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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
 Registration No. 333-248246
10,750,000 Shares
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Class B Common Stock
This is an initial public offering of shares of Class B common stock of Bentley Systems, Incorporated.
The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus are selling 10,750,000 Class B shares in this offering. We will not be selling any shares in this offering and will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the Class B shares being sold by the selling stockholders.
We have two classes of authorized common stock: Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Upon completion of this offering, the rights of the holders of our Class A common stock and our Class B common stock will be identical, except with respect to voting and conversion rights. Each share of our Class B common stock will be entitled to one vote per share. Each share of our Class A common stock will be entitled to 29 votes per share and is convertible at any time into one share of our Class B common stock. Our Class A common stock will automatically convert into our Class B common stock upon certain transfers. The beneficial owners of our Class A common stock consist primarily of the Bentleys (as defined herein). After giving effect to the Charter Amendments (as defined herein) and following the completion of this offering, the holders of our Class A common stock will hold approximately 57.4% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock and the Bentley Control Group (as defined herein) will hold or have the ability to control approximately 67.4% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and Nasdaq corporate governance standards. This ownership means that, for the foreseeable future, holders of our Class B common stock will not have a meaningful voice in our corporate affairs and that the control of our company will be concentrated with the Bentley Control Group. For additional information, see the sections titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to the Offering “ and “Management —Controlled Company.”
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the Class B common stock. The initial public offering price per share is $22.00. Our Class B common stock has been approved for listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BSY.”
See “Risk Factors” on page 23 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our Class B common stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Per Share
Total
Initial public offering price
$ 22.00 $ 236,500,000
Underwriting discount(1)
$ 1.54 $ 16,555,000
Proceeds to the selling stockholders(2)
$ 20.46 $ 219,945,000
(1)
See the section titled “Underwriting” for additional information regarding compensation payable to the underwriters.
(2)
We have agreed to pay certain expenses in connection with this offering on behalf of the selling stockholders, including underwriting discounts and commissions. See the section titled “Underwriting.”
To the extent that the underwriters sell more than 10,750,000 shares of Class B common stock, the underwriters have the option to purchase up to an additional 1,610,991 shares from the selling stockholders at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount.
One or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors have indicated an interest in purchasing up to an aggregate of $40 million in shares of our Class B common stock being offered by the selling stockholders in this offering at the initial public offering price. As this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors may determine to purchase more, fewer or no shares in this offering or the underwriters may determine to sell more, fewer or no shares to one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount from any shares of Class B common stock purchased by one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors as they will from any other shares of Class B common stock sold to the public in this offering.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares against payment in New York, New York on September 25, 2020.
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
BofA Securities
RBC Capital Markets
Baird
KeyBanc Capital Markets
Mizuho Securities
Prospectus dated September 22, 2020.

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F-1
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or contained in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Neither we, the selling stockholders nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus we have prepared. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the Class B common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since such date.
For investors outside of the United States: neither we, the selling stockholders nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering, or the use of or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about, and to observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of Class B common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.
Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references to “Bentley Systems,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Bentley Systems, Incorporated and, where appropriate, its direct and indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries. References to the “Bentleys” refer to Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley, Raymond B. Bentley and Richard P. Bentley, collectively. References to the “Bentley Control Group” refer to the Bentleys and certain of their family members,
 
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trusts or other permitted transferees, as well as all other holders of our Class A common stock in respect of such shares of Class A common stock, who collectively are acting as a group. For a further discussion of the Bentley Control Group, see the section titled “Management — Controlled Company.” References to the “Bentley Family” refer to the Bentleys, certain other family members and trusts and other entities controlled by or primarily for the benefit of the Bentleys and their families.
 
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TRADEMARKS
This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and service marks and to those belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
This prospectus contains references to certain data derived from external publications:

A report prepared by Oxford Economics. The report is copyrighted by the Global Infrastructure Hub Ltd (the “GI Hub”), and is licensed from the GI Hub under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. To the extent permitted by law, the GI Hub disclaims liability to any person or organization in respect of anything done, or omitted to be done, in reliance upon information contained in the publication. See the section titled “Market and Industry Data;”

Market analyses prepared by the ARC Advisory Group. All information in the report is proprietary and copyrighted by ARC Advisory Group; and

A research report commissioned by us entitled “Infrastructure Engineering Software: Potential World-Wide Market Size” prepared by Cambashi Limited (“Cambashi”).
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our Class B common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements. See the section titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Our Mission
Bentley Systems’ mission is to provide innovative software to advance the design, construction, and operations of the world’s infrastructure — sustaining both the global economy and environment, for improved quality of life.
Bentley Systems: The Infrastructure Engineering Software Company
We are a leading global provider of software for infrastructure engineering, enabling the work of civil, structural, geotechnical, and plant engineering practitioners, their project delivery enterprises, and owner-operators of infrastructure assets. We were founded in 1984 by the Bentley brothers. Our enduring commitment is to develop and support the most comprehensive portfolio of integrated software offerings across professional disciplines, project and asset lifecycles, infrastructure sectors, and geographies. Our software enables digital workflows across engineering disciplines, distributed project teams, from offices to the field, and across computing form factors, including desktops, on-premises servers, cloud-native services, mobile devices, and web browsers. We deliver our solutions via on-premise, cloud, and hybrid environments. Our users engineer, construct, and operate projects and assets across the following infrastructure sectors:

public works (including roads, rail, airports, ports, and water and wastewater networks) / utilities (including electric, gas, water, and communications). We estimate that this sector represents 52% of the net infrastructure asset value of the global top 500 infrastructure owners based on the 2019 edition of the Bentley Infrastructure 500 Top Owners, our annual compilation of the world’s largest infrastructure owners ranked by net depreciated value of their tangible fixed assets;

industrial (including discrete and process manufacturing, power generation, and water treatment plants) / resources (including oil and gas, mining, and offshore). We estimate that this sector represents 38% of the global top 500 infrastructure owners’ net infrastructure asset value; and

commercial/facilities (including office buildings, hospitals, and campuses). We estimate that this sector represents 10% of the global top 500 infrastructure owners’ net infrastructure asset value.
Infrastructure assets are among the world’s largest and longest-lived investments, vital to both economic prosperity and environmental health. The quality of a region’s infrastructure directly affects the region’s capacity to meet constituents’ essential needs for water, sanitation, energy, transport, and productive industries. Moreover, infrastructure considerations can affect the rate of global climate change and communities’ vulnerability and resilience to negative climate change outcomes.
Infrastructure is complex due both to its physical scale and to its need for information connectedness at and between every stage of its lifecycle. Infrastructure design requires the structured collaboration of many engineering disciplines, often requiring globally dispersed teams. Infrastructure construction requires a distributed supply chain to reach an often remote location to realize a unique design. Infrastructure operations are mission critical, and require maintaining performance throughput and fitness-for-purpose for multiple generations. The design, construction, and operations of infrastructure require comprehensive solutions that can support and integrate rigorous workflows across professional disciplines in concert over the infrastructure lifecycle.
Our business, comprised of more than 4,000 colleagues, includes a “success force” of more than 900 colleagues with experience and credentials in infrastructure engineering. Our success force, coupled with
 
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36 years of singular focus, has enabled us to create what we believe to be the most comprehensive infrastructure engineering software portfolio available today. Our comprehensiveness creates a formidable competitive advantage by providing our users integrated solutions for infrastructure projects and assets of nearly any type, scale, and complexity.
We address both the project and asset lifecycle phases of infrastructure, each with applications and enterprise information systems. Our Project Lifecycle solutions encompass conception, planning, surveying, design, engineering, simulation, and construction, as well as the collaboration offerings required to coordinate and share the work of interdisciplinary and/or distributed project teams. Our Asset Lifecycle solutions span the operating life of commissioned infrastructure assets, allowing our accounts to manage engineering changes for safety and compliance and to model performance and reliability to support operating and maintenance decisions.
Our revenues are balanced and diversified between engineering and construction contracting firms who work together to deliver the design and construction of capital projects (representing 55% of our 2019 revenues), and their clients, public and private infrastructure asset owners and operators (representing 45% of our 2019 revenues). While engineering and construction contracting firms typically use our Project Lifecycle solutions, owner-operators are often involved in engineering and management for many of their own projects, and so can be users of our Project Lifecycle as well as our Asset Lifecycle solutions.
Our company’s “Advancing Infrastructure” tagline reflects our enduring track record in successfully leveraging new technologies to improve and integrate the design, construction, and operations of infrastructure, leading to our infrastructure digital twins. An infrastructure digital twin is a cloud-native 4D digital representation of a physical project and resulting asset, incorporating its underlying engineering information, that is applied to model, simulate, analyze, chronicle, and predict its performance over time. By adding digital twin services to our existing solutions, our users can more fully extend digital workflows across project delivery and asset performance, increasing the value of infrastructure engineers’ work.
We are the only infrastructure engineering software vendor to lead in market share in categories related to both the project and the asset lifecycle phases in the most recent rankings by The ARC Advisory Group (“ARC”). In August 2019, for Engineering Design Tools for Plants, Infrastructure, and BIM (building information modeling), ARC ranked us #2 overall, as well as #1 in each of Electric Transmission & Distribution and Communications and Water/Wastewater Distribution. In August 2019, ARC ranked us #1 in its inaugural market share study for Collaborative BIM. In December 2019, for Asset Reliability Software & Services, ARC ranked us #1 overall for software, as well as #1 in each of Transportation, Oil and Gas, and Electric Power Transmission and Distribution.
During the last two years, Microsoft recognized us as its 2019 “CityNext Partner of the Year” (citing our Azure-hosted ProjectWise for the Mumbai Trans Harbour Sea Link in India), its 2018 “CityNext Partner of the Year” (citing our Azure-hosted ProjectWise and AssetWise for the Klang Valley MRT in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), and a Finalist for the 2019 “Mixed Reality Partner of the Year Award” (citing our SYNCHRO XR 4D construction modeling application for the new HoloLens 2 device). Also, according to Microsoft, in 2019 we were one of the top 25 companies in terms of Azure usage globally.
We have spent decades cultivating trusted relationships with the largest global infrastructure engineering organizations. Our accounts include 90% of the top 250 of the ENR 2019 Top 500 Design Firms and 64% of the 2019 Bentley Infrastructure 500 Top Owners. The ENR 2019 Top 500 Design Firms is authored by Engineering News-Record (“ENR”) and the Bentley Infrastructure 500 Top Owners is authored by us. These rankings consist of substantially distinct account lists (with the exception of a de minimis number of overlapping accounts), and such accounts collectively represented 42% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019. Our solutions are, in general, mission critical both for our accounts and for our professional users and foster a high degree of loyalty, with 80% of our 2018 and 2019 total revenues coming from accounts of more than ten years’ standing, and 87% of our 2018 and 2019 total revenues coming from accounts of more than five years’ standing.
 
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*
All figures as of December 31, 2019. All figures calculated using ASC 606. Chart segment sizing corresponds to underlying % of 2019 revenue.
We are a significant software vendor to major infrastructure engineering organizations. In 2018 and 2019, 88 and 96 accounts, respectively, each contributed over $1 million to our revenues, representing 31% and 32% of our revenues, respectively. 50% of our 2018 revenues and 53% of our 2019 revenues came from 376 accounts and 424 accounts, respectively, each contributing over $250,000 to our revenues. During 2018 and 2019, we served 36,718 and 34,127 accounts, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020, we served 31,130 and 31,745 accounts, respectively. We determine “accounts” based on distinct contractual and billing relationships with us. Affiliated entities of a single parent company may each have an independent account with us. We have historically offered, and have in recent years enhanced, volume discount programs to incentivize such affiliated entities to consolidate their contractual relationships with us, resulting in a reduction to the number of distinct accounts so defined. No single account or group of affiliated accounts provided more than 2.5% of our 2018 or 2019 revenues.
Our business is comprehensively global. In 2019 the majority of our revenues were generated across 171 countries outside the United States, with 32.1% from EMEA and 19.5% from APAC. We have purposefully invested and are fully established in developing international markets where rapid infrastructure growth will continue to present compelling opportunities for us to scale efficiently. In particular, Greater China, which we define as the Peoples’ Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and where we now have over 200 colleagues, has become one of our largest (among our top five) and fastest growing regions as measured by revenue, contributing just over 5% of our 2019 revenues.
In 2019, we generated subscription revenues of $608 million, total revenues of $737 million, net income of $103 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $188 million, and for the six months ended June 30, 2020, we generated subscription revenues of $328 million, total revenues of $379 million, net income of $69 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $116 million. Our business is cash-efficient, with approximately 70% of our revenues billed in advance, and a global tax rate of under 20%. For additional information on our financial results, key metrics, and non-GAAP financial metrics, see the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Key Business Metrics.”
Our Solutions
We offer solutions for enterprises and professionals across the infrastructure lifecycle. Our Project Delivery and Asset and Network Performance solutions are systems provided via cloud and hybrid environments, developed respectively to extend enterprise collaboration during project delivery, and to manage and leverage engineering information during operations and maintenance. Our Design Integration and Digital Cities solutions are primarily desktop applications and cloud-provisioned solutions for
 
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professional practitioners and workgroups. Our cloud-native Digital Twins solutions introduce digital workflows, which can span our Project Lifecycle and Asset Lifecycle solutions.
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Project Lifecycle Solutions.   Our Project Lifecycle solutions span conception, planning, surveying, design, simulation, and construction, as well as the collaboration software services required to coordinate and share the work of interdisciplinary and/or distributed project teams.
Design Integration.   Our Design Integration solutions consist of modeling and simulation applications. Our modeling applications are domain-specific authoring tools used by professionals for the 3D design and documentation of infrastructure assets. Our simulation applications enable engineers to analyze the functional performance of the designs created with our modeling applications (or those of competitive vendors), preferably in iterative digital workflows, to improve engineering outcomes and to ensure compliance with design codes.
Benefits of our Design Integration applications to infrastructure engineers include:

Better designs.   Our modeling and simulation applications work together to improve infrastructure engineering quality, for instance to eliminate “clashes” across respective disciplines’ work. Each application is for a specific purpose (asset-type or discipline; for example, OpenRoads for roadway design) and supports corresponding asset-specific engineering workflows (for example, the workflow a civil engineer would use in designing a road);

Better deliverables.   Our applications share a common modeling environment to enable streamlined coordination and production of multi-discipline documentation; and

Better handoff.   Our comprehensive modeling environment and our supplemental cloud services enable projects to enrich information sharing (and to minimize problematic translations) across project delivery processes.
Project Delivery.   Our Project Delivery solutions support information and document management, engineering-specific collaboration and work-sharing for distributed project teams and enterprises, and construction planning, modeling and execution. The scope of these solutions is not limited to users of only our own design applications.
Our 4D construction modeling software spatially and temporally integrates a project’s 3D engineering models into its construction schedules to assess sequencing strategies and to visualize and understand planned and actual progress over the project timeline. Our solutions also enable project delivery teams to optimally define and manage discrete engineering, construction, and installation work packages, including the construction trades’ “workface planning,” which considers crafts and materials by day and zone. For work
 
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packages which increasingly take advantage of modular offsite fabrication and manufacturing, our software manages and enables 4D visualization of the necessary spatial and logistical interfaces.
Benefits of our Project Delivery solutions to project delivery enterprises include:

Distributed work-sharing:   Our solutions incorporate the rigorous workflow protocols required for structured coordination across engineering and construction supply chains, enabling global sourcing for integrated project delivery, while maximizing economics, quality, and safety;

Comprehensive collaboration:   Our software leverages cloud and hybrid environments to streamline the aggregation, distribution, and interaction for project deliverables, ensuring that the right project participants have the right information in the right format at the right time, including at the project site and on every device; and

Construction visibility:   Our solutions’ broad span and continuous detail across design integration, construction modeling and work packaging, and mixed-reality 4D visualization, advances predictability, accountability, and safety throughout the construction process.
Asset Lifecycle Solutions.   Our Asset Lifecycle solutions span the operating life of commissioned infrastructure assets, capturing and managing changes to engineering models and enterprise information for compliance and safety, and to model performance and reliability to support operating and maintenance decisions.
Asset and Network Performance.   Our Asset and Network Performance solutions are used to manage engineering information and geospatial relationships for operating and provisioning infrastructure across all sectors, including linear networks for transportation and energy transmission and distribution. Our asset performance modeling provides the needed analytical context for “right-time” data, including from Internet of Things (“IoT”) sensor capabilities, to yield actionable insights.
Benefits of our Asset and Network Performance solutions for owner-operators include:

Better compliance and assurance:   Our systems intrinsically enforce the rigor appropriate for operating infrastructure assets in order to provide dependable visibility into the impact of changes;

Better asset performance:   Our solutions include operational dashboards that provide decision support insights to maintain and improve throughput and reliability; and

Better risk management:   Our solutions include predictive analytics that identify potential problems before they occur, and ensure the accessibility of best-available engineering information and models for mitigation and resilience.
Digital Cities. Our Digital Cities solutions incorporate reality modeling (leveraging drone and mobile mapping “survey” inputs) and geospatial context to continuously capture as-operated infrastructure conditions at city and regional scale. Our offerings support department-level applications for municipal engineering, such as simulation of pedestrian and vehicle traffic, and water and drainage systems.
Benefits of our Digital Cities solutions to cities, regions, and their constituents include:

Evergreen 3D city models:   Our reality modeling software maintains engineering-ready 3D models, incorporating incrementally updated surveys, and thus ensures that engineering departments can rely on up-to-date geospatial context for digital workflows;

Better resilience:   Our solutions can integrate geotechnical, structural/seismic, and hydrological engineering modeling with evergreen 3D city models to harden infrastructure from flood and other natural hazards, and to apply engineering simulations for mitigation and emergency response; and

Resource conservation:   Taking full advantage of our solutions can significantly increase efficiency and reduce waste. For instance, our water network modeling tools, applied to compare as-designed specifications to observed flows and pressures, can help to non-invasively locate subsurface water network leaks.
 
