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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
________________________________
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended July 3, 2020 or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-33278 
______________________________
AVIAT NETWORKS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
______________________________
Delaware20-5961564
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
200 Parker Drive, Suite C100A,Austin,Texas78728
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (408) 941-7100
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareAVNWNASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No  
As of December 28, 2019, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $65.0 million. For purposes of this calculation, the registrant has assumed that its directors, executive officers and holders of 10% or more of the outstanding common stock are affiliates.
As of August 21, 2020, there were 5,401,668 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding. 
_________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its fiscal 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (“Proxy Statement”), which

will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended July 3, 2020, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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AVIAT NETWORKS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended July 3, 2020
Table of Contents
 

3

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they do not materialize or prove correct, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, including statements of, about, concerning or regarding: our plans, strategies and objectives for future operations, including with respect to growing our business and sustaining profitability; our restructuring efforts; our research and development efforts and new product releases and services; trends in revenue; drivers of our business and the markets in which we operate; future economic conditions; performance or outlook and changes in our industry and the markets we serve; the outcome of contingencies; the value of our contract awards; beliefs or expectations; the sufficiency of our cash and our capital needs and expenditures; our intellectual property protection; our compliance with regulatory requirements and the associated expenses; expectations regarding litigation; our intention not to pay cash dividends; seasonality of our business; the impact of foreign exchange and inflation; taxes; and assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “should,” “would,” “will,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “strategy,” “projects,” “targets,” “goals,” “seeing,” “delivering,” “continues,” “forecasts,” “future,” “predict,” “might,” “could,” “potential,” or the negative of these terms, and similar words or expressions.
These forward-looking statements are based on estimates reflecting the current beliefs of the senior management of Aviat Networks, Inc. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements should therefore be considered in light of various important factors, including those set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:
the impact of COVID-19 on our business, operations and cash flows;
continued price and margin erosion as a result of increased competition in the microwave transmission industry;
the impact of the volume, timing, and customer, product, and geographic mix of our product orders;
our ability to meet financial covenant requirements which could impact, among other things, our liquidity;
the timing of our receipt of payment for products or services from our customers;
our ability to meet projected new product development dates or anticipated cost reductions of new products;
our suppliers’ inability to perform and deliver on time as a result of their financial condition, component shortages, the effects of COVID-19 or other supply chain constraints;
customer acceptance of new products;
the ability of our subcontractors to timely perform;
continued weakness in the global economy affecting customer spending;
retention of our key personnel;
our ability to manage and maintain key customer relationships;
uncertain economic conditions in the telecommunications sector combined with operator and supplier consolidation;
our failure to protect our intellectual property rights or defend against intellectual property infringement claims by others;
the results of our restructuring efforts;
the ability to preserve and use our net operating loss carryforwards;
the effects of currency and interest rate risks;
the effects of current and future government regulations, including the effects of current restrictions on various commercial and economic activities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
general economic conditions, including uncertainty regarding the timing, pace and extent of an economic recovery in the United States and other countries where we conduct business;
the conduct of unethical business practices in developing countries;
the impact of political turmoil in countries where we have significant business;
4

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the impact of tariffs, the adoption of trade restrictions affecting our products or suppliers, a United States withdrawal from or significant renegotiation of trade agreements, the occurrence of trade wars, the closing of border crossings, and other changes in trade regulations or relationships; and
our ability to implement our stock repurchase program or that it will enhance long-term stockholder value.
Other factors besides those listed here also could adversely affect us. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information regarding factors that may cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect our management’s opinions only as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Forward-looking statements are made in reliance upon the safe harbor provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, along with provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, other than as required by law, to update any forward-looking statements to reflect further developments or information obtained after the date of filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document.
5

