S-3 1 forms-3.htm

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 20, 2020

Registration No. 333-

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

Form S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

Ocean Power Technologies, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   22-2535818
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

28 Engelhard Drive, Suite B
Monroe Township, New Jersey 08831
(609) 730-0400

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

George H. Kirby III
Chief Executive Officer

28 Engelhard Drive, Suite B

Monroe Township, New Jersey 08831
(609) 730-0400

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

Copies to:

 

Robert Reedy

Kevin Poli

Porter Hedges LLP

1000 Main, 36th Floor

Houston, Texas 77002

Telephone: (713) 226-6682

Telecopy: (713) 228-1331

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. [  ]

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. [X]

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. [  ]

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. [  ]

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company and an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

  Large accelerated filer [  ]   Accelerated filer [  ]
  Non-accelerated filer [X]   Smaller reporting company [X]
  Emerging growth company [  ]    

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered (1)  Amount to be Registered   Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price per Unit   Proposed Maximum Offering Price   Amount of Registration Fee 
Debt Securities (2)                                           
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share                    
Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share                    
Depositary Shares (3)                    
Warrants                    
Subscription Rights                    
Purchase Contracts                    
Units (6)                    
Total            $100,000,000(4)  $10,910(5)

 

(1) The securities registered consist of $100,000,000 of an indeterminate number or amount of Debt Securities, Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Subscription Rights, Purchase Contracts and Units, as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices. In no event will the aggregate initial offering price of all securities issued from time to time pursuant to this registration statement exceed $100,000,000 or the equivalent thereof in foreign currencies, foreign currency units or composite currencies. This registration statement also covers an indeterminate amount of securities registered hereunder and listed in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table above as may be issued in exchange for, or upon conversion or exercise of, as the case may be, the securities registered hereunder and listed in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table above. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends, or similar transactions.

 

(2) If any Debt Securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of the Debt Securities shall be in such amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000 less the offering price of any security previously issued hereunder.

 

(3) Such indeterminate number of Depositary Shares to be evidenced by Depositary Receipts issued pursuant to a deposit agreement. In the event that the registrant elects to offer to the public fractional interests in shares of Preferred Stock registered hereunder, Depositary Receipts will be distributed to those persons purchasing the fractional interests and the shares of Preferred Stock will be issued to the depositary under the deposit agreement.

 

(4) The proposed maximum aggregate offering price has been estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) of the Securities Act.

 

(5) Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) of the Securities Act.

 

(6) Each unit will represent an interest in two or more other securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

 

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 
 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains:

 

  a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sales by us of up to $100,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and
     
  a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sales by us of up to $50,000,000 in the aggregate of shares of common stock that may be issued and sold identified above from time to time under a sales agreement by and between us and A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners, as sales agent.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $100,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement, any portion of the $50,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $50,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus.

 

 
 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, DATED NOVEMBER 20, 2020

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

OCEAN POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

$100,000,000

 

Debt Securities
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Warrants

Subscription Rights
Purchase Contracts
Units

 

 

We may offer from time to time debt securities, shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts and units.

 

The aggregate initial offering price of the securities that we offer will not exceed $100,000,000. We will offer the securities in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of the offering.

 

Our common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “OPTT.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on November 18, 2020 was $1.89 per share.

 

We will provide the specific terms of the offering in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you invest. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks that are described in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 4 of this prospectus.

 

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is               , 2020.

 

 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS ii
ocean power technologies, Inc. 1
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 2
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 3
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 3
RISK FACTORS 4
USE OF PROCEEDS 4
DILUTION 4
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 5
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 22
DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES 25
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 27
DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS 29
DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS 30
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 31
FOrmS OF SECURITIES 32
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 33
LEGAL MATTERS 36
EXPERTS 36

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the Commission or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering and the offered securities. This prospectus, together with applicable prospectus supplements, any information incorporated by reference, and any related free writing prospectuses we file with the Commission, includes all material information relating to these offerings and securities. We may also add, update or change in the prospectus supplement any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including without limitation, a discussion of any risk factors or other special considerations that apply to these offerings or securities or the specific plan of distribution. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and a prospectus supplement or information incorporated by reference having a later date, you should rely on the information in that prospectus supplement or incorporated information having a later date. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference” and the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus.

 

Neither the delivery of this prospectus nor any sale made under it implies that there has been no change in our affairs or that the information in this prospectus is correct as of any date after the date of this prospectus. You should assume that the information in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

 

The registration statement containing this prospectus, including exhibits to the registration statement, provides additional information about us and the securities offered under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have filed and plan to continue to file other documents with the Commission that contain information about us and our business. Also, we will file legal documents that control the terms of the securities offered by this prospectus as exhibits to the reports that we file with the Commission. The registration statement and other reports can be read at the Commission website or at the Commission offices mentioned under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

ii
 

 

ocean power technologies, Inc.

 

As used in this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, “we,” “our,” “us,” “Company” or similar terms refer collectively to Ocean Power Technologies, Inc., and not the subsidiaries of Ocean Power Technologies, Inc.

 

We are a marine power solutions provider. We control the design, manufacture, sales, installation, operations and maintenance of our products and solutions while working closely with partners that provide payloads, integration services, and marine installation capabilities. We believe our solutions provide persistent and reliable distributed offshore power along with communications for remote surface and subsea applications. Our mission and purpose are to utilize our proprietary, state-of-the-art technologies to enhance the environment by reducing the global carbon footprint through clean and renewable solutions for reliable electrical power and, in so doing, drive demand for our products and services.

 

We also continue to develop and commercialize our proprietary systems that generate electricity by harnessing the renewable energy of ocean waves for our PB3 PowerBuoy®, and solar power for our newest product, the hybrid PowerBuoy®. The PB3 PowerBuoy® uses proprietary technologies that convert the kinetic energy created by the heaving motion of ocean waves into electricity. Based on feedback from our current customers, discussions with potential future customers in the offshore oil and gas, defense and security, science and research, and communications, as well as government applications in fishery protection, together with our market research and publicly available data, we believe that numerous markets have a direct need for our solutions. While our recent projects have been in the oil and gas industry, we believe there is an increasing need for our products and solutions in areas such as fishery protection, offshore windfarm support, marine surveillance, and ocean-based science and research applications. We believe that having demonstrated the capability of our solutions, we can advance our product and services and gain further adoption from our target markets. Our marketing efforts are focused on offshore locations that require a cost-efficient solution for renewable, reliable and persistent power and communications, either by supplying electric power to payloads that are integrated directly with our product or located in its vicinity, such as on the seabed and in the water column. We believe we are the leader in offshore autonomous ocean wave power conversion technology which provides renewable power for offshore operations that were previously difficult to decarbonize.

 

Our achievements during the first six months of fiscal 2021 included our continued work on Enel Green Power and Eni S.p.A. projects. In October 2020, we entered into an agreement with Adams Communication & Engineering Technology, Inc. to, among other things, conduct a feasibility study for the evaluation of a PB3 PowerBuoy® power and 5G communications solution in support of the U.S. Navy’s Naval Postgraduate School’s Sea, Land, Air, Military Research Initiative, which conducts interdisciplinary research in unmanned and robotic systems. In June 2020, we signed a memorandum of understanding with Mackay Marine (a division of Mackay Communications) to develop a Marine Surveillance Solution.

 

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of New Jersey in April 1984 and began commercial operations in 1994. On April 23, 2007, we reincorporated in the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 28 Engelhard Drive, Suite B, Monroe Township, New Jersey. Our telephone number is (609) 730-0400. We maintain a website at www.oceanpowertechnologies.com where general information about us is available. We are not incorporating the contents of the website into this prospectus.

 

1
 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

The information discussed in this prospectus, our filings with the SEC and our public releases include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “PSLRA”), or in releases made by the SEC. Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause the actual results, performance or achievements of us to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Statements that are not historical fact are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified by, among other things, the use of forward-looking language, such as the words “plan,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “project,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “seeks,” or “scheduled to,” or other similar words, or the negative of these terms or other variations of these terms or comparable language, or by discussion of strategy or intentions. These cautionary statements are being made pursuant to the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the PSLRA with the intention of obtaining the benefits of the “safe harbor” provisions of such laws.

 

The forward-looking statements contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus are largely based on our expectations, which reflect estimates and assumptions made by our management. These estimates and assumptions reflect our best judgment based on currently known market conditions and other factors. Although we believe such estimates and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently uncertain and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are beyond our control, including:

 

  the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, customers, suppliers and manufacturers;
  our ability to commercialize our products, and achieve and sustain profitability;
  our continued development of our proprietary technologies, and expected continued use of cash from operating activities unless or until we achieve positive cash flow from the commercialization of our products and services;
  our ability to obtain additional funding, as and if needed which will be subject to a number of factors, including market conditions, and our operating performance;
  our ability to continue as a going concern;
  our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues and capital requirements;
  the adequacy of our cash balances and our need for additional financings;
  our ability to develop and manufacture commercially viable products;
  our ability to successfully develop and market new products and solutions, such as the subsea battery and Marine Surveillance Solutions;
  that we will be successful in our efforts to commercialize our products or the timetable upon which commercialization can be achieved, if at all;
  our ability to identify and penetrate markets for our products and solutions;
  our ability to implement our commercialization strategy as planned, or at all;
  our ability to improve the power output, survivability and reliability of our products;
  our relationships with our strategic partners may not be successful and we may not be successful in establishing additional relationships;
  the reliability of our technology, products and solutions;
  our ability to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market;
  our ability to raise capital through our current equity facilities;
  the impact of pending and threatened litigation on our business, financial condition and liquidity;
  changes in current legislation, regulations and economic conditions that affect the demand for renewable energy;
  our ability to compete effectively in our target markets;
  our limited operating history and history of operating losses;
  our sales and marketing capabilities and strategy in the United States and internationally; and
  our ability to protect our intellectual property portfolio.

 

Many of these factors are beyond our ability to control or predict. These factors are not intended to represent a complete list of the general or specific factors that may affect us.

 

In addition, management’s assumptions about future events may prove to be inaccurate. All readers are cautioned that the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus are not guarantees of future performance, and we cannot assure any reader that such statements will be realized or that the forward-looking events and circumstances will occur. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements due to factors described in “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents that we include in or incorporate by reference into this prospectus, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020 and our subsequent SEC filings. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. We do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus forms a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information found in the registration statement. For further information regarding us and our securities, you may desire to review the full registration statement, including its exhibits and schedules, filed under the Securities Act, as well as our proxy statement, annual, quarterly and other reports and other information we file with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website on the Internet at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding companies that file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website on the Internet at www.oceanpowertechnologies.com. Our registration statement, of which this prospectus constitutes a part, can be downloaded from the SEC’s website or from our website at www.oceanpowertechnologies.com. Information on the SEC website, our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and does not constitute part of this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The following documents, which have previously been filed by us with the SEC under the Exchange Act, are incorporated herein by reference:

 

  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on June 29, 2020 (File No. 001-33417);
     
  our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on September 14, 2020 (File No. 001-33417);
     
  our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 1, 2020, May 4, 2020, May 7, 2020, June 26, 2020, June 29, 2020, July 8, 2020, July 15, 2020, August 17, 2020, August 18, 2020, August 19, 2020, August 24, 2020, August 26, 2020, September 14, 2020, September 18, 2020, October 27, 2020, and November 16, 2020 (File No. 001-33417) (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any such Current Report on Form 8-K);
     
  our Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on November 2, 2020; and
     
  the description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed on April 18, 2007 (File No. 001-33417) and in any and all subsequent amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating that description.

 

All documents filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 on any current report on Form 8-K and any corresponding information furnished under Item 9.01 or included as an exhibit) after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and until the termination of the offering under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus by reference and to be a part hereof from the date of filing of such documents. Any statement contained herein, or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein, shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

You may request a free copy of these filings, other than any exhibits, unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into this prospectus, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Ocean Power Technologies, Inc.
28 Engelhard Drive, Suite B

 

Monroe Township, New Jersey 08831
Attention: Chief Financial Officer
(609) 730-0400

 

3
 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors and all of the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, including those risk factors included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended April 30, 2020, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended July 31, 2020 and our subsequent Commission filings, in evaluating an investment in our securities. If any of these risks were to occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. When we offer and sell any securities pursuant to a prospectus supplement, we may include additional risk factors relevant to such securities in the prospectus supplement.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless we inform you otherwise in the prospectus supplement or any pricing supplement, we will use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us to build additional products and solutions to meet market demand, further advance the development of new products and solutions, engage in corporate development and merger and acquisition activities, for working capital needs, capital expenditures, repayment or refinancing of indebtedness, acquisitions, repurchases and redemptions of securities, and for other general corporate purposes. The amounts and timing of these expenditures will depend on a number of factors, such as the timing, scope, progress and results of our sales, research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering efforts, and the regulatory and competitive environment. Pending any specific application, we may initially invest funds in short-term marketable securities or apply them to the reduction of indebtedness.