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Infrastructure Digital Twins.
Our digital twins offerings enable our users to create and curate cloud-native 4D digital representations of physical projects and resulting assets, incorporating underlying engineering information, and then to model, simulate, analyze, chronicle, and predict performance over time. Using digital twins, our users can more fully extend digital workflows across project delivery and asset performance, increasing the value of infrastructure engineers’ work.
Benefits of our digital twins solutions to project delivery firms and owner-operators include:

Advanced insights.   For project delivery, digital twins can reveal insights beyond what would be visible with traditional workflows; for example, a digital twin can show 3D heat maps highlighting where changes in a design have been unusually pervasive, indicating possible design flaws. For asset performance, such insights from digital twins can be used to evaluate different strategies for optimizing operational efficiencies and throughput;

Predictive analytics.   For project delivery, digital twins and machine learning can compare the progress of a current project with similar projects that have been previously completed, and identify in advance potential bottlenecks, in time to take corrective action. For asset performance, a digital twin can track observations from various operational inputs against design intelligence to predict future failures and recommend maintenance actions to minimize downtime;

Continuous and comprehensive design reviews.   For project delivery, digital twins can aggregate and align design models and data from all sources “on the fly” (without interruptions for translations, and without specialized software) to present immersive 3D status visualization in a web browser for any authorized stakeholder to participate in ongoing interactive design reviews; and

Convergence of OT, IT, and now ET.   Infrastructure owner-operators are increasingly able to instrument their assets with IoT sensors, producing torrents of Operational Technology (“OT”) data that are difficult to interpret. Software advances in Information Technology (“IT”) can in turn make data from enterprise transaction systems, such as maintenance work order history, accessible for analytics. But even OT and IT together cannot inform decisions for improved asset performance as sufficiently as when combined with accessibility to comparable analytics from the assets’ engineering models, which we refer to as the Engineering Technology (“ET”). Infrastructure digital twins notably enable the convergence of ET with OT and IT. With infrastructure digital twins, the design intent (the “digital DNA” captured in the digital twins’ engineering models and simulations) can serve as a baseline for comparison to IoT-monitored “as-operated” performance, in light of the asset’s operations and maintenance history stored in IT systems, to enable integrated analytics to provide timely insights and recommended actions to optimize safety and performance.
Comprehensiveness of Our Offerings
Our offerings are comprehensive across professional disciplines, lifecycle stages, infrastructure sectors, and geographies, resulting in what we believe to be durable competitive advantages:
Professional Disciplines.   Each infrastructure project requires seamless and deep collaboration among professional disciplines, which can include civil, structural, geotechnical, and process engineers, architects, geospatial professionals, city and regional planners, contractors, fabricators, and operations and maintenance engineers. Our open modeling and open simulation applications facilitate iterative interactions between disciplines and coordination across project participants. Additionally, we believe our collaboration systems lead the market in managing infrastructure engineering firms’ preferred work-in-progress workflows.
Lifecycle Stages.   Both project delivery enterprises and owner-operators benefit from our solutions which enable digital workflows to extend between project and asset lifecycles, from design to construction and ultimately asset management. This capability allows our users’ digital engineering models to be leveraged as the context for real-time condition monitoring to achieve better and safer operations and maintenance.
Infrastructure Sectors.   Most major engineering and project delivery firms pursue an ever-changing mix of projects across the public works/utilities, industrial/resources, and commercial/facilities sectors and for flexibility tend to favor an infrastructure engineering software vendor whose portfolio correspondingly
 
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spans their full breadth. This comprehensiveness provides diversification for our own business, as an incidental advantage. For example, when there have been cyclical downturns in the primarily privately-financed industrial/resources and commercial/facilities sectors, we have historically witnessed offsetting counter-cyclical government investment in public works/utilities.
Geographies.   While design codes may vary by country, infrastructure purposes and engineering practices are fundamentally the same throughout the world, which makes it possible for our infrastructure modeling applications to be used globally. Our offerings are available in most major languages, supporting country-specific standards and conventions. Our development teams are also globally dispersed, due in part to acquisitions made in various countries, but also to provide any needed last mile localization of our applications. Our global comprehensiveness enables our project delivery accounts to compete more efficiently across geographic markets, thus also providing global supply-chain sourcing choices for owners.
Our Opportunity
We believe we are successful and well-established in enterprise-level relationships with the world’s largest infrastructure engineering organizations, including both project-delivery contracting firms and owner-operators. Today, we address a significant market opportunity, which we refer to as our serviceable addressable market (“SAM”). We estimate 66% of our SAM is in our existing accounts. We further estimate our global SAM is approximately $9.5 billion, $6.1 billion of which is attributable to project delivery firms and $3.4 billion of which is attributable to owner-operators. Further, of our $9.5 billion SAM, approximately $1.6 billion is in Greater China.
We also view our market opportunity in terms of the total addressable market (“TAM”), which we believe we can address over the long term. We believe that digital progress in the engineering of constructed infrastructure has to date lagged behind other substantial economic domains, and in particular has lagged behind digital progress — as reflected in spending on engineering software — in the engineering of manufactured products. Cambashi estimates that if engineering software spending would become as intensive in infrastructure engineering as in product engineering, global infrastructure engineering software spending, or our TAM, would be $29.2 billion. We believe that over time our current SAM of $9.5 billion will approach our estimated TAM of $29.2 billion. We also believe that both our SAM and our TAM will further expand over time with the growth of infrastructure spending. See the section titled “Business — Our Opportunity.”
Our Growth Strategies
We employ the following growth strategies to address the infrastructure engineering software market opportunities:

Accretion within existing accounts.   We believe we can further penetrate our existing accounts by broadening their use of our portfolio. There are three primary mechanisms for this expansion:

New commercial formulations.   We continually innovate with new commercial formulations to align the use of our software to the needs of our users. We believe the flexibility in our commercial models and deployment options will allow our accounts to grow usage continuously;

Automating user engagement.   We employ various technologies to drive user engagement. We will continue to leverage these interactive technologies to virtually assist our users and drive engagement across our software offerings; and

Adding new offerings.   We have a history of building and maintaining leadership in infrastructure software engineering comprehensiveness and intend to continue to innovate and develop our software offerings. We intend to continue to develop and integrate new products and capabilities over time;

Focusing on Asia.   We believe Asia represents a large market opportunity and will continue to do so over the foreseeable future. We intend to continue investing in strategies to enhance our market position in Asia;
 
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Increasing inside sales.   We will continue to expand our global inside sales resources and to multiply their reach and effectiveness with superior digital tools to convert leads and to provide the self-service administration that engineering practitioners prefer; and

Digital co-ventures.   We have forged substantial alliances with other major participants in the infrastructure engineering supply chain (for example, Topcon, Siemens, and Microsoft), primarily to jointly develop and offer digital twin cloud services that extend the scope of our software.

Investing in digital integrator businesses.   We intend to invest in and grow a portfolio of businesses operating outside of our core software business with the objective of cultivating an ecosystem of relatively service-intensive, yet profitable, digital integrator businesses that stimulate pull-through demand for our solutions.
Recent Developments
Impact of COVID-19
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic related to the rapidly growing outbreak of the disease COVID-19, caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 outbreak and certain preventative or protective actions that governments, businesses and individuals have taken in respect of COVID-19 have resulted in global business disruptions.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented a number of initiatives to ensure the safety of our colleagues and enable them to move to a work from home environment seamlessly and continue working effectively. These initiatives included providing our colleagues with necessary equipment, making certain that all colleagues had means of video and audio communications online, and guaranteeing that our network bandwidth was sufficient. Our business model is such that we had minimal disruption to our ability to deliver our solutions to accounts, and we did not have any loss of productivity during this transition. Almost all of our colleagues have been working from home since March 16, 2020, with a minority of our colleagues working in our office environments on a voluntary basis and abiding by appropriate distancing and sanitary regulations for their region. We communicated regularly and provided on-demand learning and support to our colleagues throughout the transition period. Based on a May 2020 internal survey, a majority of our colleagues are confident in the decisions that Bentley leadership is making regarding employee well-being and safety during this pandemic, and a majority of our colleagues believe that Bentley’s response to and communication regarding COVID-19 has been timely and helpful.
The impact of the pandemic on our financial performance has been modest; our revenues have continued to grow given the mission critical nature of our solutions. For the months of March and April, our accounts’ usage of our applications was down approximately 3-5% when compared to levels from the same periods in 2019; however, these metrics returned to pre-COVID-19 levels in June 2020. The modest and temporary dip in usage had limited impact on our recurring revenues, which are comprised primarily of longer term contracts. The growth of our revenues from perpetual licenses and professional services has been impacted as selected accounts have shifted spend to subscription solutions or delayed new projects.
Moreover, we were quick to find ways to support our accounts and users, including the launch of a “Bentley Has Your Back” campaign to help our accounts take full advantage of their Bentley software. This campaign included producing over 50 self-help documents, 20 webinars, and several messages guiding users on various topics including how Bentley’s solutions should be configured when working with limited bandwidth, how to use a SmartTV as a monitor, and how to leverage specific offerings such as ProjectWise to facilitate collaboration in their own businesses in remote working environments. This guidance and assistance was well received by accounts and we believe helped maximize usage during the observed trough in March and April.
We have also taken measures to reduce selected operating expenses, including various costs associated with travel and facilities. Much of those resulting savings have been or will be re-invested in a portfolio of businesses outside of our core software business, with the objective of cultivating an ecosystem of digital integrator businesses.
 
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Our business benefits from a resilient business model backed by industry tailwinds and a strong financial profile. We believe that significant public and private investment will continue to drive spend for infrastructure globally, which will continue to drive demand for our solutions. Additionally, we do not have any material account concentration; no single account or group of affiliated accounts, represented more than 2.5% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019. As of June 30, 2020, we had $126 million of cash and cash equivalents, and $293 million was available under the Credit Facility (as defined below).
Relationship with Siemens AG (“Siemens”)
As discussed in the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Our Relationship with Siemens AG — Common Stock Purchase Agreement,” we, and the Bentley family members party to the Common Stock Purchase Agreement, entered into the Common Stock Purchase Agreement with Siemens in September 2016, pursuant to which we and they have granted Siemens a right of first refusal with respect to certain deemed liquidation events, offers, sales or certain issuances of our capital stock, and with respect to certain transfers of our capital stock by the Bentley family members party thereto. Pursuant to the terms of the Common Stock Purchase Agreement, Siemens’ right of first refusal expires upon the effectiveness of a registration statement in connection with an underwritten initial public offering. Siemens contends that this right of first refusal applies to sales of common stock in an initial public offering by the Company or the Bentley family members party to the Common Stock Purchase Agreement. While we disagree with Siemens’ contention, our initial public offering of Class B common stock will be exclusively by existing holders whose transfers of capital stock are not subject to Siemens’ right of first refusal, and we have not included any shares to be issued by the Company or any shares held by the Bentley family members party to the Common Stock Purchase Agreement in the offering pursuant to this prospectus.
Additional information regarding our relationship with Siemens is discussed in the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Our Relationship with Siemens AG.”
Potential for Post-IPO Follow-On Offering
Following the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, Siemens’ right of first refusal will terminate. Following the completion of this offering, we intend to evaluate opportunities to then undertake a primary offering of our Class B common stock by the Company, subject to the lock-up agreement entered into with the underwriters in this offering, prevailing market conditions and applicable securities laws. We have not engaged in any formal discussions regarding any such offering and we have not undertaken any steps to pursue such an offering. The Company lock-up contained in the underwriting agreement entered into by us with the underwriters in this offering will permit us and selling stockholders to sell shares of Class B common stock in an aggregate amount equal to up to 20% of our total Class B common stock outstanding at such time beginning on December 1, 2020, and such lock-up agreement expires 180 days following the date of this prospectus. See the section titled “Underwriting” for additional information regarding our lock-up agreement with the underwriters.
New Term Loan and Payment of Special Dividend
On September 2, 2020, we entered into an amendment (“First Amendment”) to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of December 19, 2017, by and among Bentley Systems, PNC Bank National Association, as administrative agent, and the lenders party thereto (the “Credit Facility”). The First Amendment provided for a $125.0 million senior secured term loan with a maturity of December 18, 2022 (the “New Term Loan”) and included certain other amendments, including the addition of a mandatory prepayment provision requiring us to prepay borrowings under the Credit Facility in an aggregate amount equal to the net proceeds from any underwritten public offering by the Company, which prepayment shall be applied, first, to the New Term Loan and, second, to any borrowings outstanding under the revolving facility under the Credit Facility without reducing the revolving commitments thereof.
On August 28, 2020, our Board of Directors declared a special dividend of $1.50 per share of our common stock (approximately $390 million in the aggregate) (the “Special Dividend”) and a regular quarterly dividend of $0.03 per share of our common stock. The record date for each of the Special Dividend and the regular quarterly dividend was August 31, 2020 and the Special Dividend and the regular quarterly dividend were payable on September 2, 2020 and September 3, 2020, respectively, subject, in the case of the
 
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Special Dividend, to the entry into the First Amendment. We used borrowings under the New Term Loan and under the revolving facility under the Credit Facility to pay such dividends.
Risk Factor Summary
Investing in our Class B common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider all information in this prospectus prior to investing in our Class B common stock. These risks are discussed more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

Demand for our software solutions is subject to volatility in our accounts’ underlying businesses, which includes infrastructure projects that typically have long timelines;

The majority of our revenues and an increasing percentage of our operations are attributable to operations outside the United States, and our results of operations therefore may be materially affected by the legal, regulatory, social, political, economic and other risks of foreign operations;

Recent and potential tariffs imposed by the U.S. government or a global trade war could increase the cost of our products and services and the cost of conducting our business, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations;

Global economic conditions may negatively impact our business, financial results and financial condition;

Decreased investment by APAC, including China, may have a negative effect on our business;

The ongoing global coronavirus outbreak could materially and adversely affect our business;

The sales cycle for some of our solutions can be long and unpredictable and requires considerable time and expense, which may cause our results of operations to fluctuate;

If we do not keep pace with technological changes, and effectively market our new product solutions, our solutions may become less competitive and our business may suffer;

Interruptions in the availability of server systems or communications with Internet, third-party hosting facilities or cloud-based services, or failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, accessibility or integrity of data stored on such systems, could harm our business or impair the delivery of our managed services;

If our security measures or those of our third-party cloud data hosts, cloud computing platform providers, or third-party service partners, are breached, and unauthorized access is obtained to an account’s data, our data or our IT systems, our services may be perceived as not being secure, accounts may curtail or stop using our services, and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure and liabilities;

We face intense competition;

We may not be able to increase the number of new subscription-based accounts or cause existing accounts to renew their subscriptions, which could have a negative impact on our future revenues and results of operations;

Our revenue recognition policy and other factors may create volatility in our financial results in any given period and make them difficult to predict;

Failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand;

We depend on our senior management team and other key personnel, and we could be subject to substantial risk of loss if any of them terminate their relationship with us;

Our share price may be volatile, and you may be unable to sell your shares at or above the offering price, if at all. Market volatility may affect the value of an investment in our Class B common stock and could subject us to litigation;
 
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There has been no public market for our Class B common stock prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell our shares at or above the price you paid, or at all. In addition, the limited public float of our Class B common stock following this offering could adversely impact the trading price of our Class B common stock; and

The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with the Bentley Control Group.
Channels for Disclosure of Information
Investors, the media, and others should note that, following the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, we intend to announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, the investor relations page on our website, press releases, public conference calls and webcasts.
The information disclosed by the foregoing channels could be deemed to be material information. As such, we encourage investors, the media, and others to follow the channels listed above and to review the information disclosed through such channels.
Any updates to the list of disclosure channels through which we will announce information will be posted on the investor relations page on our website.
Corporate Information
Bentley Systems, Incorporated was incorporated in Delaware in 1987. We were originally incorporated in California in 1984 upon our founding. Our principal offices are located at 685 Stockton Drive, Exton, PA 19341, and our telephone number is (610) 458-5000. Our website address is www.bentley.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
Emerging Growth Company
The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) was enacted in April 2012 with the intention of encouraging capital formation in the United States and reducing the regulatory burden on newly-public companies that qualify as “emerging growth companies.” We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the JOBS Act. As an “emerging growth company,” we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various public reporting requirements, including the requirement that our internal control over financial reporting be audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), certain requirements related to the disclosure of executive compensation in this prospectus and in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and the requirement that we hold a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments. Additionally, as an “emerging growth company” we are required to have only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related selected financial data and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations disclosure. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”
In addition, under the JOBS Act, “emerging growth companies” can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We intend to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards. Accordingly, we will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.”
We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering.
For certain risks related to our status as an “emerging growth company,” see the section titled “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business and Industry — We are an ‘emerging growth company,’ and the
 
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reduced disclosure requirements applicable to ‘emerging growth companies’ may make our Class B common stock less attractive to investors.”
Controlled Company Status
We will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and its corporate governance requirements. Under these rules, a company for which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group, or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain of the Nasdaq Listing Rules’ corporate governance requirements, including: (i) the requirement that a majority of our board of directors consist of “independent directors” as defined under the Nasdaq Listing Rules; (ii) the requirement that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors; and (iii) the requirement that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors. We intend to use these exemptions upon our listing. As a result, we will not have a majority of independent directors on our board of directors. Additionally, upon completion of this offering, we do not intend to have a compensation committee, nor do we intend to have a nominating and corporate governance committee or an independent nominating function. Instead, our full board of directors will be directly responsible for reviewing and approving compensation and benefit arrangements for our executive officers and directors, as well as for nominating members of our board. Accordingly, in the future our stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq Listing Rules’ corporate governance requirements.
The following table presents the economic interests and combined voting power in Bentley Systems held by (i) the Bentleys and certain of their family members, trusts or other permitted transferees, as well as all other holders of our Class A common stock in respect of such shares of Class A common stock, who collectively are acting as a group (the “Bentley Control Group”), (ii) the Bentleys, certain other family members and trusts and other entities controlled by or primarily for the benefit of the Bentleys and their families (the “Bentley Family”), (iii) colleagues and other existing stockholders, and (iv) public stockholders, each upon the completion of this offering:
Shares of Class A
Common Stock
Shares of Class B
Common Stock
Total Economic Interests
Combined Voting Power
Shares
%
Votes
%
Bentley Control Group
11,601,757 58,831,619 70,433,376 26.9% 395,282,572 67.4%
Bentley Family
11,263,492 163,415,356 174,678,848 66.8% 490,056,624 83.6%
Colleagues and other existing
stockholders(1)
75,679,426 75,679,426 28.9% 75,679,426 12.9%
Public stockholders
10,750,000 10,750,000 4.1% 10,750,000 1.8%
(1)
Excludes any shares that vote with the Bentley Control Group.
Upon the completion of this offering, the holders of our Class A common stock will be entitled to 29 votes per share, provided, however, that at any such time, and thereafter, as none of Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley or Raymond B. Bentley is an executive officer or director of the Company, the holders of our Class A common stock will be entitled to 11 votes per share. All of our Class A common stock also will automatically convert into shares of our Class B common stock upon the affirmative vote of at least 90% of the then outstanding shares of Class A common stock or such time that the Bentley Family, collectively, directly or indirectly, own less than 20% of our issued and outstanding Class B common stock on a fully diluted basis (assuming the conversion of all issued and outstanding Class A common stock). Upon the completion of this offering, holders of our Class B common stock, which is the class of common stock that the selling stockholders are selling pursuant to this prospectus and is the only class that will be publicly traded and listed, will be entitled to one vote per share. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock — Common Stock — Voting Rights” for additional information.
 