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PART I
Item 1. Business
Aviat Networks, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a global supplier of microwave networking solutions, backed by an extensive suite of professional services and support. Aviat Networks, Inc. may be referred to as “the Company,” “AVNW,” “Aviat Networks,” “Aviat,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We were incorporated in Delaware in 2006 to combine the businesses of Harris Corporation’s Microwave Communications Division (“MCD”) and Stratex Networks, Inc. (“Stratex”). On January 28, 2010, we changed our corporate name from Harris Stratex Networks, Inc. to Aviat Networks, Inc.
Our principal executive offices are located at 200 Parker Dr., Suite C100A, Austin, Texas 78728, and our telephone number is (408) 941-7100. Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol AVNW. As of July 3, 2020, we had 674 employees compared with 708 employees as of June 28, 2019.
Overview and Description of the Business
We design, manufacture and sell a range of wireless networking products, solutions and services to two principal customer types.
1.Communications Service Providers (CSPs): These include mobile and fixed telecommunications network operators, broadband and internet service providers and network operators which generate revenues from the communications services that they provide.
2.Private network operators: These are customers which do not resell communications services but build networks for reasons of economics, autonomy, and or security to support a wide variety of mission critical performance applications. Examples include federal, state and local government agencies, transportation agencies, energy and utility companies, public safety agencies and broadcast network operators around the world.
We sell products and services directly to our customers, and, to a lesser extent, agents and resellers.
Our products utilize microwave and millimeter wave technologies to create point to point wireless links for short, medium and long-distance interconnections. Our products incorporate Ethernet switching and IP routing capabilities optimized for a microwave and millimeter wave environment and for hybrid applications of microwave and optical fiber transport, to form complete networking solutions. We provide software tools and applications to enable deployment, monitoring, network management and optimization of our systems as well as to automate network design and procurement. We also source, qualify, supply and support third party equipment such as antennas, routers, optical transmission equipment and other equipment necessary to build and deploy a complete telecommunications transmission network. We provide a full suite of professional services for planning, deployment, operations, optimization and maintenance of our customers’ networks.
Our wireless systems deliver urban, suburban, regional and country-wide communications links as the primary alternative to fiber optic connections. In dense urban and suburban areas, short range wireless solutions are faster to deploy and lower cost per mile than new fiber deployments. In developing nations, fiber infrastructure is scarce and wireless systems are used for both long and short distance connections. Wireless systems also have advantages over optical fiber in areas with rugged terrain, and to provide connections over bodies of water such as between islands or to offshore oil and gas production platforms. Through the air wireless transmission is also inherently lower in latency than transmission through optical cables and can be leveraged in time sensitive networking applications.
Revenue from our North America and international regions represented approximately 64% and 36% of our revenue in fiscal 2020, respectively, 54% and 46% of our revenue in fiscal 2019, respectively, and 54% and 46% of our revenue in fiscal 2018, respectively. Information about our revenue attributable to our geographic regions is set forth in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in “Note 9. Segment and Geographic Information” of the accompanying consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Market Overview
We believe that future demand for microwave and millimeter wave transmission systems will be influenced by a number of factors across several market segments.
Mobile Networks
As mobile networks expand, add subscribers and increase the number of wirelessly connected devices, sensors and machines, they require ongoing investment in backhaul infrastructure. Whether mobile network operators choose to self-build this backhaul infrastructure or lease backhaul services from other network providers, the evolution of the network drives demand for transmission technologies such as microwave and millimeter wave wireless backhaul. Within this overall scope there are multiple individual drivers for investment in backhaul infrastructure.
5G Deployments. Mobile Radio Access Network (“RAN”) technologies are continually evolving. With the evolution from 4G (HSPA+ and LTE) to 5G, technology is continuously advancing and providing subscribers with higher speed access to the Internet, social media, and video streaming services. The rapid increases in data to be transported through the RAN and across the backhaul infrastructure drives requirements for higher data transport links necessitating upgrades to or replacement of the existing backhaul infrastructure.
Subscriber Growth. Traffic on the backhaul infrastructure increases as the number of unique subscribers grows.
Connected Devices. The number of devices such as smart phones and tablets connected to the mobile network is far greater than the number of unique subscribers and is continuing to grow as consumers adopt multiple mobile device types. There is also rapid growth in the number and type of wireless enabled sensors and machines being connected to the mobile network creating new revenue streams for network operators in healthcare, agriculture, transportation and education. As a result, the data traffic crossing the backhaul infrastructure continues to grow rapidly.
IoT. The Internet of Things (“IoT”) brings the potential of massive deployment of wireless end points for sensing and reporting data and remotely controlling machines and devices. The increase of data volume drives investment in network infrastructure.
Network Densification. RAN frequency spectrum is a limited resource and shared between all of the devices and users within the coverage area of each base station. Meeting the combined demand of increasing subscribers and devices will require the deployment of much higher densities of base stations with smaller and smaller range (small cells) each requiring interconnection and proportionally driving increased demand for wireless backhaul and or fronthaul solutions as the primary alternative to optical fiber connectivity.
Geographic Coverage. Expanding the geographic area covered by a mobile network requires the deployment of additional cellular base station sites. Each additional base station site also needs to be connected to the core of the mobile network through expansion of the backhaul system.
License Mandates. Mobile Operators are licensed telecommunications service providers. Licenses will typically mandate a minimum geographic footprint within a specific period of time and/or a minimum proportion of a national or regional population served. This can pace backhaul infrastructure investment and cause periodic spikes in demand.
Expansion of Offered Services. Mobile network operators especially in emerging markets now own and operate the most modern communications networks within their respective regions. These network assets can be further leveraged to provide high speed broadband services to fixed locations such as small, medium and large business enterprises, airports, hotels, hospitals, and educational institutions. Microwave and millimeter wave backhaul is ideally suited to providing high speed broadband connections to these end points due to the lack of fiber infrastructure.
Other Vertical Markets
In addition to mobile backhaul, we see demand for microwave technology in other vertical markets, including utility, public safety, financial institutions and broadcast.
Many utility companies around the world are actively investing in “Smart Grid” solutions and energy demand management, which drive the need for network modernization and increased capacity of networks.
The investments in network modernization in the public safety market can significantly enhance the capabilities of security agencies. Improving border patrol effectiveness, enabling inter-operable emergency communications services for local or state police, providing access to timely information from centralized databases, or utilizing video and imaging devices at the scene of an incident requires a high bandwidth and reliable network. The mission critical nature of public safety and national security networks can require that these networks are built, operated and
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maintained independently of other public network infrastructure and microwave is very well suited to this environment because it is a cost-effective alternative to fiber.
Microwave technology can be used to engineer long distance and more direct connections than optical cable. Microwave signals also travel through the air much faster than light through glass and the combined effect of shorter distance and higher speed reduces latency, which is valued for trading applications in the financial industry. Our products have already been used to create low latency connections between major centers in the United States (“U.S.”), Europe and Asia and we see long-term interest in the creation of further low latency routes in various geographies around the world.
Evolution to IP. Network Infrastructure capacity, efficiency and flexibility is greatly enhanced by transitioning from legacy SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) / SONET (synchronous optical network) / TDM (time division multiplexing) to IP (internet protocol) infrastructure. Our products offer integrated IP transport and routing functionality increasing the value they bring in the backhaul network.
The enhancement of border security and surveillance networks to counter terrorism and insurgency is aided by the use of wireless technologies including microwave backhaul.
These factors are combining to create a range of opportunities for continued investment in backhaul and transport networks favoring microwave and millimeter wave technologies. As we focus on executing future generations of our technology, our goal is to make wireless technology a viable choice for an ever-broadening range of network types.
Strategy
As we continue executing our technology roadmap, we are engaging more deeply with customers on the evolution of use cases and applications as 5G mobile and broadband networks edge closer to implementation and begin to factor more strongly in the vendor selection process. We are confident in our ability to address current and future 5G market needs.
We are focused on building a sustainable and profitable business with growth potential. We have invested in our people and processes to create a platform for operational excellence across sales, services, product development and supply chain areas while continuing to make investments in strengthening our product and services portfolio and expanding our reach into targeted market areas.
Our technology strategy has three main elements aligned to deliver a compelling Total Cost of Ownership (“TCO”) value proposition. The first is the integration of network routing functions into our wireless transport solution allowing our customers increased flexibility with a much better total cost solution. Second, we are expanding the data-carrying capacity of our wireless products to address the increasing data demand in networks of all types. Third, in order to address the operational complexity of planning, deploying, owning and operating microwave networks, we are investing in a combination of software applications, tools and services where simplification, process automation and our unique expertise in wireless technology can make a significant difference for our customers and partners.
We continue to develop our professional services portfolio as key to our long-term strategy and differentiation. We offer a portfolio of hosted expert services and we continue to offer training and accreditation programs for microwave and IP network design, deployment and maintenance.
We expect to continue to serve and expand upon our existing customer base and develop business with new customers. We intend to leverage our customer base, our longstanding presence in many countries, our distribution channels, our comprehensive product line, our superior customer service and our turnkey solution capability to continue to sell existing and new products and services to current and future customers.
Products and Solutions
Our strong product and solutions portfolio is key to building and maintaining our marquee base of customers. We offer a comprehensive product and solutions portfolio that meets the needs of service providers and network operators in every region of the world and that addresses a broad range of applications, frequencies, capacities and network topologies.
Broad product and solution portfolio. We offer a comprehensive suite of wireless transmission systems for microwave and millimeter wave networking applications. These solutions utilize a wide range of transmission frequencies, ranging from 5 GHz to 90 GHz, and can deliver a wide range of transmission capacities, ranging up to 20 Gigabits per second (Gbps). The major product families included in these solutions are CTR 8000, WTM 4000 and AviatCloud. Our CTR 8000 platform merges the functionality of an indoor microwave modem unit and a cell
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site router into a single integrated solution, simplifying IP/MPLS deployments and creating a better performing network. The newest addition to our product portfolio is the WTM 4000, the highest capacity microwave radio ever produced, and purpose built for software-defined networks (“SDN.”) SDN technology is an approach to networking management that enables dynamic, programmatically efficient networking configuration in order to improve networking performance and monitoring, making it more like cloud computing than traditional networking management. We have now introduced multiple important variants to the WTM 4000 platform; WTM4100 & 4200 providing single and dual frequency microwave links with advanced XPIC and MIMO capabilities; WTM4500 for multi-channel aggregation of microwave channels in long distance applications; WTM4800 is the latest addition to address 5G network requirements and is capable of operating in the 80GHz E Band at up to 20Gbps capacity, with a unique Multi-Band capability which simultaneously uses microwave and E Band frequencies for maximum robustness. WTM 4800 is the industry’s only single box multi-band solution for lowest total cost of ownership deployments. To address the issues of operational complexity in our customers’ networks, AviatCloud is a platform with secure hosted software and services to automate networks and their operations.
Low total cost of ownership. Our wireless-based solutions are focused on achieving a low total cost of ownership, including savings on the combined costs of initial acquisition, installation and ongoing operation and maintenance. Our latest generation system designs reduce rack space requirements, require less power, are software-configurable to reduce spare parts requirements, and are simple to install, operate, upgrade and maintain. Our advanced wireless features can also enable operators to save on related costs, including spectrum fees and tower rental fees.
Futureproof network. Our solutions are designed to protect the network operator’s investment by incorporating software-configurable capacity upgrades and plug-in modules that provide a smooth migration path to Carrier Ethernet and IP/MPLS (multiprotocol label switching) based networking, without the need for costly equipment substitutions and additions. Our products include key technologies we believe will be needed by operators for their network evolution to support new broadband services.
Flexible, easily configurable products. We use flexible architectures with a high level of software configurable features. This design approach produces high-performance products with reusable components while at the same time allowing for a manufacturing strategy with a high degree of flexibility, improved cost and reduced time-to-market. The software features of our products offer our customers a greater degree of flexibility in installing, operating and maintaining their networks.
Comprehensive network management. We offer a range of flexible network management solutions, from element management to enterprise-wide network management and service assurance that we can optimize to work with our wireless systems.
Complete professional services. In addition to our product offerings, we provide network planning and design, site surveys and builds, systems integration, installation, maintenance, network monitoring, training, customer service and many other professional services. Our services cover the entire evaluation, purchase, deployment and operational cycle and enable us to be one of the few complete, turnkey solution providers in the industry.
Business Operations
Sales and Service
Our primary route to market is through our own direct sales, service and support organization. This provides us with the best opportunity to leverage our role as a technology specialist and differentiate ourselves from competitors. Our focus on key customers and geographies allows us to consistently achieve high customer satisfaction ratings leading to a high level of customer retention and repeat business. Our highest concentrations of sales and service resources are in the United States, Western and Southern Africa, the Philippines, and the European Union. We maintain a presence in a number of other countries, some of which are based in customer locations and include, but not limited to, Canada, Mexico, Kenya, India, Saudi Arabia, Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore.
In addition to our direct channel to market, we also have informal, and in some cases formal, relationships with original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) and system integrators especially focused towards large and complex projects in national security and government-related applications. Our role in these relationships ranges from equipment supply only to being a sub-contractor for a portion of the project scope where we will supply equipment and a variety of design, deployment and maintenance services.
We also use indirect sales channels, including dealers, resellers and sales representatives, in the marketing and sale of some lines of products and equipment on a global basis. These independent representatives may buy for resale or, in some cases, solicit orders from commercial or governmental customers for direct sales by us. Prices to the ultimate customer in many instances may be recommended or established by the independent representative and may be above or
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below our list prices. These independent representatives generally receive a discount from our list prices and are free to set the final sales prices paid by the customer.
We have introduced a direct online sales option through our online “AviatStore” for our WTM radio platform, initially in North America and targeted at wireless internet service providers delivering broadband services in rural and underserved areas. We provide online design tools for radio link planning and on-line ordering tools, which we fulfill directly from our AviatStore with multiple options of product available for next day shipment. Shipments from AviatStore commenced late in 2018.
We have repair and service centers in India, Nigeria, Ghana, Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom and the United States. We have customer service and support personnel who provide customers with training, installation, technical support, maintenance and other services on systems under contract. We install and maintain customer equipment directly, in some cases, and contract with third-party service providers in other cases, depending on the equipment being installed and customer requirements.
The specific terms and conditions of our product warranties vary depending upon the product sold and country in which we do business. On direct sales, warranty periods generally start on the delivery date and continue for one to three years.
Manufacturing
Our global manufacturing strategy follows an outsourced manufacturing model using contract manufacturing partners in both the United States and Asia. Our strategy is based on balancing cost and supplier performance as well as taking into account qualification for localization requirements of certain market segments, such as the Buy American Act. 
In accordance with our global logistics requirements and customer geographic distribution, we are engaged with contract manufacturing partners in Asia and the United States. All manufacturing operations have been certified to International Standards Organization 9001, a recognized international quality standard. We have also been certified to the TL 9000 standard, a telecommunication industry-specific quality system standard.
Backlog
Our backlog was approximately $210 million at July 3, 2020 and $160.1 million at June 28, 2019 consisting primarily of contracts or purchase orders for both product and service deliveries and extended service warranties. Services include management’s initial estimate of the value of a customer’s commitment under a services contract. The calculation used by management involves estimates and judgments to gauge the extent of a customer’s commitment, including the type and duration of the agreement, and the presence of termination charges or wind down costs. Contract extensions and increases in scope are treated as backlog only to the extent of the new incremental value. We regularly review our backlog to ensure that our customers continue to honor their purchase commitments and have the financial means to purchase and deploy our products and services in accordance with the terms of their purchase contracts. Backlog estimates are subject to change and are affected by several factors, including terminations, changes in the scope of contracts, periodic revalidation, adjustments for revenue not materialized and adjustments for currency.
We expect to substantially fill the backlog as of July 3, 2020 during fiscal 2021, but we cannot be assured that this will occur. Product orders in our current backlog are subject to changes in delivery schedules or to cancellation at the option of the purchaser without significant penalty. Accordingly, although useful for scheduling production, backlog as of any particular date may not be a reliable measure of sales for any future period because of the timing of orders, delivery intervals, customer and product mix and the possibility of changes in delivery schedules and additions or cancellations of orders.
Customers
Although we have a large customer base, during any given fiscal year or quarter, a small number of customers may account for a significant portion of our revenue.
Mobile Telephone Networks Group (“MTN Group”) in Africa accounted for 11% of total revenue in fiscal 2019 and 13% in fiscal 2018. No customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue in fiscal 2020. We have entered into separate and distinct contracts with MTN Group as well as separate arrangements with MTN Group subsidiaries.
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Competition
The microwave and millimeter wave wireless networking business is a specialized segment of the telecommunications industry that is sensitive to technological advancements and is extremely competitive. Our principal competitors include business units of large mobile and IP network infrastructure manufacturers such as Ericsson, Huawei, NEC Corporation and Nokia Corporation, as well as a number of smaller microwave specialist companies such as Ceragon Networks Ltd. and SIAE Microelectronica S.p.A.
Some of our larger competitors may have greater name recognition, broader product lines (some including non-wireless telecommunications equipment and managed services), a larger installed base of products and longer-standing customer relationships. They may from time to time leverage their extensive overall portfolios into completely outsourced and managed network offerings restricting opportunities for specialist suppliers. In addition, some competitors may offer seller financing, which can be a competitive advantage under certain economic climates.
Some of our larger competitors may also act as systems integrators through which we sometimes distribute and sell products and services to end users.
The smaller independent private and public specialist competitors typically leverage new technologies and low product costs but are generally less capable of offering a complete solution including professional services, especially in the North America and Africa regions which form the majority of our addressed market.
We concentrate on market opportunities that we believe are compatible with our resources, overall technological capabilities and objectives. Principal competitive factors are cost-effectiveness, product quality and reliability, technological capabilities, service, ability to meet delivery schedules and the effectiveness of dealers in international areas. We believe that the combination of our network and systems engineering support and service, global reach, technological innovation, agility and close collaborative relationships with our customers are the key competitive strengths for us. However, customers may still make decisions based primarily on factors such as price, financing terms and/or past or existing relationships, where it may be difficult for us to compete effectively or profitably.
Research and Development
We believe that our ability to enhance our current products, develop and introduce new products on a timely basis, maintain technological competitiveness and meet customer requirements is essential to our success. Accordingly, we allocate, and intend to continue to allocate, a significant portion of our resources to research and development efforts in key technology areas and innovation to differentiate our overall portfolio from our competition. The majority of such research and development resources will be focused on technologies in microwave and millimeter wave RF, digital signal processing, networking protocols and software applications.
Our research and development expenditures totaled $19.3 million, or 8.1% of revenue, in fiscal 2020, $21.1 million, or 8.7% of revenue, in fiscal 2019, and $19.8 million, or 8.1% of revenue, in fiscal 2018.
Research and development are primarily directed to the development of new products and to build technological capability. We are an industry innovator and intend to continue to focus significant resources on product development in an effort to maintain our competitiveness and support our entry into new markets.
Our product development teams totaled 149 employees as of July 3, 2020, and were located primarily in New Zealand and Slovenia.
Raw Materials and Supplies
Because of the range of our products and services, as well as the wide geographic dispersion of our facilities, we use numerous sources of raw materials needed for our operations and for our products, such as electronic components, printed circuit boards, metals and plastics. We are dependent upon suppliers and subcontractors for a large number of components and subsystems and upon the ability of our suppliers and subcontractors to adhere to customers’ requirements or regulatory restrictions and to meet performance and quality specifications and delivery schedules.
Our strategy for procuring raw material and supplies includes dual sourcing on strategic assemblies and components. In general, we believe this reduces our risk with regard to the potential financial difficulties in our supply base. In some instances, we are dependent upon one or a few sources, either because of the specialized nature of a particular item or because of local content preference requirements pursuant to which we operate on a given project. Examples of sole or limited source categories include metal fabrications and castings, for which we own the tooling and
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therefore limit our supplier relationships, and ASIC’s and MMICs (types of integrated circuit used in manufacturing microwave radios), which we procure at volume discount from a single source. Our supply chain plan includes mitigation plans for alternative manufacturing sites which would also mitigate COVID-19 risks.
Although we have been affected by performance issues of some of our suppliers and subcontractors, we have not been materially adversely affected by the inability to obtain raw materials or products. In general, any performance issues causing short-term material shortages are within the normal frequency and impact range experienced by high-tech manufacturing companies and are due primarily to the highly technical nature of many of our purchased components.
Patents and Other Intellectual Property
We consider our patents and other intellectual property rights, in the aggregate, to constitute an important asset. We own a portfolio of patents, trade secrets, know-how, confidential information, trademarks, copyrights and other intellectual property. We also license intellectual property to and from third parties. As of July 3, 2020, we held 413 U.S. patents and 496 international patents and had 10 U.S. patent applications pending and 22 international patent applications pending. We do not consider our business to be materially dependent upon any single patent, license or other intellectual property right, or any group of related patents, licenses or other intellectual property rights. From time to time, we might engage in litigation to enforce our patents and other intellectual property or defend against claims of alleged infringement. Any of our patents, trade secrets, trademarks, copyrights and other proprietary rights could be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or may not provide competitive advantages. Numerous trademarks used on or in connection with our products are also considered to be valuable assets.
In addition, to protect confidential information, including our trade secrets, we require our employees and contractors to sign confidentiality and invention assignment agreements. We also enter into non-disclosure agreements with our suppliers and appropriate customers to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information.
Although our ability to compete may be affected by our ability to protect our intellectual property, we believe that, because of the rapid pace of technological change in the wireless telecommunications industry, our innovative skills, technical expertise and ability to introduce new products on a timely basis will be more important in maintaining our competitive position than protection of our intellectual property. Trade secret, trademark, copyright and patent protections are important but must be supported by other factors such as the expanding knowledge, ability and experience of our personnel, new product introductions and product enhancements. Although we continue to implement protective measures and intend to vigorously defend our intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that these measures will be successful.
Environmental and Other Regulations
Our facilities and operations, in common with those of our industry in general, are subject to numerous domestic and international laws and regulations designed to protect the environment, particularly with regard to wastes and emissions. We believe that we have complied with these requirements and that such compliance has not had a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. Based upon currently available information, we do not expect expenditures to protect the environment and to comply with current environmental laws and regulations over the next several years to have a material impact on our competitive or financial position but can give no assurance that such expenditures will not exceed current expectations. From time to time, we receive notices from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or equivalent state or international environmental agencies that we are a potentially responsible party under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which is commonly known as the Superfund Act, and equivalent laws. Such notices may assert potential liability for cleanup costs at various sites, which include sites owned by us, sites we previously owned and treatment or disposal sites not owned by us, allegedly containing hazardous substances attributable to us from past operations. We are not presently aware of any such liability that could be material to our business, financial condition or operating results, but due to the nature of our business and environmental risks, we cannot provide assurance that any such material liability will not arise in the future.
Electronic products are subject to environmental regulation in a number of jurisdictions. Equipment produced by us is subject to domestic and international requirements requiring end-of-life management and/or restricting materials in products delivered to customers. We believe that we have complied with such rules and regulations, where applicable, with respect to our existing products sold into such jurisdictions.
Radio communications are also subject to governmental regulation. Equipment produced by us is subject to domestic and international requirements to avoid interference among users of radio frequencies and to permit
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interconnection of telecommunications equipment. We believe that we have complied with such rules and regulations with respect to our existing products, and we intend to comply with such rules and regulations with respect to our future products. Reallocation of the frequency spectrum could impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a comprehensive policy and procedures in effect concerning conflict minerals compliance.
Employees
As of July 3, 2020, we employed 674 people compared with 708 people as of the end of fiscal 2019, and 704 as of the end of fiscal 2018. As of July 3, 2020, 272 of our employees were located in the U.S. Of the 674 employees employed as of July 3, 2020, 656 were full-time employees. We also utilized 18 and 30 independent contractors as of July 3, 2020 and June 28, 2019, respectively. None of our employees in the U.S. are represented by a labor union. In certain international subsidiaries, our employees are represented by workers’ councils or statutory labor unions. In general, we believe that our employee relations are good.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The name, age, position held with us, and principal occupation and employment during at least the past 5 years for each of our executive officers as of August 27, 2020, are as follows:
Name and AgePosition Currently Held and Past Business Experience
Peter A. Smith, 54Mr. Smith was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer in January 2020. Prior to joining Aviat Networks, Mr. Smith served as Senior Vice President, US Windows and Canada for Jeld-Wen from March 2017 to December 2019. Prior to Jeld-Wen, he served as President of Polypore International’s Transportation and Industrial segment from October 2013 to March 2017. Previously, he served as Chief Executive Officer and a director of Voltaix Inc. from September 2011 to October 2013. Earlier in his career, Mr. Smith held various executive leadership positions at Fortune 100 and Fortune 500 companies, including Cooper Industries, Dover Knowles Electronics and Honeywell Specialty Materials. Mr. Smith also served on the board of Soleras Advanced Coatings from August 2015 to October 2018. He has both a Bachelor of Science degree in Material (Ceramics) Engineering and PhD in Material Science and Engineering from Rutgers University, and holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Arizona State University.
Eric Chang, 47
Mr. Chang was appointed Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in April 2020. Mr. Chang joined Aviat Networks in February 2016 as our Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer. Prior to joining Aviat Networks, from 2013 to 2016, Mr. Chang was the Senior Director, Corporate Controller at Micrel, Incorporated. From 2007 to 2013, he served as Senior Director, Assistant Controller and Business Unit Controller at Atmel Corporation. From 2003 to 2007, he was at Ernst & Young LLP, most recent as Senior Audit Manager. Mr. Chang is a Certified Public Accountant in California and holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting and Computer Information Systems from Indiana University Kelley School of Business.
There is no family relationship between any of our executive officers or directors, and there are no arrangements or understandings between any of our executive officers or directors and any other person pursuant to which any of them was appointed or elected as an officer or director, other than arrangements or understandings with our directors.
Website Access to Aviat Networks’ Reports; Available Information
We maintain a website at http://www.aviatnetworks.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, proxy statements, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to such reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Our website and the information posted thereon are not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any current or other periodic report that we file or furnish to the SEC.
We will also provide the reports in electronic or paper form, free of charge upon request. All reports we file with or furnish to the SEC are also available free of charge via EDGAR through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
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Additional information relating to our business and operations is set forth in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
The nature of the business activities conducted by the Company subjects us to certain hazards and risks. The following is a summary of some of the material risks relating to the Company’s business activities. Other risks are described in “Item 1. Business,” “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” Prospective and existing investors are strongly urged to carefully consider the various cautionary statements and risks set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings.
We face many business risks, including those related to our financial performance, investments in our common stock, operating our business and legal matters. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. If any of these risks occur, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the market price of the Company’s common stock could decline.
Our sales cycle may be lengthy, and the timing of sales, along with additional services such as warehousing, inventory management, installation and implementation of our products within our customers’ networks, may extend over more than one period, which can make our operating results difficult to predict.
We experience difficulty in accurately predicting the timing of the sale of products and amounts of revenue generated from sales of our products, primarily in developing countries. The establishment of a business relationship with a potential customer is a lengthy process, usually taking several months or more. Following the establishment of the relationship, the negotiation of purchase terms can be time-consuming, and a potential customer may require an extended evaluation and testing period. Once a purchase agreement has been executed, the timing and amount of revenue, if applicable, may remain difficult to predict. Our typical product sales cycle, which results in our products being designed into our customers’ networks, can take 12 to 24 months. A number of factors contribute to the length of the sales cycle, including technical evaluations of our products, the design process required to integrate our products into our customers’ networks and warehousing and inventory management services that may be requested by certain large customers. The completion of services such as installation and testing of the customer’s networks and the completion of all other suppliers’ network elements are subject to the customer’s timing and efforts and other factors outside our control, each of which may prevent us from making predictions of revenue with any certainty and could cause us to experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results.
Additionally, in anticipation of product orders, we may incur substantial costs before the sales cycle is complete and before we receive any customer payments. Specifically, warehousing and inventory management services can affect our operating results in any period due to the costs associated with providing such services and the fact that the timing of the revenue recognition may be delayed. In the event that a sale is not completed or is canceled or delayed, we may have already incurred substantial expenses, making it more difficult for us to become profitable or otherwise negatively impacting our financial results. Because of the challenges of our lengthy sales cycle, our recognition of revenue from our selling efforts may be substantially delayed, our ability to forecast our future revenue may be more limited and our revenue may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter.
Due to the volume of our international sales, we may be susceptible to a number of political, economic and geographic risks that could harm our business.
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We are highly dependent on sales to customers outside the U.S. In fiscal 2020, our sales to international customers accounted for 38% of total revenue. Significant portions of our international sales are in less developed countries. Our international sales are likely to continue to account for a large percentage of our products and services revenue for the foreseeable future. As a result, the occurrence of any international, political, economic or geographic event could result in a significant decline in revenue. In addition, compliance with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. These numerous and sometimes conflicting laws and regulations include internal control and disclosure rules, data privacy and filtering requirements, anti-corruption laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, and anti-competition regulations, among others. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, our business, and our operating results. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors, or agents will not violate our policies.
Some of the risks and challenges of doing business internationally include:
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;
fluctuations in international currency exchange rates including its impact on unhedgeable currencies and our forecast variations for hedgeable currencies;
imposition of tariffs and other barriers and restrictions;
management and operation of an enterprise spread over various countries;
the burden of complying with a variety of laws and regulations in various countries;
application of the income tax laws and regulations of multiple jurisdictions, including relatively low-rate and relatively high-rate jurisdictions, to our sales and other transactions, which results in additional complexity and uncertainty;
the conduct of unethical business practices in developing countries;
general economic and geopolitical conditions, including inflation and trade relationships;
restrictions on travel to locations where we conduct business, including those imposed due to COVID-19;
war and acts of terrorism;
kidnapping and high crime rate;
natural disasters;
availability of U.S. dollars especially in countries with economies highly dependent on resource exports, particularly oil; and
changes in export regulations.
While these factors and the impacts of these factors are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in the future.
The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization characterized the current respiratory illness caused by novel coronavirus disease, known as COVID-19, as a pandemic. The pandemic has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, and business shutdowns. Our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises and epidemics/pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has, and is expected to continue to have, an impact on our operations, supply chains and distribution systems. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect our business, prospects and results of operations will depend on future developments, many of which are highly uncertain, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume. Management is actively monitoring the impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry, and workforce.
Our first priority remains the health and safety of our employees and their families. Employees whose tasks can be done off-site have been instructed to work from home. Our sites support essential businesses and remain operational. We
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are maintaining social distancing for workers on-site and have enhanced cleaning protocols and usage of personal protective equipment, where appropriate. There is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by COVID-19, and our ability to perform critical functions could be harmed as a result.
The impact to our supply chain lead times and ability to fulfill orders was minimal for the second half of fiscal 2020. However, depending on pandemic-related factors like the uncertain duration of temporary manufacturing restrictions as well as our ability to perform field services during shelter in place orders, we could/may continue to experience constraints and delays in fulfilling customer orders in future periods.
While the ultimate effects of the pandemic on our business are uncertain, the pandemic and related government actions, including restrictions on travel, temporary closure of businesses and stay at home orders have, and are likely to continue to have, an adverse impact on global economic conditions and consumer confidence and spending, which could materially affect demand for our products. Our customers could become more conservative in response to the pandemic and economic conditions and may seek to reduce their purchases. Our results of operations depend upon, among other things, our ability to maintain and increase sales volume with existing customers, our ability to attract new customers and the financial condition of our customers. Decreases in demand for our products without a corresponding decrease in costs would negatively impact our operating margins and financial results.
We are monitoring, assessing and adapting to the situation and have prepared for implications to our business, supply chain and customer demand. We expect these challenges to continue until business and economic activities return to more normal levels. The financial results for the fiscal year reflect some of the reduced activity experienced during the period in various locations around the world and are not necessary indicative of the results for the next fiscal period or fiscal year.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect the global economy, and/or adversely affects our business, operations or financial performance, it may also have the effect of increasing the likelihood and/or magnitude of other risks described in the “Risk Factors” set forth in this Item 1A.
The negative effects of COVID-19 on the global economy may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business and operating results are affected by the global business environment and economic conditions, including changes in interest rates, availability of capital from credit providers, consumer confidence, rates of inflation, geopolitical issues and other macro-economic factors. The United States and global economies continue to experience a period of economic and financial uncertainty, in part due to COVID-19 and the related public health actions taken by many governments and businesses. The pandemic is negatively affecting, and is expected to continue to negatively affect, at least in the short term, global economic conditions, and a continued economic downturn could lead to decreased customer demand, inability to execute installs and/or service, or the inability of our customers to pay for our products, the inability of suppliers to deliver the components necessary to manufacture our products, and reduced access to capital from credit providers and through the capital markets, among other things, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, a prolonged economic downturn may exacerbate certain other risks described in the “Risk Factors” set forth in this Item 1A that affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Natural disasters or other catastrophic events could have an adverse effect on our business.
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods, could adversely affect our operations and financial performance. Such events could result in physical damage to one or more of our facilities, the temporary closure of one or more of our facilities or those of our suppliers, a temporary lack of an adequate work force in a market, a temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of products from local or overseas suppliers, a temporary disruption in the transport of goods from overseas, and delays in the delivery of goods. Public health issues, whether occurring in the United States or abroad, could disrupt our operations, disrupt the operations of suppliers or customers, or have an adverse impact on customer demand. As a result of any of these events, we may be required to suspend operations in some or all of our locations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. These events could also reduce demand for our products or make it difficult or impossible to receive components from suppliers. Although we maintain business interruption insurance and other insurance intended to cover some or all of these risks, such insurance may be inadequate, whether because of coverage amount, policy limitations, the financial viability of the insurance companies issuing such policies, or other reasons.
Tension in U.S.-China trade relations may adversely impact our supply chain operations and business.
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The U.S. government has taken certain actions that change U.S. trade policies, including recently-imposed tariffs affecting certain products manufactured in China. Some components manufactured by our Chinese suppliers are subject to tariffs if imported into the United States. In addition, the Chinese government has taken certain reciprocal actions, including recently imposed tariffs affecting certain products manufactured in the United States. Certain of our products manufactured in our U.S. operations have been included in the tariffs imposed on imports into China from the United States. Although some of the products and components we import are affected by the tariffs, at this time, we do not expect these tariffs to have a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. It is unknown whether and to what extent additional new tariffs (or other new laws or regulations) will be adopted that increase the cost of importing and/or exporting products and components from China to the United States and vice versa. Further, the effect of any such new tariffs or retaliatory actions on our industry and customers is unknown and difficult to predict. As additional new tariffs, legislation and/or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated or if China or other affected countries take retaliatory trade actions, such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
We may undertake further restructuring activities, which may adversely impact our operations, and we may not realize all of the anticipated benefits of these activities or any potential future restructurings. Any restructuring activities may harm our business.
We continue to evaluate our business to determine the potential need to realign our resources as we continue to transform our business in order to achieve desired cost savings in an increasingly competitive market. In prior years, we have undertaken a series of steps to restructure our operations involving, among other things and depending on the year, reductions of our workforce, the relocation of our corporate headquarters and the reduction and outsourcing of manufacturing activities. We incurred restructuring charges of $4.0 million, $0.7 million and $1.3 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
We have based our restructuring efforts on assumptions and plans regarding the appropriate cost structure of our business based on our product mix and projected sales, among other factors. Some of our assumptions include the elimination of jobs and the outsourcing of certain functions to reduce our operating expenses. These assumptions may not be accurate and we may not be able to operate in accordance with our plans. Should this occur we may determine that we must incur additional restructuring charges in the future. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will realize all of the anticipated benefits of our restructuring actions or that we will not further reduce or otherwise adjust our workforce or exit, or dispose of, certain businesses and product lines. Any decision to further limit investment, exit, or disposal of businesses or product lines may result in the recording of additional restructuring charges. Consequently, the costs actually incurred in connection with the restructuring efforts may be higher than originally planned and may not lead to the anticipated cost savings and/or improved results. For example, if we consolidate additional facilities in the future, we may incur additional restructuring and related expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We must increase our revenues and/or reduce costs if we hope to maintain profitability.
As measured under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”), we recorded net income attributable to our stockholders of $0.3 million in fiscal 2020, compared to $9.7 million in fiscal 2019 and $1.8 million in fiscal 2018. We generated cash from operations of $17.5 million, $2.9 million and $8.2 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Throughout fiscal 2020, we experienced strong price competition for new business in all regions while major customer consolidations from prior years also put pressure on revenue and gross margin. In addition, we saw pricing pressures in all markets, particularly in international markets. Customer consolidation may have an increasing negative impact on our revenue if Aviat is not selected as a vendor for the products and/or services we provide. In order to counter pricing pressures, we invested heavily in product improvements to reduce unit costs and enhance product features, decreased overall company expenses, and worked with our vendors to attain more favorable pricing. If we are unable to reduce product unit costs associated with enhanced product features, including payments to contract manufacturers and other suppliers, or achieve the projected cost reductions, we may not achieve profitability.
We cannot be certain that these actions or others that we may take will allow us to maintain operating profitability or net income as determined under U.S. GAAP in the future.
Our quarterly results may be volatile, which can adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.
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Our quarterly operating results may vary significantly for a variety of reasons, many of which are outside our control. These factors could harm our business and include, among others:
seasonality in the purchasing habits of our customers;
the volume and timing of product orders and the timing of completion of our product deliveries and installations;
our ability and the ability of our key suppliers to respond to changes on demand as needed;
margin variability based on geographic and product mix;
our suppliers’ inability to perform and deliver on time as a result of their financial condition, component shortages or other supply chain constraints;
retention of key personnel;
the length of our sales cycle;
litigation costs and expenses;
continued timely rollout of new product functionality and features;
increased competition resulting in downward pressure on the price of our products and services;
unexpected delays in the schedule for shipments of existing products and new generations of the existing platforms;
maintaining appropriate inventory levels and purchase commitments;
failure to realize expected cost improvement throughout our supply chain;
order cancellations or postponements in product deliveries, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in delayed revenue recognition;
restructuring and streamlining of our operations;
war and acts of terrorism;
natural disasters;
diseases or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and corresponding governmental actions;
the ability of our customers to obtain financing to enable their purchase of our products;
fluctuations in international currency exchange rates;
regulatory developments including denial of export and import licenses;
general economic conditions worldwide that affect demand and financing for microwave and millimeter wave telecommunications networks; and
the timing and size of future restructuring plans and write-offs.
Our quarterly results are expected to be difficult to predict and delays in product delivery or closing a sale can cause revenue, margins and net income or loss to fluctuate significantly from anticipated levels. A substantial portion of our contracts are completed in the latter part of a quarter and a significant percentage of these are large orders. Because a significant portion of our cost structure is largely fixed in the short term, revenue shortfalls tend to have a disproportionately negative impact on our profitability and can increase our inventory. The number of large new transactions also increases the risk of fluctuations in our quarterly results because a delay in even a small number of these transactions could cause our quarterly revenues and profitability to fall significantly short of our predictions. In addition, we may increase spending in response to competitive actions or in pursuit of new market opportunities. Accordingly, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to achieve profitability in the future or that if profitability is attained, that we will be able to sustain profitability, particularly on a quarter-to-quarter basis.
We cannot guarantee that our stock repurchase program will be fully implemented or that it will enhance long-term stockholder value.
        In May 2018, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program for the repurchase of up to $7.5 million. The repurchase program has been suspended temporarily since February 2020. Our repurchase program even if fully implemented, may not enhance long-term stockholder value. During fiscal 2020 and 2019, we repurchased $1.8 million and $2.3 million of our common stock in the open market respectively. As of July 3, 2020, $3.4 million remained available for repurchase under our stock repurchase program.
Our success will depend on new products introduced to the marketplace in a timely manner, successfully completing product transitioning and achieving customer acceptance.
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The market for our products and services is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and frequent new product introductions. Our future success will depend, in part, on continuous, timely development and introduction of new products and enhancements that address evolving market requirements and are attractive to customers. If we fail to develop or introduce, on a timely basis, new products or product enhancements or features that achieve market acceptance, our business may suffer. Additionally, we work closely with a variety of third-party partners to develop new product features and new platforms. Should our partners face delays in the development process, then the timing of the rollout of our new products may be significantly impacted which may negatively impact our revenue and gross margin. Another factor impacting our future success is the growth in the customer demand of our new products. Rapidly changing technology, frequent new product introductions and enhancements, short product life cycles and changes in customer requirements characterize the markets for our products. We believe that successful new product introductions provide a significant competitive advantage because of the significant resources committed by customers in adopting new products and their reluctance to change products after these resources have been expended. We have spent, and expect to continue to spend, significant resources on internal research and development to support our effort to develop and introduce new products and enhancements.
As we transition to new product platforms, we face significant risk that the development of our new products may not be accepted by our current customers or by new customers. To the extent that we fail to introduce new and innovative products that are adopted by customers, we could fail to obtain an adequate return on these investments and could lose market share to our competitors, which could be difficult or impossible to regain. Similarly, we may face decreased revenue, gross margins and profitability due to a rapid decline in sales of current products as customers hold spending to focus purchases on new product platforms. We could incur significant costs in completing the transition, including costs of inventory write-downs of the current product as customers transition to new product platforms. In addition, products or technologies developed by others may render our products non-competitive or obsolete and result in significant reduction in orders from our customers and the loss of existing and prospective customers.
Changes in accounting standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, and could require a significant expenditure of time, attention and resources, especially by senior management.
Our accounting and financial reporting policies conform to U.S. GAAP, which are periodically revised and/or expanded. The application of accounting principles is also subject to varying interpretations over time. Accordingly, we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards or comply with revised interpretations that are issued from time to time by various parties, including accounting standard setters and those who interpret the standards, such as the FASB and the SEC and our independent registered public accounting firm. New financial accounting standards which may be adopted by FASB could result in significant changes to our accounting and/or financial reporting practices that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our average sales prices may decline in the future.
We are experiencing, and are likely to continue to experience, declining sales prices. This price pressure is likely to result in downward pricing pressure on our products and services. As a result, we are likely to experience declining average sales prices for our products. Our future profitability will depend upon our ability to improve manufacturing efficiencies, to reduce the costs of materials used in our products and to continue to introduce new lower-cost products and product enhancements and if we are unable to do so, we may not be able to respond to pricing pressures. If we are unable to respond to increased price competition, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed. Because customers frequently negotiate supply arrangements far in advance of delivery dates, we may be required to commit to price reductions for our products before we are aware of how, or if, cost reductions can be obtained. As a result, current or future price reduction commitments and any inability on our part to respond to increased price competition could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Credit and commercial risks and exposures could increase if the financial condition of our customers declines.
A substantial portion of our sales are to customers in the telecommunications industry. These customers may require their suppliers, including the Company, to provide extended payment terms, direct loans or other forms of financial support as a condition to obtaining commercial contracts. In addition, if local currencies cannot be hedged, we have an inherent exposure in our ability to convert monies at favorable rates from or to U.S. dollars. More generally, we expect to routinely enter into long-term contracts involving significant amounts to be paid by our customers over time. Pursuant to these contracts, we may deliver products and services representing an important portion of the contract price before receiving any significant payment from the customer. As a result of the financing that may be provided to customers and our commercial risk exposure under long-term contracts, our business could be adversely affected if the
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financial condition of our customers erodes. Over the past few years, certain of our customers have filed with the courts seeking protection under the bankruptcy or reorganization laws of the applicable jurisdiction or have experienced financial difficulties. Our customers’ financial conditions face additional challenges in many emerging markets, where our customers are being affected not only by recession, but by deteriorating local currencies and a lack of credit and, more broadly, by the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic effects. Upon the financial failure of a customer, we may experience losses on credit extended to such customer, losses relating to our commercial risk exposure and the loss of the customer’s ongoing business. If customers fail to meet their obligations to us, we may experience reduced cash flows and losses in excess of reserves, which could materially adversely impact our results of operations and financial position.
We may not be able to obtain capital when desired on favorable terms, if at all, or without dilution to our stockholders.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, the available line of credit under our credit facility and future cash collections from customers will be sufficient to provide for our anticipated requirements for working capital and capital expenditures for the next 12 months and the foreseeable future. However, it is possible that we may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations or otherwise have the capital resources to meet our longer-term capital needs. If this occurs, we may need to sell assets, reduce capital expenditures, or obtain additional equity or debt financing. We have no assurance that additional financing will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms if and when needed, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership of our existing stockholders could be significantly diluted, and these newly-issued securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing stockholders.
Our restructuring actions could harm our relationships with our employees and impact our ability to recruit new employees.
Employees, whether or not directly affected by any restructuring actions that we undertake, may seek employment with our business partners, customers or competitors. We cannot assure that the confidential nature of our proprietary information will not be compromised by any such employees who terminate their employment with us. Further, we believe that our future success will depend in large part upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel. We may have difficulty attracting and retaining such personnel as a result of a perceived risk of future workforce reductions, and we may terminate the employment of employees as part of a restructuring and later determine that such employees were important to the success of the ongoing business.
Our business could be adversely affected if we are unable to attract and retain key personnel.
Our success and ability to invest and grow depend largely on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical, professional, managerial, sales and marketing personnel. Historically, competition for these key personnel has been intense. The loss of services of any of our key personnel, the inability to retain and attract qualified personnel in the future, delays in hiring required personnel, particularly engineering and sales personnel, or the loss of key personnel to competitors could make it difficult for us to meet key objectives, such as timely and effective product introductions and financial goals.
We face strong competition for maintaining and improving our position in the market, which can adversely affect our revenue growth and operating results.
The wireless access, interconnection and backhaul business is a specialized segment of the wireless telecommunications industry and is extremely competitive. Competition in this segment is intense, and we expect it to increase. Some of our competitors have more extensive engineering, manufacturing and marketing capabilities and significantly greater financial, technical and personnel resources than we have. In addition, some of our competitors have greater name recognition, broader product lines, a larger installed base of products and longer-standing customer relationships. Our competitors include established companies, such as Ericsson, Huawei, NEC and Nokia, as well as a number of other public and private companies, such as Ceragon and SIAE. Some of our competitors are OEMs or systems integrators through whom we market and sell our products, which means our business success may depend on these competitors to some extent. One or more of our largest customers could internally develop the capability to manufacture products similar to those manufactured or outsourced by us and, as a result, the demand for our products and services may decrease.
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In addition, we compete for acquisition and expansion opportunities with many entities that have substantially greater resources than we have. Our competitors may enter into business combinations in order to accelerate product development or to compete more aggressively and we may lack the resources to meet such enhanced competition.
Our ability to compete successfully will depend on a number of factors, including price, quality, availability, customer service and support, breadth of product lines, product performance and features, rapid time-to-market delivery capabilities, reliability, timing of new product introductions by us, our customers and competitors, the ability of our customers to obtain financing and the stability of regional sociopolitical and geopolitical circumstances, and the ability of large competitors to obtain business by providing more seller financing especially for large transactions. We can give no assurances that we will have the financial resources, technical expertise, or marketing, sales, distribution, customer service and support capabilities to compete successfully, or that regional sociopolitical and geographic circumstances will be favorable for our successful operation.
Our ability to sell our products and compete successfully is highly dependent on the quality of our customer service and support, and our failure to offer high quality service and support could have a material adverse effect on our sales and results of operations.
Once our products are delivered, our customers depend on our service and support to resolve any issues relating to our products. Our support personnel includes employees in various geographic locations, who provide general technical support to our customers. A high level of support is important for the successful marketing and sale of our products. If we do not effectively help our customers quickly resolve issues or provide effective ongoing support, it could adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing customers as well as demand for maintenance and renewal contracts and could harm our reputation with existing and potential customers.
If we fail to accurately forecast our manufacturing requirements or customer demand, we could incur additional costs, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
If we fail to accurately predict our manufacturing requirements or forecast customer demand, we may incur additional costs of manufacturing and our gross margins and financial results could be adversely affected. If we overestimate our requirements, our contract manufacturers may experience an oversupply of components and assess us charges for excess or obsolete components that could adversely affect our gross margins. If we underestimate our requirements, our contract manufacturers may have inadequate inventory or components, which could interrupt manufacturing and result in higher manufacturing costs, shipment delays, damage to customer relationships and/or our payment of penalties to our customers. Our contract manufacturers also have other customers and may not have sufficient capacity to meet all of their customers’ needs, including ours, during periods of excess demand.
The effects of global financial and economic conditions in certain markets has had, and may continue to have, significant effects on our customers and suppliers, and has in the past, and may in the future have, a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and stock price.
The effects of global financial and economic conditions in certain markets include, among other things, significant reductions in available capital and liquidity from banks and other providers of credit, substantial reductions and/or fluctuations in equity and currency values worldwide.
Economic conditions in certain markets have adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our customers’ access to capital and/or willingness to spend capital on our products, and/or their levels of cash liquidity and/or their ability and/or willingness to pay for products that they will order or have already ordered from us, or result in their ceasing operations. Further, we have experienced an increasing number of our customers, principally in emerging markets, requesting longer payment terms, lease or vendor financing arrangements, longer terms for the letters of credit securing purchases of our products and services, which could potentially negatively impact our orders, revenue conversion cycle, and cash flows.
In seeking to reduce their expenses, we have also seen significant pressure from our customers to lower prices for our products as they try to improve their operating performance and procure additional capital equipment within their reduced budget levels. To the extent that we lower prices on our products and services, our orders, revenues, and gross margins may be negatively impacted. Additionally, certain emerging markets are particularly sensitive to pricing as a key differentiator. Where price is a primary decision driver, we may not be able to effectively compete, or we may choose not to compete due to unacceptable margins.
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In addition, economic conditions in certain markets could materially adversely affect our suppliers’ access to capital and liquidity with which to maintain their inventories, production levels, or product quality, could cause them to raise prices or lower production levels, or result in their ceasing operations. Further, with respect to our credit facility discussed under “Liquidity, Capital Resources and Financial Strategies” in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, if continued uncertain economic conditions adversely affect Silicon Valley Bank, our ability to access the funds available under our credit facility could be materially adversely affected.
The potential effects of these economic factors are difficult to forecast and mitigate. As a consequence, our operating results for a particular period are difficult to predict and prior results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in future periods. Any of the foregoing effects could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition and could adversely affect our stock price.
If we fail to effectively manage our contract manufacturer relationships, we could incur additional costs or be unable to timely fulfill our customer commitments, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations and, in the event of an inability to fulfill commitments, would harm our customer relationships.
We outsource all of our manufacturing and a substantial portion of our repair service operations to independent contract manufacturers and other third parties. Our contract manufacturers typically manufacture our products based on rolling forecasts of our product needs that we provide to them on a regular basis. The contract manufacturers are responsible for procuring components necessary to build our products based on our rolling forecasts, building and assembling the products, testing the products in accordance with our specifications and then shipping the products to us. We configure the products to our customer requirements, conduct final testing and then ship the products to our customers. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter problems with our contract manufacturer related to these manufacturing services or that we will be able to replace a contract manufacturer that is not able to meet our demand.
In addition, if we fail to effectively manage our relationships with our contract manufacturers or other service providers, or if they do not fully comply with their contractual obligations or should experience delays, disruptions, component procurement problems or quality control problems, then our ability to ship products to our customers or otherwise fulfill our contractual obligations to our customers could be delayed or impaired which would adversely affect our business, financial results and customer relationships.
We depend on sole or limited sources for some key components and failure to receive timely delivery of any of these components could result in deferred or lost sales.
In some instances, we are dependent upon one or a few sources, either because of the specialized nature of a particular item or because of local content preference requirements pursuant to which we operate on a given project. Examples of sole or limited sourcing categories include metal fabrications and castings, for which we own the tooling and therefore limit our supplier relationships, and MMICs (a type of integrated circuit used in manufacturing microwave radios), which we procure at a volume discount from a single source. Our supply chain plan includes mitigation plans for alternative manufacturing sources and identified alternate suppliers. However, if these alternatives cannot address our requirements when our existing sources of these components fail to deliver them on time, we could suffer delayed shipments, canceled orders and lost or deferred revenues, as well as material damage to our customer relationships. Should this occur, our operating results, cash flows and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Changes in tax laws, treaties, rulings, regulations or agreements, or their interpretation in any country in which we operate; the loss of a major tax dispute; a successful challenge to our operating structure, intercompany pricing policies or the taxable presence of our key subsidiaries in certain countries; or other factors could cause volatility in our effective tax rate and could adversely affect our operating results.
We operate in multiple jurisdictions and our profits are taxed pursuant to the tax laws of these jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rate may be adversely affected by a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
the jurisdictions in which profits are determined to be earned and taxed;
adjustments to estimated taxes upon finalization of various tax returns;
increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, including write-offs of acquired in-process research and development and impairment of goodwill in connection with acquisitions;
our ability to utilize net operating loss;
changes in available tax credits;
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changes in share-based compensation expense;
changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
changes in domestic or international tax laws, treaties, rulings, regulations or agreements or the interpretation of such tax laws, treaties, rulings, regulations or agreements, including the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017;
the resolution of issues arising from tax audits with various tax authorities, including the loss of a major tax dispute;
local tax authority challenging our operating structure, intercompany pricing policies or the taxable presence of our key subsidiaries in certain countries;
the tax effects of purchase accounting for acquisitions and restructuring charges that may cause fluctuations between reporting periods; and
taxes that may be incurred upon a repatriation of cash from foreign operations.
Any significant increase in our future effective tax rates could impact our results of operations for future periods adversely.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes and other tax benefits may be limited.
Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) imposes an annual limitation on the amount of taxable income that may be offset if a corporation experiences an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 of the Code. An ownership change occurs when a company’s “five-percent shareholders” (as defined in Section 382 of the Code) collectively increase their ownership in the company by more than 50 percentage points (by value) over a rolling three-year period. Additionally, various states have similar limitations on the use of state net operating losses (“NOL”) following an ownership change.
If we experience an ownership change, our ability to use our NOLs, any loss or deduction attributable to a “net unrealized built-in loss” and other tax attributes (collectively, the “Tax Benefits”) could be substantially limited, and the timing of the usage of the Tax Benefits could be substantially delayed, which could significantly impair the value of the Tax Benefits. There is no assurance that we will be able to fully utilize the Tax Benefits and we could be required to record an additional valuation allowance related to the amount of the Tax Benefits that may not be realized, which could adversely impact our result of operations.
We believe that these Tax Benefits are a valuable asset for us. On March 3, 2020, the Board approved a Tax Benefit Preservation Plan (the “Plan”) in an effort to protect our Tax Benefits during the effective period of the Plan. Further, on March 3, 2020, the Board adopted certain rights to the agreement which are intended to preserve the Tax Benefits by restricting certain transfers of our common stock. The Company expects to submit the Plan to a stockholder vote at the Company’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. Although the Plan and the Charter Amendments are intended to reduce the likelihood of an “ownership change” that could adversely affect us, there is no assurance that the restrictions on transferability in the Plan and the Charter Amendments will prevent all transfers that could result in such an “ownership change.” There also can be no assurance that the transfer restrictions in the Charter Amendments will be enforceable against all of our stockholders absent a court determination confirming such enforceability. The transfer restrictions may be subject to challenge on legal or equitable grounds.
The Plan and the Charter Amendments could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from acquiring, us or a large block of our common stock. A third party that acquires 4.9% or more of our common stock could suffer substantial dilution of its ownership interest under the terms of the Plan through the issuance of common stock or common stock equivalents to all stockholders other than the acquiring person. The acquisition may also be void under the Charter Amendments.
The foregoing provisions may adversely affect the marketability of our common stock by discouraging potential investors from acquiring our stock. In addition, these provisions could delay or frustrate the removal of incumbent directors and could make more difficult a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving us, or impede an attempt to acquire a significant or controlling interest in us, even if such events might be beneficial to us and our stockholders.
Our customers may not pay for products and services in a timely manner, or at all, which would decrease our cash flows and adversely affect our working capital.
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Our business requires extensive credit risk management that may not be adequate to protect against customer nonpayment. A risk of non-payment by customers is a significant focus of our business. We expect a significant amount of future revenue to come from international customers in developing countries. We do not generally expect to obtain collateral for sales, although we require letters of credit or credit insurance as appropriate for international customers. For information regarding the percentage of revenue attributable to certain key customers, see the risks discussed in the following risk factor. Our historical accounts receivable balances have been concentrated in a small number of significant customers. Unexpected adverse events impacting the financial condition of our customers, bank failures or other unfavorable regulatory, economic or political events in the countries in which we do business may impact collections and adversely impact our business, require increased bad debt expense or receivable write-offs and adversely impact our cash flows, financial condition and operating results, which could also result in a breach of our bank covenants.
Because a significant amount of our revenue may come from a limited number of customers, the termination of any of these customer relationships may adversely affect our business.
Sales of our products and services historically have been concentrated in a small number of customers. Principal customers for our products and services include domestic and international wireless/mobile service providers, OEMs, as well as private network users such as public safety agencies; government institutions; and utility, pipeline, railroad and other industrial enterprises that operate broadband wireless networks. During fiscal 2019 and 2018, we had one customer in Africa, MTN Group, that accounted for 11% and 13% of our total revenue, respectively. No customer accounted for more than 10% of our total revenue in fiscal 2020. Although we have a large customer base, during any given quarter a small number of customers may account for a significant portion of our revenue.
In addition, the telecommunications industry has experienced significant consolidation among its participants, and we expect this trend to continue. Some operators in this industry have experienced financial difficulty and have filed, or may file, for bankruptcy protection. Other operators may merge and one or more of our competitors may supply products to the customers of the combined company following those mergers. This consolidation could result in purchasing decision delays and decreased opportunities for us to supply products to companies following any consolidation. This consolidation may also result in lost opportunities for cost reduction and economies of scale, and could generally reduce our opportunities to win new customers to the extent that the number of potential customers decreases. Furthermore, as our customers become larger, they may have more leverage to negotiate better pricing which could adversely affect our revenues and gross margins.
It is possible that a significant portion of our future product sales could become even more concentrated in a limited number of customers due to the factors described above. Product sales to major customers have varied widely from period to period. The loss of any existing customer, a significant reduction in the level of sales to any existing customer, the consolidation of existing customers, or our inability to gain additional customers could result in declines in our revenue or an inability to grow revenue.
We continually evaluate strategic transaction opportunities which could involve merger, restructuring, divestiture, sale and/or acquisition activities that could disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.
Our growth depends upon market growth, our ability to enhance our existing products and our ability to introduce new products on a timely basis. We intend to continue to address the need to develop new products and enhance existing products through acquisitions, or “tuck-ins,” product lines, technologies, and personnel. Strategic transactions involve numerous risks, including the following:
difficulties in integrating the operations, systems, technologies, products, and personnel of the combined companies, particularly companies with large and widespread operations and/or complex products;
diversion of management’s attention from normal daily operations of the business and the challenges of managing larger and more widespread operations resulting from business combinations, sales, divestitures and /or restructurings;
potential difficulties in completing projects associated with in-process research and development intangibles;
difficulties in entering markets in which we have no or limited direct prior experience and where competitors in each market have stronger market positions;
initial dependence on unfamiliar supply chains or relatively small supply partners;
insufficient revenue to offset increased expenses associated with acquisitions; and
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the potential loss of key employees, customers, resellers, vendors and other business partners of our company or the companies with which we engage in strategic transactions following and continuing after announcement of an anticipated strategic transaction.
Strategic transactions may also cause us to:
issue common stock that would dilute our current stockholders or cause a change in control of the combined company;
use a substantial portion of our cash resources, or incur debt;
significantly increase our interest expense, leverage and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition;
assume material liabilities;
record goodwill and non-amortizable intangible assets that are subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges;
incur amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets;
incur tax expenses related to the effect of acquisitions on our intercompany R&D cost sharing arrangement and legal structure;
incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses; and
become subject to intellectual property or other litigation.
Mergers, restructurings, sales and acquisitions of high-technology companies are inherently risky and subject to many factors outside of our control. No assurance can be given that any future strategic transactions will be successful and will not materially adversely affect our business, operating results or financial condition. Failure to manage and successfully complete a strategic transaction could materially harm our business and operating results. Even when an acquired or acquiring company has already developed and marketed products, there can be no assurance that product enhancements will be made in a timely fashion or that pre-acquisition due diligence will have identified all possible issues that might arise with respect to such products.
If we are unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, we may be deprived of legal recourse against those who misappropriate our intellectual property.
Our ability to compete will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain and enforce intellectual property protection for our technology in the U.S. and internationally. We rely upon a combination of trade secrets, trademarks, copyrights, patents and contractual rights to protect our intellectual property. In addition, we enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and enter into non-disclosure agreements with our suppliers and appropriate customers so as to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. We cannot give assurances that any steps taken by us will be adequate to deter misappropriation or impede independent third-party development of similar technologies. In the event that such intellectual property arrangements are insufficient, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed. We cannot provide assurances that the protection provided to our intellectual property by the laws and courts of particular nations will be substantially similar to the protection and remedies available under U.S. law. Furthermore, we cannot provide assurances that third parties will not assert infringement claims against us based on intellectual property rights and laws in other nations that are different from those established in the U.S.
If we fail to develop and maintain distribution and licensing relationships, our revenue may decrease.
Although a majority of our sales are made through our direct sales force, we also market our products through indirect sales channels such as independent agents, resellers, OEMs and systems integrators. These relationships enhance our ability to pursue major contract awards and, in some cases, are intended to provide our customers with easier access to financing and a greater variety of equipment and service capabilities, which an integrated system provider should be able to offer. We may not be able to maintain our current relationships or develop new ones. If additional relationships are developed, they may not be successful. Furthermore, as we consider increasing licensing revenue based on upgraded technology, we may not be successful in transitioning customers to the planned software upgrades. Our inability to establish or maintain these distribution and licensing relationships could restrict our ability to market our products and thereby result in significant reductions in revenue. If these revenue reductions occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
If sufficient radio frequency spectrum is not allocated for use by our products, or we fail to obtain regulatory approval for our products, our ability to market our products may be restricted.
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We may be affected by the allocation and auction of the radio frequency spectrum by governmental authorities both in the U.S. and internationally. The unavailability of sufficient radio frequency spectrum may inhibit the future growth of wireless communications networks. In addition, to operate in a jurisdiction, we must obtain regulatory approval for our products and each jurisdiction in which we market our products has its own regulations governing radio communications. If we are unable to obtain sufficient allocation of radio frequency spectrum by the appropriate governmental authority or obtain the proper regulatory approval for our products, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
Our business is subject to changing regulation of corporate governance, public disclosure and anti-bribery measures which have resulted in increased costs and may continue to result in additional costs or potential liabilities in the future.
We are subject to rules and regulations of federal and state regulatory authorities, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (“NASDAQ”) and financial market entities charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and foreign and domestic legislative bodies. During the past few years, these entities, including the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the SEC, NASDAQ and several foreign governments, have issued requirements, laws and regulations and continue to develop additional requirements, laws and regulations, most notably the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”), and recent laws and regulations regarding bribery and unfair competition. Our efforts to comply with these requirements and regulations have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of substantial management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.
Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs potentially necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. Finally, if we are unable to ensure compliance with such requirements, laws, or regulations, we may be subject to costly prosecution and liability, and resulting reputational harm, from such noncompliance.
There are inherent limitations on the effectiveness of our controls.
We do not expect that our disclosure controls or our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well-designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. The design of a control system must reflect the fact that resource constraints exist, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Further, because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple errors or mistakes. Controls can also be circumvented by individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management’s override of the controls. The design of any system of controls is based in part on certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Projections of any evaluation of the effectiveness of controls to future periods are subject to risks. Over time, controls may become inadequate due to changes in conditions or deterioration in the degree of compliance with policies or procedures. If our controls become inadequate, we could fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, our reputation may be adversely affected, our business and operating results could be harmed, and the market price of our stock could decline.
Our products are used in critical communications networks which may subject us to significant liability claims.
Because our products are used in critical communications networks, we may be subject to significant liability claims if our products do not work properly. We warrant to our current customers that our products will operate in accordance with our product specifications. If our products fail to conform to these specifications, our customers could require us to remedy the failure or could assert claims for damages. The provisions in our agreements with customers that are intended to limit our exposure to liability claims may not preclude all potential claims. In addition, any insurance policies we have may not adequately limit our exposure with respect to such claims. Liability claims could require us to spend significant time and money in litigation or to pay significant damages. Any such claims, whether or not successful, would be costly and time-consuming to defend, and could divert management’s attention and seriously damage our reputation and our business.
We may be subject to litigation regarding our intellectual property. This litigation could be costly to defend and resolve and could prevent us from using or selling the challenged technology.
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The wireless telecommunications industry is characterized by vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights, which has resulted in often protracted and expensive litigation. Any litigation regarding patents or other intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and could divert our management and key personnel from our business operations. The complexity of the technology involved and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation increase these risks. Such litigation or claims could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. In the event of an adverse result in any such litigation, we could be required to pay substantial damages, cease the use and transfer of allegedly infringing technology or the sale of allegedly infringing products and expend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology or obtain licenses for the infringing technology. We can give no assurances that we would be successful in developing such non-infringing technology or that any license for the infringing technology would be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. This could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operation, financial condition, competitive position and prospects.
System security risks, data protection breaches, and cyber attacks could compromise our proprietary information, disrupt our internal operations and harm public perception of our security products, which could cause our business and reputation to suffer and adversely affect our stock price.
In the ordinary course of business, we store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and proprietary information of our customers, suppliers and business partners, on our networks. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Increasingly, companies, including ours, are subject to a wide variety of attacks on their networks on an ongoing basis. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to penetration or attacks by computer programmers and hackers, or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks, creating system disruptions or slowdowns and exploiting security vulnerabilities of our products, and the information stored on our networks could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen, which could subject us to liability to our customers, suppliers, business partners and others, and cause us reputational and financial harm. In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of our networks. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, an increased number of our employees are working from home and connecting to our networks remotely, which we believe may further increase the risk of, and our vulnerability to, a cyber-attack or breach on our network.
If an actual or perceived breach of network security occurs in our network or in the network of a customer of our security products, regardless of whether the breach is attributable to our products, the market perception of the effectiveness of our products could be harmed. Because the techniques used by computer programmers and hackers, many of whom are highly sophisticated and well-funded, to access or sabotage networks change frequently and generally are not recognized until after they are used, we may be unable to anticipate or immediately detect these techniques. This could impede our sales, manufacturing, distribution or other critical functions. In addition, the economic costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software systems and security vulnerabilities could be significant and may be difficult to anticipate or measure because the damage may differ based on the identity and motive of the programmer or hacker, which are often difficult to identify.
As cyber-attacks become more sophisticated, the need to develop our infrastructure to secure our business can lead to increased cybersecurity protection costs. Such costs may include making organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third party experts and consultants. These efforts come at the potential cost of revenues and human resources that could be utilized to continue to enhance our product offerings, and such increased costs may adversely affect our operating margins.
Additionally, certain of our suppliers have in the past and may in the future experience cybersecurity attacks that can constrain their capacity and ability to meet our product demands. If our contract manufacturers and suppliers suffer future cyberattacks, our ability to ship products to our customers or otherwise fulfill our contractual obligations to our customers could be delayed or impaired which would adversely affect our business, financial results and customer relationships.
Anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law, the Plan, and provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, and Amended and Restated Bylaws could make a third-party acquisition of us difficult.
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Because we are a Delaware corporation, the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us, even if the change in control would be supported by our stockholders. We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, which prohibits us from engaging in certain business combinations, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. In addition, our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, and Amended and Restated Bylaws also contain certain provisions that may make a third-party acquisition of us difficult, including the ability of the Board to issue preferred stock and the requirement that nominations for directors and other proposals by stockholders must be made in advance of the meeting at which directors are elected or the proposals are voted upon.
In addition, the Plan and the Charter Amendments could make an acquisition of us more difficult, and certain acquisitions may also be void under the Charter Amendments. The risks associated with the Plan and the Charter Amendments are described in more detail above under the heading “Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes and other tax benefits may be limited.”