 

DILUTION

 

Our net tangible book value at July 31, 2020, was approximately $10,115,883, or approximately $0.54 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share of common stock is determined by dividing our tangible net worth, which is tangible assets less liabilities, by the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding. If we offer shares of our common stock, purchasers of our common stock in that offering may experience immediate dilution in net tangible book value per share. The prospectus supplement relating to an offering of shares of our common stock will set forth the information regarding any dilutive effect of that offering.

 

4
 

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following is a general description of the debt securities that we may issue from time to time. The particular terms relating to each debt security, which may be different from or in addition to the terms described below, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement relating to such securities.

 

The debt securities will be our direct obligations. The senior debt securities will rank equally with all of our other senior and unsubordinated debt. The senior subordinated debt securities will have a junior position to all of our senior debt, which is generally defined in both the subordinated debt indenture and senior subordinated debt indenture to include all debt other than debt that is expressly subordinated to or pari passu with the subordinated debt securities or senior subordinated debt securities, as the case may be. The subordinated debt securities will have a junior position to all of our senior debt and all of our senior subordinated debt. The senior debt securities will be issued under a senior debt indenture, the senior subordinated debt securities will be issued under a senior subordinated debt indenture, and the subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated debt indenture. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). The type and terms of the debt securities we offer under this prospectus may be limited by the other debt instruments to which we are a party at the time of the offering.

 

Any securities we issue will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities, if any, of our subsidiaries, including claims of our subsidiaries’ creditors, and any taxing authorities. Any claims we have as an unsecured creditor of one of our subsidiaries would be subordinate to any security interest in the assets of that subsidiary and any indebtedness of that subsidiary senior to the indebtedness held by us.

 

We have summarized below the material provisions of the three indentures. The summary is not complete and is subject in all respects to the provisions of and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the forms of indentures, which are filed as exhibits and incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The prospectus supplement relating to the applicable issuance of debt securities will describe any significant differences between the indentures and the summary below. The forms of senior indenture, senior subordinated indenture and subordinated indenture are substantially the same, except for certain covenants of ours and provisions relating to subordination. You should read the indentures for provisions that may be important to you. The forms of indentures may be supplemented or revised in connection with the filing of a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities and such later version will govern any debt securities issued in conjunction with that prospectus supplement.

 

Terms Applicable to All Debt Securities

 

No Limit on Debt Amounts. The indentures do not limit the amount of debt that can be issued under the indentures. These amounts will be set from time to time by our board of directors.

 

Prospectus Supplements. The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities will summarize the specific terms of such debt securities and the related offering including, with respect to each series of debt securities, some or all of the following, as well as any other material terms of the debt securities:

 

  the title of the securities of the series (which title will distinguish the securities of the series from all other series of securities);
     
  any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the securities of the series which may be authenticated and delivered (which limit will not pertain to securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other securities of the series or any securities that are deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered);
     
  the date or dates on which the principal of and premium, if any, on the securities of the series is payable or the method or methods of determination thereof;
     
  the rate or rates at which the securities of the series will bear interest, if any, or the method or methods of calculating such rate or rates of interest, the date or dates from which such interest will accrue or the method or methods by which such date or dates will be determined, the dates on which any such interest will be payable, our right, if any, to defer or extend an interest payment date, the record date, if any, for the interest payable on any such security on any interest payment date, and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

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  the place or places where the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on securities of the series will be payable, any securities of the series may be surrendered for registration of transfer, securities of the series may be surrendered for exchange and notices and demands to or upon us in respect of the securities of the series and the indenture may be served and notices to holders will be published;
     
  the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, the currency or currencies (including currency unit or units) in which, and the other terms and conditions upon which, securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at our option and, the manner in which the particular securities of such series (if less than all securities of such series are to be redeemed) are to be selected for redemption;
     
  our right or obligation, if any, to redeem or purchase securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or upon the happening of a specified event or at the option of a holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, the currency or currencies (including currency unit or units) in which, and the other terms and conditions upon which, securities of the series will be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
     
  if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which securities of the series will be issuable;
     
  if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies (including currency unit or units) in which the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the securities of the series will be payable, or in which the securities of the series will be denominated, and the particular provisions applicable thereto;
     
  if the payments of principal of, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on the securities of the series are to be made, at our election or the election of a holder, in a currency or currencies (including currency unit or units) other than that in which the securities of such series are denominated or designated to be payable, the currency or currencies (including currency unit or units) in which such payments are to be made, the terms and conditions of such payments and the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined, and the particular provisions applicable thereto;
     
  if the amount of payments of principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the securities of the series will be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may be based, without limitation, on a currency or currencies (including currency unit or units) other than that in which the securities of the series are denominated or designated to be payable), the index, formula or other method by which such amounts will be determined and any special voting or defeasance provisions in connection therewith;
     
  if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of such securities of the series which will be payable upon declaration of acceleration thereof or the method by which such portion will be determined;
     
  the person to whom any interest on any securities of the series will be payable;
     
  provisions, if any, granting special rights to the holders of securities of the series upon the occurrence of such events as may be specified;
     
  any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or covenants pertaining to the securities of the series;
     
  under what circumstances, if any, and with what procedures and documentation we will pay additional amounts on the securities of the series held by a person who is not a U.S. person (including any definition of such term) in respect of taxes, assessments or similar charges withheld or deducted and, if so, whether we have the option to redeem such securities rather than pay such additional amounts (and the terms of any such option);

 

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  the forms of the securities of the series;
     
  the applicability, if any, of any means of defeasance or covenant defeasance as may be specified for the securities of such series;
     
  if other than the trustee, the identity of the registrar, conversion agent (if any) and any paying agent;
     
  if the securities of the series will be issued in whole or in part in global form, (A) the depositary for such global securities, (B) whether beneficial owners of interests in any securities of the series in global form may exchange such interests for certificated securities of such series, to be registered in the names of or to be held by such beneficial owners or their nominees and to be of like tenor of any authorized form and denomination, and (C) the circumstances under which any such exchange may occur;
     
  the designation of the depositary with respect to the securities of the series;
     
  any restrictions on the registration, transfer or exchange of the securities of the series;
     
  if the securities of the series may be issued or delivered (whether upon original issuance or upon exchange of a temporary security of such series or otherwise), or any installment of principal or interest is payable, only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;
     
  if the securities of the series will be convertible into or for other of our securities or property, and any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the terms and conditions of any right to convert, exercise or exchange securities of the series into or for other of our securities or property;
     
  whether the securities of the series are secured or unsecured, and if secured, the security and related terms in connection therewith (which will be provided for in a separate security agreement and/or other appropriate documentation); and
     
  any other terms of the securities of the series, including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable (as we may determine) in connection with the marketing of securities of the series.

 

Unless otherwise provided in an applicable indenture relating to debt securities, the debt securities will be issued in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with and registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee. Upon issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, participants’ accounts with the principal amount of the debt security beneficially owned by such participants. Each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security will have to rely on the procedures of the depositary for such registered global security to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of the debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange and any expenses payable in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of debt securities, other than exchanges not involving any transfer, such as the issuance of definitive securities in replacement of temporary securities or the issuance of new securities upon surrender of a security that is transferred or redeemed in part.

 

A series of debt securities may be issued under the relevant indenture as original issue discount securities, which are securities that are offered and sold at a discount from their stated principal amount. In addition, debt securities offered and sold at their stated principal amount may under some circumstances, pursuant to applicable Treasury Regulations, be treated as issued at an original issue discount for federal income tax purposes. Federal income tax consequences and other special considerations applicable to any such original issue discount securities (or other debt securities treated as issued at an original issue discount) will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities.

 

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Covenants. We will agree in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities to:

 

  pay the principal, interest and any premium on the securities of the series when due;

 

  maintain an office or agency where the securities of the series may be surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange, payment or conversion (if the debt securities are convertible) and where notices and demands to or upon us in respect of the securities of the series and the relevant indenture may be served;

 

  prepare and file or deliver certain reports, as more fully specified in the relevant indenture, with the SEC, the trustee under the relevant indenture, and/or registered holders of the securities of the series, as the case may be;

 

  deliver to the trustee under the relevant indenture, as more fully specified in that indenture, officers’ certificates relating to our compliance under the relevant indenture and the occurrence of any default or event of default under that indenture; and

 

  unless our board of directors determines that it is no longer desirable in the conduct of our business and that there will be no adverse impact in any material respect to the holders of the securities of the series, subject to those exceptions as more fully specified in the relevant indenture, do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect our existence as a corporation and our rights (charter and statutory rights) and franchises.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. We will agree in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other entity or transfer all or substantially all of our assets unless:

 

  we are the surviving entity; or

 

  the successor or surviving entity assumes all of our obligations under the securities of such series and the indentures pursuant to supplemental indentures in forms reasonably satisfactory to the trustee(s) under the relevant indentures and is organized or existing under the laws of the United States of America and any state thereof or the District of Columbia; and, in either case,

 

  immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no event of default under the relevant indenture will have happened and be continuing.

 

Upon any such consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of our assets, the successor will be substituted for us under the indenture and we will be relieved of all obligations and covenants under the indenture with respect to such series of debt securities, except in the case of a lease of all or substantially all of our assets.

 

Satisfaction and Discharge. Upon our request, the relevant indenture will no longer be effective with respect to any series of debt securities for all but certain specified purposes if either:

 

  all outstanding securities of that series have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation, we have paid all sums payable in respect of that series and we have delivered to the trustee a certificate and opinion of legal counsel that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been fulfilled; or

 

  the only securities that remain outstanding have, or within one year will, become due and payable or are to be called for redemption, we have deposited with the trustee funds that are sufficient to make all future payments, no default or event of default will have occurred and be continuing on the date of that deposit, we have paid all other sums payable in respect of that series, and we have delivered to the trustee a certificate and opinion of counsel that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been fulfilled.

 

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Legal Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance. Under each indenture, we may elect with respect to a series of debt securities, at our option and subject to the satisfaction of the conditions described below, either:

 

  to be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the outstanding securities of the applicable series and to have satisfied all of our other obligations under the securities of the applicable series and under the provisions of the relevant indenture, which we refer to as legal defeasance; or

 

  to be released from some of our obligations under the relevant indenture, which we refer to as covenant defeasance.

 

We can exercise legal or covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities if the following conditions are met:

 

  we irrevocably deposit with the applicable indenture trustee (or another trustee meeting certain eligibility requirements and agreeing to be bound by the applicable provisions of the relevant indenture), in trust, for the benefit of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities:

 

  cash in United States dollars;

 

  non-callable and non-redeemable direct obligations of the United States of America or of an agency or instrumentality controlled or supervised by the United States of America, in each instance, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation of the United States of America; or

 

  a combination of the foregoing that, in each case, is sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series on their stated maturity or applicable redemption date, as the case may be, and any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to that particular series of debt securities on the day on which the payments are due;

 

  we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel confirming that the holders of the outstanding securities of the applicable series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance;

 

  no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of the deposit of the amounts to be held in trust for the benefit of the holders (other than a default or event of default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to the deposit) or in the case of any insolvency-related defaults, at any time in the period ending on the 91st day after the date of the deposit (or greater period of time in which any such deposit of trust funds may remain subject to bankruptcy or insolvency laws that apply to the deposit by us); and

 

  we deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for or relating to legal defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with.

 

After satisfying the conditions for legal defeasance, the debt securities of the applicable series will be deemed outstanding only for limited purposes as more fully set forth in the relevant indenture. After legal defeasance, the holders of outstanding debt securities of the applicable series will have to rely solely on the deposits we make to the trust for repayment of such debt securities.

 

After satisfying the conditions for covenant defeasance, the debt securities of the applicable series will be deemed not outstanding for the purposes of the covenants from which we have been released but will continue to be deemed outstanding for all other purposes under the relevant indenture.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities may describe additional provisions, if any, permitting legal defeasance or covenant defeasance, and any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of a particular series.

 

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Information Concerning the Trustee. The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities will include information concerning the trustee under the applicable indenture and our relationship with the trustee at the time any debt securities are offered. We may also maintain bank accounts, borrow money and have other banking or investment banking relationships with the trustee, or its affiliates, in the ordinary course of business.