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THE OFFERING
Issuer
Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Class B common stock offered by the selling stockholders
10,750,000 shares (12,360,991 shares in the event the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full)
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering:
Class A common stock
11,601,757 shares
Class B common stock
249,632,970 shares
Total shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering
261,234,727 shares
Voting rights
Each share of our Class A common stock will be entitled to 29 votes per share and is convertible into one share of our Class B common stock at any time at a holder’s option and automatically upon certain transfers, provided, however, that at any such time, and thereafter, as none of Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley or Raymond B. Bentley is an executive officer or director of the Company, the holders of our Class A common stock will be entitled to 11 votes per share. All of our Class A common stock also will automatically convert into shares of our Class B common stock upon the affirmative vote of at least 90% of the then outstanding shares of Class A common stock or such time that the Bentley Family, collectively, directly or indirectly, own less than 20% of our issued and outstanding Class B common stock on a fully-diluted basis (assuming the conversion of all issued and outstanding Class A common stock). Each share of our Class B common stock will be entitled to one vote per share and is not convertible into any other shares of our capital stock. Holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock will generally vote together as a single class, unless otherwise required by our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or law.
The shares of our Class A common stock outstanding after this offering will represent approximately 4.4% of the total number of shares of our Class A and Class B common stock outstanding after this offering and 57.4% of the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock, and the Bentley Control Group and the Bentley Family will hold or have the ability to control approximately 67.4% and 83.6%, respectively, of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. The Bentley Control Group will have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of our directors and the approval of any change in control transactions. See the sections titled “Principal and Selling Stockholders” and “Description of Capital Stock” for additional information.
See the section titled “— Controlled Company Status” above for information regarding ownership interests and voting power of our common stock.
 
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Use of proceeds
The selling stockholders will receive all of the proceeds from the sale of shares of our Class B common stock in this offering. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders will not be responsible for any offering expenses.
Indication of interest
One or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors have indicated an interest in purchasing up to an aggregate of $40 million in shares of our Class B common stock being offered by the selling stockholders in this offering at the initial public offering price. As this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors may determine to purchase more, fewer or no shares in this offering or the underwriters may determine to sell more, fewer or no shares to one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount from any shares of Class B common stock purchased by one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors as they will from any other shares of Class B common stock sold to the public in this offering.
Risk factors
Investing in our Class B common stock involves risk. See the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our Class B common stock.
NASDAQ symbol
“BSY”
The number of shares of our Class A and Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based upon 11,601,757 shares of Class A common stock and 247,607,598 shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, plus:

994,912 total shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020 that will vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering, reduced by 32,238 of such restricted stock units that will be settled in cash;

1,025,461 shares of Class B common stock being sold in this offering following the exercise of stock options for such shares at a weighted average exercise price of $4.46 per share of Class B common stock, after giving effect to a $1.50 reduction of the exercise price of all outstanding options as a result of the Special Dividend; and

37,237 vested shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020.
The number of shares of our Class A and Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering excludes:

13,604,723 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that are not being sold in this offering, at a weighted average exercise price of $4.85 per share of Class B common stock after giving effect to a $1.50 reduction of the exercise price of all outstanding options as a result of the Special Dividend;

45,151 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the settlement of fully-vested restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2020;

900,000 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that are not being sold in this offering and were granted in connection with an acquisition, with an exercise price of $6.81 per share and a maximum intrinsic value of $8.88 per share;
 
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1,311,447 shares of unvested restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will not vest upon consummation of this offering;

27,941,520 shares of Class B common stock held by colleagues and directors as phantom shares under our nonqualified deferred compensation plans as of June 30, 2020, increased by 2,764,048 shares of Class B common stock as a result of the reinvestment of dividends since such date in accordance with such plans;

25,000,000 shares of Class B common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan (as defined herein); and

25,000,000 shares of Class B common stock reserved for issuance under our Global ESPP (as defined herein).
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes:

no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares; and

the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the effectiveness of our amended and restated by-laws, each of which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, which we refer to in this prospectus as the “Charter Amendments.”
 
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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth summary consolidated financial data. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2017 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this prospectus, which were audited in accordance with the auditing standards of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants rather than the auditing standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. The consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals, that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and the results of operations for these periods. You should read this summary consolidated financial data in conjunction with the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future, and our results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the entire year ending December 31, 2020 or any other period.
All amounts presented in this summary consolidated financial data, except share and per share amounts, are presented in thousands. Additionally, many of the amounts and percentages have been rounded for convenience of presentation.
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Year Ended December 31,
Six Months Ended June 30,
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Topic 605
Topic 605(1)
Topic 606
Topic 606
Topic 606
Revenues:
Subscriptions
$ 501,098 $ 557,421 $ 613,925 $ 608,300 $ 290,147 $ 327,837
Perpetual licenses
61,661 61,065 52,519 59,693 24,468 23,193
Subscriptions and licenses
562,759 618,486 666,444 667,993 314,615 351,030
Services
66,164 73,224 68,405 68,661 32,529 27,950
Total revenues
628,923 691,710 734,849 736,654 347,144 378,980
Cost of revenues:
Cost of subscriptions and
licenses
53,662 55,113 71,439 71,578 30,831 43,128
Cost of services
66,928 76,211 72,572 72,572 38,367 30,836
Total cost of revenues
120,590 131,324 144,011 144,150 69,198 73,964
Gross profit
508,333 560,386 590,838 592,504 277,946 305,016
Operating expenses:
Research and development
151,194 175,032 183,552 183,552 91,861 89,353
Selling and marketing
139,259 160,635 155,274 155,294 75,168 65,727
General and administrative
87,467 89,328 97,580 97,580 46,307 52,269
Amortization of purchased intangibles
9,014 14,000 14,213 14,213 6,852 7,115
Total operating expenses
386,934 438,995 450,619 450,639 220,188 214,464
Income from operations
121,399 121,391 140,219 141,865 57,758 90,552
Interest expense, net
(10,320) (8,765) (8,199) (8,199) (4,474) (2,516)
Other income (expense), net
(5,773) 236 (5,557) (5,557) (1,747) (6,985)
Income before income taxes
105,306 112,862 126,463 128,109 51,537 81,051
Provision for income taxes
46,141 (29,250) 21,762 23,738 5,119 11,440
 
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Year Ended December 31,
Six Months Ended June 30,
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Topic 605
Topic 605(1)
Topic 606
Topic 606
Topic 606
Equity in loss of joint venture, net of tax
1,275 1,275 866
Net income
$ 59,165 142,112 103,426 103,096 46,418 68,745
Less: Net income attributable to participating securities
(4) (8) (8) (12)
Net income per share attributable to
Class A and Class B common
shares
$ 142,108 $ 103,418 $ 103,088 $ 46,406 $ 68,745
Net income per share:
Basic
$ 0.50 $ 0.36 $ 0.36 $ 0.16 $ 0.24
Diluted
$ 0.49 $ 0.35 $ 0.35 $ 0.16 $ 0.23
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic
285,805,096 284,625,642 284,625,642 285,529,476 286,068,766
Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted
292,624,496 293,796,707 293,796,707 293,633,255 295,595,234
(1)
The Topic 605 amounts presented for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had not occurred on January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 on our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Revenue Comparison — Topic 605 versus Topic 606:
On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and related amendments (“Topic 606”), which supersedes substantially all existing revenue recognition guidance under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). We adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method, under which the cumulative effect of initially applying Topic 606 was recorded as a reduction to the opening balance of Accumulated deficit of $125,464 ($101,489, net of tax) as of January 1, 2019. We applied the standard only to contracts that were not completed as of the date of initial application. The comparative information in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus continues to be reported in accordance with the guidance provided by Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 985-605, Software-Revenue Recognition and Topic 605-25, Revenue Recognition, Multiple-Element Arrangements. We refer to ASC 985-605 and Topic 605-25 collectively as “Topic 605.”
The below table presents a comparison of our revenues as recognized under Topic 605 and Topic 606. We believe that an understanding of the impact of the revenue recognition guidance under Topic 606 on our revenues and revenue trends is useful in evaluating our operating performance.
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2018
2019
Topic 605:(1)
Subscriptions
$ 501,098 $ 557,421 $ 613,925
Perpetual licenses
61,661 61,065 52,519
Services
66,164 73,224 68,405
Total revenues
$ 628,923 $ 691,710 $ 734,849
Topic 606:(2)
Subscriptions
$ 505,720 $ 560,485 $ 608,300
Perpetual licenses
49,983 57,353 59,693
Services
66,164 73,224 68,661
Total revenues
$ 621,867 $ 691,062 $ 736,654
 
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(1)
The Topic 605 amounts presented for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had not occurred on January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 on our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
(2)
The Topic 606 unaudited amounts presented for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had occurred as of January 1, 2017 rather than January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 as if it had occurred as of January 1, 2017 on our audited consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, see the section titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Key Business Metrics:
We regularly review the following key metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends in our business, prepare financial projections, and make strategic decisions.
Year Ended
December 31,
Twelve Months Ended
June 30,
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Last twelve-months recurring revenues (Topic 606)
$ 521,923 $ 586,466 $ 631,097 $ 606,411 $ 665,659
Last twelve-months recurring revenues (Topic 605)
$ 523,502 $ 582,402 $ 636,899 $ 604,043 $ 670,825
Constant Currency:
Annualized recurring revenues (“ARR”) growth rate
9% 10% 12% 11% 11%
Account retention rate
98% 98% 98% 98% 98%
Recurring revenues dollar-based net retention
rate
105% 107% 108% 106% 110%
Last twelve-months recurring revenues.   Last twelve-months recurring revenues is calculated as recurring revenues recognized over the preceding twelve-month period. We define recurring revenues as subscriptions revenues that recur monthly, quarterly, or annually with specific or automatic renewal clauses and professional services revenues in which the underlying contract is based on a fixed fee and contains automatic annual renewal provisions.
Last twelve-months recurring revenues is presented using revenues recognized pursuant to Topic 606 as well as Topic 605 for all periods in order to enhance comparability during our transition to Topic 606. The Topic 606 unaudited amounts presented for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had occurred as of January 1, 2017 rather than January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 as if it had occurred as of January 1, 2017 on our audited consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, see the section titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
On an annual and trailing twelve-month basis, we expect our recurring revenues recognized under Topic 606 to be comparable to such revenues recognized under Topic 605. This expectation is attributable to the annual, recurring nature of our subscription agreements. However, the conversion of our existing subscription users to consumption-based offerings with consumption measurement durations of less than one year, such as our E365 program, as well as the term start date of new annual term license subscriptions, will introduce some volatility between annual and trailing twelve-month periods and impact period over period comparability. Specifically, in 2019, the conversion of existing ELS subscriptions to consumption-based E365 subscriptions resulted in a reduction of Topic 606 Enterprise subscriptions revenues of $11,248 when compared to Topic 605. This impact was partly offset by higher annual term license subscriptions
 
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revenues under Topic 606 of $5,714 due to the upfront recognition of license revenues of new subscriptions. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Key Factors Impacting Comparability and Performance.”
We believe that last twelve-months recurring revenues is an important indicator of our performance during the immediately preceding twelve-month time period. We believe that we will continue to experience favorable growth in recurring revenues due to our strong account retention and recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rates as well as the addition of new accounts with recurring revenues. The last twelve-months recurring revenues under Topic 606 for the periods ended December 31, 2018, December 31, 2019, and June 30, 2020 compared to the last twelve-months of the preceding twelve-month period increased by $64,543 (or $59,900 under Topic 605), $44,631 (or $53,497 under Topic 605), and $59,248 (or $66,782 under Topic 605), respectively. These increases were primarily due to growth in ARR during the prior and current periods, which is primarily the result of consistent performance in our account retention rate and in our recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate, as well as additional recurring revenues resulting from new accounts and acquisitions. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, 86% of our total revenues under Topic 606 (or 87% under Topic 605) were recurring revenues. For the twelve months ended June 30, 2020, 87% of our revenues were recurring revenues. Prospectively, we expect that this percentage is likely to remain consistent or modestly increase as we continue to target shifting episodic professional services revenues to subscriptions classified as recurring revenues.
Constant currency metrics.   In reporting period-over-period results, we calculate the effects of foreign currency fluctuations and constant currency information by translating current period results using prior period average foreign currency exchange rates. Our definition of constant currency may differ from other companies reporting similarly named measures, and these constant currency performance measures should be viewed in addition to, and not as a substitute for, our operating performance measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
ARR growth rate.   Our ARR growth rate is the growth rate of our ARR, measured on a constant currency basis. Our ARR is defined as the sum of the annualized value of our portfolio of contracts that produce recurring revenue as of the last day of the reporting period, and the annualized value of the last three months of recognized revenues for our contractually recurring consumption-based software subscriptions with consumption measurement durations of less than one year. We believe that the last three months of recognized revenues, on an annualized basis, for our recurring software subscriptions with consumption measurement period durations of less than one year is a reasonable estimate of the annual revenues, given our consistently high retention rate and stability of usage under such subscriptions. ARR resulting from the annualization of recurring contracts with consumption measurement durations of less than one year, as a percentage of total ARR was 9%, 15%, and 25% as of December 31, 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively, and 18% and 29% as of June 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Within our consumption-measured ARR, the successful uptake of our new E365 subscription offering has introduced daily consumption-measured ARR, representing 16% of total ARR as of June 30, 2020.
ARR is inclusive of the ARR of acquired companies as of the date they are acquired. We believe that ARR and ARR growth are important metrics indicating the scale and growth of our business. Furthermore, we believe ARR, considered in connection with our account retention rate and our recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate, is a leading indicator of revenue growth. Our ARR as of June 30, 2020 was $697,682, calculated using the spot foreign exchange rates as of June 30, 2020.
There was no impact to our ARR growth rate from acquisitions for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our ARR growth rate was favorably impacted from acquisitions by 3% and 1% for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively, and by 1% and 2% for the twelve months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively.
Account retention rate.   Our account retention rate for any given twelve-month period is calculated using the average currency exchange rates for the prior period, as follows: the prior period recurring revenues from all accounts with recurring revenues in the current and prior period, divided by total recurring revenues from all accounts during the prior period. The account retention rate is calculated using revenues recognized pursuant to Topic 605 for all periods in order to enhance comparability during our transition to Topic 606 as we do not have all information available to us necessary to present account retention rate
 
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pursuant to Topic 606 for any period prior to January 1, 2019. Our account retention rate is an important indicator that provides insight into the long-term value of our account relationships and our ability to retain our account base. We believe that our consistent and high account retention rates illustrate our ability to retain and cultivate long-term relationships with our accounts.
Recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate.   Our recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate is calculated using the average exchange rates for the prior period, as follows: the recurring revenues for the current period, including any growth or reductions from accounts with recurring revenue in the prior period (“existing accounts”), but excluding recurring revenues from any new accounts added during the current period, divided by the total recurring revenues from all accounts during the prior period. A period is defined as any trailing twelve months. The recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate is calculated using revenues recognized pursuant to Topic 605 for all periods in order to enhance comparability during our transition to Topic 606 as we do not have all information available to us necessary to present recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate pursuant to Topic 606 for any period prior to January 1, 2019. We believe our recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate is a key indicator of our success in growing our revenues within our existing accounts. Given that for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019 recurring revenues represented 86% of our total revenues under Topic 606, this metric helps explain our revenue performance as primarily growth into existing accounts. We believe that our consistent and high recurring revenues dollar-based net retention rate illustrates our ability to consistently retain accounts and grow them.
As discussed above, we expect annual and trailing twelve-month recurring revenues recognized under Topic 606 to be comparable to such revenues recognized under Topic 605 due to the annual, recurring nature of our subscription agreements. We, therefore, also expect that our account retention rate and our recurring revenue dollar-based net retention rate under Topic 606 will be comparable to such metrics under Topic 605. However, under Topic 606, the conversion of our existing subscription users to consumption-based offerings with consumption measurement durations of less than one year, such as our E365 program, as well as the term start date of new subscriptions, will introduce some volatility between annual, and trailing twelve-month periods and impact period over period comparability. See the section titled “Key Factors Impacting Comparability and Performance.”
Our calculation of these metrics may not be comparable to other companies with similarly-titled metrics.
For additional information about our key metrics, see the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Key Business Metrics” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Key Business Metrics.”
Non-GAAP Financial Measures:
In addition to our results determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we believe the below non-GAAP measures are useful in evaluating our operating performance. We use the below non-GAAP financial information, collectively, to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes.
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2018
2019
Topic 605:(1)
Adjusted EBITDA
$ 160,886 $ 171,768 $ 186,598
Adjusted Net Income
$ 115,389 $ 132,246 $ 135,471
Topic 606:(2)
Adjusted EBITDA
$ 153,830 $ 171,120 $ 188,129
Adjusted Net Income
$ 109,398 $ 131,697 $ 135,049
(1)
The Topic 605 amounts presented for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had not occurred on January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation
 
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of the impact of adopting Topic 606 on our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
(2)
The Topic 606 unaudited amounts presented for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had occurred as of January 1, 2017 rather than January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 as if it had occurred as of January 1, 2017 on our audited consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, see the section titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Six Months Ended June 30,
2019
2020
Topic 606:
Adjusted EBITDA
$ 79,384 $ 115,506
Adjusted Net Income
$ 59,978 $ 89,203
For additional information, including the limitations of using non-GAAP financial measures, and reconciliations of the non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures stated in accordance with U.S. GAAP, see the section titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
The following table presents summary consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 on:

an actual basis;

a pro forma basis to give effect to (i) the payment of the Special Dividend and the funding of such Special Dividend with borrowings under the New Term Loan and under the revolving facility under the Credit Facility and (ii) the accrual of the Special Dividend on 2,204,572 shares of outstanding restricted stock and restricted stock units; and

a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to the Special Dividend and the funding of such Special Dividend as described in the immediately preceding bullet and to further (i) give effect to (A) 994,912 total shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020 that will vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering, reduced by 32,238 of such restricted stock units that will be settled in cash, (B) approximately $11.7 million in additional stock-based compensation expense, net of tax, in connection with such July 2020 grant (excluding restricted stock units that will settle in cash), (C) 1,025,461 shares of Class B common stock to be sold in this offering following the exercise of stock options for such shares, at a weighted average exercise price of $4.46 per share, after giving effect to a $1.50 reduction of the exercise price of all outstanding options as a result of the Special Dividend, as if such exercise had occurred on June 30, 2020 and (D) approximately $0.5 million in additional stock-based compensation expense, net of tax, in connection with 37,237 vested shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020, (ii) reflect expenses of $20.8 million, net of tax, in connection with this offering by the Company, including those paid on behalf of the selling stockholders and the underwriting discounts and commissions based on the initial public offering price of the Class B common stock of $22.00 per share and (iii) reflect the payment in cash of the Special Dividend on 994,912 shares of outstanding restricted stock and restricted stock units that vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering, using additional borrowings under the revolving facility under the Credit Facility.
 
