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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
 Registration No. 333-239047
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each class of
securities to be registered(1)
Amount to be
registered(2)
Offering price
per share(3)
Aggregate offering
price(3)
Amount of
registration fee(3)
Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.00025 per share
101,775,000
US$17.00
US$1,730,175,000
US$224,576.72
(1)
The Class A ordinary shares are represented by American depositary shares, each of which represents one Class A ordinary share. The ADSs issuable on deposit of the ordinary shares registered hereby have been registered under separate registration statements on Form F-6 (333-227062) and Form F-6 (333-248194).
(2)
Includes 88,500,000 Class A ordinary shares being offered by us and up to 13,275,000 Class A ordinary shares the underwriters have an option to purchase from us. Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement shall be deemed to cover any additional number of ordinary shares that may be issued from time to time to prevent dilution as a result of a distribution, split, combination or similar transaction.
(3)
Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT Issued August 28, 2020
(To Prospectus dated June 9, 2020)
88,500,000 American Depositary Shares
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_nio-pms.jpg]
NIO Inc.
Representing 88,500,000 Class A Ordinary Shares
NIO Inc. is offering 88,500,000 American depositary shares, or ADSs. Each ADS represents one Class A ordinary share, par value US$0.00025 per share.
Our ADSs are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “NIO.” On August 27, 2020, the reported last sale price of the ADSs on the NYSE was $19.88 per ADS.
Investing in our ADSs involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-12.
PRICE $17.00 PER ADS
Price to Public
Underwriting Discounts
and Commissions(1)
Proceeds to Company
Per ADS
$ 17.00 $ 0.391 $ 16.609
Total $ 1,504,500,000 $ 34,603,500 $ 1,469,896,500
(1)
See “Underwriting” beginning on page S-107 of this prospectus supplement for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.
We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional 13,275,000 ADSs.
Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers on or about September 2, 2020.
MORGAN STANLEY
CICC    
BofA Securities
August 28, 2020.

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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any other offering materials we file with the SEC. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on such different or inconsistent information. We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer of the ADSs in any jurisdiction where such offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or in any other offering material is accurate as of any date other than the respective dates thereof. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. Neither this prospectus supplement nor the accompanying prospectus constitutes an offer, or an invitation on our behalf or the underwriter to subscribe for and purchase, any of the ADSs and may not be used for or in connection with an offer or solicitation by anyone, in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation.
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of the offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus dated June 9, 2020 included in the registration statement on Form F-3 (No. 333-239047), which provides more general information.
To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement.
In this prospectus supplement, unless otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires:

“ADAS” refers to advanced driver assistance system;

“ADSs” refer to our American depositary shares, each of which represents one Class A ordinary share;

“AI” refers to artificial intelligence;

“BEVs” refer to battery electric passenger vehicles;

“China” or the “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this prospectus supplement only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

“Class A ordinary shares” refer to our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;

“Class B ordinary shares” refer to our Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;

“Class C ordinary shares” refer to our Class C ordinary shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;

“EVs” refer to electric passenger vehicles;

“FOTA” refers to firmware over-the-air;

“ICE” refers to internal combustion engine;

“NEVs” refer to new energy passenger vehicles;

“NIO,” “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to NIO Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company and its subsidiaries, its consolidated variable interest entities and the subsidiaries of the consolidated variable interest entities;

“Ordinary shares” refer to our Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares, each of par value US$0.00025 per share;

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China; and

“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States.
We have published our consolidated financial statements in RMB. Our business is primarily conducted in China and all of our revenues are denominated in RMB. The conversion of RMB into U.S. dollars in this prospectus supplement is based on the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this prospectus supplement are made at the rate as of the end of the applicable period, that is, RMB7.0651 to US$1.00, the rate in effect as of June 30, 2020. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange.
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SPECIAL NOTES REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein may contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our goals and growth strategies;

the outbreak of COVID-19;

our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;

the expected growth of the electric vehicles industry in China;

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our products and services;

our expectations regarding our relationships with customers, contract manufacturers, component suppliers, third-party service providers, strategic partners and other stakeholders;

competition in our industry;

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry; and

assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.
The forward-looking statements included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Other sections of this prospectus supplement include additional factors that could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. You should read thoroughly this prospectus supplement and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from, or worse than, what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
This prospectus supplement contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications. Statistical data in these publications also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The electric vehicles industry may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure of this market to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ADSs. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of the electric vehicles industry results in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of our market. Furthermore, if any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions.
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We would like to caution you not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements and you should read these statements in conjunction with the risk factors disclosed in the documents incorporated by reference herein for a more complete discussion of the risks of an investment in our securities and other risks outlined in our other filings with the SEC. The forward-looking statements included in this prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement are made only as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the date of the incorporated document, and we do not undertake any obligation to update the forward-looking statements except as required under applicable law.
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference carefully, especially the risks of investing in our ADSs discussed under “Risk Factors” of this prospectus supplement and under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, or the 2019 Annual Report, which contains our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, and our current reports on Form 6-K furnished to the SEC on June 9, 2020 and at 6:24, June 30, 2020, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Our Business
Our mission is to shape a joyful lifestyle. We aim to develop NIO into a community starting with smart EVs where we share joy and grow together with users.
We are a pioneer in China’s premium smart electric vehicle market. We design, jointly manufacture, and sell smart and connected premium electric vehicles, driving innovations in next generation technologies in connectivity, autonomous driving and artificial intelligence. Redefining user experience, we aim to provide users with comprehensive, convenient and innovative charging solutions and other user-centric service offerings. Our Chinese name, Weilai (  [MISSING IMAGE: tm2022004d6-txt_weilaibw.jpg]  ), which means Blue Sky Coming, reflects our commitment to a more environmentally friendly future.
The first model we developed was the EP9 supercar, introduced in 2016. The EP9 set a world record as the then fastest all-electric car on the track at the Nürburgring Nordschleife “Green Hell” track in Germany in May 2017, finishing a lap in 6 minutes and 45.90 seconds. Combined with an attractive design and strong driving performance, the EP9 delivers extraordinary acceleration and best-in-class electric powertrain technology, helping position us as a premium brand.
We launched our first volume manufactured electric vehicle, the seven-seater ES8, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 16, 2017 and began making deliveries to users on June 28, 2018. In December 2018, we launched its variant, the six-seater ES8, with delivery beginning in March 2019. The ES8 is an all-aluminum alloy body, premium electric SUV that offers exceptional performance, functionality and mobility lifestyle. It is equipped with our proprietary e-propulsion system, which is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kilometers (km) per hour (kph) in 4.4 seconds and delivering a New European Driving Cycle, or NEDC, driving range of up to 355 km and equipped with a 70-kilowatt-hour battery pack. On December 28, 2019, during the third NIO Day held in Shenzhen, China, we released the all-new ES8, the flagship smart premium electric SUV. The all-new ES8 boasts more than 180 product improvements and comes with better performance, longer driving range and a more sophisticated and high-tech design. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack newly released during the third NIO Day and to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the all-new ES8 has an NEDC range of up to 580 km, a major improvement in its range performance. We began making deliveries of the all-new ES8 in April 2020. In July 2019, NIO ranked the highest in quality among all electric vehicle brands, and the ES8 ranked the highest in quality among all mid-large electric vehicles, in JD Power’s 2019 New Energy Vehicle Experience Index Study. As of June 30, 2020, we had delivered 22,938 ES8s to customers in 282 cities.
We launched our second volume manufactured electric vehicle, the ES6, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 15, 2018 and began making deliveries to users in June 2019. The ES6 is a five-seater high-performance long-range premium electric SUV. The ES6 is smaller but more affordable than the ES8, allowing us to target a broader market in the premium SUV segment. Its performance edition is equipped with a 160-kW permanent magnet motor and a 240-kW induction motor, and is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kph within 4.7 seconds. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the ES6 performance edition boasts an NEDC range of up to 610 km. The ES6 ranked as the No. 1 electric SUV in China as measured by the number of deliveries since October 2019. As of June 30, 2020, we had delivered 23,144 ES6s to customers in 273 cities.
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We launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 28, 2019. EC6 is a smart premium electric coupe SUV. This new model continues the NIO family design language with its stylish and sporty coupe-style body, and boasts of an excellent lightweight design and drag coefficient of only 0.26. Its performance edition is equipped with a 160-kW permanent magnet motor and a 240-kW induction motor and is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kph in just 4.5 seconds. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the EC6 boasts an NEDC range of up to 615 km. NIO announced the pre-subsidy price of the EC6 on July 24, 2020 during the 2020 Chengdu Auto Show, and it is now available for public pre-order via the NIO app, with delivery to start in September 2020.
We aim to create the most worry-free experience for our users, online or offline, at home or on-the-go. In response to common concerns over the accessibility and convenience of EV charging, we offer a comprehensive, convenient and innovative suite of charging solutions. These solutions, which we call our NIO Power solutions, include Power Home, our home charging solution; Power Swap, our innovative battery swapping service; Power Mobile, our mobile charging service through charging trucks; Power Charger, our public fast charging solution; and Power Express, our 24-hour on-demand pick-up and drop-off charging service. In addition, our vehicles are compatible with China’s national charging standards and have access to a nationwide publicly accessible charging network of approximately 270,000 charging piles. Furthermore, on August 20, 2020, we introduced the Battery as a Service, or the BaaS model, which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe the usage of battery packs separately. All users who purchase NIO vehicles are now eligible to place orders with the BaaS model. If users opt to purchase an ES8, ES6 or EC6 model and subscribe to use the 70 kWh battery pack under the BaaS model, they can enjoy an RMB70,000 deduction off the original vehicle purchase price and pay a monthly subscription fee of RMB980 for the battery pack. Meanwhile, the users will continue to enjoy the existing favorable policies such as purchase tax exemption and government subsidies for electric vehicles. We believe the BaaS model enables our users to benefit from the lower initial purchase prices of our vehicles, flexible battery upgrade options and assurance of battery performance, which will further enhance competitiveness of our products, create more value for our users and promote the conversion of consumer preferences from traditional vehicles to electronic vehicles. Beyond charging solutions, we offer comprehensive value-added services to our users, such as statutory and third-party liability insurance and vehicle damage insurance through third-party insurers, repair and routine maintenance services, courtesy car during lengthy repairs and maintenance, nationwide roadside assistance, as well as an enhanced data package. We provide servicing both through authorized third party service centers and NIO service centers, both of which provide repair, maintenance and bodywork services. As of June 30, 2020, we had 22 NIO service centers in 19 cities and 151 authorized third party service centers in 115 cities.
The electric powertrain technologies we developed for the EP9 set the technological foundation for the development of our vehicles, from the ES8 to the ES6 and the EC6 and to other future models. Our e-propulsion system consists of three key sub-systems: an electric drive system, or EDS, an energy storage system, or ESS, and a vehicle intelligence control system, or VIS. Our electric powertrain reflects our cutting-edge proprietary technologies and visionary engineering in our EV design.
We are a pioneer in automotive smart connectivity and enhanced Level 2 autonomous driving. NOMI, which we believe is one of the most advanced in-car AI assistants developed by a Chinese company, is a voice activated AI digital companion that personalizes the user’s driving experience. NIO Pilot, our proprietary enhanced Level 2 advanced driver assistance system, or ADAS, is enabled by 23 sensors and equipped with the Mobileye EyeQ®4 ADAS processor, which is eight times more powerful than its predecessor.
We have significant in-house capabilities in the design and engineering of electric vehicles, electric vehicle components and software systems. We have strategically located our teams in locations where we believe we have access to the best talent. As of June 30, 2020, we had 6,624 full-time employees. Our strong design, engineering and research and development capabilities enable us to launch smart and connected premium electric vehicles that are customized for, and thus appealing to, Chinese consumers. In addition, our research and development efforts also have resulted in an extensive intellectual property portfolio that we believe differentiates us from our competitors.
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We adopt an innovative sales model compared to incumbent automobile manufacturers. We sell our vehicles through our own sales network, including NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and our mobile application. NIO Spaces are showrooms for our brand, vehicles and services. NIO Houses not only function as showrooms, but also clubhouses for our users with multiple social functions. Prospective users can place orders using our mobile application and more importantly, our mobile application fosters a dynamic and interactive online platform. As of June 30, 2020, we had 22 NIO Houses and 105 NIO Spaces in 83 cities. We believe our online and offline integrated community which is developing from our NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and mobile application will retain user engagement and cultivate loyalty to our brand, along with other successful branding activities, such as our annual NIO Day and our Drivers’ Championship winning Formula E team. For the first six months of 2020, the average customer referral rate reached approximately 62%, as compared with approximately 52% in 2019. We believe these solutions and services, together, will create a holistic user experience throughout the vehicle lifecycle.
Reservations, Production and Delivery
We began making deliveries to users of our first volume manufactured vehicle, the seven-seater ES8, on June 28, 2018, and its variant, the six-seater ES8, in March 2019. Deliveries of the ES8 have been generally growing since the beginning of delivery. The table below sets forth certain operating data relating to the ES8 (for both types) in 2020.
January
2020
February
2020
March
2020
April
2020
May
2020
June
2020
ES8s produced for the period
100 175 200 914 1,263
ES8s delivered for the period
105 36 54 248 751 1,264
Cumulative ES8s delivered
20,585 20,621 20,675 20,923 21,674 22,938
We began making deliveries of our second volume manufactured vehicle, the five-seater ES6, to users on June 18, 2019, and deliveries of the ES6 have been generally growing since then. The table below sets forth certain operating data relating to the ES6 in 2020.
January
2020
February
2020
March
2020
April
2020
May
2020
June
2020
ES6s produced for the period
1,806 655 1,442 2,808 2,649 2,755
ES6s delivered for the period
1,493 671 1,479 2,907 2,685 2,476
Cumulative ES6s delivered
12,926 13,597 15,076 17,983 20,668 23,144
In December 2019, we launched (i) the all-new ES8 with more than 180 product improvements, with delivery beginning in April 2020, and (ii) our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, with delivery expected to begin in September 2020.
As of June 30, 2020, we had delivered a total of 46,082 vehicles, including the ES8 and the ES6, in 302 cities.
Cooperation Arrangements in Hefei
In February 2020, we entered into a collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, where our main manufacturing hub is located. From April to June 2020, for investments into NIO (Anhui) Holding Co., Ltd., or NIO Anhui, the legal entity of NIO China wholly owned by us pre-investment, we entered into an investment agreement, as amended and supplemented by supplemental investment agreements (the “Hefei Investment Agreement”), and a shareholders agreement, as amended and supplemented by supplemental shareholders agreements (the “Hefei Shareholders Agreement”) with Hefei City Construction and Investment Holding (Group) Co., Ltd., CMG-SDIC Capital Co., Ltd. and Anhui Provincial Emerging Industry Investment Co., Ltd., and, as applicable, their respective designated funds, Jianheng New Energy Fund, Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund, Anhui Provincial Sanzhong Yichuang Industry Development Fund Co., Ltd. and New Energy Automobile Fund. We refer to the Hefei Investment Agreement and the Hefei Shareholders Agreement collectively as the Hefei Agreements in this prospectus supplement. We refer to Jianheng New Energy Fund, Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund, Anhui Provincial
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Sanzhong Yichuang Industry Development Fund Co., Ltd. and New Energy Automobile Fund as the Hefei Strategic Investors in this prospectus supplement.
We agreed to inject our core businesses and assets in China, including vehicle research and development, supply chain, sales and services and NIO Power, valued at RMB17.77 billion in total, into NIO China. Further, we agreed to invest RMB4.26 billion in cash into NIO China. The Hefei Strategic Investors agreed to invest an aggregate of RMB7 billion in cash into NIO China. Upon the completion of the investments, we will hold 75.885% of controlling equity interests in NIO China, and the Hefei Strategic Investors will collectively hold the remaining 24.115%. We will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei in the future.
As of the date of this prospectus supplement, NIO Anhui has received from the Hefei Strategic Investors RMB5.0 billion of cash investments for the first two installments in full. We have injected our cash investment of RMB1.278 billion for the first installment and RMB1.278 billion for the second installment, and are fulfilling our other obligations, including injecting the Asset Consideration into NIO Anhui, in accordance with the Hefei Agreements. For more information, see “Hefei Strategic Investors” included elsewhere in this prospectus supplement. For more details on the provisions of the Hefei Agreements, please refer to (i) exhibits 4.35 and 4.36 of the 2019 Annual Report; (ii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 9, 2020; and (iii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission at 6:24 on June 30, 2020.
Governmental Subsidies Supporting NEV market in China
In recent years, the Chinese government issued multiple favorable policies encouraging purchase of new energy vehicles and electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Starting from 2015, the regulatory authorities have been providing subsidies to purchasers of new energy vehicles at a standard reviewed and updated on an annual basis. The current 2020 subsidy standard, effective from April 23, 2020, sets subsidies for 2 million vehicles as the upper limit of the annual subsidy scale, and provides that the national subsidy shall only apply to an NEV with the sale price under RMB300,000 or equipped with a battery swapping module. We believe the 2020 subsidy standard encourages purchases of new energy vehicles, especially our vehicles, as they are equipped with battery swapping modules.
From January 2016, the central finance department started to provide certain local governments with funds and subsidies for the construction and operation of charging facilities and other relevant charging infrastructure, such as charging stations and battery swap stations. Certain local governments have also implemented incentive policies for the construction and operation of charging infrastructure. For example, operators of certain non-self-use charging infrastructure may be eligible for subsidies calculated based on electricity output. These incentives have and are expected to facilitate acceleration of development of public charging infrastructure, providing users with comfort in choosing electric vehicles with battery swapping modules.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe the following strengths contribute to our success:

pioneer in China’s premium smart EV market;

redefining EV experience with cutting-edge proprietary technology, visionary engineering and smart connectivity;

revolutionary and comprehensive charging solutions;

user enterprise advocating a unique and holistic mobility lifestyle;

strategic partnerships with global best-in-class technology and industrial leaders; and

global talent pool, world-class management and well-established corporate governance.
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Our Strategies
We are pursuing the following strategies to achieve our mission:

successfully launch future models timely to target a broader customer base and expand our product lineup;

expand our infrastructure and service coverage nationwide to improve user experience;

continue to focus on technological innovations; and

create more monetization opportunities during the lifetime ownership.
Our Challenges
Our ability to realize our mission and execute our strategies is subject to risks and uncertainties, including those relating to our ability to:

develop and manufacture additional vehicle models of sufficient quality and appeal to customers and on a large scale;

grow manufacturing in collaboration with partners;

manufacture, launch and sell electric vehicles meeting customer expectations;

provide convenient charging solutions to our customers;

satisfy the mandated safety standards relating to motor vehicles;

secure supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles;

secure sufficient reservations and sales of our vehicles;

control costs associated with our operations;

build our NIO brand; and

recruit, train and retain dedicated executive officers, key employees and qualified personnel.
Please see “Risk Factors” and other information included in the 2019 Annual Report and this prospectus supplement for a discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that we face.
Corporate History and Structure
We were founded in November 2014, as NextCar Inc., and changed our name to NIO Inc. in July 2017. We conduct our operations through our subsidiaries in China, the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom.
In April 2018, we entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin Technology Co., Ltd. and Beijing NIO Network Technology Co., Ltd., or our VIEs, and their shareholders, to conduct certain future operations in China. We expect Beijing NIO Network Technology Co., Ltd. or Beijing NIO, will focus on value-added telecommunications services, including without limitation, performing internet services, operating our website and mobile application as well as holding certain related licenses.
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The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our principal subsidiaries and our VIEs and their respective principal subsidiaries, as of the date of this prospectus supplement:
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2022004d6-fc_corpbw.jpg]
In May 2016, we entered into a manufacturing cooperation agreement with JAC, pursuant to which the JAC-NIO Cooperation Project (New Energy Vehicle) officially launched since the signing of the framework agreement. In April 2019 and March 2020, we entered into manufacturing cooperation agreements with JAC with regard to the manufacture of the ES6 and the EC6, respectively.
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On September 12, 2018, our ADSs commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “NIO.” Counting in the ADSs sold upon the exercise of the over-allotment option by our underwriters, we raised from our initial public offering US$1,099.1 million in net proceeds after deducting underwriting commissions and discounts and the offering expenses payable by us.
In February 2019, we issued US$750 million aggregate principal amount of 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024, or the 2024 Notes. In September 2019, we issued and sold convertible notes in an aggregate principal amount of US$200 million to an affiliate of Tencent Holdings Limited and Mr. Bin Li, our chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officers. In February and March 2020, we issued and sold convertible notes in an aggregate principal amount of US$435 million due 2021, or the 2021 Notes, to several unaffiliated Asia based investment funds.
In April and May 2020, we entered into definitive agreements, as amended and supplemented, with a group of investors in relation to investments into NIO Anhui, the legal entity of NIO China wholly owned by us pre-investment. See “Hefei Strategic Investors” included elsewhere in this prospectus supplement.
In June 2020, we completed a registered follow-on offering of our ADSs and raised US$476.7 million in net proceeds after deducting underwriting commissions and discounts and the offering expenses payable by us.
On August 18, 2020, joined by Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited, or CATL, Hubei Science Technology Investment Group Co., Ltd. and a subsidiary of Guotai Junan International Holdings Limited (collectively referred to as the BaaS Partners in this prospectus supplement), we established Wuhan Weineng Battery Asset Co., Ltd., or the Battery Asset Company. We and the BaaS Partners will each invest RMB200 million and hold 25% equity interest in the Battery Asset Company. The Battery Asset Company is dedicated to purchasing and owning the battery assets, and leasing the battery packs to users who subscribe to the BaaS model.
Corporation Information
Our principal executive offices are located at Building 20, No. 56 AnTuo Road, Jiading District, Shanghai 201804, PRC. Our telephone number at this address is +86-21-6908-2018. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168.
The SEC maintains a website at www. sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding registrants that make electronic filings with the SEC using its EDGAR system. We maintain our website at http://ir.nio.com/.
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THE OFFERING
Offering price
US$   per ADS.
ADSs offered by us
88,500,000 ADSs (or 101,775,000 ADSs if the underwriters exercise the option to purchase additional ADSs in full).
The ADSs
Each ADS represents one Class A ordinary share. See “Description of American Depositary Shares” in the accompanying prospectus.
Class A ordinary shares outstanding immediately after this offering
1,068,374,787 Class A ordinary shares (or 1,081,649,787 Class A ordinary shares if the option to purchase additional ADSs is exercised in full by the underwriters).
Option to purchase additional
shares
We have granted the underwriters an option, exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to an aggregate of 13,275,000 additional ADSs.
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds to us from this offering will be approximately US$1.469.5 million (or approximately US$1,690.1 million assuming the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full), after deducting underwriting commissions and fees and the estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering mainly to increase the share capital of and our ownership in NIO China, to repurchase equity interests held by certain minority shareholders of NIO China, and for research and development in autonomous driving technologies, global market development and general corporate purposes.
See “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.
Lock-up
We, our directors, executive officers and certain shareholders have agreed with the underwriters, subject to certain exceptions, not to sell, transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any ADSs, ordinary shares or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our ADSs or ordinary shares for a period of 90 days following the date of this prospectus supplement. See “Underwriting” for more information.
Risk factors
See “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in the ADSs.
New York Stock Exchange symbol
NIO.
Payment and settlement
The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of the Depository Trust Company on or about September 2, 2020.
Depositary
Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in the ADSs involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to buy these securities, you should carefully consider the risks described below together with the risks described in our 2019 Annual Report, and the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Please see “Where You Can Find More Information About Us” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” for information on where you can find the documents we have filed with or furnished to the SEC and which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our ability to develop and manufacture a car of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale is still evolving.
Our future business depends in large part on our ability to execute on our plans to develop, manufacture, market and sell our electric vehicles. We plan to manufacture our vehicles in higher volumes than our present production capabilities in strategic collaboration with a Chinese manufacturer.
Our continued development and manufacturing of our manufactured vehicles, the ES8, the ES6 and the EC6, and our future vehicles are and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:

our ability to secure necessary funding;

the equipment we use being able to accurately manufacture the vehicle within specified design tolerances;

compliance with environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;

securing necessary components on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;

delays in delivery of final component designs to our suppliers;

our ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;

quality controls;

delays or disruptions in our supply chain;

our ability to maintain solid partnership with our manufacturing partners and suppliers; and

other delays, backlog in manufacturing and research and development of new models, and cost overruns.
We began making deliveries of the seven-seater ES8 in June 2018, the six-seater ES8 in March 2019 and the ES6 in June 2019. In December 2019, we launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, and the all-new ES8 with more than 180 product improvements. We began making deliveries of the all-new ES8 in April 2020. We do not expect to deliver the EC6 until September 2020. Our vehicles may not meet customer expectations and our future models may not be commercially viable.
Historically, automobile customers have expected car manufacturers to periodically introduce new and improved vehicle models. In order to meet these expectations, we may be required to introduce new vehicle models and enhanced versions of existing vehicle models. To date we have limited experience designing, testing, manufacturing, marketing and selling our electric vehicles and therefore cannot assure you that we will be able to meet customer expectations.
Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and growth prospects.
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We have negative cash flows from operation, have only recently started to generate revenues and have not been profitable, all of which may continue in the future.
We have only recently started to generate revenues and have not been profitable since our inception. We incurred net losses of RMB5,021.2 million, RMB9,639.0 million, RMB11,295.7 million and RMB2,868.5 million (US$406.0 million) in 2017, 2018, 2019 and the six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. In addition, we had negative cash flows from operating activities of RMB4,574.7 million, RMB7,911.8 million, RMB8,721.7 million and RMB523.1 million (US$74.0 million) in 2017, 2018, 2019 and the six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. We have made significant up-front investments in research and development, service network, and sales and marketing to rapidly develop and expand our business. We expect to continue to invest significantly in research and development and sales and marketing, to establish and expand our business, and these investments may not result in an increase in revenue or positive cash flow on a timely basis, or at all.
We may not generate sufficient revenues or we may incur substantial losses for a number of reasons, including lack of demand for our vehicles and services, increasing competition, challenging macro-economic environment due to the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as other risks discussed herein, and we may incur unforeseen expenses, or encounter difficulties, complications and delays in generating revenue or achieving profitability. If we are unable to achieve profitability, we may have to reduce the scale of our operations, which may impact our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our continuous operation depends on our capability to obtain sufficient external equity or debt financing. If we do not succeed in doing so, we may need to curtail our operations, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.
Since the beginning of 2020, outbreaks of COVID-19 have resulted in temporary closure of many corporate offices, retail stores, manufacturing facilities and factories across China. In late January 2020, in response to intensifying efforts to contain the spread of the COVID-19, the Chinese government took a number of actions, which included extending the Chinese New Year holiday, quarantining and otherwise treating individuals in China who had contracted COVID-19, asking residents to remain at home and to avoid gathering in public, and other actions. While such restrictive measures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak have been gradually lifted, our business has been and could continue to be adversely impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak. We have a service center and vehicle delivery center in Wuhan and other major cities in China. Consequently, we are susceptible to factors adversely affecting one or more of these locations. Our results of operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected to the extent the COVID-19 outbreak or any other epidemic harms the Chinese economy in general. We have experienced and may continue to experience impacts to certain of our customers and/or suppliers as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak occurring in one or more of these locations, which have materially and adversely affected our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, our operations have experienced and may continue to experience disruptions, such as temporary closure of our offices and/or those of our customers or suppliers and suspension of services, resulting in a reduction of vehicles manufactured and in turn fewer vehicles delivered, which have materially and adversely affected our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. Further, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it has and may continue to have the effect of heightening many of the other risks, such as those relating to our level of indebtedness, our need to generate sufficient cash flows to service our indebtedness and our ability to comply with the covenants contained in the agreements that govern our indebtedness.
While the outbreak has been largely controlled in China, normal economic life throughout China was sharply curtailed and disruptions to normal operation of businesses in various areas, including the manufacturing and sales of vehicles in China. In addition, the ongoing global pandemic may adversely affect the supply chains, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific anti-viral treatment for COVID-19. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases which may lead to the re-imposition of restrictions. As a result, the duration of such business disruption and the resulting financial and operational
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impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. Our business and financial performance have been adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 since the beginning of 2020, and this is likely to continue throughout the current year, if not longer. The extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak may further impact our business and financial performance will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and largely beyond our control. Even if the economic impact of COVID-19 gradually recedes, the outbreak will have a lingering, long-term effect on business activities and consumption behavior. There is no assurance that we will be able to adjust our business operations to adapt to these changes and the increasingly complex environment in which we operate.
We have a limited operating history and face significant challenges as a new entrant into our industry.
We were formed in 2014 and began making deliveries to the public of our first volume manufactured vehicle, the seven-seater ES8, in June 2018. We began making deliveries of our second volume manufactured electric vehicle, the ES6, in June 2019. In December 2019, we launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, and the all-new ES8 with more than 180 product improvements. We began making deliveries of the all-new ES8 in April 2020, and plan to begin making deliveries the EC6 in September 2020.
You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we face as a new entrant into our industry, including, among other things, with respect to our ability to:

design and produce safe, reliable and quality vehicles on an ongoing basis;

build a well-recognized and respected brand;

establish and expand our customer base;

successfully market not just our vehicles but also our other services, including our service package, energy package and other services we provide;

properly price our services, including our charging solutions and service package and successfully anticipate the take-rate and usage of such services by users;

improve and maintain our operational efficiency;

maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure;