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2. Properties
As of July 3, 2020, we leased approximately 164,000 square feet of facilities worldwide, with approximately 37% in the United States, mostly in California, and Texas. Our corporate headquarters is located in Austin, Texas, and consists of approximately 18,000 square feet office space. We also lease approximately 24,000 square feet of office, assembly facilities and warehouse in multiple locations in Texas and 19,000 square feet of office space in Milpitas, California. Internationally, we lease approximately 103,000 square feet of facilities throughout Europe, North America, South America, Africa and Asia regions, including offices in Singapore, Slovenia, Philippine Islands, India, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Algeria, Congo, France, Netherlands, Russia, Australia, Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, China, and Thailand. In addition, we own approximately 108,000 square feet of facilities in Wellington, New Zealand and Lanarkshire, Scotland.
We maintain our facilities in good operating condition and believe that they are suitable and adequate for our current and projected needs. We continuously review our anticipated requirements for facilities and may, from time to time, acquire additional facilities, expand existing facilities, or dispose of existing facilities or parts thereof, as we deem necessary.
For more information about our leases, see “Note 4. Leases” of the notes to consolidated financial statements, which are included in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are subject from time to time to disputes with customers concerning our products and services. In May 2016, we received notification of a claim for damages from a customer alleging that certain of our products were defective. Although we believe that we have numerous contractual and legal defenses to these disputes, at this time we have accrued an immaterial amount representing the estimated probable loss for which we would settle the matter. We currently cannot form an estimate of the range of loss in excess of our amounts already accrued. If the outcome of this matter is greater than the current immaterial amount accrued, we intend to dispute it vigorously.
In March 2016, an enforcement action by the Indian Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance was brought against our subsidiary Aviat Networks (India) Private Limited (“Aviat India”) relating to the non-realization of intercompany receivables and non-payment of intercompany payables, which originated from 1999 to 2012, within the time frames dictated by the Indian regulations under the Foreign Exchange Management Act ("FEMA"). In November 2017, the Indian Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance also initiated a similar action against Telsima
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Communications Private Limited (“Telsima India”), a subsidiary of the Company, relating to the non-realization of intercompany receivables and non-payment of intercompany payables which originated from the period prior to our acquisition of Telsima India in February 2009. In September 2019, our directors of Aviat India appeared before the Ministry of Finance Enforcement Directorate. No settlement offers were discussed at the meeting and the matter is still ongoing with no subsequent hearing date currently scheduled. We have accrued an immaterial amount representing the estimated probable loss for which we would settle the matter. We currently cannot form an estimate of the range of loss in excess of our amounts already accrued. If the outcome of this matter is greater than the current immaterial amount accrued, we intend to dispute it vigorously.
From time to time, we may be involved in various other legal claims and litigation that arise in the normal course of our operations. We are aggressively defending all current litigation matters. Although there can be no assurances and the outcome of these matters is currently not determinable, we currently believe that none of these claims or proceedings are likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial position. We expect to defend each of these disputes vigorously. There are many uncertainties associated with any litigation and these actions or other third-party claims against us may cause us to incur costly litigation and/or substantial settlement charges. As a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected. The actual liability in any such matters may be materially different from our estimates, if any.
We record accruals for our outstanding legal proceedings, investigations or claims when it is probable that a liability will be incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate, at least on a quarterly basis, developments in legal proceedings, investigations or claims that could affect the amount of any accrual, as well as any developments that would result in a loss contingency to become both probable and reasonably estimable. We have not recorded any accrual for loss contingencies associated with such legal claims or litigation discussed above.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information on Common Stock
Our common stock, with a par value of $0.01 per share, is listed and primarily traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, under the ticker symbol AVNW (prior to January 28, 2010 our ticker symbol was HSTX). There was no established trading market for shares of our common stock prior to January 29, 2007.
According to the records of our transfer agent, as of August 21, 2020, there were 2,204 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain any earnings for use in our business. In addition, the covenants of our credit facility may restrict us from paying dividends or making other distributions to our stockholders under certain circumstances.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
During fiscal 2020, we did not issue or sell any unregistered securities.
Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities
In May 2018, our board of directors approved a repurchase program, which does not have an expiration date, for the repurchase of up to $7.5 million of our common stock. In February 2020, we temporarily suspended the stock repurchase program. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, we did not repurchase any shares of our common stock in the open market. As of July 3, 2020, $3.4 million remained available for repurchases under our stock repurchase program.
Performance Graph
The following graph and accompanying data compare the cumulative total return on our common stock with the cumulative total return of the Total Return Index for The NASDAQ Composite Market (U.S. Companies) and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index for the five-year period ended July 3, 2020. The stock price performance shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance. Note that this graph and accompanying data is “furnished,” not “filed,” with the SEC.
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COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Aviat Networks, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite Index
and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index
avnw-20200703_g1.jpg
7/3/20157/1/20166/30/20176/29/20186/28/20197/3/2020
Aviat Networks, Inc.$100.00 $50.98 $110.20 $103.67 $86.76 $117.73 
NASDAQ Composite$100.00 $98.28 $125.56 $155.19 $167.27 $215.50 
NASDAQ Telecommunications$100.00 $101.45 $117.97 $142.72 $171.47 $179.06 
 ____________________________
*Assumes (i) $100 invested on June 3, 2015 in Aviat Networks, Inc. common stock, the Total Return Index for The NASDAQ Composite Market (U.S. companies) and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index; and (ii) immediate reinvestment of all dividends.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following table summarizes our selected historical financial information for each of the last five fiscal years that has been derived from our consolidated financial statements. All of the per-share data have been retroactively adjusted for the 1-for-12 reverse stock split discussed in footnote 3 below. Data presented for fiscal years 2020, 2019 and 2018 are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This table should be read in conjunction with our other financial information, including “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 Fiscal Year Ended
(In thousands, except per share amounts)July 3, 2020June 28, 2019June 29, 2018June 30, 2017July 1, 2016
Revenue from product sales and services$238,642 $243,858 $242,506 $241,874 $268,690 
Cost of product sales and services153,946 164,588 162,003 166,402 206,973 
Income (loss) from continuing operations (1) (2)
257 9,738 2,302 (621)(30,178)
Net income (loss) (1) (2)
257 9,738 2,302 (621)(29,637)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests, net of tax
  457 202 270 
Net income (loss) attributable to Aviat Networks (1) (2)
257 9,738 1,845 (823)(29,907)
Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share(3):
Net income (loss) - basic$0.05 $1.81 $0.35 $(0.16)$(5.71)
Net income (loss) - diluted$0.05 $1.73 $0.33 $(0.16)$(5.71)
_______________________

