act" refers to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;
"SBA" refers to Small Business Administration;
"SD Division of Banking" or "SDDB" refers to the Division of Banking of the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation;
"SEC" refers to the Securities and Exchange Commission;
"Securities Act" refers to the Securities Act of 1933;
"Tax Reform Act" refers to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017;
"TDR" refer to a troubled debt restructuring;
"USA PATRIOT Act" refers to the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001;
"USMCA" refers to the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement agreed to on October 1, 2018; and
"VIE" refers to a variable interest entity.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as "anticipates," "believes," "can," "could," "may," "predicts," "potential," "should," "will," "estimate," "plans," "projects," "continuing," "ongoing," "expects," "views," "intends" and similar words or phrases. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
A number of important factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including those factors identified in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" or "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" or the following:
the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the direct and indirect impact of such pandemic, as well as responses to the pandemic by the government, business and consumers, on our operations and personnel, commercial activity and demand across our business and our customers' business;
the disruption of global, national, state and local economies associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, which could affect our liquidity and capital positions, impair the ability of our borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair collateral values and further increase our allowance for credit losses;
current and future economic and market conditions in the United States generally or in our states in particular, including the rate of growth and employment levels;
the impact on our business, operations, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, prospects and trading prices of our shares arising out of the COVID-19 pandemic;
our ability to anticipate interest rate changes and manage interest rate risk;
uncertainty about the discontinued use of the London Inter Bank Offered Rate and transition to an alternative rate;
our ability to achieve loan and deposit growth;
the relative strength or weakness of the commercial, agricultural and real estate markets where our borrowers are located, including without limitation related asset and market prices;
declines in asset prices and the market prices for agricultural products or changes in governmental support programs for the agricultural sector;
our ability to effectively execute our strategic plan and manage our growth;
our ability to successfully manage our credit risk and the sufficiency of our allowance for loan and lease loss;
our ability to develop and effectively use the quantitative models we rely upon in our business;
possible changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies of, and other activities undertaken by, governments, agencies, central banks and similar organizations, including the potential negative effects of imposed and proposed tariffs and retaliatory tariffs on products that our customers may import or export, including among others, agricultural products;
our ability to effectively compete with other financial services companies and the effects of competition in the financial services industry on our business;
operational risks or risk management failures by us or critical third parties, including without limitation with respect to data processing, information systems, cyber-security, technological changes, vendor problems, business interruption and fraud risks;
fluctuations in the values of our assets and liabilities and off-balance sheet exposures;
unanticipated changes in our liquidity position, including but not limited to changes in our access to sources of liquidity and capital to address our liquidity needs;
possible impairment of our intangible assets, or any adjustment of the valuation of our deferred tax assets;
the effects of geopolitical instability, including war, terrorist attacks and man-made and natural disasters, social instability and changes in governmental policies;
the effects of adverse weather conditions, particularly on our agricultural borrowers;

the impact of, and changes in applicable laws, regulations and accounting standards, policies and interpretations, including the impact of the Tax Reform Act;
increases in our FDIC insurance premiums, or the collection of special assessments by the FDIC;
legal, compliance and reputational risks, including litigation and regulatory risks;
our ability to use technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands and create efficiencies in operations and to manage risks associated therewith;
our ability to attract and retain senior management experienced in the banking and financial services industries;
our inability to receive dividends from our Bank and to service debt, pay dividends to our common stockholders and satisfy obligations as they become due;
expected cost savings in connection with the consolidation of recent acquisitions may not be fully realized or realized within the expected time frames, and deposit attrition, customer loss and revenue loss following completed acquisitions may be greater than expected; and
our ability to meet our obligations as a public company, including our obligations under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting.
The foregoing factors should not be considered an exhaustive list and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update or review any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

Our Business
We are a bank holding company incorporated in the state of Delaware and maintain our principal executive office in Sioux Falls, SD. We were formed as a Delaware corporation in July 2014 in connection with our initial public offering in October 2014. Prior to our initial public offering, we were an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of NAB. NAB completely divested its holdings in us on July 31, 2015. Our bank was established more than 80 years ago and has achieved strong market positions by developing and maintaining extensive local relationships in the communities we serve.
We are a full-service regional bank holding company focused on relationship-based business banking through our wholly owned banking subsidiary. We serve our customers through 175 branches in attractive markets in nine states: Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota. We provide a wide range of services, including commercial and consumer loan and depository services, private banking, brokerage, trust, investment advisory and other traditional banking services. As a result of COVID-19 impacts and credit issues during fiscal year 2020, our net loss was $680.8 million. This was primarily driven by a $713.0 million impairment of goodwill and certain intangible assets, net of tax, and $56.7 million of credit and other related charges, net of tax, incurred during the second quarter of fiscal year 2020. During 2020, we made certain management changes to address the credit challenges being faced by the Company and enhanced our related risk management processes, including the implementation of a new credit scoring system effective for financial reporting purposes on October 1, 2020. Our total loans and total assets were $10.08 billion and $12.60 billion, respectively, at September 30, 2020. At September 30, 2020, we employed approximately 1,700 full-time equivalent employees.
We focus on business banking, complemented by our agri-business banking, retail banking and wealth management services. We offer small and mid-sized businesses a focused suite of financial products and have established strong relationships across a diversified range of sectors, including key areas such as hospitality/tourism, agri-business services, freight and transport and healthcare. During the second half of fiscal year 2020, we continued to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our loan portfolio. Within our portfolio we have identified the following segments with elevated risk at September 30, 2020: hotels & resorts with $1.21 billion, or 12.0% of total loans, restaurants with $156.5 million, or 1.6% of total loans, arts and entertainment with $130.3 million, or 1.3% of total loans, senior care with $330.7 million, or 3.3% of total loans, and skilled nursing with $250.9 million, or 2.5% of total loans, for a total exposure of $2.07 billion, or 20.7% of total loans. .
CRE and agri-business lending serve two of the most prominent industries across our markets, and we offer a variety of financial services designed to meet the specific needs of such customers. We also provide a range of deposit and loan products to our retail customers through several channels, including our branch network, online banking system, mobile banking applications and customer care centers. In our wealth management business, we seek to expand our private banking, financial planning, investment management and insurance operations to better position us to capture an increased share of the business of managing the private wealth of many of our business and agri-business customers.

Our banking model seeks to balance the best of being a "big enough" and a "small enough" bank, providing capabilities typical of a much larger bank, such as diversified product specialists, customized banking solutions and multiple delivery channels, with a customer-focused culture usually associated with smaller banks. Our focus on balancing these capabilities with a service-oriented culture is embedded within our operations and is enhanced by focusing on our core competencies. We are well recognized within our markets for our relationship-based banking model. Our relationship bankers strive to build deep, long-term relationships with customers and understand the customers’ specific needs to identify appropriate financial solutions.
Our Business Strategy
Our strategy focuses on building strong relationships with our customers, employees and communities, while maintaining disciplined underwriting standards and continuing our focus on our operational efficiency. We earn interest income on loans as well as fee income from the origination of loans. Lending activities include loans to commercial clients, which include commercial loans, commercial real estate loans and letters of credit, agri-business clients and individuals, which primarily consist of small business loans, home equity lines of credit, residential real estate loans and consumer loans. Residential real estate loans are either kept in our loan portfolio or sold to secondary investors, which results in gains or losses from the sales being recognized.
Our relationship banking strategy also focuses on providing depository services that fit the needs of our customers at competitive rates. We pay interest on the interest-bearing deposits and receive service fee revenue on various accounts. Deposit accounts include products such as noninterest-bearing demand, interest-bearing checking, savings and money market and time deposits. Debit and ATM cards provide clients with access to their accounts 24 hours a day at any ATM location. We also provide 24-hour telephone access and online banking as well as other electronic and mobile banking services.
In addition to the community banking services of lending and providing deposit services, we seek to deepen our customer relationships by offering comprehensive wealth management, trust and investment services. For businesses, we also provide treasury management services.
The key components of our strategy include the following:
Attract and Retain High-Quality Relationship Bankers
Since October 1, 2016, we have expanded our existing markets by opening loan production offices or branches in 6 new markets. We believe we have been successful in recruiting qualified relationship bankers due primarily to our decentralized management approach, focused product suite and flexible, customer-focused culture while continuing to provide sophisticated banking capabilities to serve our customers' needs. In 2020, we took action to move toward centralizing various processes to enhance credit risk management, expand diversification in our commercial and agri portfolios and set lower internal limits for credit relationships through the introduction of a revised credit policy. By leveraging the strong networks and reputation of experienced local relationship bankers, we believe we can continue to build a foundation for organic growth as well as offer customers a range of products and services to fulfill their financial needs.
Optimize Footprint in Existing and Complementary Markets
Our strategy has been to pursue attractive growth opportunities to expand within our existing footprint and enter new markets aligned with our business model and strategic plans. We believe we can increase our presence in under-represented areas in our existing markets and broaden our footprint in attractive markets adjacent and complementary to our current markets by continuing our emphasis on business and agri-business banking. In these situations, we typically open a loan production office for these bankers to expand our banking relationships into these markets prior to opening a branch, which increases our likelihood of expanding profitably by developing business, including an asset base, in the market before we establish a branch in that market. We will continue to opportunistically consider opening new branches. We intend to strategically capitalize on growth opportunities we believe exist in growing economies in and adjacent to our existing markets.
Deepen Customer Relationships
We believe that our reputation, expertise and relationship-based banking model enable us to deepen our relationships with our customers. We look to leverage our relationships with existing customers by offering a range of products and services suitable to their needs such as online and mobile banking for consumer customers. We offer alternative cash management solutions intended to help retain business customers. We seek to expand and enhance our wealth management platform through focused product offerings that we believe will appeal to our more affluent customers. We intend to continue to capitalize on opportunities to capture more business from existing customers throughout our banking network.
Continue to Improve Efficiency and Manage Costs
We believe that our focus on operational efficiency is critical to our business strategy. We intend to carefully manage our cost structure and continuously refine and implement internal processes and technology to create further efficiencies to enhance our earnings. In addition, we continue to optimize our branch network through either closure or relocation of some of our less profitable branches.

Opportunistically Pursue Acquisitions
We have successfully completed six acquisitions since 2009, including our 2010 FDIC assisted acquisition of TierOne Bank, which represented approximately $2.54 billion in acquired assets, and our 2016 acquisition of HF Financial, which represented approximately $1.12 billion in acquired assets. We will continue to consider acquisitions that are consistent with our business strategy and financial model as opportunities arise. Illustrated below, as of September 30 of each indicated year, is the growth in our total assets, including the amount attributed as a result of acquisitions in that fiscal year.
Our Business Lines
Business Banking
Business banking is a key focus of our business model and is one of our core competencies. We provide business banking services to small and mid-sized businesses across a diverse range of industries, including key sectors such as hospitality/tourism, ancillary agri-business services (e.g., farm equipment suppliers and grain and seed merchants), freight and transport and healthcare (e.g., hospitals, physicians, care facilities and dentists). We offer our business banking customers a focused range of financial products designed to meet the specific needs of their businesses, including loans, lines of credit, cash management services, online business deposit and wire transfer services, in addition to noninterest-bearing demand accounts, interest-bearing non-transaction accounts and corporate credit cards. At September 30, 2020, business banking represented $4.37 billion in deposits, an increase of $0.87 billion from September 30, 2019, and $7.46 billion in loans, an increase of $0.64 billion over the same period, which represents 39.7% and 73.8%, respectively, of our total deposits and loans.
The following table presents the composition of our business lending as of September 30, 2020.
September 30, 2020
South DakotaIowa /
Nebraska /
ArizonaColoradoNorth Dakota /
Other ²Total% of Total Loan Unpaid Principal Balance
(dollars in thousands)
Non-owner-occupied CRE loans ¹$758,593 $738,669 $552,719 $278,985 $469,584 $85,241 $27,174 $2,910,965 28.8 %
Owner-occupied CRE loans ¹337,625 405,068 224,130 167,198 243,625 34,248 — 1,411,894 14.0 %
Construction and development loans ¹21,677 52,244 134,720 96,259 99,925 10,615 — 415,440 4.1 %
Multifamily residential real estate loans ¹113,135 118,979 108,228 8,124 68,313 118,962 901 536,642 5.3 %
Commercial non-real estate loans ¹382,898 678,731 598,988 159,639 215,983 8,518 136,899 2,181,656 21.6 %
Total business loans$1,613,928 $1,993,691 $1,618,785 $710,205 $1,097,430 $257,584 $164,974 $7,456,597 73.8 %
 1 Unpaid principal balance for commercial real estate and commercial non-real estate loans includes fair value adjustments associated with long-term fixed-rate loans where we have entered into interest rate swaps to manage our interest rate risk.
 2 Balances in this column represent acquired workout loans and certain other loans managed by our workout staff, commercial and consumer credit card loans, fair value adjustments related to acquisitions and loans for which we have elected the fair value option, which could result in a negative carrying amount in the event of a net negative fair value adjustment.

The following charts present the compositions of our CRE and commercial non-real estate loan portfolios, aggregated by customer exposure as of September 30, 2020, which are diversified across loan sizes.
gwb-20200930_g3.jpg gwb-20200930_g4.jpg
Agri-business Banking
In addition to business banking, we consider agri-business lending one of our core competencies. We provide loans and banking services to agri-business customers from short-term working capital funding to long-term and-related lending, as well as other tailored services. Through relationships with insurance agencies, we make available to our customers crop insurance that can provide farms with options for financial protection from various events, including flood, derecho, drought, hail, fire, disease, insect damage, wildfire and earthquake. We predominantly lend to grain and protein producers who produce a range of agricultural commodities. Our agri-business customers range in size from small family farms to large commercial farming operations. At September 30, 2020, our agri-business loan portfolio was $1.72 billion, representing 17.1% of our Bank’s $10.08 billion in total lending. The following chart presents the composition of our agri-business loan portfolio, aggregated by customer exposure as of September 30, 2020, which are diversified across loan sizes.
The composition of our agri-business lending portfolio is also geographically diversified across our footprint in our six business regions, as set forth in the table below.
September 30, 2020
Agri-business Loans% of Agri-business Loan Portfolio
(dollars in thousands)
South Dakota$518,210 30.1 %
Iowa and Missouri306,800 17.8 %
Nebraska and Kansas114,345 6.6 %
Arizona679,329 39.4 %
Colorado100,386 5.8 %
North Dakota and Minnesota332 0.0 %
Other ¹4,948 0.3 %
Total$1,724,350 100.0 %
1 Balances in this row represent acquired workout loans and certain other loans managed by our staff, fair value adjustments related to acquisitions and loans for which we have elected the fair value option, which could result in a negative carrying amount in the event of a net negative fair value adjustment.