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June 30, 2020
Actual
Pro forma
Pro forma
as adjusted
Cash and cash equivalents(1)
$ 125,516 $ 125,516 $ 109,788
Working capital, excluding deferred revenues
104,275 102,831 89,931
Total assets
1,059,169 1,059,169 1,042,600
Deferred revenues, current and long-term
186,456 186,456 186,456
Total debt
207,000 596,583 598,075
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)(1)
379,744 (13,028) (25,931)
(1)
Pro forma as adjusted amount does not include $709 of stock-based compensation expense for 32,238 restricted stock units that will vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering and be settled in cash at the initial public offering price of $22.00 per share.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class B common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including the consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding whether to invest in shares of our Class B common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks, or other risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently think are immaterial, actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our Class B common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Demand for our software solutions is subject to volatility in our accounts’ underlying businesses, which includes infrastructure projects that typically have long timelines.
Our sales are based significantly on accounts’ demand for software solutions in the following infrastructure sectors: (i) public works/utilities; (ii) industrial/resources; and (iii) commercial/facilities. Although these sectors are typically countercyclical to one another in nature, each periodically experiences economic declines and may be exacerbated by other economic factors. If participants in any of these sectors reduce spending or allocate future funding in a manner that results in fewer infrastructure improvement or expansion projects, then our accounts’ underlying business may be impacted and demand for our software solutions may decrease or our rate of contract renewals may decrease. A prolonged decrease in such spending may harm our results of operations. Our accounts may request discounts or extended payment terms on new arrangements or seek to extend payment terms on existing arrangements due to lower levels of infrastructure spending or for other reasons, all of which may reduce revenue. We may not be able to adjust our operating expenses to offset such discounts or other arrangements because a substantial portion of our operating expenses is related to personnel, facilities and marketing programs. The level of personnel and related expenses may not be able to be adjusted quickly and is based, in significant part, on our expectations for future revenues and demand.
Infrastructure projects typically have long timelines and we may invest in building capacity based on expected demand for our software solutions that takes longer to develop than we expect or fails to develop at all. Additionally, government spending on infrastructure may decrease, which could decrease the demand for our software solutions and have a negative impact on our results of operations. We may not be successful in forecasting future demand levels and could fail to win business at the expected rates. If we underestimate the demand for our software solutions, we may be unable to fulfill the increased demand in a timely fashion or at all. If we overestimate the demand for our software solutions, we may incur additional expenses for which we would not have corresponding revenues, negatively impacting our results of operations.
The majority of our revenues and an increasing percentage of our operations are attributable to operations outside the United States, and our results of operations therefore may be materially affected by the legal, regulatory, social, political, economic and other risks of foreign operations.
Approximately 60%, 58% and 58% of our total revenues were from outside the United States in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. We anticipate that revenues from accounts outside the United States will continue to comprise a majority of our total revenues for the foreseeable future.
Our international revenues, including from emerging economies, are subject to general economic and political conditions in foreign markets and our revenues are impacted by the relative geographical and country mix of our revenues over time. These factors could adversely impact our international revenues and, consequently, our business. Our dependency on international revenues also makes us more exposed to global economic and political trends, which can negatively impact our financial results. Further, our operations outside the United States are subject to certain legal, regulatory, social, political, economic and other risks inherent in international business operations, including, without limitation:
 
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local product preference and product requirements;

different consumer demand dynamics, which may make the products and services we offer less successful compared to the United States;

more stringent regulations relating to privacy and data security and access to, or use of, commercial and personal information, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), and the Cybersecurity Law of the People’s Republic of China;

data privacy laws that require that account data be stored and processed in a designated territory or that certain transfers of account data outside of the country be notified to or registered with regulatory authorities;

competition from local incumbents that understand the local market and may operate more effectively;

trade protection measures, sanctions, quotas, embargoes, import and export licensing requirements, duties, tariffs or surcharges;

changes in foreign regulatory requirements and tax laws;

unexpected changes in foreign regulatory requirements;

difficulty in establishing, staffing and managing non-U.S. operations;

differing labor regulations where labor laws may be more advantageous to colleagues as compared to the United States, as well as increased labor costs;

political and economic instability;

fluctuating currency exchange rates, currency controls and inflation, recession or interest rate fluctuations;

longer-term receivables than are typical in the United States and greater difficulty of collecting receivables in certain foreign jurisdictions;

alleged or actual violations of anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, rules and regulations in the foreign jurisdictions in which we do business;

restrictions on the export of critical technology, software and services;

complex tax and cash management issues;

potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax systems, restrictions on the repatriation of earnings and changes in tax rates;

the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and different legal standards;

longer sales and accounts receivable payment cycles in some countries;

increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;

terrorist attacks and security concerns in general;

natural disasters and pandemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;

less rigorous or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries; and

providing our solutions to accounts from different cultures, which may require us to adapt to sales practices, modify our solutions or products, and provide features necessary to effectively serve the local market.
The occurrence of any one of these risks could negatively affect our international business and, consequently, our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, operating in international markets requires significant management attention and financial resources. We cannot be certain that the investment and additional resources required to operate in other countries will produce desired levels of revenue or profitability.
 
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Recent and potential tariffs imposed by the U.S. government or a global trade war could increase the cost of our products and services and the cost of conducting our business, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Recent and potential tariffs imposed by the U.S. government or a global trade war could increase the cost of our products and services and the cost of conducting our business, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. The U.S. government has threatened substantial changes to trade agreements and has raised the possibility of imposing significant increases on tariffs on goods imported into the United States, particularly from China. The imposition of additional tariffs by the United States could result in the adoption of tariffs by other countries, leading to a global trade war. In addition, certain of these risks may be heightened as a result of changing political climates, which may also be exacerbated as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, throughout 2018 and 2019, the United States and China have been levying tariffs on their respective imports. Such tariffs could have a significant impact on our business and the business of our accounts. While we may attempt to renegotiate prices with suppliers or diversify our supply chain in response to tariffs, such efforts may not yield immediate results or may be ineffective. We might also consider increasing prices to the end consumer; however, this could reduce the competitiveness of our products and services and adversely affect revenue. If we fail to manage these dynamics successfully, our gross margins and profitability could be adversely affected.
In addition, increases in the extent to which global trade is limited by tariffs or other trade barriers could negatively affect decisions to invest in infrastructure projects due to decreasing confidence in future profitability of such projects. Such resulting decreases in infrastructure spending could negatively affect demand for our software solutions, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Global economic conditions may negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our operations and performance depend significantly on foreign and domestic economic conditions. Uncertainty regarding economic conditions may negatively impact us as accounts defer spending or postpone infrastructure projects in response to tighter credit, higher unemployment, financial market volatility, government austerity programs, negative financial news, escalations of hostilities or the threat of hostilities, pandemics, declining valuations of investments and other factors. In addition, certain of our accounts’ budgets may be constrained and they may be unable to procure our solutions at the same level as in prior periods. Our accounts’ ability to pay for our software solutions and services may also be impaired, which may lead to an increase in our allowance for doubtful accounts and write-offs of accounts receivable. Since we are exposed to the majority of major world markets, uncertainty in any significant market may negatively impact our performance and results, particularly with respect to our largest geographic accounts. Our accounts include government entities, including the U.S. government, and if spending cuts impede the ability of governments to purchase our products and services, our revenues could decline. In addition, a number of our accounts rely, directly and indirectly, on government spending. We are unable to predict economic conditions or the likelihood of additional economic uncertainty arising in any of our key markets. Changes in economic conditions could result in us not meeting our revenue growth objectives, and could harm our cash flows, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Geopolitical trends toward nationalism and protectionism and the weakening or dissolution of international trade pacts may increase the cost of, or otherwise interfere with, conducting our business. These trends have increased levels of political and economic unpredictability globally, and may increase the volatility of global financial markets; the impact of such developments on the global economy remains uncertain. Political instability or adverse political developments, including, without limitation, as a result of or in connection with the upcoming 2020 United States presidential election and trade relations between the United States in China, in any of the countries in which we do business could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Decreased investment by APAC, including China, may have a negative effect on our business.
Approximately 19%, 20% and 19% of our revenues in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively, relate to infrastructure projects in APAC, including China. We cannot assure you that spending in these countries on infrastructure projects will continue at
 
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historical levels or increase in the future, or that demand for our software solutions in APAC in general will not be negatively affected by reductions in spending or other limitations.
The ongoing global coronavirus outbreak could materially and adversely affect our business
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic related to the rapidly growing outbreak of the disease COVID-19, caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 outbreak and certain preventative or protective actions that governments, businesses and individuals have taken in respect of COVID-19 have resulted in global business disruptions. The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected global economies, financial markets and the overall environment in which we do business, and the extent to which it may impact our future results of operations and overall financial performance remains uncertain. Our accounts’ usage of our solutions slightly declined during the months of March and April when compared to levels from the same periods in 2019, and our revenue growth has also been modestly impacted, primarily due to lower growth of our non-recurring solutions including perpetual licenses and professional services engagements due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the severity and transmission rate of the virus, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions and the impact of these and other factors on our colleagues, accounts, suppliers and partners. The COVID-19 pandemic may continue to materially affect the economies and financial markets in impacted countries and countries in which we operate, causing continued economic downturn that could decrease spending on infrastructure projects and adversely affect demand for our software solutions. Such impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and/or financial condition could be material. The COVID-19 pandemic may also have the effect of heightening other risks disclosed in these Risk Factors, such as, but not limited to, those related to supply chain interruptions and labor availability and cost.
The sales cycle for some of our solutions can be long and unpredictable and requires considerable time and expense, which may cause our results of operations to fluctuate.
The sales cycle for some of our solutions, from initial contact with a potential lead to contract execution and implementation, varies widely by brand and account, and can be lengthy. Some of our accounts undertake a significant evaluation process that frequently involves not only our solution, but also solutions of our competitors, which may result in extended sales cycles. Our sales efforts involve educating our accounts and prospective accounts about the use, technical capabilities and benefits of our solutions. We also put a significant amount of time into discussing with our accounts the value and importance of migrating to the latest versions of our software solutions. We have no assurance that the substantial time and money spent on our sales efforts will increase sales or cause existing accounts to migrate to the latest versions of our software solutions. Furthermore, our sales and marketing efforts in a given period may only result in sales in subsequent periods, or not at all. If we do not realize sales in the time period expected or at all, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we do not keep pace with technological changes, and effectively market our new product solutions, our solutions may become less competitive and our business may suffer.
We operate in an industry generally characterized by rapidly changing technology and frequent new software introductions, which can render existing software obsolete or unmarketable. A major factor in our future success will be our ability to anticipate technological changes and to develop and introduce, in a timely manner, enhancements to our existing software solutions, new software solutions and software solutions acquired in acquisitions to meet those changes. In particular, the software industry has undergone a transition from developing and selling perpetual licenses and on-premises products to cloud, mobile, and social applications. If we are unable to adapt our software solutions to the changing needs of our accounts and infrastructure engineers and to respond quickly to sector changes, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be harmed.
The introduction and marketing of new or enhanced software solutions require us to manage the transition from existing software to minimize disruption in account use and purchasing patterns. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in developing and marketing, on a timely basis, new software or enhancements, that our new software solutions will adequately address the changing needs of the marketplace
 
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or that we will successfully manage the transition from existing software solutions. In addition, our future software solutions may require a higher level of sales and support expertise. Any inability of our sales team, including our channel partners, to obtain this expertise and to sell the new software offerings effectively could have an adverse impact on our sales in future periods. Any of these problems may result in the loss of or delay in account acceptance, decreased demand for or usage of our software solutions, damage to our reputation, or increased service and warranty costs, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We must act quickly, continuously, and with vision, given the rapidly changing expectations and technology advancements inherent in the software industry, the extensive and complex efforts required to create useful and widely accepted products and the rapid evolution of cloud computing, mobile devices, new computing platforms, and other technologies. Although we have articulated a strategy that we believe will fulfill these challenges, if we fail to execute properly on that strategy or adapt that strategy as market conditions evolve, we may fail to meet our accounts’ expectations, fail to compete with our competitors’ products and technology, and lose the confidence of our channel partners and colleagues, which in turn could adversely affect our business and financial performance.
Interruptions in the availability of server systems or communications with Internet, third-party hosting facilities or cloud-based services, or failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, accessibility, or integrity of data stored on such systems, could harm our business or impair the delivery of our managed services.
A significant portion of our software development personnel, source code, and computer equipment is located at operating facilities outside the United States. We also depend on data maintained on servers running third-party enterprise resource planning, account relationship management, and other business operations systems. We further rely upon a variety of Internet service providers, third-party hosting facilities, and cloud computing platform providers, such as Microsoft Azure, as well as local service providers to support project teams and users in most regions and countries throughout the world, particularly with respect to our cloud service solutions. Failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, accessibility, or integrity of data stored on such systems could damage our reputation in the market and our relationships with our accounts, cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs, cause us to lose accounts, subject us to liability for damages and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Any damage to, or failure of, such systems, or communications to and between such systems, could result in interruptions in our operations, managed services and software development activities. Such interruptions may reduce our revenue, delay billing, cause us to issue credits or pay penalties, cause accounts to terminate their subscriptions or adversely affect our attrition rates and our ability to attract new accounts. Our business would also be harmed if our accounts and potential accounts believe our products or services are unreliable.
If our security measures or those of our third-party cloud data hosts, cloud computing platform providers, or third-party service partners, are breached, and unauthorized access is obtained to an account’s data, our data or our IT systems, our services may be perceived as not being secure, accounts may curtail or stop using our services, and we may incur significant legal and financial exposure and liabilities.
As we digitize and use cloud and web-based technologies to leverage account data to deliver a more complete account experience, we are exposed to increased security risks and the potential for unauthorized access to, or improper use of, our and our accounts’ information. Certain of our services involve the storage and transmission of accounts’ proprietary information, and security breaches could expose us to a risk of loss of this information, litigation and possible liability. Although we devote resources to maintaining our security and integrity, we may not prevent security incidents.
The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has increased as the number, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. These threats include but are not limited to identity theft, unauthorized access, domain name system attacks, wireless network attacks, viruses and worms, advanced persistent threat, application centric attacks, peer-to-peer attacks, phishing, backdoor trojans, and distributed denial of service attacks. Any of the foregoing
 
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could attack our accounts’ data (including their employees’ personal data), our data (including colleagues’ personal data) or our IT systems. It is virtually impossible for us to entirely eliminate this risk. Like all software, our software is vulnerable to cyber attacks. The impact of cyber attacks could disrupt the proper functioning of our software solutions or services, cause errors in the output of our accounts’ work, allow unauthorized access to sensitive, proprietary or confidential information of ours or our accounts, and other destructive outcomes.
Additionally, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce colleagues or accounts into disclosing sensitive information such as user names, passwords or other information in order to gain access to our accounts’ data, our data or our IT systems. Malicious third parties may also conduct attacks designed to temporarily deny accounts access to our services. Any security breach could result in a loss of confidence in the security of our products and services, damage our reputation, negatively impact our future sales, disrupt our business and lead to regulatory inquiry and legal liability.
We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could negatively impact our financial results and cash flows.
We sell our solutions in 172 countries, primarily through a direct sales force located throughout the world. Approximately 60%, 58% and 58% of our total revenues were from outside the United States in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. As we continue to expand our presence in international regions, the portion of our revenue, expenses, cash, accounts receivable and payment obligations denominated in foreign currencies continues to increase. Further, we anticipate that revenues from accounts outside of the United States will continue to comprise the majority of our total revenues for the foreseeable future.
Because of our international activities, we have revenue, expenses, cash, accounts receivable and payment obligations denominated in foreign currencies. In the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, and the six months ended June 30, 2020, 49%, 47% and 44%, respectively, of our total revenues were denominated in a currency other than the U.S. Dollar. As a result, we are subject to currency exchange risk. Our revenues and results of operations are adversely affected when the U.S. Dollar strengthens relative to other currencies and are positively affected when the U.S. Dollar weakens. As a result, changes in currency exchange rates will affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. In the event that there are economic declines in countries in which we conduct transactions, the resulting changes in currency exchange rates may affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. We are most impacted by movements in and among the Euro, British Pound, Australian Dollar, Canadian Dollar, and Chinese Yuan Renminbi. For example, the Chinese Yuan Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. Dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably, due to changes in foreign exchange for a wide variety of reasons, including actions instituted by China. Because of changes in trade between the United States and China and Renminbi internationalization, the China may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system, and we cannot assure you that the Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. Dollar in the future.
In addition, countries in which we operate may be classified as highly inflationary economies, requiring special accounting and financial reporting treatment for such operations, or such countries’ currencies may be devalued, or both, which may harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We cannot predict the impact of foreign currency fluctuations and we may not be successful in minimizing the risks of these fluctuations. In addition, the fluctuation and volatility of currencies, even when it increases our revenues or decreases our expenses, impacts our ability to accurately predict our future results and earnings.
We face intense competition.
We continue to experience competition across all markets for our software solutions and services. Our competitors include large, global, publicly-traded companies, small, specialty or geographically-focused firms and organizations who develop their own solutions internally. Some of our current and possible future competitors have greater financial, technical, sales, marketing and other resources than us, some specialize in developing niche software solutions and some have well-established relationships with our current and
 