(1)Includes share-based compensation expense of $1.7 million, $1.7 million, $2.4 million, $2.1 million and $1.8 million for fiscal 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
(2)Includes restructuring charges of $4.0 million, $0.7 million, $1.3 million, $0.6 million, and $2.5 million for fiscal 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
(3)On June 14, 2016, we effected a reverse stock split of all of the outstanding shares of our common stock at a ratio of 1-for-12 (“Reverse Stock Split”). The authorized number of shares of 300 million and par value per share of our common stock of $0.01 per share remained unchanged after the Reverse Stock Split.
 As of
(In thousands)July 3, 2020June 28, 2019June 29, 2018June 30, 2017July 1, 2016
Total assets$179,801 $169,193 $156,061 $152,576 $166,111 
Long-term liabilities17,150 15,466 12,077 12,218 12,707 
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Overview of Business; Operating Environment and Key Factors Impacting Fiscal 2020 and 2019 Results
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. In the discussion below, our fiscal year ending July 2, 2021 is referred to as “fiscal 2021” or “2021”; our fiscal year ended July 3, 2020 is referred to as “fiscal 2020” or “2020”; our fiscal year ended June 28, 2019 is referred to as “fiscal 2019” or “2019”; and our fiscal year ended June 29, 2018 is referred to as “fiscal 2018” or “2018.” Our fiscal year ends on the Friday nearest to June 30. Fiscal 2020 presented included 53 weeks while fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018 each included 52 weeks. This one extra week has impacted both our fiscal 2020 revenue and expenses.
Overview
We anticipate modest growth in revenue in fiscal 2021. We have a healthy backlog entering fiscal 2021 for North America private network projects and we anticipate continuing our strong momentum across these verticals. We have made inroads into the U.S. rural broadband and wireless internet service provider areas and there is further evidence now of investment to support 5G deployments with our U.S. service provider customers. Internationally, we are continuing a more conservative view of our revenue opportunity based on a variety of factors that have led to an overall capital spending decline and increased competitive intensity, especially from vendors based in China.