Retail Banking
Retail banking provides a source of low-cost funding and deposit-related fee income. We offer traditional banking products to our retail customers, including noninterest-bearing demand accounts, interest-bearing demand accounts and time deposits. We also serve our customers through a wide range of non-branch channels; including online, telephone and mobile banking platforms. At September 30, 2020, we had ATMs at 163, or 93.1%, of our branches and had another 11 company-owned ATMs at off-site locations. We are part of the MoneyPass and SHAZAM networks, enabling our customers to withdraw cash surcharge-free and service charge-free at over 35,000 ATM locations across the country.
The following table presents our retail branch network spread among our six regions.
September 30, 2020
Number of branches% of branches
South Dakota3721.1 %
Iowa and Missouri5430.9 %
Nebraska and Kansas5229.7 %
Arizona95.1 %
Colorado2011.5 %
North Dakota and Minnesota31.7 %
Total175100.0 %
We also provide a variety of loan products to individuals. At September 30, 2020, our residential real estate and consumer portfolio was $893.3 million, representing 8.7% of our total lending, and comprised residential mortgage loans, home equity loans, personal loans, lines of credit and auto loans. We also have a small amount of consumer credit card balances outstanding. We also originate residential mortgage loans for resale (including their servicing) on the secondary market and, in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, we sold $496.9 million of these loans and serviced $389.3 million of mortgage loans.
Wealth Management
We also provide our customers with a selection of wealth management solutions, including financial planning, private banking, investment management and trust services through associations with third party vendors, including registered broker-dealers and our investment adviser, and the offer and sale of insurance solutions, including life insurance. Our investment representatives offer our customers investment management services through our branch network which entails overseeing and recommending investment allocations between asset classes based on a review of a client’s risk tolerance. At September 30, 2020 our investment representatives had $617.6 million in assets under management, and, through our trust services group, we had $1.80 billion in assets under management, for a combined total of $2.42 billion in assets under management.
The financial services industry and each of the markets in which we operate in particular are highly competitive. We face strong competition in gathering deposits, making loans and obtaining client assets for management by our investment or trust operations. Our principal competitors for deposits, loans and client assets for management by our investment or trust operations include large nationwide banks such as U.S. Bank, Wells Fargo and Bank of America and various other nationwide, regional and community banks, savings banks and associations, credit unions, mutual fund companies, insurance companies, factoring companies and other non-bank financial companies. Some of these competitors are local, while others are statewide or national. In addition, Financial Technology, or FinTech, start-ups are emerging in key areas of banking. Many of our nonfinancial institution competitors have fewer regulatory constraints, broader geographic service areas, greater capital and, in some cases, lower cost structures. In addition, competition for quality customers has intensified as a result of changes in regulation, mergers and acquisitions, advances in technology and product delivery systems, consolidation among financial service providers, bank failures and the conversion of certain former investment banks to bank holding companies.
Human Capital
As of September 30, 2020, we had 1,714 total employees, which included 1,607 full-time employees and 107 part-time employees. Of our 1,714 employees, 1,188 are in core banking (i.e., non-line of business branch network employees, including relationship bankers), 44 employees are in lines of business (e.g., mortgage, credit cards, investments), 40 employees are in finance, 235 employees are in support services (i.e., employees in operations, IT and projects), 138 employees are in risk and credit management, 13 employees are in internal audit and 56 employees are in other functions. We believe our relationship with our employees to be generally good. We have not experienced any material employment-related issues or interruptions of services due to labor disagreements and are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements.

Information about our Executive Officers
The following table and the descriptions below set forth biographical information regarding our executive officers.
Mark Borrecco
49President and Chief Executive Officer
Doug Bass
59Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President
Peter Chapman
47Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President
Karlyn Knieriem
53Chief Risk Officer and Executive Vice President
Steve Yose61Chief Credit Officer and Executive Vice President
Mark Borrecco has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer and on our Board since March 2020. Mr. Borrecco’s duties include overall leadership and executive oversight of our Bank. Mr. Borrecco has over 20 years of banking experience. Most recently, Mr. Borrecco served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Rabobank, NA, Roseville, CA, from November 2015 through the sale of Rabobank to Mechanics Bank in 2019. Mr. Borrecco also served on the Board of Directors for Rabobank, NA from November 2014 through August 2019. Prior to his CEO role, he was the Executive Vice President and Chief Banking Officer for Rabobank, NA from 2011 to 2015 where he was responsible for the direct management and performance of Commercial Banking, Retail, Small Business lending, Consumer Mortgage, Wealth Management and various administrative departments. Throughout his career, Mr. Borrecco has held various senior management positions including National Sales Manager Retail Banking with Bank of the West and Vice President, Senior Director and National Retail Sales Manager with World Savings Bank/Wachovia. Mr. Borrecco currently serves on the Pacific Coast Banking School Board and previously served on the Greater Sacramento Economic Council and Chaired the Food and Ag Innovation Committee. Mr. Borrecco has a Bachelor of Science in Economics from California State University.
Doug Bass has served as Great Western Bank's Chief Operating Officer since August 2019 and prior to that as its President and Chief Operating Officer from October 2018 through August 2019. He is also an Executive Vice President of our Company. Mr. Bass oversees all of our banking operations within our 9 state footprint, as well as our wealth management and mortgage banking lines. In total, Mr. Bass has over 35 years of banking experience. Mr. Bass has worked in various other capacities with our Company and Bank since 2009 and has expertise in all areas of bank management within Great Western Bank. Before joining our Bank, Mr. Bass served as President of First American Bank Group. Previously Mr. Bass served in various capacities over 15 years with Firstar Corporation, which is now known as US Bank, including as President and Chief Executive Officer of Firstar’s Sioux City and Council Bluffs operations in western Iowa and as Manager of Correspondent Banking for its eastern Iowa operations, which also included responsibility for commercial banking and agri-business lending. Mr. Bass will retire from the Company on December 31, 2020.
Peter Chapman has served as the Company's Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President since its formation in 2014. Mr. Chapman served on the board and as the Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President of Great Western Bancorporation, Inc. from January 2013 until October 2014. Mr. Chapman is also the Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President of our Bank. From 2017 and through 2019, Mr. Chapman oversaw all of our banking operations within the states of Minnesota and North Dakota. Mr. Chapman has over 20 years of industry experience and is responsible for all aspects of our financial and regulatory reporting together with planning and strategy and treasury management of our balance sheet. From 2010 until he was appointed as our Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Chapman served as the General Manager, Finance Performance Management & Non Traded Businesses for NAB’s Wholesale Banking business. From 2007 through 2010, Mr. Chapman served as Head of Financial Control at NAB and was responsible for oversight and delivery of NAB’s external financial reporting and internal management reporting. From 2004 through 2007, Mr. Chapman was Manager, and then Senior Manager, in NAB’s Group Accounting Policy team. From 1995 through 2004, Mr. Chapman held various roles with Ernst & Young’s Financial Services Audit Division, including Group Manager of its Melbourne, Australia office’s Financial Services Audit practice, and he was seconded to Ernst & Young’s New York office from 1998 through 2000. Mr. Chapman has been a Chartered Accountant with the Institute of Chartered Accountants Australia since 1998 and is currently a Fellow of the Institute.
Karlyn Knieriem has served as Great Western's Chief Risk Officer since 2018 and is also an Executive Vice President of the Company. Ms. Knieriem is responsible for the overall direction and operations of the risk department, including Enterprise Risk Management, Bank Secrecy Act, Compliance and Loan Review. Ms. Knieriem joined our Bank in 2016 as Head of Enterprise Risk Management. Ms. Knieriem has 21 years of experience in the financial services industry, including a 17-year career with First National Bank of Omaha, where she worked in a number of senior leadership positions including 11 years as Vice President/Managing Director – Treasury.

Steve Yose has served as the Company's Chief Credit Officer since May 2020 and is also an Executive Vice President of our Company. Mr. Yose is responsible for the overall direction and operations of the Credit Risk Management function, including loan and portfolio quality, and oversees our commercial credit and collection policies, procedures and processes. Mr. Yose has over 34 years of experience in the financial services industry, most recently serving as Chief Credit Officer at First Interstate Bank in Billings, MT. Previously, Mr. Yose worked for KeyCorp for 27 years where he held several leadership roles. Mr. Yose also serves as a Board Member and Chair of the Mid-Tier Bank Council for The Risk Management Association. He previously served as a member of the Regulatory Council, Puget Sound Chapter President, and Chapter Board member of The Risk Management Association. Mr. Yose has a Bachelor of Science degree in Agricultural Economics and a Master of Science degree in Agribusiness Management from Brigham Young University. He is an honors graduate of the Pacific Coast Banking School at the University of Washington and also completed the KeyBank Weatherhead School of Management program for Executives at Case Western Reserve University.
Supervision and Regulation
We and our subsidiaries are subject to extensive regulation under federal and state banking laws that establish a comprehensive framework for our operations. This framework may materially impact our growth potential and financial performance and is intended primarily for the protection of depositors, customers, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not for the protection of our stockholders and creditors. Significant elements of the statutes, regulations and policies applicable to us and our subsidiaries are described below. This description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations and policies described.
Regulatory Agencies
Bank Holding Company Regulation. We are a bank holding company under the BHC Act. Consequently, we and our subsidiaries are subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve. The BHC Act provides generally for "umbrella" regulation of bank holding companies and functional regulation of holding company subsidiaries by applicable regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has issued regulations under the BHC Act requiring a bank holding company to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks. It is the policy of the Federal Reserve that, pursuant to this requirement, a bank holding company should stand ready to use its resources to provide adequate capital funds to its subsidiary banks during periods of financial stress or adversity. Under this requirement, we are expected to commit resources to support our Bank, including at times when we may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. In the event of a bank holding company's bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
The FRB subjects the Company to its requirements on regulatory capital and maintaining cash reserves against its deposits. The FRB also regulates the national supply of bank credit in order to influence general economic conditions. These policies have a significant influence on overall growth and distribution of loans, investments and deposits, and affect the interest rates charged on loans or paid for deposits. Fluctuations in interest rates, which may result from governmental fiscal policies and the monetary policies of the FRB, have a strong impact on the income derived from loans and securities, and interest paid on deposits and borrowings. While the Company and the Bank strive to model various interest rate changes and adjust our strategies for such changes, the level of earnings could be materially affected by economic circumstances beyond our control.
The BHC Act also requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve to acquire more than a 5% voting interest of any bank or bank holding company, or to merge or consolidate with another bank holding company. We must also be well-capitalized and well-managed in order to acquire a bank located outside of our home state. Additionally, the BHC Act restricts our non-banking activities to those which are determined by the Federal Reserve to be closely related to banking and a proper incident thereto. The Federal Reserve has the power to order any bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable grounds to believe that continuing such activity, ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness, safety or stability of any bank subsidiary or the bank holding company.
Under FDICIA, a bank holding company is required to guarantee the compliance of any insured depository institution subsidiary that may become "undercapitalized" (as defined in FDICIA) with the terms of any capital restoration plan filed by such subsidiary with its appropriate federal bank regulatory agency.

FDIC and SDDB Regulations. Our Bank is an FDIC-insured commercial bank chartered under the laws of South Dakota. It is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. Consequently, the FDIC and the SD Division of Banking are the primary regulators of our Bank and also regulate our Bank’s subsidiaries. As a South Dakota-chartered commercial bank, our Bank's business is generally limited to activities permitted by South Dakota law and any applicable federal laws. Subject to prior approval by the Director of the SD Division of Banking, our Bank may also permissibly engage in any activity permissible as of January 1, 2008 for a national bank doing business in South Dakota. Our Bank is also restricted under South Dakota law from investing in certain types of investment securities and is generally limited in the amount of money it can lend to a single borrower or invest in securities issued by a single issuer (in each case, 20% of our Bank's capital stock and surplus plus 10% of our Bank's undivided profits). The Bank Merger Act and South Dakota law generally require our Bank to obtain prior regulatory approval to merger or consolidate with, or acquire substantially all of the assets of or assume deposits of, another bank.
In addition, we offer certain insurance and investment products through our Bank and our Bank's subsidiaries that are subject to regulation and supervision by applicable state insurance regulatory agencies and by the FINRA as a result of a contractual relationship we have with a third party broker-dealer relating to the provision of some wealth management and investment services to customers.
CFPB Regulations. We are also subject to the enforcement and rule-making authority of the CFPB regarding consumer financial products. The CFPB has authority to create and enforce consumer protection rules and regulations and has the power to examine our Bank for compliance with such rules and regulations. The CFPB also has the authority to prohibit "unfair, deceptive or abusive" acts and practices. The CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over all banks with more than $10 billion in assets, such as our Bank.
Acquisitions of Ownership of the Company
Acquisitions of the Company's voting stock above certain thresholds may be subject to prior regulatory notice or approval under applicable federal banking laws. Investors are responsible for ensuring that they do not, directly or indirectly, acquire shares of our stock in excess of the amount that can be acquired without regulatory approval or notice under the BHC Act and the Change in Bank Control Act.
Our Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from its banking and other subsidiaries. As a bank holding company, we are subject to certain restrictions on our ability to pay dividends under applicable banking laws and regulations. Federal bank regulators are authorized to determine under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company or a bank that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. Federal Reserve policy provides that a bank holding company should not pay dividends unless (1) the bank holding company's net income over the last four quarters (net of dividends paid) is sufficient to fully fund the dividends, (2) the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition of the bank holding company and its subsidiaries and (3) the bank holding company will continue to meet minimum required capital adequacy ratios. The policy also provides that a bank holding company should inform the Federal Reserve reasonably in advance of declaring or paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in a material adverse change to the bank holding company's capital structure. Bank holding companies also are required to consult with the Federal Reserve before materially increasing dividends. The Federal Reserve could prohibit or limit the payment of dividends by a bank holding company if it determines that payment of the dividend would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.
Since substantially all of our income comes from dividends from our Bank, which is also the primary source of our liquidity, our ability to pay dividends and repurchase shares depends upon our receipt of dividends from our Bank. In addition to the restrictions discussed above, our Bank is subject to limitations under South Dakota law regarding the level of dividends that it may pay to us. In general, dividends by our Bank may only be declared from its net profits and may be declared no more than once per calendar quarter. The approval of the South Dakota Director of Banking is required if our Bank seeks to pay aggregate dividends during any calendar year that would exceed the sum of its net profits from the year to date and retained net profits from the preceding two years, minus any required transfers to surplus.