attract, retain and motivate talented employees;

anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in competitive landscape; and

navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment.
If we fail to address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
We have limited experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our electric vehicles. We cannot assure you that we will be able to develop efficient, automated, cost-efficient manufacturing capability and processes, and reliable sources of component supply that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes required to successfully mass market the ES8, the ES6, the EC6 and future vehicles.
Furthermore, our vehicles are highly technical products that will require maintenance and support. If we were to cease or cut back operations, even years from now, buyers of our vehicles from years earlier might encounter difficulties in maintaining their vehicles and obtaining satisfactory support. We also believe that our service offerings, including user confidence in our ability to provide our charging solutions and honor our obligations under our service package will be key factors in marketing our vehicles. As a result, consumers will be less likely to purchase our vehicles now if they are not convinced that our business will succeed or that our operations will continue for many years. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties will be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed.
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Manufacturing in collaboration with partners is subject to risks.
We have entered into an arrangement with Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd., or JAC, for manufacturing the ES8 for five years starting from 2018. In April 2019 and March 2020, we entered manufacturing cooperation agreements with JAC for the manufacture of the ES6 and the EC6, respectively. The ES8 and ES6 are manufactured in partnership with JAC at its Hefei manufacturing plant. JAC is a major state-owned automobile manufacturer in China and it constructed such Hefei manufacturing plant for the production of the ES8 (with a modified production line for the ES6) and potentially other future vehicles with us. Pursuant to our arrangement with JAC with respect to the ES8, ES6 and EC6, we pay JAC for each vehicle produced on a per-vehicle basis monthly for the first three years. Collaboration with third parties for the manufacturing of vehicles is subject to risks with respect to operations that are outside our control. We could experience delays to the extent our partners do not meet agreed upon timelines or experience capacity constraints. There is risk of potential disputes with partners, and we could be affected by adverse publicity related to our partners whether or not such publicity is related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully build a premium brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of our partners’ vehicles. In addition, although we are involved in each step of the supply chain and manufacturing process, given that we also rely on our partners to meet our quality standards, there can be no assurance that we will successfully maintain quality standards.
In addition, for the first 36 months after the start of production, which commenced on April 10, 2018, to the extent the Hefei manufacturing plant incurs any operating losses, we have agreed to compensate JAC for such operating losses. Cooperation after the first 36 months will be subject to further negotiation between the parties. As of June 30, 2020, we had paid JAC a total of RMB804.3 million, including RMB381.6 million as compensation for losses incurred since 2018 and RMB422.7 million for manufacturing and processing fees. If we are obligated to compensate JAC for any losses, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected, particularly if such losses are incurred as a result of lower than anticipated sales volume.
We may be unable to enter into new agreements or extend existing agreements with third-party manufacturing partners on terms and conditions acceptable to us and therefore may need to contract with other third parties or significantly add to our own production capacity. There can be no assurance that in such event we would be able to partner with other third parties or establish or expand our own production capacity to meet our needs on acceptable terms or at all. The expense and time required to complete any transition, and to assure that vehicles manufactured at facilities of new third-party partners comply with our quality standards and regulatory requirements, may be greater than anticipated. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives or government policies which are favorable for electric vehicles and domestically produced vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Our growth depends significantly on the availability and amounts of government subsidies, economic incentives and government policies that support the growth of new energy vehicles generally and electric vehicles specifically. For example, each qualified purchaser of the ES8 and the ES6 is entitled to receive subsidies from China’s central government. In addition, in certain cities, quotas that limit the number of internal combustion engine, or ICE, vehicles do not apply to electric vehicles, making it easier for customers to purchase electric vehicles.
On April 10, 2018, President Xi Jinping vowed to open China’s economy further and lower import tariffs on products, including cars, in a speech during the Boao Forum. Beginning July 1, 2018, the tariff on imported passenger vehicles (other than those originating in the United States of America) was reduced to 15%. As a result, our pricing advantage could be diminished. On June 28, 2018, the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, and the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, promulgated the Special Administrative Measures for Market Access of Foreign Investment (2018 Version), or the 2018 Negative List, which came into effect on July 28, 2018. Pursuant to the 2018 Negative List, the limits on foreign ownership of auto manufacturers were lifted in 2018 for NEVs and will be lifted by 2022 for ICE vehicles. The same changes were subsequently adopted in the Special Administrative Measures for Market Access of Foreign Investment (2019 Version), which came into effect on July 30, 2019 (as amended and
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restated from time to time), or the Negative List. As a result, foreign EV competitors could build wholly-owned facilities in China without the need for a domestic joint venture partner. For example, Tesla has started constructing a factory in Shanghai without a joint venture partner. These changes could increase our competition and reduce our pricing advantage.
China’s central government provides subsidies for purchasers of certain NEVs until 2022 and reviews and further adjusts the subsidy standard on an annual basis. The 2019 subsidy standard, effective from March 26, 2019, reduced the amount of national subsidies and canceled local subsidies, resulting in a significant reduction in the total subsidy amount applicable to the ES8 and ES6 as compared to 2018. We believe that our sales performance of ES8 and ES6 in 2019 was negatively affected by the reduction in the subsidy standard. The current 2020 subsidy standard, effective from April 23, 2020, (i) reduces the base subsidy amount in general by 10% for each NEV, (ii) sets subsidies for 2 million vehicles as the upper limit of annual subsidy scale; and (iii) provides that national subsidy shall only apply to an NEV with the sale price under RMB300,000 or equipped with battery swapping module. Further, the 2021 and the 2022 subsidy standard are expected to be reduced by 20% and 30% respectively as compared to the standard of the immediately preceding year.
We cannot guarantee that such negative influence and our undermined sales performance resulted therefrom will not continue. Furthermore, China’s central government provides certain local governments with funds and subsidies to support the roll-out of a charging infrastructure. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Favorable Government Policies Relating to New Energy Vehicles in the PRC” of the 2019 Annual Report. These policies are subject to change and beyond our control. We cannot assure you that any changes would be favorable to our business. Furthermore, any reduction, elimination or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of electric vehicles, fiscal tightening or other factors may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel vehicle industry generally or our electric vehicles in particular. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Our vehicles may not perform in line with customer expectations.
Our vehicles, including the ES8, ES6 and EC6, may not perform in line with customers’ expectations. For example, our vehicles may not have the durability or longevity of other vehicles in the market, and may not be as easy and convenient to repair as other vehicles on the market. Any product defects or any other failure of our vehicles to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, harm to our brand and reputation, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
In addition, the range of our vehicles on a single charge declines principally as a function of usage, time and charging patterns as well as other factors. For example, a customer’s use of his or her electric vehicle as well as the frequency with which he or she charges the battery can result in additional deterioration of the battery’s ability to hold a charge.
Furthermore, our vehicles may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. We have delivered our vehicles with certain features of our NIO Pilot ADAS system initially disabled, and subsequently turned on some of these features. We activated most of the announced functions of the NIO pilot in 2019, and plan to continue to explore more features of the NIO pilot system in 2020. We cannot assure you that our NIO Pilot system will ultimately perform in line with expectations. Our vehicles use a substantial amount of software code to operate and software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced. While we have performed extensive internal testing on our vehicles’ software and hardware systems, we have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the long-term performance of our systems and vehicles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the vehicles prior to their sale to consumers. If any of our vehicles fail to perform as expected, we may need to delay deliveries, initiate product recalls and provide servicing or updates under warranty at our expense, which could adversely affect our brand in our target markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
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Any delays in the manufacturing and launch of the commercial production vehicles in our pipeline could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 28, 2019. EC6 is a smart premium electric coupe SUV. Its performance edition is equipped with a 160-kW permanent magnet motor and a 240-kW induction motor, and is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kph within 4.5 seconds. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the EC6 performance edition boasts an NEDC range of up to 615 km. Users can pre-order the EC6 through the NIO App and we expect to begin making deliveries of the EC6 in September 2020. In March 2020, we entered into a manufacturing cooperation agreement with JAC for the manufacture of the EC6. The EC6 must enter into an Announcement of Vehicle Manufacturers and Products and obtain the China Compulsory Certification, or the CCC certification, prior to mass production. If we encounter delays in any of these matters, we may consequently delay our deliveries of the EC6.
We generally target to launch a new model every year in the near future as we ramp up our business. Automobile manufacturers often experience delays in the design, manufacture and commercial release of new vehicle models. We are planning to target a broader market with our future vehicles, and to the extent we need to delay the launch of our vehicles, our growth prospects could be adversely affected as we may fail to grow our market share. We also plan to periodically perform facelifts or refresh existing models, which could also be subject to delays. Furthermore, we rely on third party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles. To the extent our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines. Any delay in the manufacture or launch of the ES8, the ES6, the EC6 or future models, including in the build out of the manufacturing facilities in China for these models or due to any other factors, or in refreshing or performing facelifts to existing models, could subject us to customer complaints and materially and adversely affect our reputation, demand for our vehicles, results of operations and growth prospects.
In addition, to the extent the Hefei manufacturing plant incurs any operating losses, we have agreed to compensate JAC for such operating losses. As of June 30, 2020, we had paid JAC a total of RMB804.3 million, including RMB381.6 million as compensation for losses incurred since 2018 and RMB422.7 million for manufacturing and processing fees. If we are obligated to compensate JAC for any losses, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected, particularly if such losses are incurred as a result of lower than anticipated sales volume. We expect that our sales volume and the ability of the Hefei manufacturing plant to achieve profitability will be significantly affected by our ability to timely bring new vehicles to market.
We may face challenges providing our charging solutions.
We provide our users with comprehensive charging solutions. We install home chargers for users where practicable, and provide other solutions including battery swapping, charging through publicly accessible charging infrastructure and charging using our fast charging trucks. Our users are able to use our NIO Power one-click valet charging service where their vehicles are picked up, charged and then returned. On August 20, 2020, we introduced the BaaS model, which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe the usage of battery packs separately. If users opt to purchase an ES8, ES6 or EC6 model and subscribe to use the 70 kWh battery pack under the BaaS model, they can enjoy an RMB70,000 deduction off the original vehicle purchase price and pay a monthly subscription fee of RMB980 for the battery pack.
We have very limited experience in the actual provision of our charging solutions to users and providing these services is subject to challenges, including the challenges associated with sorting out the logistics of rolling out our network and teams in appropriate areas, inadequate capacity or over capacity of our services in certain areas, security risks or risk of damage to vehicles during Power Express valet services and the potential for lack of user acceptance of our services. In addition, although the Chinese government has supported the roll-out of a public charging network, the current number of charging infrastructures is generally considered to be insufficient. We also face uncertainties with regard to governmental support and public infrastructure as we roll out our charging solutions, including whether we can obtain and maintain access to sufficient charging infrastructure, whether we can obtain any required permits and land use rights and complete any required filings, and whether the government support in this area may discontinue.
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Under the BaaS model, we sell a battery pack to the Battery Asset Company, and the user leases the battery from the Battery Asset Company. The service we provide to our users under the BaaS model relies, in part, on the smooth operation of and stability and quality of service delivered by the Battery Asset Company, which we cannot guarantee. We invested in the Battery Asset Company together with three BaaS Partners, and we only have limited control over its business operations. If the Battery Asset Company fails in providing high-quality services to our users, we will suffer from negative customer reviews and even returns of products or services. If the Battery Asset Company is unable to obtain future financings from the BaaS Partners or other third parties to meet its operational needs, it may not be able to continue purchasing batteries from us and leasing them to our users, or otherwise maintain its healthy and sustainable operations. On the other hand, if the Battery Asset Company bears a significant rate of customer default on its payment obligations, its results of operations and financial performance may be materially impacted, which will in turn reduce the value of our and the BaaS Partners’ investments in the Battery Asset Company. Additionally, in the future, we may sell used vehicles to purchasers under the BaaS model, which is subject to changing market conditions and consumer preferences and relatively complex transaction procedures, and may not be well accepted by our users. The occurrence of any of the above could negatively affect our reputation, brand, business and results of operations.
Furthermore, given our limited experience in providing charging solutions, there could be unanticipated challenges which may hinder our ability to provide our solutions or make the provision of our solutions costlier than anticipated. To the extent we are unable to meet user expectations or experience difficulties in providing our charging solutions, our reputation and business may be materially and adversely affected.
Our services may not be generally accepted by our users. If we are unable to provide good customer service, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.
We aim to provide users with a good customer service experience, including by providing our users with access to a full suite of services conveniently through our mobile application and vehicle applications. In addition, we seek to engage with our users on an ongoing basis using online and offline channels, in ways which are non-traditional for automakers. We cannot assure you that our services, including our energy package and service package, or our efforts to engage with our users using both our online and offline channels, will be successful, which could impact our revenues as well as our customer satisfaction and marketing.
Our servicing will primarily be carried out through third parties certified by us. Although such servicing partners may have experience in servicing other vehicles, we and such partners have very limited experience in servicing our vehicles. Servicing electric vehicles is different from servicing ICE vehicles and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. There can be no assurance that our service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of our users to their satisfaction, or that we and our partners will have sufficient resources to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles we deliver increases.
In addition, if we are unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network, user satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our sales, results of operations and prospects.
We have received only a limited number of reservations for the ES8, the ES6 and the EC6, all of which are subject to cancellation.
Intention orders and reservations for our vehicles are subject to cancellation by the customer until delivery of the vehicle. We have experienced cancellations in the past. Notwithstanding the non-refundable deposits we charge for the reservations, our users may still cancel their reservations for many reasons outside of our control, in certain cases even after they have paid deposits with such reservations. The potentially long wait from the time a reservation is made until the time the vehicle is delivered could also impact user decisions on whether to ultimately make a purchase, due to potential changes in preferences, competitive developments and other factors. If we encounter delays in the introduction of the ES8, ES6, EC6 or future vehicles, we believe that a significant number of reservations may be cancelled. As a result, no assurance can be made that reservations will not be cancelled and will ultimately result in the final purchase, delivery, and sale of the vehicle. Such cancellations could harm our financial condition, business, prospects and operating results.
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The automotive market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.
The China automotive market is highly competitive. We have strategically entered into this market in the premium EV segment and we expect this segment will become more competitive in the future as additional players enter into this segment. We compete with international competitors, including Tesla. Our vehicles also compete with ICE vehicles in the premium segment. Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly international competitors, have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products. We expect competition in our industry to intensify in the future in light of increased demand and regulatory push for alternative fuel vehicles, continuing globalization and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Factors affecting competition include, among others, product quality and features, innovation and development time, pricing, reliability, safety, fuel economy, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects. Our ability to successfully compete in our industry will be fundamental to our future success in existing and new markets and our market share. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully in our markets. If our competitors introduce new cars or services that successfully compete with or surpass the quality or performance of our cars or services at more competitive prices, we may be unable to satisfy existing customers or attract new customers at the prices and levels that would allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment.
Furthermore, our competitive advantage as the company with the first-to-market and leading premium EV volume-manufactured domestically in China will be severely compromised if our competitors begin making deliveries earlier than expected, or offer more favorable price than we do.
We may also be affected by the growth of the overall China automotive market. While sales of electric vehicles in China increased in 2019, overall automobile sales in China declined 9.3% during the year. If demand for automobiles in China continues to decrease, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Our industry and its technology are rapidly evolving and may be subject to unforeseen changes. Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine may materially and adversely affect the demand for our electric vehicles.
We operate in China’s electric vehicle market, which is rapidly evolving and may not develop as we anticipate. The regulatory framework governing the industry is currently uncertain and may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. As our industry and our business develop, we may need to modify our business model or change our services and solutions. These changes may not achieve expected results, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and prospects.
Furthermore, we may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology and, as a result, our competitiveness may suffer. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in electric vehicle technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our vehicles and introduce new models in order to provide vehicles with the latest technology, in particular battery cell technology, which could involve substantial costs and lower our return on investment for existing vehicles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively with alternative vehicles or source and integrate the latest technology into our vehicles, against the backdrop of our rapidly evolving industry. Even if we are able to keep pace with changes in technology and develop new models, our prior models could become obsolete more quickly than expected, potentially reducing our return on investment.
Developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. For example, fuel which is abundant and relatively inexpensive in China, such as compressed natural gas, may emerge as consumers’ preferred alternative to petroleum based propulsion. Any failure by us to successfully react to changes in existing technologies could materially harm our competitive position and growth prospects.
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We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.
We have required significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing the ES8, the ES6 and the EC6, as well as building our brand. We expect to incur significant costs which will impact our profitability, including research and development expenses as we roll out new models and improve existing models, raw material procurement costs and selling and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our vehicles. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with our services, including providing charging solutions and honoring our commitments under our service package. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our vehicles and other products and services but also to control our costs. If we are unable to cost efficiently design, manufacture, market, sell and distribute and service our vehicles and services, our margins, profitability and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.
We could experience cost increases or disruptions in supply of raw materials or other components used in our vehicles.
We incur significant costs related to procuring raw materials required to manufacture and assemble our vehicles. We use various raw materials in our vehicles including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals such as copper, lithium, nickel as well as cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on factors beyond our control, including market conditions and global demand for these materials, and could adversely affect our business and operating results. Our business also depends on the continued supply of battery cells for our vehicles. Battery cell manufacturers may refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers to the extent they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. We are exposed to multiple risks relating to availability and pricing of quality lithium-ion battery cells. These risks include:

the inability or unwillingness of current battery cell manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;

disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and

an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as lithium, nickel and cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.
Furthermore, currency fluctuations, tariffs or shortages in petroleum and other economic or political conditions may result in significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials or components would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins. In addition, a growth in popularity of electric vehicles without a significant expansion in battery cell production capacity could result in shortages which would result in increased costs in raw materials to us or impact of prospects.
We are dependent on our suppliers, many of whom are our single source suppliers for the components they supply.
The ES8, ES6 and EC6 each uses over 1,500 purchased parts which we source from over 190 suppliers, many of whom are currently our single source suppliers for these components, and we expect that this will be similar for any future vehicle we may produce. The supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages. While we obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other automobile manufacturers, many of the components used in our vehicles are purchased by us from a single source. To date, we have not qualified alternative sources for most of the single sourced components used in our vehicles and we generally do not maintain long-term agreements with our single source suppliers. For example, while several sources of the battery cell we have selected for the ES8 are available, we have fully qualified only one supplier for these cells.
Furthermore, qualifying alternative suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of the ES8, the ES6 and the EC6, such as the air suspension system and the steering system, may be time-consuming and costly. Any disruption in the supply of components, whether or not from a single source supplier, could temporarily disrupt production of our vehicles until an
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alternative supplier is fully qualified by us or is otherwise able to supply us the required material. There can be no assurance that we would be able to successfully retain alternative suppliers or supplies on a timely basis, on acceptable terms or at all. Changes in business conditions, force majeure, governmental changes and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build our NIO brand. We may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen the NIO brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity regarding our company or products.
Our business and prospects are heavily dependent on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the “NIO” brand. If we do not continue to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers. Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high quality vehicles and services and engage with our customers as intended and we have limited experience in these areas. In addition, we expect that our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the NIO brand will depend heavily on the success of our user development and branding efforts. Such efforts mainly include building a community of online and offline users engaged with us through our mobile application, NIO Houses, NIO Spaces as well as other branding initiatives such as our annual NIO Day, NIO Formula E Team, or Formula E team, and other automotive shows and events. Such efforts may be non-traditional and may not achieve the desired results. To promote our brand, we may be required to change our user development and branding practices, which could result in substantially increased expenses, including the need to use traditional media such as television, radio and print. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.
In addition, if incidents occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not such incidents are our fault, we could be subject to adverse publicity. In particular, given the popularity of social media, including WeChat/Weixin in China, any negative publicity, whether true or not, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions and confidence in our brand. Furthermore, there is the risk of potential adverse publicity related to our manufacturing or other partners, whether or not such publicity related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully position our brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of our partners’ vehicles.
In addition, from time to time, our vehicles are evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare us unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about our vehicles.
Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers, key employees and qualified personnel, and our operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.
Our success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. As we build our brand and become more well-known, the risk that competitors or other companies may poach our talent increases. Our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent and therefore we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. In addition, because our electric vehicles are based on a different technology platform than traditional ICE vehicles, individuals with sufficient training in electric vehicles may not be available to hire, and we will need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we hire. We also require sufficient talent in areas such as software development. Furthermore, as our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business, which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and our results of operations.
If any of our executive officers and key employees terminates his or her services with us, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. We have not obtained any “key person” insurance on our key personnel. If any of our executive officers or key
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employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. To the extent permitted by laws, each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. However, if any dispute arises between our executive officers or key employees and us, the non-competition provisions contained in their non-compete agreements may not be enforceable, especially in China, where these executive officers reside, on the ground that we have not provided adequate compensation to them for their non-competition obligations, which is required under relevant PRC laws.
Our future growth is dependent on the demand for, and upon consumers’ willingness to adopt, electric vehicles.
Demand for automobile sales depends to a large extent on general, economic, political and social conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As our business grows, economic conditions and trends will impact our business, prospects and operating results as well.
Demand for our electric vehicles may also be affected by factors directly impacting automobile prices or the cost of purchasing and operating automobiles, such as sales and financing incentives, prices of raw materials and parts and components, cost of fuel and governmental regulations, including tariffs, import regulation and other taxes. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in further downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, the demand for our vehicles and services will highly depend upon the adoption by consumers of new energy vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. The market for new energy vehicles is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, competitive pricing and competitive factors, evolving government regulation and industry standards and changing consumer demands and behaviors.
Other factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and specifically electric vehicles, include:

perceptions about electric vehicle quality, safety, design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of electric vehicles, whether or not such vehicles are produced by us or other manufacturers;

perceptions about vehicle safety in general, in particular safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology, including electric vehicle and regenerative braking systems;

the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge and the speed at which batteries can be recharged;

the decline of an electric vehicle’s range resulting from deterioration over time in the battery’s ability to hold a charge;

concerns about electric grid capacity and reliability;

the availability of new energy vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles;

improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine;

the availability of service for electric vehicles;

the environmental consciousness of consumers;

access to charging stations, standardization of electric vehicle charging systems and consumers’ perceptions about convenience and cost to charge an electric vehicle;

the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting vehicles;

perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel; and

macroeconomic factors.
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Any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our electric vehicles and use our services. If the market for electric vehicles does not develop as we expect or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be affected.
We depend on revenue generated from a limited number of models and in the foreseeable future will be significantly dependent on a limited number of models.
Our business currently depends substantially on the sales and success of a limited number of models that we have launched. Historically, automobile customers have come to expect a variety of vehicle models offered in a manufacturer’s fleet and new and improved vehicle models to be introduced frequently. In order to meet these expectations, we plan in the future to introduce on a regular basis new vehicle models as well as enhance versions of existing vehicle models. To the extent our product variety and cycles do not meet consumer expectations, or cannot be produced on our projected timelines and cost and volume targets, our future sales may be adversely affected. Given that for the foreseeable future our business will depend on a single or limited number of models, to the extent a particular model is not well-received by the market, our sales volume could be materially and adversely affected. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are subject to risks related to customer credit.
We currently provide our users with the option of a battery payment arrangement, where users can make battery payments in installments. For the ES8 ordered before January 15, 2019, there is an RMB100,000 reduction in the purchase price and users adopting this arrangement pay RMB1,280 per month, payable over 78 months. For the ES8 and ES6 ordered after January 16, 2019, there is an RMB100,000 reduction in the purchase price and users adopting this arrangement pay RMB1,660 per month, payable over 60 months. We are exposed to the creditworthiness of our users since we expect them to make monthly payments for vehicle batteries under the battery payment arrangement. To the extent our users fail to make payments on-time, our results of operations may be adversely affected.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The automotive industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles do not perform as expected or malfunction resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given we have limited field experience of our vehicles. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of our future vehicle candidates which would have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. Any insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition.
Our vehicles are subject to motor vehicle standards and the failure to satisfy such mandated safety standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
All vehicles sold must comply with various standards of the market where the vehicles were sold. In China vehicles must meet or exceed all mandated safety standards. Rigorous testing and the use of approved materials and equipment are among the requirements for achieving such standards. Vehicles must pass various tests and undergo a certification process and be affixed with the CCC certification, before receiving delivery from the factory, being sold, or being used in any commercial activity, and such certification is also subject to periodic renewal. The seven-seater ES8 and the six-seater ES8 received the CCC certification in December 2017 and January 2019, separately. The ES6 received the CCC certification in April 2019. The new ES8 received the CCC certification in December 2019. The EC6 has not yet undergone the CCC certification but must be certified in the future prior to mass production. The process of obtaining the CCC certification typically requires four to five months. We plan to complete this process
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and obtain the CCC certification for the EC6 by September 2020. Furthermore, the government carries out the supervision and scheduled and unscheduled inspection of certified vehicles on a regular basis. In the event that our certification fails to be renewed upon expiry, a certified vehicle has a defect resulting in quality or safety accidents, or consistent failure of certified vehicles to comply with certification requirements is discovered during follow-up inspections, the CCC may be suspended or even revoked. With effect from the date of revocation or during suspension of the CCC, any vehicle that fails to satisfy the requirements for certification may not continue to be delivered, sold, imported or used in any commercial activity. Failure by us to have the ES8, the ES6, the EC6 or any future model electric vehicle satisfy motor vehicle standards would have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
We may be subject to risks associated with autonomous driving technology.
Through NIO Pilot, we provide enhanced Level 2 autonomous driving functionalities, and through our research and development, we continuously update and improve our autonomous driving technology. Autonomous driving technologies are subject to risks and from time to time there have been accidents associated with such technologies. The safety of such technologies depends in part on user interaction and users may not be accustomed to using such technologies. To the extent accidents associated with our autonomous driving systems occur, we could be subject to liability, government scrutiny and further regulation. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.
We may be compelled to undertake product recalls or take other actions, which could adversely affect our brand image and financial performance.
Recalls of our vehicles can cause adverse publicity, damage to our brand and liability for costs. In June 2019, we identified problems with certain battery packs on ES8 vehicles following safety incidents occurred in Shanghai and other locations in China. We then voluntarily recalled 4,803 ES8s, and replaced the batteries in the NIO battery swap network equipped with the malfunctioned modules. We undertook to compensate all users who had incurred property losses as a result of incidents caused by battery quality issues. In the future, we may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our vehicles, including any systems or parts sourced from our suppliers, prove to be defective or non-compliant with applicable laws and regulations. Such recalls, whether voluntary or involuntary or caused by systems or components engineered or manufactured by us or our suppliers, could involve significant expense and could adversely affect our brand image in our target markets, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our distribution model is different from the predominant current distribution model for automobile manufacturers, which makes evaluating our business, operating results and future prospects difficult.
Our distribution model is not common in the automotive industry today, particularly in China. We plan to conduct vehicle sales directly to users rather than through dealerships, primarily through our mobile application, NIO Houses and NIO Spaces. Furthermore, generally all vehicles are made to order. This model of vehicle distribution is relatively new and unproven, especially in China, and subjects us to substantial risk as it requires, in the aggregate, significant expenditures and provides for slower expansion of our distribution and sales systems than may be possible by utilizing the traditional dealer franchise system. For example, we will not be able to utilize long established sales channels developed through a franchise system to increase our sales volume. Moreover, we will be competing with companies with well established distribution channels. Our success will depend in large part on our ability to effectively develop our own sales channels and marketing strategies. Implementing our business model is subject to numerous significant challenges, including obtaining permits and approvals from government authorities, and we may not be successful in addressing these challenges.
The lead time in fulfilling our orders could lead to cancelled orders. Our aim for the fulfilling speed is 21 to 28 days from the order placement date to delivery to users. If we are unable to achieve this target, our customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, harming our business and reputation.
Our financial results may vary significantly from period-to-period due to the seasonality of our business and fluctuations in our operating costs.
Our operating results may vary significantly from period-to-period due to many factors, including seasonal factors that may have an effect on the demand for our electric vehicles. Demand for new cars in the
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automotive industry in general typically declines over the summer season, while sales are generally higher in the fourth quarter and spring time, especially from October to December and from March to April each year. Our limited operating history makes it difficult for us to judge the exact nature or extent of the seasonality of our business. Also, any unusually severe weather conditions in some markets may impact demand for our vehicles. Our operating results could also suffer if we do not achieve revenue consistent with our expectations for this seasonal demand because many of our expenses are based on anticipated levels of annual revenue.
We also expect our period-to-period operating results to vary based on our operating costs which we anticipate will increase significantly in future periods as we, among other things, design, develop and manufacture our electric vehicles and electric powertrain components, build and equip new manufacturing facilities to produce such components, open new NIO Houses and NIO Spaces, increase our sales and marketing activities, and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations.
As a result of these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our operating results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts or investors. If this occurs, the trading price of our ADSs could fall substantially either suddenly or over time.
If our vehicle owners customize our vehicles or change the charging infrastructure with aftermarket products, the vehicle may not operate properly, which may create negative publicity and could harm our business.
Automobile enthusiasts may seek to “hack” our vehicles to modify their performance which could compromise vehicle safety systems. Also, customers may customize their vehicles with after-market parts that can compromise driver safety. We do not test, nor do we endorse, such changes or products. In addition, the use of improper external cabling or unsafe charging outlets can expose our customers to injury from high voltage electricity. Such unauthorized modifications could reduce the safety of our vehicles and any injuries resulting from such modifications could result in adverse publicity which would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are subject to risks related to the investment in NIO China.
From April to June 2020, we entered into the Hefei Agreements for investment in NIO China. Under the Hefei Agreements, the Hefei Strategic Investors agreed to invest an aggregate of RMB7 billion in cash into NIO (Anhui) Holding Co., Ltd., or NIO Anhui, the legal entity of NIO China wholly owned by us pre-investment. We agreed to inject our core businesses and assets in China, including vehicle research and development, supply chain, sales and services and NIO Power, or together as the Asset Consideration, valued at RMB17.77 billion in total, into NIO China, and invest RMB4.26 billion in cash into NIO China. For more information, please see “Hefei Strategic Investors.” For more details on the provisions of the Hefei Agreements, please refer to (i) exhibits 4.35 and 4.36 of the 2019 Annual Report; (ii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 9, 2020; and (iii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission at 6:24 on June 30, 2020.
NIO China will establish its headquarters in the Hefei Economic and Technological Development Area, or HETA, where our main manufacturing hub is located, for its business operations, research and development, sales and services, supply chain and manufacturing functions. We will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei in the future.
The closing of the investment is subject to various closing conditions, including, among others, obtaining the necessary approvals related to state-owned investment by Anhui High-tech Co. and Jianheng New Energy Fund and obtaining the necessary internal approval by New Energy Automobile Fund. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, to our knowledge, each of Anhui High-tech Co., Jianheng New Energy Fund and New Energy Automobile Fund has obtained the necessary approval. If any of the closing conditions are not satisfied or waived and we fail to make the Asset Consideration and cash investments prior to the deadlines specified in the Hefei Investment Agreement, the Hefei Strategic Investors may
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terminate the Hefei Agreements and require us to (1) return their investment in NIO Anhui, (2) pay them investment income at a compound rate of 8.5% per annum accrued from the date of their investment and (3) compensate them for other losses. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, NIO Anhui has received from the Hefei Strategic Investors 5.0 billion of cash investments for the first two installments in full. We have injected our cash investment of RMB1.278 billion for the first installment and RMB1.278 billion for the second installment, and are fulfilling our other obligations, including injecting the Asset Consideration into NIO Anhui, in accordance with the Hefei Agreements.
Our collaboration with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA and our investment in NIO China are subject to a number of other risks, many of which are beyond our control. If any of the risks materializes, the business of NIO China and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected, which could adversely affect the price of our ADSs and the value of your investment. For example, the Hefei Strategic Investors may not make investments in NIO Anhui in full according to the payment schedules and other requirements in the Hefei Investment Agreement, or at all. On the other hand, we may not be able to perform our contractual obligations under the Hefei Agreements due to reasons beyond our control. As a result, we may be subject to liabilities and obligations under the Hefei Agreements and may not be able to achieve the expected benefits of the investment. We may need to obtain additional financing to fund our contractual obligations under the Hefei Agreements and such financing may not be available in the amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
In connection with this investment, NIO Anhui granted certain minority shareholders’ rights to the Hefei Strategic Investors, including, among others, the right of first refusal, co-sale right, preemptive right, anti-dilution right, redemption right, liquidation preference and conditional drag-along right. You would not enjoy these preferential rights or treatment through investing in our ADSs and the underlying ordinary shares. Exercise of these preferential rights by the Hefei Strategic Investors may also adversely affect your investment in our Company.
In particular, the Hefei Strategic Investors may require us to redeem the shares of NIO Anhui they hold under various circumstances, at a redemption price equal to the total amount of the investment price of the Hefei Strategic Investors plus an investment income calculated at a compound rate of 8.5% per annum if, including, among others, (i) NIO Anhui fails to complete a qualified initial public offering (which refers to an initial public offering approved, registered or filed with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, Shanghai Stock Exchange, Shenzhen Stock Exchange or other overseas securities issuance review agencies jointly approved by all shareholders of NIO Anhui, and NIO Anhui’s shares are issued and listed on the stock exchange market recognized by all shareholders of NIO Anhui) within sixty (60) months after NIO Anhui receives all investments in installment I from the Hefei Strategic Investors; (ii) NIO Anhui fails to submit an application for a qualified initial public offering within forty-eight (48) months after NIO Anhui receives all investments in installment I from the Hefei Strategic Investors; (iii) shareholders of our company require us or our controlling person to redeem shares of our company and result in a change of control of our company or NIO Anhui; (iv) we fail to inject the Asset Consideration into NIO Anhui within one year after the closing of the investments, due to willful misconduct or negligence, or we fail to inject capital into NIO Anhui before March 31, 2021; or (v) vehicles sales of NIO Anhui fall below 20,000 units for two consecutive years after NIO Anhui obtains all investments in installment I from the Hefei Strategic Investors. If any of the triggering events of redemption occurs, we will need substantial capital to repurchase the shares of NIO Anhui held by the Hefei Strategic Investors. If we do not have adequate cash available or cannot obtain additional financing, or our use of cash is restricted by applicable law, regulations or agreements governing our current or future indebtedness, we may not be able to redeem shares of NIO Anhui when required under the Hefei Shareholders Agreement, which would constitute an event of default under the Hefei Shareholders Agreement and subject us to liabilities.
Before the reorganization of NIO Anhui prior to its potential qualified initial public offering, we and/or our designated third party also have the right to redeem half of the shares Jianheng New Energy Fund acquired through this investment, at a mutually agreed redemption price. Furthermore, from the execution date of the Hefei Shareholders Agreement to December 31, 2021, we or our designated affiliate have the right to subscribe for newly issued shares of NIO Anhui at the price of this investment for an aggregate of no more than US$600 million, while the Hefei Strategic Investors unconditionally and irrevocably waive
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their respective preemptive rights with regard to investment in such newly issued shares. We may not be able to redeem shares of NIO Anhui when our rights of redemption materialize and may not achieve the expected benefits provided in the Hefei Investment Agreement.
In addition, if the Hefei Strategic Investors exercise their conditional drag-along rights and require us to sell our shares in NIO Anhui together with them to a third-party purchaser, we may lose control in NIO Anhui, which will materially and adversely affect our operations in China. Moreover, before NIO Anhui completes its potential qualified initial public offering, without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we may not directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of NIO Anhui’s shares to a third party that may result in our shareholding in NIO Anhui falling below 60%. Without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we have the right to directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of no more than 15% of NIO Anhui’s shares.
Because we will inject the core businesses and assets into NIO Anhui, the Hefei Strategic Investors will have senior claims over the assets of NIO Anhui compared to NIO Anhui’s other shareholders (i.e. our other subsidiaries) when a liquidation event of NIO Anhui occurs. As a result, holders of our ADSs will be structurally subordinated to the Hefei Strategic Investors, which may negatively affect the value of the investment of ADS holders in our company. We may not have sufficient funding to repay our existing debts. Furthermore, the Hefei Strategic Investors will have voting rights with respect to various significant corporate matters of NIO Anhui and its consolidated entities, such as change in NIO Anhui’s corporate structure, change of its core business and amendment to its articles of association, which may significantly limit our ability to make certain major corporate decisions with regard to NIO Anhui. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect your investment in our ADSs.
Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to issue additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our shareholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.
We will need significant capital to, among other things, conduct research and development and expand our production capacity as well as roll out our charging and servicing network and our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces. As we ramp up our production capacity and operations we may also require significant capital to maintain our property, plant and equipment and such costs may be greater than anticipated. We expect our capital expenditures to continue to be significant in the foreseeable future as we expand our business, and that our level of capital expenditures will be significantly affected by user demand for our products and services. The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our products and services. As a result, our future capital requirements may be uncertain and actual capital requirements may be different from those we currently anticipate. We plan to seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our capital expenditures. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all. Our substantial amount of currently outstanding indebtedness may also affect our ability to obtain financing in a timely manner and on reasonable terms.
Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business plan. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient funds, we will have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our corporate structure. We might not be able to obtain any funding, and we might not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.
In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could require us to issue additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities could dilute our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
We retain certain information about our users and may be subject to various privacy and consumer protection laws.
We use our vehicles’ electronic systems to log information about each vehicle’s use, such as charge time, battery usage, mileage and driving behavior, in order to aid us in vehicle diagnostics, repair and
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maintenance, as well as to help us customize and optimize the driving and riding experience. Our users may object to the use of this data, which may harm our business. Possession and use of our user’s driving behavior and data in conducting our business may subject us to legislative and regulatory burdens in China and other jurisdictions that could require notification of any data breach, restrict our use of such information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or market to existing customers. If users allege that we have improperly released or disclosed their personal information, we could face legal claims and reputational damage. We may incur significant expenses to comply with privacy, consumer protection and security standards and protocols imposed by laws, regulations, industry standards or contractual obligations. If third parties improperly obtain and use the personal information of our users, we may be required to expend significant resources to resolve these problems.
Failure of information security and privacy concerns could subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business and results of operations.
We face significant challenges with respect to information security and privacy, including the storage, transmission and sharing of confidential information. We transmit and store confidential and private information of our car buyers, such as personal information, including names, accounts, user IDs and passwords, and payment or transaction related information.
We are required by PRC law to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity of the information of our users, customers and distributors, which is also essential to maintaining their confidence in our vehicles and services. We have adopted strict information security policies and deployed advanced measures to implement the policies, including, among others, advanced encryption technologies. However, advances in technology, an increased level of sophistication and diversity of our products and services, an increased level of expertise of hackers, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or others can still result in a compromise or breach of the measures that we use. If we are unable to protect our systems, and hence the information stored in our systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, such problems or security breaches could cause a loss, give rise to our liabilities to the owners of confidential information or even subject us to fines and penalties. In addition, complying with various laws and regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices, including our data practices, in a manner adverse to our business.
In addition, we may need to comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018. The GDPR imposes additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provides certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under GDPR) and regulations can be costly; any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks.
We generally comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our own privacy policies. Compliance with any additional laws could be expensive, and may place restrictions on the conduct of our business and the manner in which we interact with our customers. Any failure to comply with applicable regulations could also result in regulatory enforcement actions against us, and misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, damage to our reputation and credibility and could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.
Significant capital and other resources may be required to protect against information security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations. The resources required may increase over time as the methods used by hackers and others engaged in online criminal activities are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause
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our customers to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims. Any perception by the public that online transactions or the privacy of user information are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of online retail and other online services generally, which may reduce the number of orders we receive.
Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.
For the initial owner of the ES8, ES6 and EC6, we provide an extended warranty, subject to certain conditions. In addition to the warranty required under the relevant PRC law, we also provide (i) a bumper to bumper three-year or 120,000 kilometer warranty, (ii) for critical EV components (battery pack, electrical motors, power electrical unit and vehicle control unit) an eight-year or 120,000 kilometer warranty, and (iii) a two-year or 50,000 kilometer warranty covering vehicle repair, replacement and refund. Our warranty program is similar to other vehicle manufacturer’s warranty programs intended to cover all parts and labor to repair defects in material or workmanship in the body, chassis, suspension, interior, electric systems, battery, powertrain and brake system. We plan to record and adjust warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs. However, because we did not start making deliveries of the ES8 until June 2018 and of the ES6 until June 2019, we have little experience with warranty claims regarding our vehicles or with estimating warranty reserves. As of June 30, 2020, we had warranty reserves in respect of our vehicles of RMB577 million (US$81.5 million). We cannot assure you that such reserves will be sufficient to cover future claims. We could, in the future, become subject to a significant and unexpected warranty claims, resulting in significant expenses, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We may need to defend ourselves against patent or trademark infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and would cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive communications from holders of patents or trademarks regarding their proprietary rights. Companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights may bring suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights and urge us to take licenses. Our applications and uses of trademarks relating to our design, software or artificial intelligence technologies could be found to infringe upon existing trademark ownership and rights. In addition, if we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

cease selling, incorporating certain components into, or using vehicles or offering goods or services that incorporate or use the challenged intellectual property;

pay substantial damages;

seek a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all;

redesign our vehicles or other goods or services; or

establish and maintain alternative branding for our products and services.
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us and our failure or inability to obtain a license to the infringed technology or other intellectual property right, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs, negative publicity and diversion of resources and management attention.
We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.
We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. We rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights.
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We have invested significant resources to develop our own intellectual property. Failure to maintain or protect these rights could harm our business. In addition, any unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may adversely affect our current and future revenues and our reputation.
Implementation and enforcement of PRC intellectual property-related laws have historically been deficient and ineffective. Accordingly, protection of intellectual property rights in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other countries with more developed intellectual property laws. Furthermore, policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or seek court declarations that they do not infringe upon our intellectual property rights. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot assure you that the steps we have taken or will take will prevent misappropriation of our intellectual property. From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources.
As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.
As of June 30, 2020, we had 2,505 issued patents and 1,561 patent applications pending. For our pending application, we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. The intellectual property rights of others could also bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.
We have limited insurance coverage, which could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.
We have limited liability insurance coverage for our products and business operations. A successful liability claim against us due to injuries suffered by our users could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and reputation. In addition, we do not have any business disruption insurance. Any business disruption event could result in substantial cost to us and diversion of our resources.
We have a significant amount of debt, including our convertible senior notes, that are senior in capital structure and cash flow, respectively, to our shareholders. Satisfying the obligations relating to our debt could adversely affect the amount or timing of distributions to our shareholders or result in dilution.
As of June 30, 2020, we had RMB7,052.7 million (US$998.2 million) in total long-term borrowings outstanding, consisting primarily of (i) our 4.50% convertible senior notes due 2024, or the 2024 Notes; (ii) the convertible senior notes we issued to an affiliate of Tencent Holdings Limited and Mr. Bin Li, our chairman of the board of directors, and chief executive officer, or the Affiliate Notes; and (iii) our long-term bank debt, excluding the current portion of (ii) and (iii) that are due within one year from June 30, 2020. We also issued convertible senior notes due 2021 in February and March 2020 in an aggregate principal amount of US$435 million, or the 2021 Notes.
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The 2024 Notes are unsecured debt and are not redeemable by us prior to the maturity date except for certain changes in tax law. In accordance with the indenture governing the 2024 Notes, or the 2024 Notes Indenture, holders of the 2024 Notes may require us to purchase all or any portion of their notes on February 1, 2022 at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2024 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest. Holders of the 2024 Notes may also require us, upon a fundamental change (as defined in the 2024 Notes Indenture), to repurchase for cash all or part of their 2024 Notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2024 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest.
Each of an affiliate of Tencent Holdings Limited and Mr. Bin Li, our chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer, subscribed for US$100 million principal amount of the Affiliate Notes, each in two equally split tranches. The Affiliate Notes issued in the first tranche will mature in 360 days, bear no interest, and require us to pay a premium at 2% of the principal amount at maturity. The Affiliate Notes issued in the second tranche will mature in three years, bear no interest, and require us to pay a premium at 6% of the principal amount at maturity. The 360-day Affiliate Notes will be convertible into our Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs) at a conversion price of US$2.98 per ADS at the holder’s option from the 15th day immediately prior to maturity, and the three-year convertible notes will be convertible into our Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs) at a conversion price of US$3.12 per ADS at the holder’s option from the first anniversary of the issuance date. The holders of the three-year Affiliate Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase for cash all of the convertible notes or any portion thereof on February 1, 2022.
The 2021 Notes bear zero interest and will mature in the first quarter of 2021. Prior to maturity, the holders of the 2021 Notes have the right to convert either all or part of the principal amount of the 2021 Notes into Class A ordinary shares (or ADSs) of our company pursuant to conversion price and conditions as set forth in the respective convertible notes purchase agreements. In accordance with the indenture governing the 2021 Notes, or the 2021 Notes Indenture, holders of the 2021 Notes may require us, upon a fundamental change (as defined in the 2021 Notes Indenture), to repurchase for cash all or part of their 2021 Notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2021 Notes to be repurchased.
Meanwhile, as of June 30, 2020, we had RMB3,955.6 million (US$559.9 million) in total short-term borrowings, primarily in connection with the issuances of certain short-term convertible senior notes we issued in 2019 and 2020 with terms of fewer than 365 days. Although certain of these short-term convertible senior notes that were issued and outstanding have been or are expected to be converted into our equity securities, we cannot assure you that all of them will be converted and we may be obligated to repay the indebtedness and the applicable interest at their respective maturities.
Satisfying the obligations of all these indebtedness and interest liabilities could adversely affect the amount or timing of any distributions to our shareholders. We may choose to satisfy, repurchase, or refinance any of these liabilities through public or private equity or debt financings if we deem such financings available on favorable terms. If we do not have adequate cash available or cannot obtain additional financing, or our use of cash is restricted by applicable law, regulations or agreements governing our current or future indebtedness, we may not be able to repurchase any of these notes when required under the respective transaction documents, which would constitute an event of default under the respective transaction documents. An event of default could also lead to a default under other agreements governing our current and future indebtedness, and if the repayment of such other indebtedness were accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase any of these notes or make cash payments upon conversion of any of these notes. In addition, the holders of any of these notes may convert their notes to a number of our ADSs in accordance with the respective transaction documents. Any conversion will result in immediate dilution to the ownership interests of existing shareholders and such dilution could be material. Lastly, we are exposed to interest rate risk related to our portfolio of investments in debt securities and the debt that we have issued. Among other things, some of our bank loans carry floating interest, and increases in interest rates would result in a decrease in the fair value of our outstanding debt. In the event that we incur a decrease in the fair value of our outstanding debt, our financial performance will be adversely affected.
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We may seek to obtain future financing through the issuance of debt or equity, which may have an adverse effect on our shareholders or may otherwise adversely affect our business.
If we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity or debt, including convertible debt or debt secured by some or all of our assets, holders of any debt securities or preferred shares issued will have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares in the event of liquidation. The terms of the convertible notes we issued do not restrict our ability to issue additional debt. If additional debt is issued, there is a possibility that once all senior claims are settled, there may be no assets remaining to pay out to the holders of ordinary shares. In addition, if we raise funds through the issuance of additional equity, whether through private placements or public offerings, such an issuance would dilute ownership of our current shareholders that do not participate in the issuance. If we are unable to obtain any needed additional funding, we may be required to reduce the scope of, delay, or eliminate some or all of, our planned research, development, manufacturing and marketing activities, any of which could materially harm our business.
Furthermore, the terms of any additional debt securities we may issue in the future may impose restrictions on our operations, which may include limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends on or repurchase our share capital, or make certain acquisitions or investments. In addition, we may be subject to covenants requiring us to satisfy certain financial tests and ratios, and our ability to satisfy such covenants may be affected by events outside of our control.
The terms of the convertible notes we issued could delay or prevent an attempt to take over our company.
The terms of the 2024 Notes, Affiliate Notes and 2021 Notes require us to repurchase the respective Notes in the event of a fundamental change. A takeover of our company would constitute a fundamental change. This could have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of our company that may otherwise be beneficial to our shareholders.
We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions.
We have entered into and may in the future enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.
In addition, although we have no current acquisition plans, if appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible shareholder approval, we may have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may derail our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to market and sell our vehicles successfully.
We have expanded our operations, and as we ramp up our production, further significant expansion will be required, especially in connection with potential increased sales, providing our users with high-quality servicing, providing charging solutions, expansion of our NIO House and NIO Space network and managing different models of vehicles. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include, among others:
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managing a larger organization with a greater number of employees in different divisions;

controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;

establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;

implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes; and

addressing new markets and potentially unforeseen challenges as they arise.
Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
We have granted, and may continue to grant options and other types of awards under our share incentive plan, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.
We adopted share incentive plans in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, which we refer to as the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan, the 2017 Plan and the 2018 Plan, respectively, in this prospectus supplement, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. The 2018 Plan became effective as of January 1, 2019. We recognize expenses in our consolidated statement of income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under our share incentive plans, we are authorized to grant options and other types of awards. Under the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan and the 2017 Plan, the maximum numbers of Class A ordinary shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards are 46,264,378, 18,000,000 and 33,000,000, respectively. Under the 2018 Plan, a maximum number of 23,000,000 Class A ordinary shares may be issued pursuant to all awards. This amount should automatically increase each year by the number of shares representing 1.5% of the then total issued and outstanding share capital of our company as of the end of each preceding year. As of June 30, 2020, awards to purchase an aggregate amount of 89,678,387 Class A ordinary shares under the 2015 Plan, the 2016 Plan, the 2017 Plan and the 2018 Plan had been granted and were outstanding, excluding awards that were forfeited or cancelled after the relevant grant dates. As of June 30, 2020, our unrecognized share-based compensation expenses amounted to RMB364.4 million (US$51.6 million).
We believe the granting of share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Furthermore, perspective candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. Thus, our ability to attract or retain highly skilled employees may be adversely affected by declines in the perceived value of our equity or equity awards. Furthermore, there are no assurances that the number of shares reserved for issuance under our share incentive plans will be sufficient to grant equity awards adequate to recruit new employees and to compensate existing employees.
If we do not appropriately maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.
We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC, as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. We were subject to such requirement starting from fiscal year 2019. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Our internal controls relating to financial reporting have not kept pace with the expansion of our business. Our financial reporting function and system of internal controls are less developed in certain respects than those of similar companies that operate in fewer or more developed markets and may not provide our management with as much or as accurate or timely information. The U.S. Public Company
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Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, has defined a material weakness as “a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.”
In connection with the preparation and external audit of our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was ineffective as of December 31, 2019. The material weakness identified was that we do not have sufficient competent financial reporting and accounting personnel with an appropriate understanding of U.S. GAAP to (i) design and implement formal period-end financial reporting policies and procedures to address complex U.S. GAAP technical accounting issues and (ii) prepare and review our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and the financial reporting requirements set forth by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC.
As a result of the identification of this material weakness, we have been taking measures to remedy this control deficiency. However, we can give no assurance that the implementation of these measures will be sufficient to eliminate such material weakness or that material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that could result in a restatement of our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which may result in volatility in and a decline in the market price of the ADSs.
If our suppliers fail to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations, our brand image could be harmed due to negative publicity.
Our core values, which include developing high quality electric vehicles while operating with integrity, are an important component of our brand image, which makes our reputation sensitive to allegations of unethical business practices. We do not control our independent suppliers or their business practices. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee their compliance with ethical business practices, such as environmental responsibilities, fair wage practices, and compliance with child labor laws, among others. A lack of demonstrated compliance could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations.
Violation of labor or other laws by our suppliers or the divergence of an independent supplier’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and our brand. This could diminish the value of our brand image and reduce demand for our electric vehicles if, as a result of such violation, we were to attract negative publicity. If we, or other manufacturers in our industry, encounter similar problems in the future, it could harm our brand image, business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
If we update our manufacturing equipment more quickly than expected, we may have to shorten the useful lives of any equipment to be retired as a result of any such update, and the resulting acceleration in our depreciation could negatively affect our financial results.
We and JAC have invested and expect to continue to invest significantly in what we believe is state of the art tooling, machinery and other manufacturing equipment for the product lines where the vehicles are manufactured, and we depreciate the cost of such equipment over their expected useful lives. However, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and we or JAC may decide to update our manufacturing process with cutting-edge equipment more quickly than expected. Moreover, as our engineering and manufacturing expertise and efficiency increase, we or JAC may be able to manufacture our products using less of our installed equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and to the extent we own such equipment, our results of operations could be negatively impacted.
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The construction and operation of our manufacturing facilities are subject to regulatory approvals or filings and may be subject to changes, delays, cost overruns or may not produce expected benefits.
In 2017, we signed a framework agreement with the Shanghai Jiading government and its authorized investment entity to build and develop our own manufacturing facility in Jiading, Shanghai. In 2019, we agreed with the related contractual parties to cease construction of this planned manufacturing facility and terminate this development project, due to government policies that allow collaborative manufacturing between traditional automotive manufacturers and companies with a focus on research, development and design of new energy vehicles.
In February 2020, we entered into a collaboration framework agreement with the municipal government of Hefei, Anhui province, where our main manufacturing hub is located. Subsequently from April to June 2020, we entered into definitive agreements, as amended and supplemented, for investments in NIO China. Pursuant to the definitive agreements, we will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei in the future.
Under PRC law, construction projects are subject to broad and strict government supervision and approval procedures, including but not limited to project approvals and filings, construction land and project planning approvals, environment protection approvals, pollution discharge permits, work safety approvals, fire protection approvals, and the completion of inspection and acceptance by relevant authorities. Some of the construction projects being carried out by us are undergoing necessary approval procedures as required by law. As a result, the relevant entities operating such construction projects may be subject to administrative uncertainty, and construction projects in question may be subject to fines or the suspension of use of such projects. Failure to complete the construction projects on schedule and within budget, and failure to obtain necessary approvals or any incompliance with relevant government supervision could have a material adverse impact on our operations, and we may not be able to find commercially reasonable alternatives.
Our vehicles make use of lithium-ion battery cells, which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.
The battery packs that we produce make use of lithium-ion cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. In June 2019, certain safety incidents resulting from the battery packs on ES8 vehicles occurred in Shanghai and other locations in China. We then voluntarily recalled 4,803 ES8s, and replaced the batteries in the NIO battery swap network equipped with the malfunctioned modules. While we have designed the battery pack to passively contain any single cell’s release of energy without spreading to neighboring cells, and have taken measures to enhance the safety of our battery designs, a field or testing failure of our vehicles or other battery packs that we produce could occur in the future, which could subject us to lawsuits, product recalls, or redesign efforts, all of which would be time-consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve our vehicles, could seriously harm our business.
In addition, we store a significant number of lithium-ion cells at our facilities. Any mishandling of battery cells may cause disruption to the operation of our facilities. While we have implemented safety procedures related to the handling of the cells, a safety issue or fire related to the cells could disrupt our operations. Such damage or injury could lead to adverse publicity and potentially a safety recall. Moreover, any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle or energy storage product may cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our products. Such adverse publicity could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impact our ability to effectively provide our services.
We aim to provide our users with an innovative suite of services through our mobile application. In addition, our in-car services depend, to a certain extent, on connectivity. The availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of our information technology and communications
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systems. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other adverse effects, fire, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to harm our systems. Our data centers are also subject to break-ins, sabotage, and intentional acts of vandalism, and to potential disruptions. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Any problems at our data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. In addition, our products and services are highly technical and complex and may contain errors or vulnerabilities, which could result in interruptions in our services or the failure of our systems.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to administrative, civil and criminal fines and penalties, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we conduct activities, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations. The FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and business partners acting on our behalf, including agents, from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires companies to make and keep books, records and accounts that accurately reflect transactions and dispositions of assets and to maintain a system of adequate internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act also prohibits non-governmental “commercial” bribery and soliciting or accepting bribes. A violation of these laws or regulations could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies and state-owned affiliated entities in the ordinary course of business. We have also entered into joint ventures and/or other business partnerships with government agencies and state-owned or affiliated entities. These interactions subject us to an increased level of compliance-related concerns. We are in the process of implementing policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents and business partners with applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, financial and economic sanctions and similar laws and regulations. However, our policies and procedures may not be sufficient and our directors, officers, employees, representatives, consultants, agents, and business partners could engage in improper conduct for which we may be held responsible.
Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering or financial and economic sanctions laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, and severe administrative, civil and criminal sanctions, collateral consequences, remedial measures and legal expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation. In addition, changes in economic sanctions laws in the future could adversely impact our business and investments in our shares.
Any unauthorized control or manipulation of our vehicles’ systems could result in loss of confidence in us and our vehicles and harm our business.
Our vehicles contain complex information technology systems. For example, our vehicles are designed with built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates from us to improve or update the functionality of our vehicles. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our vehicles and their systems. However, hackers may attempt in the future, to gain unauthorized access to modify, alter and use such networks, vehicles and systems to gain control of, or to change, our vehicles’ functionality, user interface and performance characteristics, or to gain access to data stored in or generated by the vehicle. Vulnerabilities could be identified in the future and our remediation efforts may not be successful. Any unauthorized access to or control of our vehicles or their systems or any loss of data could result in legal
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claims or proceedings. In addition, regardless of their veracity, reports of unauthorized access to our vehicles, their systems or data, as well as other factors that may result in the perception that our vehicles, their systems or data are capable of being “hacked”, could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.
Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. Our business operations could be disrupted if any of our employees are suspected of having epidemics, since it could require our employees to be quarantined and/or our offices to be disinfected. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak harms the Chinese economy in general.
We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. Although we have servers that are hosted in an offsite location, our backup system does not capture data on a real-time basis and we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services on our platform.
Our revenues and financial results may be adversely affected by any economic slowdown in China as well as globally.
The success of our business ultimately depends on consumer spending. We derive substantially all of our revenues from China. As a result, our revenues and financial results are impacted to a significant extent by economic conditions in China and globally. The global macroeconomic environment is facing numerous challenges. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed down since 2010 and the trend may continue. Any slowdown could significantly reduce domestic commerce in China, including through the internet generally and through us. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. Unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns about the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the economies of China, the United States and numerous other countries around the world, and is expected to result in a severe global recession. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Sales of high-end and luxury consumer products, such as our performance electric vehicles, depend in part on discretionary consumer spending and are even more exposed to adverse changes in general economic conditions. In response to their perceived uncertainty in economic conditions, consumers might delay, reduce or cancel purchases of our electric vehicles and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Shutdowns of the U.S. federal government could materially impair our business and financial condition.
Development of our product candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for reasons beyond our control. For example, over the last several years the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the SEC, have had to furlough critical SEC and other government
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employees and stop critical activities. In our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets, such as through delaying the declaration of effectiveness of registration statements, and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.
Changes in U.S. and international trade policies, particularly with regard to China, may adversely impact our business and operating results.
The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that may lead to potential changes to U.S. and international trade policies towards China. In January 2020, the “Phase One” agreement was signed between the United States and China on trade matters. However, it remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the U.S. or other governments with respect to international trade agreements, the imposition of tariffs on goods imported into the U.S., tax policy related to international commerce, or other trade matters. While we intend to sell our vehicles only in China in the near future, tariffs could potentially impact our raw material prices. If any new tariffs, legislation and/or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or, in particular, if the U.S. government takes retaliatory trade actions due to the recent U.S.-China trade tension, such changes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Recent disruptions in the financial markets and economic conditions could affect our ability to raise capital.
In recent years, the United States and global economies suffered dramatic downturns as the result of a deterioration in the credit markets and related financial crisis as well as a variety of other factors including, among other things, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, ratings downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. The United States and certain foreign governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify these extreme market and economic conditions by providing liquidity and stability to the financial markets. If the actions taken by these governments are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may cause a significant impact on our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.
There are uncertainties relating to our users trust arrangement involving a portion of our chairman’s shareholding in our company.
Mr. Bin Li, our chairman and chief executive officer, has transferred 189,253 Class A ordinary shares and 49,810,747 Class C ordinary shares to a trust after the completion of the initial public offering of our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange in September 2018. After such share transfer, he continues to retain the voting rights of these shares, but plans to let NIO users discuss and propose how to use the economic interests of these shares at certain points in the future, through certain mechanisms still to be implemented. Mr. Li hopes this trust arrangement will help deepen our relationship with users. However, we are still exploring the appropriate mechanisms for letting NIO users discuss the use of the economic interests of the shares. There is no assurance that such mechanisms will be adopted to our users’ satisfaction, or at all. Furthermore, depending on the proposed use of the economic interests of the shares in the future, there could be accounting implications to us, which implications we cannot presently ascertain.
We and certain of our directors and officers have been named as defendants in several shareholder class action lawsuits, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.
Several putative shareholder class action lawsuits have been filed against us and certain of our directors and officers. See “Business—Legal Proceedings” for more details. Additional complaints related to these claims may be filed in the coming months. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuits, if they proceed. We anticipate that we will continue to be a target for lawsuits in the future, including putative class action lawsuits brought by shareholders. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevail in our defense or reverse any unfavorable judgment on appeal, and we may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiffs’ appeal of the judgment in these cases, could result in payments of substantial
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monetary damages or fines, or changes to our business practices, and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.
According to the Guidance Catalogue of Industries for Foreign Investment promulgated in 2017, or the Catalogue, promulgated by the MOFCOM and the NDRC, foreign ownership of certain areas of businesses is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. For example, under the Catalogue, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider (except e-commerce) or in a vehicle manufacturer which manufactures the whole vehicle. The Catalogue was amended by the 2018 Negative List, which came into effect on July 28, 2018, and was further replaced by the Negative List and contains the same lifting of restrictions on foreign investment in NEVs manufacturers as the 2018 Negative List.
We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. To comply with the Catalogue before it is amended by the 2018 Negative List, we had planned to conduct certain operations that were then subject to restrictions on foreign investment under the Catalogue in China through Shanghai NIO Energy Automobile Co., Ltd., or NIO New Energy. NIO Co., Ltd. owns 50% equity interests in NIO New Energy. Our founders Bin Li and Lihong Qin, through holding equity interests in Shanghai Anbin Technology Co., Ltd. indirectly own 40% and 10%, respectively, of the equity interests in NIO New Energy. With respect to the 50% equity interests of NIO New Energy indirectly held by the founders, we have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Anbin, and its shareholders, which enable us to (i) ultimately exercise effective control over such 50% equity interests of NIO New Energy, (ii) receive 50% of substantially all of the economic benefits and bear the obligation to absorb 50% of substantially all of the losses of NIO New Energy, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in Shanghai Anbin when and to the extent permitted by PRC laws, as a result of which we will indirectly own all or part of such 50% equity interests in NIO New Energy. Because of the ownership of 50% equity interests of NIO New Energy and these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of NIO New Energy and hence consolidate its financial results as our variable interest entity under U.S. GAAP. In addition, to comply with the Catalogue (as amended by the 2018 Negative List), we have also entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing NIO, and its shareholders that enable us to hold all the required Internet content provision service, or the ICP, and related licenses in China. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and their respective shareholders” of the 2019 Annual Report.
In the opinion of Han Kun Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel, (i) the ownership structures of NIO Co., Ltd. And our variable interest entities in China do not result in any violation of PRC laws and regulations currently in effect; and (ii) the contractual arrangements between our wholly-owned subsidiary NIO Co., Ltd., our variable interest entities and their respective shareholders governed by PRC laws will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, we have been advised by our PRC legal counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules, and there can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will take a view that is consistent with the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—PRC Regulations—Foreign Investment Law” and “— Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Investment in China” of the 2019 Annual
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Report and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our business may be significantly affected by the Foreign Investment Law.” It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide.
If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entities are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entities fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;