Operations Review
The market for mobile backhaul continued to be our primary addressable market segment globally in fiscal 2020. In North America, we supported long-term evolution (LTE) deployments of our mobile operator customers, public safety network deployments for state and local governments, and private network implementations for utilities and other customers. In international markets, our business continued to rely on a combination of customers increasing their capacity to handle subscriber growth, the ongoing build-out of some large 3G deployments, and LTE deployments. Our position continues to be to support our customers for 5G and LTE readiness and ensure that our technology roadmap is well aligned with evolving market requirements. We continue to find that our strength in turnkey and after-sale support services is a differentiating factor that wins business for us and enables us to expand our business with existing customers in all markets. However, as disclosed above and in the “Risk Factors” section in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, a number of factors could prevent us from achieving our objectives, including ongoing pricing pressures attributable to competition and macroeconomic conditions in the geographic markets that we service.
Revenue
We manage our sales activities primarily on a geographic basis in North America and three international geographic regions: (1) Africa and the Middle East, (2) Europe and Russia and (3) Latin America and Asia Pacific. Revenue by region for fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the related changes are shown in the table below:
 Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
North America$151,709 $132,884 $131,078 $18,825 $1,806 14.2 %1.4 %
Africa and the Middle East37,595 48,305 58,459 (10,710)(10,154)(22.2)%(17.4)%
Europe and Russia11,157 16,933 18,205 (5,776)(1,272)(34.1)%(7.0)%
Latin America and Asia Pacific38,181 45,736 34,764 (7,555)10,972 (16.5)%31.6 %
Total Revenue$238,642 $243,858 $242,506 $(5,216)$1,352 (2.1)%0.6 %