Transactions with Affiliates
Transactions between our Bank and its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and our Company or any other subsidiary, on the other hand, are regulated under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. The Federal Reserve Act imposes quantitative and qualitative requirements and collateral requirements on covered transactions by our Bank with, or for the benefit of, its affiliates. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B limit the extent to which our Bank or its subsidiaries may engage in "covered transactions" with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of our Bank's capital stock and surplus, and contain an aggregate limit on all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of such capital stock and surplus, and requires those transactions to be on terms at least as favorable to our Bank as if the transaction were conducted with an unaffiliated third party. Covered transactions are defined by statute to include a loan or extension of credit, as well as a purchase of securities issued by an affiliate, a purchase of assets (unless otherwise exempted by the Federal Reserve) from the affiliate, certain derivative transactions that create a credit exposure to an affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by the affiliate as collateral for a loan, and the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate. In addition, any credit transactions with an affiliate must be secured by designated amounts of specified collateral.
Federal law also limits a bank’s authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers and 10% (or greater) stockholders, as well as to entities controlled by such persons. Among other things, extensions of credit to insiders are required to be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with unaffiliated persons. In addition, the terms of such extensions of credit may not involve more than the normal risk of non-repayment or present other unfavorable features and may not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons individually and in the aggregate.
Safety and Soundness Standards
The federal banking agencies have adopted the Interagency Guidelines for Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness. The guidelines establish general standards relating to internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings and compensation, fees and benefits. In general, these guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risk and exposures specified in the guidelines. These guidelines also prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as excessive when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder. In addition, the agencies adopted regulations that authorize, but do not require, an agency to order an institution that has been given notice by an agency that it is not satisfying any of such safety and soundness standards to submit a compliance plan. If, after being so notified, an institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan or fails in any material respect to implement an acceptable compliance plan, the bank regulator must issue an order directing action to correct the deficiency and may issue an order directing other actions of the types to which an undercapitalized institution may be subject under the FDIA. See "—Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action." If an institution fails to comply with such an order, the bank regulator may seek to enforce such order in judicial proceedings and to impose civil money penalties.
Deposit Insurance
FDIC Insurance Assessments. As an FDIC-insured bank, our Bank must pay deposit insurance assessments to the FDIC based on its average total assets minus its average tangible equity. Our Bank’s assessment rates are currently based on its risk classification (i.e., the level of risk it poses to the FDIC’s deposit insurance fund). Institutions classified as higher risk pay assessments at higher rates than institutions that pose a lower risk. With the acquisition of HF Financial in 2016, our total assets exceeded $10 billion as of the quarter ended June 30, 2016. Since our Bank's total consolidated assets have exceeded $10 billion for four consecutive quarters, the FDIC uses a performance score and a loss-severity score to calculate the assessment rate. In calculating these scores, the FDIC uses a bank’s capital level and regulatory supervisory ratings and certain financial measures to assess an institution’s ability to withstand asset-related stress and funding-related stress. The FDIC also has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the calculations. In addition to ordinary assessments described above, the FDIC has the ability to impose special assessments in certain instances.
Other Assessments. In addition, the Deposit Insurance Funds Act of 1996 authorized the Financing Corporation to impose assessments on deposit insurance fund applicable deposits in order to service the interest on the Financing Corporation’s bond obligations from deposit insurance fund assessments. The amount assessed on individual institutions is in addition to the amount, if any, paid for deposit insurance according to the FDIC’s risk-related assessment rate schedules. Assessment rates may be adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in the assessment base.

Interstate Branching
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2020 and other federal regulation, national and state-chartered banks, such as our Bank, may open an initial branch in a state other than its home state (e.g., a host state) by establishing a de novo branch at any location in such host state at which a bank chartered in such host state could establish a branch. Applications to establish such branches must still be filed with the appropriate primary federal regulator and, where applicable, the bank's state regulatory authority. As our Bank is a South Dakota state chartered bank, we are required to file branch applications with both the FDIC and the SD Division of Banking.
Prohibitions Against Tying Arrangements
Banks are subject to the prohibitions of 12 U.S.C. Section 1972 on certain tying arrangements. We are prohibited, subject to some exceptions, from extending credit to or offering any other service, or fixing or varying the consideration for such extension of credit or service, on the condition that the customer obtain some additional service from the institution or its affiliates or not obtain services of a competitor of the institution.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
Under the CRA, our Bank has an obligation, consistent with safe and sound operations, to help meet the credit needs of the market areas where it operates, which includes providing credit to low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. In connection with its examination of our Bank, the FDIC is required to assess our Bank’s compliance with the CRA. Our Bank’s failure to comply with the CRA could, among other things, result in the denial or delay in certain corporate applications filed by us or our Bank, including applications for branch openings or relocations and applications to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or holding company. Our Bank received an overall rating of "satisfactory" in its most recently completed CRA examination.
Future Legislation and Regulation
Congress may enact legislation from time to time that affects the regulation of the financial services industry, and state legislatures may enact legislation from time to time affecting the regulation of financial institutions chartered by or operating in those states. Federal and state regulatory agencies also periodically propose and adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. The substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof, cannot be predicted, although enactment of the proposed legislation could impact the regulatory structure under which we operate and may significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase our regulatory capital and modify our business strategy, and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner. Our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects may be adversely affected, perhaps materially, as a result.
Depositor Preference
Under federal law, depositors (including the FDIC with respect to the subrogated claims of insured depositors) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as receiver would be afforded a priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution in the "liquidation or other resolution" of such an institution by any receiver.
Privacy and Consumer Financial Protection
We are subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws that extensively govern our relationship with our customers. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, Telephone Consumer Protection Act, CAN-SPAM Act, and these laws' respective state law counterparts, as well as state usury laws and laws regarding unfair and deceptive acts and practices. These and other federal laws, among other things, require disclosures of the cost of credit and terms of deposit accounts, provide substantive consumer rights, prohibit discrimination in credit transactions, regulate the use of credit report information, provide financial privacy protections, prohibit unfair, deceptive and abusive practices, restrict our ability to raise interest rates and subject us to substantial regulatory oversight.

As a financial institution, our internal systems and vendor-outsourced storage solutions contain a significant amount of sensitive data, including personal information related to our customers. We are therefore subject to compliance obligations under federal and state information security laws, among others, including the GLB Act, which institute limitations on data sharing and require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers. In addition, the GLB Act requires all financial institutions to adopt privacy policies, restrict the sharing of nonpublic customer data with nonaffiliated parties and establishes procedures and practices to protect customer data from unauthorized access. In addition, the FCRA, as amended by the FACT Act, includes provisions affecting the Company, the Bank and their affiliates, including provisions concerning obtaining consumer reports, furnishing information to consumer reporting agencies, maintaining a program to prevent identity theft, sharing of certain information among affiliated companies and other provisions, including rules regarding limitations on affiliate marketing and implementation of programs to identify, detect and mitigate certain identity theft red flags.
We are also subject to various regulatory guidance as updated from time to time implemented by the FFIEC, an interagency body of the FDIC, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve, the National Credit Union Administration and various state regulatory authorities. States and other jurisdictions may also enact laws regulating financial institutions' use of consumer data, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act, as well as the General Data Privacy Regulation adopted by the European Union.
The Dodd-Frank Act created a new, independent federal agency, the CFPB, which was granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection and privacy laws, such as the GLB Act, which have created a more intense and complex environment for consumer finance regulation. Violations of applicable consumer protection laws can result in significant potential liability from litigation brought by customers, including actual damages, restitution and attorneys' fees. Federal bank regulators, state attorney generals and state and local consumer protection agencies may also seek to enforce consumer protection requirements and obtain these and other remedies, including regulatory sanctions, customer rescission rights, action by the state and local attorney generals in each jurisdiction in which we operate and civil money penalties. Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in our failure to obtain any required bank regulatory approval for merger or acquisition transactions we may wish to pursue or our prohibition from engaging in such transactions even if approval is not required.
Heightened Requirements for Bank Holding Companies with $10 Billion or More in Assets
Various federal banking laws and regulations, including rules adopted by the Federal Reserve pursuant to the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act, impose heightened requirements on certain large banks and bank holding companies. Most of these rules apply primarily to bank holding companies with at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets, but certain rules also apply to banks and bank holding companies with at least $10 billion in total consolidated assets. Because our Bank’s total consolidated assets equal or exceed $10 billion, we or our Bank, as applicable, among other requirements:
are subject to the maximum permissible interchange fee for swipe transactions, equal to no more than 21 cents plus 5 basis points of the transaction value for many types of debit interchange transactions;
calculate our FDIC deposit assessment base using the performance score and a loss-severity score system described above in "—Deposit Insurance;" and
are examined for compliance with federal consumer protection laws primarily by the CFPB as described above in "—Privacy and Consumer Financial Protection."
The Volcker Rule
The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits insured depository institutions and their holding companies from engaging in proprietary trading except in limited circumstances, and prohibits them from owning equity interests in excess of three percent (3%) of Tier 1 Capital in private equity and hedge funds (known as the "Volcker Rule"). The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act and subsequent promulgation of inter-agency final rules have aimed at simplifying and tailoring requirements related to the Volcker Rule. In August 2019, the agencies modified the rule to, among other things, eliminate collection of certain metrics and reduce the compliance burdens associated with the remaining metrics requirements, depending on the banking entity's total consolidated trading assets and liabilities. The regulatory agencies continue to consider additional proposals to simplify or eliminate other aspects of the Volcker Rule. Due to the changing regulatory landscape, we will continue to evaluate the implications of the Volcker Rules on our investments, including new impacts as a result of the changes, but we do not expect any material financial implications.

Incentive Compensation
The Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal bank regulators and the SEC to maintain guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, including us and our Bank, that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. Failure to comply can affect the organization’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.
Regulatory Capital Requirements, Basel III and the Capital Rules
The Federal Reserve monitors our capital adequacy on a consolidated basis, and the FDIC and the SD Division of Banking monitor the capital adequacy of our Bank based on the Capital Rules, also known as the Basel III Capital Rules, which went into effect January 1, 2015, subject to certain phase-in provisions. The risk-based guidelines are intended to make regulatory capital requirements sensitive to differences in credit and market risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposure and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Assets and off-balance sheet items are assigned to weighted risk categories, and capital is classified in one of the following tiers depending on its characteristic:
Common Equity Tier 1 Capital ("CET1 capital") for us includes common equity, surplus and retained earnings less goodwill, most intangible assets and certain other assets. The Capital Rules require bank holding companies and banks to include AOCI into CET1 capital unless the bank and bank holding company use a one-time election to exclude AOCI from its regulatory capital metrics on January 1, 2015. We elected to exclude AOCI from CET1 capital.
Tier 1 (Core) Capital ("Tier 1 capital") for us includes CET1 capital and qualifying trust preferred securities at the holding company level, less goodwill, most intangible assets and certain other assets.
Tier 2 (Supplementary) Capital ("Tier 2 capital") for us includes qualifying subordinated debt and a limited amount of allowance for loan and lease losses.
Bank holding companies and banks are also currently required to comply with minimum leverage requirements, measured based on the ratio of a bank holding company’s or a bank’s, as applicable, Tier 1 capital to adjusted quarterly average total assets (as defined for regulatory purposes). These requirements generally necessitate a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4% for all bank holding companies and banks. To be considered "well capitalized" under the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, our Bank must maintain minimum Tier 1 leverage ratios of at least 5%. See "—Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action."
As of January 1, 2019, the Basel III Capital Rules require banking organizations to maintain:
a minimum ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.5%, plus a 2.5% "capital conservation buffer" (which is added to the 4.5% CET1 capital ratios as that buffer is phased-in, effectively resulting in a minimum ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 7.0%);
a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 6.0%, plus the 2.5% capital conservation buffer (which is added to the 6.0% Tier 1 capital ratio as that buffer is phased-in, effectively resulting in a minimum Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5%);
a minimum ratio of total capital (that is, Tier 1 plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0% plus the 2.5% capital conservation buffer (which is added to the 8.0% total capital ratio as that buffer is phased-in, effectively resulting in a minimum total capital ratio of 10.5%); and
a minimum leverage ratio of 4.0%, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to adjusted average consolidated assets.
The current Capital Rules also include a capital conservation buffer designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. The capital conservation buffer is composed entirely of CET1 capital, on top of these minimum risk-weighted asset ratios. In addition, the Capital Rules provide for a countercyclical capital buffer applicable only to certain covered institutions. We do not expect the countercyclical capital buffer to be applicable to us or our Bank. Banking institutions with a ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer (or below the combined capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer, when the latter is applied) will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall.

The Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1 capital. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, certain deferred tax assets and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 capital to the extent that any one such category exceeds 25% of CET1 capital or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1 capital. Implementation of the deductions and other adjustments to CET1 capital began on January 1, 2015 and were phased in over a four-year period (beginning at 40% on January 1, 2015 and an additional 20% per year thereafter). The Capital Rules also generally preclude certain hybrid securities, such as trust preferred securities, from being counted as Tier 1 capital for most bank holding companies. Bank holding companies such as us who had less than $15 billion in assets as of December 31, 2009 (and who continue to have less than $15 billion in assets) are permitted to include trust preferred securities issued prior to May 19, 2010 as Additional Tier 1 capital under the Capital Rules.
The Capital Rules prescribe a standardized approach for risk weightings that, depending on the nature of the assets, generally range from 0% for U.S. government securities, 20%-50% for U.S. government agencies and municipal bonds, 0%-150% for loans and up to 600% for certain equity exposures.
With respect to our Bank, the Capital Rules also revised the prompt corrective action regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the FDIA. See "—Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action."
We believe that, as of September 30, 2020, we and our Bank meet all capital adequacy requirements under the Capital Rules.
On December 21, 2018, the federal banking agencies issued a joint final rule to revise their regulatory capital rules to (i) address the upcoming implement of the CECL accounting standard under GAAP; (ii) provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects that banking organizations are expected to experience upon adopting CECL; and (iii) require the use of CECL in stress tests beginning with the 2020 capital planning and stress testing cycle for certain banking organizations. The Company adopted the standard in the first fiscal quarter of 2021. Our CECL allowance methodology will be driven by our new credit scoring system, our charge-off history and adjusted for the economic outlook as provided by Oxford Economics. The Company is currently finalizing controls, processes, policies and disclosures and has completed parallel runs. The Company continues its implementation efforts and is in process of determining the final impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and regulatory capital ratios. The impact of the adoption will depend on the composition, characteristics and credit quality of the loan portfolio as well as economic conditions and forecast as of the adoption date. The CECL standard does not apply to the fair value portfolio and as such there will be no change to this portfolio upon adoption of this standard..
Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action
Federal law requires, among other things, that federal bank regulatory authorities take "prompt corrective action" with respect to institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. For such purposes, the law establishes five capital tiers: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized.
As a result of the Basel III Rules, new definitions of the relevant measures for the five capital categories took effect on January 1, 2015. An institution is deemed to be "well capitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.5% or greater, and a leverage capital ratio of 5.0% or greater, and is not subject to a regulatory order, agreements, or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.
An institution is deemed to be "adequately capitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5% or greater, and generally a leverage capital ratio of 4.0% or greater. The Capital Rules do not change the total risk-based capital requirements for any prompt corrective action category.
As of September 30, 2020, we and our Bank were well capitalized with Tier 1 capital ratios of 11.8% and 11.7%, respectively, total capital ratios of 13.3% and 13.0%, respectively, Tier 1 leverage ratios of 9.4% and 9.3%, respectively, and a CET1 capital ratio of 11.0% and 11.7%, respectively, as calculated under Basel III which went into effect on January 1, 2015. For more information on these financial measures, including reconciliations to our and our Bank’s Tier 1 capital ratio, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Capital."
An institution is deemed to be "undercapitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.5%, or generally a leverage capital ratio of less than 4.0%. An institution is deemed to be "significantly undercapitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0%, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 3.0%, or a leverage capital ratio of less than 3.0%. An institution is deemed to be "critically undercapitalized" if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.

"Undercapitalized" institutions are subject to growth, capital distribution (including dividend), and other limitations, and are required to submit a capital restoration plan and adequate assurances of performance. An institution's compliance with such a plan is required to be guaranteed by any company that controls the undercapitalized institution in an amount equal to the lesser of 5.0% of the bank's total assets when deemed undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve the status of adequately capitalized. If an undercapitalized institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is "significantly undercapitalized". Significantly undercapitalized institutions are subject to one or more additional restrictions including, but not limited to, an order by the FDIC to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized; requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks, or dismiss directors or officers; and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers, and capital distributions by the parent holding company. An undercapitalized institution is also generally prohibited from increasing its average total assets, making acquisitions and capital distributions, establishing any branches or engaging in any new line of business, except in accordance with an accepted capital restoration plan or with the approval of the FDIC.
Beginning 60 days after becoming "critically undercapitalized", critically undercapitalized institutions also may not make any payment of principal or interest on certain subordinated debt, extend credit for a highly leveraged transaction, or enter into any material transaction outside the ordinary course of business. In addition, subject to a narrow exception, the appointment of a receiver is required for a critically undercapitalized institution within 270 days after it obtains such status.
In addition, the FDIA prohibits an insured depository institution from accepting brokered deposits or offering interest rates on any deposits significantly higher than the prevailing rate in the bank’s normal market area or nationally (depending upon where the deposits are solicited), unless it is well capitalized or is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from the FDIC. A depository institution that is adequately capitalized and accepts brokered deposits under a waiver from the FDIC may not pay an interest rate on any deposit in excess of 75 basis points over certain prevailing market rates.
Institutions that are undercapitalized or significantly undercapitalized and either fail to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan or fail to implement an approved capital restoration plan may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized depository institutions failing to submit or implement an acceptable capital restoration plan are subject to appointment of a receiver or conservator. As of September 30, 2020, our Bank was "well capitalized" based on the existing ratios and the ratios as modified by Basel III Capital Rules.
Anti-Money Laundering and the USA PATRIOT ACT
We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that involve money laundering, financial recordkeeping and proceeds from crime, including the BSA, as amended by Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the U.S. such as the Department of the Treasury's FinCEN and the FFIEC. A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at anti-money laundering and terrorist financing. We are required, as part of our BSA/AML program, to designate a BSA Officer, maintain a BSA/AML training program, maintain internal controls to effectuate the BSA/AML program, implement independent testing of the BSA/AML program, and as of May 11, 2018, comply with FinCEN's new CDD Rule. The CDD Rule adds a new requirement for us to identify and verify the identity of natural persons ("beneficial owners") of legal entity customers who own, control and profit from companies when those companies open accounts.
Financial institutions are prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must use enhanced due diligence procedures in their dealings with certain types of high-risk customers and implement a written customer identification program. Financial institutions must take certain steps to assist government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering and report certain types of suspicious transactions. Among other provisions, the USA Patriot Act requires financial institutions to have anti-money laundering programs in place and requires banking regulators to consider a holding company's effectiveness in combating-money laundering when ruling on certain merger or acquisition applications. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution, including civil money penalties and causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.

Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. Treasury Department’s OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, under authority of various laws, including designated foreign countries, nationals and others. OFAC publishes lists of specially designated targets and countries. We and our Bank are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.
Environmental Laws Potentially Impacting the Bank
We are subject to state and federal environmental laws and regulations. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, ("CERCLA"), is a federal statute that generally imposes strict liability on all prior and present "owners and operators" of sites containing hazardous waste. However, Congress acted to protect secured creditors by providing that the term "owner and operator" excludes a person whose ownership is limited to protecting its security interest in the site. Since the enactment of the CERCLA, this "secured creditor exemption" has been the subject of judicial interpretations which have left open the possibility that lenders could be liable for cleanup costs on contaminated property that they hold as collateral for a loan, which costs often substantially exceed the value of the property.
Available Information
Our internet address is www.greatwesternbank.com. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge through our website (by clicking on the Investor Relations link at the bottom of the page) as soon as reasonably practicable after the filing or furnishing of such material with the SEC.
Investing in our common stock involves a significant degree of risk. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes affect us are described below. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks, as well as risks that we do not know or currently deem immaterial, could have a material adverse effect on our business operations and/or financial condition. As a result, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose some or all of your investment. Further, to the extent that any of the information in this report, or in other reports we file with the SEC, constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors below are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. See "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."
Economic Risk
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant global economic downturn which has adversely affected, and is expected to continue to adversely affect, our business and results of operations, and the future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business, results of operations, liquidity and financial condition remain uncertain.
COVID-19, which has been identified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, continues to cause economic disruption both worldwide and in the markets we operate, as well as a destabilization effect on financial markets. The ultimate impacts of COVID-19 are uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. The extent of these impacts will depend on future developments, including among others, governmental, regulatory and private sector actions and responses, new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19, and actions taken to contain or prevent further spread, each of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
Our business is dependent upon the ability and willingness of our customers to conduct banking and other financial transactions, including the payment of loan obligations. COVID-19 has and continues to disrupt the business, activities, and operations of our customers, which may cause a decline in demand for our products and services which may, in turn, result in a significant decrease in our business, negatively impacting our liquidity position and financial results. Our financial results could also be impacted due to an inability of our customers to meet their loan commitments because of their losses associated with the effects of COVID-19, resulting in increased risk of delinquencies, defaults, foreclosures, declining collateral values and other losses to our Bank. Moreover, current and future governmental action may temporarily require the Company to conduct business differently with respect to foreclosures, repossessions, payments, deferrals and other customer-related transactions.

Although the Company has established a pandemic response plan and procedures, our workforce has been, is, and may continue to be impacted by COVID-19. We are taking precautions to protect the safety and well-being of our employees and customers, including temporary branch and office closures, but no assurance can be given that our actions will be adequate or appropriate, nor can we predict the level of disruption which will occur to our employees’ ability to provide customer support and service. The spread could also negatively impact availability of key personnel and employee productivity, as well as the business and operations of third-party service providers who perform critical services for us, which could adversely impact our ability to deliver products and services to our customers.
Economic conditions have affected and could continue to adversely affect our revenues and profits.
Our financial performance generally, and in particular the ability of our borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing those loans, as well as demand for loans and other products and services that we offer, is highly dependent upon the business environment in the markets in which we operate and in the United States as a whole. A favorable business environment is generally characterized by, among other factors, economic growth, efficient capital markets, low inflation, low unemployment, high business and investor confidence and strong business earnings. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity or investor or business confidence; limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital; increases in inflation or interest rates; high unemployment; natural disasters; terrorist attacks; or a combination of these or other factors.
An economic downturn or sustained, high unemployment levels, and stock market volatility may negatively impact our operating results and have a negative effect on the ability of our borrowers to make timely repayments of their loans increasing the risk of loan defaults and losses.
Changes in economic or political conditions could adversely affect our earnings, as the ability of our borrowers to repay loans, and the value of the collateral securing such loans, declines.
Our success depends, to a certain extent, upon economic or political conditions, local and national, as well as governmental monetary policies. Conditions such as recession, unemployment, changes in interest rates, inflation, money supply, and other factors beyond our control may adversely affect our asset quality, deposit levels, and loan demand and, therefore, our earnings. Because we have a significant amount of commercial real estate loans, decreases in real estate values could adversely affect the value of property used as collateral. Adverse changes in the economy may also have a negative effect on the ability of our borrowers to make timely repayments of their loans, which would have an adverse impact on our earnings. In addition, substantially all of our loans are to individuals and businesses in our market area. Consequently, any economic decline in our primary market areas, which include Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota, could have an adverse impact on our earnings.
Changes in U.S. trade policies and other factors beyond our Company’s control, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs, may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There continues to be discussions with respect to U.S. trade policies, legislation, treaties and tariffs, including trade policies and tariffs affecting other countries, including China, the European Union, Canada and Mexico and retaliatory tariffs by such countries. Tariffs and retaliatory tariffs have been imposed, and additional tariffs and retaliation tariffs have been proposed. Such tariffs, retaliatory tariffs or other trade restrictions on products and materials that our customers import or export, including among others, agricultural products, could cause the prices of our customers’ products to increase which could reduce demand for such products, or reduce our customer margins, and adversely impact their revenues, financial results and ability to service debt; which, in turn, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, to the extent changes in the political environment have a negative impact on us or on the markets in which we operate our business, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted in the future.
On October 1, 2018, the United States, Canada and Mexico agreed to a new trade deal to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement. The USMCA entered into force on July 1, 2020. The full impact of the USMCA on us, our customers and on the economic conditions in our states is currently unknown and, thus, could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to interest rate risk which, among other things, could affect our earnings and the value of certain of our assets.
Our earnings and cash flows are largely dependent on net interest income. Interest rates are sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, such as economic conditions, competition and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, and, in particular, the policies of the Federal Reserve Board. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and investments and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but these changes could also affect: (i) our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits; (ii) the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, including our securities portfolio; and (iii) the average duration of our interest-earning assets. This also includes the risk that interest-earning assets may be more responsive to changes in interest rates than interest-bearing liabilities, or vice versa (repricing risk), the risk that the individual interest rates or rate indices underlying various interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities may not change in the same degree over a given time period (basis risk), and the risk of changing interest rate relationships across the spectrum of interest-earning asset and interest-bearing liability maturities (yield curve risk), including a prolonged flat or inverted yield curve environment. Any substantial, unexpected, prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
As of September 30, 2020, 46.5% of our loans were advanced to our customers on a variable or adjustable-rate basis and another 6.5% of our loans were advanced to our customers on a fixed-rate basis where we utilized derivative instruments to swap our economic exposure to a variable-rate basis. As a result, an increase in interest rates could result in increased loan defaults, foreclosures and charge-offs and could necessitate further increases to the allowance for loan and lease losses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, a decrease in interest rates could negatively impact our margins and profitability.
As of September 30, 2020, we had $2.59 billion of noninterest-bearing demand deposits and $8.42 billion of interest-bearing demand deposits. If we need to offer higher interest rates on checking accounts to maintain current clients or attract new clients, our interest expense will increase, perhaps materially. Furthermore, if we fail to offer interest in a sufficient amount to keep these demand deposits, our core deposits may be reduced, which would require us to obtain funding in other ways or risk slowing our future asset growth.
Increases in FDIC insurance premiums may adversely affect our earnings.
Our Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, our Bank is subject to FDIC deposit insurance assessments. We generally cannot control the amount of premiums our Bank will be required to pay for FDIC insurance. As our Bank has exceeded $10 billion in assets, the method for calculating its FDIC assessments has changed and our Bank’s FDIC assessments have increased as a result. See "Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Deposit Insurance." In fiscal year 2020, our deposit insurance premium increased $3.2 million, primarily as a result of the impairment of goodwill recognized during the period. If there is an increase in financial institution failures, or a decrease in the performance of our Bank, our Bank may be required to pay higher FDIC insurance premiums, or the FDIC may charge additional special assessments. Future increases of FDIC insurance premiums or special assessments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Credit and Interest Rate Risk
We focus on originating business and agricultural loans which may involve greater risk than residential mortgage lending.
We originate commercial real estate loans, commercial loans, agricultural real estate loans, agricultural loans, consumer loans, and residential real estate loans primarily within our market areas. Commercial real estate, commercial, consumer, and agricultural real estate and operating loans may expose a lender to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate because the collateral securing these loans may not be sold as easily as residential real estate. These loans also have greater credit risk than residential real estate for the following reasons:
Commercial Real Estate Loans. Repayment is dependent upon income being generated in amounts sufficient to cover operating and debt service.
Commercial Loans. Repayment is dependent upon the successful operation of the borrower’s business.
Consumer Loans. Consumer Loans (such as personal lines of credit) are collateralized, if at all, with assets that may not provide an adequate source of payment on the loan due to depreciation, damage or loss.
Agricultural Loans. Repayment is dependent upon the successful operation of the business, which is greatly dependent on many things outside our control or the borrowers. These factors include weather, input costs, commodity and land prices and interest rates.