shutting down our servers or blocking our website, or discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and variable interest entities;

imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entities, or imposing other requirements with which we or our variable interest entities may not be able to comply;

requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities and deregistering the equity pledge of our variable interest entities, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our variable interest entities; or

restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of any financing outside China to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.
Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of our variable interest entities that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our variable interest entities, we may not be able to consolidate the entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
We rely on contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities and their shareholders to exercise control over our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.
We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO and their respective shareholders to conduct a portion of our operations in China. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Contractual Agreements with the VIEs and their respective shareholders” of the 2019 Annual Report. The respective shareholders of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. If we had direct ownership of our variable interest entities, or VIEs, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to control our VIEs to exercise rights of shareholders to effect changes in the board of directors of our VIEs, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the contractual arrangements, we would rely on legal remedies under PRC law for breach of contract in the event that Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO and their respective shareholders did not perform their obligations under the contracts. These legal remedies may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO.
If Shanghai Anbin or Beijing NIO or their respective shareholders fail to perform their obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC laws, including contractual remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. All of the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by and interpreted in accordance with PRC laws, and disputes arising from these contractual arrangements will be resolved through arbitration in China. However, the legal framework and system in China, in particularly those relating to arbitration proceedings, are not as developed as in some other
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jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC laws, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in the PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or face other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our variable interest entities, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See “Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”
Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and our PRC variable interest entities’ shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.
Pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreements between Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, our variable interest entities, and NIO Co., Ltd., our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, and the respective shareholders of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, each shareholder of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO agrees to pledge its equity interests in Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO to our subsidiary to secure Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO’s performance of its obligations under the relevant contractual arrangements. The equity interest pledges of shareholders of each of Beijing NIO and Shanghai Anbin under its equity interests pledge agreement have been registered with the relevant local branch of State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR. In addition, in the registration forms of the local branch of the SAMR for the pledges over the equity interests under the equity interest pledge agreements, the aggregate amount of registered equity interests pledged to NIO Co., Ltd. represents 100% of the registered capital of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO. The equity interest pledge agreements with our variable interest entities’ shareholders provide that the pledged equity interests shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of that variable interest entity. However, a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity interest pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which typically takes last priority among creditors.
The shareholders of our variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Our founders, Bin Li and Lihong Qin, own 80% and 20%, respectively, of the equity interests in our variable interest entities, Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO. As shareholders of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, they may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our variable interest entities to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our variable interest entities, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our variable interest entities and receive economic benefits from them. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.
Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company. Each of Bin Li and Lihong Qin is also a director and executive officer of our company. We rely on Bin Li and Lihong Qin to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors owe a fiduciary duty to the company that requires them to act in good faith
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and in what they believe to be the best interests of the company and not to use their position for personal gain. There is currently no specific and clear guidance under PRC laws that addresses any conflict between PRC laws and the laws of Cayman Islands in respect of any conflict relating to corporate governance. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.
Our contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our variable interest entities owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition.
Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its related parties to the relevant tax authorities. The tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with arm’s length principles. We may face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between NIO Co., Ltd., our wholly-owned subsidiary in China, Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO, our variable interest entities in China, and Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO’s shareholders were not entered into on an arm’s length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO’s income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities without reducing NIO Co., Ltd.’s tax expenses. In addition, if NIO Co., Ltd. requests the shareholders of Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO to transfer their equity interests in NIO Co., Ltd. at nominal or no value pursuant to the contractual agreements, such transfer could be viewed as a gift and subject NIO Co., Ltd. to PRC income tax. Furthermore, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on Shanghai Anbin and Beijing NIO for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if either of our variable interest entities’ tax liabilities increase or if either is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.
We may lose the ability to use and benefit from assets held by our variable interest entities that are material to the operation of our business if either of our variable interest entities goes bankrupt or becomes subject to dissolution or liquidation proceedings.
As part of our contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities, these entities may in the future hold certain assets that are material to the operation of our business. If either of our variable interest entities goes bankrupt and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, our variable interest entities may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If either of our variable interest entities undergoes voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceedings, unrelated third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
Changes in China’s political or social conditions or government policies could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Substantially all of our revenues are expected to be derived in China in the near future and most of our operations, including all of our manufacturing, is conducted in China. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are influenced by economic, political and legal developments in China. China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects,
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including with respect to the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. The PRC government exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through strategically allocating resources, controlling the payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, that growth has been uneven across different regions and between economic sectors and may not continue, as evidenced by the slowing of the growth of the Chinese economy since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, leading to reduction in demand for our services and solutions and adversely affect our competitive position.
Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.
The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.
Our PRC subsidiaries are foreign-invested enterprises and are subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign-invested enterprises as well as various Chinese laws and regulations generally applicable to companies incorporated in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.
From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.
Our business may be significantly affected by the newly enacted Foreign Investment Law.
On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, which has become effective on January 1, 2020 and replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the PRC Equity Joint Venture Law, the PRC Cooperative Joint Venture Law and the Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. Since the Foreign Investment Law is newly enacted, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. The Foreign Investment Law does not explicitly classify whether variable interest entities that are controlled via contractual arrangements would be deemed as foreign invested enterprises if they are ultimately “controlled” by foreign investors. However, it has a catch-all provision under definition of “foreign investment” to include investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated by laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. There can be no assurance that our contractual arrangements will not be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations.
The Foreign Investment Law grants national treatment to foreign invested entities, except for those foreign invested entities that operate in industries deemed to be either “restricted” or “prohibited” in the “negative list” to be published. Because the “negative list” has yet been published, it is unclear as to whether it will differ from the 2019 Negative List currently in effect. The Foreign Investment Law provides that only foreign invested entities operating in foreign restricted or prohibited industries will require entry clearance
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and other approvals that are not required by PRC domestic entities or foreign invested entities operating in other industries. In the event that our variable interest entities through which we operate our business are not treated as domestic investment and our operations carried out through such variable interest entities are classified in the “restricted” or “prohibited” industry in the “negative list” under the Foreign Investment Law, such contractual arrangements may be deemed as invalid and illegal, and we may be required to unwind such contractual arrangements and/or dispose of such business.
Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, the Foreign Investment Law provides that existing foreign invested enterprises established according to the existing laws regulating foreign investment may maintain their structure and corporate governance within five years after the implementation of the Foreign Investment Law, which means that we may be required to adjust the structure and corporate governance of certain of our PRC entities then. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulations on internet-related business, automotive businesses and other business carried out by our PRC subsidiaries.
We operate in the automotive and internet industry, both of which are extensively regulated by the PRC government. For example, the PRC government imposes foreign ownership restrictions and licensing and permit requirements for companies in the internet industry. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Investment in China” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Value-added Telecommunications Services” of the 2019 Annual Report. The MOFCOM and the NDRC promulgated the Negative List, which lift restrictions on foreign investment on the production of new energy vehicles; and the NDRC promulgated the Provisions on Administration of Investment in Automobile Industry, which became effective on January 10, 2019, to set certain requisite criteria for newly-established pure electric vehicle automakers. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations and Approvals Covering the Manufacturing of Pure Electric Passenger Vehicles” of the 2019 Annual Report. These laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations and furthermore, we cannot assure you that we have complied or will be able to comply with all applicable laws at all times. Consequently, we could face the risks of being subject to governmental investigations, orders by the competent authorities for rectification, administrative penalties or other legal proceedings.
Currently we rely on the contractual arrangements with Beijing NIO, one of our variable interest entities, to hold an ICP license, and separately own the relevant domain names and trademarks in connection with our internet services and operate our website and mobile application through NIO Co., Ltd. Our internet services may be treated as a value-added telecommunications business. If so, we may be required to transfer the domain names, trademark and the operations of the internet services from NIO Co., Ltd. To Beijing NIO, and we may also be subject to administrative penalties. Further, any challenge to the validity of these arrangements may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of our contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us. It is uncertain if Beijing NIO or NIO Co., Ltd. will be required to obtain a separate operating license for certain services carried out by us through our mobile application in addition to the valued-added telecommunications business operating licenses for internet content provision services, and if Beijing NIO will be required to supplement our current ICP license in the future.
In addition, our mobile applications are also regulated by the Administrative Provisions on Mobile Internet Applications Information Services, or the APP Provisions, promulgated by the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, on June 28, 2016 and effective on August 1, 2016. According to the APP Provisions, the providers of mobile applications shall not create, copy, publish or distribute
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information and content that is prohibited by laws and regulations. However, we cannot assure that all the information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our mobile applications complies with the requirements of the APP Provisions at all times. If our mobile applications were found to be violating the APP Provisions, we may be subject to administrative penalties, including warning, service suspension or removal of our mobile applications from the relevant mobile application store, which may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.
The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry, particularly the policies relating to value-added telecommunications services, have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in the businesses and activities of internet businesses in China, including our business.
Several PRC regulatory authorities, such as the SAMR, the NDRC, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, and the MOFCOM, oversee different aspects of our operations, and we are required to obtain a wide range of government approvals, licenses, permits and registrations in connection with our operations. For example, certain filings must be made by automobile dealers through the information system for the national automobile circulation operated by the relevant commerce department within 90 days after the receipt of a business license. Furthermore, the NEV industry is relatively new in China, and the PRC government has not adopted a clear regulatory framework to regulate the industry. As some of the laws, rules and regulations that we may be subject to were primarily enacted with a view toward application to ICE vehicles, or are relatively new, there is significant uncertainty regarding their interpretation and application with respect to our business. For example, it remains unclear under PRC laws whether our charging trucks need to be registered with related local traffic management authorities or obtain transportation operation licenses for their services, and whether we would be required to obtain any particular permit or license to be qualified to provide our charging services in cooperation with third party charging stations. In addition, the PRC government may enact new laws and regulations that require additional licenses, permits, approvals and/or registrations for the operation of any of our existing or future business. As a result. We cannot assure you that we have all the permits, licenses, registrations, approvals and/or business license covering the sufficient scope of business required for our business or that we will be able to obtain, maintain or renew permits, licenses, registrations, approvals and/or business license covering sufficient scope of business in a timely manner or at all.
We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.
We are a holding company, and we may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated after-tax profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory conditions and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of its registered capital. As of June 30, 2020, our variable interest entities had not made appropriations to statutory reserves as our PRC subsidiaries and our variable interest entities reported accumulated loss. For a detailed discussion of applicable PRC regulations governing distribution of dividends, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Dividend Distribution” of the 2019 Annual Report. Additionally, if our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Furthermore, the PRC tax authorities may require our subsidiaries to adjust their taxable income under the contractual arrangements they currently have in place with our variable interest entities in a manner that would materially and adversely affect their ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. See “— Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—Our contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our variable interest entities owe additional taxes, which
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could negatively affect our financial condition.” In addition, the incurrence of indebtedness by our PRC subsidiaries could result in operating and financing covenants and undertakings to creditors that would restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us.
Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business. See “—If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.”
Increases in labor costs and enforcement of stricter labor laws and regulations in the PRC may adversely affect our business and our profitability.
China’s overall economy and the average wage in China have increased in recent years and are expected to grow. The average wage level for our employees has also increased in recent years. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to those who pay for our services, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, we have been subject to stricter regulatory requirements in terms of entering into labor contracts with our employees, limitation with respect to utilization of labor dispatching, applying for foreigner work permits, labor protection and labor condition and paying various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. Pursuant to the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employee’s probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In October 2010, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Social Insurance Law, which came into effect on July 1, 2011. On April 3, 1999, the State Council promulgated the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Funds, which was amended on March 24, 2002. Companies registered and operating in China are required under the Social Insurance Law and the Regulations on the Administration of Housing Funds to, apply for social insurance registration and housing fund deposit registration within 30 days of their establishment, and to pay for their employees different social insurance including pension insurance, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to the extent required by law. However, certain of our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs that do not hire any employees and are not a party to any employment agreement, have not applied for and obtained such registration, and instead of paying the social insurance payment on their own for their employees, certain of our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs use third-party agencies to pay in the name of such agency. We could be subject to orders by the competent labor authorities for rectification and failure to comply with the orders may further subject us to administrative fines.
As the interpretation and implementation of labor-related laws and regulations are still evolving, our employment practices may violate labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. We cannot assure you that we have complied or will be able to comply with all labor-related law and regulations including those relating to obligations to make social insurance payments and contribute to the housing provident funds. If we are deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
Furthermore, in order to control labor cost, we conducted a series of organizational restructuring to cut headcounts in 2019, which we believe has negatively affected our reputation, brand image and our ability to retain the remaining qualified staff and skilled employees. We cannot guarantee that there will not be such organizational restructuring again in the future, the occurrence of which will pose negative implications on our competitive position, cost us qualified employees and subject us to potential employment lawsuits. Any of the above would negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.
The conversion of RMB into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The RMB has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that RMB will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future.
Any significant appreciation or depreciation of RMB may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive into RMB to pay our operating expenses, appreciation of RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of RMB against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the price of our ADSs.
Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.
PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our offshore equity offerings to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.
Under PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to utilize the proceeds of any financing outside China to fund our PRC subsidiaries by making loans to or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, subject to applicable government registration, statutory limitations on amount and approval requirements. For more details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Exchange” of the 2019 Annual Report. These PRC laws and regulations may significantly limit our ability to use Renminbi converted from the net proceeds of any financing outside China to fund the establishment of new entities in China by our PRC subsidiaries, to invest in or acquire any other PRC companies through our PRC subsidiaries, or to establish new variable interest entities in China. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans to our PRC subsidiaries or future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds we received or expect to receive from our offshore offerings and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.
On December 26, 2017, the NDRC issued the Management Rules for Overseas Investment by Enterprises, or Order 11. On February 11, 2018, the Catalog on Overseas Investment in Sensitive Industries (2018 Edition), or the Sensitive Industries List was promulgated. Overseas investment governed by Order 11 refers to the investment activities conducted by an enterprise located in the territory of China either directly or via an overseas enterprise under its control through making investment with assets and equities or providing financing or guarantees in order to obtain overseas ownership, control, management rights and other related interests, and overseas investment by a PRC individual through overseas enterprises under his/her control is also subject to Order 11. According to Order 11, before being conducted, any overseas investment in a sensitive industry or any direct investment by a Chinese enterprise in a non-sensitive industry but with an investment amount over US$300 million requires approval from, or filing with, the NDRC, and for those non-sensitive investments indirectly by Chinese investors (including PRC individuals)
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with investment amounts over US$300 million need to be reported. However uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation and application of Order 11, we are not sure whether our using of proceeds will be subject to Order 11. If we fail to obtain the approval, complete the filing or report our overseas investment with our proceeds (as the case may be) in a timely manner provided that Order 11 is applicable, we may be forced to suspend or cease our investment, or be subject to penalties or other liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.
Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively.
The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, approval from or registration with appropriate governmental authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into a foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Exchange” of the 2019 Annual Report.
Since 2016, the PRC government has tightened its foreign exchange policies again and stepped up scrutiny of major outbound capital movement. More restrictions and a substantial vetting process have been put in place by SAFE to regulate cross-border transactions falling under the capital account. The PRC government may also restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions, at its discretion. We receive substantially all of our revenues in RMB. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.
PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to liability and penalties under PRC law.
SAFE requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing. In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes certain material events. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Exchange—Offshore Investment” of the 2019 Annual Report.
If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and any proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with SAFE registration requirements could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.
However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents or entities holding direct or indirect interests in our company, nor can we compel our beneficial owners to comply with SAFE registration requirements. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE regulations. Failure by such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with SAFE regulations, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiaries, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.
China’s M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for certain acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.
A number of PRC laws and regulations have established procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. In
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addition to the Anti-Monopoly Law itself, these include the Rules on Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC governmental and regulatory agencies in 2006, and the Rules of the Ministry of Commerce on Implementation of Security Review System of Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the Security Review Rules, promulgated in 2011. These laws and regulations impose requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. In addition, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. Moreover, the Security Review Rules specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the MOFCOM, and prohibit any attempt to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the relevant regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.
Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.
Under SAFE regulations, PRC residents who participate in a stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation— Regulations on Employment and Social Welfare—Employee Stock Incentive Plan” of the 2019 Annual Report. We and our PRC resident employees who participate in our share incentive plans are subject to these regulations since we became a public company listed in the United States. If we or any of these PRC resident employees fail to comply with these regulations, we or such employees may be subject to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.
Discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments and government subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes and surcharges could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our PRC subsidiaries currently benefit from a number of preferential tax treatments. For example, our subsidiary, NIO Co., Ltd., is entitled to enjoy, after completing certain application formalities, a 15% preferential enterprise income tax from 2018 as it has been qualified as a “High New Technology Enterprise” under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and related regulations. The discontinuation of any of the preferential income tax treatment that we currently enjoy could have a material and adverse effect on our result of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or lower our current effective tax rate in the future.
In addition, our PRC subsidiaries have received various financial subsidies from PRC local government authorities. The financial subsidies result from discretionary incentives and policies adopted by PRC local government authorities. For example, our subsidiary, XPT (Nanjing) E-Powertrain Technology Co., Ltd., has received subsidies of an aggregate of RMB33.1 million for the phase I construction of the Nanjing Advanced Manufacturing Engineering Center as of December 31, 2019. Local governments may decide to change or discontinue such financial subsidies at any time. The discontinuation of such financial subsidies or imposition of any additional taxes could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.
Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with a “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a PRC resident enterprise. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that
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exercises full and substantial control over and overall management of the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In 2009, the State Administration of Taxation issued a circular, known as Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners like us, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.
We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we will be subject to the enterprise income tax on our global income at the rate of 25% and we will be required to comply with PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. In addition, we may be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from interest or dividends we pay to our shareholders that are non-resident enterprises, including the holders of our ADSs. In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders (including our ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 10% on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of our ADSs or ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. Furthermore, if PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, interest or dividends paid to our non-PRC individual shareholders (including our ADS holders) and any gain realized on the transfer of the ADSs or ordinary shares by such holders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% (which, in the case of interest or dividends, may be withheld at source by us), if such gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. These rates may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty, but it is unclear whether our non-PRC shareholders would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise.
We may not be able to obtain certain benefits under relevant tax treaty on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to us through our Hong Kong subsidiary.
We are a holding company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and as such rely on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries to satisfy part of our liquidity requirements. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, a withholding tax rate of 10% currently applies to dividends paid by a PRC “resident enterprise” to a foreign enterprise investor, unless any such foreign investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for preferential tax treatment. Pursuant to the Arrangement between Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, such withholding tax rate may be lowered to 5% if a Hong Kong resident enterprise owns no less than 25% of a PRC enterprise. Furthermore, the Administrative Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Tax Treaties, which became effective in August 2015, require non-resident enterprises to determine whether they are qualified to enjoy the preferential tax treatment under the tax treaties and file relevant report and materials with the tax authorities. There are also other conditions for enjoying the reduced withholding tax rate according to other relevant tax rules and regulations. See “Taxation—People’s Republic of China Taxation.” As of June 30, 2020, our subsidiaries and variable interest entities located in the PRC reported accumulated loss and therefore they had no retained earnings for offshore distribution. In the future, we intend to re-invest all earnings, if any, generated from our PRC subsidiaries for the operation and expansion of our business in China. Should our tax policy change to allow for offshore distribution of
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our earnings, we would be subject to a significant withholding tax. Our determination regarding our qualification to enjoy the preferential tax treatment could be challenged by the relevant tax authority and we may not be able to complete the necessary filings with the relevant tax authority and enjoy the preferential withholding tax rate of 5% under the arrangement with respect to dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiaries to our Hong Kong subsidiary.
We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.
In February 2015, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Circular on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Circular 7. Circular 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to not only indirect transfers but also transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets, through the offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, Circular 7 provides certain criteria on how to assess reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. Circular 7 also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of the taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise conducts an “indirect transfer” by transferring the taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, the non-resident enterprise being the transferor, or the transferee, or the PRC entity which directly owned the taxable assets may report to the relevant tax authority such indirect transfer. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued Circular on Issues of Tax Withholding regarding Non-PRC Resident Enterprise Income Tax, or Circular 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017. Circular 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of nonresident enterprise income tax.
We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences of future private equity financing transactions, share exchanges or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises. The PRC tax authorities may pursue such non-resident enterprises with respect to a filing or the transferees with respect to withholding obligations, and request our PRC subsidiaries to assist in the filing. As a result, we and non-resident enterprises in such transactions may become at risk of being subject to filing obligations or being taxed under Circular 7 and Circular 37, and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with them or to establish that we and our non-resident enterprises should not be taxed under these regulations, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
If the custodians or authorized users of controlling non-tangible assets of our company, including our corporate chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions are executed using the chops or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant branch of the SAMR.
Although we usually utilize chops to enter into contracts, the designated legal representatives of each of our PRC subsidiaries, variable interest entities and their subsidiaries have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops and bind such entities. All designated legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries, variable interest entities and their subsidiaries are members of our senior management team who have signed employment agreements with us or our PRC subsidiaries, variable interest entities and their subsidiaries under which they agree to abide by various duties they owe to us. In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locations accessible only by the authorized personnel in the legal or finance department of each of our subsidiaries, variable interest entities and their subsidiaries. Although we
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monitor such authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly, if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in maintaining control over the relevant entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designated legal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our PRC subsidiaries, variable interest entities or their subsidiaries, we or our PRC subsidiaries, variable interest entities and their subsidiaries would need to pass a new shareholders or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal action to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative’s fiduciary duties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of our control in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.
Our leased property interest or entitlement to other facilities or assets may be defective or subject to lien and our right to lease, own or use the properties affected by such defects or lien challenged, which could cause significant disruption to our business.
Under PRC laws, all lease agreements are required to be registered with the local housing authorities. We presently lease several premises in China, some of which have not completed the registration of the ownership rights or the registration of our leases with the relevant authorities. Failure to complete these required registrations may expose our landlords, lessors and us to potential monetary fines. If these registrations are not obtained in a timely manner or at all, we may be subject to monetary fines or may have to relocate our offices and incur the associated losses.
Some of the ownership certificates or other similar proof of certain leased properties have not been provided to us by the relevant lessors. Therefore, we cannot assure you that such lessors are entitled to lease the relevant real properties to us. If the lessors are not entitled to lease the real properties to us and the owners of such real properties decline to ratify the lease agreements between us and the respective lessors, we may not be able to enforce our rights to lease such properties under the respective lease agreements against the owners. If our lease agreements are claimed as null and void by third parties who are the real owners of such leased real properties, we could be required to vacate the properties, in the event of which we could only initiate the claim against the lessors under relevant lease agreements for indemnities for their breach of the relevant leasing agreements. We cannot assure you that suitable alternative locations are readily available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and if we are unable to relocate our operations in a timely manner, our operations may be adversely affected.
Some of our PRC subsidiaries have incurred or will incur indebtedness and may, in connection therewith, create mortgage, pledge or other lien over substantive operating assets, facilities or equity interests of certain PRC subsidiaries as guarantee to their repayment of indebtedness or as counter guarantee to third-party guarantors which provide guarantee to our PRC subsidiaries’ repayment of indebtedness. In the event that the relevant PRC subsidiaries fail to perform their repayment obligations or such guarantors perform their guarantee obligations, claims may be raised to our substantive operating assets, facilities or equity interests of the PRC subsidiaries in question. If we cannot continue to own or use such assets, facilities or equity interests, our operation may be adversely affected.
The audit report included in our 2019 Annual Report is prepared by an auditor who is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.
Auditors of companies that are registered with the SEC and traded publicly in the United States, including our independent registered public accounting firm, must be registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or PCAOB, and are subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess their compliance with the relevant professional standards. Because our auditor is located in the People’s Republic of China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditor is not currently inspected by the PCAOB. In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC and the PRC
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Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB, the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States and the PRC, respectively. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. However, it remains unclear what further actions the SEC and the PCAOB will take to address the problem. On April 21, 2020, the SEC and the PCAOB issued another joint statement reiterating the greater risk that disclosures will be insufficient in many emerging markets, including China, compared to those made by U.S. domestic companies. In discussing the specific issues related to the greater risk, the statement again highlights the PCAOB’s inability to inspect audit work papers and practices of accounting firms in China, with respect to their audit work of U.S. reporting companies. On June 4, 2020, the U.S. President issued a memorandum ordering the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, to submit a report to the President within 60 days of the memorandum that includes recommendations for actions that can be taken by the executive branch and by the SEC or PCAOB on Chinese companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges and their audit firms, in an effort to protect investors in the United States. On August 6, 2020, the PWG released a report recommending that the SEC take steps to implement the five recommendations outlined in the report. In particular, to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfill its statutory mandate, or NCJs, the PWG recommends enhanced listing standards on U.S. stock exchanges. This would require, as a condition to initial and continued exchange listing, PCAOB access to work papers of the principal audit firm for the audit of the listed company. Companies unable to satisfy this standard as a result of governmental restrictions on access to audit work papers and practices in NCJs may satisfy this standard by providing a co-audit from an audit firm with comparable resources and experience where the PCAOB determines it has sufficient access to audit work papers and practices to conduct an appropriate inspection of the co-audit firm. The report permits the new listing standards to provide for a transition period until January 1, 2022 for listed companies, but would apply immediately to new listings once the necessary rulemakings and/or standard-setting are effective. After this transition period, if currently listed companies were unable to meet the enhanced listing standards, then they would become subject to securities exchange rules and processes that could lead to possible de-listing if not cured. The measures in the PWG Report are presumably subject to the standard SEC rulemaking process before becoming effective. On August 10, 2020, the SEC announced that SEC Chairman Jay Clayton had directed the SEC staff to prepare proposals in response to the PWG Report, and that the SEC was soliciting public comments and information with respect to these proposals.
The PCAOB’s inspections of other firms outside China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB’s inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating audits and quality control procedures of any auditors operating in China, including our auditor. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.
As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, in June 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress, which if passed, would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which the PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate an auditor report issued by a foreign public accounting firm. The proposed Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (EQUITABLE) Act prescribes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges of issuers included on the SEC’s list for three consecutive years. On May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed S. 945, the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the Kennedy Bill. On July 21, 2020, the U.S. House of Representatives approved its version of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, which
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contains provisions comparable to the Kennedy Bill. If either of these bills is enacted into law, it would amend the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to direct the SEC to prohibit securities of any registrant from being listed on any of the U.S. securities exchanges or traded “over-the-counter” if the auditor of the registrant’s financial statements is not subject to PCAOB inspection for three consecutive years after the law becomes effective. Enactment of any of the foregoing legislation and proposals or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, the market price of our ADSs could be adversely affected, and we could be delisted if we are unable to cure the situation to meet the PCAOB inspection requirement in time. It is unclear if and when any of such proposed legislations or proposals will be enacted. Furthermore, there have been recent media reports on deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting China-based companies from accessing U.S. capital markets. If any such deliberations were to materialize, the resulting legislation may have material and adverse impact on the stock performance of China-based issuers listed in the United States.
Proceedings instituted by the SEC against the “big four” PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.
In late 2012, the SEC commenced administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act against the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms (including our auditors). The Rule 102(e) proceedings initiated by the SEC relate to these firms’ inability to produce documents, including audit work papers, in response to the request of the SEC pursuant to Section 106 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as the auditors located in the PRC are not in a position lawfully to produce documents directly to the SEC because of restrictions under PRC law and specific directives issued by the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC. The issues raised by the proceedings are not specific to our auditors or to us, but affect equally all audit firms based in China and all China-based businesses with securities listed in the United States.
In January 2014, the administrative judge reached an initial decision, or the Initial Decision, that the Chinese affiliates of “big four” accounting firms should be barred from practicing before the SEC for six months. Thereafter, the accounting firms filed a petition for review of the Initial Decision, prompting the SEC commissioners to review the Initial Decision, determine whether there had been any violation and, if so, determine the appropriate remedy to be placed on these audit firms.
In February 2015, the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms (including our auditors) each agreed to censure and pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC and audit U.S. listed companies. The settlement requires the firms to follow detailed procedures and to seek to provide the SEC with access to the Chinese firms’ audit documents via the CSRC. If they failed to meet the specified criteria during a period of four years starting from the settlement date, the SEC retained authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four China-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. While we cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the four China-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such a challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions. If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.
In the event the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” become subject to additional legal challenges by the SEC or PCAOB, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act, and could result in delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our shares may be adversely affected. If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, temporarily, the
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ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.
Risks Related to Our ADSs and Trading Market
The trading prices of our ADSs have fluctuated and may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.
The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile and has ranged from a low of US$1.19 to a high of US$14.98 between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020. The market price for our ADSs may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including, but not limited to, the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and cash flows;