 

Global Securities. The registered debt securities may be issued in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with and registered in the name of a depositary or in the name of a nominee for a depositary identified in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities. We anticipate that the description below will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons that have accounts with the depositary for such registered global security (“participants”) or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the principal amounts of the debt securities represented by the registered global security beneficially owned by such participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in such registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary for such registered global security or on the records of participants for interests of persons holding through participants.

 

So long as the depositary for a registered global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, the depositary or the nominee will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not:

 

  be entitled to have the debt securities represented by such registered global security registered in their names;

 

  receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of such debt securities in definitive forms; or

 

  be considered the owners of record or holders of the debt securities.

 

Each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security will have to rely on the procedures of the depositary for such registered global security and, if such person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we were to request any action of holders, or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desired to take any action that a holder is entitled to take under the applicable indenture, the depositary would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through such participants to take such action.

 

Principal of, interest and premium, if any, on debt securities represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to such depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of such registered global security. Neither we nor the trustee will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such registered global security.

 

We expect that the depositary for any debt securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, will immediately credit participants’ accounts with such payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in such registered global security as shown on the records of such depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such a registered global security held by the participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.”

 

If the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the global security or if at any time the depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and such registration as a clearing agency is required by applicable law or regulation to serve as a depositary, and, in either situation, we do not appoint a successor depositary within 90 days, we will issue debt securities in certificated form in exchange for the global security. In addition, we may at any time in our sole discretion decide not to have any debt securities represented by a global security. In such event we will issue debt securities in certificated form in exchange for the global security. The debt securities in certificated form will be in the same minimal denominations and be of the same aggregate outstanding principal amount and tenor as the portion of each global security to be exchanged.

 

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Any debt securities issued in certificated form in exchange for a global security will be registered in such name or names as the depositary shall instruct the relevant trustee. We expect that such instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in such registered global security.

 

If provided in a prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities, the debt securities of that series also may be issued in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with a common depositary identified in the prospectus supplement. The specific terms and procedures, including the specific terms of the depositary arrangement, with respect to any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series.

 

Form, Exchange, Transfer. Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities, debt securities will be issued in global form with accompanying book-entry procedures as outlined above. They also may be issued in registered form without coupons.

 

A holder of debt securities of any series may exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and with the same terms and aggregate principal amount. The securities are transferable at the corporate trust office or corporate trust agency office of the trustee or at any transfer agent designated by us for that purpose. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of the debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange and any expenses payable in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of debt securities, other than exchanges not involving any transfer, such as the issuance of definitive securities in replacement of temporary securities or the issuance of new securities upon surrender of a security that is redeemed in part.

 

Particular Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

 

Ranking of Senior Debt Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will constitute part of our senior debt and rank equally with all our other senior debt that is unsecured (and will effectively rank junior to any secured debt). In addition to senior debt securities offered under this prospectus, senior debt includes obligations under any credit facilities with banks or other institutional lenders. The senior debt securities will be senior to our senior subordinated debt and subordinated debt. Our obligations under the senior debt securities will be structurally subordinated to certain obligations of our subsidiaries.

 

Events of Default. The following, among others, are events of default under a series of senior debt securities:

 

  we fail to pay the principal, premium, if any, or any sinking fund payment on any securities of that series when due;

 

  we fail to pay interest on any securities of that series when due and that failure continues for a period of 30 days;

 

  upon exercise of a holder’s conversion right, we fail to deliver conversion consideration in accordance with the indenture;

 

  we fail to comply with our obligations in the event of a consolidation, merger or sale of assets, as set forth in the indenture;

 

  we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement in the senior indenture for the benefit of that series (other than a covenant or agreement with respect to which a failure to observe or perform is dealt with otherwise in the senior indenture or is expressly included in the senior indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than such series of debt securities) and that failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice to comply from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities;

 

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  we fail to pay our indebtedness or to pay or discharge certain final judgments against us, as set forth in the indenture; and

 

  certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency occur, whether voluntary or not.

 

The indenture and the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities may describe additional or different events of default that apply to that series. An event of default with respect to one series of senior debt securities will not necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to any other series of senior debt securities.

 

If a default or an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will mail to the holders of senior debt securities of the affected series a notice to that effect within 90 days after the default occurs, if a responsible officer of the trustee under the indenture has actual knowledge of the default or event of default. Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or interest, the trustee under the senior indenture may withhold notice if, and so long as, a committee of the trustee’s responsible officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of the holders.

 

If an event of default with respect to one or more series of senior debt securities occurs and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding senior debt securities of all series with respect to which the event of default occurs and is continuing, treating all those series as a single class, may declare all the principal of, accrued and unpaid interest or premium (or a lesser amount as may be provided for in the senior debt securities of the series), if any, of all the senior debt securities of those series to be immediately due and payable. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding senior debt securities of all series covered by such declaration may annul or rescind the declaration and any related payment default that resulted from the declaration but not any other payment default. Certain events of bankruptcy and insolvency will result in all outstanding series of senior debt securities becoming due and payable immediately without any further action on the part of the trustee or the holders.

 

The senior indenture entitles the trustee to be indemnified by the holders before proceeding to exercise any right or power at the request of any of the holders.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series with respect to which an event of default occurs and is continuing, treating all those series as a single class, may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust power conferred on it, except that:

 

  the direction cannot conflict with any law or regulation or the indenture;

 

  the trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the trustee that is not inconsistent with the direction; and

 

  the trustee need not take any action that might subject it to personal liability or be unduly prejudicial to the holders of the senior debt securities not joining in the action.

 

A holder may pursue a remedy directly under the senior indenture or a particular series of senior debt securities but, before doing so, the following must occur:

 

  the holder must give to the trustee written notice that an event of default has occurred and is continuing;

 

  the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding senior debt securities of all affected series, treating all those series as a single class, must make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy;

 

  the holder, or holders, must offer and, if requested, provide to the trustee an indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any loss, liability or expense from the taking of the action;

 

  the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and offer and, if requested, the provision of indemnity; and

 

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  during the 60-day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding senior debt securities of all those series, treating all those series as a single class, do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with the written request.

 

However, holders have an absolute right to receipt of principal, interest or premium, if any, on or after the respective due dates and to institute suit for the enforcement of those payments. The right of a holder of senior debt securities to bring suit for the enforcement of any payments of principal, interest or premium, if any, on senior debt securities on or after the respective due dates may not be impaired or affected without the consent of that holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the senior debt securities then outstanding of all affected series, treating all such series as a single class, may, by notice to the trustee on behalf of all holders of the senior debt securities of all those series, waive any past defaults, except:

 

  a continuing default in payment of the principal of, interest or premium, if any, on, or any sinking fund payment on, senior debt securities of the series;

 

  a continuing default in respect of a covenant or provision of the indenture that cannot be amended or modified without the consent of each holder of senior debt securities affected;

 

  one arising from a failure to pay or deliver to converting holders consideration due upon conversion; and

 

  in respect of a covenant or provision that under the senior indenture cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected.

 

We periodically will file statements with the trustees regarding our compliance with covenants in the senior indenture.

 

Modifications and Amendments. Except as provided below, or more fully specified in the senior indenture and described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the senior indenture may be amended or supplemented by us and the trustee with the consent of holders of a majority in principal amount of all series of senior debt securities affected by the amendment or supplement, treating all such series as a single class. In addition, the record holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the waiver, treating all such series as a single class, may, with respect to those series, waive defaults under, or compliance with, the provisions of the senior indenture. Some amendments or waivers, however, require the consent of each holder of any senior debt security affected. Without the consent of each affected holder, an amendment or waiver regarding a series of senior debt securities may not:

 

  change the maturity date, or the payment date of any installment interest on, any securities;

 

  reduce the principal amount of, or interest on, any securities;

 

  change the place, manner or currency of payment of principal of, or interest on, any securities;

 

  impair the right to institute a suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, or of the conversion of, any security;

 

  change the ranking of the securities in a manner adverse to the holders of securities;

 

  adversely affect the right of holders of securities to convert their securities in accordance with the indenture, or reduce the amount of consideration due upon conversion;

 

  reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding securities whose holders must consent to a modification or amendment of the indenture or the securities;

 

  reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding securities whose holders must consent to a waiver of compliance with any provision in the indenture, or the securities or a waiver of any default or event of default; or

 

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  modify the applicable provisions of the indenture, except to increase the percentage required for modification or waiver or to provide for the consent of each affected holder.

 

We and the trustee under the senior indenture may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued thereunder without notice to or the consent of any holder to:

 

  provide for the assumption by a successor company of the Company’s obligations under the securities and the indenture;

 

  add guarantees with respect to the securities;

 

  secure the securities;

 

  add to the covenants for the benefit of the holders or surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company;

 

  make any change, including to cure any omission, ambiguity, manifest error or defect or to correct any inconsistency in the indenture that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect;

 

  comply with any requirement of the SEC in connection with the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act or with the rules of any applicable securities depositary;

 

  provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the securities of any series, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of securities;

 

  add additional events of default;

 

  evidence the acceptance or appointment of a successor trustee or to add an additional trustee or agent in accordance with the indenture; or

 

  conform the provisions of the indenture and the securities to the “Description of Notes” section as set forth in a preliminary prospectus supplement related to the offering and sale of the securities, as supplemented by the related pricing term sheet.

 

Particular Terms of the Senior Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Ranking of Senior Subordinated Debt Securities. As described below, the senior subordinated debt securities will rank senior to any subordinated debt securities and will be subordinated and junior in right of payment to any senior debt securities issued by us, as well as certain other indebtedness incurred by us to the extent set forth in the applicable indenture and described in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior subordinated debt securities. Unless the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior subordinated debt securities indicates otherwise, the following description will apply to our senior subordinated debt securities.

 

Subordination. Our obligations under the senior subordinated debt securities will be subordinated in right of payment to our obligations under our senior debt and will be structurally subordinated to certain obligations of our subsidiaries, including claims payable. In the indenture relating to the senior subordinated securities, we will agree not to create, incur or otherwise be liable for any other indebtedness that ranks junior to the senior debt in right of payment, but senior to the senior subordinated securities. For this purpose, “senior debt” generally includes any indebtedness that does not expressly provide that it is on a parity with or subordinated in right of payment to the senior subordinated debt securities. Specifically, senior debt includes obligations under any credit facility with banks or other institutional lenders and obligations under the senior debt securities described in this prospectus. Senior debt will not include:

 

  any liability for federal, state, local or other taxes;

 

  any indebtedness to any of our subsidiaries or other affiliates;

 

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  any trade payables;

 

  any indebtedness that we may incur in violation of the senior subordinated indenture; or

 

  obligations under any subordinated debt securities.

 

If we distribute our assets to creditors upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization or in bankruptcy, insolvency, receivership or similar proceedings, we must first pay all amounts due or to become due on all senior debt before we pay the principal of, or make any other payment on, the senior subordinated debt securities. The provisions of the senior subordinated debt indenture providing these payment restrictions will not limit the right, if any, of a holder of senior subordinated debt securities to convert the debt securities into equity securities.

 

We may not make any payment on the senior subordinated debt securities if a default in the payment of the principal, interest or premium, if any, including a default under any repurchase or redemption obligation in respect of designated senior debt, occurs and continues beyond any applicable grace period. We may not make any payment on the senior subordinated debt securities if any other default occurs and continues with respect to designated senior debt that permits holders of the designated senior debt to accelerate its maturity and the trustee receives a notice of default from any person permitted to give notice. We may not resume payments on the senior subordinated debt securities until the defaults are cured or specified time periods pass, unless the senior debt is paid in full. The provisions of the senior subordinated debt indenture providing these payment restrictions will not limit the right, if any, of a holder of senior subordinated debt securities to convert the debt securities into equity securities.

 

The term “designated senior debt” means our obligations under our principal bank or other institutional credit facility, if any, and any other debt expressly designated as senior debt with respect to the applicable senior subordinated debt securities.

 

We expect that the terms of some of our senior debt will provide that an event of default under the senior subordinated debt securities or an acceleration of their maturity will constitute an event of default under the senior debt. In that case, if the maturity of the senior subordinated debt securities is accelerated because of an event of default, we may not make any payment on the senior subordinated debt securities until we have paid all senior debt or the acceleration has been rescinded. If the payment of the senior subordinated debt securities is accelerated because of an event of default, we must promptly notify the holders of senior debt of the acceleration.

 

If we experience a bankruptcy, dissolution or reorganization, holders of senior debt may receive more, ratably, and holders of the senior subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than our other creditors.

 

The indenture for senior subordinated debt securities may not limit our ability to incur additional senior debt.