As of September 30, 2020, our business lending, which consists of our CRE and commercial non-real estate loans, represented approximately $7.46 billion, or 73.8%, of our loan portfolio. Our CRE loans secured by owner-occupied property and commercial non-real estate loans secured by business assets and guarantees from owners, which together form the core of our business banking focus, totaled approximately $3.59 billion, or 35.5%, of our loan portfolio at September 30, 2020, with undisbursed loan commitments for these loans amounting to an additional $929.6 million. We also had approximately $3.86 billion of other CRE loans (i.e., construction and development loans, multifamily residential real estate loans and CRE loans secured by commercial property that is not owner-occupied) at September 30, 2020, or 38.2% of our loan portfolio.
Within our CRE and commercial non-real estate loan portfolio we have identified the following segments with elevated risk: hotels & resorts with $1.21 billion, or 12.0% of our loan portfolio, restaurants with $156.5 million, or 1.6% of our loan portfolio, arts and entertainment with $130.3 million, or 1.3% of our loan portfolio, senior care with $330.7 million, or 3.3% of our loan portfolio, and skilled nursing with $250.9 million, or 2.5% of our loan portfolio, for a total exposure of $2.07 billion, or 20.7% of our loan portfolio.
At September 30, 2020, our agricultural loans, consisting primarily of agricultural operating loans (e.g., loans to farm and ranch owners and operators) and agricultural real estate loans, were $1.72 billion, representing 17.1% of our total loan portfolio. At September 30, 2020, agricultural operating loans totaled $886.8 million, or 8.8% of our loan portfolio; and agricultural real estate loans totaled $837.5 million, or 8.3%, of our loan portfolio. The primary livestock of our customers to whom we have extended agricultural loans include dairy cows, hogs and feeder cattle, and the primary crops of our customers to whom we have extended agricultural loans include corn, soybeans and, to a lesser extent, wheat and cotton. In addition, we estimate that 7.6% of our commercial non-real estate loans and owner-occupied CRE loans were agriculture-related loans at September 30, 2020.
Our business is significantly dependent on the real estate markets where we operate, as a significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate.
At September 30, 2020, 68.6% of our aggregate loan portfolio, comprising our CRE loans (representing 52.2% of our aggregate loan portfolio), residential real estate loans (representing 8.1% of our aggregate loan portfolio) and agriculture real estate loans (representing 8.3% of our aggregate loan portfolio), was primarily secured by interests in real estate predominantly located in the states in which we operate. In addition, some of our other lending occasionally involves taking real estate as primary or secondary collateral. Real property values in these states may be different from, and in some instances worse than, real property values in other markets or in the United States as a whole, and may be affected by a variety of factors outside of our control and the control of our borrowers, including national and local economic conditions generally. Declines in real property prices, including prices for homes, commercial properties and farmland, in the states in which we operate could result in a deterioration of the credit quality of our borrowers, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults and charge-offs, and reduced demand for our products and services generally. Our CRE loans, in particular, totaled approximately $5.27 billion at September 30, 2020, or 52.2% of our loan portfolio, and may have a greater risk of loss than residential mortgage loans, in part because these loans are generally larger or more complex to underwrite, monitor and service. Agricultural real estate loans may be affected by similar factors to those that affect agricultural loans generally, including adverse weather conditions, disease and declines in the market prices for agricultural products or farm real estate. In addition, declines in real property values in the states in which we operate could reduce the value of any collateral we realize following a default on these loans and could adversely affect our ability to continue to grow our loan portfolio consistent with our underwriting standards. Our failure to effectively mitigate these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully manage credit risk.
The operation of our business requires us to manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our borrowers will be unable to repay their loans according to their terms, and that the collateral securing repayment of their loans, if any, may not be sufficient to ensure repayment. In addition, there are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions and risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers. In order to successfully manage credit risk, we must, among other things, maintain disciplined and prudent underwriting standards and ensure that our bankers follow those standards. The weakening of these standards for any reason, such as an attempt to attract higher yielding loans, a lack of discipline or diligence by our employees in underwriting and monitoring loans, our inability to adequately adapt policies and procedures to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting borrowers may negatively impact the quality of our loan portfolio, result in loan defaults, foreclosures and additional charge-offs and necessitate that we significantly increase our allowance for loan and lease losses. As a result, our inability to successfully manage credit risk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

An important feature of our credit risk management system is our use of analytical and forecasting models in such processes as determining the pricing of various products, grading loans and extending credit, measuring interest rate and other market risks, estimating the effects of economic conditions on our loan portfolio, predicting losses, assessing capital adequacy and regulatory capital levels, as well as estimating the value of financial instruments and balance sheet items. Those models reflect certain assumptions about both quantitative and qualitative factors, including among others, interest rates and consumer behavior that may be incorrect. If our analytical and forecasting models' underlying assumptions are incorrect, improperly applied, or otherwise inadequate, we may suffer deleterious effects such as higher than expected loan losses, lower than expected net interest income, lower than expected liquidity, lower than expected capital or unanticipated charge-offs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our actual loan losses exceed our allowance for loan losses, our net income will decrease.
We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of our borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of our loans. Despite our underwriting and monitoring practices, the effect of a declining economy could negatively impact the ability of our borrowers to repay loans in a timely manner and could also negatively impact collateral values. As a result, we may experience significant loan losses that could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Since we must use assumptions regarding individual loans and the economy, our current allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover actual loan losses. Our assumptions may not anticipate the severity or duration of the current credit cycle; and we may need to significantly increase our provision for losses on loans if one or more of our larger loans or credit relationships becomes delinquent or if we expand our commercial real estate and commercial lending.
Additionally, subsequent to this fiscal year-end we adopted ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“CECL”) effective October 1, 2020. This standard requires financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit. This changes the current method of providing allowances for credit losses that are probable, which requires us to increase our allowance for loan losses, and may greatly increase the types of data we need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses. In addition, federal and state regulators periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase the provision for loan losses or recognize loan charge-offs. For additional discussion, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—2. New Accounting Standards." Material additions to our allowance through provision expense would materially decrease our net income. There can be no assurance that our monitoring procedures and policies will reduce certain lending risks or that our allowance for loan losses will be adequate to cover actual losses.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our Bank branches and any real estate collateral we acquire upon foreclosure.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property. During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. The costs associated with investigation and remediation activities could be substantial. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage, including damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. Although we have policies and procedures to perform an environmental review before initiating foreclosure, these actions may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards.
We also have an extensive branch network, owning separate branch locations throughout the areas we serve that may be subject to similar environmental liability risks. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and could materially reduce the affected property's value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Failure to comply with mortgage loan servicing standards, guidelines, laws and regulations, including the CARES Act, may result in substantial penalties, additional costs or losses.
As a residential mortgage servicer in the U.S., we have a portfolio of loan servicing rights. A loan servicing right is the right to service a mortgage loan (ie: collect principal, interest and escrow amounts) for a fee. The housing GSE, such as FNMA, the FHLMC and the FHLB, that own the mortgages that we service in our loan servicing rights portfolio have mortgage servicing standards. HUD and state housing finance agencies govern and establish guidelines for the servicing of GSE mortgages. The failure to comply with these standards and guidelines, as well as other applicable federal and state laws and regulations, could result in penalties assessed by HUD, the GSEs and/or our other regulators, or we could be forced to sell all or part of our loan servicing rights portfolio. In addition, we are subject to certain legal and contractual requirements for how we hold, transfer, use or enforce promissory notes, security instruments and other documents for residential mortgage loans that we service. Further, we currently use MERS for our servicing efforts. If documentation requirements were not met, or if the use of MERS or the MERS system is found not valid or effective, we could be obligated to, or choose to, take remedial actions and may be subject to additional costs or losses.
As a result of the CARES Act and associated regulations, customers of a federally backed mortgage loan (VA, FHA, USDA, Freddie and Fannie) experiencing financial hardship due, directly or indirectly, to the COVID-19 pandemic have the ability to request forbearance from paying their mortgage by submitting a request to the borrower’s servicer affirming their financial hardship during the COVID-19 emergency which includes granting a forbearance or deferral with no additional fees, penalties or interest, and with no adverse effects on the borrower’s credit. Foreclosures and evictions are prohibited during timeframes set by the GSEs. The Bank established new and updated existing policies, procedures and a change management process to facilitate the new CARES Act requirements, however, due to the extremely short implementation timeframes, and some ambiguity in the regulations, we are exposed to risks relating to noncompliance, and/or risk that errors may occur, subjecting the Bank to further regulatory, litigation, and/or operational risk, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We rely on the mortgage secondary market for some of our liquidity.
We originate and sell a majority of our residential mortgage loans and their servicing rights, including $496.9 million of predominantly fixed rate residential mortgage loans sold during fiscal year 2020. This does not include the loan servicing portfolio acquired from HF Financial, approximately $389.3 million, and portfolio loans consisting of ARMs and other non-conforming loans of approximately $830.1 million, each at September 30, 2020. We rely on FNMA and other purchasers to purchase loans in order to reduce our credit risk and provide funding for additional loans we desire to originate. We cannot provide assurance that these purchasers will not materially limit their purchases from us due to capital constraints or other factors, including, with respect to FNMA, a change in the criteria for conforming loans. Any reforms to the U.S. residential mortgage finance market, including the role of FNMA, which are not yet known, may limit our ability to sell conforming loans to FNMA. Our inability to comply with all federal and state regulations and investor guidelines regarding the origination, underwriting documentation and servicing of residential mortgage loans may also impact our ability to continue selling residential mortgage loans in the secondary market, effecting our ability to fund, and thus originate, additional residential mortgage loans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of risks in connection with any sale of loans we may conduct.
If any of our representations and warranties to a purchaser about our mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated and serviced is incorrect, we may be required to indemnify the purchaser for any related losses, or we may be required to repurchase or provide substitute mortgage loans for part or all of the affected loans. We may also be required to repurchase loans as a result of borrower fraud or in the event of early payment default by the borrower on a loan we have sold. If repurchase or indemnity activity becomes material, it could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may also, from time to time, engage in selling or participating all or part of certain commercial, agricultural or other types of loans. Such sales entail similar risks to those described above.

Uncertainty relating to LIBOR calculation process and potential phasing out of LIBOR may adversely affect us.
On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calibration of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. It is impossible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR and it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on the value of LIBOR-based securities and variable rate loans, debentures, or other securities or financial arrangements, given LIBOR's role in determining market interest rates globally. Uncertainty as to the nature of alternative reference rates and as to potential changes or other reforms to LIBOR may adversely affect LIBOR rates and the value of LIBOR-based loans and securities in our portfolio and may impact the availability and cost of hedging instruments and borrowings. If LIBOR rates are no longer available, and we are required to implement substitute indices for the calculation of interest rates under our loan agreements with our borrowers, we may incur significant expenses in effecting the transition, and may be subject to disputes or litigation with customers over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute indices, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Loans that we make through certain federal programs are dependent on the federal government’s continuation and support of these programs and on our compliance with their requirements.
We participate in various U.S. government agency guarantee programs, including programs operated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Small Business Administration, Farm Service Administration and the United States Department of the Interior. If we fail to follow any applicable regulations, guidelines or policies associated with a particular guarantee program, any loans we originate as part of that program may lose the associated guarantee, exposing us to credit risk we would not otherwise be exposed to or underwritten, or result in our inability to continue originating loans under such programs, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Federal and state governments have enacted laws intending to stimulate the economy in light of the business and market disruptions related to COVID-19, including the Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”). Our Bank participated as a lender in both rounds of the PPP, providing $727.3 million in loans to over 4,800 customers. We understand that PPP loans are fully guaranteed by the SBA and believe the majority of these loans will be forgiven. However, there can be no assurance that the borrowers will use or have used the funds appropriately or will have satisfied the staffing or payment requirements to qualify for forgiveness in whole or in part. Any portion of the loan that is not forgiven must be repaid by the borrower. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded or serviced by our Bank, which may or may not be related to an ambiguity in the laws, rules or guidance regarding operation of the PPP, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if we have already been paid under the guaranty, seek recovery from us of any loss related to the deficiency. Several other large banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that such banks used in processing applications for the PPP. We and our Bank may be exposed to the risk of litigation, from both customers and non-customers that approached the Bank regarding PPP loans and our PPP process. If any such litigation is filed against the Bank and is not resolved in a manner favorable to the Bank, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect our reputation. In addition, litigation can be costly, regardless of outcome. Any financial liability, litigation costs or reputational damage caused by PPP related litigation could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about clients and counterparties.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements, credit reports and other financial information, or from those customers or counterparties or of other third parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate, fraudulent or misleading financial statements, credit reports or other financial information could result in loan and lease losses, reputational damage or other effects that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