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

conditions in automotive markets;

changes in the operating performance or market valuations of other automotive companies;

announcements by us or our competitors of new products, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

addition or departure of key personnel;

fluctuations of exchange rates between RMB and the U.S. dollar;

litigation, government investigation or other legal or regulatory proceeding;

release of lock-up and other transfer restrictions on our ADSs, issuance of ADSs or ordinary shares upon conversion of the convertible notes we issued, or any ordinary shares or sales of additional ADSs;

any actual or alleged illegal acts of our shareholders or management;

any share repurchase program; and

general economic or political conditions in China or elsewhere in the world.
Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. The securities of some China-based companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings in recent years, including, in some cases, substantial declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies listed in the United States in general, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in any inappropriate activities. In particular, the global financial crisis and the ensuing economic recessions in many countries have contributed and may continue to contribute to extreme volatility in the global stock markets. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in our ADS price may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, most of whom have been granted options or other equity incentives.
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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.
Our triple-class voting structure will limit the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs to influence corporate matters, provide certain shareholders of ours with substantial influence and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.
We have adopted a triple-class voting structure such that our ordinary shares consist of Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares have the same rights other than voting and conversion rights. Each holder of our Class A ordinary shares is entitled to one vote per share, each holder of our Class B ordinary shares is entitled to four votes per share and each holder of our Class C ordinary shares is entitled to eight votes per share on all matters submitted to them for a vote. Our Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares vote together as a single class on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, except as may otherwise be required by law. Each Class B ordinary share or Class C ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share, whereas Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares or Class C ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B ordinary shares or Class C ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B ordinary shares or Class C ordinary shares are automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A ordinary shares.
As of the date of this prospectus supplement, Mr. Bin Li, our chairman and chief executive officer, together with his affiliates, beneficially own all of our issued Class C ordinary shares. The Tencent entities beneficially owned all of our issued Class B ordinary shares. Due to the disparate voting powers associated with our triple classes of ordinary shares, Mr. Li has considerable influence over important corporate matters. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, Mr. Li beneficially owned 44.1% of the aggregate voting power of our company through mobike Global Ltd. and Originalwish Limited, companies wholly owned by Mr. Li, and through NIO Users Limited, a holding company ultimately controlled by Mr. Li, whereas Tencent entities beneficially owned 19.9% of the aggregate voting power of our company through Mount Putuo Investment Limited, Image Frame Investment (HK) Limited, Huang River Investment Limited and an affiliate of Tencent Holding limited. Mr. Li has considerable influence over matters requiring shareholder approval, including electing directors and approving material mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions. This concentrated control will limit the ability of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs to influence corporate matters and could also discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transaction, which could have the effect of depriving the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and our ADSs of the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the prevailing market price. Moreover, Mr. Li may increase the concentration of his voting power and/or share ownership in the future, which may, among other consequences, decrease the liquidity in our ADSs.
The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.
Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs. In addition, certain holders of our existing shareholders are entitled to certain registration rights, including demand registration rights, piggyback registration rights, and Form F-3 or Form S-3 registration rights. Registration of these shares under the
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Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of these registered shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.
Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, the holders of our ADSs must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on their investment.
We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.
Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return to ADS holders will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which ADS holders purchased the ADSs. Our ADS holders may not realize a return on their investment in our ADSs and they may even lose their entire investment in our ADSs.
There can be no assurance that we will not be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares.
A non-U.S. corporation will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year if either (1) 75% or more of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income; or (2) 50% or more of the value of its assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). Based on our current and expected income and assets (taking into account our current market capitalization), we do not believe that we were a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2019 and we do not expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future. However, no assurance can be given in this regard because the determination of whether we are or will become a PFIC is a fact-intensive inquiry made on an annual basis that depends, in part, upon the nature and composition of our income and assets. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules, it is possible that the IRS may challenge our classification of certain income and assets as non-passive which may result in our being or becoming a PFIC in the current or subsequent years. Fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years because the value of our assets for the purpose of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs, which may be volatile. The nature and composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets.
Although the law in this regard is not entirely clear, we treat our consolidated VIEs as being owned by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes because we control their management decisions and are entitled to substantially all of the economic benefits associated with these entities. As a result, we consolidated their results of operations in our consolidated U.S. GAAP financial statements. If it were determined, however, that we are not the owner of the consolidated VIEs for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we may be treated as a PFIC for the current taxable year and any subsequent taxable year.
If we were to be or become a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations”) holds our ADSs or Class A ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder. See “Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”
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Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs.
Our eleventh amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain provisions that have the potential to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.
The capped call and zero-strike call transactions may affect the value of our ADSs.
On January 30, 2019, in connection with the pricing of the 2024 Notes, we entered into capped call transactions with one or more of the initial purchasers and/or their respective affiliates and/or other financial institutions, or the Capped Call Option Counterparties. We entered into additional capped call transactions with the Capped Call Option Counterparties on February 15, 2019 and February 26, 2019, respectively. We used a portion of the net proceeds of the 2024 Notes to pay the cost of such transactions. The cap price of these capped call transactions is initially US$14.92 per ADS, representing a premium of approximately 100% to the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, of our ADSs on January 30, 2019, which was US$7.46 per ADS, and is subject to adjustment under the terms of the capped call transactions. As part of establishing their initial hedges of the capped call transactions, the Capped Call Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates expect to trade the ADSs and/or enter into various derivative transactions with respect to our ADSs concurrently with, or shortly after, the pricing of the 2024 Notes. This activity could increase (or reduce the size of any decrease in) the market price of the ADSs or the 2024 Notes at that time. However, if any such capped call transactions fail to become effective, the Capped Call Option Counterparties may unwind their hedge positions with respect to the ADSs, which could adversely affect the market price of the ADSs. In addition, the Capped Call Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivative transactions with respect to the ADSs, the 2024 Notes or our other securities and/or by purchasing or selling the ADSs, the 2024 Notes or our other securities in secondary market transactions following the pricing of the 2024 Notes and prior to the maturity of the 2024 Notes (and are likely to do so following any conversion of the 2024 Notes, if we exercise the relevant election under the capped call transactions, or repurchase of the 2024 Notes by us). This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our ADSs.
On January 30, 2019, in connection with the pricing of the 2024 Notes, NIO also entered into privately negotiated zero-strike call option transactions with one or more of the initial purchasers or their respective affiliates, or the Zero-Strike Call Option Counterparties, and used a portion of the net proceeds of the 2024 Notes to pay the aggregate premium under such transactions. Pursuant to the zero-strike call option transactions, we purchased, in the aggregate, approximately 26 8 million ADSs, with delivery thereof (subject to adjustment) by the respective Zero-Strike Call Option Counterparties at settlement shortly after the scheduled maturity date of the 2024 Notes, subject to the ability of each Zero-Strike Call Option Counterparty to elect to settle all or a portion of the respective zero-strike option transaction early. Facilitating investors’ hedge positions by entering into the zero-strike call option transactions, particularly if investors purchase the ADSs on or around the day of the pricing of the 2024 Notes, could increase (or reduce the size of any decrease in) the market price of the ADSs. However, if any zero-strike call option transactions fail to become effective, the respective Zero-Strike Call Option Counterparties may unwind their hedge positions with respect to the ADSs, which could adversely affect the market price of the ADSs. In addition, the Zero-Strike Call Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their
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respective hedge positions by entering into or unwinding one or more derivative transactions with respect to the ADSs, the 2024 Notes or our other securities and/or by purchasing or selling the ADSs, the 2024 Notes or our other securities in secondary market transactions at any time, including following the pricing of the 2024 Notes and prior to the maturity of the 2024 Notes. This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of the ADSs.
Our shareholders may face difficulties in protecting their interests, and ability to protect their rights through U.S. courts may be limited because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our eleventh amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law (2020 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for our shareholders to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
As a Cayman Islands company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, we are subject to the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. However, the NYSE corporate governance listing standards permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
Pursuant to Sections 303A.01, 303A.04, 303A.05 and 303A.07 of the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual, a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange must have a majority of independent directors, a nominating and corporate governance committee composed entirely of independent directors, a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors and an audit committee with a minimum of three members. We currently follow our home country practice in lieu of these requirements. We may also continue to rely on these and other exemptions available to foreign private issuers in the future, and to the extent that we choose to do so in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under the NYSE corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to you, were you investing in a United States domestic issuer.
It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China.
Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may
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not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests.
ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.
The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares provides that, subject to the depositary’s right to require a claim to be submitted to arbitration, the federal or state courts in the City of New York have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine claims arising under the deposit agreement and in that regard, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our Class A ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.
If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before investing in the ADSs.
If any of the holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, such holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and/or the depositary, lead to increased costs to bring a claim, limited access to information and other imbalances of resources between such holder and us, or limit such holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such holder finds favorable. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.
Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not enforced, to the extent a court action proceeds, it would proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs shall relieve us or the depositary from our respective obligations to comply with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act nor serve as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs of compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.
We are a Cayman Islands company and the majority of our assets are located outside of the United States. The most significant portion of our operations are conducted in China. In addition, a majority of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons may be located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for our shareholders to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that such shareholders believe that their rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if such shareholders are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render them unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.
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We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.
Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC;

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.
We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely than that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.
The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and they may not be able to exercise their right to vote their Class A ordinary shares.
Holders of our ADSs will only be able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, ADS holders must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. If we ask for instructions of ADS holders, then upon receipt of such voting instructions, the depositary will try to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with these instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for instructions of ADS holders, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions given by holders of ADSs, but it is not required to do so. ADS holders will not be able to directly exercise their right to vote with respect to the underlying shares unless they withdraw the shares. When a general meeting is convened, an ADS holder may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the shares underlying his or her ADSs to allow such holder to vote with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for instructions of holders of ADSs, the depositary will notify ADS holders of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to ADS holders. We have agreed to give the depositary at least 30 days’ prior notice of shareholders’ meetings. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that ADS holders will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that ADS holders can instruct the depositary to vote their shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out ADS holders’ voting instructions. This means that an ADS holder may not be able to exercise the right to vote and may have no legal remedy if the shares underlying his or her ADSs are not voted as such holder requested.
The depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs if the holders of such ADSs do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect the interests of our ADS holders.
Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if any holder of the ADSs does not vote, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A ordinary shares underlying such ADSs at shareholders’ meetings unless:

we have failed to timely provide the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;

we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;
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we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.
The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if any such holder of the ADSs does not vote at shareholders’ meetings, such holder cannot prevent our Class A ordinary shares underlying such ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our Class A ordinary shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.
An ADS holder’s right to pursue claims against the depositary is limited by the terms of the deposit agreement.
Under the deposit agreement, any action or proceeding against or involving the depositary, arising out of or based upon the deposit agreement or the transactions contemplated thereby or by virtue of owning the ADSs may only be instituted in a state or federal court in New York, New York, and a holder of our ADSs, will have irrevocably waived any objection which such holder may have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submitted to the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such action or proceeding. However, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this exclusive jurisdiction provision. Furthermore, investors cannot waive compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
The depositary may, in its sole discretion, require that any dispute or difference arising from the relationship created by the deposit agreement be referred to and finally settled by an arbitration conducted under the terms described in the deposit agreement, although the arbitration provisions do not preclude an ADS holder from pursuing claims under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act in state or federal courts. Furthermore, if an ADS holder is unsuccessful in such arbitration, such holder may be responsible for the fees of the arbitrator and other costs incurred by the parties in connection with such arbitration pursuant to the deposit agreement. Also, we may amend or terminate the deposit agreement without the consent of any ADS holder. If an ADS holder continues to hold its ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, such holder agrees to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.
Our ADS holders may not receive dividends or other distributions on our Class A ordinary shares and the ADS holders may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to the ADS holders.
The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay the ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on Class A ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. Our ADS holders will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A ordinary shares the underlying ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, Class A ordinary shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, Class A ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that our ADS holders may not receive distributions we make on our Class A ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to the ADS holders. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.
Our ADS holders may experience dilution of their holdings due to inability to participate in rights offerings.
We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from
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registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.
We may need additional capital, and the sale of additional ADSs or other equity securities could result in additional dilution to our shareholders, and the incurrence of additional indebtedness could increase our debt service obligations.
We may require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions, strategic acquisitions or other future developments. If these resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain additional credit facilities. The sale of additional equity and equity-linked securities could result in additional dilution to our shareholders. The sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs (including upon conversion of the notes) could dilute the interests of our shareholders and ADS holders and adversely impact the market price of our ADSs. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
Future sales or issuances, or perceived future sales or issuances, of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares or ADSs could adversely affect the price of our ADS.
If our existing shareholders sell, or are perceived as intending to sell, substantial amounts of our ordinary shares or ADSs, including those issued upon the exercise of our outstanding stock options, the market price of our ADSs could fall. Such sales, or perceived potential sales, by our existing shareholders might make it more difficult for us to issue new equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and place we deem appropriate. Shares held by our existing shareholders may be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions contained in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. If any existing shareholder or shareholders sell a substantial amount of ordinary shares after the expiration of the applicable lock-up periods, the prevailing market price for our ADSs could be adversely affected.
In addition, certain of our shareholders or their transferees and assignees will have the right to cause us to register the sale of their shares under the Securities Act upon the occurrence of certain circumstances.
Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration.
Our ADS holders may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.
Our ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.
As a public company, we incur significant accounting, legal and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, have detailed requirements concerning corporate governance practices of public
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companies, including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act relating to internal controls over financial reporting. We expect these rules and regulations applicable to public companies to increase our accounting, legal and financial compliance costs and to make certain corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. Our management will be required to devote substantial time and attention to our public company reporting obligations and other compliance matters. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. Our reporting and other compliance obligations as a public company may place a strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future.
In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company’s securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
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BUSINESS
Business Overview
Our mission is to shape a joyful lifestyle. We aim to develop NIO into a community starting with smart EVs where we share joy and grow together with users.
We are a pioneer in China’s premium smart electric vehicle market. We design, jointly manufacture, and sell smart and connected premium electric vehicles, driving innovations in next generation technologies in connectivity, autonomous driving and artificial intelligence. Redefining user experience, we aim to provide users with comprehensive, convenient and innovative charging solutions and other user-centric service offerings. Our Chinese name, Weilai (  [MISSING IMAGE: tm2022004d6-txt_weilaibw.jpg]  ), which means Blue Sky Coming, reflects our commitment to a more environmentally friendly future.
The first model we developed was the EP9 supercar, introduced in 2016. The EP9 set a world record as the then fastest all-electric car on the track at the Nürburgring Nordschleife “Green Hell” track in Germany in May 2017, finishing a lap in 6 minutes and 45.90 seconds. Combined with an attractive design and strong driving performance, the EP9 delivers extraordinary acceleration and best-in-class electric powertrain technology, helping position us as a premium brand.
We launched our first volume manufactured electric vehicle, the seven-seater ES8, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 16, 2017 and began making deliveries to users on June 28, 2018. In December 2018, we launched its variant, the six-seater ES8, with delivery beginning in March 2019. The ES8 is an all-aluminum alloy body, premium electric SUV that offers exceptional performance, functionality and mobility lifestyle. It is equipped with our proprietary e-propulsion system, which is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kilometers (km) per hour (kph) in 4.4 seconds and delivering a New European Driving Cycle, or NEDC, driving range of up to 355 km and equipped with a 70-kilowatt-hour battery pack. On December 28, 2019, during the third NIO Day held in Shenzhen, China, we released the all-new ES8, the flagship smart premium electric SUV. The all-new ES8 boasts more than 180 product improvements and comes with better performance, longer driving range and a more sophisticated and high-tech design. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack newly released during the third NIO Day and to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the all-new ES8 has an NEDC range of up to 580 km, a major improvement in its range performance. We began making deliveries of the all-new ES8 in April 2020. In July 2019, NIO ranked the highest in quality among all electric vehicle brands, and the ES8 ranked the highest in quality among all mid-large electric vehicles, in JD Power’s 2019 New Energy Vehicle Experience Index Study. As of June 30, 2020, we had delivered 22,938 ES8s to customers in 282 cities.
We launched our second volume manufactured electric vehicle, the ES6, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 15, 2018 and began making deliveries to users in June 2019. The ES6 is a five-seater high-performance long-range premium electric SUV. The ES6 is smaller but more affordable than the ES8, allowing us to target a broader market in the premium SUV segment. Its performance edition is equipped with a 160-kW permanent magnet motor and a 240-kW induction motor, and is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kph within 4.7 seconds. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the ES6 performance edition boasts an NEDC range of up to 610 km. The ES6 ranked as the No. 1 electric SUV in China as measured by the number of deliveries since October 2019. As of June 30, 2020, we had delivered 23,144 ES6s to customers in 273 cities.
We launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 28, 2019. EC6 is a smart premium electric coupe SUV. This new model continues the NIO family design language with its stylish and sporty coupe-style body, and boasts of an excellent lightweight design and drag coefficient of only 0.26. Its performance edition is equipped with a 160-kW permanent magnet motor and a 240-kW induction motor and is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kph in just 4.5 seconds. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the EC6 boasts an NEDC range of up to 615 km. NIO announced the pre-subsidy price of the EC6 on July 24, 2020 during the 2020 Chengdu Auto Show, and it is now available for public pre-order via the NIO app, with delivery to start in September 2020.
We aim to create the most worry-free experience for our users, online or offline, at home or on-the-go. In response to common concerns over the accessibility and convenience of EV charging, we offer a comprehensive, convenient and innovative suite of charging solutions. These solutions, which we call our
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NIO Power solutions, include Power Home, our home charging solution; Power Swap, our innovative battery swapping service; Power Mobile, our mobile charging service through charging trucks; Power Charger, our public fast charging solution; and Power Express, our 24-hour on-demand pick-up and drop-off charging service. In addition, our vehicles are compatible with China’s national charging standards and have access to a nationwide publicly accessible charging network of approximately 270,000 charging piles. Furthermore, on August 20, 2020, we introduced the Battery as a Service, or the BaaS model, which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe the usage of battery packs separately. All users who purchase NIO vehicles are now eligible to place orders with the BaaS model. If users opt to purchase an ES8, ES6 or EC6 model and subscribe to use the 70 kWh battery pack under the BaaS model, they can enjoy an RMB70,000 deduction off the original vehicle purchase price and pay a monthly subscription fee of RMB980 for the battery pack. Meanwhile, the users will continue to enjoy the existing favorable policies such as purchase tax exemption and government subsidies for electric vehicles. We believe the BaaS model enables our users to benefit from the lower initial purchase prices of our vehicles, flexible battery upgrade options and assurance of battery performance, which will further enhance competitiveness of our products, create more value for our users and promote the conversion of consumer preferences from traditional vehicles to electronic vehicles. Beyond charging solutions, we offer comprehensive value-added services to our users, such as statutory and third-party liability insurance and vehicle damage insurance through third-party insurers, repair and routine maintenance services, courtesy car during lengthy repairs and maintenance, nationwide roadside assistance, as well as an enhanced data package. We provide servicing both through authorized third party service centers and NIO service centers, both of which provide repair, maintenance and bodywork services. As of June 30, 2020, we had 22 NIO service centers in 19 cities and 151 authorized third party service centers in 115 cities.
The electric powertrain technologies we developed for the EP9 set the technological foundation for the development of our vehicles, from the ES8 to the ES6 and the EC6 and to other future models. Our e-propulsion system consists of three key sub-systems: an electric drive system, or EDS, an energy storage system, or ESS, and a vehicle intelligence control system, or VIS. Our electric powertrain reflects our cutting-edge proprietary technologies and visionary engineering in our EV design.
We are a pioneer in automotive smart connectivity and enhanced Level 2 autonomous driving. NOMI, which we believe is one of the most advanced in-car AI assistants developed by a Chinese company, is a voice activated AI digital companion that personalizes the user’s driving experience. NIO Pilot, our proprietary enhanced Level 2 advanced driver assistance system, or ADAS, is enabled by 23 sensors and equipped with the Mobileye EyeQ®4 ADAS processor, which is eight times more powerful than its predecessor.
We have significant in-house capabilities in the design and engineering of electric vehicles, electric vehicle components and software systems. We have strategically located our teams in locations where we believe we have access to the best talent. As of June 30, 2020, we had 6,624 full-time employees. Our strong design, engineering and research and development capabilities enable us to launch smart and connected premium electric vehicles that are customized for, and thus appealing to, Chinese consumers. In addition, our research and development efforts also have resulted in an extensive intellectual property portfolio that we believe differentiates us from our competitors.
We adopt an innovative sales model compared to incumbent automobile manufacturers. We sell our vehicles through our own sales network, including NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and our mobile application. NIO Spaces are showrooms for our brand, vehicles and services. NIO Houses not only function as showrooms, but also clubhouses for our users with multiple social functions. Prospective users can place orders using our mobile application and more importantly, our mobile application fosters a dynamic and interactive online platform. As of June 30, 2020, we had 22 NIO Houses and 105 NIO Spaces in 83 cities. We believe our online and offline integrated community which is developing from our NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and mobile application will retain user engagement and cultivate loyalty to our brand, along with other successful branding activities, such as our annual NIO Day and our Drivers’ Championship winning Formula E team. For the first six months of 2020, the average customer referral rate reached approximately 62%, as compared with approximately 52% in 2019. We believe these solutions and services, together, will create a holistic user experience throughout the vehicle lifecycle.
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Our Competitive Strengths
We are focusing on providing smart and connected premium electric vehicles as part of a user-centric mobility lifestyle and we believe the following strengths contribute to our success.
Pioneer in China’s premium smart EV market
We are strategically positioned in China’s premium smart EV market, an attractive market segment in which we currently face very limited competition. Our volume manufactured vehicles, the ES8, ES6 and EC6, are positioned at the intersection of China’s fastest growing SUV and premium segments. They boast best-in-class performance across multiple dimensions including top speed, acceleration, battery range and advanced ADAS and autonomous driving features, all of which clearly differentiate us from our competitors.
Furthermore, as the company with the first-to-market and only premium EV volume-manufactured domestically in China, we believe we have a multi-year lead time in terms of product delivery ahead of our domestic and international competitors in China’s premium EV segment. In addition, the ES8, ES6 and EC6 are more affordable than the EVs of other imported premium brands as a result of the absence of import and purchasing taxes, lower manufacturing costs, other tax benefits as well as national and local subsidies. As of June 30, 2020, we had delivered a total of 46,082 vehicles, including the ES8 and the ES6, in 302 cities.
Redefining EV experience with cutting-edge proprietary technology, visionary engineering and smart connectivity
We design EVs that feature cutting-edge proprietary technology and visionary engineering. Our ES8 is a six or seven-seater all-wheel-drive SUV equipped with our in-house developed, dual motor powertrain system, consisting of high-performance e-drive system, high energy density battery pack and highly effective battery management system. The all-new ES8 boasts more than 180 product improvements and comes with better performance, longer driving range and a more sophisticated and high-tech design. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack newly released during the third NIO Day and to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the all-new ES8 has an NEDC range of up to 580 km, a major improvement in its range performance. Our ES6 features a 4.7 second 0-100 km/h acceleration, NEDC range of up to 610 km with the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack, and 33.9-meter braking distance from 100-0 km/h. The ES6 is also the first SUV featuring a combination of the permanent magnet motor and the induction motor, with a 97% energy conversion rate.
Our EC6 is a smart premium electric coupe SUV. EC6 has an agile coupe design with drag coefficient at only 0.26Cd. It is dynamically shaped and equipped with a 2.1 square meter vault glass roof. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the EC6 boasts an NEDC range of up to 615 km. Our technological leadership has also been demonstrated by our well-known EP9 supercar, one of the world’s fastest electric vehicles, which has set five world records to date.
We are a pioneer in smart connectivity, artificial intelligence, or AI, and enhanced Level 2 autonomous driving functionality. The ADAS system of ES8, ES6 and EC6 is built for advanced processing and learning capabilities. Our ES8, ES6 and EC6 are equipped with NIO Pilot, a comprehensive enhanced Level 2 ADAS system that will update with new features over time through high-speed FOTA updates. We have the ability to analyze large quantities of driving data to accelerate our autonomous driving technologies and algorithms.
In addition, we believe we have China’s most advanced in-car AI connected assistant, NOMI, which is capable of deep learning and benefits from our cloud computing network. NOMI is designed to be one of the most advanced AI systems in a production vehicle and through NOMI we aim to revolutionize the relationship between users and their vehicles. Through NOMI, users are able to use voice control to make phone calls, play music and control systems including navigation, opening and closing windows, climate control, controlling the seat massage function, operating in-car media, controlling the in-car camera (including taking pictures), among others, the mobility experience. NOMI learns users’ habits and interests through deep learning algorithms in order to meet their individual needs under different circumstances. We have built flexibility into our system which will allow for new functions and applications to be added through future software updates.
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Revolutionary and comprehensive charging solutions
We provide our users with a comprehensive range of charging solutions, alleviating the most critical challenge to EV adoption. We aim to provide charging services in most major cities in China. Our innovative “Power Express,” is expected to provide users with 24-hour on-demand charging services including car pick-up and drop-off. We offer users an energy package where these services are accessible for a fixed monthly or yearly subscription fee. Our charging solutions include:

“Power Home”—home chargers where practicable for users;

“Power Swap”—battery swapping stations offering battery swapping service within minutes. As of June 30, 2020, we had 135 NIO Power Swap stations covering urban areas and expressways across 59 cities;