 

Events of Default. The following, among others, are events of default under a series of senior subordinated debt securities:

 

  we fail to pay the principal, premium, if any, or any sinking fund payment on any securities of that series when due;

 

  we fail to pay interest on any securities of that series when due and that failure continues for a period of 30 days;

 

  upon exercise of a holder’s conversion right, we fail to deliver conversion consideration in accordance with the indenture;

 

  we fail to comply with our obligations in the event of a consolidation, merger or sale of assets, as set forth in the indenture;

 

  we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement in the senior subordinated indenture for the benefit of that series (other than a covenant or agreement with respect to which a failure to observe or perform is dealt with otherwise in the senior subordinated indenture or is expressly included in the senior subordinated indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than such series of debt securities) and that failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice to comply from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior subordinated debt securities;

 

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  we fail to pay our indebtedness or to pay or discharge certain final judgments against us, as set forth in the indenture; and

 

  certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency occur, whether voluntary or not.

 

The indenture and prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior subordinated debt securities may describe additional or different events of default that apply to that series. An event of default with respect to one series of senior subordinated debt securities will not necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to any other series of senior subordinated debt securities.

 

If a default or an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will mail to the holders of senior subordinated debt securities of the affected series a notice to that effect within 90 days after the default occurs, if a responsible officer of the trustee under the indenture has actual knowledge of the default or event of default.

 

Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or interest, the trustee under the senior subordinated indenture may withhold notice if, and so long as, a committee of the trustee’s responsible officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of the holders.

 

If an event of default with respect to one or more series of senior subordinated debt securities occurs and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding senior subordinated debt securities of all series with respect to which the event of default occurs and is continuing, treating all those series as a single class, may declare all the principal of, accrued and unpaid interest and premium (or such lesser amount as may be provided for in the senior subordinated debt securities of the series), if any (subject to applicable subordination provisions in the senior subordinated indenture) of all the senior subordinated debt securities of those series, to be immediately due and payable. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding senior subordinated debt securities of all series covered by such declaration may annul and rescind the declaration and any related payment default that resulted from the declaration but not any other payment default. Certain events of bankruptcy and insolvency will result in all outstanding series of senior subordinated debt securities becoming due and payable immediately without any further action on the part of the trustee or the holders.

 

The senior subordinated indenture entitles the trustee to be indemnified by the holders before proceeding to exercise any right or power at the request of any of the holders.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding senior subordinated debt securities of all series with respect to which an event of default occurs and is continuing, treating all those series as a single class, may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust power conferred on it, except that:

 

  the direction cannot conflict with any law or regulation or the indenture;

 

  the trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the trustee that is not inconsistent with the direction; and

 

  the trustee need not take any action that might subject it to personal liability or be unduly prejudicial to the holders of the senior subordinated debt securities not joining in the action.

 

A holder may pursue a remedy directly under the senior subordinated indenture or a particular series of senior subordinated debt securities but, before doing so, the following must occur:

 

  the holder must give to the trustee written notice that an event of default has occurred and is continuing;

 

  the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding senior subordinated debt securities of all affected series, treating all those series as a single class, must make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy;

 

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  the holder, or holders, must offer and, if requested, provide to the trustee an indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any loss, liability or expense from the taking of the action;

 

  the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and offer and, if requested, the provision of indemnity; and

 

  during the 60-day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding senior subordinated debt securities of all affected series, treating all those series as a single class, do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with the written request.

 

However, holders have an absolute right to receipt of principal, interest or premium, if any, on or after the respective due dates and to institute suit for the enforcement of those payments. The right of a holder of senior subordinated debt securities to bring suit for the enforcement of any payments of principal, interest or premium, if any, on senior subordinated debt securities on or after the respective due dates, without regard to acceleration or default, may not be impaired or affected without the consent of that holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the senior subordinated debt securities then outstanding of all affected series, treating all those series as a single class, may, by notice to the trustee on behalf of all holders of the senior subordinated debt securities of those series, waive any past defaults, except:

 

  a continuing default in payment of the principal of, interest or premium, if any, on, or any sinking fund payment on, senior subordinated debt securities of the series;

 

  a continuing default in respect of a covenant or provision of the indenture that cannot be amended or modified without the consent of each holder of senior subordinated debt securities affected;

 

  one arising from a failure to pay or deliver to converting holders consideration due upon conversion; and

 

  in respect of a covenant or provision that under the senior subordinated indenture cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected.

 

We periodically will file statements with the trustees regarding our compliance with covenants in the senior subordinated indenture.

 

Modifications and Amendments. Except as provided below, or more fully specified in the senior subordinated indenture and described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the senior subordinated indenture may be amended or supplemented by us and the trustee with the consent of holders of a majority in principal amount of all series of senior subordinated debt securities affected by the amendment or supplement, treating all such series as a single class. In addition, the record holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding senior subordinated debt securities of all series affected by the waiver, treating all such series as a single class, may, with respect to those series, waive defaults under, or compliance with, the provisions of the senior subordinated indenture. Some amendments or waivers, however, require the consent of each holder of any senior subordinated debt security affected. Without the consent of each affected holder, an amendment or waiver regarding a series of senior subordinated debt securities may not:

 

  change the maturity date, or the payment date of any installment interest on, any securities;

 

  reduce the principal amount of, or interest on, any securities;

 

  change the place, manner or currency of payment of principal of, or interest on, any securities;

 

  impair the right to institute a suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, or of the conversion of, any security;

 

  change the ranking of the securities in a manner adverse to the holders of securities;

 

  adversely affect the right of holders of securities to convert their securities in accordance with the indenture, or reduce the amount of consideration due upon conversion;

 

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  reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding securities whose holders must consent to a modification or amendment of the indenture or the securities;

 

  reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding securities whose holders must consent to a waiver of compliance with any provision in the indenture, or the securities or a waiver of any default or event of default; or

 

  modify the applicable provisions of the indenture, except to increase the percentage required for modification or waiver or to provide for the consent of each affected holder.

 

We and the trustee under the senior subordinated indenture may amend or supplement the senior subordinated indenture or the senior subordinated debt securities of any series issued thereunder without the consent of any holder to:

 

  provide for the assumption by a successor company of the Company’s obligations under the securities and the indenture;

 

  add guarantees with respect to the securities;

 

  secure the securities;

 

  add to the covenants for the benefit of the holders or surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company;

 

  make any change, including to cure any omission, ambiguity, manifest error or defect or to correct any inconsistency in the indenture that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect;

 

  comply with any requirement of the SEC in connection with the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act or with the rules of any applicable securities depositary;

 

  provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the securities of any series, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of securities;

 

  add additional events of default;

 

  evidence the acceptance or appointment of a successor trustee or to add an additional trustee or agent in accordance with the indenture; or

 

  conform the provisions of the indenture and the securities to the “Description of Notes” section as set forth in a preliminary prospectus supplement related to the offering and sale of the securities, as supplemented by the related pricing term sheet.

 

Particular Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Ranking of Subordinated Debt Securities. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinated and junior in right of payment to any senior debt securities and senior subordinated debt securities issued by us, as well as certain other indebtedness incurred by us to the extent set forth in the applicable indenture described in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of subordinated debt securities.

 

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Subordination. Unless the prospectus supplement relating to a series of subordinated debt securities indicates otherwise, the subordination provisions of the subordinated debt securities will be the same as those of the senior subordinated debt securities just described, except that:

 

  “Senior debt” will include our obligations under the senior subordinated debt securities, as well as under the other debt specified above, including the “designated senior debt;” and

 

  different series of subordinated debt securities may rank senior to other series. In that case, our obligations under the higher-ranking series will be “senior debt” in relation to the lower-ranking series, as set forth in the prospectus supplement.

 

The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of additional senior debt that we may incur. We expect from time to time to incur additional indebtedness constituting senior debt.

 

Events of Default. The following, among others, are events of default under a series of subordinated debt securities:

 

  we fail to pay the principal, premium, if any, or any sinking fund payment on any securities of that series when due;

 

  we fail to pay interest on any securities of that series when due and that failure continues for a period of 30 days;

 

  upon exercise of a holder’s conversion right, we fail to deliver conversion consideration in accordance with the indenture;

 

  we fail to comply with our obligations in the event of a consolidation, merger or sale of assets, as set forth in the indenture;

 

  we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement in the subordinated indenture for the benefit of that series (other than a covenant or agreement with respect to which a failure to observe or perform is dealt with otherwise in the subordinated indenture or is expressly included in the subordinated indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than such series of debt securities) and that failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice to comply from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding subordinated debt securities;

 

  we fail to pay our indebtedness or to pay or discharge certain final judgments against us, as set forth in the indenture; and

 

  certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency occur, whether voluntary or not.

 

The indenture and prospectus supplement relating to a series of subordinated debt securities may describe additional or different events of default that apply to that series. An event of default with respect to one series of subordinated debt securities will not necessarily constitute an event of default with respect to any other series of subordinated debt securities.

 

If a default or an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will mail to the holders of subordinated debt securities of the affected series a notice to that effect within 90 days after the default occurs, if a responsible officer of the trustee under the indenture has actual knowledge of the default or event of default. Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or interest, the trustee under the subordinated indenture may withhold notice if, and so long as, a committee of the trustee’s responsible officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of the holders.

 

If an event of default with respect to one or more series of subordinated debt securities occurs and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding subordinated debt securities of all series with respect to which the event of default occurs and is continuing, treating all those series as a single class, may declare all the principal of, accrued and unpaid interest and premium (or a lesser amount as may be provided for in the subordinated debt securities of the series), if any, (subject to applicable subordination provisions in the relevant indenture) of all the subordinated debt securities of those series to be immediately due and payable. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding subordinated debt securities of all series covered by such declaration may annul and rescind the declaration and any related payment default that resulted from the declaration but not any other payment default. Certain events of bankruptcy and insolvency will result in all outstanding series of subordinated debt securities becoming due and payable immediately without any further action on the part of the trustee or the holders.

 

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The subordinated indenture entitles the trustee to be indemnified by the holders before proceeding to exercise any right or power at the request of any of the holders.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding subordinated debt securities of all series with respect to which an event of default occurs and is continuing and that rank equal with each other, treating all those series as a single class, may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust power conferred on it with respect to those series, except that:

 

  the direction cannot conflict with any law or regulation or the subordinated indenture;

 

  the trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the trustee that is not inconsistent with the direction; and

 

  the trustee need not take any action that might subject it to personal liability or be unduly prejudicial to the holders of the subordinated debt securities not joining in the action.

 

A holder may pursue a remedy directly under the subordinated indenture or a particular series of subordinated debt securities but, before doing so, the following must occur:

 

  the holder must give to the trustee written notice that an event of default has occurred and is continuing;

 

  the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding subordinated debt securities of all affected series that rank equal with each other, treating all those series as a single class, must make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy;

 

  the holder, or holders, must offer and, if requested, provide to the trustee an indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any loss, liability or expense from the taking of the action;

 

  the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and offer and, if requested, the provision of indemnity; and

 

  during the 60-day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding subordinated debt securities of all those series, treating all those series as a single class, do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with the written request.

 

However, holders have an absolute right to receipt of principal, interest and premium, if any, on or after the respective due dates and to institute suit for the enforcement of those payments. The right of a holder of subordinated debt securities to bring suit for the enforcement of any payments of principal, interest and premium, if any, on subordinated debt securities on or after the respective due dates may not be impaired or affected without the consent of that holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding subordinated debt securities of all affected series that rank equal with each other treating all such series as a single class, may, by notice to the trustee on behalf of all holders of the subordinated debt securities of such series, waive any past defaults, except:

 

  a continuing default in payment of the principal of, interest or premium, if any, on, or any sinking fund payment on, subordinated debt securities of the series;

 

  a continuing default in respect of a covenant or provision of the indenture that cannot be amended or modified without the consent of each holder of subordinated debt securities affected;

 

  one arising from a failure to pay or deliver to converting holders consideration due upon conversion; and

 

  in respect of a covenant or provision that under the subordinated indenture cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected.

 

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We periodically will file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with covenants in the subordinated indenture.

 

Modifications and Amendments. Except as provided below, or more fully specified in the subordinated indenture and described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the subordinated indenture may be amended or supplemented by us and the trustee with the consent of holders of a majority in principal amount of all affected series of subordinated debt securities that rank equal with each other, treating all such series as a single class. In addition, the record holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding subordinated debt securities of all series affected by the waiver that rank equal with each other, treating such series as a single class, may, with respect to those series, waive defaults under, or compliance with, the provisions of the subordinated indenture. Some amendments or waivers, however, require the consent of each holder of any subordinated debt security affected. Without the consent of each affected holder, an amendment or waiver regarding a series of subordinated debt securities may not:

 

  change the maturity date, or the payment date of any installment interest on, any securities;

 

  reduce the principal amount of, or interest on, any securities;

 

  change the place, manner or currency of payment of principal of, or interest on, any securities;

 

  impair the right to institute a suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, or of the conversion of, any security;

 

  change the ranking of the securities in a manner adverse to the holders of securities;

 

  adversely affect the right of holders of securities to convert their securities in accordance with the indenture, or reduce the amount of consideration due upon conversion;

 

  reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding securities whose holders must consent to a modification or amendment of the indenture or the securities;

 

  reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding securities whose holders must consent to a waiver of compliance with any provision in the indenture, or the securities or a waiver of any default or event of default; or

 

  modify the applicable provisions of the indenture, except to increase the percentage required for modification or waiver or to provide for the consent of each affected holder.