COVID-19 could have negative effects on our hospitality and CRE loans, including loans to hotels, restaurants and health care facilities, which are dependent for repayment on the successful operation and management of the CRE, the strength of the CRE industry broadly and other factors outside of the borrower’s control.
In response to COVID-19, many state and local governments have ordered certain restrictions on non-essential businesses and residents. Certain industries have been particularly hard hit, including the travel and hospitality industry, the restaurant industry and the retail industry. At September 30, 2020, we had outstanding loans to hotels & resorts of $1.21 billion, or 12.0% of total loans, restaurants of $156.5 million, or 1.6% of total loans, arts and entertainment of $130.3 million, or 1.3% of total loans, senior care of $330.7 million, or 3.3% of total loans, and skilled nursing of $250.9 million, or 2.5% of total loans, for a total exposure of $2.07 billion, or 20.7% of total loans. Our CRE loans are dependent on the profitable operation and management of the property securing the loan and its cash flows. The continued spread of COVID-19 could result in further reduction of demand for hotel rooms and related lodging and entertainment services in general, reduction in business and personal travel, reduction in discretionary spending by our borrowers’ customers, increases in employee health related costs for our customers, operational cost increases due to potential labor, food, energy, water, transportation shortages, government forced closures and travel restrictions, or other unanticipated costs related to such force majeure events like COVID-19. These conditions can also lead to a decline in property sales prices and related assets and properties planned for development. Revenues may decline more quickly than borrowers are able to reduce expenses.
If repercussions of the outbreak are prolonged, COVID-19 could have a significant adverse impact, which could be material to our borrowers, by reducing the revenue and cash flows of our borrowers, impacting the borrowers’ ability to repay the loan, increasing the risk of default by our borrowers and/or reducing the foreclosure value of CRE that serves as collateral for certain of our loans. Loans may also be secured by depreciating assets where any repossessed collateral for a defaulted loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment of the outstanding loan balance. Any of the foregoing could negatively impact our borrowers, and their financial results, which, in turn, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to an Investment in the Company's Securities
The value of securities in our investment portfolio may decline in the future.
As of September 30, 2020, we owned $1.77 billion of investment securities. The fair value of our investment securities may be adversely affected by market conditions, including changes in interest rates, and the occurrence of any events adversely affecting the issuer of particular securities in our investments portfolio. We analyze our securities on a quarterly basis to determine if an other-than-temporary impairment has occurred. The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting issuers, we may be required to recognize other-than-temporary impairment in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our ability to declare and pay dividends is now subject to additional regulatory restrictions and we may not pay dividends on our common stock in the future.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such dividends as our Board of Directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Our ability to pay dividends depends primarily on our receipt of dividends from our Bank, the payment of which is subject to numerous limitations under federal and state banking laws, regulations and policies. See "Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Dividends." As a consequence of these various limitations and restrictions, we may not be able to make, or may have to reduce or eliminate, the payment of dividends on our common stock. In addition, as a bank holding company our ability to declare and pay dividends is dependent on certain federal regulatory considerations, including the guidelines of the Federal Reserve regarding capital adequacy and dividends. Due to negative retained earnings, primarily as a result of $713.0 million of impairment of goodwill and certain intangible assets, net of tax, during the second quarter of fiscal year 2020, the Company and our Bank are now required to notify the FRB and the FDIC and SDDB, respectively, prior to declaring and paying a cash dividend from our Bank to the Company and to our shareholders.
During fiscal year 2020, our Board of Directors reduced our dividend paid in the third fiscal quarter to $0.15 per share, from $0.30 per share paid in the second fiscal quarter, and then further reduced the dividend paid to $0.01 per share in the fourth fiscal quarter primarily as a result of the uncertainties and impacts of COVID-19. Any further changes in the level of our dividends or the suspension of the payment thereof by our Board of Directors could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

We may not be able to report our financial results accurately and timely as a publicly listed company if we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting.
Management regularly reviews and updates our internal control over financial reporting, disclosure controls and procedures and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well-designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any circumvention of our controls and procedures, or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and could result in a suspension or delisting of our common stock from the NYSE.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and such capital may not be available when needed or at all.
We may need to raise additional capital, in the form of additional debt or equity, in the future to have sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and fund our business needs and future growth, particularly if the quality of our assets or earnings were to deteriorate significantly. Our ability to raise additional capital, as well as on acceptable terms, if needed, will depend on, among other things, our credit rating, confidence of debt purchasers, conditions in the capital markets at that time, counterparties participating in the capital markets or other disruption in capital markets and our financial condition. Economic conditions and a loss of confidence in financial institutions may increase our cost of funding and limit access to certain customary sources of capital, including inter-bank borrowings, repurchase agreements and borrowings from the discount window of the Federal Reserve System. Further, if we need to raise capital in the future, we may need to compete for investors when seeking to raise capital. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We have been rated as "BBB" with a negative outlook by Kroll Bond Rating Agency (“KBRA”). A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating organization. Our creditworthiness is not fixed and should be expected to change over time as a result of our performance and industry conditions. We cannot give any assurances that our credit ratings will remain at current levels, and it is possible that our ratings could be lowered or withdrawn by KBRA. Any actual or threatened downgrade or withdrawal of our credit rating could affect our perception in the marketplace and our ability to raise capital, and could increase our debt financing costs.
Future issues or sales of our capital stock in the public market could lower our stock price, and any additional capital raised by us through the sale of equity or convertible securities may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders.
Any capital we obtain may result in the dilution of the interests of existing holders of our common stock. The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of the issues or sales of a large number of shares of our capital stock or from the perception that such sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also may make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital by selling equity securities in the future, at a time and price that we deem appropriate.
On June 1, 2020, we filed a shelf registration statement with the SEC registering an indeterminate amount of our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares and debt securities which we may decide to issue in the future. To the extent that we choose to issue our common stock or our preferred stock, or rights relating to our common stock or preferred stock (through the issuance of depositary shares), such issuances will increase the number of our shares of capital stock outstanding and the holders of these shares will be able to sell them in the public market. The specific terms of any shares of capital stock that may be issued under our shelf registration statement will be determined by us prior to issuance based on current market conditions and will be described in a supplement to the prospectus contained in such registration statement.
We have filed a registration statement with the SEC registering 1,497,222 shares of our common stock for issuance pursuant to awards granted under our equity incentive plans. We have granted awards covering 1,137,092 shares of our common stock under these plans as of September 30, 2020. Subject to stockholder approval, we may increase the number of shares registered for this purpose from time to time. Once we issue these shares, their holders will be able to sell them in the public market.
Certain banking laws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation may have an anti-takeover effect.
Provisions of federal banking laws, including regulatory approval requirements, could make it difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be perceived to be beneficial to our stockholders. Acquisition of 10% or more of any class of voting stock of a bank holding company or depository institution, including shares of our common stock, generally creates a rebuttable presumption that the acquirer "controls" the bank holding company or depository institution and the acquisition of such control would be subject to federal regulatory approval. In addition, a bank holding company must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before, among other things, acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank, including our Bank.

There also are provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, such as limitations on the ability to call a special meeting of our stockholders, and the classification of our Board of Directors into three separate classes each serving for three-year terms, that may be used to delay or block a takeover attempt. In addition, our Board of Directors is authorized under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to issue shares of preferred stock, and determine the rights, terms, conditions and privileges of such preferred stock, without stockholder approval. These provisions may effectively inhibit a non-negotiated merger or other business combination, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
We have also elected in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be governed by Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law which generally prohibits a person qualifying as an "interested stockholder" from entering into a transaction for a business combination with us unless, subject to certain exceptions, such transaction is first approved by our Board of Directors. An "interested stockholder" is generally defined as any person who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. The purpose of this election is to provide our Board of Directors with leverage in negotiating with an interested stockholder desiring to pursue a business combination with us by making it more difficult for such stockholder to complete such transaction in the absence of board approval. This election may discourage certain take-over attempts which our stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests and this, in turn, could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
We are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength for our Bank in times of stress.
Under federal law and longstanding Federal Reserve policy, we are expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to our Bank, and to commit resources to support our Bank if necessary. We may be required to commit additional resources to our Bank at times when we may not be in a financial position to provide such resources or when it may not be in our, or our stockholders’ or creditors’, best interests to do so. Providing such support is more likely during times of financial stress for us and our Bank, which may make any capital we are required to raise to provide such support more expensive than it might otherwise be. In addition, any capital loans we make to our Bank are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of our Bank. In the event of our bankruptcy, any commitment by us to a federal banking regulator to maintain the capital of our Bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
We may be subject to more stringent capital requirements in the future.
We are subject to current and changing regulatory requirements specifying minimum amounts and types of capital that we must maintain, which if we fail, we or our subsidiaries may be restricted in the types of activities we may conduct and we may be prohibited from taking certain capital actions, such as paying dividends and repurchasing or redeeming capital securities.
In particular, the capital requirements applicable to us under the recently adopted Capital Rules implementing the Basel III capital framework in the United States started to be phased-in on January 1, 2015. While we expect to meet the requirements of the new Basel III-based Capital Rules, we may fail to do so. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements could result in certain mandatory and possible additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have an adverse material effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, these requirements could have a negative impact on our ability to lend, grow deposit balances, make acquisitions or make capital distributions in the form of dividends or share repurchases. Higher capital levels could also lower our return on equity.
Strategic Risks
Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and jeopardize our financial condition.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities or the terms of which are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry or economy in general. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in the markets in which our loans are concentrated or an adverse regulatory action against us. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as a disruption in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry generally.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and market area.
In our markets, we face significant competition from other commercial banks, savings banks, credit unions, non-bank financial services companies and other financial institutions, particularly nationwide and regional banks and larger community banking institutions. We also face competition for agricultural loans from participants in the nationwide Farm Credit System and global banks. In addition, FinTech's are emerging in key areas of banking. Our competitors may have substantially greater resources and lending limits than we do and may offer services that we do not or cannot provide. Many of our nonfinancial institution competitors have fewer regulatory constraints, broader geographic service areas and, in some cases, lower cost structures. Our profitability depends upon our continued ability to compete in our markets.

The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. Our inability to compete successfully in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may not be able to successfully execute our strategic plan or manage our growth.
Our growth strategy focuses on organic growth, supplemented by acquisitions and requires us to manage several different elements simultaneously. Sustainable growth requires that we manage our risks by balancing loan and deposit growth at acceptable levels of risk, maintaining adequate liquidity and capital, hiring and retaining qualified employees, successfully managing the costs and implementation risks with respect to strategic projects and initiatives, and integrating acquisition targets and managing the costs. Our growth strategy may also change from time to time as a result of various internal and external factors. Our inability to manage our growth successfully could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by risks associated with completed and potential acquisitions.
Our growth strategy includes consideration of potential acquisition opportunities that we believe support our business strategy and may enhance our profitability. We face significant competition from numerous other financial services institutions, many of which will have greater financial resources than we do, when considering acquisition opportunities. Accordingly, attractive acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying or completing any future acquisitions and there is no assurance that, following any mergers or acquisitions, our integration efforts will be successful or that, after giving effect to the acquisition, we will achieve profits comparable to, or better than, our historical experience. Acquisitions also involve numerous risks, including:
the time, expense and diversion of management attention associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisition targets and new markets and negotiating potential transactions;
the accuracy of the estimates and judgments used to evaluate credit, operations, funding, liquidity, liabilities, management and market risks with respect to the target institution;
the risk that the acquired business will not perform to our expectations, including a failure to realize anticipated synergies or cost savings;
difficulties, inefficiencies or cost overruns in integrating and assimilating the organizational cultures, operations, technologies, data, services and products of the acquired business with ours;
the potential loss of key employees or customers;
our ability to finance an acquisition and possible dilution to our existing shareholders; and
the potential for liabilities and claims arising out of the acquired businesses or closing delays and increased expenses related to the resolution of lawsuits filed by shareholders of targets.
Failed bank acquisitions involve risks similar to acquiring operating banks even though the FDIC might provide assistance to mitigate certain risks, such as sharing in exposure to loan and lease losses and providing indemnification against certain liabilities of the failed institution. However, because these acquisitions are typically conducted by the FDIC in a manner that does not allow the time typically taken for a due diligence review or for preparing the integration of an acquired institution, we may face additional risks in transactions with the FDIC. These risks include, among other things, accuracy or completeness of due diligence materials, the loss of core deposits and strain on management resources related to collection and management of problem loans. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in overcoming these risks encountered in connection with such acquisitions, nor that any FDIC-assisted opportunities will be available to us in our markets. Our inability to overcome these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We must generally receive federal regulatory approval before we can acquire a bank or bank holding company. We cannot be certain when or if, or on what terms and conditions, any required regulatory approvals will be granted. We may be required to sell banks or branches as a condition to receiving regulatory approval. Bank regulators consider a number of factors when determining whether to approve a proposed transaction, including the effect of the transaction on financial stability and the ratings and compliance history of all institutions involved, including the CRA, examination results and anti-money-laundering and BSA compliance records of all institutions involved. Failure to comply with such requirements could also have serious legal and reputational consequences, including causing delay in approval or denial of such transactions when regulatory approval is required, or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required.

Our ability to maintain, attract and retain customer relationships is highly dependent on our reputation.
Damage to our reputation could undermine the confidence of our current and potential customers. Such damage could also impair the confidence of our counterparties and vendors and affect our ability to effect transactions. Maintenance of our reputation depends on customer service and mitigation of the various risks described herein, as well as on identifying and appropriately addressing issues that may arise in areas such as potential conflicts of interest, anti-money laundering, privacy, employee, customer and other third party fraud, record-keeping, regulatory investigations and any litigation that may arise from the failure or perceived failure of us to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, successfully preventing third parties from infringing on the "Great Western Bank" brand and associated trademarks and our other intellectual property and avoiding adverse publicity or negative information regarding our Company, whether or not true, that may be posted on social media, non-mainstream news services or other parts of the internet. Defense of our reputation, trademarks and other intellectual property, could result in material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Changes in our accounting policies or in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial condition or results of operations.
From time to time, the FASB, SEC and other regulators change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements, potentially requiring us to modify certain of the assumptions or estimates we have previously used in preparing our financial statements, negatively impacting how we record and report our results of operations and financial condition generally. For additional information on the key areas for which assumptions and estimates are used in preparing our financial statements, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and the Impact of Accounting Estimates."
Our accounting estimates and risk management processes rely on analytical and forecasting techniques.
Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. Our management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many of these accounting policies and methods so they comply with U.S. GAAP and reflect management’s judgment of the most appropriate manner to report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, management must select the accounting policy or method to apply from two or more alternatives, any of which may be reasonable under the circumstances, yet which may result in our reporting materially different results than would have been reported under a different alternative.
Certain accounting policies are critical to presenting our financial condition and results of operations. They require management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments about matters that are uncertain. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates. These critical accounting policies include, but are not limited to, the allowance for loan and lease losses, valuation of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, goodwill impairment, investment impairments, core deposits and other intangibles, derivatives and income taxes. Because of the uncertainty of estimates involved in these matters, we may be required to do one or more of the following: significantly increase the allowance for loan and lease losses or sustain loan and lease losses that are significantly higher than the reserve provided; recognize significant impairment on goodwill and other intangible asset balances; reduce the carrying value of an asset measured at fair value; or significantly increase our accrued tax liability. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. For a discussion of our critical accounting policies, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and the Impact of Accounting Estimates."
We may be adversely affected by changes in the actual or perceived soundness or condition of other financial institutions.
Within the financial services industry, loss of public confidence, including through default by any one institution, could lead to liquidity challenges or to defaults by other institutions as the commercial and financial soundness of many financial institutions is closely related as a result of these credit, trading, clearing and other relationships. Even the perceived lack of creditworthiness of, or questions about, a counterparty may lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by various institutions.