Access to the nationwide charging network consisting of over 320,000 publicly accessible charging piles as of June 30, 2020. Our users can locate, navigate to and use these charging piles through our mobile application, NIO APP, and we are able to make use of these when providing our valet power express services;

“Power Mobile”—charging trucks offering rapid charging for 100km range within 10 minutes. As of June 30, 2020, we had 318 NIO Power Mobile charging trucks; and

“Power Charger”—reliable fast charging piles located in parking lots and other locations easily accessed by our users for them to locate, use and pay for through our NIO APP. As of June 30, 2020, we had approximately 439 NIO Power Charger piles in operation, covering 35 cities, and provided over 360,000 one-click power services.
Powered by NIO Cloud, real-time data synchronization of our charging and battery swapping network enables us to deploy and deliver charging services faster and more efficiently. In addition, centralized, diagnostics and remote management of batteries allows our users to enjoy better battery performance.
User enterprise advocating a unique and holistic mobility lifestyle
Our “One-click for Service” and “One-click for Power” solutions through a subscription model offer a wide variety of value-added services including 24-hour customer service, technical support advisors, valet charging, car pick-up/drop-off delivery as well as more traditional services such as repair and maintenance and courtesy car. We believe these service offerings provide one-touch convenience and create a seamless experience for our users throughout the vehicle lifecycle. We directly sell our vehicles to users, which we believe allows us to deliver a more consistent, differentiated and compelling user experience, compared to the traditional franchised distribution model used by our competitors in China. We believe that our online and offline direct sales model is more cost efficient by cutting out franchised distribution costs as well as lowering the number of physical locations required and also allows us to expand our sales network effectively and efficiently in China.
We are building an integrated online and offline community, creating, we believe, a unique and interactive mobility lifestyle where users can interact to provide an experience that goes beyond the car. Our mobile application, featuring moment sharing and an online fan shop, has become an active online community. As of June 30, 2020, our mobile application had over 1,344,000 registered users and over 122,000 daily active users, and over 1,500,000 pieces of merchandise had been sold on our mobile application. We believe that our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces will help to cultivate brand loyalty and promote user engagement, serving as an exclusive user club with multiple social functions. Furthermore, our annual NIO Day with new product launches increases our media exposure and attracts prospective users.
In addition, our tech savvy investors provide us with strategic support and long-term funding. For instance, we work with Baidu and Tencent on mapping and cloud services, respectively.
Strategic partnerships with global best-in-class technology and industrial leaders
Our position as a pioneer in our market has attracted global leaders across our supply chain, autonomous driving, infotainment and various value-added services, creating an extensive industry alliance network for us. Our key partners include Tencent, Baidu, Mobileye and CATL. We believe their expertise and know-how broaden our service offering and solidify our technological leadership. For example, we are closely collaborating with Mobileye to develop next generation autonomous driving technology to be used in our vehicles.
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In addition, these leading suppliers and partners also allow us to manufacture and deliver our products with high quality standards. In particular, our alliance with JAC to manufacture our ES8, ES6 and EC6 provides us with flexibility, scalability and speed to market, cementing our first mover advantage in the China market, while product design, supply chain management and quality control are managed by us with our engineering team onsite.
In April 2020, we started our collaboration with the investors in connection with investment in NIO China. We believe the collaboration will provide us with substantial funds to support our business development, enhance our leadership in the products and technologies of smart electric vehicles and offer services exceeding users’ expectation. NIO China could enjoy a series of subsidies and support from the Hefei government, including rent subsidies, financial support and preferential tax treatment, if meeting certain performance criteria. Additionally, we believe the launch of NIO China headquarters in Hefei enables us to improve our operational efficiency and to sustain our growth and competitiveness in the long run.
Global talent pool, world-class management and well-established corporate governance
Our success is led by a visionary management team with a unique combination of internet and automotive experience with a start-up mindset. Our founder and Chairman, Mr. Bin Li, is an experienced entrepreneur in China with extensive expertise and a proven track record of creating innovative and disruptive business models in the mobility and internet space.
Our reputation has enabled us to recruit a global talent pool with specialists in China for user interface development and engineering tailored to Chinese users, in Silicon Valley for software and autonomous driving, and in Munich and the UK for vehicle design and engineering. Our global footprint echoes our premium proposition customized for Chinese consumers and delivers best-in-class standards in respective areas.
Our Strategies
We are pursuing the following strategies to achieve our mission:
Successfully launch future models timely to target a broader customer base and expand our product lineup
The successful launches of our future models are critical in capitalizing on our first mover advantage and capturing electric vehicle market opportunities in China. In addition, we are generally targeting to launch a new model every year for the near future. At the same time, we intend to launch mid-cycle facelifts on existing models more frequently than industry standards to meet latest user preferences and drive innovations.
Expand our infrastructure and service coverage nationwide to improve user experience
We intend to expand our users’ access to charging infrastructure nationwide and provide more convenient charging solutions to our users. We plan to offer real-time data on the availability of charging piles by uploading and synchronizing data from our own and third-party charging networks to our cloud. We plan to continue to build our service network mostly through authorized service centers across China and broaden the service coverage and further enhance user experience.
We plan to expand our distribution network by building more NIO Houses, NIO Spaces and delivery centers, supported by nationwide logistic network and regional warehousing facilities, in order to meet increasing demand from prospective buyers, particularly in non-tier-one cities. We plan to operate a total of over 200 NIO Spaces by the end of 2020.
Continue to focus on technological innovations
We intend to continue to attract talent from the world’s top universities, institutions, technology and automotive companies to expand our talent pool and help us drive technological innovation. Meanwhile, we aim to further advance our proprietary E-powertrain system to achieve better battery performance to increase the driving range and shorten the charging time for our cars. We are also developing our next
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generation of E-powertrain system with higher output EDS as well as higher capacity fast charging battery packs. In addition, we intend to leverage our cyber-security technology and FOTA platform to build seamless vehicle network and create a mobile living space featuring artificial intelligence and a next-generation digital cockpit and user interface.
Moreover, we plan to develop ADAS with more comprehensive active automated driving, driving support, and alerts and warnings features. We are aiming to launch a model equipped with Level 4 autonomous driving capabilities in the coming years. We intend to further enhance safety and technology features to drive customer satisfaction and interest, which in turn helps expand our market share.
Create more monetization opportunities during the lifetime ownership
We offer an innovative subscription service in the automotive industry consisting of a service package and an energy package to generate recurring revenues beyond the initial car purchase and promote user engagement. We expect to increase the user adoption of these packages by providing more convenient and user-centric services.
In addition, we plan to continue to focus on users’ lifetime engagement to create additional monetization opportunities in every aspect of car ownership, including financing, insurance, repair and maintenance, charging and infotainment. We also plan to establish and develop strategic partnerships with Tencent, JD.com and other technology leaders in our ecosystem to explore more value-added services empowered by big-data and our cloud architecture, such as “mailbox” service, or last mile express delivery service into the car trunk, and in-car entertainment.
Our Vehicles
We design, jointly manufacture and sell our vehicles in China’s premium electric vehicle segment. We began making deliveries to the public of our first volume manufactured car, the seven-seater ES8 on June 28, 2018. In December 2018, we launched its variant, the six-seater ES8, with delivery beginning in March 2019. In addition, we launched our second volume manufactured electric vehicle, the ES6, to the public at our NIO Day event on December 15, 2018. The ES6 is a five-seater high-performance long-range premium electric SUV. The ES6 is smaller but more affordable than the ES8, allowing us to target a broader market in the premium SUV segment. We began making deliveries of the ES6 to users in June 2019. In December 2019, we launched the all-new ES8 with more than 180 product improvements. The all-new ES8 comes with better performance, longer driving range and a more sophisticated and high-tech design, with delivery beginning in April 2020. In addition, in December 2019, we launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6. EC6 is a smart premium electric coupe SUV with a dynamic shape design. Users can pre-order the EC6 through the NIO App and we expect to begin making deliveries of the EC6 in September 2020. In addition, we launched the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack, which boasts the driving rage of the all-new ES8, ES6 and EC6’s to up to 580km, 610km and 615km, respectively. We plan to leverage the platform technologies from the ES8, the ES6 and EC6 to build our future models.
Our goal is to launch a new vehicle model each year for the near future as we plan to offer our users more choices to suit their preferences and target different segments within the premium electric vehicle market in China. We plan to mainly sell our vehicles in China for the near future.
ES8
The ES8, our first volume manufactured vehicle, is a spacious six or seven-seater high-performance premium electric SUV. The ES8 was officially launched at our NIO Day event on December 16, 2017, following which we began taking reservations. We started making deliveries to the public of the seven-seater ES8 on June 28, 2018 and have ramped up deliveries since launch. In December 2018, we launched its variant, the six-seater ES8, with delivery beginning in March 2019.
With both front and rear motors (240 kilowatt (kW) each), the ES8 delivers 480 kW of power and 840 units or Newton meters (Nm) of torque to all four wheels. The ES8’s e-propulsion system enables the ES8 to accelerate from zero to 100 kph in just 4.4 seconds. The ES8 is initially equipped with a 70-kilowatt-hour liquid-cooled battery pack comprised of cutting-edge square cell batteries, and we began delivering the ES8 with an 84-kilowatt-hour battery pack, extending its NEDC driving range to 430
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kilometers, in September 2019. The battery pack features an energy density of 135 watt hours per kilogram (wh/kg) and provides an approximately 1,200-charge-discharge lifecycle with an 87% capacity retention. The ES8 achieves a NEDC driving range of 355 kilometers.
With 21 active safety features, the ES8 is designed to meet five-star Chinese New Car Assessment Program safety standards developed by the China Automotive Technology Research Center. In addition to standard safety features for a vehicle in its class, ES8 also features or will feature, driver drowsiness detection, lane departure warning, lane change assistance, automatic emergency braking, side door opening warning, and 360-degree high definition surround vision, among other advanced safety measures. The ES8 is also designed to include safety features, such as electric stability program, electric traction control, cornering brake control, hill descent control, hill start assist, rear view camera, front and rear parking sensors, side distance indication system, direct-tire pressure monitoring system, blind spot detection, dynamic wheel torque by brake and roll stability control. In addition, the braking distance of the ES8 from 100 kph to a complete stop is 33.8 meters.
The ES8 is the first car in China to have an all-aluminum alloy body and chassis featuring aerospace grade 7003 series aluminum alloy, enabling torsional stiffness of 44,140 Nm/Deg, and also features the highest amount of aluminum for any mass production car yet. The active air suspension on the ES8 creates, we believe, a comfortable riding experience. The ES8 has a 3,010 millimeter long wheelbase, to create a truly mobile living space. The three-row, seven-seat layout makes full use of the interior space. The innovative “lounge seat” and “child-care mode”, together with the nappa leather wrap, create, we believe, a comfortable atmosphere, redefining the riding experience. The smart air quality system includes an activated carbon and high-efficiency particulate air, or HEPA, filter and negative ion generator.
Together with the launch of the ES8 in 2017, we launched our NIO Pilot system. We have activated most of the features on our NIO Pilot system by December 2019. Our NIO Pilot ADAS, with comprehensive enhanced Level 2 autonomous driving features, is enabled by 23 sensors, including a trifocal front-facing camera, four surround exterior cameras, five millimeter-wave radars, 12 ultrasonic sensors and a driver monitor camera. The ES8 comes equipped with the Mobileye EyeQ®4 ADAS chip which has a computation capacity eight-times more powerful than its predecessor, the Mobileye EyeQ®3.
In addition, the ES8’s sophisticated 4G support and software and hardware suite enable subscribers to enjoy upgraded services through FOTA updates. Each vehicle comes standard with eight gigabytes per month of data. Our remote updates are driven by our centralized connected vehicle gateway which controls all electric control units, or ECUs. The ES8 provides high-speed parallel over-the-air updates, allowing the ES8 to acquire new features from time to time while minimizing downtime.
Together with the launch of the ES8, we launched our NOMI system, an optional feature, which we believe is one of the most advanced in-car AI assistants developed by a Chinese company. Our goal is to provide users with a more natural interaction with the in-car AI system and enhanced safety by further removing the need for users to keep looking at the screen while driving. NOMI combines the ES8’s intelligence and car connectivity functionalities to turn the ES8 into an intuitive companion that can listen to, talk with, and help drivers and passengers along the way. Through NOMI, users are able to use shortcuts and voice control to make phone calls, play music and control systems, including navigation, air-conditioning, opening and closing windows, climate control, controlling the seat massage function, operating in-car media and controlling the in-car camera (including taking pictures), among others. We intend to improve the system and add additional functions through FOTA upgrades.
In December 2019, we launched the all-new ES8 with more than 180 product improvements. With a combination of the permanent magnet motor of 160kW and the induction motor of 240 kW, the all-new ES8 with a 70-kilowatt battery pack reaches a driving range of up to 415 kilometers. It can accelerate from zero to 100 kph in just 4.9 seconds. The new ES8 with a 100-kilowatt battery pack reaches a drive range of up to 580 kilometers. The all-new ES8 features 3,010mm wheelbase, the longest in its class, boasting a spacious and flexible seating layout. The 9.8 inch instrument cluster with ultra-slim frame and 11.3 inch second-generation multi-touch center screen comes as standard. The optional NOMI Mate 2.0 is fitted with the world’s first auto-grade AMOLED full-circular display. The design of the all-new ES8 is more streamlined and dynamic with its front face, side and tail all adorned with chrome accents. With the better performance, longer driving range and the more sophisticated and high-tech design, the all-new ES8 redefines our smart electric flagship SUV.
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The seven-seater ES8 and the six-seater ES8 have pre-subsidy starting prices of RMB468,000 and RMB476,000, respectively. Purchasers can purchase additional options that come with the ES8, including nappa luxury interior package (consisting of nappa leather perforated seats, a nappa leather interior wrap and front massage seats), all-season comfort package (heated steering wheel, second row heated seats, and front row ventilated seat), a premium audio system, an enhanced head unit display and additional NIO Pilot functions, different wheel styles, certain exterior colors, NIO Pilot and NOMI, among others. The ES8 also comes equipped with a wireless charging board. We currently provide our users with the option of a battery payment arrangement, where users can make battery payments in installments. For the ES8 ordered before January 15, 2019, there is an RMB100,000 reduction in the purchase price and users adopting this arrangement pay RMB1,280 per month, payable over 78 months. For the ES8 and ES6 ordered after January 16, 2019, there is an RMB100,000 reduction in the purchase price and users adopting this arrangement pay RMB1,660 per month, payable over 60 months. To purchase an ES8, a customer is first required to pay a refundable deposit reserving the car, which for the ES8 is RMB2,000, and prior to the user’s ES8 entering into production, a non-refundable deposit of RMB20,000 must be made (which can include the initial RMB2,000 reservation deposit) and is applied towards the purchase price of the vehicle.
ES6
The ES6 is a five-seater high-performance electric premium SUV launched in December 2018. We started making deliveries to the public of the ES6 in June 2019 and have ramped up deliveries since launch. The ES6 is smaller but more affordable than the ES8, allowing us to target a broader market in the premium SUV segment. The ES6 currently offers the Sport, Performance and Premier editions with pre-subsidy starting prices of RMB358,000, RMB398,000, and RMB498,000, respectively. Users can pre-order the ES6 through the NIO App.
The ES6 is the world’s first SUV equipped with a combination of the permanent magnet motor (160 kW) and the induction motor (240 kW). The ES6 delivers 400 kW of power and 725 Newton meters of torque to all four wheels with an energy conversion rate of 97%. The ES6 can accelerate from zero to 100 kph in 4.7 seconds. The braking distance of the ES6 from 100 kph to a complete stop is 33.9 meters. The ES6 is initially equipped with a 70-kilowatt-hour liquid-cooled battery pack, and we began delivering the ES6 with an 84-kilowatt-hour battery pack, extending its NEDC driving range to 510 kilometers, in September 2019. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the ES6 boasts an NEDC range of up to 610 km. The ES6 is the first car in China with a hybrid structure of aluminum alloy (91%) and carbon fiber (9%), featuring aircraft grade 7 series aluminum alloy, enabling torsional stiffness of 44,930 Nm/Deg, the highest among any mass production SUV globally. The use of high-strength carbon fiber makes the ES6 lighter but more solid. It features the independent suspension, Continuous Damping Control (CDC) and the intelligent electric all-wheel-drive system. Users have the option of installing the active air suspension and switching between driving modes, creating a more comfortable riding experience.
The ES6 is equipped with Lion, a high-performance intelligent gateway enabling data exchange and remote upgrading via FOTA. Additionally, the ES6’s Dragon security architecture offers a matrix-like firewall to enhance data security and protect user privacy. In addition, the speech-based interactive NOMI system with a voice-based interactive feature is built into the ES6. The ES6 also has an upgraded head-up display, a digital instrument cluster and an 11.3 inch second-generation multi-touch screen. Moreover, the ES6 has a pre-installed NIO Pilot system with a Mobileye EyeQ®4 and 23 sensors.
EC6
The EC6 is a smart premium electric coupe SUV launched in December 2019. EC6 has an agile coupe design with drag coefficient at only 0.26Cd. It is dynamically shaped and equipped with a 2.1 square meter vault glass roof. The EC6 is equipped with a 160-kW permanent magnet motor and a 240-kW induction motor and is capable of accelerating from zero to 100 kph in just 4.5 seconds. With the 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020, the EC6 boasts an NEDC range of up to 615 km.
The EC6 is available in three trim levels, the Sport Edition, Performance Edition, and the Signature Edition, all with the 70kWh battery pack included at a pre-subsidy price of RMB 368,000, RMB 408,000 and RMB 468,000 respectively. The EC6’s panoramic moonroof maximizes natural light in the cabin. The
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laminated glass insulates against 83% of heat and 99.9% of UV rays. Its superior dimensions and long wheelbase of 2.9m offer generous space. The EC6 comes standard with a Microfiber headliner and Nappa leather sports steering wheel. The Microcloud matte finishes to the dashboard and the door panels, adding to the sporty atmosphere of the interior. The EC6 has a full-digital cabin with a 9.8-inch ultra-slim Instrument Cluster, an 11.3-inch HD multi-touch center display and NOMI Mate 2.0, NIO’s unique digital assistant, fitted with an AMOLED full-circular display, creating an immersive user experience.
The EC6 is made of high strength aluminum alloy, equipped with CDC system as standard. Together with optional active air suspension and intelligent sensing of road conditions, it provides an involving and comfortable driving experience. Users can pre-order the EC6 through the NIO App. We expect to begin making deliveries of the EC6 in September 2020.
Our Power Solutions
Through our NIO Power solutions, we offer a comprehensive and innovative suite of power solutions to address the battery charging needs of our users. We aim to provide power services in most major cities in China, with our solutions being easily accessible through our mobile application. We also offer our users our valet service where we pick up, charge and then return the vehicle. Our goal is to provide the most convenient power solutions to our users. Using our mobile application, our users will be able to monitor battery levels and charging status. The charging status of batteries and the charging solutions available to users are all connected through our cloud, enabling us to assist users in finding the most convenient charging solution available in a given area.
Home Charging (NIO Power Home)
Through NIO Power Home, we install chargers at our customers’ homes after the purchase of a new vehicle based on customer request where installation at the customer’s home is feasible. Given the convenience of having a home charger installed, we aim to install a home charger for our users whenever practicable. Our home charger is expected to be the first to have an auto-identification function which enables a vehicle to automatically pair with its exclusively compatible home charger. Charging takes place by simply inserting the charging gun into the vehicle’s charging port. The first NIO Power Home device and basic installation are initially included in the price of the vehicle though there may be charges in certain circumstances. Any user has the option of postponing such installation if installation is not feasible at his or her residence at the time of purchase. Any subsequent installation is subject to charge on a case-by-case basis. Installation is performed by professional third-party contractors engaged by us. Our charging pile design won the “best of best” reddot award in 2018. Under normal temperatures and battery conditions, the 84-kilowatt-hour battery of the ES8 and the ES6 would be charged from approximately 20% to 90% power level in seven to eight hours using our home charger.
Power Express and Other Power Solutions
We have tailored our charging solutions to serve the needs of Chinese users. We anticipate that many of our users are likely to live in condominiums or apartment buildings where they are unable to install a home charger. We aim to provide such users with a level of convenience and service with our other power solutions so that they can enjoy a similar level of convenience as our users with home chargers installed. We are also committed to ensuring the high standard of quality and performance of our charging solutions.
To that end, we offer our users our Power Express valet service and other charging solutions, including access to public charging, access to our Power Mobile, charging trucks, battery swapping and Power Charges.
Using our mobile application, a user is able to arrange to have our team pick up his or her vehicle at the user’s designated parking location. The vehicle is driven to a nearby battery charging station or battery swap station or a charging truck is driven to the parking location. The vehicle is returned to the user once battery charging or swapping is completed. Users are able to select “immediate service” which provides the fastest charging option to meet a more urgent charging demand or “reservation service” for scheduled charging services. We also plan to provide “idle charging” which allows users to set an anticipated start time and end time when their vehicle is expected to remain idle, such as overnight, and the threshold of the
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vehicle’s cruising range when the service will be triggered, as well as a specific location where the vehicle is parked during specific periods. Our one-click charging service will be automatically triggered when the vehicle is idle and parked at the specified location during the specified period. Users are able to monitor their vehicle charging status in real time using our mobile application. We aim to provide users with the fastest charging experience, optimizing convenience to users by identifying the most appropriate charging solution based on the user’s travel habits through cloud-based smart scheduling.
We offer our users our energy package, which provides them with access to our Power Express services and charging solutions, including public charging, access to our Power Mobile charging trucks, and battery swapping for a fixed monthly fee, which is initially set at RMB980 per month if paid monthly, or RMB10,800 annually, for up to 15 charges per month. We currently anticipate that our energy package and Power Express services will primarily be utilized by users without home chargers installed. However, users who do not purchase our energy package are able to access our Power Express services and charging solutions on a pay-per-use basis. The initial price for such services is set at RMB180 per charge for NIO users and RMB280 per charge for others. The price for our mobile charging service to non-NIO users is RMB380 per charge for charging using NIO Power Mobile trucks.
Access to Public Charging
Our users have access to a network of public chargers, which as of June 30, 2020 consisted of approximately 320,000 publicly accessible charging piles. These chargers have been installed by both public and private sectors, including state-owned electricity companies and automotive original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs. Data from over 185,000 public chargers as of June 30, 2020, installed by the third parties, including the State Grid, are synchronized to our cloud so that users can access real-time information on the availability and location of these chargers. These chargers are provided by 36 operators, 14 of which we have achieved real-time connections with. We plan to increase the number of chargers with data synchronized to our cloud. The Chinese government has also set a target of more than 4.8 million charging piles in 2020. Access to these chargers is included in our energy package or can be provided on a pay-per-use basis. Under normal temperatures and battery conditions, the 84-kilowatt-hour battery of the ES8 and the ES6 would be charged from approximately 20% to 90% power (or battery) level in seven to eight hours using a normal charger or in approximately 70 minutes using a supercharger.
In addition, we have entered into a framework agreement with the State Grid Corporation of China with the aim of expanding the network of publicly accessible charging piles through technology and business model innovations in a collaborative way. Pursuant to the framework agreement, the parties have agreed to cooperate in the following areas: (i) building systematic solutions for electric cars, charging piles and grid network by leveraging each party’s own resources and standardizing electric vehicle charging and battery swap technology; (ii) application of smart vehicle connectivity technology to practice; (iii) innovation in electric vehicle charging and battery swap technology; (iv) the construction and operation of electric vehicle charging and battery swap infrastructure, and (v) the sales, leasing and insurance of or for electric vehicles. While this framework agreement sets forth certain long-term strategic cooperation principles for cooperation between the State Grid Corporation of China and us, the actual implementation of such principles would likely require the parties to enter into supplemental agreements covering specific areas of cooperation.
Fast Charging Trucks (Power Mobile)
Through NIO Power Mobile, we provide charging through charging trucks. We plan to use these charging trucks to supplement our charging network. Users are able to book NIO Power Mobile services in advance conveniently through our mobile application. We own fast charging trucks, which are equipped with our proprietary fast-charging technology.
As of June 30, 2020, we had approximately 318 NIO Power Mobile trucks in operation. We have deployed these trucks in major cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Nanjing and Suzhou, among others. We plan to enhance the efficiency of these NIO Power Mobile trucks to cater to user demand.
Battery Swapping (Power Swap)
Through Power Swap, we offer our users the ability to arrange for a battery swap for the ES8, ES6 and EC6. Our swap stations are compact stations located in parking lots and other locations. The typical size of
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a swap station is approximately three parking spaces, or 45 square meters. Swap stations are designed to be fully automated, but for the first and second years of operation we plan to have one staff member at each location to ensure reliability for the initial roll-out. Once a vehicle is parked in the swap station and the driver activates the swap function, battery swapping will take place automatically. Charging of the batteries at swap stations takes place while the batteries are stored at the swap station and their charging status information is sent to our cloud. Our battery swap stations were developed in-house and use chassis replacement technology and apply more than 300 patented technologies to provide precise positioning, rapid disassembly, compact integration, and flexible deployment, allowing battery replacement within minutes.
As of June 30, 2020, we had battery swap stations in 58 cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hefei, Chengdu, Nanjing, Suzhou and Hangzhou. We had 35 battery swap stations in total along the three major highways and four other highways in China. The three major highways are G2 highway that connects Beijing and Shenzhen, G4 highway that connects Beijing and Shanghai, and G15 highway that connects Shanghai and Guangzhou. We believe the battery swap service we provide effectively addresses consumers’ concern on charging convenience of electric vehicles, and has become an unduplicated competitive advantage of ours. We plan to further enhance the efficiency of the battery swap stations and to strategically deploy more swap stations in selected geographical areas as the number of our vehicles sold grows to ensure continuous optimal battery swap experience for our users.
Fast Charging Piles (Power Charger)
Through NIO Power Charger, we provide our users a fast and reliable charging solution using our fast charging piles. We plan to expand these charging piles as a supplement to our charging network. Users are able to locate, use and pay for the charging through our mobile application. Our Power Chargers are of a slim design and are located in parking lots and other locations easily accessed by our users, with maximum output power of 105 kilowatt and 250 ampere.
As of June 30, 2020, we had approximately 439 NIO Power Charger piles in operation, covering major cities including Beijing, among others, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Xi’an. We plan to enhance the efficiency of these NIO Power Charger piles to cater to user demand.
Our Other Value-Added Service Offerings
Through one click using our mobile application, our users can access a full suite of innovative services, as part of our strategy of redefining the user experience. In addition to our NIO Power solutions described above, we offer our users our NIO Service, comprised of other value-added services provided primarily through our service package, which can be ordered conveniently through our mobile application.
Service Package
We offer our users a service package, which, at a price initially set at RMB12,800 to RMB14,800 per year, provides statutory and third-party liability and vehicle damage insurance through third-party insurers, repair and routine maintenance services, courtesy car during repair and maintenance lasting more than 24 hours, roadside assistance and an enhanced data package, among other services. As of June 30, 2020, approximately 73% of our individual users had a subscription for our service package.
Through our service package, we aim to provide users with a “worry free” vehicle ownership experience. Using our mobile application, users are able to arrange for vehicle service with a few clicks. At a user’s request, we pick up the car, arrange for maintenance and repair services, and then return the car to users once the services are done. As long as the maintenance and repair is covered under our service package, no additional fee will be invoiced to the service package subscriber. If the user has a car accident, we will also assist the user in engaging with the insurance company and providing necessary repairs.
We provide users who subscribe to this service package with an enhanced Internet data package with an additional 7GB of data per month. We also have agreements with China Taiping Insurance and People’s Insurance Company of China Group, pursuant to which we will procure basic mandatory automobile
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insurance and vehicle damage insurance for our users as part of the service package. Users are also able to supplement this basic insurance coverage with China Taiping Insurance and People’s Insurance Company of China Group at an additional cost, which will be paid to the insurance provider.
In addition to the regular service package, we started to offer an extra insurance worry-free package on March 1, 2020 at RMB1,680 per year. The extra insurance worry-free package provides competitive maintenance and paint-repair services, courtesy vehicles during repair and maintenance lasting for over 24 hours, roadside assistance, an enhanced data package and other additional services.
Battery as a Service
On August 20, 2020, we introduced the Battery as a Service, or the BaaS model, which allows users to purchase electric vehicles and subscribe the usage of battery packs separately. All users who purchase NIO vehicles are now eligible to place orders with the BaaS model. If users opt to purchase an ES8, ES6 or EC6 model and subscribe to use the 70 kWh battery pack under the BaaS model, they can enjoy an RMB70,000 deduction off the original vehicle purchase price and pay a monthly subscription fee of RMB980 for the battery pack. Meanwhile, the users will continue to enjoy the existing favorable policies such as purchase tax exemption and government subsidies for electric vehicles. Under our BaaS model, when a user purchases a vehicle with the BaaS option, we sell a battery pack to the Battery Asset Company, the company we jointly established with the BaaS Partners, and the user leases the battery from the Battery Asset Company. We believe the BaaS model enables our users to benefit from the lower initial purchase prices of our vehicles, flexible battery upgrade options and assurance of battery performance.
Vehicle Financing and License Plate Registration
We currently have agreements with Bank of China, China Merchants Bank, Ping An Bank, China Industrial Bank and Great China Finance Leasing Co., Ltd. pursuant to which we assist users across China in procuring financing when they purchase our vehicles. We assist our users in their application for financing, making the buying process easier. We also cooperate with China Construction Bank and Agricultural Bank of China to assist users from certain geographical scope in their application for financing. Through our arrangements with our partner banks, we believe we are able to assist our users in procuring financing on attractive terms. We also apply for license plate registration on behalf of our users at the time of purchase.
Vehicle Engineering and Design
We have significant in-house vehicle engineering capabilities, which cover all major areas of vehicle engineering starting from concept to completion. Our vehicle engineering group consists of: (i) four design groups, namely, body and exterior; chassis; interior, heating and cooling; and electrical and electronics; (ii) two integration groups, namely, mechanical and electrical, which are together responsible for integrating components and systems into a complete vehicle and work with the design groups; and (iii) two advanced engineering groups, namely, vehicle concepts and system concepts, which focus on future products and longer term innovation. We aim to implement industry best practices throughout the engineering and design process.
We have strategically located our vehicle engineering teams based on where we believe the right talent is located. As of June 30, 2020, our vehicle engineering group had 534 employees worldwide, with 493 located in Shanghai, 7 located in Hefei and Nanjing of China and 34 located in Oxford of the United Kingdom. We have significant engineering capabilities at our Shanghai headquarters, which was selected due to its status as a global automotive hub, providing us with a significant talent pool. Our international offices provide us with deeper capabilities in certain areas. Our San Jose and Oxford teams focus on advanced development work with our Oxford team also working on complex computer-aided engineering, and our Munich team focuses on light-weight material development and vehicle design. In addition, our engineering teams in Munich focus on lightweight and e-powertrain engineering and work on the challenges of energy and resource efficiency and design our vehicles, including the interior and exterior.
Our Technology
We believe one of our core technology competencies is our proprietary e-propulsion system. It also has a modular design, allowing future models to incorporate a significant portion of this technology. Our
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technologies, including battery management system, electric driving system, vehicle control system, and autonomous driving, among others, are cutting-edge and differentiate us from our competitors. The ES8, the ES6 and the EC6 integrate many of these industry-leading technology modules, including our proprietary e-propulsion system, digital cockpit, enhanced level 2 ADAS system, smart data router, security architecture and cloud data platform, to create a comprehensive interactive system for the optimal user experience.
Electric Powertrain (E-propulsion System)
We have developed our own e-propulsion system. The e-propulsion system consists primarily of an electric drive system, or EDS, an energy storage system, or ESS, and a vehicle intelligence control system, or VIS.
We have developed two integrated EDS systems—the 240kW induction motor, or the 240kW IM EDS, and the 160kW permanent magnet motor, or the 160kW PM EDS. The 240kW IM EDS has a copper rotor induction motor, a motor controller with a unique topology design, and a high-torque gearbox. The combination of high-power and high-torque is expected to provide users with powerful driving force. We possess dual technologies for induction motors and permanent magnet motors. Our 160kW IM EDS was developed in-house. It has higher power density and higher efficiency due to permanent magnet motor applied, providing both longer driving range and strong acceleration boost when paired with the 240kW PM EDS. Our first volume manufactured vehicle, the ES8, is equipped with the 240kW IM EDS, delivering 480 kW of power. Our second volume manufactured vehicle, the ES6, is the world’s first SUV equipped with a combination of the 240kW IM EDS and the 160kW PM EDS, delivering 400 kW of power.
Our lightweight ESS uses high-energy density battery cells and high-strength housing. The ES8 is initially equipped with our proprietary 70-kilowatt-hour liquid-cooled battery pack developed and packaged in-house, bringing a high energy density of 135wh/kg. In October 2019, we began delivering the ES8 and the ES6 with an 84-kilowatt-hour battery pack, extending their NEDC driving range to 430 and 510 kilometers, respectively. We are currently developing a new 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack with advanced technology and a 24-hour safety monitoring device to ensure battery safety, and plan to deliver it in the fourth quarter of 2020. The 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack will extend the NEDC range of the new ES8, ES6 and EC6 to 580, 610 and 610 kilometers, respectively. Our ESS is high-capacity and has industry-leading thermal management technology and a safety structure design. In addition, our ESS is equipped with a state-of-the-art battery management system, a high-efficiency liquid-cooled design and swapping technology to achieve long-lasting, stable and new energy solutions. In particular, our battery management system provides real-time monitoring of the vehicle insulation status, a comprehensive fault diagnosis mechanism to ensure the safety and reliability of battery pack use. We are able to upgrade the software of our battery management units and cell supervising circuits and switch-boxes through FOTA updates. We conduct extensive testing to ensure safety, performance, durability and reliability. We also possess the module capability of prismatic, pouch and cylindrical cells, with a planned annual production capacity of over seven gigawatts per hour.
Our advanced VIS includes a vehicle control unit, or VCU, electric vehicle controller and ADAS system. A VCU is an intelligent controller, which can control the torque output according to different driver behavior and control region torque according to best energy recovery. It provides optimal torque split between front and rear EDS based on motor efficiency, driver mode selection and vehicle dynamics, and offers the best vehicle drivability with the active damping function to compensate the driveline vibration. The vehicle control system’s network architecture also takes into account functional safety and network security. The intelligent high- and low-voltage energy management system can monitor and adjust the optimized pure electric cruising range in real time and the adaptive cruise control system, or ACC, automatic parking and other functions can meet the requirements of automatic assisted driving. The intelligent thermal management system regulates water coolant system to maintain optimal operating temperature of HV components. The intelligent AC charging controller provides remote charging function safely and conveniently. Our VCUs and ADAS have passed software testing and vehicle calibration and verification, thus bringing a new experience of smart and safe driving.
Immersive Experiences Powered by Artificial Intelligence
Our digital cockpit is an AI driven, scalable and flexible architecture that presents the user with an intelligent and immersive interface which provides, we believe, an industry leading integrated user
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experience. Each of the ES8, ES6 and EC6 uses NVIDIA DRIVETM for its in-car digital cockpit. It adopts a single highly advanced proprietary controller, supporting a flexible multiple-operating system environment running Android, QNX, and Linux. This in-cabin technology enables a unified user experience across all four interior displays and advanced user interaction through our AI connected assistant, NOMI.