 

We and the trustee under the subordinated indenture may amend or supplement the subordinated indenture or the subordinated debt securities issued thereunder without the consent of any holder to:

 

  provide for the assumption by a successor company of the Company’s obligations under the securities and the indenture;

 

  add guarantees with respect to the securities;

 

  secure the securities;

 

  add to the covenants for the benefit of the holders or surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company;

 

  make any change, including to cure any omission, ambiguity, manifest error or defect or to correct any inconsistency in the indenture that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect;

 

  comply with any requirement of the SEC in connection with the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act or with the rules of any applicable securities depositary;

 

  provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the securities of any series, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of securities;

 

  add additional events of default;

 

  evidence the acceptance or appointment of a successor trustee or to add an additional trustee or agent in accordance with the indenture; or

 

  conform the provisions of the indenture and the securities to the “Description of Notes” section as set forth in a preliminary prospectus supplement related to the offering and sale of the securities, as supplemented by the related pricing term sheet.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

In the discussion that follows, we have summarized selected provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws as currently in effect for more details regarding the provisions we describe below and for other provisions that may be important to you. We have filed copies of those documents with the SEC, and they are incorporated by reference herein. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Authorized and Outstanding Capital Stock

 

The following description of our common stock and provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws are summaries and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which have been incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which are undesignated.

 

As of November 18, 2020, there were 28,470,138 shares of common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock were issued or outstanding. As of November 18, 2020, there also were outstanding options representing the right to purchase a total of 531,506 shares of common stock at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $3.02 per share, (ii) warrants to purchase up to 7,298 shares of our common stock which are exercisable at a price of $121.60, (iii) warrants to purchase up to 8,925 shares of our common stock which are exercisable at a price of $187.20, and (iv) warrants to purchase up to 4,927,680 shares of our common stock which are exercisable at a price of $3.85.

 

Description of Common Stock

 

Voting. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors may elect all of the directors standing for election.

 

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends that may be declared by our Board, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

 

Liquidation and Distribution. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. Our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares offered by us in this offering will be, when issued and paid for, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law; Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws

 

Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our Board.

 

Removal of Directors

 

Our certificate of incorporation currently provides that directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 75% of our shares of capital stock present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote. However, our Board of Directors approved an amendment to our bylaws that became effective on June 17, 2016, which permits our directors to be removed either for cause or without cause by our stockholders. At our annual meeting of stockholders for the year ended April 30, 2016 that was held on October 21, 2016 (the “2016 Annual Meeting”), we submitted a proposal to stockholders seeking stockholder approval to amend our certificate of incorporation to delete the reference to “for cause” in Section 6 of Article IX of the certificate of incorporation. This proposal to amend the certificate of incorporation did not receive the required affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote at the meeting, so the proposal did not pass. However, we also submitted a proposal to stockholders at the 2016 Annual Meeting seeking approval to amend our certificate of incorporation to add a clause that specified that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any provision in the Certificate of Incorporation that is contrary to a requirement of the Delaware General Corporate Law (the “DGCL”) shall be read in conformity with the applicable requirement of the DGCL. This second proposal only required the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote at the 2016 Annual Meeting, and it passed.

 

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Our Board of Directors takes the position that under current Delaware law, the “only for cause” provision in the certificate of incorporation regarding removal of the company’s directors is not enforceable and is therefore not in conformity with the applicable requirement of the DGCL. Accordingly, we will comply with the provisions of our bylaws, as amended and as described above, relating to director removal and will not seek to enforce that provision of our certificate of incorporation relating to stockholder removal of directors only for cause, as presently in effect. Under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, any vacancy on the Board, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of the Board, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office.

 

The limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors and fill vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of us.

 

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

 

Our certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer, our president or the Board.

 

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

 

Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to the Board. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, that is entitled to vote at the meeting and that has delivered to our secretary a timely written notice in proper form of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

 

Delaware Business Combination Statute

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our Board of Directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

 

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our Board of Directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of our capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors

 

Our certificate of incorporation limits the personal liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duty to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law. Our certificate of incorporation provides that no director will have personal liability to us or to our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty or other duty as a director. However, these provisions do not eliminate or limit the liability of any of our directors:

 

  for any breach of their duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
  for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

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  for voting or assenting to unlawful payments of dividends or other distributions; or
  for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

Any amendment to or repeal of these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act or failure to act, or any cause of action, suit or claim that would accrue or arise prior to any amendment or repeal or adoption of an inconsistent provision. If the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of our directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that we must indemnify our directors and officers and we must advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and officers in connection with legal proceedings, subject to limited exceptions.

 

Notice of Share Ownership

 

Our bylaws contain a provision requiring any beneficial owner of three percent or more of our outstanding common stock to notify us of his or her stockholdings, as well as of any change in his or her beneficial ownership of one percent or more of our outstanding common stock. Our bylaws do not provide for any specific remedy in the event a stockholder does not comply with this provision. We do not intend to make any such information public, unless required by law or the rules of the SEC or the Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares

 

Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of the Nasdaq Capital Market. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. Its address is 462 South 4th Street, Suite 1600, Louisville, KY 40202, and its telephone number is 1-800-662-7232.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OPTT.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

General

 

We may, at our option, elect to have shares of preferred stock be represented by depositary shares. The shares of any series of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited under a separate deposit agreement between us and a bank or trust company selected by us as the depositary. Subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable interest in the number of shares of preferred stock underlying such depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock underlying such depositary share, including dividend, voting, redemption, conversion, exchange and liquidation rights.

 

The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement, each of which will represent the applicable interest in a number of shares of a particular series of the preferred stock described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Unless otherwise specified in this prospectus supplement, a holder of depositary shares is not entitled to receive the shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions

 

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the preferred stock to the record holders of depositary shares representing such preferred stock in proportion to the numbers of such depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date.

 

In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary shares entitled thereto or the depositary may, with our approval, sell such property and distribute the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.

 

Redemption of Depositary Shares

 

If preferred stock underlying the depositary shares is subject to redemption, the depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the preferred stock held by the depositary. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the aggregate redemption price payable with respect to the number of shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares. Whenever we redeem preferred stock from the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date a proportionate number of depositary shares representing the shares of preferred stock that were redeemed. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot, pro rata or by another equitable method as may be determined by us.

 

After the date fixed for redemption, the depositary shares so called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of the depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the redemption price payable upon such redemption. Any funds deposited by us with the depositary for any depositary shares which the holders thereof fail to redeem shall be returned to us after a period of two years from the date such funds are so deposited.

 

Voting

 

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting or action in lieu of any meeting at which the holders of any shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in such notice to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to such preferred stock. Each record holder of such depositary shares on the record date (which will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock) will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock underlying such holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock underlying such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so.

 

Amendment of the Depositary Agreement

 

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary, provided, however, that any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the existing holders of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding.

 

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Charges of Depositary

 

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges that arise solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any exchange or redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary shares will pay all other transfer and other taxes and governmental charges, and, in addition, such other charges as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts.

 

Miscellaneous

 

We, or at our option, the depositary, will forward to the holders of depositary shares all reports and communications from us which we are required to furnish to the holders of preferred stock.

 

Neither the depositary nor we will be liable if either of us is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstances beyond our control in performing our obligations under the deposit agreement. Our obligations and those of the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of our duties thereunder and we and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary share or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity has been furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary shares or other persons believed to be competent and on documents believed to be genuine.

 

Resignation and Removal of Depositary; Termination of the Deposit Agreement

 

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary will be appointed by us within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal. The deposit agreement may be terminated at our direction or by the depositary if a period of 90 days has expired after the depositary has delivered to us written notice of its election to resign and a successor depositary has not been appointed. Upon termination of the deposit agreement, the depositary will discontinue the transfer of depositary receipts, will suspend the distribution of dividends to the holders thereof, and will not give any further notices (other than notice of such termination) or perform any further acts under the deposit agreement except that the depositary will continue to deliver preferred stock certificates, together with such dividends and distributions and the net proceeds of any sales of rights, preferences, privileges or other property in exchange for depositary receipts surrendered. Upon our request, the depositary shall deliver all books, records, certificates evidencing preferred stock, depositary receipts and other documents relating to the subject matter of the depositary agreement to us.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants to purchase debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, depositary shares, purchase contracts or units that are registered pursuant to the registration statement to which this prospectus relates. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities that are registered pursuant to the registration statement to which this prospectus relates. Warrants sold with other securities may be attached to or separate from the other securities. We will issue each series of warrants under a separate warrant agreement between us and a warrant agent that we will name in the prospectus supplement. We will describe additional terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreements in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

General

 

If warrants are offered, the prospectus supplement relating to a series of warrants will include the specific terms of the warrants, including:

 

  the offering price;
     
  the title of the warrants;
     
  the aggregate number of warrants offered;
     
  the dates or periods during which the warrants can be exercised;
     
  whether the warrants will be issued in individual certificates to holders or in the form of global securities held by a depositary on behalf of holders;
     
  the designation and terms of any securities with which the warrants are issued;
     
  if the warrants are issued as a unit with another security, the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the other security will be separately transferable;
     
  if the exercise price is not payable in U.S. dollars, the foreign currency, currency unit or composite currency in which the exercise price is denominated;
     
  any terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange or exercise of the warrants;
     
  any special tax implications of the warrants or their exercise;
     
  any antidilution provisions of the warrants;
     
  any redemption or call provisions applicable to the warrants; and
     
  any other terms of the warrants.

 

Transfers and Exchanges

 

A holder will be able to exchange warrant certificates for new warrant certificates of different denominations, or to transfer warrants, at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement. Prior to exercise, holders of warrants will have none of the rights of holders of the underlying securities.

 

Exercise

 

Holders will be able to exercise warrants up to 5:00 P.M. New York City time on the date set forth in the prospectus supplement as the expiration date.

 

After this time, unless we have extended the expiration date, the unexercised warrants will be void.

 

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Subject to any restrictions and additional requirements that may be set forth in a prospectus supplement, holders of warrants may exercise them by delivering to the warrant agent at its corporate trust office the following:

 

  warrant certificates properly completed; and
     
  payment of the exercise price.

 

As soon as practicable after the delivery, we will issue and deliver to the indicated holder the securities purchasable upon exercise. If a holder does not exercise all the warrants represented by a particular certificate, we will also issue a new certificate for the remaining number of warrants.

 

No Rights of Security Holder Prior to Exercise

 

Prior to the exercise of their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon the exercise of the warrants, and will not be entitled to:

 

  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, payments of principal of, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise; or
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase equity securities, the right to vote or to receive dividend payments or similar distributions on the securities purchasable upon exercise

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the relevant warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for any warrant holder. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility if we default in performing our obligations under the relevant warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any legal proceedings or to make any demand upon us.

 

Title

 

We and the warrant agents and any of our respective agents may treat the registered holder of any warrant certificate as the absolute owner of the warrants evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the warrants so requested, despite any notice to the contrary.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

 

We may issue subscription rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, other securities described in this prospectus or any combination thereof. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered by us and may or may not be transferable by the securityholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other investors pursuant to which the underwriters or other investors may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

 

To the extent appropriate, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the subscription rights to purchase shares of our securities offered thereby, including the following:

 

  the date of determining the securityholders entitled to the subscription rights distribution;
     
  the price, if any, for the subscription rights;
     
  the exercise price payable for the common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or other securities upon the exercise of the subscription right;
     
  the number of subscription rights issued to each securityholder;
     
  the amount of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or other securities that may be purchased per each subscription right;
     
  any provisions for adjustment of the amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the subscription rights or of the exercise price of the subscription rights;
     
  the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;
     
  the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;
     
  the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities;
     
  the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights;
     
  any applicable federal income tax considerations; and
     
  any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange and exercise of the subscription rights.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

 

We may issue purchase contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and us to sell to the holders, a specified number, or amount, of securities at a future date or dates. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as part of units consisting of a purchase contract and an underlying debt or preferred security covered by this prospectus, U.S. Treasury security or other U.S. government or agency obligation. The holder of the unit may be required to pledge the debt, preferred security, U.S. Treasury security or other U.S. government or agency obligation to secure its obligations under the purchase contract.