Operational Risk
Operational risks are inherent in our business, including existing and new lines of business, products and services; and internal controls, processes and procedures that may fail or be circumvented.
Our operations depend on our ability to process a very large number of transactions efficiently and accurately while complying with applicable laws and regulations, and to establish and maintain products and services that operationally function accurately and correctly. Although we have implemented risk controls and loss mitigation actions, policies, procedures, corporate governance and substantial resources devoted to developing efficient procedures, identifying and rectifying weaknesses in existing procedures and training staff, the foregoing can only provide reasonable (not absolute) assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure, circumvention or weakness in these systems or controls, or any actual or alleged violations of laws or regulations, could result in increased regulatory scrutiny, enforcement actions, reputational impact or legal proceedings and could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Such failure, circumventions or weakness could necessitate changes to our controls, processes and procedures, which may increase our compliance costs, divert management attention from our business. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our operations could be interrupted if certain external vendors on which we rely experience difficulty, terminate their services or fail to comply with banking laws and regulations.
We depend to a significant extent on relationships with third party service providers. Specifically, we utilize third party core banking services and receive credit card and debit card services, branch capture services, Internet banking services and services complementary to our banking products from various third party service providers. These types of third party relationships are subject to increasingly demanding regulatory requirements where we must maintain and continue to enhance our due diligence and ongoing monitoring and control over our third party vendors. We may be required to renegotiate our agreements to meet these enhanced requirements, which could increase our costs. If our service providers experience difficulties or terminate their services and we are unable to replace them, our operations could be interrupted. It may be difficult for us to timely replace some of our service providers, which may be at a higher cost due to the unique services they provide. A third party provider may fail to provide the services we require, or meet contractual requirements, comply with applicable laws and regulations, or suffer a cyber attack or other security breach. We expect that our regulators will hold us responsible for deficiencies of our third party relationships which could result in enforcement actions, including civil money penalties or other administrative or judicial penalties or fines, or customer remediation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to risks related to employee management, conduct and compensation.
Our success depends, in large part, on the skills of our management team and our ability to retain, recruit and motivate key officers and employees that may be difficult to replace. We cannot predict whether significant resignations will occur. Our ability to effectively compete for senior executives and other qualified personnel with appropriate skills and knowledge to support our business may require us to offer compensation, including incentive based compensation, and benefits which could reduce our earnings. In addition, such arrangements may be restricted by applicable banking laws and regulations such as the compensation-related provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act, and other laws now and in the future, which prohibit incentive-based payment arrangements that encourage inappropriate risk taking. Deficiencies identified could lead to diminished supervisory ratings, enforcement actions and legal and reputational risk. For more information see "Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Incentive Compensation."
Due to competition and other factors, we may have difficulty recruiting qualified personnel, including uniquely qualified banking personnel to provide relationship based commercial and agribusiness banking services, to ensure the continued growth and successful operation of our business. We may also fail to detect and prevent fraudulent, illegal or wrongful activities by our employees. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We rely extensively on models in managing many aspects of our business, and these models may be inaccurate or misinterpreted.
We rely extensively on models in managing many aspects of our business, including liquidity and capital planning, customer selection, credit and other risk management, pricing, reserving and collections management. The models may prove in practice to be less predictive than we expect. The errors or inaccuracies in our models may be material, and could lead us to make wrong or sub-optimal decisions in managing our business, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. See "—Our business depends on our ability to successfully manage credit risk" for more information on models utilized in credit activities.

Risks Related to Legal, Reputational and Compliance Matters
Litigation and regulatory actions, including possible enforcement actions, could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments or other requirements resulting in increased expenses or restrictions on our business activities.
Our business is subject to increased litigation and regulatory risks as a result of a number of factors, including the highly regulated nature of the financial services industry and the focus of state and federal prosecutors on banks and the financial services industry generally. In the normal course of business, we are periodically involved in claims and related litigation from our customers, employees or other parties. These claims and legal actions, whether meritorious or not, as well as reviews, investigations and proceedings by governmental and self-regulatory agencies could involve large monetary claims and significant legal expense and may negatively impact our reputation in the marketplace and lessen customer demand. Further, any settlement, consent order or adverse judgment in connection with any formal or informal proceeding or investigation by government agencies may result in litigation, investigations or proceedings as other litigants and government agencies begin independent reviews of the same activities. As a result, the outcome of legal and regulatory actions could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The banking industry is highly regulated, and the regulatory framework, together with any future legislative or regulatory changes, may have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The banking industry is extensively regulated and supervised under federal and state laws and regulations, and payment card industry operating regulations that are intended primarily for the protection of depositors, customers, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not for the protection of our stockholders and creditors. We are subject to regulation and supervision by the Federal Reserve, and our Bank is subject to regulation and supervision by the FDIC, the SD Division of Banking and the CFPB. The laws and regulations applicable to us govern a variety of matters, including permissible types, amounts and terms of loans and investments we may make, the maximum interest rate that may be charged, the amount of reserves our Bank must hold against deposits it takes, the types of deposits our Bank may accept and the rates it may pay on such deposits, maintenance of adequate capital and liquidity, changes in the control of us and our Bank, restrictions on dividends and establishment of new offices by our Bank. We must obtain approval from our regulators before engaging in certain activities, and there can be no assurance that any regulatory approvals we may require will be obtained, either in a timely manner or at all. Our regulators also have the ability to compel us to, or restrict us from, taking certain actions entirely, such as actions that our regulators deem to constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. Our failure to comply with payment card operating regulations could result in termination of our license to use the payment card networks. Failure to comply with any applicable laws or regulations, or regulatory policies and interpretations of such laws and regulations, could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties or damage to our reputation, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Federal and state banking laws and regulations continue to undergo substantial change. Financial institutions generally have also been subjected to increased scrutiny from regulatory authorities which may result in increased costs of doing business, decreased revenues and net income, reductions in our ability to effectively compete to attract and retain customers, or make it less attractive for us to continue providing certain products and services. Any future changes could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, impact the regulatory structure under which we operate, significantly increase our costs, impede the efficiency of our internal business processes, require us to increase our regulatory capital and modify our business strategy, limit our ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner, or other ways that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to heightened regulatory requirements as our total assets exceed $10 billion.
The Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations impose various additional requirements on bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total assets, including compliance with portions of the Federal Reserve’s enhanced prudential oversight requirements, more restrictive interchange revenue and a more frequent and enhanced regulatory examination regime. In addition, banks, including ours, with $10 billion or more in total assets are primarily examined by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations, with the FDIC maintaining supervision over some consumer related regulations. As a relatively new agency with evolving regulations and practices, there is some uncertainty as to how the CFPB’s examination and regulatory authority might impact our business. Compliance with these requirements may necessitate that we hire additional compliance or other personnel, design and implement additional internal controls, or incur other significant expenses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to the CRA, fair lending, consumer compliance, and other laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could lead to material penalties.
The CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations impose non-discriminatory lending and other requirements on financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice and other federal agencies, including the FDIC and CFPB, are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. A successful challenge to an institution’s performance under the CRA, fair lending and other compliance laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including the required payment of damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, imposition of restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity and restrictions on expansion. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. The costs of defending, and any adverse outcome from, any such challenge could damage our reputation or could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our Bank received an overall rating of "satisfactory" in its most recently completed CRA examination.
Violations of applicable consumer protection laws can result in significant potential liability from litigation brought by customers, including actual damages, restitution and attorney's fees. Federal bank regulators, state attorney generals and state and local consumer protection agencies may also seek to enforce consumer protection requirements and obtain these and other remedies, including regulatory sanctions, enforcement actions, customer rescission rights and civil money penalties in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in delays or restrictions on mergers and acquisitions and expansionary activities we may wish to pursue.
Failure to comply with the USA PATRIOT ACT, OFAC, the BSA and related FinCEN and FFIEC Guidelines and regulations could result in material implications.
Regulatory authorities routinely examine financial institutions for compliance with the USA PATRIOT ACT, OFAC, the BSA and related FinCEN and FFIEC Guidelines. Certain of our products we offer may expose us to enhanced risk in the event of noncompliance, including and not limited to providing our treasury management services to certain money transmitters and money services businesses. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs as required by these obligations to combat terrorist financing, elder abuse, human trafficking, anti-money laundering and other suspicious activity and to fully comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal, financial and reputational consequences for us, causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required. Regulatory authorities have imposed cease and desist orders and significant civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these regulations.
Risks Related to Privacy and Technology
Regulations relating to privacy, information security and data protection could increase our costs, affect or limit how we collect and use personal information and adversely affect our business opportunities.
We are subject to various privacy, information security and data protection laws, such as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act which, among other things requires privacy disclosures, and maintenance of a robust security program that are increasingly subject to change which could have a significant impact on our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, our collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer or employee information, and some of our current or planned business activities. New or changes to existing laws increase our costs of compliance and business operations and could reduce income from certain business initiatives, including increased privacy-related enforcement activity, higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions or results of operations. Our regulators also hold us responsible for privacy and data protection obligations performed by our third party service providers while providing services to us. Our failure to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws could result in potentially significant regulatory or governmental investigations or actions, litigation, fines, sanctions and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Interruptions, cyber-attacks or other security breaches could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In the normal course of business, we directly or through third parties collect, store, share, process and retain sensitive and confidential information regarding our customers. We devote significant resources and management focus to ensuring the integrity of our systems, against damage from fires, other natural disasters; power or telecommunications failures; acts of terrorism or wars or other catastrophic events; breaches, physical break-ins or errors resulting in interruptions and unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, through information security and business continuity programs. Notwithstanding, our facilities and systems, and those of third party service providers, are vulnerable to external or internal security breaches, acts of vandalism, computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming or human errors, force majeure events, or other similar events.

Increased use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies (including mobile devices) to conduct financial and other business transactions and operations, coupled with the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, terrorists and others increases our security risks. In addition to cyber-attacks or other security breaches involving the theft of sensitive and confidential information, hackers continue to engage in attacks against large financial institutions. These attacks include denial of service attacks designed to disrupt external customer facing services, and ransomware attacks designed to deny organizations access to key internal resources or systems. We are not able to anticipate or implement effective preventive measures against all security breaches of these types, especially because the techniques used change frequently and because attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources. We employ detection and response mechanisms designed to contain and mitigate security incidents, but early detection may be thwarted by sophisticated attacks and malware designed to avoid detection.
The access by unauthorized persons to, or the improper disclosure by us of, confidential information regarding our customers or our own proprietary information, software, methodologies and business secrets, failures or disruptions in our communications, information and technology systems, or our failure to adequately address them, could negatively affect our customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan or other systems. The occurrence of any failures or interruptions of our communications, information and technology systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We could be required to provide notices of security breaches. Such failures could result in a loss of confidence in the security of our systems, our payment cards, products and services, and negative effects on our brand which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We continually encounter technological change.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new, technology-driven products and services which increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. We may not be able to effectively implement new, technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers and service interruptions, transaction processing errors and system conversion delays and may cause us to fail to comply with applicable laws. Such failure could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
General Risk Factors
Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism or other external events could significantly impact our business.
Severe weather, natural disasters, widespread disease or new pandemics, acts of war or terrorism or other adverse external events could have a significant impact on our ability to conduct business. In addition, such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue or cause us to incur additional expenses. Because of the concentration of agricultural loans in our lending portfolio and the volume of our borrowers in regions dependent on agriculture, we could be disproportionately affected relative to others in the case of external events such as floods, droughts and hail affecting the agricultural conditions in the markets we serve. The occurrence of any of these events in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may have exposure to tax liabilities that are larger than we anticipate.
The tax laws applicable to our business activities, including the laws of the United States, South Dakota and other jurisdictions, are subject to interpretation and may change over time. From time to time, legislative initiatives, such as corporate tax rate changes, which may impact our effective tax rate and could adversely affect our deferred tax assets or our tax positions or liabilities, may be enacted. The taxing authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our tax positions, which could increase our effective tax rate and harm our financial position and results of operations. In addition, our future income taxes could be adversely affected by earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates or by changes in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles. We are subject to audit and review by U.S. federal and state tax authorities. Any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our financial position and results of operations. In addition, the determination of our provision for income taxes and other liabilities requires significant judgment by management. Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.

Our corporate headquarters is located at 225 S. Main Ave, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104, and in Sioux Falls we have two leased facilities for our data center and operations center. In addition to our corporate headquarters, we operate from 175 branch offices located in 130 communities in Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota. We lease 49 of our branch offices, all on market terms, and we own the remainder of our offices, including our corporate headquarters. All of our banking offices are in free-standing, permanent facilities. We generally believe our existing and contracted-for facilities are adequate to meet our requirements.
From time to time, we are a party to various litigation and regulatory matters incidental to the conduct of our business. We establish reserves for such matters when potential losses become probable and can be reasonably estimated. We believe the ultimate resolution of existing litigation and regulatory matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. However, changes in circumstances or additional information could result in additional accruals or resolution of these matters in excess of established accruals, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, potentially materially.
Not applicable.