NOMI is designed to be one of the most advanced AI systems in a production vehicle and through NOMI we aim to revolutionize the relationship between users and their vehicles. NOMI learns users’ habits and interests through deep learning algorithms in order to meet their individual needs under different circumstances. We have built flexibility into our system which will allow for new functions and applications to be added through future software updates.
Vehicle Control and Connectivity
Our vehicles are equipped with our proprietary software and hardware, enabling us to control the vehicles’ ECU and BCU modules, including core electric powertrain control software, which allows for an integrated and optimized control over vehicle performance.
We are one of the first automobile manufacturers in China that have both the FOTA and the software over-the-air capabilities. Our FOTA firmware management technology will allow the operating firmware of ECUs in vehicles to be wirelessly updated and upgraded. The vehicle will be connected to our information cloud at all times, and when there is a firmware or software update available, our cloud will push an update message to the vehicle which triggers an update. Upgrades will be wirelessly downloaded to the vehicle, installed, and launched, including updates for firmware, software, operating systems and applications. FOTA updates will enable us to upgrade the operating firmware down to the individual programmable ECU level across the vehicle’s core systems, such as powertrain and ADAS. Since we began to make deliveries of the seven-seater ES8 in June 2018, we have completed 14 FOTA updates, delivering more than 70 new features and optimizing more than 200 features.
We expect this technology will allow us to fix bugs and remotely install new features and services after a vehicle has already been delivered to customers. As a result, we expect to be able to reduce the cost and time of marketing new feature roll-outs.
Our proprietary software leverages Linux, QNX and Android systems and control systems such as the central digital cockpit, connected gateway, ADAS and cyber security systems. We believe our highly-integrated design allows us to reduce the development time and cost of new technologies and creates an upgradable and flexible system for our next generation of products. The ES8, ES6 and the EC6’s smart data router, or SDR, has, we believe, industry leading connectivity and remote service capabilities with a comprehensive end-to-end security framework. The SDR enables a superior driver experience by tracking vehicle settings, user preferences and offering instant remote vehicle diagnostics with respect to faults, alerts and logs to our service and maintenance team. The SDR also offers a completely integrated vehicle security system enabled by a firewall, an intrusion detection system and machine learning for continuous improvement.
Autonomous Driving
The ES8, ES6 and EC6’s ADAS system is built for advanced processing and learning capabilities.
Our ES8, ES6 and EC6 are equipped with NIO Pilot, a comprehensive enhanced Level 2 ADAS system that will update with new features over time through high-speed FOTA updates. The ES8 is the world’s first vehicle to come equipped with the Mobileye’s EyeQ®4 ADAS processor. The NIO Pilot hardware consists of 23 sensors, including a front-facing trifocal camera, four exterior surround cameras, five millimeter-wave radars, 12 ultrasonic sensors, and an interior driver monitor camera. Our multi-sensor ADAS solution has a reaction time that is many times faster than the average human reaction time.
NIO Pilot also has a built-in algorithm that we expect to source driving data across the entire vehicle fleet of the ES8s, ES6s and EC6s. This allows us to accelerate the enhancement of autonomous driving solutions, without materially impacting driver safety or vehicle operation, before activating these features for users. Our autonomous and assisted driving algorithm development is accelerated by our smart data
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management system which flags and uploads unusual events (false positives and negative events as well as corner cases) for in-house analysis. We anticipate that as we increase the scale of business and more of our vehicles are on the road, this functionality will enable us to validate algorithms against millions of miles of empirical data in a short period of time.
We rolled out various ADAS features through FOTA updates after undergoing a rigorous and thorough testing of the features. In 2019, we successfully realized and applied various features for NIO Pilot, including front collision warning and automatic emergency braking, park assist, automatic high-beam control, lane changing assistance, lane departure warning, blind spot detection, rear cross-traffic alert, door opening warning. In addition, we rolled out the following new NIO Pilot features through FOTA updates in 2019: (i) active ADAS features, such as adaptive cruise control, traffic jam pilot, and highway autopilot for lateral and longitudinal support in certain conditions; (ii) driving support, including automatic lane keeping assistance, automatic lane change, automatic park assistance, and traffic sign recognition; and (iii) alerts and warnings, including front cross-traffic alerts and side distance indication. We plan to roll out functions of the navigation on NIO Pilot in 2020.
We have established autonomous driving research and development centers in Shanghai and San Jose. As of June 30, 2020, we had 175 full-time specialized engineers carrying out smart driving system technology projects, such as custom production hardware and sensors, environment awareness, data fusion, route planning, vehicle control, deep learning and car networking, with the aim of developing an intelligent driving system for electric vehicles.
In July 2016, our self-driving car completed a start-function test at the National Autonomous Vehicle Testing Center in Shanghai. The test was intended to improve reliability, detection accuracy, and application scenarios through the deployment of a sensor configuration scheme suitable for mass production, multi-sensor data fusion and target detection tracking technology.
In December 2016, we established a cross-functional team for ADAS system management with core members from project management, autonomous driving development, supply chain, product quality, product planning, manufacturing, logistics and finance. Our ADAS system management team is committed to deploying technology to products tailored for the Chinese market. It collaborates closely with vehicle integration, electric architecture and other engineering teams to ensure successful product rollout.
In February 2017, we set a world record by completing the fastest autonomous lap at the Circuit of the Americas Race Track in Austin, Texas. The NIO EP9 drove autonomously without any interventions, recording a time of two minutes 40.33 seconds at a top speed of 160 mph.
In March 2018, we were in the first batch of companies to obtain a Shanghai Intelligent Connected Vehicle Test Permit to test seventeen items including, among others, obstacles identification and response and automatic emergency braking on the testing roads, traffic sign recognition and lane keeping systems in the testing roads. In April 2018, we were in the first batch of companies to obtain a Beijing Autonomous Driving Test License, to test various items including, among others, perception and compliance with traffic regulations, emergency reaction and manual intervention and integrated driving ability on testing roads.
Cloud Data Platform and Integrated Vehicle Security Solution
Our cloud data platform stores vehicle, sensor and user data in a single data lake to minimize data duplication and cost. We can easily access fleet level data and analytics for diagnostic purposes and autonomous driving development. The NIO cloud data platform is designed to enable rapid development and deployment of new applications across fleet and users.
While other OEMs must use multiple vendors to build their security solutions, we have one comprehensive end-to-end security framework. Our integrated security framework protects vehicle data from end-of-assembly to end-of-life. All external and critical internal communications are protected by on-the-fly encryption. Our cloud-based developer suite for maintenance and analytics enables us to continue improving our security and stay ahead of future threats.
Worldwide Research and Development Footprint
We have strategically located our teams in locations where we believe we will have access to the best talent. Our global engineering office is located at our Shanghai, China headquarters. Our vehicle design
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headquarters is in Munich, Germany and our software and autonomous driving technology is designed and developed at our North American headquarters in San Jose in the United States.
Shanghai
Our engineering research and development headquarters is in Shanghai, where we had a team of 1,721 research and development personnel as of June 30, 2020. Our team in Shanghai coordinates between each of our other research and development teams globally while also focusing on vehicle integration, electrical engineering and integration, body and interior engineering, chassis engineering and engineering quality and support. In Shanghai we have an advanced research and development center, which provides comprehensive testing and research and development services related to electric and smart vehicles, including vehicle integration, electric engineering and integration, battery, motor, and electrical control, power management and charging devices, customer service and spare parts management. More than half of the patents obtained globally by us originated from our team in Shanghai.
Beijing
We had 163 research and development personnel in Beijing as of June 30, 2020. Our team in Beijing coordinates with other research and development teams globally to deliver world-class in-vehicle AI product, NOMI and award-winning IVI systems in NIO products. The focus of our Beijing research and development team is on full stack AI technologies to power NOMI and design and engineering effort to enable continuous upgrade of digital experience through FOTA. The team is also responsible for the Internet of Vehicles including design, implementation, maintenance and support of the system.
Hefei
We had 126 research and development personnel in Hefei as of June 30, 2020. Our team in Hefei mainly focuses on manufacturing engineering, test and quality.
Silicon Valley
Our San Jose office, located in the heart of Silicon Valley, is our North American headquarters and global advanced technology center. As of June 30, 2020, the San Jose team consisted of 190 employees. Our teams in San Jose focus on innovation in the areas of autonomous driving, digital cockpit, and digital systems and architecture, including digital security.
Munich
Our Munich office is primarily responsible for our product and brand design. As of June 30, 2020, in Munich we had a team with approximately 93 employees, focusing on vehicle interior and exterior design, user interface design, and brand design.
United Kingdom
Our computer-aided engineering and advanced concept engineering teams are based in Oxford, U.K. We had 37 employees focused on vehicle engineering in the U.K. as of June 30, 2020.
Vehicle Servicing and Warranty Terms
Service, Service Centers and Service Vans
We currently provide servicing both through authorized third party service centers and NIO service centers, both of which provide repair, maintenance and bodywork services. For our NIO service centers, we hire qualified employees to provide customer services of high quality. We conduct professional training and tests to our employees. We typically lease the premises used for our NIO service centers. As of June 30, 2020, we had 22 NIO service centers across 19 cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Nanjing, Suzhou, Chengdu, Xi’an, Shijiazhuang, Tianjin, Wuhan, Qingdao, Ningbo, Hangzhou, Zhengzhou, Xiamen, Chongqing, Changsha, Foshan and Hefei.
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For authorized third party service centers, we have a network management team to carefully select and bring authorized service centers into our network. Our team selects service centers based on the following criteria: (i) capability of repairing the aluminum alloy body of our vehicles; (ii) experience with servicing high-end branded vehicles, as these typically have more complex features requiring more technical training which would also be useful in servicing our vehicles; and (iii) service-related operational capabilities as determined by our field team during on-site inspections. We enter into agreements with the service centers, pursuant to which a service center first becomes a candidate. Following the purchase of certain required equipment by the candidate service center, including diagnostic equipment and tools and training by our staff, we conduct a review and provided that the review is successful, we certify the service center as an authorized center which will be available to our users through our mobile application. As of June 30, 2020, we had 151 authorized service centers across 115 cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Hefei, Hangzhou, Wuhan, Nanjing, Suzhou and Guangzhou.
In addition to our service centers, by June 30, 2020, we have deployed 218 service vans covering 61 cities which we selected based on user demand. We may selectively expand our service vans coverage in the future. Through our NIO service centers, third party authorized service centers and service vans, we have built a complete chain of process of parts warehousing and logistics. We believe our service capability is among the core competitiveness we possess.
New Vehicle Limited Warranty Policy
For the initial owner of the ES8 and ES6, we are providing an extended warranty subject to certain conditions, including, among others, that the extended warranty only applies for the original owner of the vehicle and not for any subsequent buyers of the vehicle; the user must service the vehicle only with us or one of our authorized service centers; and the vehicle must not have experienced any major accident. As required under relevant PRC law, we also provide (i) a bumper to bumper three-year or 120,000-km warranty, (ii) for critical EV components (battery pack, electrical motors, power electrical unit and vehicle control unit), an eight-year or 120,000-km warranty, and (iii) a two-year or 50,000-km warranty covering vehicle repair, replacement and refund. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.”
User Development and Branding
User Development
We aim to engage with users and create an environment conducive for user interaction both online and offline. Our mobile application had approximately 1.3 million registered users as of June 30, 2020 and over 128,000 daily active users on peak days in 2020.
Mobile Application
Our mobile application, the NIO App, is designed to be a portal not only for selling cars where users can make reservations for the ES8, ES6, EC6 and, in the future, our other vehicles, but also for accessing our other services, including those under our energy package and service package.
The layout of products offered on our mobile application is designed to be intuitive and easy to use. Our mobile application allows customers to order an ES8, ES6 or EC6 and easily check the latest status of an order. Users can also use our mobile application to find charging stations or arrange for charging or battery swap services through NIO Power. Users are also able to monitor battery and charging status using our mobile application.
In order to foster community building, our mobile application allows our users to engage with other users through moment sharing and users can shop for our merchandise and earn NIO Credits (as described below). We also notify users of our events through our mobile application.
Our mobile application also has our product information and information on locations of NIO Houses. Customers can also shop in our online shop for items, such as NIO apparel, accessories, games and children’s items. Using the friend function, our customers can connect with other NIO customers. Our mobile application also keeps our users updated on our latest announcements and activities.
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NIO House and NIO Space
We aim to provide our users with experiences that go beyond the car with our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces. NIO Spaces are showrooms for our brand, vehicles and services. NIO Houses not only have showroom functions, but also serve as a living space for our customers and their friends. Potential users can browse our cars and products and go for test drives and interact with our team of user development specialists at NIO Houses and NIO Spaces. If a new user decides to purchase a car, our team walks them through the process and assists the user in completing his or her order through our mobile application.
In November 2017, we opened our first NIO House in Beijing, and as of June 30, 2020, we had 22 NIO Houses in total, three in Shanghai, two in Beijing, and one in each of Nanjing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Chengdu, Xi’an, Hefei, Dongguan, Nantong, Wuxi, Wenzhou, Wuhan, Zhengzhou, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Chongqing. The first NIO House, which occupies over 32,000 square feet, has two floors and seven main areas and is Beijing’s largest brand experience center. The features and design of each NIO House may vary based on what we believe to be user preferences in the relevant city or area and we may include larger flagship NIO Houses as well as NIO House in smaller cities. Each NIO House features a gallery showcasing our brand and products, and may also feature a lounge for our users to relax and socialize, forums which consist of a theater and which we intend to be a place for gatherings, meetings or presentations, “labs” which are bookable meeting rooms and workspaces, a library, an open kitchen and a kids joy camp. Although we charge (through cash or NIO Credits) small amounts for the use of certain services at NIO Houses or for certain items, we mainly intend to use NIO Houses to support our vehicle sales and user development activities.
Compared with NIO Houses, NIO Spaces are generally smaller in scale, more delicate and more sales-focused. We opened our first NIO Space in Shanghai in August 2019. We also converted some of the former pop-up NIO Houses to NIO Spaces in 2019. As of June 30, 2020, we had 105 NIO Spaces in 81 cities. Through NIO Spaces, we are able to cost-effectively and meaningfully reach potential users in a wider geographical scope, which in turn helps drive new orders. The introduction of NIO Spaces in 2019 allows more potential users to see, touch, and feel our vehicles, and truly enjoy the superior driving experience our products offer.
Branding
We focus on promoting awareness of our brand generally and in particular as a premium brand with high-quality vehicles and services in China. We aim to engage in cost-effective branding activities taking advantage of social media and to build an online and offline ecosystem of users that will promote awareness of our brand. To a lesser extent, we engage in limited mass-marketing, such as through billboard advertising in airports. Our branding efforts include the following:
NIO Day
We held our first “NIO Day” in December 2017 at the Beijing Wukesong Arena, where we introduced the seven-seater ES8. We launched our second volume manufactured electric vehicle, the ES6, to the public on our second “NIO Day” in December 2018. Our first two NIO Days consisted of presentations by our Chief Executive Officer, Bin Li, who introduced our ES8 and ES6, respectively. The second NIO Day had 150 million views and produced a significant increase in our social media followers, as well as over 5,500 Chinese media reports. The third NIO Day was held in December 2019 in Shenzhen, where we launched our third volume manufactured electric vehicle, the EC6, and the new ES8 to the public. Our users played main roles during the event and we believe the user enterprise concept was well perceived. We plan to hold NIO Day each year on which we introduce our new vehicles and products to users. We believe that NIO Day gives us an opportunity to interact with our current and prospective users while providing us with more publicity and brand awareness.
Formula E
We had in the past operated the Formula E team, which is a racing team that competes in the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile, or FIA, Formula E championship electric racing series. In 2019, we sold the business related to Formula E team to Brilliant In Excellence Co., Ltd., a Hong Kong based
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buyer, and became a sponsor of the team. In September 2019, 333 Racing, a British motorsport racing team, partnered with Formula E team. The Formula E team was renamed as NIO 333 Formula E team thereafter. NIO 333 Formula E team is currently managed and operated by professional motorsport management personnel in China, and will compete in the 2019/2020 racing season with our company as its primary sponsor.
EP9
Our development of the EP9 was part of our brand-building efforts. Through its achievements it brings attention to our capabilities and to our brand. The EP9 is an electric two-seat sports car developed by us. The EP9 has four high-performance inboard motors and four individual gearboxes, the EP9 delivers 1 megawatt of power, equivalent to 1,360PS. The EP9 accelerates from zero to 200 kph in 7.1 seconds and has a top speed of 313 kph. With an interchangeable battery system, the EP9 is designed to be charged in 45 minutes. The EP9 achieved a new lap record at the Nürburgring Nordschliefe where on October 12, 2016, the EP9 lapped the 20.8 km ‘Green Hell’ track in 7 minutes and 5.12 seconds, beating the previous electric vehicle lap record held, marking it out as one of the fastest electric cars in the world. On May 12, 2017, the EP9 lapped the 20.8 km ‘Green Hell’ track in 6 minutes and 45.90 seconds, breaking its own record. Previously, in November 2016, it had set a new electric vehicle record at Circuit Paul Ricard in France, recording a time of 1 minute 52.78 seconds, surpassing the previous record of 2 minutes and 40 seconds. We believe these achievements, along with the media attention we have received, have boosted our reputation and awareness of our brand.
Other Branding Activities
We also participate in events, including displaying our cars and technology at automotive shows, such as Shanghai’s 17th International Automobile Industry Exhibition, where we unveiled the ES8 and showcased the EP9 as well as our vision concept car, the NIO EVE. We also showcased the NIO EVE at the South by Southwest festival in Austin, Texas. We also conduct many other smaller events at our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces. In April 2019, we participated in the 18th Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition, demonstrated our swap station on the booth for the first time, and attracted over 285,000 viewers. In November 2019, we participated in the 17th Guangzhou International Automobile Exhibition. In July 2020, we participated in the 2020 Chengdu Auto Show, announced the pre-subsidy price of the EC6 and began taking production orders
We also have NIO Life, which includes an online store where users, accessing our mobile application, can purchase NIO merchandise, including NIO sweaters, miniature cars, phone cases, tote bags and calendars, among others. Since we launched our online store in December, 2016, over 1,720,000 pieces of merchandise have been sold or awarded to our users online and offline. We also provide users with NIO Credits to encourage user engagement and for certain positive behavior, including a clean safety record for the year. NIO Credits are earned, among other things, through frequent sign-ins to our mobile application, sharing articles from our mobile application on users’ own social media, through a welcome package upon the purchase of a vehicle, and referrals of test drives and new vehicle purchasers. NIO Credits can be used both at our online store and at our NIO Houses and some of the NIO Spaces to purchase merchandise.
Manufacturing, Supply Chain and Quality Control
We view the manufacturers and suppliers we work with as key partners in our vehicle development process. We aim to leverage our partners’ industry expertise to ensure that each vehicle we produce meets our strict quality standards.
Manufacturing
Nanjing Advanced Manufacturing Engineering Center
Our Nanjing Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Engineering Center, or Nanjing AMTEC, houses our trial production, or pilot line, which is mainly used to test engineering prototypes and is also used by our research and development department to develop and verify new processes, materials and
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products. We believe that our use of this line advances production time by six months to eight months. All of our new models are first tested at the Nanjing AMTEC. Nanjing AMTEC pilot line covers the three processes of bodywork, painting and general assembly.
We also use Nanjing AMTEC to train employees for the JAC-NIO manufacturing base.
Partnership with JAC
We entered into an arrangement with Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd., or JAC, a major state-owned automobile manufacturer in China, for manufacturing the ES8 for five years starting from May 2016, which may be renewed as agreed by JAC and us. In April 2019, we entered into a manufacturing cooperating agreement with JAC for the manufacture of ES6, which is a supplement to the arrangement we entered into with JAC in May 2016. In March 2020, we entered into a manufacturing cooperating agreement with JAC for the manufacture of EC6.
JAC has a 50-year history of automotive manufacturing and annual sales of nearly 420,000 vehicles, including passenger and commercial vehicles. JAC has in-house development, manufacturing, and testing systems for new energy vehicles, and is an established player in China’s new energy vehicle market. In addition, JAC has a joint venture partnership with Volkswagen for the manufacturing of electric cars. We also expect our partnership with JAC will allow us to bring our vehicles to the market at an accelerated pace by taking advantage of JAC’s capacity and through its capital investment and support. JAC has invested more than RMB2.2 billion to the construction of a brand-new world-class factory for the production of the ES8, ES6 and EC6, and potentially other future vehicles with us. This factory has the capability of conducting stamping, body in white assembly, painting and general assembly, and is equipped with testing tracks, a quality inspection center and a utility power and sewage treatment center. Given its advances in new energy vehicle manufacturing, JAC has contributed to our ability to bring the ES8 and ES6 to the market more quickly and helps us to meet our production requirements.
We exercise significant control in the manufacturing partnership with JAC in order to ensure high quality standards. We conduct product development, provide supply chain systems, set production technique standards, and put in place quality management systems. We developed a manufacturing process development platform for digital process lifecycle to reduce defect in process development to the extent possible. We apply the NIO lean manufacturing system in the JAC-NIO plant to improve execution efficiency and quality. We take a number of steps throughout the entire manufacturing process to help ensure that our vehicles are manufactured in accordance with our standards. These steps include: (x) at the procurement stage, our being responsible for procuring all third-party components for our vehicles and applying our quality assurance procedures with respect to suppliers; and (y) at the manufacturing stage, our taking additional measures, including: (i) processing and owning the key tooling equipment, including stamping dye, body jointing equipment, body connection equipment and inspection tools at the factory; and (ii) our training certain key supervisory personnel at Nanjing AMTEC. We have implemented operational policies and guidelines as well as quality inspection measures, conducting inspections of both parts and completed vehicles.
Pursuant to our agreements with JAC, we pay JAC on a per-vehicle basis monthly for the first three years starting from 2018, which allows us greater cost flexibility as we ramp up our operations. The factory covers an area of 138 acres. The factory has a high-speed, fully automated and five-sequence pressing machine line. It uses fully automated assembly, real-time monitoring and alarm connection parameters to ensure reliable connection quality, while a total body online vision system is also equipped on the line to monitor the dimensional accuracy of the vehicle body. The factory has state-of-the-art production facilities and techniques, and also applies environmentally friendly techniques and uses renewable energy. Photovoltaic panels on top of the factory are expected to be installed to make use of solar energy and ground-source heat pumps have been used in the assembly area to provide a temperate working environment. In addition, we and JAC have put together a high-quality workforce, consisting of experienced management and supervisors from us and JAC and thousands of front-line employees selected from JAC. Our employees at the factory take on key management and supervisory roles in production, quality control and training. We believe that the manpower is sufficient for an annual production capacity of 120,000 vehicles based on running three shifts per day.
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Powertrain and Battery Pack
We manufacture our powertrain, or e-propulsion system, our battery pack and electric drive system. We established AMTEC, in Nanjing for pilot production, motors, e-propulsion system and energy storage systems, and in Changshu for energy storage systems.
Nanjing AMTEC is located in the Nanjing Economic and Technological Development Zone. Nanjing AMTEC Phase I was completed in August 2016, and Phase II was competed in 2019. The plant and ancillary facilities of Nanjing AMTEC Phase I have a building area of 64,000 square meters and mainly produce motor and electric driving products with a planned capacity to make up to 300,000 motors annually. It is equipped with an intelligent information management system which is able to trace real-time performance of labor, equipment and materials, and technique parameters, quality and final products. Nanjing AMTEC has advanced equipment sourced from reputable international suppliers, including ABB, DMG, and TRUMF. The Nanjing AMTEC Phase II has a building area of 42,800 square meters and production facilities for both electric drive system and energy storage system. Its production lines are highly automated and highly flexible with advanced MES systems and AGVs, and were put into operation in June 2019. The joint venture we established with Nanjing Punch Powertrain Automatic Transmission Co., Ltd. has started production of the gearbox of our 160kW electric drive system.
Meanwhile, Nanjing AMTEC has passed the ISO 16949 audit, which audit is used to certify as to technical specification aimed at the development of a quality management system prepared by the International Automotive Task Force and the “Technical Committee” of the International Organization for Standardization.
In Changshu, we have a joint venture with Zhengli Investment Co., Ltd. for the production of pure electric automobile energy storage systems for the ES8 and ES6.
Our Suppliers
We have a “global brand, locally build” strategy where, to the extent practicable, we seek to partner with reputable international brands which have operations in China. The ES8, ES6 and EC6 each uses over 1,500 purchased parts which we source from over 190 suppliers. The majority of our supply base is located in China (including a significant portion of our suppliers which are global suppliers with a Chinese footprint), which we believe is beneficial as it enables us to acquire supplies more quickly and reduces risk of delays related to shipping and importing. We expect that as our scale increases we will be able to better take advantage of economies of scale with respect to pricing.
We have developed close relationships with several key suppliers. These include: Mobileye B.V., which provides its Mobileye EyeQ®4 ADAS processor used in the ES8, ES6 and EC6; CATL, which provides battery cells used in the battery pack of the ES8, ES6 and EC6; Continental, which provides its air suspension system; Bosch, which provides its iBooster (vacuum-independent electromechanical brake booster, a key component for electromobility and driver assistance systems) and ADAS hardware (sensors and radars) used in the ES8, ES6 and EC6; Brembo, which provides four-piston all-aluminum brake calipers used in the ES8, ES6 and EC6; and Novelis, which provides aluminum coils used in the aluminum body panel of the ES8, ES6 and EC6. Our electric driving systems and energy storage systems are developed in-house. We believe we have strong relationships with our suppliers. Despite our limited operating history, many of our suppliers have been willing to support our business. For example, we believe we are one of the first brands using the Bosch iBooster braking system in China.
We obtain systems, components, raw materials, parts, manufacturing equipment and other supplies and services from suppliers which we believe to be reputable and reliable. Similar to other global major automobile manufacturers, we follow our internal process to source suppliers taking into account quality, cost and timing. We have a parts quality management team which is responsible for managing and ensuring that supplies meet quality standards. Our quality standards are guided by industry standards, including AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group) APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) and PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) procedures, which were developed by the U.S. automotive industry.
Our method for sourcing suppliers depends on the nature of the supplies needed. For general parts which are widely available, we seek proposals from multiple suppliers and choose based on quality and price competitiveness, among other factors. For parts requiring special designs, we solicit design proposals and
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choose largely based on design-related factors. However, in certain cases we have limited choices given our scale, such as for aluminum and battery cell packages, so in such circumstances we typically partner with suppliers that we believe to be well-positioned to meet our needs.
We enter into strategic framework agreements with key suppliers. These agreements typically cover the life cycle of a particular model of vehicle. We use various raw materials in our business, including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, other non-ferrous metals such as copper, as well as cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand for these materials. For certain raw materials, such as aluminum, our pricing is set within pricing bands which shift with respect to market prices.
While we obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, similar to other automobile manufacturers, many of the components used in our vehicles are purchased by us from a single source. Eventually we plan to implement a multi-source volume purchasing strategy in order to reduce our reliance on sole source suppliers. We believe that will also help us to increase our ability to obtain quality components with better cost competitiveness.
Quality Assurance
We aim to deliver high-quality products and services to our users in line with our core values and commitments. We believe that our quality assurance systems are the key to ensuring the delivery of high-quality products and services, and to minimize waste and to maximize efficiency. We strongly emphasize quality management across all business functions, including product development, manufacturing, supplier quality management, procurement, charging solutions, user experience, servicing and logistics. Our quality management groups are responsible for our overall quality strategy, quality systems and processes, quality culture, and general quality management implementation.
During product development, many phases of testing vehicles are built to verify our design and production processes. For example, we built more than 250 ES8 and 210 ES6 testing vehicles in order to conduct a wide range of function and durability tests. The durability test runs for more than an aggregate of three million kilometers for each ES8 and ES6 model.
The ES8 and ES6 are manufactured at a new plant which is operated jointly by JAC and us with quality standards implemented by our team. All lines including stamping, body, painting, and general assembly are developed in accordance with industry standards with a high degree of automation. The manufacturing process failure mode effect analysis, control plans, and standard operation sheet are developed and audited carefully by us. We apply advanced product quality planning (APQP), which is a framework of procedures and techniques utilized in the global automotive industry, across all phases of product development and supplier quality management. Through our factory automated system, we monitor manufacturing process parameters and parts information for process control and traceability.
Other Partnerships
We have partnered with other strategic partners including Baidu for its iQIYI online video streaming and map data and technology; Tencent for its Tencent Cloud and QQ music; and Keen Lab for NOMI text to speech function.
Certain Other Cooperation Arrangements
We have entered into arrangements with Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd, or GAC, and Chongqing Changan Automobile Co Ltd, or Changan in order to take advantage of market opportunities in the entry and mid-range segments of the Chinese EV market, reduce supply chain costs through potential joint procurement and jointly conduct research and development activities. Any vehicles developed and sold under these arrangements will be marketed and sold using GAC’s, Changan’s, or other jointly developed brands.
GAC
In April 2018, (i) we, (ii) an entity associated with our founder Bin Li, Hubei Changjiang Weilai New Energy Industry Development Fund Partnership (Limited Partnership), or NIO Capital, (iii) Guangqi New
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Energy Automobile Co., Ltd., and (iv) GAC, jointly established a joint venture company, GAC-NIO New Energy Vehicle Technology Co., Ltd., or GAC JV, to mainly engage in electric vehicle and parts development, sales and services. On May 20, 2019, GAC JV announced its new brand, Hycan He Chuang. GAC is a Chinese state-owned automaker headquartered in Guangzhou, Guangdong and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the Shanghai Stock Exchange. Pursuant to the joint venture agreement entered into on December 28, 2017, we have agreed to invest 22.5% of the registered capital of the joint venture and unless otherwise unanimously approved by the board of directors of GAC JV, no dividend distribution will be made among shareholders prior to a qualified initial public offering of GAC JV. The joint venture agreement is valid for 20 years and can be renewed as agreed by the joint venture parties. The total registered capital of the joint venture is RMB500 million. With respect to governance rights, the parties have agreed that the board of directors will have five directors, with one appointed by each party and the remaining director appointed by all the parties together. On December 27, 2019, GAC JV released HYCAN 007, a pure electric SUV expected to be officially launch and delivered in 2020.
Changan
In January 2018, we and Changan entered into a joint venture agreement and a supplemental agreement agreeing to set up a joint venture, Changan NIO Renewable Automobile Co., Ltd., with a total registered capital of RMB98 million of which RMB49 million will be contributed by us. The joint venture agreement is valid for 20 years and can be renewed as agreed by Changan and us. In July 2018, Changan NIO Renewable Automobile Co., Ltd., or the Changan JV, was established. We expect to receive distribution of profits, if any, after deducting required reserves under PRC law, in proportion to the respective actual capital contributions to be made by Changan and us. Changan is a state-owned Chinese automaker headquartered in Chongqing, China and listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. The joint venture may provide services, such as design or development of vehicle or components, sales and after-sale service, sales of automotive parts and EV-related technology services. Pursuant to the joint venture agreement, any vehicles produced by the joint venture may use a Changan trademark and the joint venture will enter into a separate trademark license agreement with Changan. In April 2020, we entered into a set of transaction documents with Changan and the Changan JV, pursuant to which we transferred to Changan a portion of the equity interests we held in the Changan JV and Changan itself subscribed for the newly increased share capital of the Changan JV. After the completion of the transaction in April 2020, we held 4.62% of the equity interests in the Changan JV.
Mobileye
In November 2019, we entered into a strategic collaboration with Mobileye on the development of highly automated and autonomous vehicles (AV) for consumer markets in China and other major territories. Pursuant to the collaboration arrangement, we would engineer and manufacture a self-driving system designed by Mobileye, building on Mobileye’s level-4 (L4) AV kit. This self-driving system will likely be the first of its kind, targeting consumer autonomy, engineered for automotive qualification standards, quality, cost and scale. We would mass-produce the system for Mobileye and also integrate the technology into its electric vehicle lines for consumer markets and for Mobileye’s driverless ride-hailing services in China and global markets.
Hefei Strategic Investors
From April to June 2020, for investments into NIO Anhui, we entered into the Hefei Agreements with Hefei City Construction and Investment Holding (Group) Co., Ltd., CMG-SDIC Capital Co., Ltd. and Anhui Provincial Emerging Industry Investment Co., Ltd., and, as applicable, their respective designated funds, Jianheng New Energy Fund, Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund, Anhui Provincial Sanzhong Yichuang Industry Development Fund Co., Ltd. and New Energy Automobile Fund. We refer to these designated funds as the Hefei Strategic Investors in this prospectus supplement.
Under the Hefei Agreements, we agreed to inject our core businesses and assets in China, including vehicle research and development, supply chain, sales and services and NIO Power, valued at RMB17.77 billion in total, into NIO China. Further, we agreed to invest RMB4.26 billion in cash into NIO China. The Hefei Strategic Investors agreed to invest an aggregate of RMB7 billion in cash into NIO
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China. Upon the completion of the investments, we will hold 75.885% of controlling equity interests in NIO China, and the Hefei Strategic Investors will collectively hold the remaining 24.115%. For more information, see “Hefei Strategic Investors” included elsewhere in this prospectus supplement. For more details on the provisions of the Hefei Agreements, please refer to (i) exhibits 4.35 and 4.36 of the 2019 Annual Report; (ii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 9, 2020; and (iii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission at 6:24 on June 30, 2020.
BaaS Partners
On August 18, 2020, we and the BaaS Partners jointly established Wuhan Weineng Battery Asset Co., Ltd., or the Battery Asset Company. We and the BaaS Partners will each invest RMB200 million and hold 25% equity interest in the Battery Asset Company. The Battery Asset Company is dedicated to purchasing and owning the battery assets, and leasing the battery packs to users who subscribe to the BaaS model. We and the Baas Partners will jointly provide comprehensive support to the development of the Battery Asset Company in user operations, technologies, funding and infrastructure.
Sales and Delivery of Vehicles
We directly sell our vehicles to users, which we believe allows us to provide a more consistent, differentiated and compelling user experience, compared to the traditional franchised distribution model used by our competitors in China. Vehicle purchases are placed through our mobile application, which provides an easy to follow and interactive vehicle shopping experience to our users. This also provides us with real-time information on demand for our vehicles, allowing us to plan our production more efficiently and reducing inventory needs. At our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces, users are able to purchase vehicles using our mobile application, assisted by our sales representatives. Users purchasing outside of our NIO Houses and NIO Spaces typically purchase through our mobile application and use our hotline for assistance with the purchase. We believe that our online and offline direct sales model is more cost-efficient by cutting out franchised distribution costs as well as lowering the number of physical locations required and also allows us to expand our sales network effectively and efficiently in China.
We have set up a vehicle delivery center in cities including Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuhan, Xi’an, Shijiazhuang, Tianjin, Qingdao, Zhengzhou, Hefei, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Chongqing, Changsha, Foshan and Xiamen. Vehicles will be delivered to users at such centers.
Competition
Competition in the automotive industry is intense and evolving. We believe the impact of new regulatory requirements for occupant safety and vehicle emissions, technological advances in powertrain and consumer electronic components, and shifting customer needs and expectations are causing the industry to evolve in the direction of electric-based vehicles. We believe the primary competitive factors in our markets are:

pricing;

technological innovation;

vehicle performance, quality and safety;

service and charging options;

user experience;

design and styling; and

manufacturing efficiency.
The China automotive market is generally competitive. We have strategically entered into this market in the premium EV segment in which there is limited competition relative to other segments. However, we expect this segment will become more competitive in the future. We also expect that we will compete with
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international competitors, including Tesla. Our vehicles also compete with ICE vehicles in the premium segment. Given the quality and performance of the ES8, the ES6 and the EC6, and their attractive pricing, we believe that we are strategically positioned in China’s premium electric vehicle market.
Intellectual Property
We have significant capabilities in the areas of vehicle engineering, development and design. As a result, we have developed a number of proprietary systems and technologies. As a result, our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of patents, patent applications and trade secrets, including employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, copyright laws, trademarks, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights to establish and protect our proprietary rights in our technology. As of June 30, 2020, we had 2,505 issued patents and 1,561 pending patent applications, 3,232 registered trademarks and 722 pending trademark applications in the United States, China, Europe and other jurisdictions. As of June 30, 2020, we also held or otherwise had the legal right to use 96 registered copyrights for software or works of art. We intend to continue to file additional patent applications with respect to our technology.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business. Between March and July 2019, several putative securities class action lawsuits were filed against us, certain of our directors and officers, our underwriters in the IPO and our process agent. Some of these actions have been withdrawn, transferred or consolidated. Currently, three securities class actions remain pending in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York (E.D.N.Y.), Supreme Court of the State of New York, New York County (N.Y. County), and Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of Kings (Kings County) respectively. In the E.D.N.Y. action, In re NIO, Inc. Securities Litigation, 1:19-cv-01424, the Court issued an order to appoint the lead plaintiff on March 3, 2020. On May 18, 2020, the plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint. The parties exchanged pre-motion letters for defendants’ motion to dismiss. The briefing schedule for the motion to dismiss has not yet been set. In the New York county action, In re NIO Inc. Securities Litigation, Index No. 653422/2019, the plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint on October 25, 2019. On December 13, 2019, the Court granted the defendants’ motion to stay the case in favor of the federal E.D.N.Y. action. On May 29, 2020, the plaintiffs filed a motion that seeks to lift the stay of the case. The parties’ briefing on the motion was completed on July 10, 2020. The Court’s decision on the motion is currently pending. In the Kings County action, Sumit Agarwal v. NIO Inc. et al., Index No. 505647/2019, the complaint was filed on March 14, 2019. The judge has yet to be assigned and there has not been any major development. The plaintiffs in these cases allege, in sum and substance, that our statements in the Registration Statement and/or other public statements were false or misleading and in violation of the U.S. federal securities laws. These actions remain in their preliminary stages. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuits. We believe these cases are without merit and we are defending the actions vigorously.
For risks and uncertainties relating to the pending cases against us, please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We and certain of our directors and officers have been named as defendants in several shareholder class action lawsuits, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.”
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HEFEI STRATEGIC INVESTORS
On April 29, 2020, we entered into an investment agreement and a shareholders agreement, or the initial agreements, for investments into NIO (Anhui) Holding Co., Ltd., or NIO Anhui, the legal entity of NIO China wholly owned by us pre-investment, with Hefei City Construction and Investment Holding (Group) Co., Ltd. (“Hefei Construction Co.”), CMG-SDIC Capital Co., Ltd. (“SDIC”) and Anhui Provincial Emerging Industry Investment Co., Ltd. (“Anhui High-tech Co.”).
Pursuant to the initial agreements, each investor may designate a fund managed by it or a third party, as applicable, to perform the investment obligations and assume other rights and obligations under the initial agreements. Accordingly, on May 30, 2020, we entered into respective supplemental agreements I to the initial agreements with the investors and their respective designated funds, Jianheng New Energy Fund, Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund and New Energy Automobile Fund. Under the supplemental agreements I, (i) Hefei Construction Co. designated Jianheng New Energy Fund to assume all of its rights and obligations under the initial agreements, (ii) SDIC designated Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund to assume all of its rights and obligations under the initial agreements, (iii) Anhui High-tech Co. designated New Energy Automobile Fund to perform a portion of its investment obligations under the investment agreement and assume the corresponding rights and obligations under the initial agreements, and (iv) Anhui High-tech Co. will continue to perform the remaining of its investment and other obligations not assigned to New Energy Automobile Fund and enjoy its rights under the initial agreements. On June 5, 2020, NIO Anhui updated its Industrial and Commercial Registration to reflect, among others, Jianheng New Energy Fund, Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund, Anhui High-tech Co. and New Energy Automobile Fund as NIO Anhui’s investors. On June 18, 2020, we entered into respective supplemental agreements II with the parties to the supplemental agreements I and Anhui Provincial Sanzhong Yichuang Industry Development Fund Co., Ltd., another designated fund of Anhui High-tech Co. under the supplemental agreements II, Anhui High-tech Co. designated Anhui Provincial Sanzhong Yichuang Industry Development Fund Co., Ltd. to assume its remaining rights and obligations under the initial agreements that had not been assigned to New Energy Automobile Fund pursuant to the supplemental agreements I.
Under the Hefei Investment Agreement, the Hefei Strategic Investors agreed to invest an aggregate of RMB7 billion in cash into NIO China. We agreed to inject our core businesses and assets in China, including vehicle research and development, supply chain, sales and services and NIO Power, or together as the Asset Consideration, into NIO China. The Asset Consideration is valued at RMB17.77 billion, as calculated based on 85% of the market value of our company (calculated based on our average ADS trading price over the thirty public trading days preceding April 21, 2020). Further, we agreed to invest RMB4.26 billion in cash into NIO China. Upon the completion of the investments, we will hold 75.885% of controlling equity interests in NIO China, and the Hefei Strategic Investors will collectively hold the remaining 24.115%.
Pursuant to the Hefei Investment Agreement, the Hefei Strategic Investors and we agreed to each inject cash into NIO China in five installments:

Installment I: RMB3.5 billion by the Hefei Strategic Investors and RMB1.278 billion by us, within five business days of the satisfaction of closing conditions set forth under the Hefei Investment Agreement and, with respect to Jianheng New Energy Fund, on or prior to June 30, 2020, with respect to Anhui High-tech Co. and New Energy Automobile Fund, no later than September 30, 2020;

Installment II: RMB1.5 billion by the Jianheng New Energy Fund and RMB1.278 billion by us, on or prior to June 30, 2020;

Installment III: RMB1 billion by the Jianheng New Energy Fund and RMB0.852 billion by us, on or prior to September 30, 2020;

Installment IV: RMB0.5 billion by the Jianheng New Energy Fund and RMB0.426 billion by us, on or prior to December 31, 2020; and

Installment V: RMB0.5 billion by the Jianheng New Energy Fund and RMB0.426 billion by us on or prior to March 31, 2021.
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Moreover, the Asset Consideration will be injected into NIO China in several phases, with the last phase to be injected within one year of closing, subject to certain post-closing price adjustment mechanism.
As of the date of this prospectus supplement, NIO Anhui has received from the Hefei Strategic Investors RMB5.0 billion of cash investments for the first two installments in full. We have injected our cash investment of RMB1.278 billion for the first installment and RMB1.278 billion for the second installment, and are fulfilling our other obligations, including injecting the Asset Consideration into NIO Anhui, in accordance with the Hefei Agreements.
NIO China will establish its headquarters in the Hefei Economic and Technological Development Area, or the HETA, where our main manufacturing hub is located, for its business operation, research and development, sales and services, supply chain and manufacturing functions. We will collaborate with the Hefei Strategic Investors and HETA to develop NIO China’s business and to support the accelerated development of the smart electric vehicle sectors in Hefei in the future. In addition, NIO Anhui could enjoy a series of subsidies and support from HETA, including rent subsidies, financial support and preferential tax treatment, when NIO Anhui meets certain performance criteria, such as targets for manufacturing capacity, procurement amount and vehicle sales.
Pursuant to the Hefei Shareholders Agreement, the Hefei Strategic Investors have certain minority shareholder rights, including, among others, the right of first refusal, co-sale right, preemptive right, anti-dilution right, redemption right, liquidation preference and conditional drag-along right. In particular, the following rights, among others, directly relate to obligations of NIO Inc.:
Redemption right.   The Hefei Strategic Investors may require us or our Hong Kong holding vehicles to redeem all or a portion of the shares of NIO Anhui held by the Hefei Strategic Investors at a redemption price of the total amount of the investment price equal to the Hefei Strategic Investors plus an investment income calculated at a compound rate of 8.5% per annum if, among others: (i) NIO Anhui fails to complete a qualified initial public offering within sixty (60) months after NIO Anhui receives all initial investments in installment I from the Hefei Strategic Investors; (ii) NIO Anhui fails to submit an application for a qualified initial public offering within forty-eight (48) months after NIO Anhui receives all initial investments in installment I from the Hefei Strategic Investors; (iii) shareholders of our company require us or our controlling person to redeem shares of our company and result in a change of control of our company or NIO Anhui; (iv) we fail to inject the Asset Consideration into NIO Anhui within one year after the closing of investments in installment I, due to willful misconduct or negligence, or we fail to inject capital into NIO Anhui before March 31, 2021; or (v) vehicle sales of NIO Anhui fall below 20,000 units for two consecutive years after NIO Anhui obtains all initial investments in installment I from the Hefei Strategic Investors.
In addition, before the reorganization of NIO Anhui prior to its potential qualified initial public offering, we and/or our designated third party have the right to redeem half of the shares Jianheng New Energy Fund acquired through this investment, at a mutually agreed redemption price. A qualified initial public offering refers to an initial public offering approved, registered or filed with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, Shanghai Stock Exchange, Shenzhen Stock Exchange or other overseas securities issuance review agencies jointly approved by all shareholders of NIO Anhui, and NIO Anhui’s shares are issued and listed on the stock exchange market recognized by all shareholders of NIO Anhui. Furthermore, from the execution date of the Hefei Shareholders Agreement to December 31, 2021, we or our designated affiliate have the right to subscribe for newly issued shares of NIO Anhui at the price of this investment for an aggregate of no more than US$600 million, while the Hefei Strategic Investors unconditionally and irrevocably waive their respective preemptive right with regard to investment in such newly issued shares.
Share transfer restriction.   Before NIO Anhui completes its potential qualified initial public offering, without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we may not directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of NIO Anhui’s shares to a third party that may result in our shareholding in NIO Anhui fall below 60%. Without the prior written consent of the Hefei Strategic Investors, we have the right to directly or indirectly transfer, pledge or otherwise dispose of no more than 15% of NIO Anhui’s shares.
Pursuant to the shareholders agreement we entered into with the Hefei Strategic Investors and other parties thereto, dated April 29, 2020, we are entitled to increase our shareholding in NIO Anhui within
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certain periods as provided in the agreement, by purchasing shares of NIO Anhui from the Hefei Strategic Investors or subscribing for the newly increased share capital of NIO Anhui.
NIO Parties’ Redemption Right.   Before NIO Anhui is converted into a company limited by shares for the purpose of its qualified IPO, we and parties designated by us have the right to redeem half of the equity interests in NIO Anhui held by the Jianheng New Energy Fund after its investment in NIO Anhui. The redemption price will be the higher of the following (a) the amount of the total paid-in capital increase price in respect of the equity interests to be purchased by us or our designated parties, plus investment income calculated at a simple interest rate of 10% per annum; and (b) the value of the equity interests to be redeemed by us or our designated parties determined based on the valuation of NIO Anhui in the most recent round of financing.
NIO’s Capital Increase right.   Before December 31, 2021, we and our affiliates designated by us have the right to unilaterally subscribe for up to US$600 million purchase price of the then newly increased registered capital of NIO Anhui, at the same subscription price at which the Hefei Strategic Investors invested in Anhui pursuant to the transactional documents dated April 29, 2020. With respect to such up to US$600 million purchase price of NIO Anhui’s registered capital, the Hefei Strategic Investors unconditionally and irrevocably waive any pre-emptive rights to which they are legally or contractually entitled.
For more details on the provisions of the Hefei Agreements, please refer to (i) exhibits 4.35 and 4.36 of the 2019 Annual Report; (ii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 9, 2020; and (iii) exhibits 99.1 and 99.2 of our current report on Form 6-K furnished with the Securities and Exchange Commission at 6:24 on June 30, 2020.
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CERTAIN FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated statements of comprehensive loss data for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 and selected consolidated cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2019 Annual Report, which is incorporated into the accompanying prospectus by reference. The following selected consolidated statements of comprehensive loss data for the year ended December 31, 2016, the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017, and the selected consolidated cash flow data for the year ended December 31, 2016 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP.
The consolidated statements of comprehensive loss data and cash flow data presented below for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of June 30, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and as of June 30, 2020 included in this prospectus supplement. The unaudited interim financial information has been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial data and includes all adjustments, consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments that we consider necessary for a fair statement of our financial position and results of operations for the periods presented.
The consolidated financial information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements for the three years ended December 31, 2019 and as of December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019 and related notes, “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in our 2019 Annual Report and our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2020 and as of June 30, 2020 and related notes included in this prospectus supplement. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods, and the results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full fiscal year ending December 31, 2020.
For the Year Ended December 31,
For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2016
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
US$
RMB
RMB
US$
(in thousands, except for per share data)
(unaudited)
(unaudited)
(unaudited)
Summary Consolidated Statements of
Comprehensive Loss:
Revenues(1)
Vehicle sales
4,852,470 7,367,113 1,042,747 2,949,723 4,741,686 671,142
Other sales
98,701 457,791 64,796 190,008 349,196 49,425
Total revenues
4,951,171 7,824,904 1,107,543 3,139,731 5,090,882 720,567
Cost of sales:(2)
Vehicle sales
(4,930,135) (8,096,035) (1,145,919) (3,400,206) (4,497,370) (636,561)
Other sales
(276,912) (927,691) (131,306) (463,010) (447,850) (63,389)
Total cost of sales
(5,207,047) (9,023,726) (1,277,225) (3,863,216) (4,945,220) (699,950)
Gross loss
(255,876) (1,198,822) (169,682) (723,485) 145,662 20,617
Operating expenses:
Research and development(2)
(1,465,353) (2,602,889) (3,997,942) (4,428,580) (626,825) (2,378,979) (1,067,544) (151,101)
Selling, general and
administrative
(1,137,187) (2,350,707) (5,341,790) (5,451,787) (771,650) (2,741,329) (1,785,134) (252,669)
Other operating loss, net
(23,255) (3,292)
Total operating expenses
(2,602,540) (4,953,596) (9,339,732) (9,880,367) (1,398,475) (5,120,308) (2,875,933) (407,062)
Loss from operations
(2,602,540) (4,953,596) (9,595,608) (11,079,189) (1,568,157) (5,843,793) (2,730,271) (386,445)
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For the Year Ended December 31,
For the Six Months Ended June 30,
2016
2017
2018
2019
2019
2020
RMB
RMB
RMB
RMB
US$
RMB
RMB
US$
(in thousands, except for per share data)
(unaudited)
(unaudited)
(unaudited)
Interest income
27,556 18,970 133,384 160,279 22,686 109,257 38,233 5,412
Interest expenses
(55) (18,084) (123,643) (370,536) (52,446) (165,002) (223,413) (31,622)
Shares of losses of equity investee
(5,375) (9,722) (64,478) (9,126) (26,102) (18,423) (2,608)
Investment income
2,670 3,498
Other income/(loss), net
3,429 (58,681) (21,346) 66,160 9,364 21,276 68,903 9,753
Loss before income tax expenses
(2,568,940) (5,013,268) (9,616,935) (11,287,764) (1,597,679) (5,904,364) (2,864,971) (405,510)
Income tax expenses
(4,314) (7,906) (22,044) (7,888) (1,116) (5,020) (3,491) (494)
Net loss
(2,573,254) (5,021,174) (9,638,979) (11,295,652) (1,598,795) (5,909,384) (2,868,462) (406,004)
Accretion on convertible redeemable
preferred value
(981,233) (2,576,935) (13,667,291)
Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests to redemption value
(63,297) (126,590) (17,918) (62,775) (63,122) (8,934)
Net loss attributable to non- controlling interests
36,938 36,440 41,705 9,141 1,294 6,474 900 127
Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of NIO Inc
(3,517,549) (7,561,669) (23,327,862) (11,413,101) (1,615,419) (5,965,685) (2,930,684) (414,811)
Net loss
(2,573,254) (5,021,174) (9,638,979) (11,295,652) (1,598,795) (5,909,384) (2,868,462) (406,004)
Other comprehensive income/ (loss)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of nil tax
55,493 (124,374) (20,786) (168,340) (23,827) (130,724) (103,065) (14,588)
Total other comprehensive income/ (loss)
55,493 (124,374) (20,786) (168,340) (23,827) (130,724) (103,065) (14,588)
Total comprehensive loss
(2,517,761) (5,145,548) (9,659,765) (11,463,922) (1,622,622) (6,040,108) (2,971,527) (420,592)
Accretion on convertible redeemable
preferred shares to redemption
value
(981,233) (2,576,935) (13,667,291)
Accretion on redeemable non-controlling interests to redemption value
(63,297) (126,590) (17,918) (62,775) (63,122) (8,934)
Net loss attributable to non-
controlling interests
36,938 36,440 41,705 9,141 1,294 6,474 900 127
Comprehensive loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of NIO
Inc.
(3,462,056) (7,686,043) (23,348,648) (11,581,441) (1,639,246) (6,096,409) (3,033,749) (429,399)
Weighted average number of ordinary
shares used in computing net loss
per share
Basic and diluted
16,697,527 21,801,525 332,153,211 1,029,931,705 1,029,931,705 1,031,692,650 ̴