 

If purchase contracts are offered, the prospectus supplement will specify the material terms of the purchase contracts, the units and any applicable pledge or depository arrangements, including one or more of the following:

 

  the stated amount that a holder will be obligated to pay under the purchase contract in order to purchase the underlying security;
     
  the settlement date or dates on which the holder will be obligated to purchase the underlying security and whether the occurrence of any events may cause the settlement date to occur on an earlier date and the terms on which any early settlement would occur;
     
  the events, if any, that will cause our obligations and the obligations of the holder under the purchase contract to terminate;
     
  the settlement rate, which is a number that, when multiplied by the stated amount of a purchase contract, determines the number, or amount, of securities that we will be obligated to sell and a holder will be obligated to purchase under that purchase contract upon payment of the stated amount of that purchase contract;
     
  whether the purchase contracts will be issued separately or as part of units consisting of a purchase contract and an underlying debt or preferred security with an aggregate principal amount or liquidation amount equal to the stated amount;
     
  the type of security, if any, that is pledged by the holder to secure its obligations under a purchase contract;
     
  the terms of the pledge arrangement relating to the security, including the terms on which distributions or payments of interest and principal on the security will be retained by a collateral agent, delivered to us or be distributed to the holder; and
     
  the amount of the contract fee, if any, that may be payable by us to the holder or by the holder to us, the date or dates on which the contract fee will be payable and the extent to which we or the holder, as applicable, may defer payment of the contract fee on those payment dates.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, warrants, debt securities, subscription rights, purchase contracts or any combination of such securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

  the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be separately traded;
     
  the terms and conditions applicable to the units, including a description of the terms of any applicable unit agreement governing the units; and
     
  a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units.

 

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FOrmS OF SECURITIES

 

We may issue the debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts and units of any series in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or with a nominee for a depositary and registered in the name of the depositary or its nominee. In that case, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of outstanding registered securities of the series to be represented by such global securities. Unless and until the depositary exchanges a global security in whole for securities in definitive registered form, the global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to a nominee of the depositary or by a nominee of the depositary to the depositary or another nominee of the depositary or by the depositary or any of its nominees to a successor of the depositary or a nominee of such successor.

 

The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any portion of a series of securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such series. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons that have accounts with the depositary for such global security known as “participants” or persons that may hold interests through such participants.

 

Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary for such global security will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities represented by the global security beneficially owned by the participants. The accounts to be credited shall be designated by any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of such securities.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in such global security will be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary for such global security (with respect to interests of participants) and on the records of participants (with respect to interests of persons holding through participants). The laws of some states may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and such laws may impair the ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

 

So long as the depositary for a global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of such global security, such depositary or such nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by such global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of such securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for the global security and, if such person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement, the depositary for such global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through such participants to give or take such action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants, purchase contracts or units represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to such depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of such global security. None of us, the trustees, the warrant agents, the unit agents or any of our other agents, agent of the trustees or agent of the warrant agents or unit agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any securities represented by a global security, or its nominee, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or commodities to holders in respect of such global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in such global security as shown on the records of such depositary or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such participants.

 

If the depositary for any securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and we do not appoint a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days, we will issue such securities in definitive form in exchange for such global security. In addition, we may at any time and in our sole discretion determine not to have any of the securities of a series represented by one or more global securities and, in such event, will issue securities of such series in definitive form in exchange for all of the global security or securities representing such securities. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in such name or names as the depositary shall instruct the relevant trustee, warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours. We expect that such instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in such global security.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell our securities from time to time through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers, in one or more transactions at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, or at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We may also sell our securities upon the exercise of subscription rights that may be distributed to security holders. We may use these methods in any combination.

 

We will describe the terms of the offering of the securities in a prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference or any related free writing prospectus, including:

 

  the name or names of any underwriters, if any;
     
  the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;
     
  any underwriting discounts and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;
     
  any initial public offering price;
     
  any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
     
  any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Only underwriters we name in the prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference or any related free writing prospectus are underwriters of the securities offered thereby.

 

The distribution of securities may be effected, from time to time, in one or more transactions, including:

 

  block transactions (which may involve crosses) and transactions on the NASDAQ or any other organized market where the securities may be traded;
     
  purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement;
     
  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers;
     
  sales “at the market” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise; and
     
  sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers.

 

By Underwriters

 

We may use an underwriter or underwriters in the offer or sale of our securities.

 

  If we use an underwriter or underwriters, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account.
     
  We will include the names of the specific managing underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriters, and the terms of the transactions, including the compensation the underwriters and dealers will receive, in the prospectus supplement.
     
  The underwriters will use this prospectus and the prospectus supplement to sell our securities.

 

We may also sell securities pursuant to one or more standby agreements with one or more underwriters in connection with the call, redemption or exchange of a specified class or series of any of our outstanding securities. In a standby agreement, the underwriter or underwriters would agree either:

 

  to purchase from us up to the number of shares of common stock that would be issuable upon conversion or exchange of all the shares of the class or series of our securities at an agreed price per share of common stock; or

 

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  to purchase from us up to a specified dollar amount of offered securities at an agreed price per offered security, which price may be fixed or may be established by formula or other method and which may or may not relate to market prices of our common stock or any other outstanding security.

 

The underwriter or underwriters would also agree, if applicable, to convert or exchange any securities of the class or series held or purchased by the underwriter or underwriters into or for our common stock or other security.

 

The underwriter or underwriters may assist in the solicitation of conversions or exchanges by holders of the class or series of securities.

 

By Dealers

 

We may use a dealer to sell our securities.

 

  If we use a dealer, we, as principal, will sell our securities to the dealer.
     
  The dealer will then resell our securities to the public at varying prices that the dealer will determine at the time it sells our securities.
     
  We will include the name of the dealer and the terms of our transactions with the dealer in the prospectus supplement.

 

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

 

By Agents

 

We may designate agents to solicit offers to purchase our securities.

 

  We will name any agent involved in offering or selling our securities and any commissions that we will pay to the agent in the prospectus supplement.
     
  Unless we indicate otherwise in the prospectus supplement, our agents will act on a best efforts basis for the period of their appointment.
     
  Our agents may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act of any of our securities that they offer or sell.

 

By Delayed Delivery Contracts

 

We may authorize our agents and underwriters to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase our securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts.

 

  If we use delayed delivery contracts, we will disclose that we are using them in the prospectus supplement and will tell you when we will demand payment and delivery of the securities under the delayed delivery contracts.
     
  These delayed delivery contracts will be subject only to the conditions that we set forth in the prospectus supplement.
     
  We will indicate in the prospectus supplement the commission that underwriters and agents soliciting purchases of our securities under delayed delivery contracts will be entitled to receive.

 

Direct Sales

 

We may directly solicit offers to purchase our securities, and we may directly sell our securities to institutional or other investors, including our affiliates. We will describe the terms of our direct sales in the prospectus supplement. We may also sell our securities upon the exercise of rights which we may issue.

 

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General Information

 

Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of our securities may be underwriters as defined in the Securities Act, and any discounts or commissions they receive and any profit they make on the resale of the offered securities may be treated as underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. Any underwriters or agents will be identified and their compensation described in a prospectus supplement. We may indemnify agents, underwriters and dealers against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or make contributions to payments they may be required to make relating to those liabilities. Our agents, underwriters and dealers, or their affiliates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

Each series of securities offered by this prospectus (other than common stock) may be a new issue of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters to whom securities offered by this prospectus are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities offered by this prospectus, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for any securities offered by this prospectus.

 

Representatives of the underwriters through whom our securities are sold for public offering and sale may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, syndicate short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves syndicate sales in excess of the offering size, which creates a syndicate short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the offered securities so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.

 

Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the offered securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions. Penalty bids permit the representative of the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the offered securities originally sold by such syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Such stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the offered securities to be higher than it would otherwise be in the absence of such transactions. These transactions may be effected on a national securities exchange and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for, us and our subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business.

 

Fees and Commissions

 

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials; however, it is anticipated that the maximum commission or discount to be received in any particular offering of securities will be less than this amount.

 

If 5% or more of the net proceeds of any offering of securities made under this prospectus will be received by a FINRA member participating in the offering or affiliates or associated persons of such FINRA member, the offering will be conducted in accordance with FINRA Rule 5121.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters in connection with the securities offered hereby will be passed on for us by Porter Hedges LLP, Houston, Texas. Any underwriters will be advised about other issues relating to any offering by their own legal counsel.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of April 30, 2020 and 2019, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein, in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

The audit report covering the April 30, 2020 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph that states that the Company’s recurring losses from operations and accumulated deficit raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of that uncertainty.

 

The audit report covering the April 30, 2020 consolidated financial statements refers to the Company changing its method of accounting for leases as of May 1, 2019 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), and the related amendments.

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 20, 2020

 

Prospectus

 

 

Up to $50,000,000

 

Shares of Common Stock

 

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale, from time to time, of shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50,000,000, to or through A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners, or A.G.P., acting as our sales agent, in accordance with the terms of a sales agreement we have entered into with A.G.P., up to a maximum of $100,000,000, which is the amount included in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. A.G.P. is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between A.G.P. and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

A.G.P. will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of 3.25% of the gross proceeds from the sale of our common stock on our behalf as sales agent pursuant to the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, A.G.P. will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of A.G.P. will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to A.G.P. against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. See “Plan of Distribution.”

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OPTT.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on November 18, 2020 was $1.89 per share.

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus and in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission which are incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our common stock.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

A.G.P.

 

The date of this prospectus is            , 2020

 

 
 

 

Table of Contents

 

Prospectus

 

About this Prospectus II
Prospectus Summary 1
Risk Factors 3
Use of Proceeds 5
Dividend Policy 5
DILUTION 5
Description of Securities 6
Plan of Distribution 9
Legal Matters 10
Experts 10
Certain Documents Incorporated By Reference 10
Where You Can Find More Information 11
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements 11

 

i
 

 

About This Prospectus

 

You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the applicable document and that any information we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, or any sale of a security.

 

In addition, we incorporate important information into this prospectus by reference. You may obtain the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus without charge by following the instructions under “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus. We urge you to carefully read this prospectus and the information incorporated by reference before buying any of the securities being offered under this prospectus.

 

To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, the statements made in this prospectus will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in such documents incorporated by reference herein or therein.

 

You should rely only on the information contained, or incorporated herein by reference, in this prospectus and contained, or incorporated herein by reference, in the accompanying prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus. You should not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-________) we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this “shelf” process, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings up to $100,000,000 of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, depositary shares, subscription rights, purchase contracts and units. The $50,000,000 of shares of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus is included in the $100,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement.

 

Unless expressly stated otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our” or similar references mean Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.

 

ii
 

 

 

Prospectus Summary

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. To fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the information referred to under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 3, and the financial statements and other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus when making an investment decision. In this prospectus, the terms “we,” “us,” and the “company” refer to Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

Our Company

 

We are a marine power solutions provider. We control the design, manufacture, sales, installation, operations and maintenance of our products and solutions while working closely with partners that provide payloads, integration services, and marine installation capabilities. We believe our solutions provide persistent and reliable distributed offshore power along with communications for remote surface and subsea applications. Our mission and purpose are to utilize our proprietary, state-of-the-art technologies to enhance the environment by reducing the global carbon footprint by through clean and renewable solutions for reliable electrical power and, in so doing, drive demand for our products and services.

 

We also continue to develop and commercialize our proprietary systems that generate electricity by harnessing the renewable energy of ocean waves for our PB3 PowerBuoy®, and solar power for our newest product, the hybrid PowerBuoy®. The PB3 PowerBuoy® uses proprietary technologies that convert the kinetic energy created by the heaving motion of ocean waves into electricity. Based on feedback from our current customers, discussions with potential future customers in the offshore oil and gas, defense and security, science and research, and communications, as well as government applications in fishery protection, together with our market research and publicly available data, we believe that numerous markets have a direct need for our solutions. While our recent projects have been in the oil and gas industry, we believe there is an increasing need for our products and solutions in areas such as fishery protection, offshore windfarm support, marine surveillance, and ocean-based science and research applications. We believe that having demonstrated the capability of our solutions, we can advance our product and services and gain further adoption from our target markets. Our marketing efforts are focused on offshore locations that require a cost-efficient solution for renewable, reliable and persistent power and communications, either by supplying electric power to payloads that are integrated directly with our product or located in its vicinity, such as on the seabed and in the water column. We believe we are the leader in offshore autonomous ocean wave power conversion technology which provides renewable power for offshore operations that were previously difficult to decarbonize.