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potential accounts. There is no assurance that we will be able to continue to compete effectively. Parties among our current or future strategic alliances may diminish or sever technical, software development and marketing relationships with us for competitive purposes. These competitive pressures may result in decreased sales volumes, price reductions, and/or increased operating costs, and could result in lower revenues, margins, and net income.
We may not be able to increase the number of new subscription-based accounts or cause existing accounts to renew their subscriptions, which could have a negative impact on our future revenues and results of operations.
We may not be able to increase demand for our subscription-based services in line with our growth strategy. Our accounts are not obligated to renew their subscriptions for our offerings, and they may elect not to renew. We cannot assure renewal rates, or the mix of subscriptions renewals. Account renewal rates may decline or fluctuate due to a number of factors, including offering pricing, competitive offerings, account satisfaction, and reductions in account spending levels or account activity due to economic downturns or financial markets uncertainty. If our accounts do not renew their subscriptions or if they renew on less favorable terms, our revenues may decline, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our revenue recognition policy and other factors may create volatility in our financial results in any given period and make them difficult to predict.
As described in Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 included elsewhere in this prospectus, we adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2019. The new revenue guidance significantly impacts our timing of subscriptions and perpetual licenses revenue. Under previous revenue guidance, we historically maintained stable recurring revenue from the sale of software subscriptions and perpetual licenses. Under ASC 606, perpetual licenses and the license component of applicable subscriptions are recognized up front. The maintenance portion of subscription contracts continues to be recognized over the contract term.
The adoption of the new revenue recognition guidance creates the likelihood for subscriptions and licenses revenue volatility to increase across quarterly periods, particularly as compared to our results under the previous revenue recognition standard. Annual and trailing twelve-months subscription revenues will be more consistent between periods, and as compared to our results under the previous revenue recognition standard, due to the annual, recurring nature of our subscription agreements. However, annual results are still subject to volatility due to the timing of renewals between periods, timing of new sales contracts, changes in contract term and length, changes in perpetual license sales, and conversion of existing subscription users to other commercial offerings, particularly consumption-based offerings with consumption measurement durations of less than one year.
Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate in the future, which could cause the price of our Class B common stock to decline or become volatile. These potential fluctuations can make our future results difficult to predict and cause our results of operations to fall below analyst or investor expectations.
Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate in the future as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. If our quarterly results of operations or guidance fall below the expectations of research analysts or investors, the price of our Class B common stock could decline substantially. The following factors, among others, could cause fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations:

our success in selling our subscription and services offerings;

our ability to attract new accounts and retain existing accounts, including in connection with consolidation activities among, or management changes at, our accounts;

our ability to accurately forecast revenues and appropriately plan our expenses;

our ability to introduce new features, including ensuring inter-operational ability with our existing solutions and with third-party software and devices;
 
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our receiving milestone payments in respect of the projects for which our software is providing solutions;

the actions of our competitors, including consolidation within the industry, pricing changes or the introduction of new solutions;

our ability to effectively manage our growth;

our ability to successfully manage any future acquisitions of businesses, solutions or technologies;

the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies or businesses;

the timing, operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance and expansion of our business;

service outages or security breaches and any related occurrences that could impact our reputation;

the impact of worldwide economic, industry and market conditions, including disruptions in financial markets and the deterioration of the underlying economic conditions in some countries;

trade protection measures, such as tariffs and duties, and import or export licensing requirements;

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

changes in government regulation affecting our business; and

costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement and other claims.
Our quarterly revenues and results of operations may vary in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. Any one or more of the factors above may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations. You should not rely on the results of one quarter as an indication of future performance.
The variability and unpredictability of our quarterly results of operations or other operating metrics could result in our failure to meet our expectations or those of analysts that cover us or investors with respect to revenues or other key metrics for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our Class B common stock could fall, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.
Failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our future success and competitive position depend in large part on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technologies. We rely on a combination of copyright, patent, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to secure and protect our intellectual property rights, all of which provide only limited protection and may not currently or in the future provide us with a competitive advantage. Patents or trademarks may not issue from any of our pending or future patent or trademark applications. Patents or trademarks that do issue from such applications may not give us the protection that we seek, and such patents or trademarks may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented. Any patents or trademarks that may issue in the future from our pending or future patent and trademark applications may not provide sufficiently broad protection and may not be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers.
The steps we take may not be adequate to protect our technologies and intellectual property, our patent and trademark applications may not lead to issued patents or registered trademarks, others may develop or patent similar or superior technologies or solutions, and our patents, trademarks, and other intellectual property may be challenged, invalidated, designed around or circumvented by others. Furthermore, effective copyright, patent, trademark and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our solutions are available or where we do business.
The steps we have taken, and will take, may not prevent unauthorized use, reverse engineering, or misappropriation of our technologies and we may not be able to detect any of the foregoing. Others may independently develop technologies that infringe on our intellectual property rights. In addition, we cannot
 
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control the use of our open source components, which could allow third parties to create products or solutions that compete with our offerings or that contain errors, defects or other performance problems that could hurt our reputation and reduce the adoption of our solutions in new and existing accounts. Defending and enforcing our intellectual property rights may result in litigation or other contentious actions, any such litigation may not be successful, and even if successful, such litigation can be costly and divert management attention and resources. Further, if we are unsuccessful in asserting our intellectual property rights, an adverse decision could place limitations on the scope of our rights. If our efforts to protect our technologies and intellectual property are inadequate, the value of these intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to replicate our solutions and methods of operations. Any of these events could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Although copyright protection is available for works of authorship such as computer code, we primarily rely on trade secrets laws to protect our proprietary software code, and have chosen not to register copyrights for the code. Under the United States Copyright Act, copyrights must be registered before the copyright owner may bring an infringement suit in the United States, and if a copyright is not registered within three months of publication of the underlying work, there are limitations on the damages that the copyright owner may be awarded for infringement. Accordingly, because we have chosen not to register the copyrights in our software, the causes of action, remedies and damages available to us in an enforcement action may be limited.
Consolidation among our accounts and other enterprises in the markets in which we operate may result in loss of business.
It is likely that some of our existing accounts will consolidate, be acquired or experience a change in management, which could lead to a decrease in the size of our account base. We expect consolidation among our accounts as they attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions. If two or more of our accounts consolidate, they may also wish to consolidate the software solutions and services that we provide to them. If an existing account is acquired by another company that uses the solutions of one of our competitors, we may lose business in that account to our competitor. In addition, if an account experiences a change in management, the new management team may be accustomed to the software of one of our competitors, and we could lose that account. Any such consolidation, acquisition or management change could lead to pricing pressure, erosion of our margins, loss of accounts and loss of market share, all of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We have in the past and expect to continue in the future to seek to grow our business through acquisitions of or investments in new or complementary businesses, software solutions or technologies, and the failure to manage acquisitions or investments, or the failure to integrate them with our existing platform and business, could harm us.
Since our founding, we have strategically acquired and integrated numerous software assets and businesses. We may, however, be unable to identify suitable acquisition candidates in the future or, if suitable candidates are identified, we may be unable to complete the business combination on commercially acceptable terms. The process of exploring and pursuing acquisition opportunities may result in devotion of significant management and financial resources.
Even if we are able to consummate acquisitions that we believe will be successful, these transactions present many risks including, among others:

failing to achieve anticipated synergies and revenue increases;

difficulty incorporating and integrating the acquired technologies or software solutions with our offerings, and existing applications;

difficulties managing an acquired company’s technologies or lines of business or entering new markets where we have limited prior experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions;

maintaining the quality standards that are consistent with our brand and reputation;
 
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difficulty in coordinating, establishing or expanding sales, distribution and marketing functions, as necessary;

disruption of our ongoing business and diversion of management’s attention to transition or integration issues;

the potential that due diligence of the acquired business or product does not identify significant problems;

exposure to litigation or other claims in connection with, or inheritance of claims or litigation risk as a result of, an acquisition, including but not limited to, claims from terminated colleagues, accounts, or other third parties;

unanticipated and unknown liabilities, including for intellectual property infringement;

increases in our interest expense, leverage and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition;

if we were to issue a significant amount of equity securities in connection with future acquisitions, dilution to existing stockholders and potential decreases in earnings per share;

the loss of key colleagues, accounts and channel partners of ours or of the acquired company; and

difficulties implementing and maintaining sufficient controls, policies and procedures over the systems, software and processes of the acquired company.
We may also incur unanticipated costs, expenses or other liabilities as a result of an acquisition target’s violation of applicable laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) or similar worldwide anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws in foreign jurisdictions, as well as data security and privacy laws such as the GDPR. If we do not achieve the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions as rapidly or to the extent anticipated by management and financial or industry analysts, or if we are subject to unanticipated costs, expenses or other liabilities in connection with our acquisitions, there could be an adverse effect on our stock price, business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
We may not be successful in overcoming such risks, and such acquisitions may negatively impact our business. In addition, such acquisitions may contribute to potential fluctuations in our quarterly financial results. These fluctuations could arise from transaction-related costs and charges associated with eliminating redundant expenses or write-offs of impaired assets recorded in connection with acquisitions. These costs or charges could negatively impact our financial results for a given period, cause quarter to quarter variability in our financial results or negatively impact our financial results for several future periods.
Increasingly stringent and growing data protection and privacy laws with respect to cloud computing, cross-border data transfer restrictions and other restrictions may apply to our business and non-compliance with such rules may limit the use and adoption of our services and adversely affect our business.
As a global software and service provider, we collect and process personal data and other data from our users and prospective users. We use this information to provide solutions and applications to our accounts, to validate user identity, to fulfill contractual duties and administer billing and support, to expand and improve our business, and to communicate and recommend products and services through our marketing and advertising efforts. We may also share accounts’ personal data with certain third parties as described in the privacy policy provided to each account. As a result, we are required to comply with local laws and regulations, including data protection requirements in the countries where we do business.
Globally, new and evolving regulations regarding data protection and privacy and other standards governing the collection, processing, storage and use of personal data impose additional burdens for us due to increasing compliance standards that could restrict the use and adoption of our solutions and applications (in particular cloud services).
We have significant business operations in the European Union (“E.U.”) and European Economic Area (“EEA”), where the GDPR went into effect on May 25, 2018. The GDPR harmonized data protection regulations across the E.U. and EEA, implementing stringent requirements for the protection of E.U. and
 
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EEA individuals’ (“data subjects”) personal data. These requirements include expanded requirements for our users as E.U. and EEA data subjects, new obligations on us as data controllers and processors, and mandatory breach notification to affected individuals and data protection supervisory authorities. Non-compliance with GDPR could result in fines and penalties up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of global turnover for the preceding financial year. Moreover, individuals can claim damages resulting from infringement of the GDPR. As a result of the GDPR, as a personal data processor for our business-to-business accounts we must commit to detailed contractual obligations, including to ensure we only process such data on our accounts’ instructions, keep it secure, require our sub-processors to commit to similar commitments, delete data when the contract ends and let our accounts audit our compliance.
In addition, E.U. and EEA data protection rules regulate the transfers of E.U. and EEA individuals’ personal data to other countries that have been deemed by the European Commission not to provide adequate protection to personal data. The United States is not deemed to have adequate laws to protect personal data. We had relied upon the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield program to legitimize certain transfers of personal data from the E.U. and EEA to the United States. However, on July 16, 2020, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) invalidated the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield program that we (along with thousands of other companies) have used to transfer data from the E.U. and EEA to the United States in compliance with GDPR. As a result of this decision, companies like us that previously relied upon Privacy Shield will be required to use another GDPR-approved method to legitimize transfers of personal data to the U.S. and other third countries in compliance with the GDPR. Until the remaining legal uncertainties regarding how to legally continue these transfers are settled, we will continue to face uncertainty as to whether our efforts to comply with our obligations under European privacy laws will be sufficient. Our accounts may view alternative data transfer mechanisms as being too costly, too burdensome, too legally uncertain or otherwise objectionable and therefore decide not to do business with us. For example, some of our accounts or potential accounts in the E.U. may require their vendors to host all personal data within the E.U. and may decide to do business with one of our competitors who hosts personal data within the E.U. instead of doing business with us. This and other future developments regarding the flow of data across borders could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our products and services in some markets and may lead to governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
Further, laws such as the E.U.’s Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive 2002 (“ePrivacy Directive”), national legislation across the E.U. implementing the ePrivacy Directive and the proposed ePrivacy Regulation are increasingly aimed at the use of personal data for marketing purposes, and the tracking of individuals’ online activities. These existing or proposed laws and regulations are subject to differing interpretations and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions and member states. These and other requirements may have a negative effect on businesses, including ours, that collect and use online usage information for consumer acquisition and marketing. As the text of the ePrivacy Regulation is still under development, and as further guidance is issued and interpretation of both the ePrivacy Regulation and GDPR develop, we could incur costs to comply with these regulations.
In addition, despite the enactment of the UK Data Protection Act, which substantially implements the GDPR and became effective in May 2018, it remains unclear exactly how the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union will affect transborder data flows, regulators’ jurisdiction over our business, and other matters related to how we do business and how we comply with applicable data protection laws. Accordingly, we cannot predict the additional expense, impact on revenue, or other business impact that may stem from the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union at this time.
In the Asia-Pacific region, where we have significant business operations, changes in privacy and cybersecurity regulation, some of which is similar to changes effected by the GDPR, have come into effect in 2018 and 2019, and similar significant regulatory changes are expected across the Asia-Pacific region in the future. These changes introduce more stringent requirements, including that we register our data processing activities in certain jurisdictions, appoint local representatives in-country, restrict the cross-border transfer of personal, confidential and commercially sensitive information in some cases, provide expanded disclosures to tell our accounts about how we use their personal information, and obtain detailed consents from accounts to processing of personal information. There are also increased rights for accounts to access, control and delete their personal information. In addition, there are mandatory data breach notification
 
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requirements that differ depending on the jurisdiction as well as increases to penalties and expanded enforcement powers for regulators.
We also expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the United States, the E.U., the EEA, and other jurisdictions, and we cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business. For example, in June 2018 California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA broadly defines personal information, gives California residents expanded privacy rights and protections and provides for civil penalties for violations and a private right of action for data breaches. In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups and technology and other industries are considering various new, additional or different self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on us. Future laws, regulations, standards and other obligations, and changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards and other obligations could impair our ability to collect, use or disclose personally identifiable information, increase our costs and impair our ability to maintain and grow our account base and increase our revenue. New laws, amendments to or re-interpretations of existing laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations and other obligations may require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. Such laws and regulations may require companies to implement privacy and security policies, permit users to access, correct and delete personal data stored or maintained by such companies, inform individuals of security breaches that affect their personal data, and, in some cases, obtain individuals’ consent to use personal data for certain purposes. If we, or the third parties on which we rely, fail to comply with federal, state and international data privacy laws and regulations, our ability to successfully operate our business and pursue our business goals could be harmed.
Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or to protect such data, could result in enforcement action against us, including fines and public censure, claims for damages by accounts and other affected individuals, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill (both in relation to existing accounts and prospective accounts), any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Around the world, there are numerous lawsuits in process against various technology companies that process personal data. If those lawsuits are successful, it could increase the likelihood that our company may be exposed to liability for our own policies and practices concerning the processing of personal data and could hurt our business.
In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy and other industry groups have established or may establish new self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on us. Our accounts expect us to meet voluntary certification or other standards established by third parties or imposed by the accounts themselves. If we are unable to maintain these certifications or meet these standards, it could adversely affect our ability to provide our solutions to certain accounts and could harm our business. Further, if we were to experience a breach of systems compromising our accounts’ sensitive data, our brand and reputation could be adversely affected, use of our software solutions and services could decrease, and we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation, and regulatory proceedings.
The costs of compliance with and other burdens imposed by laws, regulations and standards may limit the use and adoption of our services and reduce overall demand for it, or lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities for any noncompliance.
Furthermore, concerns regarding data privacy may cause our accounts’ customers to resist providing the data necessary to allow our accounts to use our services effectively. Even the perception that the privacy of personal information is not satisfactorily protected or does not meet regulatory requirements could inhibit sales of our software solutions or services, and could limit adoption of our cloud-based solutions.
We depend on our senior management team and other key personnel, and we could be subject to substantial risk of loss if any of them terminate their relationship with us.
Our success depends upon the continued services of our key personnel, including Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley and Raymond B. Bentley. These individuals and each of our other
 