During fiscal 2020 and 2019, we recognized revenue based on Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606 but revenue for fiscal 2018 was recognized based on ASC 605. Therefore, the periods are not directly comparable. See “Critical Accounting Estimates—Revenue Recognition” in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional information on our revenue recognition.
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Our revenue from North America increased by $18.8 million, or 14.2%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. The increase in North America revenue during fiscal 2020 was due to revenue growth with private network customers, as well as increased sales to mobile operators. Revenue from North America increased $1.8 million, or 1.4%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. The increase in North America revenue during fiscal 2019 was due to stronger order flow from private network customers.
Our revenue from Africa and the Middle East decreased by $10.7 million, or 22.2%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. The decrease in revenue was primarily due to decreased sales to our large mobile operator customers in the region. Revenue from Africa and the Middle East decreased $10.2 million, or 17.4%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. The decrease in revenue was primarily due to decreased sales to our large mobile operator customers in the region and completion of a one-time large Middle East project in fiscal 2018.
Revenue from Europe and Russia decreased by $5.8 million, or 34.1%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales to mobile operator customers, offset in part by increased sales to private network customers in the region. Revenue in Europe and Russia decreased $1.3 million, or 7.0%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. The decrease during fiscal 2019 was due to lower sales to mobile and private network customers in the region.
Revenue from Latin America and Asia Pacific decreased by $7.6 million, or 16.5%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. The decrease was primarily due to lower sales volume from certain mobile operator customers in Asia Pacific offset in part by increased revenue in Latin America. Revenue from Latin America and Asia-Pacific increased $11.0 million, or 31.6%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily due to higher sales volume from certain mobile operator customers in Asia Pacific.
 
Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)
2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
Product sales
$153,793 $156,724 $151,685 $(2,931)$5,039 (1.9)%3.3 %
Services
84,849 87,134 90,821 (2,285)(3,687)(2.6)%(4.1)%
Total Revenue
$238,642 $243,858 $242,506 $(5,216)$1,352 (2.1)%0.6 %

Our revenue from product sales decreased by $2.9 million, or 1.9%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. Product volume decreased with customers in international markets and was offset in part by increased product sales in North America. Our services revenue decreased by $2.3 million, or 2.6%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. Decreased sales in international markets were offset in part by increased sales in North America.
Our revenue from product sales increased $5.0 million, or 3.3%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. Product volume increased primarily with mobile operators in Asia Pacific and a small increase in North America offsetting volume reductions in the other regions compared with fiscal 2018. Our services revenue decreased by $3.7 million, or 4.1%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. Decreased sales in Africa and the Middle East were offset in part by increased sales in other regions.
Gross Margin
 Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
Revenue$238,642 $243,858 $242,506 $(5,216)$1,352 (2.1)%0.6 %
Cost of revenue153,946 164,588 162,003 (10,642)2,585 (6.5)%1.6 %
Gross margin$84,696 $79,270 $80,503 $5,426 $(1,233)6.8 %(1.5)%
% of revenue35.5 %32.5 %33.2 %
Product margin %38.0 %33.9 %34.0 %
Service margin %30.9 %29.9 %31.9 %

Gross margin for fiscal 2020 increased by $5.4 million, or 6.8%, compared with fiscal 2019. Gross margin as a percentage of revenue for fiscal 2020 increased to 35.5%, compared with 32.5% in fiscal 2019, primarily due to higher
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margin rates for product sales and implementation of cost savings initiatives. The increased volume of product sales in North America, which generally has a higher gross margin compared to international, contributed most of the overall gross margin improvement in fiscal 2020.
Gross margin for fiscal 2019 decreased $1.2 million, or 1.5%, compared with fiscal 2018. Gross margin as a percentage of revenue for fiscal 2019 decreased to 32.5%, compared with 33.2% in fiscal 2018, primarily due to lower margin rates for services. Service margin as a percentage of service revenue declined in fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to decreased margins in North America, the Middle East and Africa.
Research and Development Expenses
 Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
Research and development expenses
$19,284 $21,111 $19,750 $(1,827)$1,361 (8.7)%6.9 %
% of revenue8.1 %8.7 %8.1 %

Our research and development (“R&D”) expenses decreased by $1.8 million, or 8.7%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. The decrease was primarily due to consolidation of product development, lower variable compensation and costs reduction initiatives associated with COVID-19, offset in part by expenses associated with one extra week in our fiscal 2020 calendar.
Our R&D expenses increased $1.4 million, or 6.9%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. The increase was primarily due to increased development activity on new product lines.
Selling and Administrative Expenses
 Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
Selling and administrative expenses
$57,985 $56,055 $58,157 $1,930 $(2,102)3.4 %(3.6)%
% of revenue24.3 %23.0 %24.0 %

Our selling and administrative expenses increased by $1.9 million, or 3.4%, in fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019. The increase was primarily due to higher variable compensation and expenses associated with one extra week in our fiscal 2020 calendar, partially offset by cost reductions initiatives associated with COVID-19.
Our selling and administrative expenses decreased $2.1 million, or 3.6%, in fiscal 2019 compared with fiscal 2018. The decrease was primarily due to lower variable compensation.
Restructuring Charges
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, our Board of Directors approved a restructuring plan (the “Q4 2020 Plan”) in order to continue to reduce our operating costs and improve profitability to optimize our business model and increase efficiencies. The Q4 2020 Plan is being implemented starting with our fourth fiscal quarter of 2020 through the second fiscal quarter of 2021. We recorded restructuring charges of $1.9 million related to the Q4 2020 Plan in fiscal 2020. Payments related to the accrued restructuring liability balance for this plan are expected to be fully paid in fiscal 2021.
During the third quarter of fiscal 2020, our Board of Directors approved a restructuring plan (the “Q3 2020 Plan”) in order to reduce our operating costs and improve profitability to optimize our business model and increase efficiencies. We recorded restructuring charges of $0.6 million related to the Q3 2020 Plan in fiscal 2020. Payments related to the accrued restructuring liability balance for this plan are expected to be fully paid in fiscal 2021.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019, our Board of Directors approved a restructuring plan (the “Fiscal 2020 Plan”) to primarily consolidate product development, right size our resources to support our International business and
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other support functions. Payments related to the accrued restructuring liability balance for this plan are expected to be fully paid in fiscal 2021.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018, our Board of Directors approved a restructuring plan (the “Fiscal 2018-2019 Plan”) to consolidate back-office support functions and align resources by geography to lower our expense structure. We completed the restructuring activities under the Fiscal 2018-2019 Plan at the end of fiscal 2019. The remaining payments related to the accrued restructuring liability balance for this plan are expected to be fully paid in fiscal 2021.
Our restructuring charges by plan for fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018 are summarized in the table below:
 Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
Q4 2020 Plan$1,879 $ $ $1,879 $ N/AN/A
Q3 2020 Plan$595 $ $ $595 $ N/AN/A
Fiscal 2020 Plan$1,725 $ $ $1,725 $ N/AN/A
Fiscal 2018-2019 Plan$(150)$736 $1,532 $(886)$(796)(120.4)%N/A
Fiscal 2016-2017 Plan  (5) 5 N/A(100.0)%
Other prior years plans  (248) 248 N/A(100.0)%
Total$4,049 $736 $1,279 $3,313 $(543)450.1 %(42.5)%

Restructuring charges in fiscal 2020 of $4.0 million relate to employee severance and benefits for the Q4 2020 Plan, Q3 2020 Plan and the Fiscal 2020 Plan. Restructuring charges for fiscal 2019 included $0.7 million of employee severance and benefits costs related to the Fiscal 2018-2019 Plan. Restructuring charges for fiscal 2018 included $1.5 million of employee severance and benefits costs primarily related to the Fiscal 2018-2019 Plan and a reduction in the previously estimated accrual of $0.3 million of an older plan.
Interest Income, Interest Expense and Other Income (Expense), Net
 Fiscal Year$ Change% Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/20182020/20192019/2018
Interest income$385 $267 $198 $118 $69 44 %35 %
Interest expense(54)(102)(29)48 (73)(47)%252 %
Other income (expense), net 17 (220)(17)237 N/AN/A

Interest income reflected interest earned on our cash equivalents which were comprised of money market funds and bank certificates of deposit.
Interest expense was primarily related to interest associated with borrowings under our Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) credit facility and discounts on customer letters of credit.
Other expense in fiscal 2018 included $0.2 million related to the foreign exchange loss on a dividend declared by our Nigeria entity (a partnership for U.S. tax purposes) to our Aviat U.S. entity.
Income Taxes
 Fiscal Year$ Change
(In thousands, except percentages)2020201920182020/20192019/2018
Income before income taxes
$3,709 $1,550 $1,266 $2,159 $284 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes3,452 (8,188)(1,036)11,640 (7,152)
As % of income before income taxes
93.1 %(528.3)%(81.8)%

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Our provision for (benefit from) income taxes was $3.5 million of expense for fiscal 2020, $8.2 million of benefit for fiscal 2019 and $1.0 million of benefit for fiscal 2018. The tax expense for fiscal 2020 was primarily due to tax expense related to profitable foreign subsidiaries and an increase in our reserve for uncertain tax positions.