 

Our achievements during the first six months of fiscal 2021 included our continued work on Enel Green Power and Eni S.p.A. projects. In October 2020, we entered into an agreement with Adams Communication & Engineering Technology, Inc. to, among other things, conduct a feasibility study for the evaluation of a PB3 PowerBuoy® power and 5G communications solution in support of the U.S. Navy’s Naval Postgraduate School’s Sea, Land, Air, Military Research Initiative, which conducts interdisciplinary research in unmanned and robotic systems. In June 2020, we signed a memorandum of understanding with Mackay Marine (a division of Mackay Communications) to develop a Marine Surveillance Solution.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 28 Engelhard Drive, Monroe Township, New Jersey 08831. Our telephone number is (609) 730-0400. We were incorporated in New Jersey in 1984 and reincorporated in the State of Delaware in 2007. We maintain a website at www.oceanpowertechnologies.com where general information about us is available. We are not incorporating the contents of the website into this prospectus.

 

 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us   Shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
     

Plan of Distribution

 

  “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time to or through our sales agent, A.G.P. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 9.
     
Use of proceeds   We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to build additional products and solutions to meet market demand, further advance the development of new products and solutions, engage in corporate development and merge acquisition activities, for working capital needs, capital expenditures, repayment or refinancing of indebtedness, acquisitions, repurchases and redemptions of securities, and for other general corporate purposes. However, we will retain broad discretion over how the net proceeds are used. See “Use of Proceeds.”
     
Risk factors   Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. In particular, see “Risk Factors” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus.
     
Nasdaq Capital Market symbol    “OPTT”

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our common stock involves substantial risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors disclosed below as well as those contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated by reference herein, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the other information contained in this prospectus before acquiring any of our common stock. These risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition and cause the value of our common stock to decline. You could lose all or part of your investment.

 

This prospectus also contain or incorporate by reference forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Related to our Common Stock and the Offering

 

Historically, our stock price has been volatile, and this is likely to continue; purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses as a result.

 

Historically, the market price of our common stock has fluctuated significantly, and we expect that this will continue. Purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses relating to their investment in our stock as a result. For the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, the 52-week low and high prices for our common stock was $0.33 and $2.84, respectively. Also, the stock market in general has recently experienced volatility that has often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations could result in fluctuations in the price of our common stock, which could cause purchasers of our common stock to incur substantial losses. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

  developments in our business or with respect to our projects;
  the success of competitive products or technologies;
  regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
  developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights;
  the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
  quarterly or annual variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
  market conditions in the conventional and renewable energy industries and issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;
  the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock or changes in financial estimates by analysts;
  the inability to meet the financial estimates of analysts who follow our common stock;
  investor perception of our company and of our targeted markets; and
  general economic, political and market conditions.

 

The market valuation of our business may fluctuate due to factors beyond our control and the value of the investment of our stockholders may fluctuate correspondingly.

 

The market valuation of energy companies, such as us, frequently fluctuate due to factors unrelated to the past or present operating performance of such companies. Our market valuation may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

  Changes in securities analysts’ estimates of our financial performance;
  Fluctuations in stock market prices and volumes, particularly among securities of energy companies;
  Changes in market valuations of similar companies;
  Announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, new technologies, acquisitions, commercial relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
  Variations in our quarterly operating results;
  Fluctuations in coal, oil, natural gas, methanol and ammonia prices;
  Loss of a major customer of failure to complete significant commercial contracts;
  Loss of a relationship with a partner; and
  Additions or departures of key personnel.
     
    As a result, the value of your investment may fluctuate.

 

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Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering and may not use the proceeds effectively.

 

Our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in a variety of ways that may ultimately fail to improve our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock. Our failure to apply these funds effectively could have a negative effect on our business and cause the price of our common stock to decline.

 

A large number of shares may be sold in the market following this offering, which may depress the market price of our common stock.

 

All of our shares of common stock sold in the offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act. As a result, a substantial number of our shares of common stock may be sold in the public market following this offering, which may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. If there are more shares of common stock offered for sale than buyers are willing to purchase, then the market price of our common stock may decline to a market price at which buyers are willing to purchase the offered shares of common stock and sellers remain willing to sell the shares of common stock.

 

The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to A.G.P. at any time and from time to time during the term of the sales agreement. The actual number of shares common stock that are sold to or through A.G.P. on our behalf pursuant to any placement notice we deliver to A.G.P. will depend on the market price of the common stock during the periods in which sales are made and any restrictions or limitations applicable to such sales, such as a minimum price below which sales may not be made, that we may include in such placement notice or that otherwise apply under the sales agreement. Because the price per share of each share of common stock sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will ultimately be issued.

 

You may experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common stock you purchase.

 

Because the price per share of our common stock being offered from time to time may be substantially higher than the book value per share of our common stock at the time of the sale, you may suffer substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of the common stock you purchase in this offering.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold to or through A.G.P. under the sales agreement and the prices at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares of common stock under the sales agreement with A.G.P. or to what extent we will be able to utilize the sales agreement.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to build additional products and solutions to meet market demand, further advance the development of new products and solutions, engage in corporate development and merge acquisition activities, for working capital needs, capital expenditures, repayment or refinancing of indebtedness, acquisitions, repurchases and redemptions of securities, and for other general corporate purposes. The amounts and timing of these expenditures will depend on a number of factors, such as the timing, scope, progress and results of our research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering efforts, and the regulatory and competitive environment. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for any particular purpose or the timing of any expenditures. Accordingly, management will retain broad discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds from the sale of the securities, if any. Pending any use of the net proceeds from this offering, if any, we intend to invest the net proceeds in repurchase contracts or deposit them in checking accounts at financial institutions.

 

Dividend Policy

 

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not currently anticipate declaring or paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial conditions, future prospects, contractual restrictions and covenants and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

 

DILUTION

 

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. Our net tangible book value as of July 31, 2020, was approximately $10,115,883, or approximately $0.54 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets) less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of July 31, 2020.

 

Dilution in net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. After giving effect to the sale of 25,380,710 shares of our common stock in this offering (based on an assumed offering price of $1.97 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on November 17, 2020), but excluding the sales agent discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of July 31, 2020 would have been approximately $60,115,883, or approximately $1.37 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate decrease in net tangible book value of $0.83 per share of common stock to our existing stockholders and an immediate decrease in net tangible book value of $0.60 per share of common stock to investors in this offering. The actual amounts above are based on 18,620,565 shares outstanding as of July 31, 2020 and do not reflect the exercise of warrants outstanding on common stock, the exercise of outstanding options to purchase shares of common stock and non-vested restricted stock issued to employees in the computation as the effect would be anti-dilutive.

 

5
 

 

Description of Securities

 

In this offering, we are offering shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50,000,000. In the discussion that follows, we have summarized selected provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws as currently in effect for more details regarding the provisions we describe below and for other provisions that may be important to you. We have filed copies of those documents with the SEC, and they are incorporated by reference herein. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Authorized and Outstanding Capital Stock

 

The following description of our common stock and provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws are summaries and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which have been incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, all of which are undesignated.

 

As of November 18, 2020, there were 28,470,138 shares of common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock were issued or outstanding. As of November 18, 2020, there also were outstanding options representing the right to purchase a total of 531,506 shares of common stock at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $3.02 per share, (ii) warrants to purchase up to 7,298 shares of our common stock which are exercisable at a price of $121.60, (iii) warrants to purchase up to 8,925 shares of our common stock which are exercisable at a price of $187.20, and (iv) warrants to purchase up to 4,927,680 shares of our common stock which are exercisable at a price of $3.85.

 

Description of Common Stock

 

Voting. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors may elect all of the directors standing for election.

 

Dividends. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends that may be declared by our Board, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

 

Liquidation and Distribution. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. Our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares offered by us in this offering will be, when issued and paid for, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law; Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws

 

Delaware law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our Board.

 

Removal of Directors

 

Our certificate of incorporation currently provides that directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of 75% of our shares of capital stock present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote. However, our Board of Directors approved an amendment to our bylaws that became effective on June 17, 2016, which permits our directors to be removed either for cause or without cause by our stockholders. At our annual meeting of stockholders for the year ended April 30, 2016 that was held on October 21, 2016 (the “2016 Annual Meeting”), we submitted a proposal to stockholders seeking stockholder approval to amend our certificate of incorporation to delete the reference to “for cause” in Section 6 of Article IX of the certificate of incorporation. This proposal to amend the certificate of incorporation did not receive the required affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote at the meeting, so the proposal did not pass. However, we also submitted a proposal to stockholders at the 2016 Annual Meeting seeking approval to amend our certificate of incorporation to add a clause that specified that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any provision in the Certificate of Incorporation that is contrary to a requirement of the Delaware General Corporate Law (the “DGCL”) shall be read in conformity with the applicable requirement of the DGCL. This second proposal only required the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote at the 2016 Annual Meeting, and it passed.

 

Our Board of Directors takes the position that under current Delaware law, the “only for cause” provision in the certificate of incorporation regarding removal of the company’s directors is not enforceable and is therefore not in conformity with the applicable requirement of the DGCL. Accordingly, we will comply with the provisions of our bylaws, as amended and as described above, relating to director removal and will not seek to enforce that provision of our certificate of incorporation relating to stockholder removal of directors only for cause, as presently in effect. Under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, any vacancy on the Board, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of the Board, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office.

 

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The limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors and fill vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of us.

 

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

 

Our certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer, our president or the Board.

 

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

 

Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to the Board. Stockholders at an annual meeting may only consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting, that is entitled to vote at the meeting and that has delivered to our secretary a timely written notice in proper form of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

 

Delaware Business Combination Statute

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our Board of Directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

 

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our Board of Directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of our capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors

 

Our certificate of incorporation limits the personal liability of directors for breach of fiduciary duty to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law. Our certificate of incorporation provides that no director will have personal liability to us or to our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty or other duty as a director. However, these provisions do not eliminate or limit the liability of any of our directors:

 

  for any breach of their duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
  for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
  for voting or assenting to unlawful payments of dividends or other distributions; or
  for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

Any amendment to or repeal of these provisions will not eliminate or reduce the effect of these provisions in respect of any act or failure to act, or any cause of action, suit or claim that would accrue or arise prior to any amendment or repeal or adoption of an inconsistent provision. If the Delaware General Corporation Law is amended to provide for further limitations on the personal liability of directors of corporations, then the personal liability of our directors will be further limited to the greatest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

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In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that we must indemnify our directors and officers and we must advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and officers in connection with legal proceedings, subject to limited exceptions.

 

Notice of Share Ownership

 

Our bylaws contain a provision requiring any beneficial owner of three percent or more of our outstanding common stock to notify us of his or her stockholdings, as well as of any change in his or her beneficial ownership of one percent or more of our outstanding common stock. Our bylaws do not provide for any specific remedy in the event a stockholder does not comply with this provision. We do not intend to make any such information public, unless required by law or the rules of the SEC or the Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares

 

Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of the Nasdaq Capital Market. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. Its address is 462 South 4th Street, Suite 1600, Louisville, KY 40202, and its telephone number is 1-800-662-7232.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “OPTT.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into the sales agreement with A.G.P. under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time to or through A.G.P., acting as our sales agent. The sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made at market prices by any method deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The Nasdaq Capital Market, on any other existing trading market for our common stock, or to or through a market maker.

 

Each time that we wish to issue and sell shares of our common stock under the sales agreement, we will provide A.G.P. with a placement notice describing the amount of shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the amount of shares of common stock that may be sold in any single day, any minimum price below which sales may not be made or any minimum price requested for sales in a given time period and any other instructions relevant to such requested sales. Upon receipt of a placement notice, A.G.P., acting as our sales agent, will use commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Capital Market, to sell shares of our common stock under the terms and subject to the conditions of the placement notice and the sales agreement. We or A.G.P. may suspend the offering of common stock pursuant to a placement notice upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

Settlement for sales of common stock, unless the parties agree otherwise, will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There are no arrangements to place any of the proceeds of this offering in an escrow, trust or similar account. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and A.G.P. may agree upon.