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executive officers, key technical personnel, and colleagues could terminate his or her relationship with us at any time. Failure to effectively implement our succession planning efforts and to ensure effective transfers of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key personnel could disrupt or adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley and Raymond B. Bentley and most of our senior management team and other key personnel are not subject to employment or other agreements containing non-compete provisions. Accordingly, the adverse effect resulting from the loss of certain key personnel could be compounded by our inability to prevent them from competing with us. Further, we do not maintain key person insurance on any of our senior management team or other key personnel in the event of their death or extended incapacity. The loss of any of our senior executives might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives and could harm our business and account relationships.
If we are not successful in attracting, integrating and retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our ability to establish and maintain a position of technology leadership in the highly competitive software market depends in large part upon our ability to attract, integrate and retain highly skilled engineering and development personnel in the United States and internationally. The market for this talent is highly competitive, and our recruiting efforts are widespread and conducted in varying hiring climates throughout the world. Due to restrictive immigration laws in the United States, we are also sometimes limited in our ability to integrate our international colleagues to locations where their skills may be particularly well-suited. If we are not successful in recruiting and retaining key personnel or integrating our personnel effectively, our business, reputation and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Quality problems, defects, errors, failures, or vulnerabilities in our software solutions or services could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Our solutions are, in some cases, highly complex and incorporate advanced software technologies that we attempt to make interoperable with the products of other software providers. Despite testing prior to release, our software may contain undetected defects or errors. Further, the combined use of our software with those of other software providers may cause errors or failures, or it may expose undetected defects, errors or failures in our software. These defects, errors, or failures could affect software performance and damage the businesses of our accounts as well as delay the development or release of new software or new versions of software. Further, we cannot guarantee that all of our accounts are using the latest versions of our software solutions with enhanced security features, and may be more vulnerable to cyber attacks. Allegations of unsatisfactory performance in any of these situations could damage our reputation in the market and our relationships with our accounts, cause us to lose revenue or market share, increase our service costs, cause us to incur substantial costs in analyzing, correcting or redesigning the software, cause us to lose accounts, subject us to liability for damages and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. We may also be required to provide full replacements or refunds for such defective software. We cannot assure you that such remediation would not harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be harmed if we are unable to cross-sell our solutions.
A significant component of our growth strategy is to increase the cross-selling of our solutions to current and future accounts, however, we may not be successful in doing so if our accounts find our additional solutions to be unnecessary or unattractive. We have invested, and intend to continue to invest, significant resources in developing and acquiring additional solutions, which resources may not be recovered if we are unable to successfully cross-sell these solutions to accounts using our existing solutions. Any failure to sell additional solutions to current and future accounts could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We license third-party technologies for the development of certain of our software solutions, and, in some instances, we incorporate third-party technologies, including open source software, into our software solutions. If we fail to maintain these licenses or are unable to secure alternative licenses on reasonable terms, our business could be adversely affected.
We license third-party technologies to develop certain of our products, and, in some cases, we incorporate third-party technologies into our own software solutions, including technologies owned by our
 
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competitors. If we were to seek to expand the scope of this activity in the future, we could be required to obtain additional licenses and enter into long-term arrangements with third parties on whose technology we could become substantially dependent.
If we are unable to use or license these third-party technologies on reasonable terms, including commercially justifiable royalty rates, or if these technologies fail to operate properly or be appropriately supported, maintained or enhanced, we may not be able to secure alternatives in a timely manner and our ability to develop and commercialize our own software solutions could be adversely impacted. In addition, licensed technology may be subject to claims that it infringes others’ intellectual property rights, and we may lose access to or have restrictions placed on our use of the licensed technology.
Furthermore, we are unable to predict whether future license agreements and arrangements with third parties can be obtained, and, if obtained, whether they can be renewed on acceptable terms, or at all. If we become substantially dependent upon any such third-party technology and we are unable to successfully license it, we may not be able to develop or commercialize our software solutions in a timely manner or at all. Any of the foregoing could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
We also incorporate open source software into our products. While we have attempted not to use open source code in a manner which could adversely impact our proprietary code, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market or sell our products or to develop new products. In such event, we could be required to seek licenses from third-parties in order to continue offering our products, to disclose and offer royalty-free licenses to our own source code, to re-engineer our products, or to discontinue the sale of our products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, any of which could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
As a result of our strategy of strategic partnerships with other companies for product development, our product delivery schedules could be adversely affected if we experience difficulties with our product development partners.
We have strategic partnerships with certain independent firms and contractors to perform some of our product development activities. We believe our strategic partnerships allow us to, among other things, achieve efficiencies in developing new products and maintaining and enhancing existing product offerings. Our strategic partnerships create a dependency on such independent developers. Independent developers, including those who currently develop solutions for us in the United States and throughout the world, may not be able or willing to provide development support to us in the future. In addition, use of development resources through consulting relationships, particularly in non-U.S. jurisdictions with developing legal systems, may be adversely impacted by, and expose us to risks relating to, evolving employment, export and intellectual property laws. These risks could, among other things, expose our intellectual property to misappropriation and result in disruptions to product delivery schedules, which in turn could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (“Brexit”) has created political and economic uncertainty, particularly in the United Kingdom and the European Union, and this uncertainty may last for years. Demand for our software solutions or services could be affected by the impact of Brexit. For example, while we have invoiced our U.K.-based accounts and operated our business within the United Kingdom through our U.K.-based subsidiary since the fourth quarter of 2018 to manage risks posed to our business and operations by Brexit, Brexit may cause delays in purchasing decisions by our potential and current accounts affected by this transition and there is considerable uncertainty as to when the long-term nature of the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European Union will be agreed and implemented and what the terms of that relationship will be. The final terms of this exit by the United Kingdom from the European Union may result in new regulatory and cost challenges to our U.K. and global operations. In addition, our business and our channel partners’ businesses could be negatively affected by new trade agreements between the United Kingdom and other countries, including the United States
 
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and by the possible imposition of trade or other regulatory barriers in the United Kingdom. The unresolved final terms of Brexit have also created uncertainty with regard to the regulation of data protection in the United Kingdom. For example, the UK Data Protection Act, which substantially implements the GDPR, became effective in May 2018. It remains unclear, however, how United Kingdom data protection laws or regulations will develop and be interpreted in the medium to longer term, how data transfers to and from the United Kingdom will be regulated, and how those regulations may differ from those in the European Union. Depending on the terms reached regarding any exit from the European Union, it is possible that there may be adverse practical or operational implications on our business. Further, the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union may create increased compliance costs and an uncertain regulatory landscape for offering equity-based incentives to our employees in the United Kingdom. If we are unable to maintain equity-based incentive programs for our employees in the United Kingdom due to the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union, our business in the United Kingdom may suffer and we may face legal claims from employees in the United Kingdom to whom we previously offered equity-based incentive programs.
There are significant costs and restrictions associated with the repatriation of cash from our non-U.S. operations.
Our cash and cash equivalents balances are concentrated in a few locations around the world, with approximately 98% of those balances held outside of the United States as of December 31, 2019. Cash repatriation restrictions may limit our ability to repatriate cash held by our foreign subsidiaries. Additionally, the repatriation of cash held by our foreign subsidiaries may result in adverse tax consequences. Any repatriation of cash may be restricted or may result in our incurring substantial costs. As a result, we may be required to seek sources of cash to fund our operations, including through the issuance of equity securities, which may be dilutive to existing stockholders, or by incurring additional indebtedness. There can be no assurance that we will be able to secure sources of financing on terms favorable to us, or at all.
Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and harm our business and results of operations.
Vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights has resulted in protracted and expensive litigation for many companies in our industry. Although claims of this kind have not materially affected our business to date, there can be no assurance such claims will not arise in the future. Any claims or proceedings against us, regardless of whether meritorious, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, require significant amounts of management time, result in the diversion of significant operational resources, or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Intellectual property lawsuits are subject to inherent uncertainties due to the complexity of the technical issues involved, and we cannot be certain that we will be successful in defending ourselves against intellectual property claims. In addition, we may not be able to effectively use our intellectual property portfolio to assert defenses or counterclaims in response to copyright, patent and trademark infringement claims or litigation, as well as claims for trade secret misappropriation and unfair competition, brought against us by third parties. Further, litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant products and against whom our patent portfolio may provide little or no deterrence.
Many potential litigants have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. Furthermore, a successful claimant could secure a judgment that requires us to pay substantial damages or prevents us from distributing certain solutions or performing certain services. We might also be required to seek a license and pay royalties for the use of such intellectual property, which may not be available on commercially acceptable terms or at all. Alternatively, we may be required to develop non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense and may ultimately not be successful.
If our solutions infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, we may be required to indemnify our accounts for any damages they suffer.
We generally indemnify our accounts with respect to infringement by our products of the proprietary rights of third parties. Third parties may assert infringement claims against our accounts. These claims may
 
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require us to initiate or defend protracted and costly litigation on behalf of our accounts, regardless of the merits of these claims. If any of these claims succeed, we may be forced to pay damages on behalf of our accounts or may be required to obtain licenses for the products they use. If we cannot obtain all necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, our accounts may stop using our products.
Pricing pressure from our competitors and our accounts may impact our ability to sell our software solutions at prices necessary to support our current business strategies.
The intense competition we face in the sales of our software solutions and services, and general economic and business conditions, can put pressure on us to lower our prices. If our competitors offer deep discounts on certain software solutions or services, or develop software solutions that the marketplace considers more valuable, we may need to lower prices or offer discounts or other favorable terms to compete successfully. Any such changes may reduce operating margins and could adversely affect results of operations. Any broad-based change to our prices and pricing policies could cause new software subscription and service revenues to decline or be delayed as our sales force implements and our accounts adjust to the new pricing policies.
Our credit agreement contains restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility, and certain changes in ownership of equity interests in us by the Bentley Family constitutes an event of default.
The agreement governing the Credit Facility contains certain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness other than amounts under the Credit Facility and specified baskets, incur additional liens, merge or consolidate with other companies or consummate certain changes of control, enter into new lines of business, pay dividends to our stockholders, make investments in and acquire other businesses and transfer or dispose of assets. In certain circumstances, the agreement governing the Credit Facility may also limit our ability to transfer cash among our subsidiaries and between us and our subsidiaries, including our foreign subsidiaries. It also contains certain financial covenants, including a covenant requiring us not to permit the net leverage ratio to exceed 3.50 to 1.00 and a covenant requiring the fixed charge coverage ratio for any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters to not be less than 3.0 to 1.00, and financial reporting requirements. Borrowings under the Credit Facility are secured by a first priority security interest in substantially all of our U.S. assets and 65% of the stock our foreign subsidiaries owned by a party to the agreement governing the Credit Facility.
Further, if the Bentley Family ceases to collectively own equity interests in us representing at least a majority of the aggregate voting power of the Company, then such change in ownership will be an event of default under the agreement governing the Credit Facility and, among other things, the commitments under the Credit Facility may be terminated immediately and the outstanding loans and accrued interest may become due and payable immediately.
In addition, there is no guarantee that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow or revenues to meet these financial covenants or pay the principal and interest on any debt. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that future working capital, borrowings or equity financing will be available to repay or refinance any debt. Any inability to make scheduled payments or meet the financial covenants in the agreement governing the Credit Facility would adversely affect our business.
The phase-out of LIBOR could affect interest rates under our Credit Facility.
On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) after 2021. It is unclear if LIBOR will cease to exist at that time, if a new method of calculating LIBOR will be established, or if an alternative reference rate will be established. The Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York organized the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, which identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as its preferred alternative to U.S. dollar LIBOR in derivatives and other financial contracts. We are not able to predict when LIBOR will cease to be available or if SOFR, or another alternative reference rate, attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement. LIBOR is used as the reference rate for Euro currency borrowings under our Credit Facility and as one of the alternatives for U.S. Dollar borrowings under our Credit Facility. If LIBOR ceases to exist, the administration agent under our Credit Facility has the authority to select a benchmark replacement index and adjustment
 
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margins and, as such, the interest rate on Euro currency borrowings under our Credit Facility may change. The new rate may not be as favorable as those in effect prior to any LIBOR phase-out. Furthermore, the transition process may result in delays in funding, higher interest expense, additional expenses, and increased volatility in markets for instruments that currently rely on LIBOR, all of which could negatively impact our interest expense, results of operations, and cash flow.
We may incur substantial additional debt, which could exacerbate the risks described above.
We may incur additional debt in the future. Although the agreement governing the Credit Facility contains restrictions on our ability to incur indebtedness, those restrictions are subject to a number of exceptions which permit us and our subsidiaries to incur substantial debt. Adding new debt to current debt levels could intensify the related risks that we and our subsidiaries now face. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
We may need to raise additional capital, which may not be available to us.
We may require substantial funds to operate our business and pursue our strategies. Our future liquidity and capital requirements are difficult to predict as they depend upon many factors, including the success of our solutions and competing technological and market developments. In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions, a decline in the level of account prepayments or unforeseen circumstances and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities for other reasons, and we may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all. Any additional debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we raise funds through issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution in their percentage ownership of our company. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.
From time to time we realign or introduce new business initiatives, including reorganizing our sales and marketing, research and development and administrative functions; if we fail to successfully execute and manage these initiatives, our results of operations could be negatively impacted.
We rely heavily on our direct sales force. From time to time, we reorganize and make adjustments to our sales leadership and/or our sales force in response to such factors as management changes, performance issues, market opportunities and other considerations. These changes may result in a temporary lack of sales production and may adversely impact revenues in future quarters. Market acceptance of any new business or sales initiative is dependent on our ability to match our accounts’ needs at the right time and price. There can be no assurance that we will not restructure our sales force in future periods or that the transition issues associated with such a restructuring will not occur. Similarly, reorganization of our research and development and administrative functions can disrupt our operations and negatively impact our results of operations if the execution is not managed properly. If any of our assumptions about expenses, revenues or revenue recognition principles from these initiatives proves incorrect, or our attempts to improve efficiency are not successful, our actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, and our financial results could be negatively impacted.
We may have to invest more resources in research and development than anticipated, which could increase our operating expenses and negatively affect our results of operations.
We devote substantial resources to research and development. New competitors, technological advances in the software industry or by competitors, our acquisitions, our entry into new markets, or other competitive factors may require us to invest significantly greater resources than we anticipate. If we are required to invest significantly greater resources than anticipated without a corresponding increase in
 
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revenue, our results of operations could decline. Additionally, our periodic research and development expenses may be independent of our level of revenue, which could negatively impact our financial results.
Further, technology for which we spend a significant amount of time and resources on in our research and development, such as our digital twin technology, may prove to be less marketable than we expect. There can be no guarantee that our research and development investments will result in products that create additional revenue.
A portion of our revenues are from sales by our channel partners, and we could be subject to loss or liability based on their actions.
Sales through our global network of independent, regional channel partners accounted for 9% and 8% of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively. These channel partners sell our software solutions to smaller accounts, in geographic regions where we do not have a meaningful presence, and in niche markets where they have specialized industry and technical knowledge. Where we rely on channel partners, we may have reduced contact with ultimate users that purchase through such channel partners, thereby making it more difficult to establish brand awareness, ensure proper installation, service ongoing requirements, estimate demand and respond to the evolving needs of an account. Any of our channel partners may choose to terminate its relationship with us at any time. As a result, our ability to service the ultimate users who were interfacing with that channel partner may take time to develop as we divert resources to service those users directly or find a suitable alternative channel partner to continue the relationship. Any disruption in service may damage our reputation and business. In addition, our channel partners may be unable to meet their payment obligations to us, which would have a negative impact on our results of operations and revenues. Our channel partners may also not have loyalty to our brand and therefore may not be particularly motivated to sell our software solutions or services.
The use of channel partners could also subject us to lawsuits, potential liability and reputational harm if, for example, any channel partners misrepresent the functionality of our software solutions or services to accounts, fail to comply with their contractual obligations or violate laws or our corporate policies. Such actions may impact our ability to distribute our software solutions into certain regions and markets, and may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
Some of our solutions are complex, and accounts may experience difficulty in implementing, upgrading or otherwise achieving the benefits attributable to them.
Due to the scope and complexity of some of the solutions that we provide, our implementation cycle for them can be lengthy and unpredictable. Some solutions require configuration and integration with existing computer systems and applications of our accounts and their trading partners, which can be time-consuming and expensive for our accounts and can result in implementation delays. As a result, some accounts may have difficulty implementing those solutions successfully or otherwise achieving their expected benefits. Delayed or ineffective implementation or upgrades may limit our future sales opportunities, negatively affect revenue, result in account dissatisfaction and harm our reputation.
Determining our effective income tax rate is complex and subject to uncertainty.
We make significant estimates in determining our worldwide income tax provision. These estimates involve complex tax laws and regulations in a number of jurisdictions across our global operations and are subject to many transactions and calculations in which the ultimate tax outcome is uncertain. The final outcome of tax matters could be different than the estimates reflected in the historical income tax provision and related accruals. These differences could have a material impact on income tax expense and net income in the periods in which such determinations are made.
The amount of income tax we pay is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. These audits can often result in additional assessments, including interest and penalties. Our estimate for liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions is highly judgmental and actual future outcomes may result in favorable or unfavorable adjustments to our estimated tax liabilities, including estimates for uncertain tax positions, in the period the assessments are made or resolved, audits are closed or when statutes
 
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of limitation on potential assessments expire. As a result, our effective tax rate may fluctuate significantly on a quarterly or annual basis.
The intended efficiency of our corporate structure depends on the application of the tax laws and regulations in the countries where we operate, and we may have exposure to additional tax liabilities or our effective tax rate could change, which could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
As a company with international operations, we are subject to income taxes, as well as non-income based taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. Currently, the majority of our revenues is generated from accounts located outside the United States, and a large portion of our assets are located outside the United States. We have designed our corporate structure, the manner in which we develop and use our intellectual property, and our intercompany transactions between our subsidiaries in a way that is intended to enhance our operational and financial efficiency and increase our overall profitability. United States income taxes and foreign withholding taxes have not been provided on undistributed earnings of non-U.S. subsidiaries to the extent those earnings are considered to be indefinitely reinvested in the operations of those subsidiaries. The application of the tax laws and regulations of various countries in which we operate and to our global operations is subject to interpretation. We also must operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure to realize such efficiencies. The tax authorities of the countries in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology or for transfer pricing. If, for one or more of these reasons, tax authorities determine that the manner in which we operate results in our business not achieving the intended tax consequences, our effective tax rate could increase and harm our financial condition and results of operations.
A change in the tax law in the jurisdictions in which we do business, including an increase in tax rates, an adverse change in the treatment of an item of income or expense, a decrease in tax rates in a jurisdiction in which we have significant deferred tax assets, or a new or different interpretation of applicable tax law, could result in a material increase in tax expense. The United States government and other governments are considering and may adopt tax law changes that significantly increase our worldwide tax liabilities. The U.S. Congress and other government legislatures and agencies in countries where we and our subsidiaries operate have focused on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations. For example, in Ireland, where one of our significant subsidiaries is domiciled, tax authorities recently announced changes to the treatment of non-resident Irish entities. The changes are expected to take effect for existing non-resident Irish entities, such as ours, in 2021. These changes, and other prospective changes in the United States and other countries in which we and our subsidiaries operate, could increase our effective tax rate, and harm our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to legal proceedings and regulatory inquiries, and we may be named in additional legal proceedings or become involved in regulatory inquiries in the future, any of which may be costly, distracting to our core business and could result in an unfavorable outcome, or harm on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, or the trading price for our securities.
We are subject to various investigations, claims and legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business, including commercial disputes, labor and employment matters, tax audits, alleged infringement of intellectual property rights and other matters. As the global economy has changed, our industry has seen an increase in litigation activity and regulatory inquiries. Like many other high technology companies, on a regular and ongoing basis, we receive inquiries from U.S. and foreign regulatory agencies regarding our business and our business practices, and the business practices of others in our industry. In the event that we are involved in significant disputes or are the subject of a formal action by a regulatory agency, we could be exposed to costly and time consuming legal proceedings that could result in any number of outcomes. Any claims or regulatory actions initiated by or against us, whether successful or not, could result in expensive costs of defense, costly damage awards, injunctive relief, increased costs of business, fines or orders to change certain business practices, significant dedication of management time, diversion of significant operational resources, or otherwise harm our business. In any of these cases, our financial results could be negatively impacted.
Failure to comply with the FCPA and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws associated with our activities outside the United States could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
The majority of our revenues are from jurisdictions outside of the United States. We are subject to the FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making payments to foreign
 