Our tax benefit for fiscal 2019 was primarily due to the release of certain U.S. federal and state valuation allowances of $7.5 million and a refundable foreign withholding tax credit, partially offset by losses in tax jurisdictions in which we cannot recognize tax benefits. During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, we received notification from the Department of Federal Revenue of Brazil that our withholding tax refund request had been approved. We recorded a net discrete income tax benefit of $1.6 million for the release of valuation allowance previously recorded as a deferred tax asset for the withholding tax credits. This consisted of an income tax benefit of $1.9 million for the refundable withholding tax credit, less tax expense of $0.3 million from recognizing an ASC 740-10 reserve previously recorded as a reduction to the withholding tax credits. We expect to receive the refundable withholding tax credit during our fiscal year 2021.
Liquidity, Capital Resources and Financial Strategies
As of July 3, 2020, our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments totaled $41.6 million. Approximately $25.2 million, or 60.5%, was held in the United States. The remaining balance of $16.4 million, or 39.5%, was held by entities outside the United States. Of the amount of cash and cash equivalents held by our foreign subsidiaries at July 3, 2020, $16.0 million was held in jurisdictions where our undistributed earnings are indefinitely reinvested, and if repatriated, would be subject to foreign withholding taxes.
Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities is presented as net income adjusted for certain non-cash items and changes in assets and liabilities. Net cash provided by operating activities was $17.5 million for fiscal 2020, $2.9 million for fiscal 2019 and $8.2 million for fiscal 2018.
For fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019, cash provided by operating activities increased by $14.5 million. The net contribution of non-cash items to cash provided by operating activities increased by $9.3 million and the net contribution of changes in operating assets and liabilities to cash provided by operating activities increased by $10.3 million in fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019.
The $9.3 million increase in the net contribution of non-cash items to cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to a $8.6 million net change in deferred tax assets.
Changes in operating assets and liabilities resulted in an increase of $10.3 million to cash provided by operating activities for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019. Accounts receivable and unbilled costs fluctuate from period to period, depending on the amount and timing of sales and billing activities and cash collections. The fluctuations in accounts payable and accrued expenses during fiscal 2020 were primarily due to the timing of liabilities incurred and vendor payments. The change in inventories and in customer service inventories during fiscal 2020 were primarily driven by forecasted demand and to secure component parts in shortage. The increase in customer advance payments and unearned revenue during fiscal 2020 was due to the timing of payment from customers and revenue recognition. We used $2.6 million in cash during fiscal 2020 on expenses related to restructuring liabilities.
For fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018, cash provided by operating activities declined by $5.3 million. The net contribution of non-cash items to cash provided by operating activities decreased by $7.2 million and the net contribution of changes in operating assets and liabilities to cash provided by operating activities decreased by $5.5 million in fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018.
The $7.2 million decrease in the net contribution of non-cash items to cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to a $5.6 million net change in deferred tax assets, a $0.7 million decrease in depreciation and amortization and a $0.6 million decrease in share based compensation.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $4.6 million for fiscal year 2020, $5.2 million for fiscal 2019 and $6.3 million for fiscal 2018, which consisted primarily of capital expenditures.
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For fiscal 2021, we expect to spend between $5.0 million to $6.0 million for capital expenditures, primarily on equipment for development and manufacturing of new products and IT infrastructure.
Financing Activities
Financing cash flows consist primarily of proceeds and repayments of short-term debt, repurchase of stock and proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock through employee equity plans. Net cash used in financing activities was $2.5 million for fiscal year 2020, which was primarily attributable to $1.8 million for the repurchases of our common stock and a $0.8 million payment for taxes related to the net settlement of equity awards. Net cash used by financing activities was $3.0 million for fiscal 2019 and net cash provided by financing activities was $12,000 for fiscal 2018.
As of July 3, 2020, our principal sources of liquidity consisted of the $41.6 million in cash and cash equivalents, $13.3 million of available credit under our $23.8 million credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB Credit Facility”) which matures on June 28, 2021, and future collections of receivables from customers. We regularly require letters of credit from certain customers and, from time to time, these letters of credit are discounted without recourse shortly after shipment occurs in order to meet immediate liquidity requirements and to reduce our credit and sovereign risk. Historically, our primary sources of liquidity have been cash flows from operations and credit facilities.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, the available line of credit under the SVB Credit Facility and future cash collections from customers will be sufficient to provide for our anticipated requirements for working capital and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. On May 4, 2020, we entered into Amendment No. 3 to Third Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement which extended the expiration date to June 28, 2021. While we intend to continue to renew the SVB Credit Facility annually, there can be no assurance that the SVB Credit Facility will be renewed. In addition, there can be no assurance that our business will generate cash flow from operations, that we will be in compliance with the quarterly financial covenants contained in the SVB Credit Facility, or that we will have a sufficient borrowing base under such facility. If we are not in compliance with the financial covenants or do not have sufficient eligible accounts receivable to support our borrowing base, the availability of our credit facility is not certain or may be diminished. Over the longer term, if we are unable to maintain cash balances or generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service our obligations that may arise in the future, we may be required to sell assets, reduce capital expenditures, or obtain financing. If we need to obtain additional financing, we cannot be assured that it will be available on favorable terms, or at all. Our ability to make scheduled principal payments or pay interest on or refinance any future indebtedness depends on our future performance and financial results, which, to a certain extent, are subject to general conditions in or affecting the microwave communications market and to general economic, political, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors beyond our control.
Available Credit Facility, Borrowings and Repayment of Debt
On May 4, 2020, we entered into Amendment No. 3 to Third Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement with Silicon Valley Bank. The SVB Credit Facility provides for a $23.8 million accounts receivable formula-based revolving credit facility that can be borrowed by the U.S. company, with a $25.0 million sub-limit that can be borrowed by our U.S. and Singapore entities. Loans may be advanced under the SVB Credit Facility based on a borrowing base equal to a specified percentage of the value of eligible accounts of all borrowers under the SVB Credit Facility. The borrowing base is subject to certain eligibility criteria. Availability under the accounts receivable formula-based revolving credit facility can also be utilized to issue letters of credit with a $12.0 million sub-limit. We may prepay loans under the SVB Credit Facility in whole or in part at any time without premium or penalty. As of July 3, 2020, available credit under the SVB Credit Facility was $13.3 million reflecting the calculated borrowing base of $23.8 million less existing borrowings of $9.0 million and outstanding letters of credit of $1.5 million.
The SVB Credit Facility carries an interest rate, at our option, computed (i) at the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus a spread of 0.50% to 1.50%, with such spread determined based on our adjusted quick ratio; or (ii) if we satisfy a minimum adjusted quick ratio, a LIBOR rate determined in accordance with the SVB Credit Facility, plus a spread of 2.75%. Any outstanding Singapore subsidiary-borrowed loans shall bear interest at an additional 2.00% above the applicable prime or LIBOR rate. During fiscal 2020, the weighted-average interest rate on our outstanding loan was 3.97%. As of July 3, 2020 and June 28, 2019, our outstanding debt balance under the SVB Credit Facility was $9.0 million, and the interest rate was 3.75% and 6.00%, respectively.
The SVB Credit Facility contains monthly and quarterly financial covenants for minimum adjusted quick ratio and minimum profitability (EBITDA) requirements, respectively. In the event our adjusted quick ratio falls below a certain level, cash received in our accounts with SVB may be directly applied to reduce outstanding obligations under the SVB
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Credit Facility. The SVB Credit Facility also imposes certain restrictions on our ability to dispose of assets, enter into a transaction resulting in a change in control, merge or consolidate, make acquisitions, incur indebtedness, grant liens, make investments, make certain restricted payments and enter into transactions with affiliates under certain circumstances. Certain of our assets, including accounts receivable, inventory, and equipment, are pledged as collateral for the SVB Credit Facility. Upon an event of default, outstanding obligations would be immediately due and payable. Under certain circumstances, a default interest rate will apply on all obligations during the existence of an event of default at a per annum rate of interest equal to 5.00% above the applicable interest rate.
As of July 3, 2020, we were in compliance with the quarterly financial covenants, as amended, contained in the SVB Credit Facility. The $9.0 million borrowing was classified as a current liability as of July 3, 2020 and June 28, 2019. We repaid the $9.0 million in July 2020.
Due to the current economic uncertainty stemming from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, on April 21, 2020, we entered into a Paycheck Protection Program Note (the “Note”) with Silicon Valley Bank as the lender (“Lender”) in an aggregate principal amount of $5.9 million pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program under the CARES Act (the “PPP Loan”). On April 22, 2020, we received proceeds of $5.9 million from the PPP Loan. At the time when we applied for the PPP Loan, we had qualified to receive the funds pursuant to the then-published qualification requirements. On April 23, 2020, the SBA, in consultation with the Department of Treasury, issued new guidance regarding qualification requirements for public companies. Based on our assessment of the new guidance, on May 5, 2020, we repaid the principal and interest on the PPP Loan.
We also obtained an uncommitted short-term line of credit of $0.3 million from a bank in New Zealand to support the operations of our subsidiary located there in fiscal 2015. This line of credit provides for $0.2 million in short-term advances at various interest rates, all of which was available as of July 3, 2020. The line of credit also provides for the issuance of standby letters of credit and company credit cards, of which $0.1 million was outstanding as of July 3, 2020. This facility may be terminated upon notice, is reviewed annually for renewal or modification, and is supported by a corporate guarantee.
Restructuring Payments
We had liabilities for restructuring activities totaling $2.7 million as of July 3, 2020, which was classified as current liability and expected to be paid in cash over the next 12 months. We expect to fund these future payments with available cash and cash provided by operations.
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Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and commitments as of July 3, 2020:
 Obligations Due by Fiscal Year
(In thousands)Total< 1 year1 - 3 years3 - 5 years> 5 yearsOther
Borrowings under credit facility$9,000 $9,000 $ $ $ $ 
Purchase obligations (1)(4)
22,088 21,851 165 72   
Other purchase obligations (3)(4)
1,626 1,626     
Operating lease commitments4,933 1,711 970 472 1,780  
Reserve for uncertain tax positions (2)
5,759     5,759 
Total contractual cash obligations$43,406 $34,188 $1,135 $544 $1,780 $5,759 
 ___________________________
(1)From time to time in the normal course of business we may enter into purchasing agreements with our suppliers that require us to accept delivery of, and remit full payment for, finished products that we have ordered, finished products that we requested be held as safety stock, and work in process started on our behalf in the event we cancel or terminate the purchasing agreement. Because these agreements do not specify fixed or minimum quantities, do not specify minimum or variable price provisions, and do not specify the approximate timing of the transaction, and we have no present intention to cancel or terminate any of these agreements, we currently do not believe that we have any future liability under these agreements.
(2)Liabilities for uncertain tax positions of $5.8 million were included in long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. At this time, we are unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of the timing of payments related to this amount due to uncertainties in the timing of tax audit outcomes.
(3)Contractual obligation related to software as a service and software maintenance support.
(4)These items are not recorded on our consolidated balance sheets.
Commercial Commitments
We have entered into commercial commitments in the normal course of business including surety bonds, standby letters of credit and other arrangements with financial institutions and insurers primarily relating to the guarantee of future performance on certain tenders and contracts to provide products and services to customers. As of July 3, 2020, we had commercial commitments on outstanding surety bonds and standby letters of credit as follows:
 Expiration of Commitments by Fiscal Year
(In thousands)Total202120222023After 2023
Standby letters of credit used for:
Bids$35 $35 $ $ $ 
Payment guarantees781 781    
Performance686 555 131   
1,502 1,371 131   
Surety bonds used for:
Performance53,389 51,907 1,482   
Payment guarantees98    98 
Tax bonds2,247 8 2,239   
55,734 51,915 3,721  98 
Total commercial commitments$57,236 $53,286 $3,852 $ $98 

Historically, we have not paid out any significant amount of our performance guarantees. As such, the outstanding commercial commitments have not been recorded in our consolidated balance sheets.
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Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
In accordance with the definition under SEC rules (Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K), any of the following qualify as off-balance sheet arrangements:
any obligation under certain guarantee contracts;
a retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity or similar entity or similar arrangement that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to that entity for such assets;
any obligation, including a contingent obligation, under certain derivative instruments; and
any obligation, including a contingent obligation, arising out of a material variable interest held by us in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to us, or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.
Currently we are not participating in transactions that generate relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, including variable interest entities, and we do not have any material retained or contingent interest in assets as defined above. As of July 3, 2020, we did not have material financial guarantees or other contractual commitments that are reasonably likely to adversely affect liquidity. In addition, we are not currently a party to any related party transactions that materially affect our results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
Financial Risk Management
In the normal course of doing business, we are exposed to the risks associated with foreign currency exchange rates and changes in interest rates. We employ established policies and procedures governing the use of financial instruments to manage our exposure to such risks.
Exchange Rate Risk
We conduct business globally in numerous currencies and are therefore exposed to foreign currency risks. We use derivative instruments to reduce the volatility of earnings and cash flows associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We do not hold or issue derivatives for trading purposes or make speculative investments in foreign currencies.
We also enter into foreign exchange forward contracts to mitigate the change in fair value of specific non-functional currency assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. All balance sheet hedges are marked to market through earnings every period. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives are largely offset by re-measurement of the underlying assets and liabilities.
As of July 3, 2020, we had three foreign currency forward contracts outstanding as follows:
CurrencyNotional Contract Amount
(Local Currency)
Notional
Contract
Amount
(USD)
 (In thousands)
New Zealand dollar1,000 $643 
British pound600 742 
Singapore dollar300 216 
      Total of all currency forward contracts$1,601 

Net foreign exchange gain (loss) recorded in our consolidated statements of operations during fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018 was as follows:
Fiscal Year
(In thousands)202020192018
Amount included in costs of revenues$419 $(664)$402 
Amount included in other (expense) income, net  (188)
Total foreign exchange gain (loss), net$419 $(664)$214 
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A 10% adverse change in currency exchange rates for our foreign currency derivatives held as of July 3, 2020 would have an impact of approximately $0.2 million on the fair value of such instruments.
Certain of our international business are transacted in non-U.S. dollar currency. As discussed above, we utilize foreign currency hedging instruments to minimize the currency risk of international transactions. The impact of translating the assets and liabilities of foreign operations to U.S. dollars is included as a component of stockholders’ equity. As of July 3, 2020 and June 28, 2019, the cumulative translation adjustment decreased our stockholders’ equity by $15.2 million and $12.7 million, respectively.
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our cash equivalents, short-term investments and borrowings under our credit facility.
Exposure on Cash Equivalents and Short-term Investments
We had $41.6 million in total cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments as of July 3, 2020. Cash equivalents and short-term investments totaled $21.4 million as of July 3, 2020 and were comprised of money market funds and certificates of deposit. Cash equivalents and short-term investments have been recorded at fair value on our balance sheets.
We do not use derivative financial instruments in our short-term investment portfolio. We invest in high-credit quality issues and, by policy, limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer and country. The portfolio includes only marketable securities with active secondary or resale markets to ensure portfolio liquidity. The portfolio is also diversified by maturity to ensure that funds are readily available as needed to meet our liquidity needs. This policy reduces the potential need to sell securities in order to meet liquidity needs and therefore the potential effect of changing market rates on the value of securities sold.
The primary objective of our short-term investment activities is to preserve principal while maximizing yields, without significantly increasing risk. Our cash equivalents and short-term investments earn interest at fixed rates; therefore, changes in interest rates will not generate a gain or loss on these investments unless they are sold prior to maturity. Actual gains and losses due to the sale of our investments prior to maturity have been immaterial. The investments held as of July 3, 2020, had weighted-average days to maturity of 40 days, and an average yield of 5.72% per annum. A 10% change in interest rates on our cash equivalents and short-term investments is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Exposure on Borrowings
During fiscal 2020, we had $9.0 million of demand borrowings outstanding under our credit facility that incurred interest at the prime rate plus a spread of 0.50% to 1.50%, with such spread determined based on our adjusted quick ratio. During fiscal 2020, our weighted average interest rate was 3.97% and we recorded total interest expense of less than $0.1 million on these borrowings.
A 10% change in interest rates on the current borrowings or on future borrowings is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows since interest on our borrowings is not material to our overall financial position.

Critical Accounting Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These accounting principles require us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions. We believe that the estimates, judgments and assumptions upon which we rely are reasonable based upon information available to us.
These estimates, judgments and assumptions can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. To the extent there are material differences between these estimates, judgments or assumptions and actual results, our financial statements will be affected.
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The accounting policies that reflect our more significant estimates, judgments and assumptions and which we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results include the following:
revenue recognition and valuation of accounts receivable;
inventory valuation and provision for excess and obsolete inventory losses;
impairment of long-lived assets; and
income taxes valuation.
In some cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by U.S. GAAP and does not require management’s judgment in its application. There are also areas in which management’s judgment in selecting among available alternatives would not produce a materially different result. Our senior management has reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures with the Audit Committee of the Board.
The following is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all of our accounting policies or estimates. Our significant accounting policies are more fully described in “Note 1. The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to consolidated financial statements. In preparing our financial statements and accounting for the underlying transactions and balances, we apply those accounting policies. We consider the estimates discussed below as critical to an understanding of our financial statements because their application places the most significant demands on our judgment, with financial reporting results relying on estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain.
Besides estimates that meet the “critical” accounting estimate criteria, we make many other accounting estimates in preparing our financial statements and related disclosures. All estimates, whether or not deemed critical, affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses as well as disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. Estimates are based on experience and other information available prior to the issuance of the financial statements. Materially different results can occur as circumstances change and additional information becomes known, including for estimates that we do not deem “critical.”

Revenue Recognition
Effective June 30, 2018, we adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts that were not completed as of June 29, 2018. Results for the reporting periods after June 29, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historical accounting under ASC 605.
We recognize revenue by applying the following five-step approach: (1) identification of the contract with a customer; (2) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determination of the transaction price; (4) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation.
Contracts and customers purchase orders are used to determine the existence of an arrangement.
Revenue from product sales, recognized at a point-in-time, is generated predominately from the sales of products manufactured by third-party manufacturers to whom we have outsourced our manufacturing processes. Printed circuit assemblies, mechanical housings, and packaged modules are manufactured by contract manufacturing partners, with periodic business reviews of material levels and obsolescence. Product assembly, product testing, complete system integration, and system testing may either be performed within our own facilities or at the locations of our third-party manufacturers.
Revenue from services includes certain network planning and design, engineering, installation and commissioning, extended warranty, customer support, consulting, training, and education. Maintenance and support services are generally offered to our customers and recognized over a specified period of time and from sales and subsequent renewals of maintenance and support contracts. The network planning and design, engineering and installation related services noted are recognized based on an over-time recognition model using the cost-input method.
Revenues related to certain contracts for customized network solutions are recognized over time using the cost input method. In using this input method, we generally apply the cost-to-cost method of accounting where sales and
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