 

We will pay A.G.P. commissions for its services in acting as our sales agent in the sale of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement. A.G.P. will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of 3.25% of the gross proceeds from the sale of our common stock on our behalf pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse A.G.P. for certain specified expenses incurred by A.G.P., including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel incurred by A.G.P. in connection with entering into the sales agreement in an amount not to exceed $50,000, plus up to $10,000 per year for other expenses. after the date of this prospectus in connection with its further periodic due diligence investigation of our company in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding discounts, commissions and reimbursements payable to A.G.P. under the sales agreement, will not exceed approximately $200,000. The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

 

Because there are no minimum sale requirements as a condition to this offering, the actual total public offering price, commissions and net proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. The actual dollar amount and number of shares of common stock we sell through this prospectus will be dependent, among other things, on market conditions and our capital raising requirements.

 

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through A.G.P. under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to A.G.P. in connection with the sales of common stock under the sales agreement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, A.G.P. will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of A.G.P. will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to A.G.P. against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

A.G.P. will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus if such activity would be prohibited under Regulation M or other anti-manipulation rules under the Securities Act. As our sales agent, A.G.P. will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.

 

The offering pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all shares of common stock subject to the agreement and (ii) termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. We may terminate the sales agreement in our sole discretion at any time by giving 10 days’ prior notice to A.G.P. A.G.P. may terminate the sales agreement under the circumstances specified in the sales agreement and in its sole discretion at any time by giving 10 days’ prior notice to us.

 

The sales agreement has been filed as an exhibit to a current report on Form 8-K that we filed with the Commission in connection with this offering and is incorporated into this prospectus by reference.

 

A.G.P. and its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us in the ordinary course of business, for which services that may in the future receive customary fees.

 

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by A.G.P., and A.G.P. may distribute this prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities being offered by this prospectus and other legal matters concerning this offering will be passed on for us by Porter Hedges LLP, Houston, Texas. A.G.P. is being represented in connection with this offering by Kelley Drye & Warren LLP, New York, New York.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of April 30, 2020 and 2019, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein, in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

The audit report covering the April 30, 2020 consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph that states that the Company’s recurring losses from operations and accumulated deficit raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of that uncertainty.

 

The audit report covering the April 30, 2020 consolidated financial statements refers to the Company changing its method of accounting for leases as of May 1, 2019 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), and the related amendments.

 

Certain Documents Incorporated By Reference 

 

The following documents, which have previously been filed by us with the SEC under the Exchange Act, are incorporated herein by reference:

 

  our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on June 29, 2020 (File No. 001-33417);
     
  our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended July 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on September 14, 2020 (File No. 001-33417);
     
  our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on May 1, 2020, May 4, 2020, May 7, 2020, June 26, 2020, June 29, 2020, July 8, 2020, July 15, 2020, August 17, 2020, August 18, 2020, August 19, 2020, August 24, 2020, August 26, 2020, September 14, 2020, September 18, 2020, October 27, 2020 and November 16, 2020 (File No. 001-33417) (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any such Current Report on Form 8-K);
     
  our Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on November 2, 2020; and
     
  the description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed on April 18, 2007 (File No. 001-33417) and in any and all subsequent amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating that description.

 

All documents filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 on any current report on Form 8-K) after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement and after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus by reference and to be a part hereof from the date of filing of such documents. Any statement contained herein, or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein, shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

You may request a free copy of these filings, other than any exhibits, unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into this prospectus, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Ocean Power Technologies, Inc.

28 Engelhard Drive, Suite B

Monroe Township, NJ 08831

Attention: Chief Financial Officer

(609) 730-0400

 

10
 

 

Where You Can Find More Information

 

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and in accordance therewith, file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These reports, proxy statements and other information can be inspected and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website at www.oceanpowertechnologies.com. Information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and does not constitute part of this prospectus. Please note that information contained in our website, whether currently posted or posted in the future, is not a part of this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

The information discussed in this prospectus, our filings with the SEC and our public releases include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks, trends and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. Among those risks, trends and uncertainties are:

 

  the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, customers, suppliers and manufacturers;
  our ability to commercialize our products, and achieve and sustain profitability;
  our continued development of our proprietary technologies, and expected continued use of cash from operating activities unless or until we achieve positive cash flow from the commercialization of our products and services;
  our ability to obtain additional funding, as and if needed which will be subject to a number of factors, including market conditions, and our operating performance;
  our ability to continue as a going concern;
  our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues and capital requirements;
  the adequacy of our cash balances and our need for additional financings;
  our ability to develop and manufacture commercially viable products;
  our ability to successfully develop and market new products and solutions, such as the subsea battery and Marine Surveillance Solutions;
  that we will be successful in our efforts to commercialize our products or the timetable upon which commercialization can be achieved, if at all;
  our ability to identify and penetrate markets for our products and solutions;
  our ability to implement our commercialization strategy as planned, or at all;
  our ability to improve the power output, survivability and reliability of our products;
  our relationships with our strategic partners may not be successful and we may not be successful in establishing additional relationships;
  the reliability of our technology, products and solutions;
  our ability to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market;
  our ability to raise capital through our current equity facilities;
  the impact of pending and threatened litigation on our business, financial condition and liquidity;
  changes in current legislation, regulations and economic conditions that affect the demand for renewable energy;
  our ability to compete effectively in our target markets;
  our limited operating history and history of operating losses;
  our sales and marketing capabilities and strategy in the United States and internationally; and
  our ability to protect our intellectual property portfolio.

 

These forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as “expect,” “estimate,” “project,” “plan,” “believe,” “achievable,” “anticipate” and similar terms and phrases. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, they do involve certain assumptions, risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including but not limited to the risks and uncertainties discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents that we include in or incorporate by reference into this prospectus, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020 and our subsequent SEC filings.

 

All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference. Other than as required under the securities laws, we do not assume a duty to update these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, subsequent events or circumstances, changes in expectations or otherwise.

 

11
 

 

 

Up to $50,000,000

 

Shares of Common Stock

 

 

 

Prospectus

 

 

 

A.G.P.

 

          , 2020

 

 
 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth the various expenses, all of which will be borne by us, in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being registered, other than the underwriting discounts, commissions, and expenses. All amounts shown are estimates except for the Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee.

 

Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee $10,910 
Accounting fees and expenses $* 
Legal fees and expenses $* 
Printing and engraving expenses $* 
Transfer agent fees $* 
Miscellaneous $* 
Total $* 

 

* Estimated expenses are presently not known and cannot be estimated.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit. The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation provides that no director of the Registrant shall be personally liable to it or its stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

 

Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation and certain other persons serving at the request of the corporation in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlements actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he is or is threatened to be made a party by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation provides that the Registrant will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (other than an action by or in the right of the Registrant) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, a director or officer of the Registrant, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant’s request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an “Indemnitee”), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant’s best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

II-1
 

 

The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation provides that the Registrant will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of the Registrant to procure a judgment in the Registrant’s favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, a director or officer of the Registrant, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant’s request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee or, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the Registrant, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Registrant, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by the Registrant against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred in connection therewith. Expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

 

The Registrant maintains a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of the Registrant’s directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

 

The Registrant’s directors and officers are covered by insurance policies indemnifying them against certain liabilities, including certain liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, which might be incurred by them in such capacities and against which they cannot be indemnified by the Registrant.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.   Description of Exhibit
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement.*
3.1   Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 10-Q (File no. 1-33417) filed on September 14, 2007).
3.2   Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on October 27, 2015 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 28, 2015).
3.3   Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on October 21, 2016 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 21, 2016).
3.4   Amended and Restated Bylaws of Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. effective as of June 17, 2016 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 23, 2016).
3.5   Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on March 8, 2019 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 8, 2019).
4.1   Specimen certificate for Common Stock (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Form S-1/A (File no. 333-138595) filed on March 19, 2007).
4.2   Form of Senior Indenture Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on February 12, 2016 ) (File No. 333-209517).
4.3   Form of Senior Indenture Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.6 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on February 12, 2016 ) (File No. 333-209517).
4.4   Form of Subordinated Indenture Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.7 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on February 12, 2016 ) (File No. 333-209517).
4.5   Form of Senior Debt Security (included in Exhibit 4.2).
4.6   Form of Senior Subordinated Debt Security (included in Exhibit 4.3).
4.7   Form of Subordinated Debt Security (included in Exhibit 4.4).
4.8   Form of Subscription Rights Agreement and Form Subscription Rights Certificate.*
4.9   Form of Purchase Contract.*
4.10   Form of Unit Agreement.*
4.11   Form of Pledge Agreement.*
4.12   Form of Deposit Agreement.*
4.13   Form of Depositary Share.*
5.1   Opinion of Porter Hedges LLP with respect to legality of the securities, including consent.**
21.1   Subsidiaries of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21.1 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended April 30, 2020).
23.1   Consent of KPMG LLP.**
23.2   Consent of Porter Hedges LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).**
24.1   Power of Attorney (contained in signature pages).

 

* OPT will file as an exhibit to a current report on Form 8-K (i) any underwriting agreement relating to securities offered hereby, (ii) the instruments setting forth the terms of the depositary shares, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts or units, (iii) any additional required opinion of counsel to OPT as to the legality of the securities offered hereby or (iv) any required opinion of counsel to OPT as to certain tax matters relative to securities offered hereby.
** Filed herewith.

 

II-2
 

 

Item 17. Undertakings.

 

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i) If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B:

 

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

 

II-3
 

 

(ii) If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

 

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(d) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-4
 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the Township of Monroe, State of New Jersey, on the 20th day of November, 2020.

 

  OCEAN POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
     
  By: /s/ George H. Kirby III
    George H. Kirby III
    Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY AND SIGNATURES

 

We the undersigned officers and directors of Ocean Power Technologies, Inc., hereby, severally constitute and appoint George H. Kirby III, Matthew T. Shafer and John Lawrence, each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to them and each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below, the registration statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all pre-effective and post-effective amendments to said registration statement and any subsequent registration statement for the same offering which may be filed under Rule 462(b) and generally to do all such things in our names and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming our signatures as they may be signed by our said attorneys, or any of them, to said registration statement and any and all amendments thereto or to any subsequent registration statement for the same offering which may be filed under Rule 462(b).

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature   Title   Date
         
    President, Chief Executive Officer    
/s/ George H. Kirby III   and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   November 20, 2020
George H. Kirby III        
         
/s/ Matthew T. Shafer   Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer   November 20, 2020
Matthew T. Shafer   (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Terence J. Cryan   Chairman of the Board and Director   November 20, 2020
Terence J. Cryan        
         
/s/ Dean J. Glover   Vice Chairman of the Board and Director   November 20, 2020
Dean J. Glover        
         
/s/ Steven M. Fludder   Director   November 20, 2020
Steven M. Fludder        
         
/s/ Robert K. Winters   Director   November 20, 2020

Robert K. Winters

 

       
/s/ Kristine S. Moore   Director   November 20, 2020
Kristine S. Moore        

 

II-5
 

 

Exhibit Index

 

Exhibit No.   Description of Exhibit
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement.*
3.1   Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 10-Q (File no. 1-33417) filed on September 14, 2007).
3.2   Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on October 27, 2015 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 28, 2015).
3.3   Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on October 21, 2016 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 21, 2016).
3.4   Amended and Restated Bylaws of Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. effective as of June 17, 2016 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 23, 2016).
3.5   Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on March 8, 2019 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 8, 2019).
4.1   Specimen certificate for Common Stock (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Form S-1/A (File no. 333-138595) filed on March 19, 2007).
4.2   Form of Senior Indenture (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on February 12, 2016 (File No. 333-209517).
4.3   Form of Senior Indenture (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.6 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on February 12, 2016 (File No. 333-209517)).
4.4   Form of Subordinated Indenture (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.7 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on February 12, 2016 (File No. 333-209517)).
4.5   Form of Senior Debt Security (included in Exhibit 4.2).
4.6   Form of Senior Subordinated Debt Security (included in Exhibit 4.3).
4.7   Form of Subordinated Debt Security (included in Exhibit 4.4).
4.8   Form of Subscription Rights Agreement and Form Subscription Rights Certificate.*
4.9   Form of Purchase Contract.*
4.10   Form of Unit Agreement.*
4.11   Form of Pledge Agreement.*
4.12   Form of Deposit Agreement.*
4.13   Form of Depositary Share.*
5.1   Opinion of Porter Hedges LLP with respect to legality of the securities, including consent.**
21.1   Subsidiaries of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21.1 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended April 30, 2020).
23.1   Consent of KPMG LLP.**
23.2   Consent of Porter Hedges LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).**
24.1   Power of Attorney (contained in signature pages).

 

* OPT will file as an exhibit to a current report on Form 8-K (i) any underwriting agreement relating to securities offered hereby, (ii) the instruments setting forth the terms of the depositary shares, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts or units, (iii) any additional required opinion of counsel to OPT as to the legality of the securities offered hereby or (iv) any required opinion of counsel to OPT as to certain tax matters relative to securities offered hereby.
** Filed herewith.