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officials for the purpose of directing, obtaining or keeping business, and requires companies to maintain reasonable books and records and a system of internal accounting controls. The FCPA applies to companies and individuals alike, including company directors, officers, employees and agents. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for corrupt actions taken by employees, strategic or local partners or other representatives. In addition, the government may seek to rely on a theory of successor liability and hold us responsible for FCPA violations committed by companies or associated with assets that we acquire.
In many foreign jurisdictions where we operate, particularly countries with developing economies, it may be a local custom for businesses to engage in practices that are prohibited by the FCPA or other similar laws and regulations. There can be no assurance that our colleagues, partners and agents, as well as those companies to which we outsource certain of our business operations, will not take actions in violation of the FCPA or our policies for which we may be ultimately held responsible. If we or our intermediaries fail to comply with the requirements of the FCPA or similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption legislation such as the United Kingdom Bribery Act and the China Unfair Competition law, governmental authorities in the United States and elsewhere could seek to impose civil and/or criminal fines and penalties, which could harm our business, financial conditions, and results of operations. We may also face collateral consequences such as debarment and the loss of our export privileges.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate the controls.
Our offerings may be subject to U.S. export controls and economic sanctions laws and regulations that restrict the delivery of our solutions and services to certain locations, governments, and persons. While we have processes in place to prevent our offerings from being exported in violation of these laws, including obtaining authorizations as appropriate and screening against U.S. government lists of restricted and prohibited persons, we cannot guarantee that these processes will prevent all violations of export control and sanctions laws. We may also decide to acquire companies whose past activities could give rise to potential liability under export control and sanctions laws. Such acquisitions may require substantial time and resources to integrate the acquired company into our compliance processes, to correct potential compliance gaps, and to remediate past potential violations by the acquired company, including through our own internal actions, voluntary self-disclosures or other measures.
Further, if our channel partners fail to obtain appropriate import, export or re-export licenses or permits, we may also be adversely affected, for example, through reputational harm as well as other negative consequences including government investigations and penalties. Complying with export control and sanctions regulations for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities.
Violations of U.S. sanctions or export control laws can result in fines, penalties, denial of export and trading privileges, and seizure of goods and assets. Other consequences include negative publicity and harm to business reputation, increased government scrutiny (including intrusive audits, and increased difficulty obtaining government licenses and approvals), and/or remedial compliance measures as a condition of settling government charges.
Our business may be significantly disrupted upon the occurrence of a catastrophic event.
Our business is highly automated and relies extensively on the availability of our network and data center infrastructure, our internal technology systems and our websites. We also rely on hosted computer services from third parties for services that we provide to our accounts and computer operations for our internal use. The failure of our systems or hosted computer services due to a catastrophic event, such as an earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, weather event, pandemic, telecommunications failure, power failure, cyber attack, terrorism, or war, could adversely impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We have developed disaster recovery plans and maintain backup systems in order to reduce the potential impact of a catastrophic event, however there can be no assurance that these plans and systems would enable us to return to normal business operations. In addition, any such event could negatively impact a country or region in which we conduct business. This could in turn decrease that country’s or region’s demand for our products and services, thereby negatively impacting our financial results.
 
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We may face exposure to product or professional liability claims that could cause us to be liable for damages.
The use of our software could lead to the filing of product liability claims against us were someone to allege that our software provided inaccurate or incomplete information at any stage of the infrastructure lifecycle or otherwise failed to perform according to specifications. In the event that accounts or third parties sustain property damage, injury, death or other loss in connection with their use of our software or infrastructure for which our software solutions and services were used to engineer, we, along with others, may be sued, and whether or not we are ultimately determined to be liable, we may incur significant legal expenses, management’s attention could be diverted from operations and market acceptance of our software could decrease. Our risk of exposure to litigation in these situations could rise as our software solutions and services are used for increasingly complex and high-profile infrastructure projects. Litigation could also impair our ability to obtain professional liability or product liability insurance or increase the cost of such insurance. These claims may be brought by individuals seeking relief on their own behalf or purporting to represent a class. In addition, product liability claims may be asserted against us in the future based on events we are not aware of at the present time.
The limitations of our liability included in our contracts with accounts may not be enforceable or may not otherwise protect us from liability for damages. Additionally, we may be subject to claims that are not explicitly covered by contract, such as a claim directly by a third party. There is no assurance that our insurance coverage will be adequate to cover incurred liabilities or that we will be able to obtain acceptable product and professional liability coverage in the future.
If the accounting estimates we make, and the assumptions on which we rely, in preparing our financial statements prove inaccurate, our actual results may be adversely affected.
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments about, among other things, taxes, revenue recognition, stock-based compensation costs, investments, contingent obligations, allowance for doubtful accounts and intangible assets. These estimates and judgments affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. If our estimates or the assumptions underlying them are not correct, actual results may differ materially from our estimates and we may need to, among other things, accrue additional charges that could adversely affect our results of operations, which in turn could adversely affect our stock price. In addition, new accounting pronouncements and interpretations of accounting pronouncements have occurred and may occur in the future that could adversely affect our reported financial results.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may harm our results of operations.
Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements rules, or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements practice could have a significant, adverse effect on our results of operations or the manner in which we conduct our business. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective.
U.S. GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change. In particular, in February 2016, the FASB issued ASC 842, Leases, which supersedes the lease accounting guidance in ASC 840, Leases. The core principle of ASC 842 requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. As an “emerging growth company,” we are allowed under the JOBS Act to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended
 
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transition period under the JOBS Act with respect to ASC 842, which resulted in ASC 842 becoming effective for us beginning on January 1, 2020. Any difficulties in implementing these pronouncements could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.
We are evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASC 842 and currently believe the most significant impact upon adoption will be the recognition of material right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets associated with operating leases. We do not believe this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations data.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies” may make our Class B common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Additionally, as an “emerging growth company” we are required to have only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related selected financial data and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations disclosure. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” which could be as long as five full fiscal years following the listing of our Class B common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class B common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class B common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class B common stock and the price of our Class B common stock may be more volatile.
We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the date on which we have issued, in any three-year period, more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering.
Because we have elected under Section 107 of the JOBS Act to use the extended transition period with respect to complying with new or revised accounting standards, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates, making it more difficult for an investor to compare our results with other public companies.
Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can use the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) by Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, as an emerging growth company we can delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies, which will result in less available information for our investors. We have elected to take advantage of the benefits of this extended transition period. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to those of companies that comply with public company effective dates.
Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Class B Common Stock
The share price of our Class B common stock may be volatile, and you may be unable to sell your shares at or above the offering price, if at all. Market volatility may affect the value of an investment in our Class B common stock and could subject us to litigation.
Technology stocks have historically experienced high levels of volatility. There has been no public market for our Class B common stock prior to this offering. The initial public offering price for the shares of our Class B common stock will be determined through negotiations between us and representatives of the
 
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underwriters and may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the trading market. The market price of our Class B common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to the risk factors listed in this prospectus, and others beyond our control, including:

the number of shares of our Class B common stock publicly owned and available for trading (our “public float”);

limited “public float” in the hands of a small number of investors following this offering whose trading or lack of trading could result in a volatile market price for our Class B common stock, uncertain trading volume, negative pricing pressure on the price of our Class B common stock and an adverse impact on your ability to sell any Class B common stock that you may purchase;

the high concentration of the ownership of our Class B common stock by a limited number of affiliated stockholders;

overall performance of the equity markets and/or publicly-listed technology companies;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations and other non-GAAP metrics;

our actual or anticipated operating performance and the operating performance of our competitors;

changes in the projected operational and financial results we provide to the public or our failure to meet those projections;

addition or loss of significant accounts;

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our software solutions or business;

actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;

announcements of technological innovations or new offerings by us or our competitors;

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital-raising activities or commitments;

any major change in our board of directors, management, or key personnel, including Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley or Raymond B. Bentley in particular;

changes in our financial guidance or securities analysts’ estimates of our financial performance, or our failure to meet the estimates or the expectations of investors;

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;

discussion of us or our stock price by the financial press and in online investor communities;

changes in accounting principles;

announcements related to litigation;

fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;

sales or expected sales of our Class B common stock by us, and our officers, directors, and principal stockholders;

share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;

the expiration of any contractual lock-up periods;

general economic, political, industry and market conditions, including the impending presidential election in the United States in 2020;

new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business, including those related to data privacy and cyber security in the United States or globally; and

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, pandemics, or responses to these events.
 
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Furthermore, the stock markets recently have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies, and technology companies in particular. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may negatively impact the market price of our Class B common stock. If the market price of our Class B common stock after this offering does not exceed the initial public offering price, you may not realize any return on your investment in us and may lose some or all of your investment. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.
There has been no public market for our Class B common stock prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell our shares at or above the price you paid, or at all. In addition, the limited public float of our Class B common stock following this offering could adversely impact the trading price of our Class B common stock.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our capital stock. Our Class B common stock has been approved for listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. However, we can give no assurances that The Nasdaq Global Select Market will grant our application for listing. If an active trading market for our Class B common stock does not develop after this offering, the market price and liquidity of our common stock will be materially and adversely affected. The initial public offering price for our Class B common stock will be determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters and may bear no relationship to the market price for our Class B common stock after this offering. The market price of our Class B common stock may decline below the initial public offering price.
In addition, the number of shares of our Class B common stock sold in this offering is relatively small compared to the total number of our outstanding shares of common stock, which will result in a limited number of shares of our Class B common stock publicly owned and available for trading, or a limited “public float.” The limited “public float” of our Class B common stock following this offering could result in a limited number of shares that are available to be traded at any given time, thereby adversely impacting the liquidity, trading volume and trading price of our Class B common stock. These factors could have an adverse impact on your ability to sell any Class B common stock that you may purchase.
Further, one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors have indicated an interest in purchasing up to an aggregate of $40 million in shares of our Class B common stock being offered by the selling stockholders in this offering at the initial public offering price. As this indication of interest is not a binding agreement or commitment to purchase, one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors may determine to purchase more, fewer or no shares in this offering or the underwriters may determine to sell more, fewer or no shares to one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors. The underwriters will receive the same discount from any shares of Class B common stock purchased by one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors as they will from any other shares of Class B common stock sold to the public in this offering. If one or more funds affiliated with Capital Research Global Investors are allocated all or a portion of the shares in which it has indicated an interest in this offering, and purchase any such shares, such purchase could further reduce the available “public float” of our Class B common stock if such entities hold these shares long term.
Following the completion of this offering, we intend to evaluate opportunities to undertake a primary offering of shares of our Class B common stock by the Company, subject to the lock-up agreement entered into with the underwriters in this offering, prevailing market conditions and applicable securities laws. We have not engaged in any formal discussions regarding any such offering and we have not undertaken any steps to pursue such an offering. There is no guarantee that we will undertake such an offering or that such an offering will be consummated within the anticipated timeframe. If we do not, or are otherwise unable to, complete such an offering, the continued limited public float for our Class B common stock could result in negative pricing pressure on, and increase volatility of, the trading price for our Class B common stock. In addition, if we issue shares of capital stock in a public offering following this offering, Siemens has the right to purchase, for the price per share used in such public offering, additional shares as are necessary so
 
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that Siemens’ percentage ownership on a fully diluted basis at the time of such public offering, is unchanged as a result of such public offering. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Our Relationship with Siemens AG — Common Stock Purchase Agreement — Rights in a Public Offering.”
If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, or if our actual results differ significantly from our guidance, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Class B common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our Class B common stock could be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class B common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our Class B common stock would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our Class B common stock could decrease, which might cause our Class B common stock price and trading volume to decline.
Although we have paid dividends in periods preceding this offering, there can be no assurance that we will pay dividends on our Class B common stock in the future. As a result, any return on investment may be limited to the value of our Class B common stock.
In 2019, we paid quarterly dividends of $0.025 per share of common stock, and in the first two quarters of 2020, we paid quarterly dividends of $0.03 per share of common stock. While we intend to continue paying quarterly dividends following the consummation of this offering, there can be no assurance that we will pay such dividends in the amounts described herein or at all in the future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors. The payment of dividends on our Class B common stock is restricted by Delaware law and the agreement governing the Credit Facility, and will, in all cases, depend on our earnings, financial condition, and other business and economic factors as our board of directors may consider relevant. If we do not pay dividends in future periods, our Class B common stock may be less valuable to you as an investor and investors must rely on sales of their Class B common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments. See the section titled “Dividend Policy” for more information.
Substantial blocks of our total outstanding shares may be sold into the market when the lock-up period ends. If there are substantial sales of shares of our Class B common stock, the price of our Class B common stock could decline.
The price of our Class B common stock could decline if there are substantial sales of our Class B common stock, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, the selling stockholders, and other significant stockholders, if there is a perception that sales might occur or if there is a large number of shares of our Class B common stock available for sale. After this offering and after giving effect to 994,912 total shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020 that will vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering, reduced by 32,238 of such restricted stock units that will be settled in cash, 1.025,461 shares of Class B common stock to be sold in this offering following the exercise of stock options for such shares and 37,237 vested shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020, we will have outstanding 249,632,970 shares of our Class B common stock and 11,601,757 shares of our Class A common stock based on shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020. All of the shares of Class B common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradeable without restrictions or further registration under the Securities Act, except for any shares held by our affiliates as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. A substantial portion of our shares of Class B common stock and Class A common stock, other than shares of Class B common stock issued in this offering, are subject to restrictions on resale because our directors, officers, the selling stockholders, and certain other stockholders have entered into lock-up agreements with the representatives of the underwriters. These shares will become available to be sold 181 days after the date of this prospectus, with earlier sales permitted at the discretion of Goldman Sachs. The lock-up restrictions in the lock-up agreements are more fully described in the sections titled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriting.” Shares held by directors, executive officers, and other affiliates will be subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities
 
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Act. In addition, as of the date of this prospectus, we had options outstanding for 14,504,723 shares that are not being sold in this offering that, if fully exercised, would result in the issuance of shares of Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock subject to outstanding options under our equity incentive plans and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans may become eligible for sale to the public, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. The market price of the shares of our Class B common stock could decline as a result of the sale of a substantial number of our shares of common stock in the public market or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares.
The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with the Bentley Control Group.
Upon the completion of this offering, our Class A common stock will have 29 votes per share, and our Class B common stock, which is the stock we are selling in this offering, will have one vote per share. The beneficial owners of our Class A common stock will together hold approximately 57.4% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following this offering. Moreover, as a result of the 29 to one voting ratio between our Class A and Class B common stock, the Bentley Control Group will control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, subject to the occurrence of certain events that would reduce the voting power of our Class A common stock or cause the conversion thereof. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock.” This concentrated control will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future and may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our business, even if such a transaction would benefit other stockholders. The Bentley Control Group may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. Furthermore, upon the consummation of this offering, certain members of the Bentley Control Group will be subject to a stockholders agreement, whereby the parties thereto agree to vote all their shares in an agreed upon manner. See the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Stockholders Agreement.”
In addition, we expect to be a “controlled company” for the purposes of Nasdaq Listing Rules, which will provide us with exemptions from certain of the corporate governance standards imposed by the rules of The Nasdaq Global Select Market. These provisions will further allow the Bentley Control Group to exercise significant control over our corporate decisions and limit the ability of the public stockholders to influence our decision making. See “— We will be a ‘controlled company’ within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and, as a result, will be exempt from certain corporate governance requirements.”
Future transfers by holders of Class A common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class B common stock, subject to limited exceptions, including certain transfers to family members and transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class A common stock to Class B common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class A common stock who retain their shares in the long term. As directors and executive officers, Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley and Raymond B. Bentley owe a fiduciary duty to our stockholders and must act in good faith in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interests of our stockholders. As stockholders, however, each of Barry J. Bentley, Gregory S. Bentley, Keith A. Bentley and Raymond B. Bentley is entitled to vote his shares in his own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally. For a description of the dual class structure, see the section titled “Description of Capital Stock.”
In addition, while we do not expect to issue any additional shares of Class A common stock following this offering, any future issuances of Class A common stock would be dilutive to holders of Class B common stock.
We cannot guarantee that Siemens will not pursue contractual claims challenging the voting power of our Class A common stock.
The Common Stock Purchase Agreement with Siemens provides that upon our initial public offering, our certificate of incorporation shall reflect a voting structure consistent with that described in a previously
 