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "GWB." As of November 12, 2020, we had 9,052 holders of record. Information regarding the trading price and dividends paid on our common stock for each quarterly period within the two most recent fiscal years is set forth in the table below.
HighLowDividends Paid
Fiscal Year 2020:
First Quarter$36.65 $31.74 $0.30 
Second Quarter34.97 16.87 0.30 
Third Quarter20.92 10.86 0.15 
Fourth Quarter15.74 11.67 0.01 
Fiscal Year 2019:
First Quarter$42.86 $29.52 $0.25 
Second Quarter38.78 30.48 0.25 
Third Quarter36.21 30.74 0.30 
Fourth Quarter36.44 28.06 0.30 
We intend to pay quarterly cash dividends on our common stock, subject to approval by our Board of Directors. Although we expect to pay dividends according to our dividend policy, we may elect not to pay dividends. Any declarations of dividends, and the amount and timing thereof, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors. In determining the amount of any future dividends, our Board of Directors will take into account: (i) our financial results; (ii) our available cash, as well as anticipated cash requirements (including debt servicing); (iii) our capital requirements and the capital requirements of our subsidiaries (including our Bank); (iv) contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions on, and implications of, the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our Bank to us; (v) general economic and business conditions; and (vi) any other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will pay any dividends to holders of our stock, or as to the amount of any such dividends. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to an Investment in the Company's Securities—Our ability to declare and pay dividends is now subject to additional regulatory restrictions and we may not pay dividends on our common stock in the future."

Our ability to declare and pay dividends on our stock is also subject to numerous limitations applicable to bank holding companies under federal and state banking laws, regulations and policies. Federal bank regulators are authorized to determine under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company or a bank that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. In addition, under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, we may only pay dividends from legally available surplus or, if there is no such surplus, out of our net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and the preceding fiscal year. Surplus is generally defined as the excess of the fair value of our total assets over the sum of the fair value of our total liabilities plus the aggregate par value of our issued and outstanding capital stock.
Because we are a holding company and do not engage directly in other business activities of a material nature, our ability to pay dividends on our stock depends primarily upon our receipt of dividends from our Bank, the payment of which is subject to numerous limitations under federal and state banking laws, regulations and policies. In general, dividends by our Bank may only be declared from its net profits and may be declared no more than once per calendar quarter. The approval of the South Dakota Director of Banking is required if our Bank seeks to pay aggregate dividends during any calendar year that would exceed the sum of its net profits from the year to date and retained net profits from the preceding two years, minus any required transfers to surplus. Moreover, under the FDIA an insured depository institution may not pay any dividends if the institution is undercapitalized or if the payment of the dividend would cause the institution to become undercapitalized. In addition, the federal bank regulatory agencies have issued policy statements providing that FDIC-insured depository institutions and their holding companies should generally pay dividends only out of their current operating earnings. See "Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation—Dividends" for more information on federal and state banking laws, regulations and policies limiting our and our Bank’s ability to declare and pay dividends. The current and future dividend policy of our Bank is also subject to the discretion of its Board of Directors. Our Bank is not obligated to pay dividends to us. For additional information, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to an Investment in the Company's Securities—Our ability to declare and pay dividends is now subject to additional regulatory restrictions and we may not pay dividends on our common stock in the future."
None of the indentures governing our outstanding junior subordinated debentures or lines of credit contain covenants limiting our ability or the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends, absent a default under the terms of the indenture, or under our guarantee of the trust preferred securities issued by our affiliate that owns the applicable debentures, or a deferral of the payment of interest on such debentures in accordance with the terms of the applicable indenture.
Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, holders of our common stock and non-voting common stock will be equally entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared from time to time by our Board of Directors out of legally available funds. No shares of our non-voting common stock are currently outstanding.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides information as of September 30, 2020 about our common stock that may be issued under our equity compensation plans, which consist of the Great Western Bancorp, Inc. 2014 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan and the Great Western Bancorp, Inc. 2014 Non-Employee Director Plan. On February 22, 2018, our stockholders approved an amendment to each of our equity compensation plans increasing the number of authorized shares available for future grants.
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding restricted and performance based stock compensation
Weighted average exercise price of outstanding restricted and performance based stock compensation
Number of securities available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders ¹423,673 $33.09 360,130 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total423,673 $33.09 360,130 
1 Each of our equity compensation plans were approved by the our Board of Directors on October 8, 2014 and subsequently approved by National Americas Holdings LLC, our sole stockholder at that time, on October 10, 2014.
Purchases of Equity Securities
On September 1, 2019, our Board of Directors approved an amendment to our stock repurchase program originally approved on October 26, 2016, wherein we were authorized to repurchase up to $100.0 million of our common stock ("Repurchase Program"). Pursuant to the amendment, we may repurchase up to an additional $75.0 million of our common stock. The Repurchase Program permits shares to be repurchased in the open market, including pursuant to any trading plan that may be adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the SEC. Repurchases may be made at management’s discretion at prices management considers to be attractive, subject to the availability of stock, general market conditions, the applicable trading price, future alternative advantageous uses for capital, and our financial performance. Open market purchases will be conducted in accordance with the limitations set forth in Rule 10b-18 of the SEC and other applicable legal requirements. At September 30, 2020, we had $35.1 million available for future purchases of our common stock under the amended Repurchase Program.

The Repurchase Program has no time limit and may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason, including market conditions, the cost of repurchasing shares, the availability of alternative investment opportunities, liquidity, and other factors deemed appropriate. These factors may also affect the timing and amount of share repurchases. The Repurchase Program does not obligate us to purchase any particular number of shares. Any shares acquired will be canceled and become authorized but unissued shares, available for future issuance.
We did not repurchase any of our common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020.
Total Shareholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock, from October 14, 2014, the date a trading market was established for our common stock, to the cumulative total returns for the Standard & Poor's ("S&P") 500 Index, Russell 2000 Index and Keefe, Bruyette & Woods ("KBW") Regional Bank Index. We have determined to compare our performance to the KBW Regional Bank Index for purpose of the graph as it includes most of the peer banks we typically use for comparison purposes. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on October 14, 2014 in our common stock and the above indexes. The cumulative total return on each investment is as of September 30, 2020 and assumes reinvestment of dividends.
As of September 30, 2020
Great Western Bancorp Inc.$79.55 
S&P 500$202.06 
Russell 2000$154.20 
KBW Regional Bank Index$104.77 


The following consolidated financial data as of and for the dates and periods indicated is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. The selected consolidated financial data presented below is not indicative of our future results for any period. The selected consolidated financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The historical financial information below also contains non-GAAP financial measures, which have not been audited.
At and for Fiscal Years Ended September 30,
(Dollars in thousands except share and per share amounts)
Income Statement Data:
Interest income$493,572 $542,917 $481,837 $434,515 $388,982 
Interest expense74,147 122,209 74,000 45,320 33,524 
Net interest income419,425 420,708 407,837 389,195 355,458 
Provision for loan and lease losses118,392 40,947 17,986 21,539 16,955 
Net interest income, after provision for loan and lease losses301,033 379,761 389,851 367,656 338,503 
Noninterest income17 60,732 73,609 63,214 49,253 
Noninterest expense1,007,368 224,898 231,425 216,643 207,640 
Income before income taxes(706,318)215,595 232,035 214,227 180,116 
Provision for income taxes(25,510)48,230 74,119 69,441 58,863 
Net income$(680,808)$167,365 $157,916 $144,786 $121,253 
Other Financial Info / Performance Ratios:
Net interest margin3.59 %3.74 %3.89 %3.90 %3.89 %
Adjusted net interest margin ¹3.51 %3.74 %3.84 %3.76 %3.66 %
Return on average total assets (5.32)%1.33 %1.34 %1.27 %1.16 %
Return on average common equity(44.2)%9.1 %8.8 %8.5 %7.9 %
Return on average tangible common equity ¹2.9 %15.3 %15.3 %15.4 %15.1 %
Efficiency ratio ¹61.9 %45.8 %47.1 %46.5 %49.6 %
Dividends per common share$0.76 $1.10 $0.90 $0.74 $0.56 
Dividend payout ratio(6.2)%37.6 %33.7 %30.2 %26.1 %
Earnings per common share - diluted$(12.24)$2.92 $2.67 $2.45 $2.14 
Adjusted earnings per common share - diluted ¹$1.60 $2.92 $2.90 $2.46 $2.31 
Balance Sheet Data:
Loans ²$10,076,142 $9,706,763 $9,415,924 $8,968,553 $8,682,644 
Allowance for loan and lease losses149,887 70,774 64,540 63,503 64,642 
Investment securities1,774,626 1,783,208 1,385,650 1,367,960 1,315,860 
Goodwill— 739,023 739,023 739,023 739,023 
Total assets12,604,439 12,788,301 12,116,808 11,690,011 11,531,180 
Total deposits11,008,779 10,300,339 9,733,499 8,977,613 8,604,790 
Total liabilities11,441,506 10,888,052 10,276,257 9,935,011 9,867,789 
Total stockholders’ equity1,162,933 1,900,249 1,840,551 1,755,000 1,663,391 
Asset Quality Ratios:
Nonaccrual loans / total loans3.22 %1.10 %1.52 %1.54 %1.46 %
Allowance for loan and lease losses / total loans1.49 %0.73 %0.69 %0.71 %0.74 %
Net charge-offs / average total loans0.40 %0.36 %0.18 %0.26 %0.12 %
Capital Ratios:
Tier 1 capital ratio11.8 %11.7 %12.0 %11.4 %11.1 %
Total capital ratio13.3 %12.7 %13.0 %12.5 %12.2 %
Tier 1 leverage ratio9.4 %10.1 %10.7 %10.3 %9.5 %
Common equity tier 1 ratio11.0 %11.0 %11.3 %10.7 %10.2 %
Tangible common equity to tangible assets ¹9.2 %9.6 %9.6 %9.2 %8.5 %
Book value per share - GAAP$21.14 $33.76 $31.24 $29.83 $28.34 
Tangible book value per share ¹$21.03 $20.52 $18.57 $17.11 $15.55 
1 This is a non-GAAP financial measure we believe is helpful to interpreting our financial results. For more information on this non-GAAP financial measure, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures" and for a reconciliation to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, see "—Non-GAAP Financial Measures Reconciliations".
2 Loans include unpaid principal balance net of unamortized discount on acquired loans and unearned net deferred fees and costs and net loans in process.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures Reconciliations
For more information on these financial measures, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures."
At and for Fiscal Years Ended September 30,
(Dollars in thousands except share and per share amounts)
Adjusted net income and adjusted earnings per common share:
Net (loss) income - GAAP$(680,808)$167,365 $157,916 $144,786 $121,253 
Add: Acquisition expenses, net of tax— — — 440 9,729 
Add: COVID-19 related impairment of goodwill and certain intangible assets, net of tax713,013 — — — — 
Add: COVID-19 impact on credit and other related charges, net of tax ¹56,685 — — — — 
Add: Deferred taxes revaluation due to Tax Reform Act— — 13,586 — — 
Adjusted net income$88,890 $167,365 $171,502 $145,226 $130,982 
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding55,612,251 57,257,061 59,131,650 59,029,382 56,729,350 
Earnings per common share - diluted$(12.24)$2.92 $2.67 $2.45 $2.14 
Adjusted earnings per common share - diluted$1.60 $2.92 $2.90 $2.46 $2.31 
1 COVID-19 impact on credit and other related charges, net of tax, were incurred in the second quarter of fiscal year 2020. Subsequent to the second quarter of fiscal year 2020, we ceased separating credit-related charges between those related or unrelated to the COVID-19 pandemic as it became more difficult to attribute losses cause or not caused by the pandemic as it continues.
Tangible net income and return on average tangible common equity:
Net (loss) income - GAAP$(680,808)$167,365 $157,916 $144,786 $121,253 
Add: Amortization of intangible assets and COVID-19 related impairment of goodwill and certain intangible assets, net of tax714,339 1,337 1,460 2,044 2,384 
Tangible net income$33,531 $168,702 $159,376 $146,830 $123,637 
Average common equity$1,541,314 $1,847,477 1,788,153 1,702,225 1,541,844 
Less: Average goodwill and other intangible assets375,549 745,920 747,513 749,393 721,726 
Average tangible common equity$1,165,765 $1,101,557 $1,040,640 $952,832 $820,118 
Return on average common equity *(44.2)%9.1 %8.8 %8.5 %7.9 %
Return on average tangible common equity **2.9 %15.3 %15.3 %15.4 %15.1 %
* Calculated as net income - GAAP divided by average common equity.
** Calculated as tangible net income divided by average tangible common equity.
Adjusted net interest income and adjusted net interest margin (fully-tax equivalent basis):
Net interest income - GAAP$419,425 $420,708 $407,837 $389,195 $355,458 
Add: Tax equivalent adjustment6,146 5,843 6,597 8,599 7,534 
Net interest income (FTE)425,571 426,551 414,434 397,794 362,992 
Add: Current realized derivative gain (loss)(8,721)619 (5,365)(14,395)(20,727)
Adjusted net interest income (FTE)$416,850 $427,170 $409,069 $383,399 $342,265 
Average interest-earning assets$11,868,666 $11,414,926 $10,647,357 $10,209,741 $9,339,858 
Net interest margin (FTE) *3.59 %3.74 %3.89 %3.90 %3.89 %
Adjusted net interest margin (FTE) **3.51 %3.74 %3.84 %3.76 %3.66 %
* Calculated as net interest income (FTE) divided by average interest earning assets.
** Calculated as adjusted net interest income (FTE) divided by average interest earning assets.
Adjusted interest income and adjusted yield (fully-tax equivalent basis), on non-ASC 310-30 loans:
Interest income - GAAP$443,709 $490,910 $439,789 $396,481 $356,271 
Add: Tax equivalent adjustment6,146 5,843 6,597 8,599 7,534 
Interest income (FTE)449,855