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contemplated offering, immediately prior to which we would have had 11,601,757 shares of Class A common stock, each with 15 votes, and 108,308,714 shares of Class B common stock, each with one vote. The Common Stock Purchase Agreement provides that we will not deviate from such structure in any manner adverse to Siemens in any material respect in its capacity as a holder of our Class B common stock without Siemens’ prior written consent, which may not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed. On May 1, 2018, we paid a dividend to all stockholders that had the economic effect of a 2-for-1 stock split, in which one share of Class B common stock was issued in respect of each outstanding share of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock (the “Split”). The Split did not impact the number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock, but increased the number of outstanding shares of Class B common stock to two times the number of pre-Split Class B shares plus the number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock. As a result and in connection with this offering where the Class B shares will first obtain voting power, we determined it was necessary to make a corresponding adjustment to the voting power of Class A common stock to 29 votes per share in order to preserve the voting structure contemplated by the Common Stock Purchase Agreement and avoid dilution of the voting power of the Class A common stock. Siemens has asserted that the Class A common stock should have 15 votes per share, notwithstanding the impact of the Split on our capital structure and the fact that this would result in a significant decrease, solely as a result of the Split, in the voting power of the holders of our Class A common stock contemplated in the Common Stock Purchase Agreement. We believe the adjustment of the voting ratio is consistent with the terms of the Common Stock Purchase Agreement, and that Siemens’ assertions are without merit; however, any claims or proceedings that Siemens may bring against us, regardless of whether meritorious, could be time consuming, may result in costly litigation, the outcome of which is uncertain, and could require significant amounts of management time, result in the diversion of significant resources, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations
We cannot predict the effect our dual class structure may have on the market price of our Class B common stock.
We cannot predict whether our dual class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class B common stock, in adverse publicity, or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indices. In July 2017, FTSE Russell (whose indices include the Russell 2000) announced that it plans to require new constituents of its indices to have greater than 5% of the company’s voting rights in the hands of public stockholders, and S&P Dow Jones announced that it will no longer admit companies with multiple-class share structures to certain of its indices. Affected indices include the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400, and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500. Also in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on their treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. Under such announced policies, the dual class structure of our common stock would make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices and, as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices would not invest in our Class B common stock. These policies are relatively new and it is unclear what effect, if any, they will have on the valuations of publicly-traded companies excluded from such indices, but it is possible that they may depress valuations, as compared to similar companies that are included. Because of the dual class structure of our common stock, we will likely be excluded from certain indices and we cannot assure you that other stock indices will not take similar actions. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indices, exclusion from certain stock indices would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our Class B common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our Class B common stock could be adversely affected.
We will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and, as a result, will be exempt from certain corporate governance requirements.
Upon the completion of this offering, the Bentley Control Group will hold capital stock representing a majority of our outstanding voting power. So long as the Bentley Control Group maintains holdings of more than 50% of the voting power of our capital stock for the election of directors, we will be a “controlled
 
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company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Listing Rules and Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under these standards, a listed company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including:

the requirement that a majority of our board of directors consist of “independent directors” as defined under Nasdaq rules;

the requirement that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

the requirement that we have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities, or otherwise have director nominees selected by vote of a majority of the independent directors.
We intend to use these exemptions following this offering. As a result, we will not have a majority of independent directors on our board of directors. Additionally, following this offering, we do not intend to have a compensation committee, nor do we intend to have a nominating and corporate governance committee or an independent nominating function. Instead, our full board of directors will be directly responsible for reviewing and approving compensation and benefit arrangements for our executive officers and directors, as well as for nominating members of our board.
Even as a controlled company, we will remain subject to the rules of Sarbanes-Oxley as well as the rules of the Nasdaq Listing Rules that require us to have an audit committee composed entirely of independent directors, subject to permitted phase-in rules. Under these phase-in rules, we are required to have one independent audit committee member upon the listing date of our Class B common stock, a majority of independent audit committee members within 90 days from the listing date and all independent audit committee members within one year from the listing date. Upon our listing, we expect that our audit committee will be comprised of three members, two of whom will be independent.
If we are no longer eligible to rely on the “controlled company” exceptions, we will need to comply with all applicable Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, but we will be able to rely on phase-in periods for certain of these requirements in accordance with the Nasdaq Listing Rules. Accordingly, our stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all Nasdaq corporate governance requirements.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and may negatively affect the market price of our Class B common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws include provisions that:

provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

require that after such time as the Bentley Family no longer possess a majority of our outstanding voting power, any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;

specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our chief executive officer or president (in the absence of a chief executive officer);

establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;

authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock; and
 
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authorize two classes of common stock, as discussed in the section titled “Description of Capital Stock.”
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, we intend to opt out of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with a stockholder owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, unless the stockholder has held the stock for a period of at least three years or, among other things, the board of directors has approved the transaction that resulted in the stockholder owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. However, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that, subject to certain exceptions (including with respect to certain transactions with the Bentley Family), we will not be able to engage in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in prescribed manner. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock — Anti-Takeover Provisions.”
The choice of forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or colleagues.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim of a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors or officers, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated by laws, or any action seeking to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated by-laws, and any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. In addition, the choice of forum provision provides that, to the extent permitted by applicable law, claims brought under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act must be brought exclusively in the federal district court for the District of Delaware. Despite the choice of forum provision, investors cannot waive compliance with federal securities laws and rules and regulations thereunder. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other colleagues, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other colleagues. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase capital stock could result in dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.
We may issue additional securities following the completion of this offering. Upon the completion of this offering, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will authorize us to issue up to 1,800,000,000 shares of Class B common stock and up to 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock. Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase our capital stock could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders. We may sell Class B common stock, preferred stock, convertible securities, and other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, investors may be materially diluted and the per share value of our Class B common stock could decline. New investors in subsequent transactions could gain rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our Class B common stock.
We will incur significantly increased costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company.
As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. For example, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange
 
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Act, and will be required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. We expect that compliance with these requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time consuming and costly. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. We expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will increase when we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” as defined by the JOBS Act. We may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur as a result of becoming a public company or the timing of such costs. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as regulatory and governing bodies provide new guidance. These factors could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We will continue to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us, and our business could be adversely affected.
As a result of disclosure of information as a public company, our business and financial condition have become more visible, which may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If the claims are successful, our business operations and financial results could be adversely affected, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and adversely affect our business operations and financial results. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified colleagues, executive officers and members of our board of directors.
We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance on the terms that we would like. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
Our internal control over financial reporting does not currently meet the standards required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could harm our business and stock price.
As a privately held company, we have not been required to maintain internal control over financial reporting in a manner that meets the standards of publicly traded companies as required by Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404(a)”). As a public company, we will be required to provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting commencing with our second annual report on Form 10-K. Additionally, once we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis. The rules governing the standards that must be met for our management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation.
Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We are currently in the process of reviewing, documenting and testing our internal control over
 
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financial reporting, but we are not currently in compliance with, and we cannot be certain when we will be able to implement the requirements of, Section 404(a). We may encounter problems or delays in implementing any changes necessary to make a favorable assessment of our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, we may encounter problems or delays in completing the implementation of any requested improvements and receiving a favorable attestation in connection with the attestation provided by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we cannot favorably assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide an unqualified attestation report on our internal controls, investors could lose confidence in our financial information and the price of our Class B common stock could decline.
Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until after we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and could cause a decline in the price of our Class B common stock.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus includes forward-looking statements. All statements contained in this prospectus other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations, projections and assumptions about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements, as well as our prospects as a whole, are subject to risks and uncertainties, including the following:

general global market, political, economic and business conditions;

impact of changes in our business model and revenue streams;

our sensitivity to changes in foreign exchange rates and interest rates and the success of our foreign currency hedging program;

plans for future software solutions and services and for enhancements of existing software solutions and services;

our ability to protect our intellectual property;

the possibility that we may fail to fully comply with data protection and privacy laws;

the possibility that we may fail to accurately estimate future revenues and profitability;

the possibility that we may fail to accurately estimate future expenses, including research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses;

the ability of governments in jurisdictions where we do business to meet their financial and debt obligations and finance infrastructure projects;

the impact of the recent global coronavirus outbreak;

our use of net proceeds from this offering;

the possibility that we may fail to accurately estimate our capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

attracting and retaining accounts and colleagues;

delayed or ineffective implementation or upgrades;

rapid technological changes in our industry and relevant markets;

sources of revenues and anticipated revenues;

the impact of sanctions and export control laws on our ability to operate in certain geographical locations;

the impact of changes in existing tax laws;

the impact of the phase-out of LIBOR;

the impact of changes in accounting standards;

our ability to complete future acquisitions and difficulties encountered in integrating acquisitions;
 
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competition in our market;

the sufficiency of our cash, cash equivalents, and investments to meet our liquidity needs;

the impact of a limited “public float” on the liquidity and price of our Class B common stock;

our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us; and

the increased expenses associated with being a public company.
These statements are only current predictions and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks in this prospectus in greater detail in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, achievements, events, or circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will occur. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations.
 
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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data contained throughout this prospectus from our own internal estimates and research as well as from industry publications and studies conducted by third parties. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. The industry publications and third-party studies generally state that the information that they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe that these publications and third-party studies and our internal data are reliable as of their respective dates, the industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications.
The source of certain statistical data, estimates and forecasts contained in this prospectus are the following independent industry publications or reports:

a report prepared by Oxford Economics;

market analyses performed by ARC Advisory Group; and

an independent market study conducted by Cambashi, which was commissioned by us. Cambashi has consented to the references to its study and the use of its name in this prospectus and publicly-available reports.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
The selling stockholders will receive all of the proceeds from the sale of shares of our Class B common stock in this offering. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders will not be responsible for any offering expenses.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
The declaration and payment of dividends is within the discretion of our board of directors. We paid quarterly dividends of $0.02 per share of common stock in 2018, quarterly dividends of $0.025 per share of common stock in 2019, and quarterly dividends of $0.03 per share of common stock in the first three quarters of 2020. In addition, we paid the Special Dividend of $1.50 per share of common stock on September 2, 2020. While we intend to continue paying quarterly dividends, any future determination will be subject to the discretion of our board of directors and will be dependent on a number of factors, including our results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions under Delaware law, and overall financial condition, as well as any other factors our board of directors considers relevant. In addition, the terms of the agreement governing the Credit Facility limit the amount of dividends we can pay. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” for a summary of the material terms of the agreement governing the Credit Facility.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of June 30, 2020 on:

an actual basis;

a pro forma basis to give effect to (i) the payment of the Special Dividend and the funding of such Special Dividend with borrowings under the New Term Loan and under the revolving facility under the Credit Facility and (ii) the accrual of the Special Dividend on 2,204,572 shares of outstanding restricted stock and restricted stock units; and

a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to the Special Dividend and the funding of such Special Dividend as described in the immediately preceding bullet and to further (i) give effect to (A) 994,912 total shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020 that will vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering, reduced by 32,238 of such restricted stock units that will be settled in cash, (B) approximately $11.7 million in additional stock-based compensation expense, net of tax, in connection with such July 2020 grant (excluding restricted stock units that will settle in cash), (C) 1,025,461 shares of Class B common stock being sold in this offering following the exercise of stock options for such shares, at a weighted average exercise price of $4.46, after giving effect to a $1.50 reduction of the exercise price of all outstanding options as a result of the Special Dividend, as if such exercise had occurred on June 30, 2020 and (D) approximately $0.5 million in additional stock-based compensation expense, net of tax, in connection with 37,237 vested shares of restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units issued in July 2020, (ii) reflect expenses of $20.8 million, net of tax, in connection with this offering by the Company, including those paid on behalf of the selling stockholders and the underwriting discounts and commissions based on the initial public offering price of the Class B common stock of $22.00 per share, and (iii) reflect the payment in cash of the Special Dividend on 994,912 shares of outstanding restricted stock and restricted stock units that vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering, using additional borrowings under the revolving facility under the Credit Facility.
You should read this table together with the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes the filing and effectiveness of our Charter Amendments.
As of June 30, 2020
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Actual
Pro forma
Pro forma
as adjusted
Cash and cash equivalents(1)
$ 125,516 $ 125,516 $ 109,788
Long-term debt
$ 207,000 $ 596,583 $ 598,075
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
Class A common stock, $0.01 par value per share; 320,000,000 shares authorized, 11,601,757 shares issued and outstanding, actual and pro forma; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 11,601,757 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted
116 116 116
Class B common stock, $0.01 par value per share; 600,000,000
shares authorized, 247,607,598 shares issued and outstanding,
actual and pro forma; 1,800,000,000 shares authorized,
249,632,970 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted
2,476 2,476 2,496
Additional paid-in capital
415,883 415,883 435,914
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(28,404) (28,404) (28,404)
Accumulated deficit(1)
(10,327) (403,099) (436,053)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
379,744 (13,028) (25,931)
Total capitalization
$ 586,744 $ 583,555 $ 572,144
 
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(1)
Pro forma as adjusted amount does not include $709 of stock-based compensation expense for 32,238 restricted stock units that will vest automatically upon the consummation of this offering and be settled in cash at the initial public offering price of $22.00 per share.
Except as otherwise indicated, the number of outstanding shares of Class B common stock on a pro forma as adjusted basis excludes, as of June 30, 2020: (i) 13,604,723 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that are not being sold in this offering, at a weighted average exercise price of $4.85 per share of Class B common stock, after giving effect to a $1.50 reduction of the exercise price of all outstanding options as a result of the Special Dividend; (ii) 45,151 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the settlement of fully-vested restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2020; (iii) 900,000 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that are not being sold in this offering and were granted in connection, with an acquisition with an exercise price of $6.81 per share and a maximum intrinsic value of $8.88 per share; (iv) 1,311,447 shares of unvested restricted Class B common stock and restricted stock units outstanding as of the date of this prospectus that will not vest upon consummation of this offering; (v) 27,941,520 shares of Class B common stock held by colleagues and directors as phantom shares under our nonqualified deferred compensation plans as of June 30, 2020, increased by 2,764,048 shares of Class B common stock as a result of the reinvestment of dividends since such date in accordance with such plans; (vi) 25,000,000 shares reserved for issuance under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan; and (vii) 25,000,000 shares reserved for issuance under our Global ESPP.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes:

no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares; and

the filing and effectiveness of our Charter Amendments.
 
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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth selected consolidated financial data. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2017 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this prospectus, which were audited in accordance with the auditing standards of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants rather than the auditing standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. The consolidated statements of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals, that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and the results of operations for these periods. You should read this selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future, and our results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the entire year ending December 31, 2020 or any other period.
All amounts presented in this selected consolidated financial data, except share and per share amounts, are presented in thousands. Additionally, many of the amounts and percentages have been rounded for convenience of presentation.
 
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Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Year Ended December 31,
Six Months Ended June 30,
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Topic 605
Topic 605(1)
Topic 606
Topic 606
Topic 606
Revenues:
Subscriptions
$ 501,098 $ 557,421 $ 613,925 $ 608,300 $ 290,147 $ 327,837
Perpetual licenses
61,661 61,065 52,519 59,693 24,468 23,193
Subscriptions and licenses
562,759 618,486 666,444 667,993 314,615 351,030
Services
66,164 73,224 68,405 68,661 32,529 27,950
Total revenues
628,923 691,710 734,849 736,654 347,144 378,980
Cost of revenues:
Cost of subscriptions and licenses
53,662 55,113 71,439 71,578 30,831 43,128
Cost of services
66,928 76,211 72,572 72,572 38,367 30,836
Total cost of revenues
120,590 131,324 144,011 144,150 69,198 73,964
Gross profit
508,333 560,386 590,838 592,504 277,946 305,016
Operating expenses:
Research and development
151,194 175,032 183,552 183,552 91,861 89,353
Selling and marketing
139,259 160,635 155,274 155,294 75,168 65,727
General and administrative
87,467 89,328 97,580 97,580 46,307 52,269
Amortization of purchased intangibles
9,014 14,000 14,213 14,213 6,852 7,115
Total operating expenses
386,934 438,995 450,619 450,639 220,188 214,464
Income from operations
121,399 121,391 140,219 141,865 57,758 90,552
Interest expense, net
(10,320) (8,765) (8,199) (8,199) (4,474) (2,516)
Other income (expense), net
(5,773) 236 (5,557) (5,557) (1,747) (6,985)
Income before income taxes
105,306 112,862 126,463 128,109 51,537 81,051
Provision for income taxes
46,141 (29,250) 21,762 23,738 5,119 11,440
Equity in loss of joint venture, net of tax
1,275 1,275 866
Net income
$ 59,165 142,112 103,426 103,096 46,418 68,745
Less: Net income attributable to participating securities
(4) (8) (8) (12)
Net income per share attributable to Class A and Class B common shares
$ 142,108 $ 103,418 $ 103,088 $ 46,406 $ 68,745
Net income per share:
Basic
$ 0.50 $ 0.36 $ 0.36 $ 0.16 $ 0.24
Diluted
$ 0.49 $ 0.35 $ 0.35 $ 0.16 $ 0.23
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic
285,805,096 284,625,642 284,625,642 285,529,476 286,068,766
Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted
292,624,496 293,796,707 293,796,707 293,633,255 295,595,234
(1)
The Topic 605 amounts presented for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had not occurred on January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 on our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
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Revenue Comparison — Topic 605 versus Topic 606:
On January 1, 2019, we adopted Topic 606, which supersedes substantially all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. We adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method, under which the cumulative effect of initially applying Topic 606 was recorded as a reduction to the opening balance of Accumulated deficit of $125,464 ($101,489, net of tax) as of January 1, 2019. We applied the standard only to contracts that were not completed as of the date of initial application. The comparative information in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus has not been adjusted and continues to be reported under Topic 605.
The below table presents a comparison of our revenues as recognized under Topic 605 and Topic 606. We believe that an understanding of the impact of the revenue recognition guidance under Topic 606 on our revenues and revenue trends is useful in evaluating our operating performance.
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2018
2019
Topic 605:(1)
Subscriptions
$ 501,098 $ 557,421 $ 613,925
Perpetual licenses
61,661 61,065 52,519
Services
66,164 73,224 68,405
Total Revenues
$ 628,923 $ 691,710 $ 734,849
Topic 606:(2)
Subscriptions
$ 505,720 $ 560,485 $ 608,300
Perpetual licenses
49,983 57,353 59,693
Services
66,164 73,224 68,661
Total Revenues
$ 621,867 $ 691,062 $ 736,654
(1)
The Topic 605 amounts presented for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had not occurred on January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 on our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
(2)
The Topic 606 unaudited amounts presented for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 give effect to revenue adjustments as if the adoption of Topic 606 had occurred as of January 1, 2017 rather than January 1, 2019. For a reconciliation of the impact of adopting Topic 606 as if it had occurred as of January 1, 2017 on our audited consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, see the section titled “— Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below.
 
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Key Business Metrics:
We regularly review the following key metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends in our business, prepare financial projections, and make strategic decisions.
Year Ended December 31,
Twelve Months Ended
June 30,
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
Last twelve-months recurring revenues (Topic 606)
$ 521,923 $ 586,466 $ 631,097 $ 606,411 $ 665,659
Last twelve-months recurring revenues (Topic 605)
$ 523,502 $ 583,402 $ 636,899 $ 604,043 $ 670,825
Constant Currency:
ARR growth rate
9% 10% 12% 11% 11%
Account retention rate
98% 98% 98% 98% 98%
Recurring revenues dollar-based net retention
rate
105% 107% 108%